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Sample records for ablating uterine fibroids

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation of Uterine Fibroids: a Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce B; Yu, Steve P

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic, ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a new, FDA-cleared uterine sparing, outpatient procedure for uterine fibroids. The procedure utilizes recent technological advancements in instrumentation and imaging, allowing surgeons to treat numerous fibroids of varying size and location in a minimally invasive fashion. Early and mid-term data from multi-center clinical trials have demonstrated safety and efficacy, with resolution or improvement of symptoms and significant volume reduction. Re-intervention rates for fibroid symptoms have been low. The procedure is well tolerated with a typically uneventful and rapid recovery requiring NSAIDs only for postoperative pain. While post RFA pregnancy data are limited, the results are promising.

  2. Laparoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Uterine Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Milic, Andrea; Asch, Murray R.; Hawrylyshyn, Peter A.

    Four patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids measuring less than 6 cm underwent laparoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using multiprobe-array electrodes. Follow-up of the treated fibroids was performed with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and patients' symptoms were assessed by telephone interviews. The procedure was initially technically successful in 3 of the 4 patients and MRI studies at 1 month demonstrated complete fibroid ablation. Symptom improvement, including a decrease in menstrual bleeding and pain, was achieved in 2 patients at 3 months. At 7 months, 1 of these 2 patients experienced symptom worsening which correlated with recurrent fibroid on MRI. Themore » third, initially technically successfully treated patient did not experience any symptom relief after the procedure and was ultimately diagnosed with adenomyosis. Our preliminary results suggest that RFA is a technically feasible treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids in appropriately selected patients.« less

  3. Factors influencing the dosimetry for high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Song; Zhang, Lian; Hu, Liang; Chen, Jinyun; Ju, Jin; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Zhibiao; Chen, Wenzhi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze factors affecting sonication dose and build a dosimetry model of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for uterine fibroids. Four hundred and three patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids who underwent HIFU were retrospectively analyzed. The energy efficiency factor (EEF) was set as dependent variable, and the factors possibly affecting sonication dose included age, body mass index, size of uterine fibroid, abdominal wall thickness, the distance from uterine fibroid dorsal side to sacrum, the distance from uterine fibroid ventral side to skin, location of uterus, location of uterine fibroids, type of uterine fibroids, abdominal wall scar, signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and enhancement type on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) were set as predictors to build a multiple regression model. The size of uterine fibroid, distance from fibroid ventral side to skin, location of uterus, location of uterine fibroids, type of uterine fibroids, signal intensity on T2WI, and enhancement type on T1WI had a linear correlation with EEF. The distance from fibroid ventral side to skin, enhancement type on T1WI, size of uterine fibroid, and signal intensity on T2WI were eventually incorporated into the dosimetry model. The distance from fibroid ventral side to skin, enhancement type on T1WI, size of uterine fibroid, and signal intensity on T2WI can be used as dosimetric predictors for HIFU for uterine fibroids.

  4. Uterine fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of uterine fibroids are: Bleeding between periods Heavy bleeding during your period, sometimes with blood clots ... may include: Birth control pills to help control heavy periods. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones to ...

  5. Uterine fibroids: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aamir T; Shehmar, Manjeet; Gupta, Janesh K

    2014-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are a major cause of morbidity in women of a reproductive age (and sometimes even after menopause). There are several factors that are attributed to underlie the development and incidence of these common tumors, but this further corroborates their relatively unknown etiology. The most likely presentation of fibroids is by their effect on the woman’s menstrual cycle or pelvic pressure symptoms. Leiomyosarcoma is a very rare entity that should be suspected in postmenopausal women with fibroid growth (and no concurrent hormone replacement therapy). The gold standard diagnostic modality for uterine fibroids appears to be gray-scale ultrasonography, with magnetic resonance imaging being a close second option in complex clinical circumstances. The management of uterine fibroids can be approached medically, surgically, and even by minimal access techniques. The recent introduction of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) and aromatase inhibitors has added more armamentarium to the medical options of treatment. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) has now been well-recognized as a uterine-sparing (fertility-preserving) method of treating fibroids. More recently, the introduction of ultrasound waves (MRgFUS) or radiofrequency (VizAblate™ and Acessa™) for uterine fibroid ablation has added to the options of minimal access treatment. More definite surgery in the form of myomectomy or hysterectomy can be performed via the minimal access or open route methods. Our article seeks to review the already established information on uterine fibroids with added emphasis on contemporary knowledge. PMID:24511243

  6. The Research of Feasibility and Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation in Treating Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; Shu, Shan-rong; Ma, Xue-feng; Shuai, Han-lin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To explore the feasibility and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in treating uterine fibroids. Ninety patients with multiple uterine fibroids, who had undergone hysterectomy were included in the study. After the uterus was resected, the temperature of 60, 80, 100°C were adopted to ablate the in vitro fibroid with each temperature dealing with 30 patients. Simultaneously, 5 patients were included, whose in vivo fibroid were ablated with the temperature of 100°C before the fibroids were removed after laparotomy. After the fibroids were ablated, the smooth muscle in the ablated center (group A), the ablated edge (group B) and 1 cm away from the ablated edge (group C) were taken. Then, the samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) to examine the histopathological changes, and immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). After radiofrequency ablation, the ablated lesions were round, toast tan, and dry on gross appearance. There were no obvious tissue carbonization and there were distinct boundary from periphery tissue. In vitro: On automated analysis, the average optical density of ER and PR in group A, B, and C was lower than the control group (P < 0.05), and which were gradually raised with the increased distance to electrode. In the same treatment group, ER optical density was gradually decreased with the increased temperature among 3 different groups. The PR optical density was decreased with the increased temperature under different temperatures in group A and group B, there was significant difference among groups (P < 0.05). But in group C, there was no difference in PR expression among the temperature of 60, 80, and 100°C (P > 0.05). In vivo: Compared with the control group, the average optical density of ER and PR were significantly different among group A, B, and C (P < 0.05), what's more, it was gradually raised with the increased distance to

  7. Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... through the hysteroscope. The resectoscope destroys fibroids with electricity or a laser beam. Although it cannot remove ... the body. Resectoscope: A slender telescope with an electrical wire loop or rollerball tip used to remove ...

  8. Living with uterine fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider for uterine fibroids. They can cause: Heavy menstrual bleeding and long periods Bleeding between periods ... effects, including: Birth control pills to help with heavy periods. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones to ...

  9. Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroids in Black women: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Jacobson, H; Ngobese, Z E; Setzen, R

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids in Black women. A feasibility study. Gynaecological department in a teaching hospital in South Africa. Premenopausal women with uterus fibroids. Twenty-six patients with 53 fibroids who underwent USgHIFU treatment were enrolled. The USgHIFU treatment information was recorded, including treatment time, sonication time and total energy. Adverse events were also observed and recorded during and after treatment. Safety and efficacy of USgHIFU for the treatment of uterine fibroids in Black women. The median volume of fibroids was 52.7 (interquartile range, 18.6-177.4) cm 3 . According to USgHIFU treatment plan, total energy of 298.6 ± 169.3 kJ (range, 76.0-889.2) within treatment time of 90.3 ± 43.3 minutes (range, 14.0-208.0), in which sonication time of 774.0 ± 432.9 seconds (range, 190.0-2224.0) was used to ablate fibroids. The average ablation rate was 80.6 ± 9.7% (range, 46.5-94.5%). During the procedure, 69.2% of the patients reported lower abdominal pain, 57.7% sciatic/buttock pain, 38.5% burning skin, and 34.6% transient leg pain. No severe complications were observed. USgHIFU is feasible and safe to use to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids in Black women. Multiple uterine fibroids are more frequently detected in Black women. USgHIFU is feasible and safe for the treatment of uterine fibroids in Black women. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for uterine fibroids: an IDEAL prospective exploration study.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Li, Y; Wang, Z; McCulloch, P; Hu, L; Chen, W; Liu, G; Li, J; Lang, J

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and surgery in treating uterine fibroids, and prepare for a definitive randomised trial. Prospective multicentre patient choice cohort study (IDEAL Exploratory study) of HIFU, myomectomy or hysterectomy for treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. 20 Chinese hospitals. 2411 Chinese women with symptomatic fibroids. Prospective non-randomised cohort study with learning curve analysis (IDEAL Stage 2b Prospective Exploration Study). Complications, hospital stay, return to normal activities, and quality of life (measured with UFS-Qol and SF-36 at baseline, 6 and 12 months), and need for further treatment. Quality-of-life outcomes were adjusted using regression modelling. HIFU treatment quality was evaluated using LC-CUSUM to identify operator learning curves. A health economic analysis of costs was performed. 1353 women received HIFU, 472 hysterectomy and 586 myomectomy. HIFU patients were significantly younger (P < 0.001), slimmer (P < 0.001), better educated (P < 0.001), and wealthier (P = 0.002) than surgery patients. Both UFS and QoL improved more rapidly after HIFU than after surgery (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively at 6 months), but absolute differences were small. Major adverse events occurred in 3 (0.2%) of HIFU and in 133 (12.6%) of surgical cases (P < 0.001). Median time for hospital stay was 4 days (interquartile range, 0-5 days), 10 days (interquartile range, 8-12.5 days) and 8 days (interquartile range, 7-10 days). HIFU caused substantially less morbidity than surgery, with similar longer-term QoL. Despite group baseline differences and lack of blinding, these findings support the need for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of HIFU treatment for fibroids. The IDEAL Exploratory design facilitated RCT protocol development. HIFU had much better short-term outcomes than surgery for fibroids in 2411-patient Chinese IDEAL format study. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and

  11. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is better than magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating the short-term results of microwave ablation treatment of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Meiwu; Fan, Xiaoxiang; Mao, Dafeng

    2017-11-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared in evaluating the short-term effects of microwave ablation (MWA) on uterine fibroids. A total of 60 patients with uterine fibroids treated by MWA were enrolled in the experimental group during their two-year follow-up period according to the inclusion criteria. Conventional two-dimensional US, MRI and CEUS were performed to determine the volume reduction and the fibroid residue by displaying the size, echo and signal intensity of fibroids prior to and after MWA treatment. As the control group, 60 consecutive patients were recruited on their follow-up visit at least two years after MWA treatment of uterine fibroids. Significant differences were observed in the wash-in rate (WiR) of the fibroid tissue, start time difference, rise time ratio (RTR) and WiR ratio between the experimental and control groups (P<0.05). However, the WiR of fibroid vessel, total area under the curve of fibroid vessel and tissue, and rise time difference (RTD) between fibroid vessel and tissue did not display any significant differences between the two groups. Fibroids were either reduced in volume or cured by MWA therapy in patients with uterine fibroids. The reductions in volume of hypointense, isointense and hyperintense fibroids were 62.42±18.13, 53.27±10.05 and 47.43±9.56%, respectively, on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI). On T2WI, the corresponding reductions were 67.32±32.63, 59.36±19.36 and 42.63±10.37%, respectively. The higher the signal intensity on T1WI and T2WI, the lower the reduction in volume. It is indicative that different blood supply to fibroids results in different ablation. CEUS was proved to be more effective than MRI in evaluating the effects of MWA on uterine fibroids during the first postoperative year.

  12. Image-guided thermal therapy of uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shu-Huei; Fennessy, Fiona; McDannold, Nathan; Jolesz, Ferenc; Tempany, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Thermal ablation is an established treatment for tumor. The merging of newly developed imaging techniques has allowed precise targeting and real-time thermal mapping. This article provides an overview of the image-guided thermal ablation techniques in the treatment of uterine fibroids. Background on uterine fibroids, including epidemiology, histology, symptoms, imaging findings and current treatment options, is first outlined. After describing the principle of magnetic resonance thermal imaging, we introduce the applications of image-guided thermal therapies, including laser ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy and particularly the newest, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery, and how they apply to uterine fibroid treatment. PMID:19358440

  13. Uterine Fibroids: Correlation of T2 Signal Intensity with Semiquantitative Perfusion MR Parameters in Patients Screened for MR-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Choi, Chel Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the relationships between T2 signal intensity and semiquantitative perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) parameters of uterine fibroids in patients who were screened for MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Institutional review board approval was granted, and informed consents were waived. One hundred seventy most symptom-relevant, nondegenerated uterine fibroids (mean diameter, 7.3 cm; range, 3.0-17.2 cm) in 170 women (mean age, 43.5 years; range, 24-56 years) undergoing screening MR examinations for MR-guided HIFU ablation from October 2009 to April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Fibroid signal intensity was assessed as the ratio of the fibroid T2 signal intensity to that of skeletal muscle. Parameters of semiquantitative perfusion MR imaging obtained during screening MR examination (peak enhancement, percentage of relative peak enhancement, time to peak [in seconds], wash-in rate [per seconds], and washout rate [per seconds]) were investigated to assess their relationships with T2 signal ratio by using multiple linear regression analysis. Correlations between T2 signal intensity and independently significant perfusion parameters were then evaluated according to fibroid type by using Spearman correlation test. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that relative peak enhancement showed an independently significant correlation with T2 signal ratio (Β = 0.004, P < .001). Submucosal intracavitary (n = 20, ρ = 0.275, P = .240) and type III (n = 18, ρ = 0.082, P = .748) fibroids failed to show significant correlations between perfusion and T2 signal intensity, while significant correlations were found for all other fibroid types (ρ = 0.411-0.629, P < .05). In possible candidates for MR-guided HIFU ablation, the T2 signal intensity of nondegenerated uterine fibroids showed an independently significant positive correlation with relative peak enhancement in most cases, except those of submucosal intracavitary or type III

  14. Intraprocedure contrast enhanced ultrasound: the value in assessing the effect of ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Peng, Song; Hu, Liang; Chen, Wenzhi; Chen, Jinyun; Yang, Caiyong; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Zhibiao; Zhang, Lian

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the value of microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in evaluating the treatment response of uterine fibroids to HIFU ablation. Sixty-eight patients with a solitary uterine fibroid from the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University were included and analyzed. All patients underwent pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a standardized protocol, as well as pre-evaluation, intraprocedure, and immediate post-treatment CEUS. CEUS and MRI were compared by different radiologists. In comparison with MRI, CEUS showed that the size of fibroids, volume of fibroids, size of non-perfused regions, non-perfused volume (NPV) or fractional ablation (NPV ratio) was similar to that of MRI. In terms of CEUS examination results, the median volume of fibroids was 75.2 (interquartile range, 34.2-127.3) cm(3), the median non-perfused volume was 54.9 (interquartile range, 28.0-98.1) cm(3), the mean fractional ablation was 83.7±13.6 (range, 30.0-100.0)%. In terms of MRI examination results, the median volume of fibroids was 74.1 (interquartile range, 33.4-116.2) cm(3). On the basis of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images immediately after HIFU treatment, the median non-perfused volume was 58.5 (interquartile range, 27.7-100.0) cm(3), the average fractional ablation was 84.2±14.2 (range, 40.0-100.0)%. CEUS clearly showed the size of fibroids and the non-perfused areas of the fibroid. Results from CEUS correlated well with results obtained from MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Uterine fibroids: Influence of "T2-Rim sign" on immediate therapeutic responses to magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sin Yuin; Kim, Young-Sun; Lim, Hyo Keun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Jung, Sin-Ho; Hwang, Na Young

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of a high-signal-intensity peripheral rim on T2-weighted MR images (i.e., T2-rim sign) on the immediate therapeutic responses of MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and patient informed consent was obtained for MR-HIFU ablation. In total, 196 fibroids (diameter 6.2±2.6cm) in 123 women (age 43.4±5.0 years) who underwent MR-HIFU ablation from January 2013 to April 2016 were included. The effects of a T2-rim sign on the immediate therapeutic responses (non-perfused volume [NPV] ratio, ablation efficiency [NPV/treatment cell volume], ablation quality [grade 1-5, poor to excellent]) were investigated with univariable and multivariable analyses using generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. In multivariable analysis, T2 signal intensity ratio of fibroids-to-skeletal muscle, relative peak enhancement of fibroids, and subcutaneous fat thickness were also considered. The presence of a T2-rim sign significantly lowered the NPV ratio (54.0±28.0% vs. 83.7±17.7%), ablation efficiency (0.6±0.5 vs. 1.3±0.6), ablation quality (3.1±1.2 vs. 4.2±0.8), (P<0.0001). GEE analysis showed that the presence of a T2-rim sign was independently significant for ablation efficiency and ablation quality (P<0.05). Uterine fibroids with a T2-rim sign showed significantly poorer immediate therapeutic responses to MR-HIFU ablation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modern management of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barbara S

    2008-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common tumor of the reproductive tract in women of reproductive age. Although they are benign tumors that are often asymptomatic, uterine fibroids may cause debilitating symptoms in many women, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, abdominal pain, increased abdominal girth, urinary frequency, constipation, pregnancy loss, dyspareunia, and in some cases infertility. Several approaches are available for the treatment of uterine fibroids. These include pharmacologic options, such as hormonal therapies and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists; surgical approaches, such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, myolysis, laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion, magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery, and uterine artery embolization. The choice of approach may be dictated by factors such as the patient's desire to become pregnant in the future, the importance of uterine preservation, symptom severity, and tumor characteristics. New treatment options for uterine fibroids would be minimally invasive, have long-term data demonstrating efficacy and safety, have minimal or no incidence of fibroid recurrence, be easy to perform, preserve fertility, and be cost effective. New treatment approaches are under investigation, with the goals of being effective, safe, and less invasive.

  17. Preservation of the endometrial enhancement after magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of submucosal uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lim, Hyo Keun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Jung, Sin-Ho; Ahn, Joong Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the integrity of endometrial enhancement after magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation of submucosal uterine fibroids based on contrast-enhanced MRI findings, and to identify the risk factors for endometrial impairment. In total, 117 submucosal fibroids (diameter: 5.9 ± 3.0 cm) in 101 women (age: 43.6 ± 4.4 years) treated with MR-HIFU ablation were retrospectively analysed. Endometrial integrity was assessed with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images at immediate (n = 101), 3-month (n = 62) and 12-month (n = 15) follow-ups. Endometrial impairment was classified into grades 0 (continuous endometrium), 1 (pin-point, full-thickness discontinuity), 2 (between grade 1 and 3), or 3 (full-thickness discontinuity >1 cm). Risk factors were assessed with generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. Among 117 fibroids, grades 0, 1, 2 and 3 endometrial impairments were observed at initial examination in 56.4%, 24.8%, 13.7% and 4.3%, respectively. Among 37 fibroid cases of endometrial impairment for which follow-ups were conducted, 30 showed improvements at 3- and/or 12-month follow-up. GEE analysis revealed the degree of endometrial protrusion was significantly associated with severity of endometrial injury (P < 0.0001). After MR-HIFU ablation of submucosal fibroids, endometrial enhancement was preserved intact or minimally impaired in most cases. Impaired endometrium, which is more common after treating endometrially-protruded fibroids, may recover spontaneously. • After MR-HIFU ablation for submucosal fibroid, endometrium is mostly preserved/minimally impaired. • Endometrial-protruded submucosal fibroid is susceptible to more severe endometrial impairment. • The impaired endometrium may recover spontaneously at follow-up MR exams.

  18. Uterine fibroids: postsonication temperature decay rate enables prediction of therapeutic responses to MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-sun; Park, Min Jung; Keserci, Bilgin; Nurmilaukas, Kirsi; Köhler, Max O; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether intraprocedural thermal parameters as measured with magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry can be used to predict immediate or delayed therapeutic response after MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids. Institutional review board approval and subject informed consent were obtained. A total of 105 symptomatic uterine fibroids (mean diameter, 8.0 cm; mean volume, 251.8 mL) in 71 women (mean age, 43.3 years; age range, 25-52 years) who underwent volumetric MR HIFU ablation were analyzed. Correlations between tumor-averaged intraprocedural thermal parameters (peak temperature, thermal dose efficiency [estimated volume of 240 equivalent minutes at 43°C divided by volume of treatment cells], and temperature decay rate after sonication) and the immediate ablation efficiency (ratio of nonperfused volume [NPV] at immediate follow-up to treatment cell volume) or ablation sustainability (ratio of NPV at 3-month follow-up to NPV at immediate follow-up) were assessed with linear regression analysis. A total of 2818 therapeutic sonications were analyzed. At immediate follow-up with MR imaging (n = 105), mean NPV-to-fibroid volume ratio and ablation efficiency were 0.68 ± 0.26 (standard deviation) and 1.35 ± 0.75, respectively. A greater thermal dose efficiency (B = 1.894, P < .001) and slower temperature decay rate (B = -1.589, P = .044) were independently significant factors that indicated better immediate ablation efficiency. At 3-month follow-up (n = 81), NPV had decreased to 43.1% ± 21.0 of the original volume, and only slower temperature decay rate was significantly associated with better ablation sustainability (B = -0.826, P = .041). The postsonication temperature decay rate enables prediction of both immediate and delayed therapeutic responses, whereas thermal dose efficiency enables prediction of immediate therapeutic response to MR HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids. © RSNA, 2013.

  19. Uterine Fibroids: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz, Maria Syl D; Buchanan, Edward M

    2017-01-15

    Uterine fibroids are common benign neoplasms, with a higher prevalence in older women and in those of African descent. Many are discovered incidentally on clinical examination or imaging in asymptomatic women. Fibroids can cause abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, bowel dysfunction, urinary frequency and urgency, urinary retention, low back pain, constipation, and dyspareunia. Ultrasonography is the preferred initial imaging modality. Expectant management is recommended for asymptomatic patients because most fibroids decrease in size during menopause. Management should be tailored to the size and location of fibroids; the patient's age, symptoms, desire to maintain fertility, and access to treatment; and the experience of the physician. Medical therapy to reduce heavy menstrual bleeding includes hormonal contraceptives, tranexamic acid, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or selective progesterone receptor modulators are an option for patients who need symptom relief preoperatively or who are approaching menopause. Surgical treatment includes hysterectomy, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, and magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery.

  20. Transcervical, intrauterine ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of uterine fibroids with the VizAblate® System: three- and six-month endpoint results from the FAST-EU study.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Marlies; Brölmann, Hans; Gupta, Janesh; Garza-Leal, José Gerardo; Toub, David

    This was a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter, single-arm controlled trial, using independent core laboratory validation of MRI results, to establish the effectiveness and confirm the safety of the VizAblate® System in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. The VizAblate System is a transcervical device that ablates fibroids with radiofrequency energy, guided by a built-in intrauterine ultrasound probe. Fifty consecutive women with symptomatic uterine fibroids received treatment with the VizAblate System. Patients had a minimum Menstrual Pictogram score of 120, no desire for fertility, and met additional inclusion and exclusion criteria. The VizAblate System was inserted transcervically and individual fibroids were ablated with radiofrequency energy. An integrated intrauterine ultrasound probe was used for fibroid imaging and targeting. Anesthesia was at the discretion of each investigator. The primary study endpoint was the percentage change in perfused fibroid volume, as assessed by contrast-enhanced MRI at 3 months. Secondary endpoints, reached at 6 months, included safety, percentage reductions in the Menstrual Pictogram (MP) score and the Symptom Severity Score (SSS) subscale of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom-Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL), along with the rate of surgical reintervention for abnormal uterine bleeding and the mean number of days to return to normal activity. Additional assessments included the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) subscale of the UFS-QOL, medical reintervention for abnormal uterine bleeding, and procedure times. Fifty patients were treated, representing 92 fibroids. Perfused fibroid volumes were reduced at 3 months by an average of 68.8 ± 27.8 % ( P  < 0.0001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). At 6 months, mean MP and SSS scores decreased by 60.8 ± 38.2 and 59.7 ± 30.4 %, respectively; the mean HRQOL score increased by 263 ± 468 %. There were two serious adverse events (overnight

  1. Screening Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Prediction Model for Assessing Immediate Therapeutic Response to Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-sun; Lim, Hyo Keun; Park, Min Jung; Rhim, Hyunchul; Jung, Sin-Ho; Sohn, Insuk; Kim, Tae-Joong; Keserci, Bilgin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to fit and validate screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based prediction models for assessing immediate therapeutic responses of uterine fibroids to MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation. Informed consent from all subjects was obtained for our institutional review board-approved study. A total of 240 symptomatic uterine fibroids (mean diameter, 6.9 cm) in 152 women (mean age, 43.3 years) treated with MR-HIFU ablation were retrospectively analyzed (160 fibroids for training, 80 fibroids for validation). Screening MRI parameters (subcutaneous fat thickness [mm], x1; relative peak enhancement [%] in semiquantitative perfusion MRI, x2; T2 signal intensity ratio of fibroid to skeletal muscle, x3) were used to fit prediction models with regard to ablation efficiency (nonperfused volume/treatment cell volume, y1) and ablation quality (grade 1-5, poor to excellent, y2), respectively, using the generalized estimating equation method. Cutoff values for achievement of treatment intent (efficiency >1.0; quality grade 4/5) were determined based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Prediction performances were validated by calculating positive and negative predictive values. Generalized estimating equation analyses yielded models of y1 = 2.2637 - 0.0415x1 - 0.0011x2 - 0.0772x3 and y2 = 6.8148 - 0.1070x1 - 0.0050x2 - 0.2163x3. Cutoff values were 1.312 for ablation efficiency (area under the curve, 0.7236; sensitivity, 0.6882; specificity, 0.6866) and 4.019 for ablation quality (0.8794; 0.7156; 0.9020). Positive and negative predictive values were 0.917 and 0.500 for ablation efficiency and 0.978 and 0.600 for ablation quality, respectively. Screening MRI-based prediction models for assessing immediate therapeutic responses of uterine fibroids to MR-HIFU ablation were fitted and validated, which may reduce the risk of unsuccessful treatment.

  2. Effect of biological characteristics of different types of uterine fibroids, as assessed with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, on ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Peng; Chen, Jin-Yun; Chen, Wen-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the biological characteristics of different types of uterine fibroids, as assessed with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation. Thirty-five patients with 39 symptomatic uterine fibroids who underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy were enrolled. Before surgery, the uterine fibroids were subdivided into hypo-intense, iso-intense, heterogeneous hyper-intense and homogeneous hyper-intense categories based on signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI. Tissue density and moisture content were determined in post-operative samples and normal uterine tissue, the isolated uterine fibroids were subjected to USgHIFU, and the extent of ablation was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and sirius red staining were undertaken to investigate the organizational structure of the uterine fibroids. Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression was assayed via immunohistochemical staining. The mean diameter of uterine fibroids was 6.9 ± 2.8 cm. For all uterine fibroids, the average density and moisture content were 10.7 ± 0.7 mg/mL and 75.7 ± 2.4%, respectively; and for the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids, 10.3 ± 0.5 mg/mL and 76.6 ± 2.3%. The latter subgroup had lower density and higher moisture content compared with the other subgroups. After USgHIFU treatment, the extent of ablation of the hyper-intense fibroids was 102.7 ± 42.1 mm(2), which was significantly less than those of the hypo-intense and heterogeneous hyper-intense fibroids. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and sirius red staining revealed that the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids had sparse collagen fibers and abundant cells. Immunohistochemistry results revealed that estrogen and progesterone receptors were highly expressed in the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids. This study revealed that lower density, higher moisture content, sparse collagen

  3. Uterine fibroid management: from the present to the future.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2016-11-01

    Uterine fibroids (also known as leiomyomas or myomas) are the most common form of benign uterine tumors. Clinical presentations include abnormal bleeding, pelvic masses, pelvic pain, infertility, bulk symptoms and obstetric complications.Almost a third of women with leiomyomas will request treatment due to symptoms. Current management strategies mainly involve surgical interventions, but the choice of treatment is guided by patient's age and desire to preserve fertility or avoid 'radical' surgery such as hysterectomy. The management of uterine fibroids also depends on the number, size and location of the fibroids. Other surgical and non-surgical approaches include myomectomy by hysteroscopy, myomectomy by laparotomy or laparoscopy, uterine artery embolization and interventions performed under radiologic or ultrasound guidance to induce thermal ablation of the uterine fibroids.There are only a few randomized trials comparing various therapies for fibroids. Further investigations are required as there is a lack of concrete evidence of effectiveness and areas of uncertainty surrounding correct management according to symptoms. The economic impact of uterine fibroid management is significant and it is imperative that new treatments be developed to provide alternatives to surgical intervention.There is growing evidence of the crucial role of progesterone pathways in the pathophysiology of uterine fibroids due to the use of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) such as ulipristal acetate (UPA). The efficacy of long-term intermittent use of UPA was recently demonstrated by randomized controlled studies.The need for alternatives to surgical intervention is very real, especially for women seeking to preserve their fertility. These options now exist, with SPRMs which are proven to treat fibroid symptoms effectively. Gynecologists now have new tools in their armamentarium, opening up novel strategies for the management of uterine fibroids. © The Author 2016

  4. Uterine fibroid management: from the present to the future

    PubMed Central

    Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Uterine fibroids (also known as leiomyomas or myomas) are the most common form of benign uterine tumors. Clinical presentations include abnormal bleeding, pelvic masses, pelvic pain, infertility, bulk symptoms and obstetric complications. Almost a third of women with leiomyomas will request treatment due to symptoms. Current management strategies mainly involve surgical interventions, but the choice of treatment is guided by patient's age and desire to preserve fertility or avoid ‘radical’ surgery such as hysterectomy. The management of uterine fibroids also depends on the number, size and location of the fibroids. Other surgical and non-surgical approaches include myomectomy by hysteroscopy, myomectomy by laparotomy or laparoscopy, uterine artery embolization and interventions performed under radiologic or ultrasound guidance to induce thermal ablation of the uterine fibroids. There are only a few randomized trials comparing various therapies for fibroids. Further investigations are required as there is a lack of concrete evidence of effectiveness and areas of uncertainty surrounding correct management according to symptoms. The economic impact of uterine fibroid management is significant and it is imperative that new treatments be developed to provide alternatives to surgical intervention. There is growing evidence of the crucial role of progesterone pathways in the pathophysiology of uterine fibroids due to the use of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) such as ulipristal acetate (UPA). The efficacy of long-term intermittent use of UPA was recently demonstrated by randomized controlled studies. The need for alternatives to surgical intervention is very real, especially for women seeking to preserve their fertility. These options now exist, with SPRMs which are proven to treat fibroid symptoms effectively. Gynecologists now have new tools in their armamentarium, opening up novel strategies for the management of uterine fibroids. PMID

  5. Uterine fibroids: clinical manifestations and contemporary management.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Leo; Mutlu, Levent; Sinclair, Donna; Taylor, Hugh

    2014-09-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomata) are extremely common lesions that are associated with detrimental effects including infertility and abnormal uterine bleeding. Fibroids cause molecular changes at the level of endometrium. Abnormal regulation of growth factors and cytokines in fibroid cells may contribute to negative endometrial effects. Understanding of fibroid biology has greatly increased over the last decade. Although the current armamentarium of Food and Drug Administration-approved medical therapies is limited, there are medications approved for use in heavy menstrual bleeding that can be used for the medical management of fibroids. Emergence of the role of growth factors in pathophysiology of fibroids has led researchers to develop novel therapeutics. Despite advances in medical therapies, surgical management remains a mainstay of fibroid treatment. Destruction of fibroids by interventional radiological procedures provides other effective treatments. Further experimental studies and clinical trials are required to determine which therapies will provide the greatest benefits to patients with fibroids. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Uterine fibroids: semiquantitative perfusion MR imaging parameters associated with the intraprocedural and immediate postprocedural treatment efficiencies of MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-sun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Rhim, Hyunchul; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Yoo-Young; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether semiquantitative perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters are associated with therapeutic effectiveness of MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ( HIFU high-intensity focused ultrasound ) ablation of uterine fibroids and which semiquantitative perfusion parameters are significant with regard to treatment efficiency. This study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Seventy-seven women (mean age, 43.3 years) with 119 fibroids (mean diameter, 7.5 cm) treated with MR imaging-guided HIFU high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation were analyzed. The correlation between semiquantitative perfusion MR parameters (peak enhancement, relative peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in rate, washout rate) and heating and ablation efficiencies (lethal thermal dose volume based on MR thermometry and nonperfused volume based on immediate contrast-enhanced image divided by intended treatment volume) were evaluated by using a linear mixed model on a per-fibroid basis. The specific value of the significant parameter that had a substantial effect on treatment efficiency was determined. The mean peak enhancement, relative peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in rate, and washout rate of the fibroids were 1293.1 ± 472.8 (range, 570.2-2477.8), 171.4% ± 57.2 (range, 0.6%-370.2%), 137.2 seconds ± 119.8 (range, 20.0-300.0 seconds), 79.5 per second ± 48.2 (range, 12.5-236.7 per second), and 11.4 per second ± 10.1 (range, 0-39.3 per second), respectively. Relative peak enhancement was found to be independently significant for both heating and ablation efficiencies (B = -0.002, P < .001 and B = -0.003, P = .050, respectively). The washout rate was significantly associated with ablation efficiency (B = -0.018, P = .043). Both efficiencies showed the most abrupt transitions at 220% of relative peak enhancement. Relative peak enhancement at semiquantitative perfusion MR imaging was

  7. In-office rapid volumetric ablation of uterine fibroids under ultrasound imaging guidance: Preclinical and early clinical experience with the Mirabilis transabdominal HIFU treatment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, José G. Garza; León, Ivan Hernandez; Sáenz, Lorena Castillo; Aguirre, Juan M. Aguilar; Lagos, Joel J. Islas; Parsons, Jessica E.; Darlington, Gregory P.; Lau, Michael P. H.

    2017-03-01

    Mirabilis Medica, Inc. (Bothell, WA, USA) has developed a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system for producing rapid transabdominal volumetric ablation of uterine fibroids in an office-based setting. The Mirabilis HIFU Treatment System utilizes integrated ultrasound imaging guidance and short treatment times under 15 minutes. Treatment with the Mirabilis system is generally well tolerated using only oral analgesia without anesthesia or sedation. This paper summarizes certain technical aspects of the Mirabilis HIFU technology, the preclinical development process, and the results of the first in-human clinical study using the Mirabilis system. During preclinical studies, an in vivo transcutaneous porcine lower extremity model was used in a total of 180 adult swine to develop the HIFU treatment regimen parameters. Additionally, 108 excised human uteri with fibroids obtained from scheduled hysterectomies were treated in an ex vivo experimental setup and evaluated. These preclinical activities resulted in a HIFU treatment technique referred to as Mirabilis Shell Ablation, which enables rapid volumetric fibroid ablation by directing the HIFU energy to the outer perimeter of the target volume (the `shell') without insonating its core. This method results in efficient fibroid treatment through a synergistic combination of direct tissue ablation, cooperative heating effects, and indirect ischemic necrosis in the interior of the volume. After refining this technique and performing safety testing in the in vivo porcine model, a clinical pilot study was conducted to assess the initial safety and performance of the Mirabilis HIFU Treatment System for transabdominal treatment of uterine fibroids in eligible women who were scheduled to undergo hysterectomy following treatment with the device. A total of 37 women meeting certain eligibility criteria were treated at two clinical sites in Mexico. Twenty-nine (29) of these 37 women received only prophylactic sublingual

  8. MR thermometry analysis of sonication accuracy and safety margin of volumetric MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-sun; Trillaud, Hervé; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K; Mali, Willem; Voogt, Marianne; Barkhausen, Jörg; Eckey, Thomas; Köhler, Max O; Keserci, Bilgin; Mougenot, Charles; Sokka, Shunmugavelu D; Soini, Jouko; Nieminen, Heikki J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the size and location of the ablation zone produced by volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids on the basis of MR thermometric analysis and to assess the effects of a feedback control technique. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Thirty-three women with 38 uterine fibroids were treated with an MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound system capable of volumetric feedback ablation. Size (diameter times length) and location (three-dimensional displacements) of each ablation zone induced by 527 sonications (with [n=471] and without [n=56] feedback) were analyzed according to the thermal dose obtained with MR thermometry. Prospectively defined acceptance ranges of targeting accuracy were ±5 mm in left-right (LR) and craniocaudal (CC) directions and ±12 mm in anteroposterior (AP) direction. Effects of feedback control in 8- and 12-mm treatment cells were evaluated by using a mixed model with repeated observations within patients. Overall mean sizes of ablation zones produced by 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-mm treatment cells (with and without feedback) were 4.6 mm±1.4 (standard deviation)×4.4 mm±4.8 (n=13), 8.9 mm±1.9×20.2 mm±6.5 (n=248), 13.0 mm±1.2×29.1 mm±5.6 (n=234), and 18.1 mm±1.4×38.2 mm±7.6 (n=32), respectively. Targeting accuracy values (displacements in absolute values) were 0.9 mm±0.7, 1.2 mm±0.9, and 2.8 mm±2.2 in LR, CC, and AP directions, respectively. Of 527 sonications, 99.8% (526 of 527) were within acceptance ranges. Feedback control had no statistically significant effect on targeting accuracy or ablation zone size. However, variations in ablation zone size were smaller in the feedback control group. Sonication accuracy of volumetric MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids appears clinically acceptable and may be

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Fibroids: Effect of Bowel Interposition on Procedure Feasibility and a Unique Bowel Displacement Technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sun; Lim, Hyo Keun; Rhim, Hyunchul

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of bowel interposition on assessing procedure feasibility, and the usefulness and limiting conditions of bowel displacement techniques in magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids. Institutional review board approved this study. A total of 375 screening MR exams and 206 MR-HIFU ablations for symptomatic uterine fibroids performed between August 2010 and March 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The effect of bowel interposition on procedure feasibility was assessed by comparing pass rates in periods before and after adopting a unique bowel displacement technique (bladder filling, rectal filling and subsequent bladder emptying; BRB maneuver). Risk factors for BRB failure were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Overall pass rates of pre- and post-BRB periods were 59.0% (98/166) and 71.7% (150/209), and in bowel-interposed cases they were 14.6% (7/48) and 76.4% (55/72), respectively. BRB maneuver was technically successful in 81.7% (49/60). Through-the-bladder sonication was effective in eight of eleven BRB failure cases, thus MR-HIFU could be initiated in 95.0% (57/60). A small uterus on treatment day was the only significant risk factor for BRB failure (B = 0.111, P = 0.017). The BRB maneuver greatly reduces the fraction of patients deemed ineligible for MR-HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids due to interposed bowels, although care is needed when the uterus is small.

  10. The Ontario Uterine Fibroid Embolization Trial. Part 2. Uterine fibroid reduction and symptom relief after uterine artery embolization for fibroids.

    PubMed

    Pron, Gaylene; Bennett, John; Common, Andrew; Wall, Jane; Asch, Murray; Sniderman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate fibroid uterine volume reduction, symptom relief, and patient satisfaction with uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic fibroids. Multicenter, prospective, single-arm clinical treatment trial. Eight Ontario university and community hospitals. Five hundred thirty-eight patients undergoing bilateral UAE. Bilateral UAE performed with polyvinyl alcohol particles sized 355-500 microm. Three-month follow-up evaluations including fibroid uterine volume reductions, patient reported symptom improvement (7-point scale), symptom life-impact (10-point scale) reduction, and treatment satisfaction (6-point scale). Median uterine and dominant fibroid volume reductions were 35% and 42%, respectively. Significant improvements were reported for menorrhagia (83%), dysmenorrhea (77%), and urinary frequency/urgency (86%). Mean menstrual duration was significantly reduced after UAE (7.6 to 5.4 days). Improvements in menorrhagia were unrelated to pre-UAE uterine size or post-UAE uterine volume reduction. Amenorrhea occurring after the procedure was highly age dependent, ranging from 3% (1%-7%) in women under age 40 to 41% (26%-58%) in women age 50 or older. Median fibroid life-impact scores were significantly reduced after UAE (8.0 to 3.0). The majority (91%) expressed satisfaction with UAE treatment. UAE reduced fibroid uterine volume and provided significant relief of menorrhagia that was unrelated to initial fibroid uterine size or volume reduction. Patient satisfaction with short-term UAE treatment outcomes was high.

  11. Safety and therapeutic efficacy of complete or near-complete ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors by MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused US therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Jung; Kim, Young-sun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (US) ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors with an immediate nonperfused volume (NPV) ratio of 80% or more. A total of 79 women with 117 uterine tumors were treated with MR-guided high-intensity focused US ablation. Immediate NPV, complications, and therapeutic efficacy (tumor volume reduction ratio and symptom severity score [SSS] decrease at 3-mo follow-up) were retrospectively assessed. Statistical comparisons of the frequency of complications and therapeutic efficacy were performed between patients with NPV ratios of at least 80% and less than 80%. Technical success was achieved in 93.7% of cases (n = 74) of cases, and the immediate NPV ratio was 62.7% ± 25.5. Twenty-four patients exhibited an NPV ratio of at least 80% (89.7% ± 5.8), and 50 patients showed an NPV ratio of less than 80% (49.8% ± 20.7). All complications were minor in severity, and the incidences were not significantly different between groups (P > .05). The 3-month volume reduction ratio was significantly greater in patients with an NPV ratio of at least 80% (0.43 ± 0.17) than in those with an NPV ratio of less than 80% (0.20 ± 0.26; P = .002), although the decreases in SSS were not significantly different (20.9 ± 19.6 vs 12.1 ± 10.1; P = .097). In MR-guided high-intensity focused US ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors, achievement of an immediate NPV ratio of at least 80% is safe, with greater tumor volume shrinkage compared with cases with a lower NPV ratio. © 2014 SIR Published by SIR All rights reserved.

  12. The predictive value of quantitative DCE metrics for immediate therapeutic response of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation (HIFU) of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao; Fang, Xin; Wang, Chuan-Bin; Chen, Yu; Xu, Xiao; Dong, Jiang-Ning

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of quantitative DCE-MRI parameters for predicting the immediate non-perfused volume ratio (NPVR) of HIFU therapy in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. A total of 78 symptomatic uterine fibroids in 65 female patients were treated with US-HIFU therapy. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DCE-MRI scans 1 day before and 3 days after HIFU treatment. Permeability parameters K trans , K ep , V e , and V p and T1 perfusion parameters BF and BV of pretreatment were measured as a baseline, while NPVR was used to assess immediate ablation efficiency. Data were assigned to NPVR ≧ 70% and NPVR < 70% groups. Then, the predictive performances of different parameters for ablation efficacy were studied to seek the optimal cut-off value, and the length of time to calculate the variable parameters in each case was recorded. (1) It was observed that the pretreatment K trans , K ep , V e , and BF values of the NPVR ≧ 70% group were significantly lower compared to the NPVR < 70% group (p < 0.05). (2) The immediate NPVR was negatively correlated with the K trans , BF, and BV values before HIFU treatment (r = - 0.561, - 0.712, and - 0.528, respectively, p < 0.05 for all). (3) The AUCs of pretreatment K trans , BF, BV values, and K trans combined with BF used to predict the immediate NPVR were 0.810, 0.909, 0.795, and 0.922, respectively (p < 0.05 for all). (4) The mean time to calculate the variable parameters in each case was 7.5 min. Higher K trans , BF, and BV values at baseline DCE-MRI suggested a poor ablation efficacy of HIFU therapy for symptomatic uterine fibroids, while the pretreatment DCE-MRI parameters could be useful biomarkers for predicting the ablation efficacy in select cases. The software used to calculate DCE-MRI parameters was simpler, quicker, and easier to incorporate into clinical practice.

  13. Dealing with uterine fibroids in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Gambadauro, P

    2012-04-01

    Women who wish to conceive are nowadays more likely to present with uterine fibroids, mainly because of the delay in childbearing in our society. The relationship between uterine fibroids and human reproduction is still controversial and counselling patients might sometimes be challenging. This paper is to assist those involved in the management of patients of reproductive age presenting with uterine fibroids. The interference of fibroids on fertility largely depends on their location. Submucous fibroids interfere with fertility and should be removed in infertile patients, regardless of the size or the presence of symptoms. Intramural fibroids distorting the cavity reduce the chances of conception, while investigations on intramural fibroids not distorting the cavity have so far given controversial results. No evidence supports the systematic removal of subserosal fibroids in asymptomatic, infertile patients. Myomectomy is still the 'gold standard' in fibroid treatment for fertility-wishing patients. In experienced hands, hysteroscopic myomectomy is minimally invasive, safe, and effective. Abdominal and laparoscopic myomectomy might be challenging, but potential risks could be reduced by new strategies and techniques.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids: impact of technology advancement on ablation volumes in 115 patients.

    PubMed

    Trumm, Christoph G; Stahl, Robert; Clevert, Dirk-André; Herzog, Peter; Mindjuk, Irene; Kornprobst, Sabine; Schwarz, Christina; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten; Reiser, Maximilian F; Matzko, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the advanced technology of the new ExAblate 2100 system (Insightec Ltd, Haifa, Israel) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound surgery on treatment outcomes in patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids, as measured by the nonperfused volume ratio. This is a retrospective analysis of 115 women (mean age, 42 years; range, 27-54 years) with symptomatic fibroids who consecutively underwent MRI-guided focused ultrasound treatment in a single center with the new generation ExAblate 2100 system from November 2010 to June 2011. Mean ± SD total volume and number of treated fibroids (per patient) were 89 ± 94 cm and 2.2 ± 1.7, respectively. Patient baseline characteristics were analyzed regarding their impact on the resulting nonperfused volume ratio. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatment was technically successful in 115 of 123 patients (93.5%). In 8 patients, treatment was not possible because of bowel loops in the beam pathway that could not be mitigated (n = 6), patient movement (n = 1), and system malfunction (n = 1). Mean nonperfused volume ratio was 88% ± 15% (range, 38%-100%). Mean applied energy level was 5400 ± 1200 J, and mean number of sonications was 74 ± 27. No major complications occurred. Two cases of first-degree skin burn resolved within 1 week after the intervention. Of the baseline characteristics analyzed, only the planned treatment volume had a statistically significant impact on nonperfused volume ratio. With technological advancement, the outcome of MRI-guided focused ultrasound treatment in terms of the nonperfused volume ratio can be enhanced with a high safety profile, markedly exceeding results reported in previous clinical trials.

  15. MR-guided Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z MR-guided Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound ( ... are the limitations of MRgFUS? What is Focused Ultrasound of Uterine Fibroids? Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound ( ...

  16. Clinical Consideration of Treatment to Ablate Uterine Fibroids with Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS): Sonalleve

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jae-Hyeok; Hong, Gil Pyo; Kim, Yu-Ri; Ha, Jae-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) is a newly emerging non-invasive technique for the treatment of uterine fibroids. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical impact of MRgFUS. Methods This study examined 157 patients. The high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) utilized in this study was Philips Achieva 1.5 Tesla MR (Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands) and Sonalleve HIFU system. The patients were followed in post-operative Month 1, Month 3, and Month 6 to investigate any change. Then, these were further classified according to the use of uterine stimulant (oxytocin) in parallel, Funaki Type of uterine fibroid, HIFU intensity, and non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio. Results When the uterine stimulant was utilized, the HIFU intensity was measured at significantly lower levels, compared with the group not using uterine stimulant, and treatment duration was significantly. The NPV ratio was found significantly higher in the group using uterine stimulant. Concerning the correlation between Funaki Type of uterine fibroid and average sonication power, it was found that the closer to Type I, the lower the sonication power, the shorter the treatment duration, and the higher the NPV ratio significantly. Conclusions In this study, it was found that the lower the Funaki Types of uterine fibroids, and the higher the NPV ratio immediately after the operation, the larger the uterine fibroid volume decrease and SSS change were. Also, if uterine stimulant was used in parallel in treatment, treatment duration and HIFU intensity could become shorter and lower. PMID:27617244

  17. Uterine fibroids – what’s new?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alistair R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are the commonest benign tumours of women and affect all races with a cumulative lifetime risk of around 70%. Despite their high prevalence and the heavy economic burden of treatment, fibroids have received remarkably little attention compared to common female malignant tumours. This article reviews recent progress in understanding the biological nature of fibroids, their life cycle and their molecular genetic origins. Recent progress in surgical and interventional management is briefly reviewed, and medical management options, including treatment with selective progesterone receptor modulators, are also discussed. PMID:29259779

  18. Temporary Anorgasmia Following Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Speir, Ethan; Shekhani, Haris; Peters, Gail

    2017-11-01

    We report a rare case of temporary anorgasmia following uterine artery embolization (UAE) performed for symptomatic uterine fibroids. To our knowledge, this is only the second time that this complication has been reported in the literature. We briefly explore the possible pathophysiologic explanations for this complication and review the effects of UAE compared to hysterectomy on sexual functioning in women.

  19. Incarceration of a pedunculated uterine fibroid in an umbilical hernia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ju; Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Seong, Won Joon

    2017-05-01

    Uterine fibroids are common benign tumors that may cause an umbilical hernia in patients with increased intra-abdominal pressure due to pregnancy, obesity, ascites, and intra-abdominal tumors. However, the simultaneous occurrence of uterine fibroids and umbilical hernias, or fibroids and an associated umbilical hernia, during pregnancy has rarely been reported. Here, we present the case of a fibroid presenting as an incarcerated umbilical hernia in a menopausal patient.

  20. Incarceration of a pedunculated uterine fibroid in an umbilical hernia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Ju; Seong, Won Joon

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are common benign tumors that may cause an umbilical hernia in patients with increased intra-abdominal pressure due to pregnancy, obesity, ascites, and intra-abdominal tumors. However, the simultaneous occurrence of uterine fibroids and umbilical hernias, or fibroids and an associated umbilical hernia, during pregnancy has rarely been reported. Here, we present the case of a fibroid presenting as an incarcerated umbilical hernia in a menopausal patient. PMID:28534020

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters in Predicting the Treatment Outcome of High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Fibroids With an Immediate Nonperfused Volume Ratio of at Least 90.

    PubMed

    Keserci, Bilgin; Duc, Nguyen Minh

    2018-03-07

    We aimed to investigate the role of magnetic resonance imaging parameters in predicting the treatment outcome of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids with a nonperfused volume (NPV) ratio of at least 90%. A total of 120 women who underwent HIFU treatment were divided into groups 1 (n = 72) and 2 (n = 48), comprising patients with an NPV ratio of at least 90% and less than 90%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to investigate the potential predictors of the NPV ratio of at least 90%. The NPV ratios immediately post-treatment, therapeutic efficacy at 6 months' follow-up, and safety in terms of adverse effects and changes in anti-Mullerian hormone level were assessed. By introducing multiple predictors obtained from multivariate analyses into a generalized estimating equation model, the results showed that the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer in the anterior abdominal wall, peak enhancement of fibroid, time to peak of fibroid, and the ratio of area under the curve of fibroid to myometrium were statistically significant, except T2 signal intensity ratio of fibroid to myometrium, hence predicting an NPV ratio of at least 90%. No serious adverse effects and no significant difference between the anti-Mullerian hormone levels before or 6 months post-treatment were reported. The findings in this study suggest that the achievement of NPV ratio of at least 90% in magnetic resonance imaging-guided HIFU treatment of uterine fibroids based on prediction model appears clinically possible without compromising the safety of patients. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The electrical conductivity of in vivo human uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    DeLonzor, Russ; Spero, Richard K; Williams, Joseph J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of electrical conductivity that can be used for numerical modelling in vivo radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments of human uterine fibroids. No experimental electrical conductivity data have previously been reported for human uterine fibroids. In this study electrical data (voltage) from selected in vivo clinical procedures on human uterine fibroids were used to numerically model the treatments. Measured versus calculated power dissipation profiles were compared to determine uterine fibroid electrical conductivity. Numerical simulations were conducted utilising a wide range of values for tissue thermal conductivity, heat capacity and blood perfusion coefficient. The simulations demonstrated that power dissipation was insensitive to the exact values of these parameters for the simulated geometry, treatment duration, and power level. Consequently, it was possible to determine tissue electrical conductivity without precise knowledge of the values for these parameters. Results of this study showed that an electrical conductivity for uterine fibroids of 0.305 S/m at 37°C and a temperature coefficient of 0.2%/°C can be used for modelling Radio Frequency Ablation of human uterine fibroids at a frequency of 460 kHz for temperatures from 37°C to 100°C.

  3. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using different b-value combinations for the evaluation of treatment results after volumetric MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Ikink, Marlijne E; Voogt, Marianne J; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; Keserci, Bilgin; Kim, Young-sun; Vincken, Koen L; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2014-09-01

    To assess the value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping using different b-value combinations for treatment evaluation after magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) of uterine fibroids. Fifty-six patients with 67 uterine fibroids were treated with volumetric MR-HIFU. Pre-treatment and post-treatment images were obtained using contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI (CE-T1WI) and DWI using b = 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 s/mm(2). ADC maps were generated using subsets of b-values to investigate the effects of tissue ablation on water diffusion and perfusion in fibroids treated with MR-HIFU. Four combinations of b-values were used: (1) all b-values; (2) b = 0, 200 s/mm(2); (3) b = 400, 600, 800 s/mm(2); and (4) b = 0, 800 s/mm(2). Using the lowest b-values (0 and 200 s/mm(2)), the mean ADC value in the ablated tissue reduced significantly (p < 0.001) compared with baseline. Calculating the ADC value with the highest b-values (400, 600, 800 s/mm(2)), the ADC increased significantly (p < 0.001) post-treatment. ADC maps calculated with the lowest b-values resulted in the best visual agreement of non-perfused fibroid tissue detected on CE images. Other b-value combinations and normal myometrium showed no difference in ADC after MR-HIFU treatment. A decrease in contrast agent uptake within the ablated region on CE-T1WI was correlated to a significantly decreased ADC when b = 0 and 200 s/mm(2) were used. DWI could be useful for treatment evaluation after MR-HIFU of uterine fibroids. The ADC in fibroid tissue is influenced by the choice of b- values. Low b-values seem the best choice to emphasise perfusion effects after MR-HIFU.

  4. Role of vitamin D in uterine fibroid biology.

    PubMed

    Brakta, Soumia; Diamond, Justin S; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Diamond, Michael P; Halder, Sunil K

    2015-09-01

    To provide a detailed summary of current scientific knowledge on uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) in vitro and in in vivo animal models, as well as to postulate the potential role of vitamin D3 as an effective, inexpensive, safe, long-term treatment option for uterine fibroids. PubMed search articles were used to identify the most relevant studies on uterine fibroids, as well as effects of vitamin D3 on uterine fibroid cells and fibroid tumor growth in in vivo animal models. University research laboratory. Not applicable. None. Not applicable. Despite numerous publications available on uterine fibroids, information about the role that vitamin D3 plays in the regulation of uterine fibroids is limited. Most of the recent vitamin D3-related studies on uterine fibroids were published from our group. Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the development of uterine fibroids. Our recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D3 reduces leiomyoma cell proliferation in vitro and leiomyoma tumor growth in in vivo animal models. These results postulate the potential role of vitamin D3 for an effective, safe, nonsurgical medical treatment option for uterine fibroids. This article reviews human and animal studies and uncovers new possibilities for understanding the vitamin D-based therapeutic option for an effective, safe, long-term treatment of uterine fibroids. On the basis of these results, a clinical trial with vitamin D3 or a hypocalcemic analog, paricalcitol, may be warranted for nonsurgical medical treatment of uterine fibroids. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Vitamin D in Uterine Fibroid Biology

    PubMed Central

    Brakta, Soumia; Diamond, Justin S.; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Diamond, Michael P.; Halder, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide a detailed summary of current scientific knowledge on uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) in vitro and in in vivo animal models, as well as to postulate the potential role of vitamin D3 as an effective, inexpensive, safe long-term treatment option for uterine fibroids. Design PubMed search articles were used to identify the most relevant studies on uterine fibroids as well as effects of vitamin D3 on uterine fibroid cells and fibroid tumor growth in in vivo animal models. Setting University research laboratory - affiliated infertility clinic. Patient(s) Not applicable. Intervention(s) None Main Outcome Measure(s) Not applicable. Results Despite numerous publications available on uterine fibroids, information about the role that vitamin D3 plays in the regulation of uterine fibroids are limited. Most of the recent vitamin D3-related studies on uterine fibroids were published from our group. Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the development of uterine fibroids. Our recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D3 reduces leiomyoma cell proliferation in vitro, and leiomyoma tumor growth in in vivo animal models. These results postulate the potential role of vitamin D3 for an effective, safe non-surgical medical treatment option for uterine fibroids. Conclusions This article reviews human and animal studies and uncover new possibilities for understanding the vitamin D-based therapeutic option for an effective, safe long-term treatment of uterine fibroids. Based on these results, a clinical trial with vitamin D3 or a hypocalcemic analog, paricalcitol may be warranted for non-surgical medical treatment of uterine fibroids. PMID:26079694

  6. Degenerated uterine fibroid mimicking hydrometra: fallacy in CT

    PubMed Central

    Tok, CH; Bux, SI; Mohamed, SI; Lim, BK

    2006-01-01

    Fibroids are the commonest uterine neoplasms, occurring in 20% - 30% of women of reproductive age. In women who have pelvic masses of unknown cause, unusual manifestations of fibroids such as necrosis or degeneration may simulate a carcinoma or hydrometra resulting in problems with image interpretation. We report a case of an unsuspected large degenerated uterine fibroid in a lady mistakenly diagnosed as hydrometra on computed tomography scanning. PMID:21614328

  7. Induced and Spontaneous Abortion and Risk of Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Shen, Lijun; Mandiwa, Chrispin; Yang, Siyi; Liang, Yuan; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Youjie

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between abortion and uterine fibroids has received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between number of induced and spontaneous abortions and the risk of uterine fibroids in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 14,595 retired female employees from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study were included in our analysis. Information on induced and spontaneous abortions was collected by trained interviewers through face-to-face interviews. Diagnosis of uterine fibroids was based on ultrasound or self-reported physician diagnosis of uterine fibroids. Logistic regression models were used to explore the associations between number of induced and spontaneous abortions and the risk of uterine fibroids. The prevalence of uterine fibroids was 15.1% among all participants. Higher number of induced abortions was associated with an increased risk of uterine fibroids (1 induced abortion: odds ratios [ORs] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.48; 2 induced abortions: OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.28-1.64; and ≥3 induced abortions: OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.39-1.90). Compared with women without induced abortion, ORs for women with 1, 2, and ≥3 were 1.17 (95% CI 1.03-1.32), 1.21 (95% CI 1.06-1.39), and 1.36 (95% CI 1.15-1.61), respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders. No association was observed between the number of spontaneous abortions and the risk of uterine fibroids. The findings of this study showed that induced abortion may be an independent risk factor for uterine fibroids in middle-aged and older Chinese women.

  8. Successful pregnancy after treatment with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Javier; Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment.

  9. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Uterine Fibroid Treatment: Review Study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Alzimami, Khalid S; Aljuhani, Manal Saud; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a highly precise medical procedure used locally to heat and destroy diseased tissue through ablation. This study intended to review HIFU in uterine fibroid therapy, to evaluate the role of HIFU in the therapy of leiomyomas as well as to review the actual clinical activities in this field including efficacy and safety measures beside the published clinical literature. An inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation, and how it resulted in the development of extracorporeal distinct devices. Studies addressing HIFU in leiomyomas were identified from a search of the Internet scientific databases. The analysis of literature was limited to journal articles written in English and published between 2000 and 2013. In current gynecologic oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of leiomyomas. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for leiomyomas began in the 1990s, and the majority of patients with leiomyomas were treated predominantly with HIFUNIT 9000 and prototype single focus ultrasound devices. HIFU is a non-invasive and highly effective standard treatment with a large indication range for all sizes of leiomyomas, associated with high efficacy, low operative morbidity and no systemic side effects. Uterine fibroid treatment using HIFU was effective and safe in treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. Few studies are available in the literature regarding uterine artery embolization (UAE). HIFU provides an excellent option to treat uterine fibroids.

  10. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Uterine Fibroid Treatment: Review Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z.; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Alzimami, Khalid S.; Aljuhani, Manal Saud; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a highly precise medical procedure used locally to heat and destroy diseased tissue through ablation. This study intended to review HIFU in uterine fibroid therapy, to evaluate the role of HIFU in the therapy of leiomyomas as well as to review the actual clinical activities in this field including efficacy and safety measures beside the published clinical literature. Material/Methods An inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation, and how it resulted in the development of extracorporeal distinct devices. Studies addressing HIFU in leiomyomas were identified from a search of the Internet scientific databases. The analysis of literature was limited to journal articles written in English and published between 2000 and 2013. Results In current gynecologic oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of leiomyomas. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for leiomyomas began in the 1990s, and the majority of patients with leiomyomas were treated predominantly with HIFUNIT 9000 and prototype single focus ultrasound devices. HIFU is a non-invasive and highly effective standard treatment with a large indication range for all sizes of leiomyomas, associated with high efficacy, low operative morbidity and no systemic side effects. Conclusions Uterine fibroid treatment using HIFU was effective and safe in treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. Few studies are available in the literature regarding uterine artery embolization (UAE). HIFU provides an excellent option to treat uterine fibroids. PMID:25371765

  11. Uterine Fibroid Embolization for Symptomatic Fibroids: Study at a Teaching Hospital in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mutai, John Kiprop; Vinayak, Sudhir; Stones, William; Hacking, Nigel; Mariara, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Characterization of magnetic (MRI) features in women undergoing uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) and identification of clinical correlates in an African population. Materials and Methods: Patients with symptomatic fibroids who are selected to undergo UFE at the hospital formed the study population. The baseline MRI features, baseline symptom score, short-term imaging outcome, and mid-term symptom scores were analyzed for interval changes. Assessment of potential associations between short-term imaging features and mid-term symptom scores was also done. Results: UFE resulted in statistically significant reduction (P < 0.001) of dominant fibroid, uterine volumes, and reduction of symptom severity scores, which were 43.7%, 40.1%, and 37.8%, respectively. Also, 59% of respondents had more than 10 fibroids. The predominant location of the dominant fibroid was intramural. No statistically significant association was found between clinical and radiological outcome. Conclusion: The response of uterine fibroids to embolization in the African population is not different from the findings reported in other studies from the west. The presence of multiple and large fibroids in this study is consistent with the case mix described in other studies of African-American populations. Patient counseling should emphasize the independence of volume reduction and symptom improvement. Though volume changes are of relevance for the radiologist in understanding the evolution of the condition and identifying potential technical treatment failures, it should not be the main basis of evaluation of treatment success. PMID:25883858

  12. ERα inhibited myocardin-induced differentiation in uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing-Hua; Li, Jun-Yan; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Xiuhong; Xiang, Yuan; Li, Hui; Yu, Cheng-Xi; Li, Jia-Peng; Yuan, Bai-Yin; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas, are a benign tumor of the human uterus and the commonest estrogen-dependent benign tumor found in women. Myocardin is an important transcriptional regulator in smooth and cardiac muscle development. The role of myocardin and its relationship with ERα in uterine fibroids have barely been addressed. We noticed that the expression of myocardin was markedly reduced in human uterine fibroid tissue compared with corresponding normal or adjacent myometrium tissue. Here we reported that myocardin induced the transcription and expression of differentiation markers SM22α and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in rat primary uterine smooth muscle cells (USMCs) and this effect was inhibited by ERα. Notably, we showed that, ERα induced expression of proliferation markers PCNA and ki-67 in rat primary USMCs. We also found ERα interacted with myocardin and formed complex to bind to CArG box and inhibit the SM22α promoter activity. Furthermore, ERα inhibited the transcription and expression of myocardin, and reduced the levels of transcription and expression of downstream target SM22α, a SMC differentiation marker. Our data thus provided important and novel insights into how ERα and myocardin interact to control the cell differentiation and proliferation of USMCs. Thus, it may provide potential therapeutic target for uterine fibroids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ERα inhibited myocardin-induced differentiation in uterine fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Xing-Hua, E-mail: xinghualiao@hotmail.com; Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Ministry of Education and Tianjin, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457; Li, Jun-Yan

    Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas, are a benign tumor of the human uterus and the commonest estrogen-dependent benign tumor found in women. Myocardin is an important transcriptional regulator in smooth and cardiac muscle development. The role of myocardin and its relationship with ERα in uterine fibroids have barely been addressed. We noticed that the expression of myocardin was markedly reduced in human uterine fibroid tissue compared with corresponding normal or adjacent myometrium tissue. Here we reported that myocardin induced the transcription and expression of differentiation markers SM22α and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in rat primary uterine smoothmore » muscle cells (USMCs) and this effect was inhibited by ERα. Notably, we showed that, ERα induced expression of proliferation markers PCNA and ki-67 in rat primary USMCs. We also found ERα interacted with myocardin and formed complex to bind to CArG box and inhibit the SM22α promoter activity. Furthermore, ERα inhibited the transcription and expression of myocardin, and reduced the levels of transcription and expression of downstream target SM22α, a SMC differentiation marker. Our data thus provided important and novel insights into how ERα and myocardin interact to control the cell differentiation and proliferation of USMCs. Thus, it may provide potential therapeutic target for uterine fibroids.« less

  14. Surgical Management of Neurovascular Bundle in Uterine Fibroid Pseudocapsule

    PubMed Central

    Malvasi, Antonio; Hurst, Brad S.; Tsin, Daniel A.; Davila, Fausto; Dominguez, Guillermo; Dell'edera, Domenico; Cavallotti, Carlo; Negro, Roberto; Gustapane, Sarah; Teigland, Chris M.; Mettler, Liselotte

    2012-01-01

    The uterine fibroid pseudocapsule is a fibro-neurovascular structure surrounding a leiomyoma, separating it from normal peripheral myometrium. The fibroid pseudocapsule is composed of a neurovascular network rich in neurofibers similar to the neurovascular bundle surrounding a prostate. The nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy has several intriguing parallels to myomectomy. It may serve either as a useful model in modern fibroid surgical removal, or it may accelerate our understanding of the role of the fibrovascular bundle and neurotransmitters in the healing and restoration of reproductive potential after intracapsular myomectomy. Surgical innovations, such as laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy applied to the intracapsular technique with magnification of the fibroid pseudocapsule surrounding a leiomyoma, originated from the radical prostatectomy method that highlighted a careful dissection of the neurovascular bundle to preserve sexual functioning after prostatectomy. Gentle uterine leiomyoma detachment from the pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle has allowed a reduction in uterine bleeding and uterine musculature trauma with sparing of the pseudocapsule neuropeptide fibers. This technique has had a favorable impact on functionality in reproduction and has improved fertility outcomes. Further research should determine the role of the myoma pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle in the formation, growth, and pathophysiological consequences of fibroids, including pain, infertility, and reproductive outcomes. PMID:22906340

  15. The role of T1 perfusion-based classification in magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Keserci, Bilgin; Duc, Nguyen Minh

    2017-12-01

    To comparatively evaluate the role of magnetic resonance (MR) T1 perfusion-based time-signal intensity (SI) curves of fibroid tissue and the myometrium in classification of fibroids for predicting treatment outcomes of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. The fibroids of 74 women who underwent MR-HIFU treatment were classified into group A (time-SI curve of fibroid lower than that of the myometrium) and group B (time-SI curve of fibroid equal to or higher than that of the myometrium). Non-perfused volume (NPV) ratios immediately after treatment and fibroid volume reduction ratios and symptom severity scores (SSS) at the 6-month follow-up were retrospectively assessed. The immediate NPV ratios in groups A and B were 95.3 ± 6.3% (n = 62) and 63.8 ± 11% (n = 12), respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, the fibroid volume reduction ratios in groups A and B were 0.52 ± 0.14 (n = 50) and 0.07 ± 0.14 (n = 11), with the corresponding improvement in mean transformed SSS being 0.86 ± 0.14 and 0.19 ± 0.3, respectively. No serious adverse effects were reported. Our novel classification method could play an important role in classifying fibroids for predicting the immediate outcomes of HIFU treatment. • MRI is an important modality for outcome prediction in HIFU treatment • Patient selection is a significant factor for achieving high NPV ratio • NPV ratio is very strongly correlated with T1 perfusion-based classification • T1 perfusion-based classification is a strong predictor of treatment outcome.

  16. T2-based temperature monitoring in abdominal fat during HIFU treatment of patients with uterine fibroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhinsky, Eugene; Kohi, Maureen; Ghanouni, Pejman; Rieke, Viola

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we have implemented T2-based monitoring of near-field heating in patients undergoing HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids using Insightec ExAblate system. In certain areas, near-field heating can reach 18°C and the tissue may experience sustained heating of more than 10°C for the period of 2 hours or more. This indicates a cumulative thermal dose that may cause necrosis. Our results show the feasibility and importance of measuring near-field heating in subcutaneous fat.

  17. Electromagnetic image guidance in gynecology: prospective study of a new laparoscopic imaging and targeting technique for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Galen, Donald I

    2015-10-15

    Uterine fibroids occur singly or as multiple benign tumors originating in the myometrium. Because they vary in size and location, the approach and technique for their identification and surgical management vary. Reference images, such as ultrasound images, magnetic resonance images, and sonohystograms, do not provide real-time intraoperative findings. Electromagnetic image guidance, as incorporated in the Acessa Guidance System, has been cleared by the FDA to facilitate targeting and ablation of uterine fibroids during laparoscopic surgery. This is the first feasibility study to verify the features and usefulness of the guidance system in targeting symptomatic uterine fibroids-particularly hard-to-reach intramural fibroids and those abutting the endometrium. One gynecologic surgeon, who had extensive prior experience in laparoscopic ultrasound-guided identification of fibroids, treated five women with symptomatic uterine fibroids using the Acessa Guidance System. The surgeon evaluated the system and its features in terms of responses to prescribed statements; the responses were analyzed prospectively. The surgeon strongly agreed (96 %) or agreed (4 %) with statements describing the helpfulness of the transducer and handpiece's dynamic animation in targeting each fibroid, reaching the fibroid quickly, visualizing the positions of the transducer and handpiece within the pelvic cavity, and providing the surgeon with confidence when targeting the fibroid even during "out-of-plane" positioning of the handpiece. The surgeon's positive user experience was evident in the guidance system's facilitation of accurate handpiece tip placement during targeting and ablation of uterine fibroids. Continued study of electromagnetic image guidance in the laparoscopic identification and treatment of fibroids is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01842789.

  18. Fertility impairment associated with uterine fibroids - a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Lisiecki, Marek; Paszkowski, Maciej; Woźniak, Sławomir

    2017-12-01

    Uterine fibroids (also known as leiomyomas or myomas) are the most common benign tumors affecting reproductive organs in women. They are monoclonal tumors of the uterine smooth muscle, which spring from myometrium. It is estimated that they occur in 50-60% of the female population and rise to 70% by the age of 50. While mostly asymptomatic, myomas can be connected with several conditions, including abnormal bleeding with subsequent anemia, pelvic masses, pelvic pain, bulk symptoms, unfavorable impact on fertility and obstetric complications. Factors, which predispose the emergence of fibroids are: hormones, Afro-American ethnicity, age, obesity, adverse pregnancy outcome history, early menarche, genetic factors, alcohol, caffeine or eating too much red meat. On the other hand, there are factors, which can decrease this risk: pregnancy, early menopause and tobacco smoking. There are several mechanisms of fertility impairment in females with fibroids: alternations in uterus function (flawed blood supply, increased contractility), changes in the normal uterus anatomy, local hormonal changes induced by fibroids. In this review the connection between fibroids and infertility is analyzed.

  19. Clinical outcomes and health care utilization pre- and post-laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation of symptomatic fibroids and laparoscopic myomectomy: a randomized trial of uterine-sparing techniques (TRUST) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rattray, Darrien D; Weins, Laura; Regush, Lexy C; Bowen, James M; O'Reilly, Daria; Thiel, John A

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare laparoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of fibroids (Lap-RFA) and laparoscopic myomectomy in terms of 1) health care utilization and 2) serious complication rates. The secondary objectives were comparison of subject responses to validated symptom and quality-of-life questionnaires. We hypothesized that Lap-RFA health care utilization and clinical outcomes would not be worse than those of laparoscopic myomectomy in the aggregate. Post-market, randomized, prospective, multicenter, longitudinal, non-inferiority interventional comparative evaluation of health care utilization and clinical outcomes in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who desired uterine conservation was conducted. Both procedures were planned as outpatient day surgeries. Health care resource utilization was measured during the procedure day and at 1 week, 1 and 3 months post-surgery. Symptom severity and quality of life were based on patients' responses to the Uterine Fibroid Symptom Severity and Quality-of-Life Questionnaire, EuroQol-5D-visual analog scale general health status and menstrual impact questionnaires, and time from work. Forty-five participants provided written informed consent and were enrolled (Lap-RFA, n=23; myomectomy, n=22) in Canada. Hospitalization time (primary endpoint) was 6.7±3.0 hours for the Lap-RFA group and 9.9±10.7 hours for the myomectomy group (Wilcoxon, p =0.0004). Intraoperative blood loss was lesser for Lap-RFA subjects: 25.2±21.6 versus 82.4±62.5 mL ( p =0.0002). Lap-RFA procedures took lesser time than myomectomy procedures: 70.0 versus 86.5 minutes ( p =0.018), and Lap-RFA required -34.9% (130 fewer) units of surgical equipment. At 3 months, both cohorts reported the same significant symptom severity reduction (-44.8%; p <0.0001). Lap-RFA subjects also took lesser time from work: 11.1±7.6 versus 18.5±10.6 days ( p =0.0193). One myomectomy subject was hospitalized overnight after

  20. MRI Assessment of Uterine Artery Patency and Fibroid Infarction Rates 6 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization with Nonspherical Polyvinyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Raj, E-mail: rajdas@nhs.net; Gonsalves, Michael; Vlahos, Ioannis

    Purpose: We have observed significant rates of uterine artery patency after uterine artery embolization (UAE) with nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (nsPVA) on 6 month follow-up MR scanning. The study aim was to quantitatively assess uterine artery patency after UAE with nsPVA and to assess the effect of continued uterine artery patency on outcomes. Methods: A single centre, retrospective study of 50 patients undergoing bilateral UAE for uterine leiomyomata was undertaken. Pelvic MRI was performed before and 6 months after UAE. All embolizations were performed with nsPVA. Outcome measures included uterine artery patency, uterine and dominant fibroid volume, dominant fibroid percentage infarction,more » presence of ovarian arterial collaterals, and symptom scores assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Results: Magnetic resonance angiographic evidence of uterine artery recanalization was demonstrated in 90 % of the patients (64 % bilateral, 26 % unilateral) at 6 months. Eighty percent of all dominant fibroids demonstrated >90 % infarction. The mean percentage reduction in dominant fibroid volume was 35 %. No significant difference was identified between nonpatent, unilateral, and bilateral recanalization of the uterine arteries with regard to percentage dominant fibroid infarction or dominant fibroid volume reduction. The presence of bilaterally or unilaterally patent uterine arteries was not associated with inferior clinical outcomes (symptom score or UFS-QOL scores) at 6 months. Conclusion: The high rates of uterine artery patency challenge the current paradigm that nsPVA is a permanent embolic agent and that permanent uterine artery occlusion is necessary to optimally treat uterine fibroids. Despite high rates of uterine artery recanalization in this cohort, satisfactory fibroid infarction rates and UFS-QOL scores were achieved.« less

  1. Use of Ulipristal Acetate for the Management of Fibroid-Related Acute Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Arendas, Kristina; Leyland, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Episodes of acute abnormal uterine bleeding related to uterine fibroids can cause significant morbidity. Traditional management with high-dose hormonal regimens may not be as effective when used in women with fibroids. A 32-year-old woman with a 12 cm uterine fibroid presented with an episode of acute abnormal uterine bleeding requiring blood transfusion. In lieu of using a hormonal maintenance regimen after the bleeding had stabilized, the patient was treated with ulipristal acetate 5 mg daily for three months. Amenorrhea was induced rapidly and the patient had no further episodes of acute excessive uterine bleeding. She subsequently underwent a laparoscopic myomectomy with a satisfactory outcome. Ulipristal acetate has been shown to induce amenorrhea rapidly in women with uterine fibroids, and it can be a useful treatment in the emergency management of fibroid-related acute abnormal uterine bleeding. Copyright © 2016 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) of uterine fibroids in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Han, Nian-Lin R; Ong, Chiou Li

    2014-11-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common type of gynaecologic benign tumours, occurring in 25% to 50% of women during their reproductive lives. About half of the affected women have clinically significant symptoms, including abnormal bleeding, menstrual pain, frequent urination, constipation and abdominal distension. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) has been used to treat patients with benign lesions and a variety of malignancies. The objective of this study is to evaluate symptom relief before and after MR-guided ultrasound ablation of fibroids. A total of 37 patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated in this study. MRgFUS treatment led to a significant, time-dependent decrease in not only Symptom Severity Scores (SSS), but also the mean fibroid volume. The average reductions in volume were 41.6% and 52.6% at 6 months and 12 months respectively (P <0.05). The mean SSS of the 37 patients was 41.7 ± 2.8 before treatment whereas the average SSS was 26.9 ± 3.6, 20.7 ± 3.4, 18.5 ± 3.6, 16.5 ± 7.1, 9.8 ± 3.6 at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 to 4 years respectively. The decrease in scores was significant at all time points up to 3 to 4 years (P <0.05 and P <0.001). MRgFUS is a safe and effective non-invasive treatment for patients with symptomatic fibroids.

  3. Simulation study of the effects of near- and far-field heating during focused ultrasound uterine fibroid ablation using an electronically focused phased array: A theoretical analysis of patient safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ellens, Nicholas, E-mail: nicholas.ellens@utoronto.ca; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Assess the feasibility of using large-aperture, flat ultrasonic transducer arrays with 6500 small elements operating at 500 kHz without the use of any mechanical components for the thermal coagulation of uterine fibroids. This study examines the benefits and detriments of using a frequency that is significantly lower than that used in clinical systems (1–1.5 MHz). Methods: Ultrasound simulations were performed using the anatomies of five fibroid patients derived from 3D MRI. Using electronic steering solely, the ultrasound focus from a flat, 6500-element phased array was translated around the volume of the fibroids in various patterns to assess the feasibilitymore » of completing full treatments from fixed physical locations. Successive temperature maps were generated by numerically solving the bioheat equation. Using a thermal dose model, the bioeffects of these simulations were quantified and analyzed. Results: The simulations indicate that such an array could be used to perform fibroid treatments to 18 EM{sub 43} at an average rate of 90 ± 20 cm{sup 3}/h without physically moving the transducer array. On average, the maximum near-field thermal dose for each patient was below 4 EM{sub 43}. Fibroid tissue could be treated as close as 40 mm to the spine without reaching temperatures expected to cause pain or damage. Conclusions: Fibroids were successfully targeted and treated from a single transducer position to acceptable extents and without causing damage in the near- or far-field. Compared to clinical systems, treatment rates were good. The proposed treatment paradigm is a promising alternative to existing systems and warrants further investigation.« less

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Analysis of Fibroid Location in Women Achieving Pregnancy After Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Woodruff J.; Bratby, Mark John

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fibroid morphology in a cohort of women achieving pregnancy following treatment with uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. A retrospective review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the uterus was performed to assess pre-embolization fibroid morphology. Data were collected on fibroid size, type, and number and included analysis of follow-up imaging to assess response. There have been 67 pregnancies in 51 women, with 40 live births. Intramural fibroids were seen in 62.7% of the women (32/48). Of these the fibroids were multiple in 16. A further 12 women hadmore » submucosal fibroids, with equal numbers of types 1 and 2. Two of these women had coexistent intramural fibroids. In six women the fibroids could not be individually delineated and formed a complex mass. All subtypes of fibroid were represented in those subgroups of women achieving a live birth versus those who did not. These results demonstrate that the location of uterine fibroids did not adversely affect subsequent pregnancy in the patient population investigated. Although this is only a small qualitative study, it does suggest that all types of fibroids treated with UAE have the potential for future fertility.« less

  5. Uterine Artery Embolization in 101 Cases of Uterine Fibroids: Do Size, Location, and Number of Fibroids Affect Therapeutic Success and Complications?

    SciTech Connect

    Firouznia, Kavous, E-mail: k_firouznia@yahoo.com; Ghanaati, Hossein; Sanaati, Mina

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the size, location, or number of fibroids affects therapeutic efficacy or complications of uterine artery embolization (UAE). Patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids (n = 101) were treated by selective bilateral UAE using 500- to 710-{mu}m polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles. Baseline measures of clinical symptoms, sonography, and MRI taken before the procedure were compared to those taken 1, 3, 6, and 12 months later. Complications and outcomes were analyzed for associations with fibroid size, location, and number. Reductions in mean fibroid volume were similar in patients with single (66.6 {+-} 21.5%) andmore » multiple (67.4 {+-} 25.0%) fibroids (p-value = 0.83). Menstrual improvement occurred in patients with single (93.3%) and multiple (72.2%) fibroids (p = 0.18). Changes in submucosal and other fibroids were not significantly different between the two groups (p's > 0.56). Linear regression analysis between primary fibroid volume as independent variable and percentage reduction of fibroid volume after 1 year yielded an R{sup 2} of 0.083 and the model coefficient was not statistically significant (p = 0.072). Multivariate regression models revealed no statistically or clinically significant coefficients or odds ratios for three independent variables (primary fibroid size, total number, and fibroid location) and all outcome variables (percent reduction of uterus and fibroid volumes in 1 year, improvement of clinical symptoms [menstrual, bulk related, and urinary] in 1 year, and complications after UAE). In conclusion, neither the success rate nor the probability of complications was affected by the primary fibroid size, location, or total number of fibroids.« less

  6. Hysteroscopy and the treatment of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Mark Hans

    2015-10-01

    Fibroids or (leio)myomas are benign tumours that very commonly derive from smooth muscle cells of the myometrium. They are the most common indication for a hysterectomy. However, in women desirous of preservation of their uterus or of their fertility, a myomectomy may be a more appropriate form of surgical therapy. The submucous variant is often associated with heavy menstrual bleeding or subfertility. It can be removed with hysteroscopic surgery. Refinements of hysteroscopic surgical techniques have resulted in a better ability to remove submucous myomas. The state of the art of such hysteroscopical techniques and instrumentation to treat submucous myomas and what has been proven is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical limitations of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K; Hesley, Gina K; Hopkins, Matthew R; Brandt, Kathleen R; Zhu, Yunxiao; Stewart, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    To determine the reproducibility of classifying uterine fibroids using the 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. The present retrospective cohort study included patients presenting for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids at the Gynecology Fibroid Clinic at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA, between April 1, 2013 and April 1, 2014. Magnetic resonance imaging of fibroid uteri was performed and the images were independently reviewed by two academic gynecologists and two radiologists specializing in fibroid care. Fibroid classifications assigned by each physician were compared and the significance of the variations was graded by whether they would affect surgical planning. There were 42 fibroids from 23 patients; only 6 (14%) fibroids had unanimous classification agreement. The majority (36 [86%]) had at least two unique answers and 4 (10%) fibroids had four unique classifications. Variations in classification were not associated with physician specialty. More than one-third of the classification discrepancies would have impacted surgical planning. FIGO fibroid classification was not consistent among four fibroid specialists. The variation was clinically significant for 36% of the fibroids. Additional validation of the FIGO fibroid classification system is needed. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  8. Impaired work performance among women with symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Debra; Mirza, Fadi G; Mirza, Fadi; Chang, Hong; Renzulli, Karen; Perch, Katherine; Chelmow, David

    2008-10-01

    To assess the work impact of symptomatic uterine fibroids (UFs). A cohort study compared 58 employed women with symptomatic UFs to 56 healthy controls. Data sources included a self-administered mail questionnaire and medical charts. At-work performance limitations and productivity loss were measured with the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate case-control group differences were tested. Based on adjusted mean scores, the UF group had significantly more at-work limitations and productivity loss than controls, while absence rates were similar. The UF group's performance was impaired 18% of the time on average versus 8% for controls (P-values, 0.005-0.040). At-work limitations were explained by depression symptoms, Non-White race/ethnicity, and poorer health-related quality of life. Fibroids and related symptoms impose a burden on the working lives' of women, their employers, and the economy.

  9. Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRgHIFU) Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: An Evidence-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pron, G

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) is a noninvasive uterine-preserving treatment alternative to hysterectomy for women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas (fibroids). Uterine fibroids commonly occur, have a broad impact on women's health and lifestyle, continue to be the main indication for hysterectomy, and represent a costly public health burden. The objectives of the analysis were to evaluate patients' eligibility for MRgHIFU treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids and the technical success, safety, effectiveness, and durability of this treatment. The review also compared the safety and effectiveness of MRgHIFU with other minimally invasive uterine-preserving treatments and surgeries for uterine fibroids. A literature search was performed on March 27, 2014, using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBM Reviews, for studies published from January 1, 2000, to March 27, 2014. The evidence review identified 2 systematic reviews, 2 RCTs, 45 cohort study reports, and 19 case reports involving HIFU treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Eligibility for MRgHIFU treatment was variable, ranging from 14% to 74%. In clinical cohort studies involving 1,594 patients, 26 major complications (1.6%) were reported. MRgHIFU resulted in statistically and clinically significant reductions in fibroid-related symptoms in studies conducted in 10 countries, although few involved follow-up longer than 1 year. Retreatment rates following MRgHIFU were higher in early clinical studies involving regulated restrictions in the extent of fibroid ablation than in later reports involving near-complete ablation. Emergent interventions, however, were rare. Although a desire for fertility was an exclusion criteria for treatment, spontaneous term pregnancies did occur following HIFU. There were no randomized trials comparing MRgHIFU and

  10. Magnetic Resonance–Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRgHIFU) Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pron, G

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance–guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) is a noninvasive uterine-preserving treatment alternative to hysterectomy for women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas (fibroids). Uterine fibroids commonly occur, have a broad impact on women's health and lifestyle, continue to be the main indication for hysterectomy, and represent a costly public health burden. Objectives The objectives of the analysis were to evaluate patients’ eligibility for MRgHIFU treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids and the technical success, safety, effectiveness, and durability of this treatment. The review also compared the safety and effectiveness of MRgHIFU with other minimally invasive uterine-preserving treatments and surgeries for uterine fibroids. Methods A literature search was performed on March 27, 2014, using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBM Reviews, for studies published from January 1, 2000, to March 27, 2014. Results The evidence review identified 2 systematic reviews, 2 RCTs, 45 cohort study reports, and 19 case reports involving HIFU treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Eligibility for MRgHIFU treatment was variable, ranging from 14% to 74%. In clinical cohort studies involving 1,594 patients, 26 major complications (1.6%) were reported. MRgHIFU resulted in statistically and clinically significant reductions in fibroid-related symptoms in studies conducted in 10 countries, although few involved follow-up longer than 1 year. Retreatment rates following MRgHIFU were higher in early clinical studies involving regulated restrictions in the extent of fibroid ablation than in later reports involving near-complete ablation. Emergent interventions, however, were rare. Although a desire for fertility was an exclusion criteria for treatment, spontaneous term pregnancies did occur following HIFU. There were no

  11. Vegetarian diet and reduced uterine fibroids risk: A case-control study in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Wu, Yanting; Lu, Qing; Ren, Mulan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a vegetarian diet correlates with a potential reduced risk of uterine fibroids. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Southeast University Zhongda Hospital between February 2010 and December 2014. Cases included 600 Chinese Han women with uterine fibroids (case group) whose clinical diagnosis dated back no more than 1 year. Controls were 600 patients without uterine fibroids as well as healthy volunteers (control group). All of the information gathered through the questionnaire survey was analyzed for the risk factors of the uterine fibroids pathogenesis. The multifactor analysis showed that women with uterine fibroids reported a less frequent consumption of broccoli (odds ratio [OR]: 0.552; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.316-0.964), cabbage (OR: 0.446; 95%CI: 0.211-0.943), Chinese cabbage (OR: 0.311; 95%CI: 0.102-0.946), tomato (OR: 0.453; 95%CI: 0.241-0.853), and apple (OR: 0.416; 95%CI: 0.213-0.814) (P < 0.05). The original evidence from this epidemiological investigation shows that a high consumption of broccoli, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, tomato and apple seems to be a protective factor for uterine fibroids. We suggest that greater intake of fresh fruits and cruciferous vegetables may be able to reduce the incidence of uterine fibroids. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Ulipristal acetate versus leuprolide acetate for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Tomaszewski, Janusz; Vázquez, Francisco; Bouchard, Philippe; Lemieszczuk, Boguslav; Baró, Francesco; Nouri, Kazem; Selvaggi, Luigi; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and side-effect profile of ulipristal acetate as compared with those of leuprolide acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are unclear. In this double-blind noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 307 patients with symptomatic fibroids and excessive uterine bleeding to receive 3 months of daily therapy with oral ulipristal acetate (at a dose of either 5 mg or 10 mg) or once-monthly intramuscular injections of leuprolide acetate (at a dose of 3.75 mg). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with controlled bleeding at week 13, with a prespecified noninferiority margin of -20%. Uterine bleeding was controlled in 90% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, in 98% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and in 89% of those receiving leuprolide acetate, for differences (as compared with leuprolide acetate) of 1.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.3 to 11.8) for 5 mg of ulipristal acetate and 8.8 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4 to 18.3) for 10 mg of ulipristal acetate. Median times to amenorrhea were 7 days for patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 5 days for those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 21 days for those receiving leuprolide acetate. Moderate-to-severe hot flashes were reported for 11% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, for 10% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and for 40% of those receiving leuprolide acetate (P<0.001 for each dose of ulipristal acetate vs. leuprolide acetate). Both the 5-mg and 10-mg daily doses of ulipristal acetate were noninferior to once-monthly leuprolide acetate in controlling uterine bleeding and were significantly less likely to cause hot flashes. (Funded by PregLem; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00740831.).

  13. Uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy, or myomectomy for symptomatic uterine fibroids: a cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    You, Joyce H S; Sahota, Daljit Singh; Yuen, Pong Mo

    2009-02-01

    To compare the cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of hysterectomy, myomectomy, and uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic control of uterine fibroids. A cost-utility analysis conducted by using Markov modeling. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of Hong Kong society. A hypothetical cohort of patients presenting with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Hysterectomy, myomectomy, or UAE. Health-care resource use and QALYs over 5 years. The base-case analysis showed that hysterectomy was the most effective treatment (4.368 QALYs), followed by myomectomy (4.273 QALYs) and UAE (4.245 QALYs) over 5 years. Hysterectomy was less costly (USD8418) (1USD = 7.8HKD) than UAE (USD8847) and myomectomy (USD9036). Monte Carlo 10,000 simulations showed that the hysterectomy group was less costly than the UAE and myomectomy groups 84.1% and 79.1% of the time, and it also gained higher number of QALYs than the UAE and myomectomy groups over 97% of the time. Hysterectomy appears to be more cost-effective than myomectomy and UAE for management of symptomatic uterine fibroids over a 5-year period among patients who do not have a preference for uterus-conserving interventions.

  14. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment for uterine fibroids: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yongshuo; Hu, Kaimeng; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Lijun; Zhu, Junqiu; Zhu, Linglin; Zhu, Yanfei; Zhao, Hong

    2017-12-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive uterine-preserving treatment alternative to hysterectomy for women with fibroids. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of HIFU in the treatment of women with symptomatic fibroids comparing it to other approaches including medical treatment with mifepristone (Mife), traditional surgery with myomectomy or hysterectomy (MYC/HRM), and radiofrequency ablation (RF). 16 studies with 1725 women were included. The pooled data of HIFU comparing it to other methods in terms of complete or partial response rate (CR/PR) was not significantly better, but in subgroup analysis, the response rate was significantly higher than Mife, significantly lower than RF and comparable to MYC/HRM, respectively. For the endpoints of safety, the superiority of HIFU compared to MYC/HMR or Mife was found to be significant in terms of pain/discomfort, fever, transfusion, genital tract, gastrointestinal tract, and anesthesia-related complications, while no superiority was identified for skin burn, urinary tract, and nervous system complications. These results suggest that HIFU treatment of uterine leiomyomas leads to clinical improvement with few significant clinical complications and adverse events.

  15. Association of uterine fibroids and pregnancy outcomes after ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination for unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Styer, Aaron K; Jin, Susan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Baisong; Polotsky, Alex J; Christianson, Mindy S; Vitek, Wendy; Engmann, Lawrence; Hansen, Karl; Wild, Robert; Legro, Richard S; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M; Christy, Alicia; Diamond, Michael P; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Santoro, Nanette

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the association of non-cavity-distorting uterine fibroids and pregnancy outcomes after ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination (OS-IUI) in couples with unexplained infertility. Secondary analysis from a prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial investigating fertility outcomes after OS-IUI. Reproductive Medicine Network clinical sites. Nine hundred couples with unexplained infertility who participated in the Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) clinical trial. Participants were randomized to one of three arms (clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins), and treatment was continued for up to four cycles or until pregnancy was achieved. Conception (serum hCG increase), clinical pregnancy (fetal cardiac activity), and live birth rates. A total of 102/900 participants (11.3%) had at least one documented fibroid and a normal uterine cavity. Women with fibroids were older, more likely to be African American, had a greater uterine volume, lower serum antimüllerian hormone levels, and fewer antral follicles than women without fibroids. In conception cycles, clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower in participants with fibroids than in those without uterine fibroids. Pregnancy loss before 12 weeks was more likely in African American women with fibroids compared with non-African American women with fibroids. There was no difference in conception and live birth rates in subjects with and without fibroids. No differences were observed in conception and live birth rates in women with non-cavity-distorting fibroids and those without fibroids. These findings provide reassurance that pregnancy success is not impacted in couples with non-cavity-distorting fibroids undergoing OS-IUI for unexplained infertility. NCT01044862. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ayurvedic intervention in the management of uterine fibroids: A Case series.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Uterine enlargement is common in reproductive life of a female. Other than pregnancy, it is seen most frequently in the result of leiomyomas. Leiomyomas, are benign smooth muscle neoplasmas that typically originate from the myometrium, due to fibrous consistency and are also called as fibroid. They may be identified in asymptomatic women during routine pelvic examination or may cause symptoms. Typical complaints include pain, pressure sensations, dysmenorrhea or abnormal uterine bleeding. Management of uterine fibroid through surgery is available to meet urgent need of the patient, but challenges remain to establish a satisfactory conservatory medical treatment till date. Hence, it was critically reviewed in the context of Granthi Roga (disease) and treatment protocol befitting the Samprapti Vighatana of Granthi (encapsulated growth) was subjected in patients of uterine fibroids. Seven cases of uterine fibroid were managed by Ayurvedic intervention. Ultrasonography (USG) of the lower abdomen was the main investigative/diagnostic tool in this study. After 7 weeks, patients presented with USG report as absence of uterine fibroid. Ayurvedic formulations Kanchanara Guggulu, Shigru Guggulu, and Haridra Khand are found to be effective treatment modality in uterine fibroid.

  17. Ayurvedic intervention in the management of uterine fibroids: A Case series

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Uterine enlargement is common in reproductive life of a female. Other than pregnancy, it is seen most frequently in the result of leiomyomas. Leiomyomas, are benign smooth muscle neoplasmas that typically originate from the myometrium, due to fibrous consistency and are also called as fibroid. They may be identified in asymptomatic women during routine pelvic examination or may cause symptoms. Typical complaints include pain, pressure sensations, dysmenorrhea or abnormal uterine bleeding. Management of uterine fibroid through surgery is available to meet urgent need of the patient, but challenges remain to establish a satisfactory conservatory medical treatment till date. Hence, it was critically reviewed in the context of Granthi Roga (disease) and treatment protocol befitting the Samprapti Vighatana of Granthi (encapsulated growth) was subjected in patients of uterine fibroids. Seven cases of uterine fibroid were managed by Ayurvedic intervention. Ultrasonography (USG) of the lower abdomen was the main investigative/diagnostic tool in this study. After 7 weeks, patients presented with USG report as absence of uterine fibroid. Ayurvedic formulations Kanchanara Guggulu, Shigru Guggulu, and Haridra Khand are found to be effective treatment modality in uterine fibroid. PMID:26664240

  18. Tolerance, hospital stay, and recovery after uterine artery embolization for fibroids: the Ontario Uterine Fibroid Embolization Trial.

    PubMed

    Pron, Gaylene; Mocarski, Eva; Bennett, John; Vilos, George; Common, Andrew; Zaidi, Mukarram; Sniderman, Kenneth; Asch, Murray; Kozak, Roman; Simons, Martin; Tran, Cuong; Kachura, John

    2003-10-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is gaining popularity as an alternative to hysterectomy for the treatment of fibroids. Although minimally invasive treatments such as UAE offer the potential of fewer complications, shorter hospital stay, and quicker recovery than surgery, there have been few published data on tolerance and recovery in patients undergoing UAE. This was a multicenter prospective single-arm clinical treatment trial involving the practices of 11 interventional radiologists in eight Ontario university-affiliated and community hospitals. Between November 1998 and November 2000, 555 women underwent UAE for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Follow-up included ultrasound examinations and telephone interviews. UAE was performed under conscious sedation. Polyvinyl alcohol particles (355-500 micro m) were the primary embolic agent, and the procedural endpoint involved stasis in the uterine arteries. Pain protocols included antiinflammatory medications and narcotics and a planned overnight hospital admission. Tolerance and recovery were measured by patient-reported pain intensity (10-point numeric rating and five-point descriptor scale), hospital length of stay (LOS), and time until return to work. Intraprocedural pain was reported by 30% of patients and postprocedural pain was reported by 92% of patients (mean pain rating +/- SD, 7.0 +/- 2.47). The mean hospital LOS was 1.3 nights. Postprocedural pain was the most common indication for an LOS greater than 1 night (18%) or 2 nights (5%). Return visits to the hospital (10%) and readmissions (3%) were primarily for pain. The overall postprocedural complication rate was 8.0% (95% CI: 5.9%-10.6%). Of the 44 complications, 32 (73%) were pain-related. The mean recovery time after UAE was 13.1 days (median, 10.0 d). The majority of patients had a 1-night LOS after UAE and recovered within 2 weeks. Postprocedural pain varied considerably and was the major indication for extended hospital stay and recovery.

  19. Hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure associated with preoperative uterine artery embolization for a large uterine fibroid: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiko; Koizumi, Toshimitsu; Higa, Takeru; Imai, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    Preoperative uterine artery embolization has been shown to help reduce blood loss, with few complications. Most reports indicated that uterine artery embolization is safe for uterine fibrosis; the occurrence of hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure as complications of preoperative uterine artery embolization has not been reported previously. Here we report the occurrence of hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure after preoperative uterine artery embolization for a large uterine fibroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure after preoperative uterine artery embolization. A 48-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital complaining of compression in her abdomen and an abdominal mass. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large uterine fibroid measuring 37.5×27×13.5 cm. Therefore, we planned preoperative uterine artery embolization to help reduce blood loss. However, hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure occurred owing to the development of necrotic tissue after uterine artery embolization; therefore, emergency total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. She experienced 105 g of blood loss intraoperatively. The weight of her uterus was 10.8 kg and the volume was 9964 cm 3 , with extensive necrotic tissue. Her hyperkalemia and kidney failure resolved after the surgery. We reported the occurrence of serious complications, including hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure, after preoperative uterine artery embolization for a large uterine fibroid.

  20. Paricalcitol, a Vitamin D Receptor Activator, Inhibits Tumor Formation in a Murine Model of Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sunil K.; Sharan, Chakradhari; Al-Hendy, Omar

    2014-01-01

    We examined the antitumor and therapeutic potentials of paricalcitol, an analog of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with lower calcemic activity, against uterine fibroids using in vitro and in vivo evaluations in appropriate uterine fibroid cells and animal models. We found that paricalcitol has potential to reduce the proliferation of the immortalized human uterine fibroid cells. For the in vivo study, we generated subcutaneous tumors by injecting the Eker rat-derived uterine leiomyoma cell line (ELT-3) rat uterine fibroid-derived cell line in athymic nude mice supplemented with estrogen pellets. These mice were administered with vehicle versus paricalcitol (300 ng/kg/d) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (500 ng/kg/d) for 4 consecutive weeks, and the data were analyzed. We found that while both paricalcitol and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 significantly reduced fibroid tumor size, the shrinkage was slightly higher in the paricalcitol-treated group. Together, our results suggest that paricalcitol may be a potential candidate for effective, safe, and noninvasive medical treatment option for uterine fibroids. PMID:24925855

  1. Uterine fibroids at routine second-trimester ultrasound survey and risk of sonographic short cervix.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Matthew J; Rochelson, Burton; Augustine, Stephanie; Greenberg, Meir; Sison, Cristina P; Vohra, Nidhi

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether women with sonographically identified uterine fibroids are at higher risk for a short cervix. This retrospective cohort study evaluated all women with singleton gestations who had a routine second-trimester ultrasound at 17-23 weeks gestational age from 2010 to 2013. When fibroids were noted, their presence, number, location and size were recorded. Exclusion criteria included a history of cervical conization or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), uterine anomalies, maternal age greater than 40 years, and a previously placed cerclage. The primary variable of interest was short cervix (<25 mm). Secondary variables of interest included gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, indication for cesarean, malpresentation, birth weight, and Apgar scores. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Fibroids were identified in 522/10 314 patients (5.1%). In the final multivariable logistic regression model, short cervix was increased in women with fibroids (OR 2.29, 95% CI: 1.40, 3.74). The number of fibroids did not affect the frequency of short cervix. Fibroids were significantly associated with preterm delivery (<37 weeks), primary cesarean, breech presentation, lower birth weight infants, and lower Apgar scores. Women with uterine fibroids may be at higher risk for a short cervix. Fibroids are also associated with several adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

  2. An Altered Perception of Normal: Understanding Causes for Treatment Delay in Women with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Ghant, Marissa S; Sengoba, Katherine S; Vogelzang, Robert; Lawson, Angela K; Marsh, Erica E

    2016-08-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that are the leading cause of hysterectomy in the United States. Despite their high prevalence and associated morbidity, there are little qualitative data characterizing what drives women's treatment-seeking behavior for their fibroids. Women with symptomatic or recently treated uterine fibroids completed in-depth interviews and demographic surveys. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and uploaded to NVivo version 10 for data management and thematic coding. Coders identified major themes and subthemes that emerged from the interviews. Sixty women (n = 60) completed the interviews. The kappa among coders was 0.94. The mean age of participants was 43.0 ± 6.8. 61.7% of participants self-identified as African American, 25.0% as Caucasian, 8.3% as Hispanic, and 5.0% as Asian. Many women reported obtaining a delayed diagnosis for their uterine fibroids despite experiencing severe symptoms. There were five subthemes that identified why women delayed seeking treatment, which included the perception that their symptoms were "normal," they had a low knowledge of fibroids, they did not perceive themselves to be at risk for fibroids, they engaged in avoidance-based coping strategies, and/or they dissociated themselves from their fibroids. Many women with symptomatic fibroids live with this condition chronically without seeking care. It appears that for some, limited knowledge regarding fibroids and normal menstruation may lead to a distorted view of what is normal with regard to uterine bleeding, resulting in limited treatment seeking behavior. Others know their symptoms are abnormal but simply avoid the problem. There is a need for patient-centered and community-based education to improve women's knowledge of fibroids and symptoms and to promote treatment options.

  3. Prevalence of endometrial polyps coexisting with uterine fibroids and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Kınay, Tuğba; Öztürk Başarır, Zehra; Fırtına Tuncer, Serap; Akpınar, Funda; Kayıkçıoğlu, Fulya; Koç, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of endometrial polyps in patients with uterine fibroids and associated factors of coexistence of these two pathologies. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 772 patients who underwent hysterectomy because of uterine fibroids were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of endometrial polyps in the histopathologic examination. Demographic, clinical and histopathologic findings of the patients with and without endometrial polyps were compared. Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson’s Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of the endometrial polyps in uterine fibroid cases was found 20.1% (n=155). Age ≥45 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.06-2.44]; p=0.014), presence of hypertension (23.9% vs. 17.5%; p=0.047), endometrial hyperplasia (OR 4.00; 95% CI: [1.92-8.33]; p<0.001) and cervical polyps (OR 3.13; 95% CI: [1.69-5.88]; p<0.001) were significantly associated with the coexistence of endometrial polyps and uterine fibroids. Endometrial polyps were more common in patients with ≥2 fibroids (p=0.023) and largest fibroid <8 cm (p=0.009). A negative correlation was found between condom use and endometrial polyps (8.1% vs. 3.9%; p=0.044). Conclusions: The prevalence of the endometrial polyps coexisting with uterine fibroids was 20.1%. Age, hypertension, endometrial hyperplasia, cervical polyps, and number of fibroids were positively correlated; condom use and size of largest fibroid were negatively correlated with the coexistence of these two pathologies. PMID:28913086

  4. The Ontario Uterine Fibroid Embolization Trial. Part 1. Baseline patient characteristics, fibroid burden, and impact on life.

    PubMed

    Pron, Gaylene; Cohen, Marsha; Soucie, Jennifer; Garvin, Greg; Vanderburgh, Leslie; Bell, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    To determine baseline characteristics of women undergoing uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic fibroids. Multicenter, prospective, single-arm clinical treatment trial. Eight Ontario university and community hospitals. Five hundred fifty-five women undergoing UAE for fibroids. Baseline questionnaires completed before UAE. Questionnaires were analyzed for demographic, medical, and gynecologic histories. Fibroid symptoms, impact of symptoms, previous consultations, and treatments were also analyzed. The Ontario cohort (66% white, 23% black, 11% other races) had an average age of 43. Thirty-one percent were under age 40. Most women were university educated (68%) and working outside the home (85%). Women reported heavy menstrual bleeding (80%), urinary urgency/frequency (73%), pain during intercourse (41%), and work absences (40%). They experienced fibroid-related symptoms for an average of 5 years and consulted with on average of three gynecologists before UAE. High fibroid life-impact scores were reported by 58%. Black women were significantly younger (40.7 vs. 44.0 years), more likely to experience symptoms longer (7 vs. 5 years), and more likely to undergo myomectomy before UAE (24% vs. 9%) than white women. Our study illustrates that large numbers of women with highly symptomatic fibroid disease are averse to surgery despite their burden of suffering and are actively seeking alternatives to hysterectomy.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery for the Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Laura; Napoli, Alessandro; Catalano, Carlo; Midiri, Massimo; Gagliardo, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids, the most common benign tumor in women of childbearing age, may cause symptoms including pelvic pain, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, pressure, urinary symptoms, and infertility. Various approaches are available to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids. Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) represents a recently introduced noninvasive safe and effective technique that can be performed without general anesthesia, in an outpatient setting. We review the principles of MRgFUS, describing patient selection criteria for the treatments performed at our center and we present a series of five selected patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids treated with this not yet widely known technique, showing its efficacy in symptom improvement and fibroid volume reduction.

  6. Uteroenteric Fistula Resulting From Fibroid Expulsion After Uterine Fibroid Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Luis B., E-mail: lbgutier@stanford.edu; Bansal, Anshuman K., E-mail: abansal@mednet.ucla.edu; Hovsepian, David M., E-mail: hovsepian@stanford.edu

    A 44-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) for menstrual and bulk-related symptoms in an enlarged, myomatous uterus. After surgery, she spontaneously sloughed a large mass of fibroids that arrested in the cervical canal during passage. Four days after gynecological extraction, she developed copious vaginal discharge that contained enteric contents. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a fistula between the small bowel and the uterus. She subsequently underwent hysterectomy, left oophorectomy, and small-bowel resection. Her postoperative recovery was uneventful.

  7. The Fibroid Registry for outcomes data (FIBROID) for uterine embolization: short-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Worthington-Kirsch, Robert; Spies, James B; Myers, Evan R; Mulgund, Jyotsna; Mauro, Matthew; Pron, Gaylene; Peterson, Eric D; Goodwin, Scott

    2005-07-01

    To investigate the short-term safety of uterine embolization for leiomyomata in a large cohort of patients treated in a variety of clinical settings. Examining the FIBROID Registry, a multicenter prospective voluntary registry of patients undergoing uterine embolization for leiomyomata, we studied the frequency of adverse events and predictors of adverse events within 30 days of the procedure. We also report on the technical aspects of the procedure, including details of periprocedural care, technique, and short-term recovery. All adverse events were recorded and classified using standard definitions, both in terms of type and severity. Summary statistics were used to describe the data set, and univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine which factors might influence the incidence of adverse events. Of the 3,160 patients enrolled at 72 contributing sites, major in-hospital complications occurred in 0.66%, and postdischarge major events occurred in 4.8% within the first 30 days. The most common adverse event after discharge was inadequate pain relief requiring additional hospital treatment (2.4%). Thirty-one patients required additional surgical intervention within 30 days after treatment, 3 of whom required hysterectomy (0.1%). There were no deaths. Multivariate analysis showed modest increased odds for an adverse event for African Americans, smokers, and those with prior leiomyoma procedures. There were no differences in outcome based on the practice site experience, practice type, or any procedure-related factors. Uterine embolization for leiomyomata is a low-risk procedure with little variability in short-term outcome based on either patient demographics or practice setting. II-3.

  8. Non-invasive therapeutic use of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) with 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Łoziński, Tomasz; Filipowska, Justyna; Gurynowicz, Grzegorz; Gabriel, Iwona; Czekierdowski, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Benign uterine fibroids are common female genital tract tumors and if symptomatic often require extensive surgery. When tumors are multiple and large or unusually located, the operative treatment may lead to significant morbidity and compromise quality of life. Recovery period after surgical treatment may be complicated by patient's medical condition and wound healing problems. Currently used other non-surgical treatment modalities usually provide only a temporal symptoms relief and may not be efficient in all affected women. In the last decade, minimally invasive treatment of uterine fibroids called Magnetic Resonance guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRI HIFU) was introduced. This technique uses thermal ablation simultaneously with MRI imaging of the mass and tissue temperature measurements during the procedure where a focused ultrasound beam is applied externally to destroy tumors located in the human body. Successful application of MRI HIFU has been recently described in patients with various malignancies, such as breast, prostate and hepatocellular cancers as well as soft tissue and bone tumors. This technique is innovative and has been proven to be safe and effective but there are several limitations for treatment. The article highlights the relative advantages and disadvantages of MRI guided HIFU in women with uterine fibroids. The authors also describe high-resolution MRI technique on 3T MRI, along with the approach to interpretation of HIFU results applied to uterine fibroids that has been experienced at one institution.

  9. The management of uterine fibroids in women with otherwise unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Mamane, Belina; Havelock, Jon; Hemmings, Robert

    2015-03-01

    To provide recommendations regarding the best management of fibroids in couples who present with infertility. Usual and novel treatment options for fibroids will be reviewed with emphasis on their applicability in women who wish to conceive. Management of fibroids in women wishing to conceive first involves documentation of the presence of the fibroid and determination of likelihood of the fibroid impacting on the ability to conceive. Treatment of fibroids in this instance is primarily surgical, but must be weighed against the evidence of surgical management improving clinical outcomes, and risks specific to surgical management and approach. The outcomes of primary concern are the improvement in pregnancy rates and outcomes with management of fibroids in women with infertility. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library in November 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., leiomyoma, infertility, uterine artery embolization, fertilization in vitro) and key words (e.g., fibroid, myomectomy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English and French. There were no date restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to November 2013. Grey (unpublished literature) was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). These recommendations are expected to allow adequate management of women with fibroids and infertility, maximizing their chances of pregnancy by minimizing risks introduced by unnecessary myomectomies. Reducing complications and

  10. Soy-Based Infant Formula Feeding and Ultrasound-Detected Uterine Fibroids among Young African-American Women with No Prior Clinical Diagnosis of Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Harmon, Quaker E.; Baird, Donna D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-life soy phytoestrogen exposure has been shown in Eker rats to increase uterine fibroid incidence in adulthood. Two large epidemiologic cohorts have provided some support for increased fibroid risk with infant soy formula feeding in women, but both cohorts relied on self-report of clinically diagnosed fibroids. Objective: We evaluated the relationship between infant soy formula feeding and ultrasound-detected fibroids. Methods: The Study of Environment, Lifestyle & Fibroids (SELF) is an ongoing cohort study of 1,696 African-American women ages 23–34 years with baseline ultrasound screening to detect and measure fibroids ≥ 0.5 cm in diameter. Questionnaire data on soy formula feeding during infancy was ascertained for 1,553 participants (89% based on mother’s report), of whom 345 were found to have fibroids. We estimated the association between soy formula feeding and fibroid prevalence and tumor number using log-binomial regression. Among those with fibroids, we compared fibroid size between soy formula-exposed and unexposed women using multivariable linear regression. Results: We did not observe an association between soy formula feeding and fibroid prevalence [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.3]. Nor were exposed women with fibroids more likely to have ≥ 2 tumors than unexposed women with fibroids (aPR 1.0, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.6). However, exposed women with fibroids had significantly larger fibroids than unexposed women with fibroids. On average, soy formula feeding was associated with a 32% increase in the diameter of the largest fibroid (95% CI: 6%, 65%) and a 127% increase in total tumor volume (95% CI: 12%, 358%). Conclusions: Our observation that women fed soy formula as infants have larger fibroids than unexposed women provides further support for persistent effects of early life phytoestrogen exposure on the uterus. Citation: Upson K, Harmon QE, Baird DD. 2016. Soy-based infant formula feeding and ultrasound

  11. VI. Uterine fibroid embolization: developing a clinical service.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Howard B; Smith, Steven J; Sterling, Keith M; Vogelzang, Robert; Bonn, Joseph; Andrews, Robert T; Worthington-Kirsch, Robert L; Goodwin, Scott C; Lipman, John C; Siskin, Gary P; Hovsepian, David M

    2002-03-01

    Building a uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) practice can be a complex process. Choices must be made regarding whether to align oneself with a gynecologist or to accept direct referrals. For the interventional radiologist, the responsibilities of evaluation and patient care pose unique and time-consuming administrative and clinical challenges. Physician extenders, either nurse practitioners or physician's assistants, play key roles as clinical coordinators by guiding the patient through the medical system and making certain that she is cleared for the procedure medically and logistically. In some settings, they may also assist in many of the technical aspects of the procedure and postoperative care. Interventional radiologists must be prepared for battles with insurance companies and be willing to go through the appeals process. Business officers must also be trained to properly code for the procedures to insure optimal reimbursement. The success of building a UFE practice may also be bolstered by directly marketing to patients and by providing them with access via the Internet. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  12. Workflow in interventional radiology: uterine fibroid embolization (UFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindisch, David; Neumuth, Thomas; Burgert, Oliver; Spies, James; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-03-01

    Workflow analysis can be used to record the steps taken during clinical interventions with the goal of identifying bottlenecks and streamlining the procedure efficiency. In this study, we recorded the workflow for uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) procedures in the interventional radiology suite at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, USA. We employed a custom client/server software architecture developed by the Innovation Center for Computer Assisted Surgery (ICCAS) at the University of Leipzig, Germany. This software runs in a JAVA environment and enables an observer to record the actions taken by the physician and surgical team during these interventions. The data recorded is stored as an XML document, which can then be further processed. We recorded data from 30 patients and found a mean intervention time of 01:49:46 (+/- 16:04) minutes. The critical intervention step, the embolization, had a mean time of 00:15:42 (+/- 05:49) minutes, which was only 15% of the total intervention time.

  13. The past, present, and future of selective progesterone receptor modulators in the management of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhbir S; Belland, Liane; Leyland, Nicholas; von Riedemann, Sarah; Murji, Ally

    2017-12-21

    Uterine fibroids are common in women of reproductive age and can have a significant impact on quality of life and fertility. Although a number of international obstetrics/gynecology societies have issued evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids, many of these guidelines do not yet reflect the most recent clinical evidence and approved indication for one of the key medical management options: the selective progesterone receptor modulator class. This article aims to share the clinical experience gained with selective progesterone receptor modulators in Europe and Canada by reviewing the historical development of selective progesterone receptor modulators, current best practices for selective progesterone receptor modulator use based on available data, and potential future uses for selective progesterone receptor modulators in uterine fibroids and other gynecologic conditions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term treatment of uterine fibroids with ulipristal acetate ☆.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Vázquez, Francisco; Tomaszewski, Janusz; Nouri, Kazem; Bouchard, Philippe; Fauser, Bart C J M; Barlow, David H; Palacios, Santiago; Donnez, Olivier; Bestel, Elke; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of ulipristal acetate (UPA) for long-term treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Repeated intermittent open-label UPA courses, each followed by randomized double-blind norethisterone acetate (NETA) or placebo. European clinical gynecology centers. Two hundred and nine women with symptomatic fibroids including heavy menstrual bleeding. Patients received up to four 3-month courses of UPA 10 mg daily, immediately followed by 10-day double-blind treatment with NETA (10 mg daily) or placebo. Amenorrhea, fibroid volume, endometrial histology. After the first UPA course, amenorrhea occurred in 79% of women, with median onset (from treatment start) of 4 days (interquartile range, 2-6 days). Median fibroid volume change was -45% (interquartile range, -66%; -25%). Amenorrhea rates were 89%, 88%, and 90% for the 131, 119, and 107 women who received treatment courses 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Median times to amenorrhea were 2, 3, and 3 days for treatment courses 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Median fibroid volume changes from baseline were -63%, -67%, and -72% after treatment courses 2, 3, and 4, respectively. All endometrial biopsies showed benign histology without hyperplasia; NETA did not affect fibroid volume or endometrial histology. Repeated 3-month UPA courses effectively control bleeding and shrink fibroids in patients with symptomatic fibroids. ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) registration numbers NCT01156857 (PEARL III) and NCT01252069 (PEARL III extension). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical results and effects of operator experience on uterine artery embolization for fibroids: the Ontario Uterine Fibroid Embolization Trial.

    PubMed

    Pron, Gaylene; Bennett, John; Common, Andrew; Sniderman, Kenneth; Asch, Murray; Bell, Stuart; Kozak, Roman; Vanderburgh, Leslie; Garvin, Greg; Simons, Martin; Tran, Cuong; Kachura, John

    2003-05-01

    To document the technical results and spectrum of practice of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for fibroids in the health care setting in Canada. The effects of interventional radiologist's (IR's) experience with UAE on procedure and fluoroscopy time were also investigated. The study involved a multicenter prospective single-arm clinical treatment trial and included the practices of 11 IRs at eight university-affiliated teaching and community hospitals. Vascular access with percutaneous femoral artery approach was followed by transcatheter delivery of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles into uterine arteries with fluoroscopic guidance. Technical success, complications, procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and effects of operator experience were outcomes analyzed. Between November 1998 and November 2000, 570 embolization procedures were performed in 555 patients. UAE was bilaterally successful in 97% (95% CI: 95%-98%). Variant anatomy was the most common reason for failure to embolize bilaterally. The procedural complication rate was 5.3% (95% CI: 3.6%-7.4%). Of the 30 events, three involved major complications (one seizure and two allergic reactions) that resulted in additional care or extended hospital stay. Procedure time and fluoroscopy time averaged 61 minutes (95% CI; 58-63 minutes) and 18.9 minutes (95% CI; 18-19.8) and varied significantly among IRs (P <.001; P <.001). The average 27% reduction in procedure time (20 minutes; P <.001) and 24% reduction in fluoroscopy time (5.1 minutes; P <.001) with increasing UAE experience were significant. A high level of technical success with few complications was obtained with a variety of operators in diverse practice settings. Increased experience in UAE significantly reduced procedure and fluoroscopy time.

  16. Expulsion of Fibroids to the Endometrial Cavity after Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) Treatment of Intramural Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jae-Hyeok; Hong, Gil Pyo; Kim, Yu-Ri; Hong, Da Gyo; Ha, Jae-Eun; Yeom, Jung In; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This report seeks to introduce some cases of the patients who received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery (MRgFUS)-based intramural uterine fibroids treatment where the post-MRgFUS intramural uterine fibroids decreased in its volume and protruded towards the endometrial cavity to be expelled by hysteroscopy. Methods Of the 157 patients who had received MRgFUS treatment in the Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Hospital from March, 2015 to February, 2016; this study examined 6 of the cases where, after high intensity focused ultrasound treatment, intramural uterine fibroids protruded towards the endometrial cavity to be removed by hysteroscopic myomectomy. The high intensity focused ultrasound utilized in the cases were Philips Achieva 1.5 Tesla MR (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) and Sonalleve HIFU system. Results The volume of fibroids ranged from 26.0 cm3 to 199.5 cm3, averaging 95.6 cm3. The major axis length ranged from 4.0 cm to 8.2 cm, averaging 6.3 cm. Fibroid location in all of the patients was in intramural uterine before treatment but after the high intensity focused ultrasound treatment, the fibroids were observed to protrude towards the endometrial cavity in at least Day 5 or up to Day 73 to allow hysteroscopic myomectomy. Conclusions In some cases, after an intramural uterine fibroid is treated with MRgFUS, fibroid volume is decreased and the fibroid protrudes towards the endometrial cavity. In this case, hysteroscopic myomectomy can be a useful solution. PMID:28119893

  17. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor C Is Upregulated in Human Uterine Fibroids and Regulates Uterine Smooth Muscle Cell Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Guangli; Jiang, Yong; Cowan, Bryan; Wang, Jean Y.J.

    2009-01-01

    Leiomyomata uteri (i.e., uterine fibroids) are benign tumors arising from the abnormal growth of uterine smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We show here that the expression of platelet-derived growth factor C (PDGFC) is higher in approximately 80% of uterine fibroids than in adjacent myometrial tissues examined. Increased expression of PDGFC is also observed in fibroid-derived SMCs (fSMCs) relative to myometrial-derived SMCs (mSMCs). Recombinant bioactive PDGFCC homodimer stimulates the growth of fSMCs and mSMCs in ex vivo cultures and prolongs the survival of fSMCs in Matrigel plugs implemented subcutaneously in immunocompromised mice. The knockdown of PDGF receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) through lentiviral-mediated RNA interference reduces the growth of fSMCs and mSMCs in ex vivo cultures and in Matrigel implants. Furthermore, two small molecule inhibitors of the PDGFR tyrosine kinase (i.e., imatinib and dasatinib) exerted negative effects on fSMC and mSMC growth in ex vivo cultures, albeit at concentrations that cannot be achieved in vivo. These results suggest that the PDGFCC/PDGFRA signaling module plays an important role in fSMC and mSMC growth, and that the upregulation of PDGFC expression may contribute to the clonal expansion of fSMCs in the development of uterine fibroids. PMID:19553600

  18. MRI predictors of clinical success in MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatments of uterine fibroids: results from a single centre.

    PubMed

    Mindjuk, Irene; Trumm, Christoph G; Herzog, Peter; Stahl, Robert; Matzko, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    To assess the technical and clinical results of MRgFUS treatment and factors affecting clinical treatment success. A total of 252 women (mean age, 42.1 ± 6.9 years) with uterine fibroids underwent MRgFUS. All patients underwent MRI before treatment. Results were evaluated with respect to post-treatment nonperfused volume (NPV), symptom severity score (SSS), reintervention rate, pregnancy and safety data. NPV ratio was significantly higher in fibroids characterized by low signal intensity in contrast-enhanced T1-weighted fat saturated MR images and in fibroids distant from the spine (>3 cm). NPV ratio was lower in fibroids with septations, with subserosal component and in skin-distant fibroids (p < 0.001). NPV ratio was highly correlated with clinical success: NPV of more than 80 % resulted in clinical success in more than 80 % of patients. Reintervention rate was 12.7 % (mean follow-up time, 19.4 ± 8 months; range, 3-38). Expulsion of fibroids (21 %) was significantly correlated with a high clinical success rate. No severe adverse events were reported. Adequate patient selection and correct treatment techniques, based on the learning curve of this technology, combined with technical advances of the system, lead to higher clinical success rates with low complications rate, comparable to other uterine-sparing treatment options. • MRgFUS appears to be a valid alternative to other uterus-preserving therapies • Patient selection is a significant factor in achieving high NPV ratios • MRI screening parameters correlate with the amount of fibroid ablation in MRgFUS • NPV results of more than 80 % correlate with higher clinical success rates.

  19. Prescription patterns of Chinese herbal products for patients with uterine fibroid in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Ying-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Chang, Tung-Ti; Tsao, Jung-Ying; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Sun, Mao-Feng

    2015-08-02

    Uterine fibroid (myoma) is one of the most common diseases in women. Although there are several studies on the efficacy of Chinese herbs, there is a lack of large-scale survey on the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of uterine fibroid. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of Chinese herbal products for patients with uterine fibroid, prescribed by licensed TCM doctors in Taiwan. A random sample comprised of one million individuals with newly diagnosed uterine fibroid between 2002 and 2010 from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database was analyzed. Demographic characteristics, TCM usage, the frequency as well as average daily dose of Chinese herbal formulas and the single herbs prescribed for patients with uterine fibroid, were analyzed. Overall, 35,786 newly diagnosed subjects with uterine fibroid were included. Majority of these patients (87.1%; n=31,161) had visited TCM clinics. Among them, 61.8% of their visits used Chinese herbal remedies. Patients less than 45 years of age tended to use TCM more frequently than elder patients. Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (Cinnamon Twig and Poria Pill) was the most frequently prescribed Chinese herbal formula, while San-Leng (Rhizoma Sparganii) was the most commonly prescribed single herb. Our study identified the characteristics and prescription patterns of TCM for patients with uterine fibroid in Taiwan. Further basic mechanistic studies and clinical trials are needed to confirm the therapeutic effects and mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Nahk Keun; Kim, Hee Jin

    Purpose:To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy.Methods:Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonancemore » imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 {mu}m.Results:Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively.Conclusion:Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure.« less

  1. Pregnancy following uterine artery embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles for patients with uterine fibroid or adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Nahk Keun; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Mee Hwa

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy. Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 mum. Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively. Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure.

  2. Adverse obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with uterine fibroids in China: A multicenter survey involving 112,403 deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Liying; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Yi; Li, Changdong; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between uterine fibroids and adverse obstetric outcomes. Methods This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of 112,403 deliveries from 14 provinces and 39 different hospitals in 2011 in mainland China. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women with and without uterine fibroids who underwent detailed second trimester obstetric ultrasonography during 18 to 22 weeks. Obstetric outcomes include cesarean delivery, breech presentation, preterm delivery, placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of membranes and neonatal birthweight. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Of 112,403 women who underwent routine obstetric survey, 3,012 (2.68%) women were identified with at least 1 fibroid. By univariate and multivariate analyses, the presence of uterine fibroids was significantly associated with cesarean delivery (Adjusted odds radio [AOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–2.0), breech presentation (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.5) and postpartum hemorrhage (AOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.4). The size of uterine fibroids and location in uterus had important effect on the mode of delivery. The rates of PPH were significantly higher with increasing size of the uterine fibroid (P<0.001). And the location of fibroid (intramural, submucosal or subserosal) also have a statistically significant impact on the risk of PPH (5.6% [subserosal] vs 4.7% [submucosal] vs 8.6% [intramural]). Conclusion Pregnant women with uterine fibroids are at increased risk for cesarean delivery, breech presentation and postpartum hemorrhage. And different characteristics of uterine fibroids affect obstetric outcomes through different ways. Such detailed information may be useful in risk-stratifying pregnant women with fibroids. PMID:29136018

  3. Uterine artery embolization for treatment of leiomyomata: long-term outcomes from the FIBROID Registry.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Scott C; Spies, James B; Worthington-Kirsch, Robert; Peterson, Eric; Pron, Gaylene; Li, Shuang; Myers, Evan R

    2008-01-01

    To assess long-term clinical outcomes of uterine artery embolization across a wide variety of practice settings in a large patient cohort. The Fibroid Registry for Outcomes Data (FIBROID) for Uterine Embolization was a 3-year, single-arm, prospective, multi-center longitudinal study of the short- and long-term outcomes of uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata. Two thousand one hundred twelve patients with symptomatic leiomyomata were eligible for long-term follow-up at 27 sites representing a geographically diverse set of practices, including academic centers, community hospitals, and closed-panel health maintenance organizations. At 36 months after treatment, 1,916 patients remained in the study, and of these, 1,278 patients completed the survey. The primary measures of outcome were the symptom and health-related quality-of-life scores from the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire. Mean symptom scores improved 41.41 points (P<.001), and the quality of life scores improved 41.47 points (P<.001), both moving into the normal range for this questionnaire. The improvements were independent of practice setting. During the 3 years of the study, Kaplan-Meier estimates of hysterectomy, myomectomy, or repeat uterine artery embolization were 9.79%, 2.82%, and 1.83% of the patients, respectively. Uterine artery embolization results in a durable improvement in quality of life. These results are achievable when the procedure is performed in any experienced community or academic interventional radiology practice. III.

  4. Optimizing research in symptomatic uterine fibroids with development of a computable phenotype for use with electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Sarah R; Vines, Anissa I; Halladay, Jacqueline R; Pfaff, Emily; Schiff, Lauren; Westreich, Daniel; Sundaresan, Aditi; Johnson, La-Shell; Nicholson, Wanda K

    2018-06-01

    Women with symptomatic uterine fibroids can report a myriad of symptoms, including pain, bleeding, infertility, and psychosocial sequelae. Optimizing fibroid research requires the ability to enroll populations of women with image-confirmed symptomatic uterine fibroids. Our objective was to develop an electronic health record-based algorithm to identify women with symptomatic uterine fibroids for a comparative effectiveness study of medical or surgical treatments on quality-of-life measures. Using an iterative process and text-mining techniques, an effective computable phenotype algorithm, composed of demographics, and clinical and laboratory characteristics, was developed with reasonable performance. Such algorithms provide a feasible, efficient way to identify populations of women with symptomatic uterine fibroids for the conduct of large traditional or pragmatic trials and observational comparative effectiveness studies. Symptomatic uterine fibroids, due to menorrhagia, pelvic pain, bulk symptoms, or infertility, are a source of substantial morbidity for reproductive-age women. Comparing Treatment Options for Uterine Fibroids is a multisite registry study to compare the effectiveness of hormonal or surgical fibroid treatments on women's perceptions of their quality of life. Electronic health record-based algorithms are able to identify large numbers of women with fibroids, but additional work is needed to develop electronic health record algorithms that can identify women with symptomatic fibroids to optimize fibroid research. We sought to develop an efficient electronic health record-based algorithm that can identify women with symptomatic uterine fibroids in a large health care system for recruitment into large-scale observational and interventional research in fibroid management. We developed and assessed the accuracy of 3 algorithms to identify patients with symptomatic fibroids using an iterative approach. The data source was the Carolina Data Warehouse for

  5. Scaled signal intensity of uterine fibroids based on T2-weighted MR images: a potential objective method to determine the suitability for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Wook; Sokolov, Amit

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is a non-invasive method to treat uterine fibroids. To help determine the patient suitability for MRgFUS, we propose a new objective measure: the scaled signal intensity (SSI) of uterine fibroids in T2 weighted MR images (T2WI). Forty three uterine fibroids in 40 premenopausal women were included in this retrospective study. SSI of each fibroid was measured from the screening T2WI by standardizing its mean signal intensity to a 0-100 scale, using reference intensities of rectus abdominis muscle (0) and subcutaneous fat (100). Correlation between the SSI and the non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio (a measure for treatment success) was calculated. Pre-treatment SSI showed a significant inverse-correlation with post treatment NPV ratio (p < 0.05). When dichotomizing NPV ratio at 45 %, the optimal cut off value of the SSI was found to be 16.0. A fibroid with SSI value 16.0 or less can be expected to have optimal responses. The SSI of uterine fibroids in T2WI can be suggested as an objective parameter to help in patient selection for MRgFUS. • Signal intensity of fibroid in MR images predicts treatment response to MRgFUS. • Signal intensity is standardized into scaled form using adjacent tissues as references. • Fibroids with SSI less than 16.0 are expected to have optimal responses.

  6. Unenhanced MR Angiography of Uterine and Ovarian Arteries after Uterine Artery Embolization: Differences between Patients with Incomplete and Complete Fibroid Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Kensaku, E-mail: moriken@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Saida, Tsukasa; Shibuya, Yoko

    Purpose: To compare the status of uterine and ovarian arteries after uterine artery embolization (UAE) in patients with incomplete and complete fibroid infarction via unenhanced 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five consecutive women (mean age 43 years; range 26-52 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent UAE and MR imaging before and within 2 months after UAE. The patients were divided into incomplete and complete fibroid infarction groups on the basis of the postprocedural gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging findings. Two independent observers reviewed unenhanced MR angiography before and after UAE to determine bilateral uterine and ovarian arterial flowmore » scores. The total arterial flow scores were calculated by summing the scores of the 4 arteries. All scores were compared with the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Fourteen and 21 patients were assigned to the incomplete and complete fibroid infarction groups, respectively. The total arterial flow score in the incomplete fibroid infarction group was significantly greater than that in the complete fibroid infarction group (P = 0.019 and P = 0.038 for observers 1 and 2, respectively). In 3 patients, additional therapy was recommended for insufficient fibroid infarction. In 1 of the 3 patients, bilateral ovarian arteries were invisible before UAE but seemed enlarged after UAE. Conclusion: The total arterial flow from bilateral uterine and ovarian arteries in patients with incomplete fibroid infarction is less well reduced than in those with complete fibroid infarction. Postprocedural MR angiography provides useful information to estimate the cause of insufficient fibroid infarction in individual cases.« less

  7. Impact of periodic health examination on surgical treatment for uterine fibroids in Beijing: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Yun; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Shan

    2010-12-07

    During the past 2 decades, there has been a rapid proliferation of "health examination center (HEC)" across China. The effects of their services on public's health have not been systemically investigated. This study aimed to assess the impact of periodic health examination (PHE) at HEC on surgical treatment for uterine fibroids in Beijing residents. We identified 224 patients with a primary diagnosis of uterine fibroids who had surgical treatment at four Level-1 general hospitals in Beijing, from June 1, 2009 to October 20, 2009. Controls were women who did not have surgery for uterine fibroids, matched (1:1 ratio) for age (within 2 years). A standard questionnaire was used to inquire about whether participants had PHE at HEC during the previous 2 years. PHE at HEC within 2 years were associated with surgical treatment for uterine fibroids. Odds ratios was 4.05 (95% CI, 2.61-6.29 P < 0.001), after adjustment for marital status, whether have children, annual family income, health insurance, education level and self-rated uterine fibroids-related symptom severity. Our study showed PHE currently provided at HEC in China were associated with significantly increased use of surgical treatment for uterine fibroids in women. Further studies are needed to assess the effects of PHE on clinical as well as on broad societal outcomes in Chinese in contemporary medical settings.

  8. The positive effect of targeted marketing on an existing uterine fibroid embolization practice.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Howard B; Basu, Pat Auveek; Omary, Reed A

    2006-03-01

    Although uterine fibroid embolization is an effective treatment option for symptomatic women, it is unclear what methods can be used to expand referrals in an already established practice. The authors tested the hypothesis that an advertising strategy focused on a defined target market can expand an existing uterine fibroid embolization practice. A market-driven planning sequence was employed. This included a determination of goals, an examination of current competition, determination of target market based on local environment and previous consumer use, pretest of product sample, and implementation of advertisement. Based on the analysis the authors determined that the target audience was professional black women aged 35 to 45. A specific weekly magazine was selected due to readership demographics. An advertisement was run for 8 consecutive weeks. The authors prospectively tracked patient inquiries, clinic visits, cases performed, and revenues generated for 3 months following the initial advertisement. All patients were seen in a fully staffed, preexisting fibroid clinic located within an urban, university-based academic practice performing 250 uterine fibroid embolizations annually. Ninety calls were received directly related to the advertisement. There were 35 clinic visits, which resulted in 17 uterine fibroid embolizations and 52 total MR imaging procedures. Eighteen patients were not considered candidates based on established protocols. The 17 extra cases performed over 3 months represented a 27% increase in case volume. Total professional cash collections for these cases (including MR imaging) were 58,317 US dollars. The cost of advertising was 8,000 US dollars. As a result of existing infrastructure, no additional costs were necessary. This resulted in a net revenue gain 50,317 US dollars and a nonannualized rate of return of approximately 625%. As Interventional Radiologists look to develop and expand existing practices, traditional marketing tools such as

  9. Molecular targets of dietary phytochemicals for possible prevention and therapy of uterine fibroids: Focus on fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Soriful; Akhtar, Most Mauluda; Segars, James H; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2017-11-22

    Uterine fibroids (myomas or leiomyomas) are common benign tumors of reproductive aged women. Fibroids are clinically apparent in 20-50% of women, and cause abnormal uterine bleeding, abdominal pain and discomfort, pregnancy complications and infertility. Unfortunately, limited numbers of medical treatment are available but no effective preventive strategies exist. Moreover, the benefits of medical treatments are tempered by lack of efficacy or serious adverse side effects. Fibrosis has recently been recognized as a key pathological event in leiomyoma development and growth. It is defined by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM plays important role in making bulk structure of leiomyoma, and ECM-rich rigid structure is believed to be a cause of abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain/pressure. Dietary phytochemicals are known to regulate fibrotic process in different biological systems, and being considered as potential tool to manage human health. At present, very few dietary phytochemicals have been studied in uterine leiomyoma, and they are mostly known for their antiproliferative effects. Therefore, in this review, our aim was to introduce some dietary phytochemicals that could target fibrotic processes in leiomyoma. Thus, this review could serve as useful resource to develop antifibrotic drugs for possible prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids.

  10. Tranexamic acid for the management of uterine fibroid tumors: A systematic review of the current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Peitsidis, Panagiotis; Koukoulomati, Anna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a detailed systematic review of the current evidence on the administration and efficacy of tranexamic acid in patients with menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search on the following databases PubMed and Medline (1950-2013); (1980-2013); Cochrane library (1993-2013). RESULTS: A total of 36 articles were retrieved after the initial electronic search. Careful assessment of the retrieved studies led to the final selection of 5 articles for inclusion in the review. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid may reduce blood loss perioperatively in myomectomies. It may reduce the menorrhagia in patients with fibroids, however a stratification of fibroids by size and location is required to define the responses. It is safe in general, with mild adverse effects observed in some cases. More studies with a double-blind randomized design and larger numbers of participants are necessary to reach more precise and safe conclusions. PMID:25516866

  11. Dietary phytochemicals for possible preventive and therapeutic option of uterine fibroids: Signaling pathways as target.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Soriful; Segars, James H; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2017-02-01

    A growing interest has emerged on dietary phytochemicals to control diverse pathological conditions. Unfortunately, dietary phytochemical research in uterine fibroids is still under construction. Uterine fibroids/leiomyomas are benign tumors developing from the myometrium of the uterus in premenopausal women. They may occur in more than 70% of women, and approximately 25% of women show clinically significant symptoms. These include heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding, pelvic pressure (urinary frequency, incontinence, and difficulty with urination), pelvic pain, pelvic mass, infertility, and reproductive dysfunction. Due to lack of medical treatments surgery has been definitive choice for fibroid management. Moreover, surgery negatively affects women's quality of life, and its associated cost appears to be expensive. The molecular mechanism of fibroids development and growth is not fully elucidated. However, accumulated evidence shows that several signaling pathways, including Smad 2/3, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, ERK 1/2 and β-catenin are involved in the leiomyoma pathogenesis, indicating that they could serve as targets for prevention and/or treatment of this tumor. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the involvement of signaling pathways in leiomyoma development and growth, and introduce some potential dietary phytochemicals that could modulate those signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Perforation of transverse colon: a catastrophic complication of uterine artery embolization for fibroids.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Jyotsna; Bancroft, Karen; Lay, James

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of a 43-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for a symptomatic large fibroid uterus and had spontaneous perforation of the transverse colon 3 months after embolisation with near-fatal consequences. We believe this is the first reported case in the literature of this serious complication of UAE. We briefly review the literature on bowel complications after UAE and discuss lessons to be learned regarding patient selection and postprocedure follow-up.

  13. African genetic ancestry interacts with body mass index to modify risk for uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Katherine E.; Torstenson, Eric S.; Wellons, Melissa; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.

    2017-01-01

    Race, specifically African ancestry, and obesity are important risk factors for uterine fibroids, and likely interact to provide the right conditions for fibroid growth. However, existing studies largely focus on the main-effects rather than their interaction. Here, we firstly provide evidence for interaction between categories of body mass index (BMI) and reported-race in relation to uterine fibroids. We then investigate whether the association between inferred local European ancestry and fibroid risk is modified by BMI in African American (AA) women in the Vanderbilt University Medical Center bio-repository (BioVU) (539 cases and 794 controls) and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (CARDIA, 264 cases and 173 controls). We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate interactions between local European ancestry and BMI in relation to fibroid risk, then performed fixed effects meta-analysis. Statistical significance threshold for local-ancestry and BMI interactions was empirically estimated with 10,000 permutations (p-value = 1.18x10-4). Admixture mapping detected an association between European ancestry and fibroid risk which was modified by BMI (continuous-interaction p-value = 3.75x10-5) around ADTRP (chromosome 6p24); the strongest association was found in the obese category (ancestry odds ratio (AOR) = 0.51, p-value = 2.23x10-5). Evaluation of interaction between genotyped/imputed variants and BMI in this targeted region suggested race-specific interaction, present in AAs only; strongest evidence was found for insertion/deletion variant (6:11946435), again in the obese category (OR = 1.66, p-value = 1.72x10-6). We found nominal evidence for interaction between local ancestry and BMI at a previously reported region in chromosome 2q31-32, which includes COL5A2, and TFPI, an immediate downstream target of ADTRP. Interactions between BMI and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) found in this region in AA women were also detected in an

  14. Effects of the distance between small intramural uterine fibroids and the endometrium on the pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Na; Wang, Yang; Su, Ying-chun; Sun, Ying-pu; Guo, Yi-hong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of the distance between small intramural uterine fibroids (≤4 cm) and the endometrium on the outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). We prospectively analyzed pregnancy outcomes in 117 infertile women with small intramural uterine fibroids and 117 infertile women without uterine fibroids who all underwent IVF-ET. The size and number of small intramural uterine fibroids and the shortest distance between the small intramural uterine fibroids and the endometrium were measured by transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound. The endometrial and subendometrial blood flow parameters, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate and live birth rate were compared between the women with and without small uterine fibroids and among the different shortest distances (≤1, 1-3 and >3 mm). The effects of the size and number of small intramural uterine fibroids on IVF-ET outcomes were observed. The endometrial volume on ET day, the implantation rate and the live birth rate were significantly lower, but the abortion rate was significantly higher, in the women with small intramural uterine fibroids than in those without uterine fibroids (p < 0.05). The endometrial flow index was higher in the shortest distance ≤1-mm group than in the groups with 1-3 and >3 mm, and the implantation rate was higher in ≤1-mm group than in the >3-mm group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between different sizes and numbers of small intramural uterine fibroids. Small intramural uterine fibroids can affect IVF-ET outcomes. Compared with other shortest distances (1-3 and >3 mm), the shortest distance of ≤1 mm has a higher implantation rate. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The Comparing Options for Management: Patient-centered Results for Uterine Fibroids (COMPARE-UF) Registry: Rationale and Design.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth A; Lytle, Barbara L; Thomas, Laine; Wegienka, Ganesa R; Jacoby, Vanessa; Diamond, Michael P; Nicholson, Wanda K; Anchan, Raymond M; Venable, Sateria; Wallace, Kedra; Marsh, Erica E; Maxwell, George L; Borah, Bijan J; Catherino, William H; Myers, Evan R

    2018-05-08

    To design and establish a uterine fibroid (UF) registry based in the United States (US) to provide comparative effectiveness data regarding UF treatment. We report here the design and initial recruitment for the Comparing Options for Management: Patient-centered Results for Uterine Fibroids (COMPARE-UF) registry (Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02260752), funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) in collaboration with the-Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). COMPARE-UF is designed to help answer critical questions about treatment options for women with symptomatic UF. Women undergoing a procedure for UF (hysterectomy, myomectomy [abdominal, hysteroscopic, vaginal and laparoscopic/robotic], endometrial ablation, radiofrequency fibroid ablation, uterine artery embolization, magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound or progestin-releasing intrauterine device insertion) at one of the COMPARE-UF sites are invited to participate in a prospective registry with three years follow-up for post-procedural outcomes. Enrolled participants provide annual follow-up through an online portal or through traditional phone contact. A central data abstraction center provides information obtained from imaging, operative or procedural notes and pathology reports. Women with uterine fibroids and other stakeholders are a key part of the COMPARE-UF registry and participate at all points from study design to dissemination of results. We built a network of nine clinical sites across the US with expertise in the care of women with UF to capture geographic, racial, ethnic and procedural diversity. Of the initial 2031 women enrolled in COMPARE-UF, 42% are self-identified as Black or African-American and 40% are age 40 years or younger with 16% of participants under age 35. Women undergoing myomectomy comprise the largest treatment group at 46% of all procedures with laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy comprising the largest subset of myomectomies at 19% of all

  16. Fibroids and in-vitro fertilization: which comes first?

    PubMed

    Rackow, Beth W; Arici, Aydin

    2005-06-01

    There is no consensus about the impact of uterine fibroids on fertility. This review explores past and recent studies that investigated the effects of submucosal, intramural, and subserosal fibroids on in-vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. We discuss the importance of proper evaluation of the uterus and endometrial cavity, and current options for optimal fibroid management in patients desiring fertility. Several studies have reviewed the data on fibroids and infertility, further exploring this potential relationship. Two recent studies investigated reproductive outcomes before and after myomectomy, and IVF outcomes based on fibroid size and location. Both studies concluded that fibroids can impair reproductive outcomes. Several papers thoroughly reviewed medical and surgical management options for patients with fibroids and desired fertility. Although several medical therapies may reduce fibroid volume or decrease menorrhagia, myomectomy remains the standard of care for future fertility. Recent data identified an increased rate of pregnancy complications after uterine artery embolization compared with laparoscopic myomectomy. A new procedure, magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation, shows promise for the management of symptomatic fibroids, and possibly for the management of fibroids prior to pregnancy. As with embolization, more data are needed to evaluate postprocedure fertility and pregnancy outcomes. Fibroid location, followed by size, is the most important factor determining the impact of fibroids on IVF outcomes. Any distortion of the endometrial cavity seriously affects IVF outcomes, and myomectomy is indicated in this situation. Myomectomy should also be considered for patients with large fibroids, and for patients with unexplained unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  17. Incidence and clinical characteristics of unexpected uterine sarcoma after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids: a retrospective study of 10,248 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wan-Cheng; Bi, Fang-Fang; Li, Da; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Uterine fibroids often require a hysterectomy or myomectomy via laparotomy or laparoscopy. Morcellation is often necessary to perform a laparoscopic surgery. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of unexpected uterine sarcomas (UUSs) after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids and to reduce the occurrence and avoid the morcellation of UUSs by analyzing their characteristics. Women who had a hysterectomy or myomectomy for uterine fibroids in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between November 2008 and November 2014 were selected for the study, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. During the period, 48 UUSs were found in 10,248 cases, and the overall incidence was 0.47%. There was no statistical difference (P=0.449) regarding the incidence (0.50% vs 0.33%) between 42 UUSs in 8,456 cases undergoing laparotomy and six UUSs in 1,792 cases undergoing laparoscopy. Most of the UUSs were stage I (89.58%), which occurred more commonly (56.25%) in women aged 40-49. Abnormal uterine bleeding (39.58%) was the main clinical manifestation. Rapidly growing pelvic masses (12.5%), rich blood flow signals (18.75%), and degeneration of uterine fibroids (18.75%) prompted by ultrasonography may suggest the possibility of UUSs. The margins of most UUSs (93.75%) were regular, which may cause UUSs to be misdiagnosed as uterine fibroids. Fifteen cases underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Approximately 73.33% showed heterogeneous and hypointense signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and 80% showed intermediate-to-high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with necrosis and hemorrhage in 40% of cases. After contrast administration, 80% presented early heterogeneous enhancement. The incidence of UUSs after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids was low, and their clinical characteristics are atypical. It is necessary and very critical to make a complete and cautious preoperative evaluation to reduce the

  18. High intensity focused ultrasound ablation for submucosal fibroids: A comparison between type I and type II.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin; Zhang, Cai; Xiong, Chunyan; He, Jia; Huang, Guohua; Zhang, Lian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment for type I and type II submucosal fibroids. From October 2011 to October 2013, 55 patients with submucosal fibroids were enrolled in this study. Based on submucosal fibroid classification, 27 patients were grouped as type I submucosal fibroids, and 28 patients were classified as type II submucosal fibroids. All patients received HIFU treatment and completed 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Adverse effects were recorded. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the two groups (p > 0.05). Using similar sonication power, sonication time, and acoustic energy, the non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio was 83.0 ± 17.3% in the type I group, and 92.0 ± 9.5% in the type II group. All the patients tolerated the procedure well, and no serious adverse events occurred. During the follow-up intervals, the treated fibroids shrank and fibroid-related symptoms were relieved. No other reinterventional procedures were performed during the follow-up period. Based on our results with a small number of subjects, HIFU is suitable for both type I and type II submucosal fibroids. It seems that type II submucosal fibroids are more sensitive to HIFU ablation. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up times to investigate the long-term results, including long-term symptom relief, pregnancy outcomes, and the recurrence rate as well as the reintervention rate are needed.

  19. Progesterone and progesterone receptor modulators in the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Talaulikar, Vikram Sinai; Manyonda, Isaac

    2012-12-01

    The majority of symptomatic uterine fibroids are currently treated by surgical interventions (myomectomy or hysterectomy) or radiological treatments (uterine artery embolisation or focussed ultrasound surgery). None of these treatments is a panacea, and what is conspicuous is the lack of an effective long-term medical therapy for a disorder so common among women of reproductive age. It has been known for some time that progesterone and its receptors enhance proliferative activity in fibroids and this has raised the possibility that anti-progestins and (PRMs) could be useful in the medical management of fibroids. Some of the compounds which have produced promising results in recent clinical trials or research studies include mifepristone, CDB-4124 (telapristone), CP-8947, J-867 (asoprisnil) and CDB-2914 (ulipristal acetate or UA). UA has recently completed Phase III clinical trials with very encouraging results, and has now acquired a licence for clinical use in Europe. While considerable research has yet to be done on the long-term safety and efficacy of UA there is nevertheless good reason for optimism on the emergence of effective medical therapy in the form of UA and possibly other PRMs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New uterine-preserving therapies raise questions about interdisciplinary management and the role of surgery for symptomatic fibroids.

    PubMed

    Pron, Gaylene

    2006-01-01

    Mounting evidence to support the safety and effectiveness of new uterine-preserving fibroid therapies is raising questions not only about changing indications for surgery but also about gynecologists' role in therapies offered by other specialists. New collaborative relationships are needed to provide the best possible treatment; without them, those lag times of 10-15 years often cited as the time it takes for advances in clinical research to diffuse into clinical practice will be even longer for women with symptomatic fibroids.

  1. Assessing the Reliability and Quality of Online Uterine Fibroid Embolization Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kaicker, Jatin; Wu Ke; Athreya, Sriharsha, E-mail: sathreya@stjoes.ca

    This study was designed to examine the best internet resources about uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) pertinent to medical trainees, radiologists, gynecologists, family physicians, and patients. The terms 'uterine fibroid embolization,' 'uterine fibroid embolization,' and 'uterine artery embolization' were entered into Google, Yahoo, and Bing search engines; the top 20 hits were assessed. The hits were categorized as organizational or nonorganizational. Additionally, 23 radiological and obstetrical organizations were assessed. The DISCERN instrument and Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks (authorship, attribution, currency, disclosure) were used to assess the information critically. The scope, strength, weaknesses, and unique features were highlightedmore » for the top five organizational and nonorganizational websites. A total of 203 websites were reviewed; 23 were removed in accordance with the exclusion criteria and 146 were duplicate websites, for a total of 34 unique sites. It was found that 35 % (12/34 websites) were organizational (family medicine, radiology, obstetrics/gynecology) and 65 % (22/34 websites) were nonorganizational (teaching or patient resources). The overall mean DISCERN score was 49.6 (10.7). Two-tailed, unpaired t test demonstrated no statistically significant difference between organizational and nonorganizational websites (p = 0.101). JAMA benchmarks revealed 44 % (15/34 websites) with authorship, 71 % (24/34 websites) with attribution, 68 % (23/34 websites) with disclosure, and 47 % (16/34 websites) with currency. The overall quality of websites for UFE is moderate, with important but not serious shortcomings. The best websites provided relevant information about the procedure, benefits/risks, and were interactive. DISCERN scores were compromised by sites failing to provide resources for shared decision-making, additional support, and discussing consequence of no treatment. JAMA benchmarks revealed lack of

  2. MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery for Uterine Fibroid Treatment: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Chung Y.; Omer, Zehra B.; Pandharipande, Pari V.; Swan, J. Shannon; Srouji, Serene; Gazelle, G. Scott; Fennessy, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment strategy for symptomatic uterine fibroids that employs Magnetic Resonance guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) as a first-line therapy relative to uterine artery embolization (UAE) or abdominal hysterectomy (HYST). Materials and Methods We developed a decision-analytic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of three treatment strategies: MRgFUS, UAE and HYST. Short and long-term utilities specific to each treatment were incorporated, allowing us to account for differences in quality of life across the strategies considered. Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated for each strategy. An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed, using a societal willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000 per QALY to designate a strategy as cost-effective. Sensitivity analysis was performed on all key model parameters. Results In the base-case analysis, in which treatment for symptomatic fibroids started at age 40, UAE was the most effective and expensive strategy (22.81 QALYs, $22,164), followed by MRgFUS (22.80 QALYs, $19,796) and HYST (22.60 QALYs, $13,291). MRgFUS was cost-effective relative to HYST, with an associated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $33,110/QALY. MRgFUS was also cost-effective relative to UAE – the ICER of UAE relative to MRgFUS ($270,057) far exceeded the WTP threshold of $50,000/QALY. In sensitivity analysis, results were robust to changes in most parameters, but were sensitive to changes in probabilities of recurrence and symptom relief following certain procedures, and quality of life associated with symptomatic fibroids. Conclusions MRgFUS is cost-effective relative to both UAE and hysterectomy for the treatment of women with symptomatic fibroids. PMID:25055272

  3. Automatic segmentation for detecting uterine fibroid regions treated with MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU).

    PubMed

    Antila, Kari; Nieminen, Heikki J; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Ehnholm, Gösta

    2014-07-01

    Up to 25% of women suffer from uterine fibroids (UF) that cause infertility, pain, and discomfort. MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an emerging technique for noninvasive, computer-guided thermal ablation of UFs. The volume of induced necrosis is a predictor of the success of the treatment. However, accurate volume assessment by hand can be time consuming, and quick tools produce biased results. Therefore, fast and reliable tools are required in order to estimate the technical treatment outcome during the therapy event so as to predict symptom relief. A novel technique has been developed for the segmentation and volume assessment of the treated region. Conventional algorithms typically require user interaction ora priori knowledge of the target. The developed algorithm exploits the treatment plan, the coordinates of the intended ablation, for fully automatic segmentation with no user input. A good similarity to an expert-segmented manual reference was achieved (Dice similarity coefficient = 0.880 ± 0.074). The average automatic segmentation time was 1.6 ± 0.7 min per patient against an order of tens of minutes when done manually. The results suggest that the segmentation algorithm developed, requiring no user-input, provides a feasible and practical approach for the automatic evaluation of the boundary and volume of the HIFU-treated region.

  4. Impact of subserosal and intramural uterine fibroids that do not distort the endometrial cavity on the outcome of in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio Garcia; Abdelmassih, Vicente G; Diamond, Michael P; Dozortsev, Dimitri; Melo, Nilson R; Abdelmassih, Roger

    2004-03-01

    To further evaluate the effects of intramural and subserosal uterine fibroids on the outcome of IVF-ET, when there is no compression of the endometrial cavity. Retrospective, matched-control study from January 2000 to October 2001. Private IVF center. Two hundred forty-five women with subserosal and/or intramural fibroids that did not compress the uterine cavity (fibroid group) and 245 women with no evidence of fibroids anywhere in the uterus (control group). In vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles. The type of fibroid (intramural, subserosal), number, size (cm), and location of intramural leiomyomas (fundal, corpus) were recorded. Outcomes of IVF-ICSI cycles were compared between the two groups. There was no correlation between location and number of uterine fibroids and the outcomes of IVF-ICSI. Patients with subserosal or intramural fibroids <4 cm had IVF-ICSI outcomes (pregnancy, implantation, and abortion rates) similar to those of controls. Patients with intramural fibroids >4.0 cm had lower pregnancy rates than patients with intramural fibroids fibroids and controls. Premature delivery rates for singleton gestations were 10% vs. 8%, respectively, in all patients with fibroid and controls. Patients having subserosal or intramural leiomyomas of <4 cm not encroaching on the uterine cavity have IVF-ICSI outcomes comparable to those of patients without such leiomyomas. Therefore, they might not require myomectomy before being scheduled for assisted reproduction cycles. However, we recommend caution for patients with fibroids >4 cm and that such patients be submitted to treatment before they are enrolled in IVF-ICSI cycles. Whether or not women with fibroids > 4 cm would benefit from fibroid treatment remains to be determined.

  5. Epidemiology of Uterine Fibroids – From Menarche to Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K.

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (UL) have a substantial impact on women's health, but relatively few studies have identified opportunities for primary prevention of these neoplasms. Most established risk factors are not modifiable, including premenopausal age, African ancestry, age at menarche, and childbearing history. The main challenge in studying UL is that a large proportion of tumors are asymptomatic. Herein, we review the epidemiology of UL from published studies to date. We highlight the advantages of ultrasound screening studies and the ways in which their innovative methods have helped clarify the etiology of disease. We conclude with a discussion of promising new hypotheses. PMID:26744813

  6. Perioperative morbidity associated with abdominal myomectomy compared with total abdominal hysterectomy for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Pundir, J; Walawalkar, R; Seshadri, S; Khalaf, Y; El-Toukhy, T

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically review and summarise existing evidence related to the perioperative morbidity associated with abdominal myomectomy in comparison with abdominal hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. A review of MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out. The primary outcome was the major morbidity rate and secondary outcomes were uterine size, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion, operating time and duration of hospital stay. The results identified six observational studies including 1520 participants. All studies scored moderately on the N-OQA scale and were limited to a uterine size of up to 18 weeks. There was no significant difference in the rate of major morbidity (RR 0.94; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.81; p = 0.91) between the two operations. It was concluded that based on variable quality data from retrospective cohort studies, abdominal myomectomy and hysterectomy appear to have similar major morbidity rates for the uterine size up to 16-18 weeks. Well-designed trials with a standardised morbidity outcome and including uterine size greater than 18 weeks are required.

  7. Fertility after uterine artery embolization for symptomatic multiple fibroids with no other infertility factors.

    PubMed

    Torre, Antoine; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Kahn, Vanessa; Limot, Olivier; Bussierres, Laurence; Pelage, Jean Pierre

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the fertility of women eligible for surgical multiple myomectomy, but who carefully elected a fertility-sparing uterine artery embolization (UAE). Non-comparative open-label trial, on women ≤40 years, presenting with multiple symptomatic fibroids (at least 3, ≥3 cm), immediate pregnancy wish, and no associated infertility factor. Women had a bilateral limited UAE using tris-acryl gelatin microspheres ≥500 μm. Fertility, ovarian reserve, uterus and fibroid sizes, and quality of life questionnaires (UFS-QoL) were prospectively followed. Fifteen patients, aged 34.8 years (95%CI 32.2-37.5, median 36.0, q1-q3 29.4-39.5) were included from November 2008 to May 2012. During the year following UAE, 9 women actively attempting to conceive experienced 5 live-births (intention-to-treat fertility rate 33.3%, 95%CI 11.8%-61.6%). Markers of ovarian reserve remained stable. The symptoms score was reduced by 66% (95%CI 48%-85%) and the quality of life score was improved by 112% (95%CI 21%-204%). Uterine volume was reduced by 38% (95%CI 24%-52%). Women were followed for 43.1 months (95%CI 32.4-53.9), 10 live-births occurred in 8 patients, and 5 patients required secondary surgeries for fibroids. Women without associated infertility factors demonstrated an encouraging capacity to deliver after UAE. Further randomized controlled trials comparing UAE and myomectomy are warranted. • Women without infertility factors showed an encouraging delivery rate after UAE. • For women choosing UAE over abdominal myomectomy, childbearing may not be impaired. • Data are insufficient to definitively recommend UAE as comparable to myomectomy. • Further randomized trials comparing fertility after UAE or myomectomy are warranted.

  8. Progesterone Action in Endometrial Cancer, Endometriosis, Uterine Fibroids, and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. Julie; Kurita, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) mediates the actions of the ovarian steroid progesterone, which together with estradiol regulates gonadotropin secretion, prepares the endometrium for implantation, maintains pregnancy, and differentiates breast tissue. Separation of estrogen and progesterone actions in hormone-responsive tissues remains a challenge. Pathologies of the uterus and breast, including endometrial cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer, are highly associated with estrogen, considered to be the mitogenic factor. Emerging evidence supports distinct roles of progesterone and its influence on the pathogenesis of these diseases. Progesterone antagonizes estrogen-driven growth in the endometrium, and insufficient progesterone action strikingly increases the risk of endometrial cancer. In endometriosis, eutopic and ectopic tissues do not respond sufficiently to progesterone and are considered to be progesterone-resistant, which contributes to proliferation and survival. In uterine fibroids, progesterone promotes growth by increasing proliferation, cellular hypertrophy, and deposition of extracellular matrix. In normal mammary tissue and breast cancer, progesterone is pro-proliferative and carcinogenic. A key difference between these tissues that could explain the diverse effects of progesterone is the paracrine interactions of PR-expressing stroma and epithelium. Normal endometrium is a mucosa containing large quantities of distinct stromal cells with abundant PR, which influences epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation and protects against carcinogenic transformation. In contrast, the primary target cells of progesterone in the breast and fibroids are the mammary epithelial cells and the leiomyoma cells, which lack specifically organized stromal components with significant PR expression. This review provides a unifying perspective for the diverse effects of progesterone across human tissues and diseases. PMID:23303565

  9. Uterine fibroid treatment patterns in a population of insured women.

    PubMed

    Lee, David W; Gibson, Teresa B; Carls, Ginger S; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Wang, Shaohung; Stewart, Elizabeth A

    2009-02-01

    To profile women treated for uterine leiomyomas who are covered by commercial insurance from large, self-insured employers in the United States. Retrospective, observational study. Inpatient, outpatient, and prescription drug experience of women with employer-sponsored insurance in the United States. Data were obtained from the MarketScan insurance databases for 1999 through 2004 and weighted to represent the population of women with employer-sponsored health insurance in the United States. None. The proportion of women with clinically significant leiomyomas was determined in each year, based on inpatient and outpatient medical claims with diagnostic codes indicating leiomyoma. Patient characteristics, comorbidities, prescription drug treatments, and surgical interventions were profiled in 2004. Approximately 1% of women had clinically significant leiomyomas. Comorbid genital or menstrual conditions were common and much more prevalent for women with leiomyomas. Of women with leiomyomas, 18.4% received no surgical or prescription drug treatment, whereas 16.8% received only surgical treatment, 22.4% received only prescription drug treatment, and 42.4% received both. Hysterectomy was the most common surgical treatment. Generalizing from this sample, we estimate that 443,445 women with employer-sponsored insurance in the United States had clinically significant leiomyomas in 2004.

  10. Does nonylphenol promote the growth of uterine fibroids?

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Ren, Mu-Lan; Feng, Xu; Gao, Yong-Xing; Xu, Qian; Cai, Yun-Lang

    2014-07-01

    To study the effect and mechanism of action of nonylphenol (NP), an environmental oestrogen, on uterine leiomyoma (UL) cells. Primary culture and subculture of human UL cells, identified as smooth muscle cells by immunocytochemical staining with a monoclonal anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody, were performed. The viability of cells treated with various concentrations of NP for 24, 48 and 72h was determined by CCK-8 assay. mRNA expression of oestrogen receptor α (ERα), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression was detected using Western blot analysis for all groups. NP promoted the growth of UL cells and expression of ERα, IGF-1 and VEGF; this was positively correlated with the concentration and duration of NP treatment. NP promotes the growth of UL cells. The mechanism of action appears to be over-expression of IGF-1 and VEGF, up-regulated by ERα, resulting in the growth of UL cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence, symptoms and management of uterine fibroids: an international internet-based survey of 21,746 women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2009 the Uterine Bleeding and Pain Women's Research Study (UBP-WRS) was conducted interviewing 21,479 women across 8 countries in order to gain patient-based prevalence data on uterine pain and bleeding indications and investigate uterine symptoms and women's treatment experiences. This article shows relevant results of the study for the indication uterine fibroids providing data on self-reported prevalence, symptomatology and management of uterine fibroids. Methods 2,500 women (USA: 4,500 women) in each country (Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, South Korea, the UK, the USA) completed an online survey. Women included were in their reproductive age (age group 15-49 years; USA: 18-49 years) and had ever experienced menstrual bleedings. Quotas were applied for age, region, level of education and household income of respondents. Variables have been analyzed descriptively and exploratory statistical tests have been performed. Results The self-reported prevalence of uterine fibroids ranged from 4.5% (UK) to 9.8% (Italy), reaching 9.4% (UK) to 17.8% (Italy) in the age group of 40-49 years. Women with a diagnosis of uterine fibroids reported significantly more often about bleeding symptoms than women without a diagnosis: heavy bleedings (59.8% vs. 37.4%), prolonged bleedings (37.3% vs. 15.6%), bleeding between periods (33.3% vs. 13.5%), frequent periods (28.4% vs. 15.2%), irregular and predictable periods (36.3% vs. 23.9%). Furthermore women with diagnosed uterine fibroids reported significantly more often about the following pain symptoms: pressure on the bladder (32.6% vs. 15.0%), chronic pelvic pain (14.5% vs. 2.9%), painful sexual intercourse (23.5% vs. 9.1%) and pain occurring mid-cycle, after and during menstrual bleeding (31.3%, 16.7%, 59.7%, vs. 17.1%, 6.4%, 52.0%). 53.7% of women reported that their symptoms had a negative impact on their life in the last 12 month, influencing their sexual life (42.9%), performance at work (27.7%) and

  12. Annular phased-array high-intensity focused ultrasound device for image-guided therapy of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Held, Robert Thomas; Zderic, Vesna; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Vaezy, Shahram

    2006-02-01

    An ultrasound (US), image-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device was developed for noninvasive ablation of uterine fibroids. The HIFU device was an annular phased array, with a focal depth range of 30-60 mm, a natural focus of 50 mm, and a resonant frequency of 3 MHz. The in-house control software was developed to operate the HIFU electronics drive system for inducing tissue coagulation at different distances from the array. A novel imaging algorithm was developed to minimize the HIFU-induced noise in the US images. The device was able to produce lesions in bovine serum albumin-embedded polyacrylamide gels and excised pig liver. The lesions could be seen on the US images as hyperechoic regions. Depths ranging from 30 to 60 mm were sonicated at acoustic intensities of 4100 and 6100 W/cm2 for 15 s each, with the latter producing average lesion volumes at least 63% larger than the former. Tissue sonication patterns that began distal to the transducer produced longer lesions than those that began proximally. The variation in lesion dimensions indicates the possible development of HIFU protocols that increase HIFU throughput and shorten tumor treatment times.

  13. Infarction of Uterine Fibroids After Embolization: Relationship Between Postprocedural Enhanced MRI Findings and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumori, Tetsuya, E-mail: katsumo@eurus.dti.ne.jp; Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Kin, Yoko

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between the degree of infarction of uterine fibroids on enhanced MRI after embolization and long-term clinical outcomes. Methods. During 92 months, 290 consecutive patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated with embolization; 221 who underwent enhanced MRI before embolization and 1 week after embolization were included in this study. The infarction rates of all fibroid tissue were assessed using enhanced MRI after embolization. Patients were divided into three groups according to the infarction rates: group A (100% infarction, n 142), group B (90-99% infarction, n = 74), group C (<90% infarction, n = 5).more » The cumulative rates of clinical outcomes were compared among groups using the Kaplan-Meier limited method. Results. Group A had a significantly higher rate of symptom control than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of symptom control at 5 years were 93%, 71%, and 60% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Group A had a significantly lower rate of gynecologic intervention after embolization than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of additional gynecologic intervention at 5 years were 3%, 15%, and 20% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusions. The degree of infarction of uterine fibroids after embolization on enhanced MRI was related to long-term clinical outcomes. Complete infarction of all fibroid tissue can induce a higher rate of symptom control, with a lower rate of additional gynecologic intervention in the long term compared with incomplete infarction of fibroid tissue.« less

  14. A prospective controlled study of the effect of intramural uterine fibroids on the outcome of assisted conception.

    PubMed

    Hart, R; Khalaf, Y; Yeong, C T; Seed, P; Taylor, A; Braude, P

    2001-11-01

    Although uterine fibroids occur in 30% of women and are associated with a degree of subfertility, the effect of intramural fibroids on the outcome of IVF or ICSI treatment has not been prospectively studied. Data were prospectively collected on 434 women undergoing IVF/ICSI in the assisted conception unit of an inner London teaching hospital. Patients were assessed for the presence of fibroids by transvaginal ultrasound and hysterosonography or hysteroscopy where appropriate. During the study period, 112 women with (study), and 322 women without (controls), intramural fibroids were treated. Patients were similar regarding the cause and duration of their infertility, number of previous treatments, and basal serum FSH concentration. Women in the study group were on average 2 years older (36.4 versus 34.6 years; P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the duration of ovarian stimulation or gonadotrophin requirement, number of follicles developed, oocytes collected, embryos available for transfer or replaced. When analysing only women with intramural fibroids of < or =5 cm in size (n = 106) pregnancy, implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates were significantly reduced: 23.3, 11.9 and 15.1 respectively compared with 34.1, 20.2 and 28.3% in the control group (P = 0.016, P = 0.018 and P = 0.003). The mean size of the largest fibroids was 2.3 cm (90% range 2.1-2.5 cm). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of intramural fibroids was one of the significant variables affecting the chance of an ongoing pregnancy, even after controlling for the number of embryos available for replacement and increasing age, particularly age > or =40 years, odds ratio 0.46 (CI 0.24-0.88; P = 0.019). This study demonstrated that an intramural fibroid halves the chances of an ongoing pregnancy following assisted conception.

  15. Uterine Fibroid Symptom - Quality of Life questionnaire translation and validation into Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rita Oliveira da; Gomes, Mariano Tamura Vieira; Castro, Rodrigo de Aquino; Bonduki, Cláudio Emílio; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello

    2016-10-01

    Purpose  To translate into Portuguese, culturally adapt and validate the Uterine Fibroid Symptom - Quality of Life (UFS-QoL) questionnaire for Brazilian women with uterine leiomyoma. Methods  Initially, the UFS-QoL questionnaire was translated into Brazilian Portuguese in accordance with international standards, with subsequent cultural, structural, conceptual and semantic adaptations, so that patients were able to properly answer the questionnaire. Fifty patients with uterine leiomyoma and 19 patients without the disease, confirmed by abdominal pelvic examination and/or transvaginal ultrasound, were selected at the outpatient clinics of the Department of Gynecology of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). The UFS-QoL questionnaire was administered to all women twice on the same day, with two different interviewers, with an interval of 15 minutes between interviews. After 15 days, the questionnaire was re-administered by the first interviewer. Reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), construct and discriminative validity were tested to ratify the questionnaire. Results  The reliability of the instrument was assessed by Cronbach's α coefficient with an overall result of 0.97, indicating high reliability. The survey results showed a high correlation ( p  = 0.94; p  ≤ 0.001). Conclusion  The UFS-QoL questionnaire was successfully adapted to the Brazilian Portuguese language and Brazilian culture, showing reliability and validity. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  16. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Women's Experiences with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: a Qualitative Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sengoba, Katherine S; Ghant, Marissa S; Okeigwe, Ijeoma; Mendoza, Gricelda; Marsh, Erica E

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine racial/ethnic differences in treatment experiences and expectations among women with fibroids. Sixty women with symptomatic uterine fibroids completed semi-structured interviews, demographic surveys, and a health literacy assessment. Participants were recruited from community-based organizations and health care organizations. Data from interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Three coders identified major themes and subthemes. The kappa (κ) among coders was 0.94. The mean age of participants was 43.0 ± 6.8 (mean ± SD). A total of 61.7 % of subjects were African-American (AAW), 25.0 % were non-Hispanic White (WW), 8.3 % were Hispanic (HW), and 5.0 % were Asian (ASW). When considering treatment options, AAW were more likely to want a permanent intervention. They were also more likely to demonstrate an aversion toward conventional treatments. Of the women who received a surgical intervention, AAW were also more likely to have had a difficult recovery and to be dissatisfied with their treatment. Finally, AAW disproportionately expressed concern regarding financial challenges. AAW have high treatment expectations, have more financial obstacles, and are less satisfied with their treatment outcomes than women of other racial/ethnic groups. Our findings suggest a need to create targeted patient interventions and education to ameliorate these disparities in experience.

  17. The direct and indirect cost burden of clinically significant and symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Lee, David W; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Carls, Ginger Smith; Wang, Shaohung; Gibson, Teresa B; Stewart, Elizabeth A

    2007-05-01

    To estimate direct medical costs and indirect (productivity related) for women age 25 to 54 who had clinically significant and symptomatic uterine fibroids (UF). We compared direct medical expenditures among 30,659 women who had clinically significant and symptomatic UF to expenditures among an equal number of matched controls who did not. We also compared indirect costs for a sub-sample of 910 employed women in each group. Regression analyses controlled for demographic and casemix factors. Mean 12-month direct medical costs for women with UF were $11,720 versus $3257 for controls, and mean 12-month indirect costs for women with UF were $11,752 versus $8083 for controls. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.0001). UF is a costly disorder and merits thought as interventions are considered to improve women's health and productivity.

  18. Sexuality and Body Image After Uterine Artery Embolization and Hysterectomy in the Treatment of Uterine Fibroids: A Randomized Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K.; Volkers, Nicole A.; Bartholomeus, Wouter

    In this paper the effect of uterine artery embolization (UAE) on sexual functioning and body image is investigated in a randomized comparison to hysterectomy for symptomatic uterine fibroids. The EMbolization versus hysterectoMY (EMMY) trial is a randomized controlled study, conducted at 28 Dutch hospitals. Patients were allocated hysterectomy (n = 89) or UAE (n 88). Two validated questionnaires (the Sexual Activity Questionnaire [SAQ] and the Body Image Scale [BIS]) were completed by all patients at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measurements on SAQ scores revealed no differences between the groups. There wasmore » a trend toward improved sexual function in both groups at 2 years, although this failed to reach statistical significance except for the dimensions discomfort and habit in the UAE arm. Overall quality of sexual life deteriorated in a minority of cases at all time points, with no significant differences between the groups (at 24 months: UAE, 29.3%, versus hysterectomy, 23.5%; p = 0.32). At 24 months the BIS score had improved in both groups compared to baseline, but the change was only significant in the UAE group (p = 0.009). In conclusion, at 24 months no differences in sexuality and body image were observed between the UAE and the hysterectomy group. On average, both after UAE and hysterectomy sexual functioning and body image scores improved, but significantly so only after UAE.« less

  19. Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD News Videos OUTREACH Safe to Sleep® National Child & Maternal Health Education Program RELATED WEBSITES NIH.gov HHS.gov USA.gov ClinicalTrials.gov WEBSITE POLICIES Disclaimer FOIA Privacy Policy Accessibility NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  20. Beyond the physical: a qualitative assessment of the burden of symptomatic uterine fibroids on women's emotional and psychosocial health.

    PubMed

    Ghant, Marissa S; Sengoba, Katherine S; Recht, Hannah; Cameron, Kenzie A; Lawson, Angela K; Marsh, Erica E

    2015-05-01

    To qualitatively assess the burden of uterine fibroids on women's emotional health. Sixty women (n = 60) with symptomatic uterine fibroids were recruited from an urban academic medical center and community-based organizations. Women completed qualitative, semi-structured interviews and demographic surveys. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Using a grounded theory approach, three coders independently identified major themes and subthemes that emerged from the interviews. The kappa among coders was 0.94. The mean age of participants was 43.0 ± 6.8. 61.7% of participants self-identified as African-American, 25.0% as Caucasian, 8.3% as Hispanic and 5.0% as Asian. Most participants exhibited a significant emotional response to their fibroids, including fear, anxiety, anger, and depression. Half of the women felt helpless and believed that they had no control over their fibroids. Many women possessed a negative self-image and cited concern over appearing less attractive, which led to difficulties becoming intimate. Several women felt that they lacked substantial support to help them deal with these issues. In addition to the known high prevalence and severe physical impact of uterine fibroids, there is a significant psychological impact on women. Many women lack support to help them deal with these issues and very few seek help from a mental health professional. There is an opportunity and a need for the mental health community to address the concerns in this population, in order to improve psychological health and quality of life in patients living with this chronic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of dietary phytochemicals to target inflammation, fibrosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis in uterine tissues: promising options for prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids?

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Soriful; Akhtar, Most Mauluda; Ciavattini, Andrea; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Protic, Olga; Janjusevic, Milijana; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Segars, James H; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2014-08-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) are the most common benign tumors of female reproductive tract. They are highly prevalent, with 70-80% of women burdened by the end of their reproductive years. Fibroids are a leading cause of pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pressure on the bladder, miscarriage, and infertility. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy, and costs exceed 6 billion dollars annually in the United States. Unfortunately, no long-term medical treatments are available. Dysregulation of inflammatory processes are thought to be involved in the initiation of leiomyoma and extracellular matrix deposition, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis are the key cellular events implicated in leiomyoma growth. In modern pharmaceutical industries, dietary phytochemicals are used as source of new potential drugs for many kinds of tumors. Dietary phytochemicals may exert therapeutic effects by interfering with key cellular events of the tumorigenesis process. At present, a negligible number of phytochemicals have been tested as therapeutic agents against fibroids. In this context, our aim was to introduce some of the potential dietary phytochemicals that have shown anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiangiogenic activities in different biological systems. This review could be useful to stimulate the evaluation of these phytochemicals as possible therapies for uterine fibroids. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Use of dietary phytochemicals to target inflammation, fibrosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis in uterine tissues: Promising options for prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids?

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Soriful; Akhtar, Most Mauluda; Ciavattini, Andrea; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Protic, Olga; Janjusevic, Milijana; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Segars, James H.; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) are the most common benign tumors of female reproductive tract. They are highly prevalent, with 70–80% of women burdened by the end of their reproductive years. Fibroids are a leading cause of pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pressure on the bladder, miscarriage, and infertility. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy, and costs exceed 6 billion dollars annually in the United States. Unfortunately, no long-term medical treatments are available. Dysregulation of inflammatory processes are thought to be involved in the initiation of leiomyoma and extracellular matrix deposition, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis are the key cellular events implicated in leiomyoma growth. In modern pharmaceutical industries, dietary phytochemicals are used as source of new potential drugs for many kinds of tumors. Dietary phytochemicals may exert therapeutic effects by interfering with key cellular events of the tumorigenesis process. At present, a negligible number of phytochemicals have been tested as therapeutic agents against fibroids. In this context, our aim was to introduce some of the potential dietary phytochemicals that have shown anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiangiogenic activities in different biological systems. This review could be useful to stimulate the evaluation of these phytochemicals as possible therapies for uterine fibroids. PMID:24976593

  3. Expression Profiling of Nuclear Receptors Identifies Key Roles of NR4A Subfamily in Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hanwei; Lo, Jay H.; Kim, Ji-Young; Marsh, Erica E.; Kim, J. Julie; Ghosh, Asish K.; Bulun, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs), also known as uterine leiomyomas, are benign, fibrotic smooth muscle tumors. Although the GnRH analog leuprolide acetate that suppresses gonadal steroid hormones is used as a treatment, it has significant side effects, thereby limiting its use. Availability of more effective therapy is limited because of a lack of understanding of molecular underpinnings of the disease. Although ovarian steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone and their receptors are clearly involved, the role of other nuclear receptors (NRs) in UFs is not well defined. We used quantitative real-time PCR to systematically profile the expression of 48 NRs and identified several NRs that were aberrantly expressed in UFs. Among others, expression of NR4A subfamily members including NGFIB (NR4A1), NURR1 (NR4A2), and NOR1 (NR4A3) were dramatically suppressed in leiomyoma compared with the matched myometrium. Restoration of expression of each of these NR4A members in the primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells decreased cell proliferation. Importantly, NR4As regulate expressions of the profibrotic factors including TGFβ3 and SMAD3, and several collagens that are key components of the extracellular matrix. Finally, we identify NR4A members as targets of leuprolide acetate treatment. Together, our results implicate several NRs including the NR4A subfamily in leiomyoma etiology and identify NR4As as potential therapeutic targets for treating fibrotic diseases. PMID:23550059

  4. Complications of Uterine Fibroids and Their Management, Surgical Management of Fibroids, Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy versus Hysterectomy, Haemorrhage, Adhesions, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Mettler, Liselotte; Schollmeyer, Thoralf; Tinelli, Andrea; Malvasi, Antonio; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A critical analysis of the surgical treatment of fibroids compares all available techniques of myomectomy. Different statistical analyses reveal the advantages of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic approach. Complications can arise from the location of the fibroids. They range from intermittent bleedings to continuous bleedings over several weeks, from single pain episodes to severe pain, from dysuria and constipation to chronic bladder and bowel spasms. Very seldom does peritonitis occur. Infertility may result from continuous metro and menorrhagia. The difficulty of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic myomectomy lies in achieving satisfactory haemostasis using the appropriate sutures. The hysteroscopic myomectomy requires an operative hysteroscope and a well-experienced gynaecologic surgeon. PMID:22619681

  5. Clinical Long-Term Outcome and Reinterventional Rate After Uterine Fibroid Embolization with Nonspherical Versus Spherical Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Duvnjak, Stevo, E-mail: stevo.duvnjak@rsyd.dk; Ravn, Pernille; Green, Anders

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome and frequency of reinterventions in patients with uterine fibroids treated with embolization at a single center using polyvinyl alcohol microparticles.MethodsThe study included all patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids treated with uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with spherical (s-PVA) and nonspherical (ns-PVA) polyvinyl alcohol microparticles during the period January 2001 to January 2011. Clinical success and secondary interventions were examined. Hospital records were reviewed during follow-up, and symptom-specific questionnaires were sent to all patients.ResultsIn total, 515 patients were treated with UFE and 350 patients (67 %) were available for long-term clinical follow-up. Medianmore » time of follow-up was 93 (range 76–120.2) months. Eighty-five patients (72 %) had no reinterventions during follow-up in the group embolized with ns-PVA compared with 134 patients (58 %) treated with s-PVA. Thirty-three patients (28 %) underwent secondary interventions in the ns-PVA group compared with 98 patients (42 %) in s-PVA group (χ{sup 2} test, p < 0.01).ConclusionsSpherical PVA particles 500–700 µm showed high reintervention rate at long-term follow-up, and almost one quarter of the patients underwent secondary interventions, suggesting that this type of particle is inappropriate for UFE.« less

  6. Cost comparison between uterine-sparing fibroid treatments one year following treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare one-year all-cause and uterine fibroid (UF)-related direct costs in patients treated with one of the following three uterine-sparing procedures: magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), uterine artery embolization (UAE) and myomectomy. Methods This retrospective observational cohort study used healthcare claims for several million individuals with healthcare coverage from employers in the MarketScan Database for the period 2003–2010. UF patients aged 25–54 on their first UF procedure (index) date with 366-day baseline experience, 366-day follow-up period, continuous health plan enrollment during baseline and follow-up, and absence of any baseline UF procedures were included in the final sample. Cost outcomes were measured by allowed charges (sum of insurer-paid and patient-paid amounts). UF-related cost was defined as difference in mean cost between study cohorts and propensity-score-matched control cohorts without UF. Multivariate adjustment of cost outcomes was conducted using generalized linear models. Results The study sample comprised 14,426 patients (MRgFUS = 14; UAE = 4,092; myomectomy = 10,320) with a higher percent of older patients in MRgFUS cohort (71% vs. 50% vs. 12% in age-group 45–54, P < 0.001). Adjusted all-cause mean cost was lowest for MRgFUS ($19,763; 95% CI: $10,425-$38,694) followed by myomectomy ($20,407; 95% CI: $19,483-$21,381) and UAE ($25,019; 95% CI: $23,738-$26,376) but without statistical significance. Adjusted UF-related costs were also not significantly different between the three procedures. Conclusions Adjusted all-cause and UF-related costs at one year were not significantly different between patients undergoing MRgFUS, myomectomy and UAE. PMID:25512868

  7. Cost-effectiveness of uterine-preserving procedures for the treatment of uterine fibroid symptoms in the USA.

    PubMed

    Cain-Nielsen, Anne H; Moriarty, James P; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Borah, Bijan J

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the following three treatments of uterine fibroids in a population of premenopausal women who wish to preserve their uteri: myomectomy, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) and uterine artery embolization (UAE). A decision analytic Markov model was constructed. Cost-effectiveness was calculated in terms of US$ per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) over 5 years. Two types of costs were calculated: direct costs only, and the sum of direct and indirect (productivity) costs. Women in the hypothetical cohort were assessed for treatment type eligibility, were treated based on eligibility, and experienced adequate or inadequate symptom relief. Additional treatment (myomectomy) occurred for inadequate symptom relief or recurrence. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate uncertainty in the model parameters.  In the base case, myomectomy, MRgFUS and UAE had the following combinations of mean cost and mean QALYs, respectively: US$15,459, 3.957; US$15,274, 3.953; and US$18,653, 3.943. When incorporating productivity costs, MRgFUS incurred a mean cost of US$21,232; myomectomy US$22,599; and UAE US$22,819. Using probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and excluding productivity costs, myomectomy was cost effective at almost every decision threshold. Using PSA and incorporating productivity costs, myomectomy was cost effective at decision thresholds above US$105,000/QALY; MRgFUS was cost effective between US$30,000 and US$105,000/QALY; and UAE was cost effective below US$30,000/QALY. Myomectomy, MRgFUS, and UAE were similarly effective in terms of QALYs gained. Depending on assumptions about costs and willingness to pay for additional QALYs, all three treatments can be deemed cost effective in a 5-year time frame.

  8. Epidural Analgesia Versus Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Pain Relief in Uterine Artery Embolization for Uterine Fibroids: A Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kooij, Sanne M. van der, E-mail: s.m.vanderkooij@amc.uva.nl; Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Ankum, Willem M.

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the costs and effects of epidural analgesia (EDA) to those of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) for postintervention pain relief in women having uterine artery embolization (UAE) for systematic uterine fibroids. Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) based on data from the literature by constructing a decision tree to model the clinical pathways for estimating the effects and costs of treatment with EDA and PCA. Literature on EDA for pain-relief after UAE was missing, and therefore, data on EDA for abdominal surgery were used. Outcome measures were compared costs to reduce one point in visual analoguemore » score (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain 6 and 24 h after UAE and risk for complications. Results: Six hours after the intervention, the VAS was 3.56 when using PCA and 2.0 when using EDA. The costs for pain relief in women undergoing UAE with PCA and EDA were Euro-Sign 191 and Euro-Sign 355, respectively. The costs for EDA to reduce the VAS score 6 h after the intervention with one point compared with PCA were Euro-Sign 105 and Euro-Sign 179 after 24 h. The risk of having a complication was 2.45 times higher when using EDA. Conclusions: The results of this indirect comparison of EDA for abdominal surgery with PCA for UAE show that EDA would provide superior analgesia for post UAE pain at 6 and 24 h but with higher costs and an increased risk of complications.« less

  9. Abnormal excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding on Esmya–selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) in a symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid

    PubMed Central

    Matytsina-Quinlan, Lyubov; Matytsina, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A woman in her late 40s presented with excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding and uterine fibroid. She reported excessive PV bleeding after starting Esmya; she was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department with profuse bleeding. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) developed after selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) administration in this symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid. The drug was withheld and surgical treatment considered. Progressive deterioration of PV bleeding after receiving SPRM led to an urgent laparoscopic total hysterectomy, which had to be postponed due to severe anaemia. Surgery took place regardless because the excessive bleeding continued. Histology revealed a 6 cm submucosal uterine fibroid (SMUF) and adenomyosis. Physicians prescribing SPRMs to stop PV bleeding should be aware of potential AUB, which could lead to urgent hysterectomy. The mechanism of action of SPRMs is not clearly understood. Awareness of the side effects of Esmya, such as AUB, must be kept in mind when administering SPRMs. PMID:25976198

  10. Abnormal excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding on Esmya-selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) in a symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid.

    PubMed

    Matytsina-Quinlan, Lyubov; Matytsina, Laura

    2015-05-14

    A woman in her late 40s presented with excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding and uterine fibroid. She reported excessive PV bleeding after starting Esmya; she was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department with profuse bleeding. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) developed after selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) administration in this symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid. The drug was withheld and surgical treatment considered. Progressive deterioration of PV bleeding after receiving SPRM led to an urgent laparoscopic total hysterectomy, which had to be postponed due to severe anaemia. Surgery took place regardless because the excessive bleeding continued. Histology revealed a 6 cm submucosal uterine fibroid (SMUF) and adenomyosis. Physicians prescribing SPRMs to stop PV bleeding should be aware of potential AUB, which could lead to urgent hysterectomy. The mechanism of action of SPRMs is not clearly understood. Awareness of the side effects of Esmya, such as AUB, must be kept in mind when administering SPRMs. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. A randomized prospective trial of the postoperative quality of life between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids: clinical trial design

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jae Weon; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Lee, Taek Sang; Jeon, Yong-Tark; Kim, Yong Beom; Jeon, Hye Won; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2009-01-01

    Background Laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy is one of the definite methods for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids with lesser intraoperative bleeding and shorter hospitalization compared with abdominal hysterectomy. However, laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy cannot preserve uterus and can show postoperative complications by the change of pelvic structure. Thus, laparoscopic uterine artery ligation has been introduced for relieving the symptoms caused by uterine fibroids in place of hysterectomy. The current study was designed to compare postoperative quality of life between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, and to evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic uterine artery ligation which can treat symptomatic uterine fibroids with the preservation of uterus. Methods and design Patients enrolled the current study are randomized to laparoscopic uterine artery ligation or laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. The primary outcome is to compare postoperative quality of life between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer patients version 3.0. Secondary outcomes are to evaluate the volume reduction of uterus, uterine fibroids and ovaries by the 2 treatments, to compare the improvement of subjective symptoms using 11-point symptom score and postoperative clinical outcomes between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, and to investigate the improvement of postoperative vaginal bleeding by laparoscopic uterine artery ligation. Discussion Among treatment methods for symptomatic uterine fibroids with the preservation of uterus, laparoscopic uterine artery ligation is expected to have the efficacy like uterine artery embolization, which appeared to be safe for routine use with symptomatic relief. The

  12. Growth factors and myometrium: biological effects in uterine fibroid and possible clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Ciarmela, Pasquapina; Islam, Md. Soriful; Reis, Fernando M.; Gray, Peter C.; Bloise, Enrrico; Petraglia, Felice; Vale, Wylie; Castellucci, Mario

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Growth factors are proteins secreted by a number of cell types that are capable of modulating cellular growth, proliferation and cellular differentiation. It is well accepted that uterine cellular events such as proliferation and differentiation are regulated by sex steroids and their actions in target tissues are mediated by local production of growth factors acting through paracrine and/or autocrine mechanisms. Myometrial mass is ultimately modified in pregnancy as well as in tumour conditions such as leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. Leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, are benign tumours of the uterus, considered to be one of the most frequent causes of infertility in reproductive years in women. METHODS For this review, we searched the database MEDLINE and Google Scholar for articles with content related to growth factors acting on myometrium; the findings are hereby reviewed and discussed. RESULTS Different growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and TGF-β perform actions in myometrium and in leiomyomas. In addition to these growth factors, activin and myostatin have been recently identified in myometrium and leiomyoma. CONCLUSIONS Growth factors play an important role in the mechanisms involved in myometrial patho-physiology. PMID:21788281

  13. Real world data of 1473 patients treated with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids: Premya study results.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Hervé; Schmidt, Torsten; Powell, Martin; Costa, Ana Patrícia Freitas; Arriagada, Pablo; Thaler, Christian

    2017-01-01

    To characterize and describe treatment with Ulipristal acetate (UPA) in a pre-operative setting and to evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) outcomes in a population treated according to standard clinical practice in the EU. Multi-centre, prospective, non-interventional study (PREMYA) of patients diagnosed with moderate to severe symptoms of uterine fibroids and undergoing a pre-operative treatment with UPA (Esmya ® ) at 73 clinical practice sites within the EU. Patients were followed during UPA treatment and for 12 months after treatment discontinuation for a total of 15 months follow-up. Data was collected every 3 months in accordance with standard care visits. A total of 1568 women were enrolled, of whom 1473 were found to be eligible for data analysis. Only 38.8% of patients underwent surgery, of which the majority were of a conservative/minimally invasive nature. Physicians' assessments of patients' overall symptomatic change, as measured on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale, indicated that 60% of patients were much improved or very much improved at 3 months. Pain and quality of life after treatment cessation remain lower than baseline during the entire period of follow-up CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients do not undergo surgery immediately after treatment cessation. Quality of life and pain are highly improved by Esmya ® treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Uterine Fibroid Embolisation – Potential Impact on Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Kröncke, T.

    2013-01-01

    The current standard therapy to treat myomas in women wishing to have children consists of minimally invasive surgical myomectomy. Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) has also been discussed as another minimally invasive treatment option to treat myomas. This review evaluates the literature of the past 10 years on fibroid embolisation and its impact on fertility and pregnancy. Potential problems associated with UAE such as radiation exposure of the ovaries, impairment of ovarian function and the impact on pregnancy and child birth are discussed in detail. Previously published reports of at least 337 pregnancies after UAE were evaluated. The review concludes that UAE to treat myomas can only be recommended in women with fertility problems due to myomas who refuse surgery or women with an unacceptably high surgical risk, because the evaluated case reports and studies show that UAE significantly increases the risk of spontaneous abortion; there is also evidence of pathologically increased levels for other obstetric outcome parameters. There are still very few prospective studies which provide sufficient evidence for a definitive statement on the impact of UAE therapy on fertility rates and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26633901

  15. A single institution's 1-year experience with uterine fibroid embolization marketing.

    PubMed

    Ciacci, Joseph; Taussig, Jacob; Kouri, Brian; Bettmann, Michael

    2011-09-01

    To assess the impact of various marketing techniques on the referral pattern for uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) at an academic interventional radiology practice over a 1-year period. All referrals to the interventional radiology clinic for UFE from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. A standard intake sheet was completed by the interventional clinic secretary at the time of initial patient contact that included the source of the referral (radio, television, newspaper, mailing, Internet, physician, friend, other). All patients who proceeded to consultation were seen in the interventional radiology clinic by attending interventional radiologists in a university-based academic center. The referral pattern was analyzed with respect to the number of patients who contacted the clinic, the number of actual clinic visits, the number of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations performed before and after the procedure, the total number of embolization cases performed, and the subsequent downstream revenue. During the 1-year period, 344 patients contacted the interventional radiology clinic regarding UFE resulting in 171 consultations and 100 pelvic MR imaging examinations performed before the procedure. Sixty-two patients proceeded to UFE, and 32 patients underwent follow-up pelvic MR imaging. These results show a significant increase from eight cases the previous year and are presumably attributable almost entirely to the directed marketing campaign. The marketing initiative consisted primarily of print and radio advertisements, with the latter being the most effective. The total advertising cost for the year was approximately $24,706, of which $20,520 was for radio advertisements. The radio advertisements generated 69% (237 of 344) of the referrals and 69% (43 of 62) of the UFE procedures. Using Medicare reimbursement rates, the radio advertisements generated $281,994 in UFE technical fees and $50,329 in MR imaging technical fees

  16. Vaginal Pessary for Uterine Repositioning During High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Pulanic, Tajana Klepac; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Segars, James; Sokka, Sham; Wood, Bradford J.; Stratton, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    In order to ensure safe magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine leiomyomas, ultrasound beam path should be free of intervening scar and bowel. Pre-treatment magnetic resonance imaging of a 9cm long and 7.7cm wide leiomyomatous uterus in a 39-year-old woman with menorrhagia and abdominopelvic pain initially demonstrated a focused ultrasound treatment path without bowel between the uterus and abdominal wall. On the day of ablation, however, multiple loops of bowel were observed in the ultrasound beam path by magnetic resonance imaging. Uterine repositioning was accomplished with a 76 mm donut vaginal pessary which anteverted the fundus and successfully displaced bowel. A vaginal pessary may aid in repositioning an axial or retroverted uterus to enable ablation of uterine leiomyomas. PMID:26584482

  17. Vaginal Pessary for Uterine Repositioning during High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Klepac Pulanic, Tajana; Venkatesan, Aradhana M; Segars, James; Sokka, Sham; Wood, Bradford J; Stratton, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure safe magnetic resonance-guided, high-intensity focused, ultrasound ablation of uterine leiomyomas, the ultrasound beam path should be free of intervening scar and bowel. Pre-treatment MRI of a 9-cm long and 7.7-cm wide leiomyomatous uterus in a 39-year-old woman with menorrhagia and abdominopelvic pain initially demonstrated a focused ultrasound treatment path without a bowel between the uterus and the abdominal wall. On the day of ablation, however, multiple loops of bowel were observed in the ultrasound beam path by MRI. Uterine repositioning was accomplished with a 76-mm donut vaginal pessary, which anteverted the fundus and successfully displaced the bowel. A vaginal pessary may aid in repositioning an axial or retroverted uterus to enable ablation of uterine leiomyomas. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Repeated intermittent ulipristal acetate in the treatment of uterine fibroids: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Geale, Kirk; Saridogan, Ertan; Lehmann, Matthieu; Arriagada, Pablo; Hultberg, Marcus; Henriksson, Martin

    2017-01-01

    There are limited treatment options available for women with moderate to severe symptoms of uterine fibroids (UFs) who wish to avoid surgery. For these women, treatment with standard pharmaceuticals such as contraceptives is often insufficient to relieve symptoms, and patients may require surgery despite their wish to avoid it. Clinical trials demonstrate that ulipristal acetate 5 mg (UPA) is an effective treatment for this patient group, but its cost-effectiveness has not been assessed in this population. A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate a cohort of patients in this population under treatment with UPA followed by surgery as needed compared to treatment with iron and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) followed by surgery as needed (best supportive care, BSC). The analysis took the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England, UK, and was based on the published UPA clinical trials. Results were calculated for the long-term costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each treatment arm and combined into an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as the primary outcome. The impact of parameter uncertainty on the results was assessed using scenario, deterministic, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The results show that treating patients with the UPA strategy, instead of the BSC strategy, results in an additional cost of £1,115 and a gain of 0.087 QALYs, resulting in an ICER of £12,850. Given commonly accepted cost-effectiveness thresholds in England, the use of UPA as a repeated, intermittent treatment for women with moderate to severe symptoms of UF wishing to avoid surgery is likely to be a cost-effective intervention when compared to BSC.

  19. [Epidemiological data for uterine fibroids in France in 2010-2012 in medical center--analysis from the French DRG-based information system (PMSI)].

    PubMed

    Fernandez, H; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Koskas, M; Nazac, A

    2014-10-01

    Uterine fibroids are a common disorder, responsible for menorrhagia/metrorrhagia and pelvic pain and remain the leading reason for hysterectomy in France. Although it is common disorder, French epidemiological data are locking. The objective of this study was to realize an epidemiological analysis from the medicalized information system program (PMSI). The diagnosis codes were selected from 10th version of the International Classification Disease. The medical procedures concerning uterine fibroids were selected (so called: procedures listed). A descriptive analysis was performed from hospitals stays, patients' characteristics and medical procedures (mean, standard distribution, median, range, quartile). In 2012, 46,126 patients (median age: 46 years old) were admitted in hospital (public or private hospitals) due to uterine fibroid corresponding to 47,690 hospital stays (hospital stays for surgery: 32,397). Diagnosis of anemia was reported in approximately 8% of patients and 7.1% of patients hospitalized in 2012 had already been hospitalized between 2004-2012. The median length of hospital stay was 4 days. In 2012, 16,070 hospital stays were reported for total or subtotal hysterectomy, 16,384 hospitals stays for myomectomy and 1376 hospital stays for embolization. In terms of management care, among 46,126 patients with uterine fibroids (principal or related diagnosis), 31,846 patients received a procedure listed in a surgical diagnostic related groups (DRG). To conclude, the study permits to update the epidemiological data concerning uterine fibroid management between 2010-2011-2012 in final. Because the PMSI collects partially information regarding epidemiological data, a clear epidemiological study is needed either with database from health insurance or with dedicated study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Ulipristal acetate prior to in vitro fertilization in a female patient affected by uterine fibroids: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lo Monte, G; Piva, I; Graziano, A; Engl, B; Marci, R

    2016-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomatosis and especially submucosal myomas hamper the outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART). Even though surgical treatment eliminates gross anatomical anomalies, medical treatment should be encouraged to improve the overall structure of the uterus, thereby enabling ART. We report the case of an infertile female patient suffering from symptomatic uterine fibromatosis, who received 5 mg/day ulipristal acetate (UPA), a selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRMs), for three months before and after hysteroscopic myomectomy. Uterine bleeding reduced on the eight days of treatment, with a subsequent improvement of pelvic pain. Under transvaginal ultrasound the uterus appeared globally enlarged with a diffuse leiomyomatosis of the myometrial layer. Saline infusion showed a markedly distorted cavity due two submucosal myomas (sized 31 × 24 mm and 21 × 19 mm, respectively) and one intramural myoma (37 × 34 mm). After three months the size of the myomas was reduced by 30-40%, allowing the hysteroscopic removal of the submucosal fibroids and the bigger intramural one. The smaller fibroids involving the myometrial layer were instead too diffused to be removed. At the conclusion of the subsequent cycle of UPA, the overall appearance of the cavity had improved, and the endometrial layer was regular, allowing the patient to undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF). There was no adverse effect related to treatment, and the endometrial biopsy did not reveal any histologic change. UPA seems to have a triple effect: it ensures prompt symptom relief, it reduces the size of the myomas enabling surgery and it improves the morphology of the uterus.

  1. Economic evaluation of uterine artery embolization versus hysterectomy in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids: results from the randomized EMMY trial.

    PubMed

    Volkers, Nicole A; Hehenkamp, Wouter J K; Smit, Patrick; Ankum, Willem M; Reekers, Jim A; Birnie, Erwin

    2008-07-01

    To investigate whether uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a cost-effective alternative to hysterectomy for patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids, the authors performed an economic evaluation alongside the multicenter randomized EMMY (EMbolization versus hysterectoMY) trial. Between February 2002 and February 2004, 177 patients were randomized to undergo UAE (n = 88) or hysterectomy (n = 89) and followed up until 24 months after initial treatment allocation. Conditional on the equivalence of clinical outcome, a cost minimization analysis was performed according to the intention to treat principle. Costs included health care costs inside and outside the hospital as well as costs related to absence from work (societal perspective). Cumulative standardized costs were estimated as volumes multiplied with prices. The nonparametric bootstrap method was used to quantify differences in mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) costs between the strategies. In total, 81 patients underwent UAE and 75 underwent hysterectomy. In the UAE group, 19 patients (23%) underwent secondary hysterectomies. The mean total costs per patient in the UAE group were significantly lower than those in the hysterectomy group ($11,626 vs $18,563; mean difference, -$6,936 [-37%], 95% CI: -$9,548, $4,281). The direct medical in-hospital costs were significantly lower in the UAE group: $6,688 vs $8,313 (mean difference, -$1,624 [-20%], 95% CI: -$2,605, -$586). Direct medical out-of-hospital and direct nonmedical costs were low in both groups (mean cost difference, $156 in favor of hysterectomy). The costs related to absence from work differed significantly between the treatment strategies in favor of UAE (mean difference, -$5,453; 95% CI: -$7,718, -$3,107). The costs of absence from work accounted for 79% of the difference in total costs. The 24-month cumulative cost of UAE is lower than that of hysterectomy. From a societal economic perspective, UAE is the superior treatment strategy in women with

  2. Endometrial ablation in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Philippe; Leyland, Nicholas; Murji, Ally; Fortin, Claude; Martyn, Paul; Vilos, George; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Yeung, Grace

    2015-04-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the direct cause of a significant health care burden for women, their families, and society as a whole. Up to 30% of women will seek medical assistance for the problem during their reproductive years. To provide current evidence-based guidelines on the techniques and technologies used in endometrial ablation (EA), a minimally invasive technique for the management of AUB of benign origin. Members of the guideline committee were selected on the basis of individual expertise to represent a range of practical and academic experience in terms of both location in Canada and type of practice, as well as subspecialty expertise and general background in gynaecology. The committee reviewed all available evidence in the English medical literature, including published guidelines, and evaluated surgical and patient outcomes for the various EA techniques. Recommendations were established by consensus. Published literature was retrieved through searches of MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library in 2013 and 2014 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (endometrial ablation, hysteroscopy, menorrhagia, heavy menstrual bleeding, AUB, hysterectomy). RESULTS were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies written in English from January 2000 to November 2014. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identifies through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). This document reviews the evidence regarding the available techniques and technologies for EA

  3. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for treating uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Yan, X; Zhao, C; Tian, C; Wen, S; He, X; Zhou, Y

    2017-08-01

    To explore HIFU treatment for uterine arteriovenous malformation. A case report. Gynaecological department in a university teaching hospital of China. A patient with uterine arteriovenous malformation. The diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation was made through MRI. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation was performed. HIFU is effective in treating uterine arteriovenous malformation. The patient had reduction of the lesion volume and obvious symptom relief, without significant adverse effects. HIFU can be used as a new treatment option for uterine arteriovenous malformation. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation is effective in treating uterine arteriovenous malformation. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. From the RSNA refresher courses: Image-guided thermal therapy of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Tempany, Clare M

    2007-01-01

    One of the most recent additions to the methods for image-guided therapy is magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focused ultrasound. This method represents a unique closed-loop therapy, with planning, guidance, control, and direct feedback (called MR thermometry), which work together to ensure an effective therapy. The focused ultrasound induces focal tissue destruction by thermocoagulation in a noninvasive manner. MR also enables real-time thermometry to be performed during each and every sonication. These characteristics make MR-guided focused ultrasound an exciting new approach for treating fibroids. Fibroids are diagnosed based on findings from the patient's physical examination supplemented by imaging results. MR imaging is preferred to other imaging modalities because it enables the fibroids and the entire pelvis to be fully examined. After individual fibroids are identified and the target area is defined by the radiologist, the target volume is analyzed in a three-dimensional assessment to ensure the patient's safety. The procedure begins with the delivery of low-power sonication, and the power is gradually increased until the therapeutic dose is reached. After the procedure, postcontrast images are acquired; these should demonstrate tissue necrosis. The results of clinical trials have shown that the treatment is safe, effective, and highly acceptable to patients. RSNA, 2007

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles as a new approach to improve the efficacy of gene therapy against differentiated human uterine fibroid cells and tumor-initiating stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Shahinaz Mahmood; Khater, Mostafa K; Mas Perucho, Aymara; Mohamed, Sara A; Helwa, Inas; Laknaur, Archana; Lebedyeva, Iryna; Liu, Yutao; Diamond, Michael P; Al-Hendy, Ayman A

    2016-01-01

    Uterine fibroid(s) (UF/UFs) are benign tumors commonly found in women of reproductive age. The long-term outcomes of myomectomies are often hampered by high rates of recurrence (up to 60%). Objective To study whether efficient transduction and subsequent elimination of fibroid tumor initiating stem cells during debulking of tumor cells will aid in completely eradicating the tumor as well as decreasing the likelihood of recurrence. Design We have developed a localized non-surgical adenovirus-based alternative for the treatment of UFs. Combining viral based gene delivery with nanotechnology provides an opportunity to develop more efficient targeted viral gene therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) complexed to adenovirus, in the presence of an external magnetic field, accelerate adenovirus transduction. Setting Research laboratory located in Georgia Regents University, an academic research institution. Patients N/A Interventions MNPs complexed to adenovirus (AD GFP) or (AD LacZ) were used to transfect differentiated human fibroid cells in vitro. Main Outcome Measures rate of transduction and tumor growth inhibition. Results We observed a significant increase in transduction efficiency among differentiated human fibroid cells at 2 different multiplicities of infection (MOI); 1 and 10 respectively, with MNPs as compared to adenovirus-alone. Human fibroid stem cells transfected with AD-LacZ expressed β-Galactosidaze at (MOI) of 1, 10, and 50 at percentages of 19%, 62%, and 90%, respectively, which were significantly enhanced with MNPs. Conclusion When applied with adenovirus herpes simplex thymidine kinase, magnetofection significantly suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in both cell types. Through the use of magnetofection, we will prove that a lower viral dose will effectively increase the overall safety profile of suicide gene therapy against fibroid tumors. PMID:27020169

  6. A Method of Time-Intensity Curve Calculation for Vascular Perfusion of Uterine Fibroids Based on Subtraction Imaging with Motion Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xinjian; Wu, Ruoyu; Li, Tao; Zhao, Dawei; Shan, Xin; Wang, Puling; Peng, Song; Li, Faqi; Wu, Baoming

    2016-12-01

    The time-intensity curve (TIC) from contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) image sequence of uterine fibroids provides important parameter information for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of efficacy of treatment such as high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery. However, respiration and other physiological movements inevitably affect the process of CEUS imaging, and this reduces the accuracy of TIC calculation. In this study, a method of TIC calculation for vascular perfusion of uterine fibroids based on subtraction imaging with motion correction is proposed. First, the fibroid CEUS recording video was decoded into frame images based on the record frame rate. Next, the Brox optical flow algorithm was used to estimate the displacement field and correct the motion between two frames based on warp technique. Then, subtraction imaging was performed to extract the positional distribution of vascular perfusion (PDOVP). Finally, the average gray of all pixels in the PDOVP from each image was determined, and this was considered the TIC of CEUS image sequence. Both the correlation coefficient and mutual information of the results with proposed method were larger than those determined using the original method. PDOVP extraction results have been improved significantly after motion correction. The variance reduction rates were all positive, indicating that the fluctuations of TIC had become less pronounced, and the calculation accuracy has been improved after motion correction. This proposed method can effectively overcome the influence of motion mainly caused by respiration and allows precise calculation of TIC.

  7. The natural history of fibroids.

    PubMed

    Mavrelos, D; Ben-Nagi, J; Holland, T; Hoo, W; Naftalin, J; Jurkovic, D

    2010-02-01

    Fibroids are common, hormone-dependent, benign uterine tumors. They can cause significant morbidity and the symptoms depend largely on their size. The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of fibroids and identify factors that may influence their growth. This was a retrospective longitudinal study of premenopausal women who were diagnosed with uterine fibroids on ultrasound examination. All women underwent at least two transvaginal ultrasound scans, which were all performed by a single operator. Fibroids were measured in three perpendicular planes and the mean diameter was calculated. The size and position of every individual fibroid was assessed and recorded on a computerized database. The volume of each fibroid was calculated using the formula for a sphere. A total of 122 women were included in the study. Their median age at the initial examination was 40 (range, 27-45) years. Seventy-two (59.0%) were nulliparous and 74 (60.7%) had multiple fibroids. The median interval between the initial and final examination was 21.5 (range, 8-90) months. The median fibroid volume increased by 35.2% per year. Small fibroids (< 20 mm mean diameter) grew significantly faster than larger fibroids (P = 0.007). The median increase in size was significantly higher in cases of intramural fibroids (53.2 (interquartile range (IQR), 11.2-217)%) than in subserous fibroids (25.1 (IQR, 1.1-87.1)%) and submucous fibroids (22.8 (IQR, - 11.7 to 48.3)%) (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis retained only fibroid size at presentation as an independent predictor of fibroid growth. The growth of fibroids in premenopausal women is influenced by the tumor's size at presentation.

  8. A single baseline ultrasound assessment of fibroid presence and size is strongly predictive of future uterine procedure: 8-year follow-up of randomly sampled premenopausal women aged 35-49 years.

    PubMed

    Baird, D D; Saldana, T M; Shore, D L; Hill, M C; Schectman, J M

    2015-12-01

    How well can a single baseline ultrasound assessment of fibroid burden (presence or absence of fibroids and size of largest, if present) predict future probability of having a major uterine procedure? During an 8-year follow-up period, the risk of having a major uterine procedure was 2% for those without fibroids and increased with fibroid size for those with fibroids, reaching 47% for those with fibroids ≥ 4 cm in diameter at baseline. Uterine fibroids are a leading indication for hysterectomy. However, when fibroids are found, there are few available data to help clinicians advise patients about disease progression. Women who were 35-49 years old were randomly selected from the membership of a large urban health plan; 80% of those determined to be eligible were enrolled and screened with ultrasound for fibroids ≥ 0.5 cm in diameter. African-American and white premenopausal participants who responded to at least one follow-up interview (N = 964, 85% of those eligible) constituted the study cohort. During follow-up (5822 person-years), participants self-reported any major uterine procedure (67% hysterectomies). Life-table analyses and Cox regression (with censoring for menopause) were used to estimate the risk of having a uterine procedure for women with no fibroids, small (<2 cm in diameter), medium (2-3.9 cm), and large fibroids (≥ 4 cm). Differences between African-American and white women, importance of a clinical diagnosis of fibroids prior to study enrollment, and the impact of submucosal fibroids on risk were investigated. There was a greater loss to follow-up for African-Americans than whites (19 versus 11%). For those with follow-up data, 64% had fibroids at baseline, 33% of whom had had a prior diagnosis. Of those with fibroids, 27% had small fibroids (<2 cm in diameter), 46% had medium (largest fibroid 2-3.9 cm in diameter), and 27% had large fibroids (largest ≥ 4 cm in diameter). Twenty-one percent had at least one submucosal fibroid. Major

  9. Overhydroxylation of Lysine of Collagen Increases Uterine Fibroids Proliferation: Roles of Lysyl Hydroxylases, Lysyl Oxidases, and Matrix Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Marwa; Wagih, Mohamed; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion R.; Baraka, Mohamed A.

    2017-01-01

    The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in uterine fibroids (UF) has recently been appreciated. Overhydroxylation of lysine residues and the subsequent formation of hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links underlie the ECM stiffness and profoundly affect tumor progression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between ECM of UF, collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes [lysyl hydroxylases (LH) and lysyl oxidases (LOX)], and the development and progression of UF. Our results indicated that hydroxyl lysine (Hyl) and HP cross-links are significantly higher in UF compared to the normal myometrial tissues accompanied by increased expression of LH (LH2b) and LOX. Also, increased resistance to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) proteolytic degradation activity was observed. Furthermore, the extent of collagen cross-links was positively correlated with the expression of myofibroblast marker (α-SMA), growth-promoting markers (PCNA; pERK1/2; FAKpY397; Ki-67; and Cyclin D1), and the size of UF. In conclusion, our study defines the role of overhydroxylation of collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes in modulating UF cell proliferation, differentiation, and resistance to MMP. These effects can establish microenvironment conducive for UF progression and thus represent potential target treatment options of UF. PMID:29082249

  10. Overhydroxylation of Lysine of Collagen Increases Uterine Fibroids Proliferation: Roles of Lysyl Hydroxylases, Lysyl Oxidases, and Matrix Metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Marwa; Wagih, Mohamed; Kilic, Gokhan S; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion R; Baraka, Mohamed A; Salama, Salama A

    2017-01-01

    The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in uterine fibroids (UF) has recently been appreciated. Overhydroxylation of lysine residues and the subsequent formation of hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links underlie the ECM stiffness and profoundly affect tumor progression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between ECM of UF, collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes [lysyl hydroxylases (LH) and lysyl oxidases (LOX)], and the development and progression of UF. Our results indicated that hydroxyl lysine (Hyl) and HP cross-links are significantly higher in UF compared to the normal myometrial tissues accompanied by increased expression of LH (LH2b) and LOX. Also, increased resistance to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) proteolytic degradation activity was observed. Furthermore, the extent of collagen cross-links was positively correlated with the expression of myofibroblast marker ( α -SMA), growth-promoting markers (PCNA; pERK1/2; FAK pY397 ; Ki-67; and Cyclin D1), and the size of UF. In conclusion, our study defines the role of overhydroxylation of collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes in modulating UF cell proliferation, differentiation, and resistance to MMP. These effects can establish microenvironment conducive for UF progression and thus represent potential target treatment options of UF.

  11. Alternative Oral Agents in Prophylaxis and Therapy of Uterine Fibroids-An Up-to-Date Review.

    PubMed

    Ciebiera, Michał; Łukaszuk, Krzysztof; Męczekalski, Błażej; Ciebiera, Magdalena; Wojtyła, Cezary; Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, Aneta; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2017-12-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs) are the most common tumors of the female genital tract. The effect of UFs on the quality of life and the overall cost of treatment are significant issues worldwide. Tumor size and location are the two specific factors which influence the occurrence of symptoms, the need for, and method of, treatment (some tumors require surgery while some can be treated with selected drugs). Primary prevention and treatment of early UF disease are worthy goals that might have a great impact on health care systems. Several treatments and prophylactic methods can be used in this endeavor. This publication presents current data about lesser-known substances which may have a beneficial effect on the treatment or prophylaxis of UFs and can be administered orally, serving as an alternative to (or complement of) surgery or selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). Early prevention and treatment of UFs in women from high-risk groups should be our priority. Innovative forms of UF management are under intensive investigation and may be promising options in the near future. Many of them evaluated vitamin D, paricalcitol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), elagolix, aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and cabergoline and deemed them to be safe and effective. The next step in such projects should be properly constructed randomized control trials (RCTs), carried out by successive phases.

  12. A Preliminary Study: Human Fibroid Stro-1+/CD44+ Stem Cells Isolated From Uterine Fibroids Demonstrate Decreased DNA Repair and Genomic Integrity Compared to Adjacent Myometrial Stro-1+/CD44+ Cells.

    PubMed

    Prusinski Fernung, Lauren E; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Yang, Qiwei

    2018-01-01

    Although uterine fibroids (UFs) continue to place a major burden on female reproductive health, the mechanisms behind their origin remain undetermined. Normal myometrial stem cells may be transformed into tumor-initiating stem cells, causing UFs, due to unknown causes of somatic mutations in MED12, found in up to 85% of sporadically formed UFs. It is well established in other tumor types that defective DNA repair increases the risk of such tumorigenic somatic mutations, mechanisms not yet studied in UFs. To examine the putative cause(s) of this stem cell transformation, we analyzed DNA repair within stem cells from human UFs compared to those from adjacent myometrium to determine whether DNA repair in fibroid stem cells is compromised. Human fibroid (F) and adjacent myometrial (Myo) stem cells were isolated from fresh tissues, and gene expression relating to DNA repair was analyzed. Fibroid stem cells differentially expressed DNA repair genes related to DNA double- (DSBs) and single-strand breaks. DNA damage was measured using alkaline comet assay. Additionally, DNA DSBs were induced in these stem cells and DNA DSB repair evaluated (1) by determining changes in phosphorylation of DNA DSB-related proteins and (2) by determining differences in γ-H2AX foci formation and relative DNA repair protein RAD50 expression. Overall, F stem cells demonstrated increased DNA damage and altered DNA repair gene expression and signaling, suggesting that human F stem cells demonstrate impaired DNA repair. Compromised F stem cell DNA repair may contribute to further mutagenesis and, consequently, further growth and propagation of UF tumors.

  13. Uterine fibroids with positive 18F-FDG PET/CT image and significantly increased CA19-9: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Shao, Xiaonan

    2017-12-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common pelvic solid tumors and common to 25% of women. F-fluorodexyglucose (F-FDG) is an energy metabolism tracer. Although FDG is generally concentrated in malignant lesions with high glucose metabolism, it can also accumulate in normal tissues, benign lesions, and inflammatory sites. The exact mechanism of FDG uptake by uterine fibroids is not clear. Here, we report a case of uterine fibroids with positive F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging and significantly increased CA19-9. The patient was a 43-year-old woman and admitted to our hospital because of "1-year-extended menstrual periods." At admission, she had normal CA125, AFP, and CEA level and CA19-9>1000.00 U/mL. Gynecological transvaginal ultrasound found enlarged uterus with an anterior hypoechoic area of 3.9 × 4.2 cm. CT and contrast-enhanced CT showed significantly enhanced mass shadow on the left anterior wall of uterus. F-FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG metabolism of tumor in the anterior wall of the uterus. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed. Pathological examination demonstrated subserosal leiomyoma. Her CA19-9 level dropped to 91.50 U/mL 1 day after surgery. Significantly elevated CA19-9 was positioned in the uterus by PET/CT imaging, which not only avoided unnecessary gastrointestinal endoscopy and reduced the suffering of patients, but also strengthened the operation confidence in gynecologists. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 3D ultrasound image guidance system used in RF uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding ablation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mingyue; Luo, Xiaoan; Cai, Chao; Zhou, Chengping; Fenster, Aaron

    2006-03-01

    Uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding are the two most prevalent diseases in Chinese women. Many women lose their fertility from these diseases. Currently, a minimally invasive ablation system using an RF button electrode is being used in Chinese hospitals to destroy tumor cells or stop bleeding. In this paper, we report on a 3D US guidance system developed to avoid accidents or death of the patient by inaccurate localization of the tumor position during treatment. A 3D US imaging system using a rotational scanning approach of an abdominal probe was built. In order to reduce the distortion produced when the rotational axis is not collinear with the central beam of the probe, a new 3D reconstruction algorithm is used. Then, a fast 3D needle segmentation algorithm is used to find the electrode. Finally, the tip of electrode is determined along the segmented 3D needle and the whole electrode is displayed. Experiments with a water phantom demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.

  15. Real-world data of 197 patients treated with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids: PREMYA study French population main outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, H; Descamps, P; Koskas, M; Lopès, P; Brun, J L; Darai, E; Agostini, A

    2017-09-01

    To characterize and describe treatment with ulipristal acetate (UPA) in a preoperative setting and to evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) outcomes in a French population treated according to standard clinical practice. Multicentre, prospective, non-interventional study (PREMYA) of patients diagnosed with moderate to severe symptoms of uterine fibroids and undergoing a preoperative treatment with UPA 5mg (Esmya ® ). Patients were followed for a total of 15months (3months UPA treatment and 12months after). Data were collected approximatively every 3months according to centre usual visit schedule. A total of 206 women were enrolled in France, of whom 197 were found to be eligible for data analysis. Physicians' assessments of patients' overall symptomatic changes, as measured on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale, indicated that 83.7% of patients were improved at end of treatment (month 3). On the patients' treatment benefit scale (PTBS), 94.7% of patients reported an improvement. These 2 measurements, pain and quality of life, remained improved after treatment cessation and during the entire period of follow-up. Only 58.4% of patients underwent surgery within the timeframe of the study follow-up of which the majority were of a conservative/minimal invasive nature. Many patients did not undergo surgery during the planned 12months follow-up period after treatment whereas all patients had an indication of surgery. All measurements of treatment outcome were markedly improved by 3 months of UPA 5mg treatment. NCT01635452. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of uterine fibroids by mini-laparotomy technique in women who wish to preserve their uterus and fertility.

    PubMed

    Księżakowska-Łakoma, Kinga; Żyła, Monika; Wilczyński, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    The minilaparotomy is considered to be a safe and effective alternative to laparoscopy and abdominal laparotomy in myomectomy cases. To perform a retrospective analysis of pre-surgical assessment, surgical course and post-operational parameters in women wishing to preserve their uterus and fertility who underwent myomectomy by minilaparotomy in the Department of Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology at the Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital - Research Institute in Lodz in the years 2008-2014. A total of 76 patients were qualified for minilaparotomy due to a benign gynecological pathology. Only 21 patients with uterine fibroids who wanted to preserve their uterus and fertility were appropriate for this study. Patients' records were analyzed in terms of: epidemiological history, surgical course, postoperative stay and pathological data. All studied patients were asked in 2014 about conception and pregnancy after minilaparotomy. The median age was 35.7 years. The median patient body mass index (BMI) was 24 kg/m(2). The average decrease of hemoglobin was 1.5 g/dl. The size of the myoma was between 1.5 and 15 cm. There were no serious post-surgical complications. The size of the myoma did not correlate significantly with operation time, BMI or blood loss. There was no statistically significant dependence between operation time and average hematocrit and hemoglobin decrease. In our group 7 patients who had undergone myomectomy tried to achieve conception. Four of them succeeded in pregnancy and gave birth to healthy infants. Myomectomy performed via minilaparotomy is a safe procedure for patients willing to preserve their uterus and fertility, and it combines some advantages of both laparotomy and laparoscopy.

  17. Measuring the volume of uterine fibroids using 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound and comparison with histopathology.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Nikica; Zivković, Kreiimir; Despot, Albert; Paić, Josip; Zelić, Ana

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was clinical testing of the reliability and usability of three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) technology. The ultimate aim and purpose of this study was to establish ultrasound methods, standards and protocols for determining the volume of any gynecologic organ or tumor. The study included 31 women in reproductive age and postmenopause. All patients were examined with a RIC 5-9 3D-endovaginal probe (4.3-7.5 MHz) on a Voluson 730 Pro ultrasound device. The volume of myomas was measured by using the existing 2D and 3D ultrasound methods on the above mentioned device. All patients underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy due to clinically and ultrasonographically diagnosed uterine myomas indicating operative intervention. After the operation, the pathologist determined the volume of removed myomas by measuring them in a gauge bowl containing water, i.e. using Archimedes' principle (lift), serving as the control group with histopathologic diagnosis. A total of 155 myoma volumes were processed on 2D display, 31 myoma volumes were preoperatively measured on 3D display and 31 myoma volumes were measured by the pathologist. The values of US measurements for each US method were expressed as mean value of all measurements of myoma volumes. Statistical processing of the results and Student's t-test for independent samples revealed that the 2nd examined US method (measuring of myoma by using an ellipse and the longer tumor diameter) and 4th examined US method (measuring of myoma by using the longer and shorter tumor diameters together with establishing their mean values) in 2D US technique, as well as the 6th examined US method in 3D US technique showed no significant measurement differences in comparison with control measurement in a gauge bowl containing water (p < 0.05), indicating acceptability of the US methods for verifying tumor volumes. The standard error in determining the volume of myomas by the above US methods varied

  18. Examining the Relationship Between Symptomatic Burden and Self-reported Productivity Losses Among Patients With Uterine Fibroids in the United States.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Anand, Savita Bakhshi; Coyne, Karin S; Castelli-Haley, Jane; Snabes, Michael; Owens, Charlotte D

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of uterine fibroid symptoms on employment and household productivity. An online survey of US women between 18 and 54 was conducted. Productivity was assessed using the health related productivity questionnaire (HRPQ). Descriptive statistics and logistic multivariable regressions examined the relationship between uterine fibroids (UF) symptom experience and employment and household productivity. Of 1365 eligible women, 873 (64.0%) were employed. Women lost an average of 0.8 hours to employment-related absenteeism and 4.4 hours due to employment-related presenteeism for 5.1 hours of employment productivity lost/week. Women lost an average of 1.4 hours due to household-related absenteeism and 1.6 hours due to household-related presenteeism for a total of 3.0 hours of household lost productivity. Productivity losses increased with increases in symptom burden. UF has a substantial impact on employment-related and household-related productivity.

  19. Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRgHIFU) for Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Babashov, V; Palimaka, S; Blackhouse, G; O'Reilly, D

    2015-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids, or leiomyomas, are the most common benign tumours in women of childbearing age. Some women experience symptoms (e.g., heavy bleeding) that require aggressive forms of treatment such as uterine artery embolization (UAE), myomectomy, magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU), and even hysterectomy. It is important to note that hysterectomy is not appropriate for women who desire future childbearing. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of implementing MRgHIFU as a treatment option for symptomatic uterine fibroids in premenopausal women for whom drugs have been ineffective. Review Methods We performed an original cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the long-term costs and effects of MRgHIFU compared with hysterectomy, myomectomy, and UAE as a strategy for treating symptomatic uterine fibroids in premenopausal women aged 40 to 51 years. We explored a number of scenarios, e.g., comparing MRgHIFU with uterine-preserving procedures only, considering MRgHIFU-eligible patients only, and eliminating UAE as a treatment option. In addition, we performed a one-year budget impact analysis, using data from Ontario administrative sources. Four scenarios were explored in the budgetary impact analysis: MRgHIFU funded at 2 centres MRgHIFU funded at 2 centres and replacing only uterine-preserving procedures MRgHIFU funded at 6 centres MRgHIFU funded at 6 centres and replacing only uterine-preserving procedures Analyses were conducted from the Ontario public payer perspective. Results The base case determined that the uterine artery embolization (UAE) treatment strategy was the cost-effective option at commonly accepted willingness-to-pay values. Compared with hysterectomy, UAE was calculated as having an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $46,480 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. The MRgHIFU strategy was extendedly dominated by a

  20. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Qingling; Wu, Can; Zou, Min; Xiong, Yu

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis (DUL) is a rare and unique type of uterine leiomyoma which affects women of reproductive age. While treatments like medication, uterine artery embolization (UAE) and hysteroscopic myomectomy show some effectiveness, hysterectomy is currently the only known treatment capable of eliminating the symptoms of this disease. This case report demonstrates that high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation may offer these patients a new treatment strategy that could control the symptoms of DUL and spare the uterus from hysterectomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gyejibongneyong-hwan, a herbal medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea with uterine fibroids: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Lee, Ju Ah; Ko, Mi Mi; You, Sooseong; Lee, Eunhee; Choi, Jiae; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-11-24

    Gyejibongneyong-hwan (GBH), or the Guizhi Fuling Formula in Chinese, is widely used to treat uterine fibroids in East Asian countries including Korea, China and Japan. This study will assess the efficacy and safety of the GBH formula for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. This study will be a randomised double-blind controlled trial with two parallel arms: the GBH group and the placebo group. This trial will recruit 38 women between 18 and 45 years of age with secondary dysmenorrhoea with uterine fibroids. The investigational drugs, either GBH or placebo, will be administered to the participants three times per day for two menstrual periods (8 weeks). The participants will be followed up for three menstrual cycles after administration of the drugs. The primary outcome will be the Numeric Rating Scale score of average menstrual pain. All analyses will be performed with SAS (V.9.1.3; SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA) by a statistician blinded to the allocation of the groups. Statistical analysis will be undertaken on the intent-to-treat (ITT) basis with a 95% CI using the last observation carried forward for missing values. The ITT analysis will include all randomised patients. This research protocol has been reviewed and approved by the institutional review boards of the trial centre (number WSOH IRB 1606-03). Written informed consent will be obtained from all study participants prior to enrolment in the study. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be disseminated electronically and in print. KCT0001967. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Rationale and design of ASTEROID 2, a randomized, placebo- and active comparator-controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of vilaprisan in patients with uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Christian; Bumbuliene, Žana; Costa, Ana Rosa; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Heweker, Andrea; Hudeček, Robert; Jacquemyn, Yves; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Parashar, Pooja; Rechberger, Tomasz; Sánchez, Antonio Cano; van Aken, Bart; Zatik, János; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-04-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs) may be treated with progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs), which have been shown to reduce heavy menstrual bleeding and the size of UFs. To date, one PRM (ulipristal acetate) has received regulatory approval for the treatment of UFs; therapy comprises intermittent treatment courses of up to 3months each, followed by a break to allow two menstruations to occur. We report the design of ASTEROID (Assess Safety and efficacy of vilaprisan in patients with uTERine fibrOIDs) 2, a phase 2 study examining the efficacy and safety of a novel PRM, vilaprisan, in women with UFs. In this randomized multi-arm study, vilaprisan (2mg daily) will be administered in different regimens: continuous treatment for 12 or 24weeks, or two 12-week treatment periods separated by a break to allow one menstruation to occur. Efficacy and safety will be compared with that of ulipristal acetate (5mg daily) and placebo. Patients randomized to receive placebo for 12weeks will also be given active treatment for 12weeks. The primary measure of efficacy will be amenorrhoea rate; secondary measures include time to normalized menstrual bleeding and percentage change in UF volume. Endometrial changes will be monitored throughout the study. The placebo- and active comparator-controlled trial ASTEROID 2 is the first study to evaluate systematically the efficacy and safety of different treatment regimens of PRMs in women with UFs. The findings of this study will direct the planning of future clinical trials of vilaprisan. Copyright © 2017 Bayer AG. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Application of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Zhai, Y; Zhang, Z H; Li, Y; Zhang, Z Y

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy, safety and promotion value of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: Fourty three patients who had received TB type endometrial ablation system for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding from January, 2015 to January, 2016 in theDepartment of gynecology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital were enrolled in this study. The intra-operative and post-operative complications and improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea were observed. Results: There were nointra-operative complication occurred, such as uterine perforation, massive hemorrhage or surrounding organ damage. At 6 months after operation, 32 patients developed amenorrhea, 6 developed menstrual spotting, 3 developed menstruation with a small volume and 1 had a normal menstruation. No menstruation with an increased volume occurred. The occurrence of amenorrhea was 76.19% and the response rate was 97.62%.At 6 months after operation, 1 case had no response, 2 cases had partial response and 11 cases had complete response among the 14 cases of pre-operative dysmenorrhea; only 3 cases still had anemia among the 23 cases of pre-operative anemia. Compared with before treatment, patients with dysmenorrhea and anemia both significantly reduced with a statistically significant difference( P <0.01). Conclusion: TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation has a significant efficacy with high safety for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, which could have clinical promotion practice.

  4. Uterine Fibroids Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Stay Connected Blog Contact us Media inquiries Social media About Us Who we are What we do ... information Stay Connected Blog Contact us Media inquiries Social media Subscribe to receive OWH updates Submit HHS Non- ...

  5. Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the operating room. You will be positioned on the examining table. You may be connected to monitors that track your heart rate, blood pressure and pulse during the procedure. A nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) line into a ...

  6. Effect of abdominal liposuction on sonographically guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Peng; Chen, Jin-Yun; Chen, Wen-Zhi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of abdominal liposuction on sonographically guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. A total of 10 women with uterine fibroids or adenomyosis who had received abdominal liposuction were analyzed after sonographically guided HIFU ablation. Of the 10 women, 6 had a diagnosis of uterine fibroids, and 4 had a diagnosis of uterine adenomyosis. All of them had a history of a horizontal-margin split-cesarean delivery. In addition, 26 women with a history of a single horizontal-margin split-cesarean delivery who had a diagnosis of uterine fibroids or adenomyosis but had not received liposuction were analyzed together as a control group. Of the 10 women, 1 woman with uterine fibroids developed local skin erythema after treatment; 1 women with uterine adenomyosis developed a skin burn after treatment; and the remaining women had obvious skin-burning pain during treatment. All women who had not received liposuction finished the treatment with no serious adverse events during or after treatment. The pain scores and incidence of skin-burning pain were significantly higher in the liposuction group than the control group (P= .021 and .038, respectively). Abdominal liposuction may increase the risk of skin burns during sonographically guided HIFU ablation. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Uterine fibroid or ovarian fibroma: importance of comprehensive preoperative consent-taking to include unexpected findings with management implications.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Lee Koon; Wee-Stekly, Wei-Wei; Chern, Su Min Bernard

    2018-02-07

    A 35-year-old woman presented with an abdominal mass found incidentally on an ultrasound scan. On examination, the uterus was mobile and 14 weeks in size. Further imaging showed a large subserosal pedunculated fibroid, and she was counselled for laparoscopic myomectomy, morcellation in a bag, kept in open view. Intraoperatively, the mass was noted to be arising from the right ovarian ligament instead of the uterus, and decision was made to convert to open surgery. This case highlights important issues of consent-taking preoperatively and critical points to note regarding change in operative consent intraoperatively. This also highlights the importance of multidisciplinary cooperation as the decision had to be made with inputs made from gynae-oncology and pathology. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Ulipristal acetate for pre-operative treatment of moderate-to-severe uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age in The Netherlands: cost minimization analysis and budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Zakiyah, N; van Asselt, A D I; Postma, M J

    2017-03-01

    Ulipristal acetate has been found to be non-inferior to other pre-operative treatments of uterine fibroids, particularly leuprolide. The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacoeconomic profile of ulipristal acetate compared to leuprolide for the pre-operative treatment of moderate-to-severe uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age in The Netherlands. The analysis was performed and applied within the framework of the ulipristal acetate submission for reimbursement in 2012. A decision model was developed to compare the total costs of ulipristal acetate compared to leuprolide, the standard care in The Netherlands. The target population of this study corresponded to the type of patients included in the PEARL II clinical trial; i.e. women of reproductive age requiring pre-operative treatment for uterine fibroids. Sensitivity analysis was implemented to assess uncertainties. Data regarding costs, effects, and other input parameters were obtained from relevant published literatures, the Dutch Healthcare Insurance Board, and expert opinion obtained by means of a panel of experts from several medical centers in The Netherlands. In The Netherlands, the total costs of ulipristal acetate and leuprolide were estimated at €4,216,027 and €4,218,095, respectively. The annual savings of ulipristal acetate were, therefore, estimated at €2,068. The major driver of this cost difference was the cost of administration for leuprolide. Sensitivity analyses showed that ulipristal acetate mostly remained cost-saving over a range of assumptions. The budget impact analysis indicated that the introduction of ulipristal acetate was estimated to result in cost savings in the first 3 years following the introduction. The results of this study were used in the decision on reimbursement of ulipristal acetate according to the Dutch Reference Pricing system in 2012. Ulipristal acetate was cost saving compared to leuprolide and has the potential to provide substantial savings on

  9. Moderate-to-deep sedation technique, using propofol and ketamine, allowing synchronised breathing for magnetic resonance high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) treatment for uterine fibroids: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Hermanus H B; Knuttel, F M; van Breugel, J M M; Ikink, M E; Dieleman, J M; van den Bosch, M A A J; Knape, J T A

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) treatment for uterine fibroids is rapidly gaining popularity as a treatment modality. This procedure is generally uncomfortable, painful, and requires minimal or absence of movement and an MR-HIFU synchronised breathing pattern of the patient. Procedural sedation and analgesia protocols have become the standard practice in interventional radiology departments worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore if a sedation regimen with low-dose propofol and ketamine performed by trained non-medical sedation practitioners could result in relief of discomfort for the patient and in adequate working conditions for MR-HIFU treatment for uterine fibroids. In this study, conducted from August 2013 until November 2014, 20 patients were subjected to MR-HIFU treatment of uterine fibroids. Patients were deeply sedated using intravenous propofol and esketamine according to a standardised hospital protocol to allow synchronisation of the breathing pattern to the MR-HIFU. The quality of sedation for MR-HIFU and complications were recorded and analysed. The side effects of the sedation technique, the propofol and esketamine consumption rate, the duration of recovery, and patient satisfaction after 24 h were examined. A total of 20 female patients (mean age 42.4 [range 32-53] years) were enrolled. Mean propofol/esketamine dose was 1309 mg/39.5 mg (range 692-1970 mg/ 23.6-87.9 mg). Mean procedure time was 269 min (range 140-295 min). Application of the sedation protocol resulted in a regular breathing pattern, which could be synchronised with the MR-HIFU procedures without delay. The required treatment was completed in all cases. There were no major adverse events. Hypoxemia (oxygen desaturation <92%) and hallucinations were not observed. The use of a specific combination of IV propofol and esketamine for procedural sedation and analgesia reduced the discomfort and pain during MR-guided HIFU treatments of uterine

  10. Surgical Treatment of Fibroids in Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Uterine fibroids can cause abnormal uterine bleeding and their removal is beneficial in the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding associated with fibroids for women who would like to preserve their uterus and fertility. Endoscopic (hysteroscopic and laparoscopic) approaches are the preferred methods of fibroid removal when appropriate. In the presence of submucosal fibroids, hysteroscopic resection is a simple, safe and effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and reduces the need for more major surgery, such as hysterectomy. When abdominal myomectomy is required, laparoscopic myomectomy is the preferred choice in selected cases due to its advantages over open myomectomy. PMID:26693796

  11. Impact of uterine fibroid symptoms on health-related quality of life of US women: evidence from a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Margolis, Mary Kay; Castelli-Haley, Jane; Fuldeore, Mahesh J; Owens, Charlotte D; Coyne, Karin S

    2017-11-01

    Uterine fibroids (UF) are associated with significant health-related quality of life (HRQL) impact. This study examined the impact of UF symptoms on HRQL. An online cross-sectional survey of 18 to 49 year old US women was conducted and collected demographics, UF prevalence, symptoms, and HRQL using the UFS-QOL. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the impact of symptom presence, severity, bothersomeness, and number of UF symptoms on HRQL. Analyses were weighted to match the US female population distribution. Multivariate regressions were performed with each subscale as a dependent variable to examine the impact of individual UF symptoms on HRQL. A total of 59,411 (15.5%) panel members completed the prevalence screener; 4848 met inclusion criteria; 955 had UF and no hysterectomy. Mean age was 40.3; 58% were white; 63% were married/civil union. Common UF symptoms were: lower back pain (65%), fatigue/weariness (63%), bloating (61%), pelvic pain/cramping during menses (63%), and heavy bleeding during menses (54%). Mean UFS-QoL subscale scores were significantly (p < .05) worse among women with a UF symptom versus women without the symptom. Women who rated their UF symptoms as severe had significantly (p < .001) worse UFS-QoL scores than women with mild or moderate symptoms. UFS-QoL subscale scores worsened as the number of symptoms increased. In the regressions, the presence of bleeding and non-bleeding symptoms were related to worse UFS-QoL subscale scores. HRQL among women with UF was significantly impacted by UF-related symptoms. Greater impact was observed as the number and severity of symptoms increased.

  12. Randomised trial comparing hysterectomy with endometrial ablation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding: psychiatric and psychosocial aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, D. A.; Naji, A. A.; Pinion, S. B.; Mollison, J.; Kitchener, H. C.; Parkin, D. E.; Abramovich, D. R.; Russell, I. T.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare in psychiatric and psychosocial terms the outcome of hysterectomy and endometrial ablation for the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled trial. SETTING--Obstetrics and gynaecology department of a large teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 204 women with dysfunctional bleeding for whom hysterectomy would have been the preferred treatment were recruited over 24 months and randomly allocated to hysterectomy (99 women) or to hysteroscopic surgery (transcervical resection (52 women) or laser ablation (53 women). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mental state, martial relationship, psychosocial and sexual adjustment in assessments conducted before the operation and one month, six months, and 12 months later. RESULTS: Both treatments significantly reduced the anxiety and depression present before the operation, and there were no differences in mental health between the groups at 12 months. Hysterectomy did not lead to postoperative psychiatric illness. Sexual interest after the operation did not vary with treatment. Overall, 46 out of 185 (25%) women reported a loss sexual interest and 50 out of 185 (27%) reported increased sexual interest. Marital relationships were unaffected by surgery. Personality and duration of dysfunctional uterine bleeding played no significant part in determining outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Hysteroscopic surgery and hysterectomy have a similar effect on psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes. There is no evidence that hysterectomy leads to postoperative psychiatric illness. PMID:8611783

  13. The conservative and interventional treatment of fibroids.

    PubMed

    Boosz, Alexander Stephan; Reimer, Peter; Matzko, Matthias; Römer, Thomas; Müller, Andreas

    2014-12-22

    Fibroids are the most common benign tumors in women. One-third of all women of reproductive age undergo treatment for symptomatic fibroids. In recent years, the spectrum of available treatments has been widened by the introduction of new drugs and interventional procedures. Selective literature review on the treatment of uterine fibroids, including consideration of several Cochrane Reviews. Fibroids can be treated with drugs, interventional procedures (uterine artery embolization [UAE] and focused ultrasound treatment [FUS]), and surgery. The evidence regarding the various available treatments is mixed. All methods improve symptoms, but only a few comparative studies have been performed. A meta-analysis revealed that recovery within 15 days is more common after laparoscopic enucleation than after open surgery (odds ratio [OR], 3.2). A minimally invasive hysterectomy, or one performed by the vaginal route, is associated with a shorter hospital stay and a more rapid recovery than open transabdominal hysterectomy. UAE is an alternative to hysterectomy for selected patients. The re-intervention rates after fibroid enucleation, hysterectomy, and UAE are 8.9-9%, 1.8-10.7%, and 7-34.6%, respectively. The main drugs used to treat fibroids are gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs and selective progesterone receptor modulators. Multiple treatment options are available and enable individualized therapy for symptomatic fibroids. The most important considerations in the choice of treatment are the question of family planning and, in some cases, the technical limitations of the treatments themselves.

  14. Innovative Oral Treatments of Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma), the benign tumors of the uterine wall, are very common cause of morbidity in reproductive age women usually in the form of excessive vaginal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage and infertility. These tumors are the leading indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Uterine fibroids are about 4 times higher in blacks compared to whites and constitute a major health disparity challenge. The estimated cost of uterine fibroids is up to $34.4 billion annually. Additionally, women who suffer from this disease and desire to maintain their future fertility have very limited treatment choices. Currently, there is no effective long-term medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids. While surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine fibroids, there is growing interest towards orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In this paper, we will discuss these promising innovative oral medical treatments in detail. PMID:22518167

  15. How Are Uterine Fibroids Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... the uterus to help create the ultrasound image Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnets and radio waves to ...

  16. [Thermal balloon endometrial ablation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding: technical aspects and results. A prospective cohort study of 152 cases].

    PubMed

    Kdous, Moez; Jacob, Denis; Gervaise, Amélie; Risk, Elie; Sauvanet, Eric

    2008-05-01

    Thermal balloon endometrial ablation is a new operative technique recently proposed in the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. To evaluate the efficacy of thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and to identify the possible predictive factors for a successful outcome. A prospective study was conducted including 152 patients with chronic abnormal uterine bleeding refractory to medical treatment. All patients were treated by thermal balloon endometrial ablation (Thermachoice, Gynecare) between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2003. patients were included if their uterine cavities sounded to less than 12 cm and had undergone hysteroscopy, pelvic ultrasound and endometrial biopsie showing no structural or (pre) malignant endometrial abnormalities. A balloon catheter was placed through the cervix and after inflation in the endometrial cavity with 5% dextrose in water, was heated to 87 +/- 5 degrees C. No one required cervical dilatation. Balloon pressures were 160 to 170 mm Hg. All patients underwent 8 minutes of therapy. The average patient was 47 years (range: 30-62 years) and was followed for a mean of 3 years and 7 months (range: 6 months - 8 years). 31.6% of women reported amennorhea, 16.5% hypomenorrhea and 21% eumenorrhea. Menorrhagea persisted in 11.2% of patients. No intraoperative complications and minor postoperative morbidity occured in 10.5% of patients. Three prgnancy complicated by spontaneous abortions were reported after the treatment. A total of 78% of women reported overall satisfaction with the endometrial ablation procedure and 18% were dissatisfied. 17.8% of patients underwent hysterectomy within 1 to 5 years of balloon endometrial ablation. Increasing age and menopause were significantly associated with increased odds of success (p < 0.05). Thermal balloon endometrial ablation is a simple, easy, effective, and minimally invasive procedure in menhorragic women with no desire for further

  17. Intraoperative ultrasound-assisted enucleation of residual fibroids following laparoscopic myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Li, Si-Jing; Zheng, Ping; Wu, Xia; Sheng, Jie; Yuan, Dong-Lan; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Wei; Duan, Ai-Hong; Wu, Qing-Qing; Lu, Dan

    2018-05-25

    To investigate if intraoperative ultrasounds by laparoscopic and transvaginal ultrasonography (LUS and TVS) could improve enucleating the residual fibroids following laparoscopic myomectomy (LM). From March to December 2016, 78 women with uterine fibroids underwent LM, LUS and TVS were applied to detect residual fibroids and to guide surgeons to enucleate them after the visible fibroids were removed during LM operation. The total number of residual fibroids found by LUS was 140, and the total number found by TVS was 127 following LM (P = 0.03). LUS is statistically superior to TVS in the detection of residual fibroids in the anterior wall (P = 0.004), in the detection of intramural fibroids (P = 0.002), and in the detection of fibroids with a diameter ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm (P = 0.002). According to the total number of enucleated fibroids by LM, patients were divided into three groups (Group 1: 2 to 4, Group 2: 5 to 7 and Group 3: ≥8 fibroid counts). The percentages of patients in each group with residual fibroids at the end of surgery were 22.2%, 51.9% and 66.7% respectively. Both LUS and TVS are beneficial to surgical treatment of fibroids by assisting enucleation of residual fibroids following LM, while LUS is more effective in localizing residual fibroids than TVS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Elagolix for the management of heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroids: results from a phase 2a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Jain, Rita I; Feldman, Robert A; Lukes, Andrea S; North, Janine D; Soliman, Ahmed M; Gao, Jingjing; Ng, Juki W; Chwalisz, Kristof

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of elagolix vs. placebo and elagolix with low-dose E 2 /progestogen add-back therapy. Proof-of-concept, dose-ranging, multiple-cohort study. Clinics. Premenopausal women with fibroids and heavy menstrual bleeding (menstrual blood loss [MBL] >80 mL per cycle). Three months' treatment with elagolix alone: 100 mg twice daily (BID), 200 mg BID, 300 mg BID, 400 mg once daily (QD), or 600 mg QD (all but the 600 mg QD arm were placebo controlled); or elagolix plus add-back therapy: 200 mg BID plus continuous low-dose E 2 0.5 mg/norethindrone acetate 0.1 mg or elagolix 300 mg BID plus E 2 1 mg continuously and cyclical P 200 mg. Least-squares mean percentage change in MBL; adverse events (AEs). Mean age was 41.8 years; 73.8% were black; mean baseline MBL was 267 mL. Of randomized women (elagolix alone, n = 160; placebo, n = 50; elagolix with add-back therapy, n = 61), 228 of 271 completed the 3-month treatment period. The MBL percentage change from baseline to last 28 days was significantly greater with elagolix alone (range, -72% to -98%; dose-dependent reduction was highest with 300 mg BID) vs. placebo (range, -8% to -41%); mean percentage changes with add-back regimens were -80% to -85%. Overall AEs were dose independent (elagolix alone, 70.0%-81.3%) but lower with placebo (56.0%) and add-back regimens (55.6%-70.6%). Hot flush was the most common AE (elagolix alone, 45.5%-62.5%; placebo, 12.0%; add-back regimens, 18.5%-26.5%). Elagolix significantly reduced heavy menstrual bleeding in women with fibroids. Low-dose add-back regimens substantially reduced flushing. NCT01441635. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endovascular uterine artery interventions

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chandan J; Rathinam, Deepak; Manchanda, Smita; Srivastava, D N

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous vascular embolization plays an important role in the management of various gynecologic and obstetric abnormalities. Transcatheter embolization is a minimally invasive alternative procedure to surgery with reduced morbidity and mortality, and preserves the patient's future fertility potential. The clinical indications for transcatheter embolization are much broader and include many benign gynecologic conditions, such as fibroid, adenomyosis, and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), as well as intractable bleeding due to inoperable advanced-stage malignancies. The most well-known and well-studied indication is uterine fibroid embolization. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) may be performed to prevent or treat bleeding associated with various obstetric conditions, including postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), placental implantation abnormality, and ectopic pregnancy. Embolization of the uterine artery or the internal iliac artery also may be performed to control pelvic bleeding due to coagulopathy or iatrogenic injury. This article discusses these gynecologic and obstetric indications for transcatheter embolization and reviews procedural techniques and outcomes. PMID:29379246

  20. Percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites for symptomatic uterine adenomyosis: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Hai, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Ruifang; Han, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Fang Yi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and technical efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites for adenomyosis. Between May 2015 and May 2016, a total of 25 patients with symptomatic adenomyosis who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites were included in this retrospective study. A matching cohort of 50 patients underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation without artificial ascites as controls. The technical efficacy, complications and short-term treatment effectiveness were assessed and compared with the controls. Artificial ascites was successfully achieved in all of the 25 patients with the administration of a median of 550 mL (range, 250-1200 mL) of solution. There was substantial improvement in achieving a better antenna path in 100% (20/20) of the cases with a poor antenna path. The complete separation was achieved in 23 of 25 patients. The mean ablation time was 26.5 ± 7.3 min and the median non-perfusion volume ratio was 76% which was similar to the control group (p > .05). No serious complications were observed. Patient pain scores for dysmenorrhoea showed a statistically significant decline from the baseline of 6.71 ± 0.96 to 2.92 ± 0.79 and the symptom severity score declined statistically significantly from 21.8 ± 5.5 to 16.4 ± 4.8 at 3 months follow-up. Percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites is feasible, safe and can be effective in improving access for treatment of adenomyosis.

  1. [Uterine leiomyomas during pregnancy and its impact on obstetric outcome].

    PubMed

    Morgan Ortiz, Fred; Piña Romero, Brizna; Elorriaga García, Enrique; Báez Barraza, Josefina; Quevedo Castro, Everardo; Peraza Garay, Felipe de Jesús

    2011-08-01

    The association of uterine leiomyoma and pregnancy is increasing due to the tendency of couples to delay first pregnancy after age 30. The risk of uterine fibroids is greater with advancing age of the woman. To evaluate the impact of fibroids on the incidence of complications during pregnancy, labor and delivery. We observed 65 pregnant patients with uterine fibroids and 165 pregnant patients without fibroids. Follow-up ultrasound was performed at weeks 20 to 24, 30 to 32 and 36 to 40. We analyzed the following variables: threatened abortion, pregnancy loss, preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, abnormal fetal presentation, mode of termination of pregnancy, uterine atony, postpartum hemorrhage and perinatal outcome. The frequency of threatened abortion, risk of pregnancy loss in the second trimester, preterm births, premature rupture of membranes and abnormal fetal presentation was significantly higher in patients with uterine fibroids compared to patients without fibroids. It was not demonstrated that fibroids grow during follow-up even, there was a trend toward reduction in size as pregnancy progressed and until its completion. No significant differences in the frequency of cesarean section between groups (52.3 vs. 47.9%, RR 1.09; 95% CI 0.82-1.45, p = 0.646). Uterine atony was more frequent in patients with fibroids than in patients without fibroids (12.3 vs 4.2%, RR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.6, p = 0.036). There were no differences in perinatal outcomes between the groups. Uterine fibroids increase the risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Could not be demonstrated an increased risk of caesarean section.

  2. Ulipristal acetate versus placebo for fibroid treatment before surgery.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Tatarchuk, Tetyana F; Bouchard, Philippe; Puscasiu, Lucian; Zakharenko, Nataliya F; Ivanova, Tatiana; Ugocsai, Gyula; Mara, Michal; Jilla, Manju P; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and safety of oral ulipristal acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are uncertain. We randomly assigned women with symptomatic fibroids, excessive uterine bleeding (a score of >100 on the pictorial blood-loss assessment chart [PBAC, an objective assessment of blood loss, in which monthly scores range from 0 to >500, with higher numbers indicating more bleeding]) and anemia (hemoglobin level of ≤10.2 g per deciliter) to receive treatment for up to 13 weeks with oral ulipristal acetate at a dose of 5 mg per day (96 women) or 10 mg per day (98 women) or to receive placebo (48 women). All patients received iron supplementation. The coprimary efficacy end points were control of uterine bleeding (PBAC score of <75) and reduction of fibroid volume at week 13, after which patients could undergo surgery. At 13 weeks, uterine bleeding was controlled in 91% of the women receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 92% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 19% of those receiving placebo (P<0.001 for the comparison of each dose of ulipristal acetate with placebo). The rates of amenorrhea were 73%, 82%, and 6%, respectively, with amenorrhea occurring within 10 days in the majority of patients receiving ulipristal acetate. The median changes in total fibroid volume were -21%, -12%, and +3% (P=0.002 for the comparison of 5 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo, and P=0.006 for the comparison of 10 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo). Ulipristal acetate induced benign histologic endometrial changes that had resolved by 6 months after the end of therapy. Serious adverse events occurred in one patient during treatment with 10 mg of ulipristal acetate (uterine hemorrhage) and in one patient during receipt of placebo (fibroid protruding through the cervix). Headache and breast tenderness were the most common adverse events associated with ulipristal acetate but did not occur significantly more frequently than with placebo

  3. A comprehensive approach to the treatment of uterine leiomyomata.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen; Ascher-Walsh, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common tumors in women, with a prevalence between 30% and 50%. They affect women primarily during their reproductive years, spontaneously regressing after menopause in most women. They may cause significant symptoms of pain, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, and infertility. Because leiomyomas are so common, treatment should be reserved for those patients with symptoms. Treatment options have recently expanded beyond hysterectomy. Medical therapies, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and progesterone modulators, have become more widely used. Less invasive options such as uterine fibroid embolization, magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound, and radiofrequency ablation are being used to avoid more invasive surgery. Because of limited and negative information regarding these alternatives to surgery, they are not recommended for women desiring future fertility. If surgery is desired or required, often less invasive approaches via hysteroscopy for intracavitary lesions or robot-assisted laparoscopy for patients with a small number of myomas have become preferred options. Treatment should be tailored to the patient. Copyright 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  4. Pilot study: safety and effectiveness of simple ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablating uterine leiomyoma with a diameter greater than 10 cm.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ruijie; Wang, Liwei; Li, Shaoping; Rong, Fengmin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Qin, Xuena; Wang, Shijin

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to prospectively investigate whether uterine leiomyoma greater than 10 cm in diameter could be treated with simple ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) in one-time treatment. A total of 36 patients with 36 symptomatic uterine leiomyoma greater than 10 cm in diameter who underwent simple USgHIFU treatment alone were analysed. Enhanced MRI was performed before and after HIFU treatment, and all patients had follow-up for 6 months after treatment. Symptom severity scores, treatment time, treatment speed, ablation rate, energy effect ratio, uterine leiomyoma regression rate, adverse events, liver and kidney functions, coagulation function and routine blood count were included in the study endpoints. The mean diameter of uterine leiomyoma was 11.2 ± 1.3 cm (10.0-14.3 cm). The median treatment time and treatment speed were 104.0 min (90.0-140.0 min) and 118.8 cm 3  h -1  (86.2-247.1 cm 3  h -1 ), respectively. The ablation rate of uterine leiomyoma was 71.9 ± 20.4% (32.1-100.0%), and the regression rate of uterine leiomyoma was 40.8 ± 7.5% (25.6-59.9%) at 6 months after treatment. The mean symptom severity scores decreased by an average of approximately 8.6 ± 2.3 (5-14) points. There were no significant changes in haemogram and blood chemical indexes of patients, except for the transient elevation of aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and white blood cells after treatment. No serious adverse reactions occurred. According to our preliminary results, simple USgHIFU is a safe and effective single-treatment method of treating uterine leiomyoma greater than 10 cm in diameter and is an almost innocuous alternative therapeutic strategy. Advances in knowledge: The conclusions indicate simple USgHIFU is safe and effective as one-time treatment of uterine leiomyoma greater than 10 cm in diameter, it could be a promising therapeutic strategy.

  5. Laparoscopic power morcellation of presumed fibroids.

    PubMed

    Brolmann, Hans A; Sizzi, Ornella; Hehenkamp, Wouter J; Rossetti, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is a highly prevalent benign gynecologic neoplasm that affects women of reproductive age. Surgical procedures commonly employed to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids include myomectomy or total or sub-total hysterectomy. These procedures, when performed using minimally invasive techniques, reduce the risks of intraoperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality; however, in order to remove bulky lesions from the abdominal cavity through laparoscopic ports, a laparoscopic power morcellator must be used, a device with rapidly spinning blades to cut the uterine tissue into fragments so that it can be removed through a small incision. Although the minimal invasive approach in gynecological surgery has been firmly established now in terms of recovery and quality of life, morcellation is associated with rare but sometimes serious adverse events. Parts of the morcellated specimen may be spread into the abdominal cavity and enable implantation of cells on the peritoneum. In case of unexpected sarcoma the dissemination may upstage disease and affect survival. Myoma cells may give rise to 'parasitic' fibroids, but also implantation of adenomyotic cells and endometriosis has been reported. Finally the morcellation device may cause inadvertent injury to internal structures, such as bowel and vessels, with its rotating circular knife. In this article it is described how to estimate the risk of sarcoma in a presumed fibroid based on epidemiologic, imaging and laboratory data. Furthermore the first literature results of the in-bag morcellation are reviewed. With this procedure the specimen is contained in an insufflated sterile bag while being morcellated, potentially preventing spillage of tissue but also making direct morcellation injuries unlikely to happen.

  6. The management of uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Vilos, George A; Allaire, Catherine; Laberge, Philippe-Yves; Leyland, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide clinicians with an understanding of the pathophysiology, prevalence, and clinical significance of myomata and the best evidence available on treatment modalities. The areas of clinical practice considered in formulating this guideline were assessment, medical treatments, conservative treatments of myolysis, selective uterine artery occlusion, and surgical alternatives including myomectomy and hysterectomy. The risk-to-benefit ratio must be examined individually by the woman and her health care provider. Implementation of this guideline should optimize the decision-making process of women and their health care providers in proceeding with further investigation or therapy for uterine leiomyomas, having considered the disease process and available treatment options, and reviewed the risks and anticipated benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Systematic Reviews in February 2013, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (uterine fibroids, myoma, leiomyoma, myomectomy, myolysis, heavy menstrual bleeding, and menorrhagia) and key words (myoma, leiomyoma, fibroid, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy, heavy menstrual bleeding, menorrhagia). The reference lists of articles identified were also searched for other relevant publications. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date limits but results were limited to English or French language materials. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to January 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty societies. The majority of fibroids are asymptomatic and require no intervention or further

  7. The role of angiogenic factors in fibroid pathogenesis: potential implications for future therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Reshef; Segars, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well established that tumors are dependent on angiogenesis for their growth and survival. Although uterine fibroids are known to be benign tumors with reduced vascularization, recent work demonstrates that the vasculature of fibroids is grossly and microscopically abnormal. Accumulating evidence suggests that angiogenic growth factor dysregulation may be implicated in these vascular and other features of fibroid pathophysiology. Methods Literature searches were performed in PubMed and Google Scholar for articles with content related to angiogenic growth factors and myometrium/leiomyoma. The findings are hereby reviewed and discussed. Results Multiple growth factors involved in angiogenesis are differentially expressed in leiomyoma compared with myometrium. These include epidermal growth factor (EGF), heparin-binding-EGF, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-β and adrenomedullin. An important paradox is that although leiomyoma tissues are hypoxic, leiomyoma feature down-regulation of key molecular regulators of the hypoxia response. Furthermore, the hypoxic milieu of leiomyoma may contribute to fibroid development and growth. Notably, common treatments for fibroids such as GnRH agonists and uterine artery embolization (UAE) are shown to work at least partly via anti-angiogenic mechanisms. Conclusions Angiogenic growth factors play an important role in mechanisms of fibroid pathophysiology, including abnormal vasculature and fibroid growth and survival. Moreover, the fibroid's abnormal vasculature together with its aberrant hypoxic and angiogenic response may make it especially vulnerable to disruption of its vascular supply, a feature which could be exploited for treatment. Further experimental studies are required in order to gain a better understanding of the growth factors that are involved in normal and pathological myometrial angiogenesis, and to assess

  8. Efficacy and safety of endometrial ablation for treating abnormal uterine bleeding in pre- and postmenopausal women with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Li, Xiu-Lan; Liu, Ji-Juan; Song, Xiao-Hong; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Li, Wei; Zhang, Hua; Pan, Calvin Q

    2016-12-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) occurs in 10-30% of women of reproductive age and up to 61% of cirrhotic women. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of endometrial ablation (NovaSure therapy) for AUB in cirrhotic women. This prospective, two-arm, observational study enrolled patients for NovaSure treatment, and they were followed for 12 months. Primary measurements were the amenorrhea rate and changes of pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBLAC) scores at 1-month post-therapy. Key secondary end-points included the longevity of amenorrhea at 12 months, safety profile, and progression of cirrhosis. Among 88 women, 26 were cirrhotic and 62 were non-cirrhotic. At 1-month post-NovaSure treatment, a significant reduction of mean PBLAC scores was observed in cirrhotic patients compared to those at baseline (0.4 ± 1.3 vs 215.2 ± 410.9, P < 0.001), and the amenorrhea rate was 88.5%. The efficacy outcomes of the PBLAC scores and amenorrhea rate were maintained until the end of the 12-month follow-up. A significant improvement in quality of life scores was observed 1-month post-therapy compared to those at baseline (5.4 ± 3.1 vs 20.5 ± 5.5, P < 0.001). Patients' satisfaction rates were 100% and 92.31% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The aforementioned outcomes were comparable with those in non-cirrhotic patients. No significant progression of cirrhosis or safety concern was reported. Cirrhotic patients on NovaSure therapy had a high rate of amenorrhea 1-month post-treatment, which maintained longevity for 12 months. The safety profile was similar to that in non-cirrhotic patients. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Focused Ultrasound Surgery for Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... ultrasound surgery, your doctor may perform a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan before treatment. Focused ultrasound surgery — also called magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery or focused ultrasound ...

  10. What Are the Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Browse AZTopics Browse A-Z Adrenal Gland Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Down Syndrome Endometriosis Learning Disabilities Menstruation and ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) About NICHD Research Information Find a Study ...

  11. Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Mary Gayle; Schmidt-Dalton, Tarin A; Weiss, Patrice M; Madsen, Keith P

    2012-01-01

    Up to 14 percent of women experience irregular or excessively heavy menstrual bleeding. This abnormal uterine bleeding generally can be divided into anovulatory and ovulatory patterns. Chronic anovulation can lead to irregular bleeding, prolonged unopposed estrogen stimulation of the endometrium, and increased risk of endometrial cancer. Causes include polycystic ovary syndrome, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia, and use of antipsychotics or antiepileptics. Women 35 years or older with recurrent anovulation, women younger than 35 years with risk factors for endometrial cancer, and women with excessive bleeding unresponsive to medical therapy should undergo endometrial biopsy. Treatment with combination oral contraceptives or progestins may regulate menstrual cycles. Histologic findings of hyperplasia without atypia may be treated with cyclic or continuous progestin. Women who have hyperplasia with atypia or adenocarcinoma should be referred to a gynecologist or gynecologic oncologist, respectively. Ovulatory abnormal uterine bleeding, or menorrhagia, may be caused by thyroid dysfunction, coagulation defects (most commonly von Willebrand disease), endometrial polyps, and submucosal fibroids. Transvaginal ultrasonography or saline infusion sonohysterography may be used to evaluate menorrhagia. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is an effective treatment for menorrhagia. Oral progesterone for 21 days per month and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also effective. Tranexamic acid is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ovulatory bleeding, but is expensive. When clear structural causes are identified or medical management is ineffective, polypectomy, fibroidectomy, uterine artery embolization, and endometrial ablation may be considered. Hysterectomy is the most definitive treatment.

  12. Efficacy and patient satisfaction after NovaSure and Minerva endometrial ablation for treating abnormal uterine bleeding: a retrospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Scordalakes, Constantine; delRosario, Robert; Shimer, Andrew; Stankiewicz, Russell

    2018-01-01

    Compare amenorrhea rate, menstrual symptoms, patient satisfaction, and adverse events in women who underwent endometrial ablation with the NovaSure versus the Minerva radiofrequency ablation systems. We surveyed 189 premenopausal women (mean 40.8±6.2 years old) who underwent endometrial ablation for abnormal uterine bleeding using the NovaSure (n=97) or Minerva (n=92) systems, at four private US gynecology clinics, and whose procedure date was after July 2015 with follow-up ≥3 months. Women were surveyed an average of 11.3±3.9 months (range 137-532 days) after ablation. The subject-reported amenorrhea rate was 52% higher in NovaSure subjects than Minerva subjects (64% and 42%, respectively; p =0.004). Age and bleeding cyclicity did not affect amenorrhea rate in either group. Normal-to-no bleeding was reported by >90% of subjects after either treatment. NovaSure was significantly more effective than Minerva at reducing pad/tampon use in women with any residual bleeding (2.4±5.2 items/day versus 4.7±5.5 items/day, p =0.049). NovaSure was significantly more effective than Minerva at reducing premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms ( p =0.019) and menstrual pain ( p =0.003), and more NovaSure subjects (94%) than Minerva subjects (78%) were satisfied with clinical outcomes ( p =0.003). Adverse events did not differ by treatment; three women in each group progressed to hysterectomy. While overall bleeding reduction in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding was excellent with either endometrial ablation system, NovaSure treatment resulted in a higher patient-reported 1-year amenorrhea rate, and women with residual bleeding used fewer pads and tampons than Minerva-treated women. Additionally, NovaSure subjects reported better menstrual-related life quality and PMS symptom alleviation, and greater satisfaction with outcomes than Minerva-treated women.

  13. Quantitative Serial MRI of the Treated Fibroid Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alistair R. W.; McKillop, Graham; Walker, Jane; Horne, Andrew W.; Newby, David E.; Anderson, Richard A.; Semple, Scott I.; Marshall, Ian; Lewis, Steff C.; Millar, Robert P.; Bastin, Mark E.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There are no long-term medical treatments for uterine fibroids, and non-invasive biomarkers are needed to evaluate novel therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to determine whether serial dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and magnetization transfer MRI (MT-MRI) are able to detect changes that accompany volume reduction in patients administered GnRH analogue drugs, a treatment which is known to reduce fibroid volume and perfusion. Our secondary aim was to determine whether rapid suppression of ovarian activity by combining GnRH agonist and antagonist therapies results in faster volume reduction. Methods Forty women were assessed for eligibility at gynaecology clinics in the region, of whom thirty premenopausal women scheduled for hysterectomy due to symptomatic fibroids were randomized to three groups, receiving (1) GnRH agonist (Goserelin), (2) GnRH agonist+GnRH antagonist (Goserelin and Cetrorelix) or (3) no treatment. Patients were monitored by serial structural, DCE-MRI and MT-MRI, as well as by ultrasound and serum oestradiol concentration measurements from enrolment to hysterectomy (approximately 3 months). Results A volumetric treatment effect assessed by structural MRI occurred by day 14 of treatment (9% median reduction versus 9% increase in untreated women; P = 0.022) and persisted throughout. Reduced fibroid perfusion and permeability assessed by DCE-MRI occurred later and was demonstrable by 2–3 months (43% median reduction versus 20% increase respectively; P = 0.0093). There was no apparent treatment effect by MT-MRI. Effective suppression of oestradiol was associated with early volume reduction at days 14 (P = 0.041) and 28 (P = 0.0061). Conclusion DCE-MRI is sensitive to the vascular changes thought to accompany successful GnRH analogue treatment of uterine fibroids and should be considered for use in future mechanism/efficacy studies of proposed fibroid drug therapies. GnRH antagonist administration

  14. Ultrasound guided high-intensity focused ultrasound combined with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) ablating uterine leiomyoma with homogeneous hyperintensity on T2 weighted MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shenghua; Kong, Fanjing; Hou, Ruijie; Rong, Fengmei; Ma, Nana; Li, Shaoping

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficiency of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) combined with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa)-ablating symptomatic uterine leiomyoma with homogeneous hyperintensity on T2 weighted MRI prospectively. Methods: A total of 34 patients with 42 symptomatic uterine leiomyomas with homogeneous hyperintensity on T2 weighted MRI were enrolled in our study. In the patient who had multiple uterine leiomyomas, only one dominant leiomyoma was treated. According to the principles of voluntariness, 18 patients underwent a 3-month therapy of GnRHa (once a month) before the high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, while 16 patients received only HIFU treatment. Enhanced MRI was performed before and after GnRHa and HIFU treatment. Evaluation of the main indicators included treatment time, sonication time, treatment efficiency, non-perfused volume (NPV) (indicative of successful ablation) ratio and energy effect ratio; adverse events were also recorded. Results: The treatment time and sonication time of the combination group were 102.0 min (55.8–152.2 min) and 25.4 min (12.2–34.1 min); however, they were 149.0 min (87.0–210.0 min) and 38.9 min (14.0–46.7 min) in the simple USgHIFU group. The treatment and sonication time for the combination group was significantly shorter than that for the simple USgHIFU group. Treatment efficiency, NPV ratio and energy effect ratio were 46.7 mm3 s-1 (28.5–95.8 mm3 s-1), 69.2 ± 29.8% (35.5–97.4%) and 9.9 KJ mm−3 (4.5–15.7 KJ mm−3) in the combination group, respectively; but, the lowest treatment efficiency, lowest NPV ratio and more energy effect ratio were observed in the simple HIFU group, which were 16.8 mm3 s−1 (8.9–32.9 mm3 s−1), 50.2 ± 27.3% (0–78.6%) and 23.8 KJ mm−3 (12.4–46.2 KJ mm−3), respectively. Pain scores in the combination group were 3.0

  15. Ultrasound guided high-intensity focused ultrasound combined with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) ablating uterine leiomyoma with homogeneous hyperintensity on T2 weighted MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shenghua; Kong, Fanjing; Hou, Ruijie; Rong, Fengmei; Ma, Nana; Li, Shaoping; Yang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficiency of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) combined with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa)-ablating symptomatic uterine leiomyoma with homogeneous hyperintensity on T 2 weighted MRI prospectively. A total of 34 patients with 42 symptomatic uterine leiomyomas with homogeneous hyperintensity on T 2 weighted MRI were enrolled in our study. In the patient who had multiple uterine leiomyomas, only one dominant leiomyoma was treated. According to the principles of voluntariness, 18 patients underwent a 3-month therapy of GnRHa (once a month) before the high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, while 16 patients received only HIFU treatment. Enhanced MRI was performed before and after GnRHa and HIFU treatment. Evaluation of the main indicators included treatment time, sonication time, treatment efficiency, non-perfused volume (NPV) (indicative of successful ablation) ratio and energy effect ratio; adverse events were also recorded. The treatment time and sonication time of the combination group were 102.0 min (55.8-152.2 min) and 25.4 min (12.2-34.1 min); however, they were 149.0 min (87.0-210.0 min) and 38.9 min (14.0-46.7 min) in the simple USgHIFU group. The treatment and sonication time for the combination group was significantly shorter than that for the simple USgHIFU group. Treatment efficiency, NPV ratio and energy effect ratio were 46.7 mm 3  s -1 (28.5-95.8 mm 3  s -1 ), 69.2 ± 29.8% (35.5-97.4%) and 9.9 KJ mm -3 (4.5-15.7 KJ mm -3 ) in the combination group, respectively; but, the lowest treatment efficiency, lowest NPV ratio and more energy effect ratio were observed in the simple HIFU group, which were 16.8 mm 3  s -1 (8.9-32.9 mm 3  s -1 ), 50.2 ± 27.3% (0-78.6%) and 23.8 KJ mm -3 (12.4-46.2 KJ mm -3 ), respectively. Pain scores in the combination group were 3.0 ± 0.5 points (2-4 points

  16. Ultrasonography of uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Andrzej; Woźniak, Sławomir

    2017-12-01

    Uterine leiomyomas or uterine fibroids are the most common gynaecological tumours and occur in about 20-50% of women around the world. Ultrasonography (USG) is the first-line imaging examination in suspected fibroids and shows high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing this condition. Ultrasound scans can be performed transvaginally (transvaginal scan - TVS) or transabdominally (transabdominal scan - TAS); both scans have advantages and limitations, but, in general, transvaginal sonography is superior to transabdominal sonography in most cases of pelvic pathology. Whether a leiomyoma is symptomatic or not depends primarily on its size and location. During ultrasound examination, leiomyomas usually appear as well-defined, solid, concentric, hypoechoic masses that cause a variable amount of acoustic shadowing. During the examination of leiomyomas differential diagnosis is important. Some of the most common misdiagnosed pathologies are adenomyosis, solid tumours of adnexa, and endometrial polyps. Misdiagnosis of a leiomyosarcoma has the most negative consequences, presenting symptoms are very similar to benign leiomyoma, and there is no pelvic imaging technique that can reliably differentiate between those pathologies. Magnetic resonance and computer tomography might be helpful in the diagnostics of uterine leiomyoma; however, ultrasound examination is the basic imaging test confirming the existence of leiomyomas, allowing the differentiation of myomas with adenomyosis, endometrial polyps, ovarian tumours, and pregnant uterus.

  17. Ultrasonography of uterine leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas or uterine fibroids are the most common gynaecological tumours and occur in about 20-50% of women around the world. Ultrasonography (USG) is the first-line imaging examination in suspected fibroids and shows high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing this condition. Ultrasound scans can be performed transvaginally (transvaginal scan – TVS) or transabdominally (transabdominal scan – TAS); both scans have advantages and limitations, but, in general, transvaginal sonography is superior to transabdominal sonography in most cases of pelvic pathology. Whether a leiomyoma is symptomatic or not depends primarily on its size and location. During ultrasound examination, leiomyomas usually appear as well-defined, solid, concentric, hypoechoic masses that cause a variable amount of acoustic shadowing. During the examination of leiomyomas differential diagnosis is important. Some of the most common misdiagnosed pathologies are adenomyosis, solid tumours of adnexa, and endometrial polyps. Misdiagnosis of a leiomyosarcoma has the most negative consequences, presenting symptoms are very similar to benign leiomyoma, and there is no pelvic imaging technique that can reliably differentiate between those pathologies. Magnetic resonance and computer tomography might be helpful in the diagnostics of uterine leiomyoma; however, ultrasound examination is the basic imaging test confirming the existence of leiomyomas, allowing the differentiation of myomas with adenomyosis, endometrial polyps, ovarian tumours, and pregnant uterus. PMID:29483851

  18. Labial necrosis after uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata.

    PubMed

    Yeagley, Thomas J; Goldberg, Jay; Klein, Thomas A; Bonn, Joseph

    2002-11-01

    Uterine artery embolization is increasingly used as an alternative to myomectomy, hysterectomy, and medical treatment for the management of symptomatic leiomyomata. A woman with an 18-week-size fibroid uterus who underwent uterine artery embolization developed a 3-cm, exquisitely tender, hypopigmented, necrotic-appearing area on the right labium minus. Spontaneous resolution occurred over 4 weeks. Labial necrosis is a possible complication of uterine artery embolization and may be successfully managed with conservative therapy.

  19. An Evidence-based Approach to the Medical Management of Fibroids: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Chantal B; Cayton, Kamaria C; Chuong, Farah S; Holthouser, Kristine; Arian, Sara E; Abraham, Tara; Segars, James H

    2016-03-01

    Fibroids are the most common tumor of the female reproductive tract, but approved medical treatments are limited. Patients demand uterine-sparing treatments which preserve fertility and avoid surgery. We systematically reviewed PubMed and Cochrane databases from January 1985 to November 2015 for evidence-based medical therapies for fibroids in the context of disease prevention, treatment of early disease, treatment of symptomatic disease, and preoperative management. We identified 2182 studies, of which 52 studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Published data affirm the efficacy of multiple agents, which are promising avenues for the development of medical alternatives to surgery.

  20. Administration of goserelin acetate after uterine artery embolization does not change the reduction rate and volume of uterine myomas.

    PubMed

    Vilos, George A; Vilos, Angelos G; Abu-Rafea, Basim; Pron, Gaylene; Kozak, Roman; Garvin, Greg

    2006-05-01

    To determine if goserelin immediately after uterine artery embolization (UAE) affected myoma reduction. Randomized pilot study (level 1). Teaching hospital. Twenty-six women. All patients underwent UAE, and then 12 patients received 10.8 mg of goserelin 24 hours later. The treatment group was 5 years older: 43 versus 37.7 years. Uterine and myoma volumes were measured by ultrasound 2 weeks before UAE and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Uterine and fibroid volumes. Pretreatment uterine volume was 477 versus 556 cm3, and dominant fibroid volume was 257 versus 225 cm3 in the control versus goserelin groups. Analysis of variance measurements indicated that the change over time did not significantly differ between the two groups. By 12 months, the control group had a mean uterine volume reduction of 58%, while the goserelin group had a reduction of 45%. Dominant fibroid changes over time did not differ between the two groups. At 12 months, the mean fibroid volume had decreased by 86% and 58% in the control and goserelin groups, respectively. The addition of goserelin therapy to UAE did not alter the reduction rate or volume of uterine myomas.

  1. Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that lower progesterone levels could cause fibroids to shrink. That could help relieve pain and other symptoms ... estrogen alone. In theory, such a treatment could shrink fibroids but spare women from hot flashes and ...

  2. Economic Evaluation of Global Endometrial Ablation Versus Inpatient and Outpatient Hysterectomy for Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: US Commercial and Medicaid Payer Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey D; Bonafede, Machaon M; Cai, Qian; Pohlman, Scott K; Troeger, Kathleen A; Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi

    2018-03-01

    Every year, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) exacts a heavy toll on women's health and leads to high costs for the US health care system. The literature shows that endometrial ablation results in fewer complications, shorter recovery and lower costs than more commonly performed hysterectomy procedures. The objective of this study was to model clinical-economic outcomes, budget impact, and cost-effectiveness of global endometrial ablation (GEA) versus outpatient hysterectomy (OPH) and inpatient hysterectomy (IPH) procedures. A decision tree, state-transition (semi-Markov) economic model was developed to simulate 3 hypothetical cohorts of women who received surgical treatment for AUB (GEA, OPH, and IPH) over 1, 2, and 3 years to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes for GEA vs. OPH and GEA vs. IPH. Two versions of the model were created to reflect both commercial health care payer and US Medicaid perspectives, and analyses were conducted for both payer types. Total health care costs in the first year after GEA were substantially lower compared with those for IPH and OPH. Budget impact analysis results showed that increasing GEA utilization yields total annual cost savings of about $906,000 for a million-member commercial health plan and about $152,000 in cost savings for a typical-sized state Medicaid plan with 1.4 million members. Cost-effectiveness analysis results for both perspectives showed GEA as economically dominant (conferring greater benefit at lower cost) over both OPH and IPH in the 1-year commercial scenario. This study demonstrates that, for some patients, GEA may prove to be a safe, uterus-sparing, cost-effective alternative to OPH and IPH for the surgical treatment of AUB.

  3. Proceedings from the Third National Institutes of Health International Congress on Advances in Uterine Leiomyoma Research: comprehensive review, conference summary and future recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Segars, James H.; Parrott, Estella C.; Nagel, Joan D.; Guo, Xiaoxiao Catherine; Gao, Xiaohua; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Pinn, Vivian W.; Dixon, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic tumors in women of reproductive age yet the etiology and pathogenesis of these lesions remain poorly understood. Age, African ancestry, nulliparity and obesity have been identified as predisposing factors for uterine fibroids. Symptomatic tumors can cause excessive uterine bleeding, bladder dysfunction and pelvic pain, as well as associated reproductive disorders such as infertility, miscarriage and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Currently, there are limited noninvasive therapies for fibroids and no early intervention or prevention strategies are readily available. This review summarizes the advances in basic, applied and translational uterine fibroid research, in addition to current and proposed approaches to clinical management as presented at the ‘Advances in Uterine Leiomyoma Research: 3rd NIH International Congress’. Congress recommendations and a review of the fibroid literature are also reported. METHODS This review is a report of meeting proceedings, the resulting recommendations and a literature review of the subject. RESULTS The research data presented highlights the complexity of uterine fibroids and the convergence of ethnicity, race, genetics, epigenetics and environmental factors, including lifestyle and possible socioeconomic parameters on disease manifestation. The data presented suggest it is likely that the majority of women with uterine fibroids will have normal pregnancy outcomes; however, additional research is warranted. As an alternative to surgery, an effective long-term medical treatment for uterine fibroids should reduce heavy uterine bleeding and fibroid/uterine volume without excessive side effects. This goal has not been achieved and current treatments reduce symptoms only temporarily; however, a multi-disciplined approach to understanding the molecular origins and pathogenesis of uterine fibroids, as presented in this report, makes our quest for identifying novel

  4. Uterine Artery Embolization for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jonathan; Christie, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a treatment option for fibroids was first reported by Ravina in 1995. Although rapidly adopted by enthusiasts, many were skeptical and its introduction varied widely across the globe. It was not until randomized controlled trials and registries were published and national guidance statements issued that UAE was accepted as a safe and proven treatment for fibroids. The technique is now established as one of the treatment options to be discussed with patients as an alternative to surgery for fibroid-associated heavy menstrual bleeding. Research is on-going to evaluate the relative merits of UAE compared with other medical and surgical treatment options for heavy menstrual bleeding, particularly for women wishing to maintain their fertility. PMID:26756068

  5. Incarcerated giant uterine leiomyoma within an incisional hernia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Exarchos, Georgios; Vlahos, Nikolaos; Dellaportas, Dionysios; Metaxa, Linda; Theodosopoulos, Theodosios

    2017-11-01

    Uterine leiomyomas presenting as incarcerated or strangulated hernias in surgical emergencies are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with known uterine fibroids and an irreducible ventral abdominal wall hernia. Detailed history and multidisciplinary approach optimize the diagnosis and decision making toward surgical treatment.

  6. Magnetic resonance guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of musculoskeletal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Avedian, Raffi S.; Gold, Garry; Ghanouni, Pejman; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the fundamental principles and clinical experimental uses of magnetic resonance guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) ablation of musculoskeletal tumors. MRgHIFU is a noninvasive treatment modality that takes advantage of the ability of magnetic resonance to measure tissue temperature and uses this technology to guide high-intensity focused ultrasound waves to a specific focus within the human body that results in heat generation and complete thermal necrosis of the targeted tissue. Adjacent normal tissues are spared because of the accurate delivery of thermal energy, as well as, local blood perfusion that provides a cooling effect. MRgHIFU is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of uterine fibroids and is used on an experimental basis to treat breast, prostate, liver, bone, and brain tumors. PMID:26120376

  7. [Uterine necrosis after arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Belghiti, J; Tassin, M; Raiffort, C; Zappa, M; Poujade, O; Bout, H; Mandelbrot, L

    2014-02-01

    Radiologic embolization of the uterine arteries is increasingly used to treat severe postpartum hemorrhage, as an alternative to surgical procedures. Guidelines have been published in order to standardize the indications as well as the technique. An important objective was to limit severe complications such as uterine necrosis. We report a case of a uterine necrosis after arterial embolization for severe postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony on a uterus with fibroids. This complication occurred despite the use of the recommended technique. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Curative effects of two new endometrial ablation procedures using radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of severe abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Yin, Geping; Li, Juan; Zhu, Tongyu; Chen, Ming

    2013-07-01

    Severe Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (SAUB) is a common gynecological disorder. The clinical characteristics include disordered menstrual cycle and massive bleeding that can cause anemia or secondary infection. Current treatment mainly relies on drug therapy or surgical removal of the uterus, each having its significant disadvantages. How to preserve the uterus, reduce the pain from surgery, and achieve better treatment effects have been well known but remaining as unresolved issues. This study aims at evaluating two types of radiofrequency (RF) thermocoagulation procedures for the treatment of SAUB: the RF-A procedure group included 25 SAUB patients ≥45 years of age treated for amenorrhea; the RF-B procedure group included 51 patients at <45 years of age treated for the control of excessive bleeding. Post-treatment ratings of menstrual satisfaction and pre-/post-treatment menstrual scores-pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC)-and hemoglobin levels were collected; and the mean length of follow-up was 72 months. Also, 38 SAUB patients treated with standard drug regimens served as a control group. The results of the study showed that following RF treatment, the average long-term patient menstrual satisfaction was greater than 92 %. In both the RF groups, PBAC scores and hemoglobin levels were significantly improved from baseline (p < .05). Compared with the control group, PBAC scores and hemoglobin levels were also significantly better for the RF groups at 6-24-month post-operation. Patients experienced no hysterectomy in association with the RF procedures. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that the novel RF procedures are both safe and effective in treating patients with SAUB. Further investigation is necessary to evaluate their application in broader clinical indication.

  9. The Estimated Annual Cost of Uterine Leiomyomata in the United States

    PubMed Central

    CARDOZO, Eden R.; CLARK, Andrew D.; BANKS, Nicole K.; HENNE, Melinda B.; STEGMANN, Barbara J.; SEGARS, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the total annual societal cost of uterine fibroids in the United States, based on direct and indirect costs, including associated obstetric complications. Study Design A systematic review of the literature was conducted to estimate the number of women seeking treatment for symptomatic fibroids annually, the costs of medical and surgical treatment, work lost and obstetric complications attributable to fibroids. Total annual costs were converted to 2010 U.S. dollars. A sensitivity analysis was performed. Results The estimated annual direct costs (surgery, hospital admissions, outpatient visits, medications) were $4.1 to $9.4 billion. Estimated lost work costs ranged from $1.55 to $17.2 billion annually. Obstetric outcomes attributed to fibroids resulted in a cost of $238 million to $7.76 billion annually. Uterine fibroids were estimated to cost the US $5.9 to $34.4 billion annually. Conclusions Obstetric complications associated with fibroids contributed significantly to their economic burden. Lost work costs may account for the largest proportion of societal costs due to fibroids. PMID:22244472

  10. Successful operative treatment of uterine leiomyoma with extensive intravenous extension to the IVC, right heart, and pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Brar, Ranjeet; Skervin, Alicia; El-Sakka, Karim; Fish, Andrew; Lewis, Michael

    2018-01-17

    Intravenous extension of benign uterine leiomyomata ('fibroids'), in the absence of discrete metastatic disease has rarely been reported. 'Fibroids' remain one of the most common premenopausal uterine pathologies. We report the diagnosis and multidisciplinary led operative management of a 52-year-old woman with a histologically benign, but biologically aggressive, uterine leiomyoma with intravenous extension to the inferior vena cava (IVC), right heart and pulmonary arteries. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined with exploration of the sub-hepatic IVC and heart under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest achieved its successful macroscopic clearance.

  11. Degenrative Fibroid and Sclerosing Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Michael; Bagley, John; Iqbal, Pervis

    2012-01-01

    Sclerosing peritonitis is a rare condition characterised by ascites, peritoneal and bowel wall thickening. Causes reported in the literature include luteal ovarian the comas, peritoneal dialysis, peritoneal chemotherapy and liver cirrhosis. We report an interesting case of a woman presenting with diarrhoea, abdominal distension, ascites and pleural effusion. She was subsequently diagnosed with Sclerosing Peritonitis caused by a degenerating fibroid which was successfully treated by Total Abdominal Hysterectomy and Bilateral Salpingoophrectomy. PMID:22928130

  12. Medical Treatment of Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (also called myomata or fibroids) are the most common gynecologic tumors in the United States. The prevalence of leiomyomas is at least 3 to 4 times higher among African American women than in white women. Pathologically, uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors that arise in any part of the uterus under the influence of local growth factors and sex hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone. These common tumors cause significant morbidity for women and they are considered to be the most common indication for hysterectomy in the world; they are also associated with a substantial economic impact on health care systems that amounts to approximately $2.2 billion/year in the United States alone. Uterine myomas cause several reproductive problems such as heavy or abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, infertility, and several obstetrical complications including miscarriage and preterm labor. Surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas and has typically consisted of either hysterectomy or myomectomy. In recent years, a few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In the present review, we will discuss these promising medical treatments in further detail. PMID:22378865

  13. The potential role of elastography in differentiating between endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids are common causes of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and less commonly infertility. The prevalence of such intrauterine lesions increases with age during the reproductive years, and usually decreases after menopause. The first-line imaging examination in the diagnosis of endometrial polyps as well as submucosal fibroidsis ultrasound, but its accuracy is not obvious. Elastography is an ultrasound-based imaging modality that is used to assess the stiffness of examined tissues. Considering the fact that endometrial polyps derive from soft endometrial tissue and submucosal fibroids are made of hard muscle tissue, elastography seems a perfect tool to differentiate between such lesions. I present two groups of patients with AUB and intrauterine lesions suspected on ultrasound. In the first group of patients, elastography showed that the stiffness of the lesion was similar to the endometrium and softer than the myometrium. During hysteroscopies endometrial polyps were removed. In the second group of patients, elastography showed that the stiffness of the lesion was similar to the myometrium and harder than the endometrium. During hysteroscopies submucosal fibroids were removed. In both groups, the diagnosis was confirmed by the pathological examination in all cases. It was demonstrated that with the use of elastography it is possible to assess the stiffness of intrauterine lesions, which may be useful in differentiating between endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids. PMID:26327901

  14. The potential role of elastography in differentiating between endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Sławomir

    2015-06-01

    Endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids are common causes of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and less commonly infertility. The prevalence of such intrauterine lesions increases with age during the reproductive years, and usually decreases after menopause. The first-line imaging examination in the diagnosis of endometrial polyps as well as submucosal fibroidsis ultrasound, but its accuracy is not obvious. Elastography is an ultrasound-based imaging modality that is used to assess the stiffness of examined tissues. Considering the fact that endometrial polyps derive from soft endometrial tissue and submucosal fibroids are made of hard muscle tissue, elastography seems a perfect tool to differentiate between such lesions. I present two groups of patients with AUB and intrauterine lesions suspected on ultrasound. In the first group of patients, elastography showed that the stiffness of the lesion was similar to the endometrium and softer than the myometrium. During hysteroscopies endometrial polyps were removed. In the second group of patients, elastography showed that the stiffness of the lesion was similar to the myometrium and harder than the endometrium. During hysteroscopies submucosal fibroids were removed. In both groups, the diagnosis was confirmed by the pathological examination in all cases. It was demonstrated that with the use of elastography it is possible to assess the stiffness of intrauterine lesions, which may be useful in differentiating between endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids.

  15. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  16. Ultrasound interstitial thermal therapy (USITT) for the treatment of uterine myomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nau, William H., Jr.; Diederich, Chris J.; Simko, Jeff; Juang, Titania; Jacoby, Alison; Burdette, E. C.

    2007-02-01

    Uterine myomas (fibroids) are the most common pelvic tumors occurring in women, and are the leading cause of hysterectomy. Symptoms can be severe, and traditional treatments involve either surgical removal of the uterus (hysterectomy), or the fibroids (myomectomy). Interstitial ultrasound technologies have demonstrated potential for hyperthermia and high temperature thermal therapy in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors. These ultrasound devices offer favorable energy penetration allowing large volumes of tissue to be treated in short periods of time, as well as axial and angular control of heating to conform thermal treatment to a targeted tissue, while protecting surrounding tissues from thermal damage. The goal of this project is to evaluate interstitial ultrasound for controlled thermal coagulation of fibroids. Multi-element applicators were fabricated using tubular transducers, some of which were sectored to produce 180° directional heating patterns, and integrated with water cooling. Human uterine fibroids were obtained after routine myomectomies, and instrumented with thermocouples spaced at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 cm from the applicator. Power levels ranging from 8-15 W per element were applied for up to 15 minute heating periods. Results demonstrated that therapeutic temperatures >50° C and cytotoxic thermal doses (t 43) extended beyond 2 cm radially from the applicator (>4 cm diameter). It is anticipated that this system will make a significant contribution toward the treatment of uterine fibroids.

  17. Comparison of Two Endovascular Steerable Robotic Catheters for Percutaneous Robot-Assisted Fibroid Embolization.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, C; Pellerin, O; Nouri Neville, M; Amouyal, G; Fitton, I; Leré-Déan, C; Sapoval, M

    2018-03-01

    To compare outcomes of percutaneous robot-assisted uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) using two different endovascular robotic catheters. Twenty-one patients with a symptomatic uterine fibroid were prospectively enrolled in a single-center study to be treated with a percutaneous robot-assisted embolization using the Magellan system. Fourteen patients were treated using a first generation steerable robotic catheter, version 1.0 (group 1), and seven were treated using the new version 1.1 (group 2). Demographic, pathologic, and procedural variables were recorded. Dose Area Product (DAP) and physician equivalent doses were registered for each procedure. Procedural related complications and clinical midterm outcomes were also evaluated. Successful robot-assisted UFE was obtained in eight patients (57.1%) in group 1 and 7 patients (100%) in group 2 (p = 0.01). A successful robot-assisted catheterization of the internal iliac artery anterior branch was performed in all patients of both groups. Median selective target vessel catheterization time was 21.0 ± 12.8 vs 13.4 ± 7 min (p = 0.04) and total fluoroscopy time was 30.3 ± 11.2 vs 19.3 ± 5.9 min, respectively, in group 1 and 2. Mean DAP decreased from 18472.6 ± 15622 to 5469.1 ± 4461.0 cGy·cm 2 (p = 0.04). All patients obtained a symptoms relief at 6 months follow-up. Robot-assisted uterine fibroid embolization is safe and effective. New version of steerable robotic catheter allows performing a faster procedure without related adverse events compared to old version.

  18. Quality-of-Life Assessment of Fibroid Treatment Options and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Chung Yin; Tempany, Clare M.; Swan, J. Shannon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain utilities (a unit of measure of a person’s relative preferences for different health states compared with death or worst possible outcome) for uterine fibroids before and after treatment and to measure short-term utilities for the following uterine fibroid treatments: abdominal hysterectomy, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–guided focused ultrasound surgery, and uterine artery embolization (UAE). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant. The waiting trade-off (WTO) method, a variation on the time trade-off (TTO) method, is used to obtain utilities for diagnostic procedures on the basis of the fact that people wait longer to avoid noxious tests and/or procedures. The WTO method provides short-term quality of life tolls in terms of quality-adjusted life-weeks by scaling wait times with pre- and posttreatment utilities. Utilities for uterine fibroids before and after treatment were obtained with the TTO method and a visual analog scale (VAS) by using a questionnaire administered by means of a phone interview. WTO wait times were adjusted for quality of life with VAS and TTO utilities and a transformation of VAS. Wait times were compared by using nonparametric tests. The study participants included 62 patients who had undergone abdominal hysterectomy, 74 who had undergone UAE, and 61 who had undergone MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound surgery. Results: Quality of life increased with all treatments. The median WTO wait time was higher for hysterectomy (21.6 weeks) than for UAE or MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound surgery (14.1 weeks for both) (P < .05). Quality-adjusted life-week tolls were smaller when scaled according to TTO than when scaled according to VAS or transformation of VAS. Conclusion: Quality of life increased after all fibroid treatments. WTO is feasible for assessing the quality-adjusted morbidity of treatment procedures. © RSNA, 2011

  19. Uterine leiomyomas and their effect on in vitro fertilization outcome: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Jun, S H; Ginsburg, E S; Racowsky, C; Wise, L A; Hornstein, M D

    2001-03-01

    The effect of uterine leiomyomas on the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment has been controversial. This study was undertaken to clarify influence of fibroids on IVF success, in a large population with age and other potential confounding variables controlled for in the analysis. A population of 141 patients with and 406 without leiomyomata undergoing their first IVF cycle was studied. The association between uterine leiomyomas and assisted reproduction treatment outcome was not statistically significant (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.49-1.19, p = 0.21) after controlling for age and other risk factors. Also, fibroids neither affected the risk of spontaneous abortion (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.44-2.60) nor the risk of ectopic pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.08-8.02). Location of fibroids (intramural vs. submucosal/subserosal) and their size had no significant effect on pregnancy outcome. Results from our analyses indicated that in vitro fertilization outcome was not affected by the presence of uterine leiomyomas. Therefore, in patients with normal uterine cavities and fibroids less than a certain size (i.e., < 7 cm), undergoing myomectomies as a prerequisite for assisted reproduction treatment is seriously questionable.

  20. Increased Serum Oxidative Stress Markers in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, Pietro; Borghese, Bruno; Lemaréchal, Herve; Leconte, Mahaut; Millischer, Anne-Elodie; Batteux, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Background Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common gynaecological benign tumors in premenopausal women. Evidences support the role of oxidative stress in the development of uterine leiomyoma. We have analysed oxidative stress markers (thiols, advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites) in preoperative sera from women with histologically proven uterine leiomyoma. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a laboratory study in a tertiary-care university hospital. Fifty-nine women with histologically proven uterine leiomyoma and ninety-two leiomyoma-free control women have been enrolled in this study. Complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity was performed in each patient. Preoperative serum samples were obtained from all study participants to assay serum thiols, AOPP, protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites. Concentrations of serum protein carbonyl groups and AOPP were higher in leiomyoma patients than in the control group (p=0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). By contrast, serum thiol levels were lower in leiomyoma patients (p<0.001). We found positive correlations between serum AOPP concentrations and total fibroids weight (r=0.339; p=0.028), serum AOPP and serum protein carbonyls with duration of infertility (r=0.762; p=0.006 and r=0.683; p=0.021, respectively). Conclusions/Significance This study, for the first time, reveals a significant increase of protein oxidative stress status and reduced antioxidant capacity in sera from women with uterine leiomyoma. PMID:23951284

  1. TU-B-210-02: MRg HIFU - Advanced Approaches for Ablation and Hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, C.

    2015-06-15

    MR guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), or alternatively high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU), is approved for thermal ablative treatment of uterine fibroids and pain palliation in bone metastases. Ablation of malignant tumors is under active investigation in sites such as breast, prostate, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, and soft tissue. Hyperthermia therapy with MRgFUS is also feasible, and may be used in conjunction with radiotherapy and for local targeted drug delivery. MRI allows in situ target definition and provides continuous temperature monitoring and subsequent thermal dose mapping during HIFU. Although MRgHIFU can be very precise, treatment of mobile organs is challenging and advancedmore » techniques are required because of artifacts in MR temperature mapping, the need for intercostal firing, and need for gated HIFU or tracking of the lesion in real time. The first invited talk, “MR guided Focused Ultrasound Treatment of Tumors in Bone and Soft Tissue”, will summarize the treatment protocol and review results from treatment of bone tumors. In addition, efforts to extend this technology to treat both benign and malignant soft tissue tumors of the extremities will be presented. The second invited talk, “MRI guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound – Advanced Approaches for Ablation and Hyperthermia”, will provide an overview of techniques that are in or near clinical trials for thermal ablation and hyperthermia, with an emphasis of applications in abdominal organs and breast, including methods for MRTI and tracking targets in moving organs. Learning Objectives: Learn background on devices and techniques for MR guided HIFU for cancer therapy Understand issues and current status of clinical MRg HIFU Understand strategies for compensating for organ movement during MRgHIFU Understand strategies for strategies for delivering hyperthermia with MRgHIFU CM - research collaboration with Philips.« less

  2. TU-B-210-01: MRg HIFU - Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanouni, P.

    MR guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), or alternatively high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU), is approved for thermal ablative treatment of uterine fibroids and pain palliation in bone metastases. Ablation of malignant tumors is under active investigation in sites such as breast, prostate, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, and soft tissue. Hyperthermia therapy with MRgFUS is also feasible, and may be used in conjunction with radiotherapy and for local targeted drug delivery. MRI allows in situ target definition and provides continuous temperature monitoring and subsequent thermal dose mapping during HIFU. Although MRgHIFU can be very precise, treatment of mobile organs is challenging and advancedmore » techniques are required because of artifacts in MR temperature mapping, the need for intercostal firing, and need for gated HIFU or tracking of the lesion in real time. The first invited talk, “MR guided Focused Ultrasound Treatment of Tumors in Bone and Soft Tissue”, will summarize the treatment protocol and review results from treatment of bone tumors. In addition, efforts to extend this technology to treat both benign and malignant soft tissue tumors of the extremities will be presented. The second invited talk, “MRI guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound – Advanced Approaches for Ablation and Hyperthermia”, will provide an overview of techniques that are in or near clinical trials for thermal ablation and hyperthermia, with an emphasis of applications in abdominal organs and breast, including methods for MRTI and tracking targets in moving organs. Learning Objectives: Learn background on devices and techniques for MR guided HIFU for cancer therapy Understand issues and current status of clinical MRg HIFU Understand strategies for compensating for organ movement during MRgHIFU Understand strategies for strategies for delivering hyperthermia with MRgHIFU CM - research collaboration with Philips.« less

  3. New approaches to the management of fibroids.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R W

    1991-12-01

    It is clear that gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists have potential as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of fibroids. They are effective in decreasing the size of most fibroids but, on ceasing treatment, regrowth does occur. Because of their effect on calcium homeostasis, long-term unopposed use of these agonists is not recommended. However, sequential addback therapies could be useful in both counterbalancing the hypoestrogenic side effects and in protecting bone mineral density. Although surgery is likely to remain the primary therapy for fibroids, pretreatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for 3 to 4 months before myomectomy or before hysteroscopic resection offer many advantages in facilitating these procedures and reducing peroperative blood loss. Further studies are required to establish the most satisfactory treatment regimens with this exciting group of drugs for a condition whose etiology is still poorly understood.

  4. Inflammatory fibroid polyp of sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, O; Lew, S; Witz, M; Reiss, R; Griffel, B

    1979-01-01

    A case of inflammatory fibroid polyp of the sigmoid colon is presented. This is the eight case of this type of polyp in the colon and, to the best of our knowledge, the first one involving the sigmoid and producing intussusception. Symptomatology of the inflamed fibroid polyp in this part of the gut closely simulates gastrointestinal malignancy. The treatment is surgical excision of the polyp, or colonoscopic resection when it is possible. Intraoperative colonoscopy helps the surgeon to localize the lesion and to role out the existence of other lesions.

  5. Prospective data collection of a new procedure by a specialty society: the FIBROID registry.

    PubMed

    Myers, Evan R; Goodwin, Scott; Landow, Wendy; Mauro, Matthew; Peterson, Eric; Pron, Gaylene; Spies, James B; Worthington-Kirsch, Robert

    2005-07-01

    To describe registry methods and baseline patient demographics from a national sample of women undergoing uterine artery embolization for uterine leiomyomata. Interventional radiology practices were recruited to submit data by a secure Web site on women undergoing uterine artery embolization for symptomatic leiomyomata. Baseline data included patient demographics, prior medical, surgical, and obstetrical history, uterine anatomy, and quality-of-life measures. Subsequent data collected included details of the uterine artery embolization procedure and hospital stay and outcomes at 30 days; patients were also offered the opportunity to participate in longer-term follow-up. Characteristics of white and African-American women were compared using t tests, chi(2), or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests as appropriate. As of December 31, 2002, 3,319 uterine artery embolization cases had been entered into the registry by 72 sites; number of patients entered by individual sites ranged from 1 to 514. Of these patients, 95.4% consented to participation in the short-term outcomes registry. Forty-eight percent of patients were African American, and 44.4% were white and non-Hispanic. Heavy menstrual bleeding was the single most bothersome symptom in 64.3% of patients. Compared with white non-Hispanic women, African-American women were significantly younger, more likely to be obese, had larger uteri and more numerous leiomyomata, more severe symptoms, and poorer quality-of-life scores before treatment. It is feasible to collect prospective data on new technologies. The FIBROID Registry prospectively collected data on more than 3,000 women undergoing uterine artery embolization for symptomatic leiomyomata. Baseline patient characteristics of this patient population seem to be similar to those of women undergoing other procedures for leiomyomata. III.

  6. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF UTERINE LESIONS IN TWO CAPTIVE ORANGUTANS ( PONGO SPP.).

    PubMed

    Kruse, Tamara N; Bowman, Michelle R; Ramer, Jan C; Fayette, Melissa A; Greer, Leah L; Stadler, Cynthia K; Garner, Michael M; Proudfoot, Jeffry S

    2018-03-01

    Uterine lesions in two orangutans were effectively managed with surgical intervention. A 26-year-old hybrid orangutan ( Pongo spp.) was diagnosed with uterine adenomyosis based on advanced imaging. Histologic evaluation identified multifocal myometrial endometriosis, a variant of adenomyosis. A 27-year-old Bornean orangutan ( Pongo pygmaeus) was diagnosed with a focal uterine fibroid based on histologic examination. The animals were housed at separate institutions and initially presented with dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia. Both animals were treated intermittently for episodes of dysmenorrhea, with recurrence of clinical signs after each treatment. Due to the lack of consistent response to medical management, an ovariohysterectomy in the hybrid orangutan and a myomectomy in the Bornean orangutan were performed and resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs. Surgical management of adenomyosis and neoplasia has previously been reported in nonhuman primates. These cases are the first known documentation of surgical management of multifocal myometrial endometriosis and a fibroid in orangutans.

  7. Uterine Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs and symptoms of uterine polyps include: Irregular menstrual bleeding — for example, having frequent, unpredictable periods of variable length and heaviness Bleeding between menstrual periods Excessively heavy menstrual periods Vaginal bleeding after ...

  8. Uterine sacculation.

    PubMed

    Spearing, G J

    1978-01-01

    A case of uterine sacculation is reported in which a classic cesarean section was required for safe delivery. The definition and diagnosis of the condition and some difficulties in management are discussed.

  9. Uterine Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... during bowel movements Family history of weakness in connective tissue Being Hispanic or white Complications Uterine prolapse is ... You might experience: Anterior prolapse (cystocele). Weakness of connective tissue separating the bladder and vagina may cause the ...

  10. Uterine sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 88. Crum CP, Laury AR, Hirsch MS, Quick CM, Peters WA. Undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. In: Crum CP, Quick CM, Laury AR, Peters WA, Hirsch MS, eds. Gynecologic and Obstetric ...

  11. Inactivation of AKT Induces Cellular Senescence in Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaofei; Lu, Zhenxiao; Qiang, Wenan; Vidimar, Vania; Kong, Beihua

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are a major public health problem. Current medical treatments with GnRH analogs do not provide long-term benefit. Thus, permanent shrinkage or inhibition of fibroid growth via medical means remains a challenge. The AKT pathway is a major growth and survival pathway for fibroids. We propose that AKT inhibition results in a transient regulation of specific mechanisms that ultimately drive cells into cellular senescence or cell death. In this study, we investigated specific mechanisms of AKT inhibition that resulted in senescence. We observed that administration of MK-2206, an allosteric AKT inhibitor, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated the microRNA miR-182 and several senescence-associated genes (including p16, p53, p21, and β-galactosidase), and drove leiomyoma cells into stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Moreover, induction of SIPS was mediated by HMGA2, which colocalized to senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. This study provides a conceivable molecular mechanism of SIPS by AKT inhibition in fibroids. PMID:24476133

  12. The Surgical Treatments Outcomes Project for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: summary of an Agency for Health Research and Quality-sponsored randomized trial of endometrial ablation versus hysterectomy for women with heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Munro, Malcolm G; Dickersin, Kay; Clark, Melissa A; Langenberg, Patricia; Scherer, Roberta W; Frick, Kevin D

    2011-04-01

    Surgical Treatments Outcomes Project for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding is an agency for the Healthcare Research and Quality project built around a multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing hysterectomy and endometrial ablation (EA) for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding unrelated to structural causes. For inclusion, women self-defined their complaint, and the endometrial cavity was evaluated to exclude structural lesions. The primary outcomes were bleeding and major problem "solved" at 24 months, with length of institutional stay, surgical complications, quality of life, and reoperation included as secondary outcomes. Also measured was the baseline economic impact of heavy menstrual bleeding. The randomized controlled trial enrolled 237 women. Institutional stay was longer, and perioperative adverse events were more common and severe for those randomized to hysterectomy. At 24 months, 94.4% and 84.9% of women randomized to hysterectomy and EA, respectively, considered their major problem to be solved; at 48 months, the numbers were similar at 98.0% and 85.1%. Postprocedure quality-of-life measures (SF-36, EuroQOL) improved similarly in both groups, but reoperation was more common for women undergoing EA (34, or 30.9%, at 60 mo), with most (32 of 34) selecting hysterectomy.At baseline, women reported missed work as well as activity and leisure limitations. Excess monetary costs were $306 per patient-year (95% CI, $30-$1,872). Excess work and home management loss costs were $2,152 (95% CI, $1,862-$2,479). It was estimated that successful treatment, regardless of the type of intervention, could result in a gain of 1.8 quality-adjusted life years. Future studies will examine and compare the impact of the study interventions on economic outcomes. © 2011 by The North American Menopause Society

  13. [Recurrence of a rudimentary uterine horn rupture at 25 weeks of gestation: a case report].

    PubMed

    Schmied, R; Sentilhes, L; Baron, M; Grzegorczyk, V; Resch, B; Marpeau, L

    2008-03-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is a rare event which can be revealed by uterine rupture. Following the fetal extraction, some authors recommend the ablation of the rudimentary horn, in order to limit the risk of uterine rupture in case of subsequent pregnancy in the same horn. We report the obstetrical outcome of a patient with a history of rudimentary uterine horn rupture the treatment of which was conservative.

  14. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Knowledge is an initiative that supports the Gynecologic Cancer Education and Awareness Act of 2005, or Johanna’s Law, which was unanimously passed by the U.S. House and Senate in December of 2006, and signed into law in January ... of getting uterine cancer? There is no way to know for sure ...

  15. Reproductive outcome following abdominal myomectomy for a very large fibroid uterus.

    PubMed

    Pundir, J; Kopeika, J; Harris, L; Krishnan, N; Uwins, C; Siozos, A; Khalaf, Y; El-Toukhy, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term reproductive outcome following abdominal myomectomy in women with very large fibroid uteri. It is a retrospective study of 90 subfertile women with the main outcome measure of live-birth rate following spontaneous and assisted conception. Mean age of the study population was 37 ± 5 years and mean uterine size was 21 ± 6 weeks. During follow-up (mean 50 ± 10 months), 28 (31%) pregnancies occurred; 18 spontaneous and 10 following IVF. The live-birth rate was 20% and the miscarriage rate was 32%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the chance of live birth was significantly reduced with increasing female age at the time of surgery (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51-0.86, p = 0.002). The perioperative blood transfusion rate was 30% and the incidence of major complications was 6%. Fertility after abdominal myomectomy for very large fibroid uteri is possible, and its major determinant is female age at the time of surgery.

  16. Radiographic imaging techniques for the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Bradley, L D; Falcone, T; Magen, A B

    2000-06-01

    The introduction of SIS has been a significant advance in TVUS evaluation of the endometrial cavity in the 1990s. SIS provides an unparalleled, clear, enhanced view of the endomyometrial complex that cannot be obtained with TVUS alone. Focal and global endometrial pathology can be differentiated with SIS. Saline infusion improves the sensitivity for the detection of endometrial abnormalities. The continuing challenge for gynecologists is to provide patients with cost-effective, minimally invasive evaluation and directed therapy for menstrual dysfunction. SIS targets patients needing biopsy, directs the surgical approach, and minimizes office diagnostic hysteroscopy--all with a quick office procedure. For patients, the benefits include minimal and brief discomfort and a better understanding of intrauterine pathology through viewing the ultrasound monitor. Patients also appreciate the ease of scheduling, the minimal time away from work, and that no escort is needed after the procedure. SIS provides an extension of the pelvic gynecologic examination. SIS is the most important imaging modality for evaluating endometrial pathology. Although there is no perfect test to evaluate the endometrium, overall, SIS is superior to other imaging and diagnostic procedures. It is less expensive than D&C or hysteroscopy. It is a safe, efficient, convenient, and well-tolerated procedure. In some instances, however, neither TVUS nor SIS is definitive in determining the location of fibroids or able to discern adenomyosis. In these instances, MR imaging triage is helpful. MR imaging is gaining widespread acceptance and, in many instances, is a cost-effective tool in the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding. It is noninvasive, differentiates uterine anatomy in response to exogenous hormones or the normal menstrual cycle, and reliably localizes pelvic pathology and size of lesions. When uterine conservation is desired in women with fibroids and TVUS or SIS is indeterminate in localizing

  17. Epidemiological and genetic clues for molecular mechanisms involved in uterine leiomyoma development and growth.

    PubMed

    Commandeur, Arno E; Styer, Aaron K; Teixeira, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are highly prevalent benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. In the USA, the lifetime risk for women developing uterine leiomyomas is estimated as up to 75%. Except for hysterectomy, most therapies or treatments often provide only partial or temporary relief and are not successful in every patient. There is a clear racial disparity in the disease; African-American women are estimated to be three times more likely to develop uterine leiomyomas and generally develop more severe symptoms. There is also familial clustering between first-degree relatives and twins, and multiple inherited syndromes in which fibroid development occurs. Leiomyomas have been described as clonal and hormonally regulated, but despite the healthcare burden imposed by the disease, the etiology of uterine leiomyomas remains largely unknown. The mechanisms involved in their growth are also essentially unknown, which has contributed to the slow progress in development of effective treatment options. A comprehensive PubMed search for and critical assessment of articles related to the epidemiological, biological and genetic clues for uterine leiomyoma development was performed. The individual functions of some of the best candidate genes are explained to provide more insight into their biological function and to interconnect and organize genes and pathways in one overarching figure that represents the current state of knowledge about uterine leiomyoma development and growth. In this review, the widely recognized roles of estrogen and progesterone in uterine leiomyoma pathobiology on the basis of clinical and experimental data are presented. This is followed by fundamental aspects and concepts including the possible cellular origin of uterine fibroids. The central themes in the subsequent parts are cytogenetic aberrations in leiomyomas and the racial/ethnic disparities in uterine fibroid biology. Then, the attributes of various in vitro and in vivo, human syndrome

  18. Epidemiological and genetic clues for molecular mechanisms involved in uterine leiomyoma development and growth

    PubMed Central

    Commandeur, Arno E.; Styer, Aaron K.; Teixeira, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are highly prevalent benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. In the USA, the lifetime risk for women developing uterine leiomyomas is estimated as up to 75%. Except for hysterectomy, most therapies or treatments often provide only partial or temporary relief and are not successful in every patient. There is a clear racial disparity in the disease; African-American women are estimated to be three times more likely to develop uterine leiomyomas and generally develop more severe symptoms. There is also familial clustering between first-degree relatives and twins, and multiple inherited syndromes in which fibroid development occurs. Leiomyomas have been described as clonal and hormonally regulated, but despite the healthcare burden imposed by the disease, the etiology of uterine leiomyomas remains largely unknown. The mechanisms involved in their growth are also essentially unknown, which has contributed to the slow progress in development of effective treatment options. METHODS A comprehensive PubMed search for and critical assessment of articles related to the epidemiological, biological and genetic clues for uterine leiomyoma development was performed. The individual functions of some of the best candidate genes are explained to provide more insight into their biological function and to interconnect and organize genes and pathways in one overarching figure that represents the current state of knowledge about uterine leiomyoma development and growth. RESULTS In this review, the widely recognized roles of estrogen and progesterone in uterine leiomyoma pathobiology on the basis of clinical and experimental data are presented. This is followed by fundamental aspects and concepts including the possible cellular origin of uterine fibroids. The central themes in the subsequent parts are cytogenetic aberrations in leiomyomas and the racial/ethnic disparities in uterine fibroid biology. Then, the attributes of various in vitro and

  19. Three-year outcome of the Halt trial: a prospective analysis of radiofrequency volumetric thermal ablation of myomas.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jay M; Guido, Richard S; Garza Leal, José Gerardo; Pemueller, Rodolfo Robles; Whaley, Fredrick S; Chudnoff, Scott G

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the clinical success of radiofrequency volumetric thermal ablation (RFVTA) at 3-year follow-up in terms of subject responses to validated questionnaires and surgical repeat intervention to treat myomas. Prospective follow-up of patients for 36 months after treatment in a multicenter international trial of outpatient, laparoscopic ultrasound-guided RFVTA of symptomatic uterine myomas (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). University hospitals and private surgical centers. One hundred thirty-five premenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 42.5 [4.6] years; body mass index, 30.5 [6.1]) with symptomatic uterine myomas and objectively confirmed heavy menstrual bleeding (≥ 160 to ≤ 500 mL). Laparoscopic ultrasound-guided RFVTA. One hundred four participants were followed prospectively for 36 months after treatment of myomas via RFVTA. For 104 evaluable participants with 36-month data, change in mean (SD) symptom severity from baseline (60.2 [18.8]) to 36 months was -32.6 (95% confidence interval, -37.5 to -27.8; p < .001). Health-related quality of life also was improved, from the baseline value of 39.2 (19.2) to 38.6 (95% confidence interval, 33.3 to 43.9; p < .001) at 36 months. Patient-reported Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire subscores demonstrated statistically significant improvement from baseline to 36 months in all categories (Concern, Activities, Energy/Mood, Control, Self-consciousness, and Sexual Function) (p < .001). For the 104 participants with 36-month data, mean state of health scores (EuroQOL-5D Health State Index) improved from a baseline value of 71.0 (19.3) to 86.2 (11.7) at 36 months. The cumulative repeat intervention rate of 11% (14 of 135 participants) at 36 months was well below the possible 25% maximum expected at the beginning of the trial. RFVTA of uterine myomas resulted in sustained relief from myoma symptoms and continued improvement in health-related quality of life through 36 months

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  1. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Indicates Silencing of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Antonia; Yin, Ping; Monsivais, Diana; Lin, Simon M.; Du, Pan; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, represent the most common benign tumor of the female reproductive tract. Fibroids become symptomatic in 30% of all women and up to 70% of African American women of reproductive age. Epigenetic dysregulation of individual genes has been demonstrated in leiomyoma cells; however, the in vivo genome-wide distribution of such epigenetic abnormalities remains unknown. Principal Findings We characterized and compared genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiles in uterine leiomyoma and matched adjacent normal myometrial tissues from 18 African American women. We found 55 genes with differential promoter methylation and concominant differences in mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma versus normal myometrium. Eighty percent of the identified genes showed an inverse relationship between DNA methylation status and mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma tissues, and the majority of genes (62%) displayed hypermethylation associated with gene silencing. We selected three genes, the known tumor suppressors KLF11, DLEC1, and KRT19 and verified promoter hypermethylation, mRNA repression and protein expression using bisulfite sequencing, real-time PCR and western blot. Incubation of primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restored KLF11, DLEC1 and KRT19 mRNA levels. Conclusions These results suggest a possible functional role of promoter DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma in African American women. PMID:22428009

  2. Focal myometrial defect and partial placenta accreta in a pregnancy following bilateral uterine artery embolization.

    PubMed

    El-Miligy, Magdy; Gordon, Adam; Houston, Graeme

    2007-06-01

    A 29-year-old nulliparous patient was treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) for a large symptomatic uterine fibroid, resulting in a marked reduction of the tumor volume. She subsequently conceived and progressed through pregnancy uneventfully. At cesarean section for breech presentation at term, a large fundal myometrial defect was encountered. In addition, the patient presented with unexpected partial placenta accreta, which resulted in massive atonic uterine bleeding. It is suggested that UAE was implicated in the pathogenesis of myometrial damage and abnormal placentation. It is proposed that the antenatal care of pregnancies after UAE include careful imaging of the placenta, its vasculature, and the thickness of overlying uterine wall so peripartum management can be appropriately planned.

  3. Proportion of Uterine Malignant Tumors in Patients with Laparoscopic Myomectomy: A National Multicenter Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Li, Xiao-Chuan; Yao, Chen; Lang, Jing-He; Jin, Hang-Mei; Xi, Ming-Rong; Wang, Gang; Wang, Lu-Wen; Hao, Min; Ding, Yan; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Han, Lu; Guo, Cheng-Xiu; Xue, Xiang; Li, Yan; Zheng, Jian-Hua; Cui, Man-Hua; Li, Huai-Fang; Tao, Guang-Shi; Chen, Long; Wang, Su-Min; Lu, An-Wei; Huang, Ze-Hua; Liu, Qing; Zhuang, Ya-Li; Huang, Xiang-Hua; Zhu, Gen-Hai; Huang, Ou-Ping; Hu, Li-Na; Li, Mu-Jun; Zhou, Hong-Lin; Song, Jing-Hui; Zhu, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Food and Drug Administration recently announced that the use of morcellation may cause fibroids or pelvic dissemination and metastasis of uterine sarcoma; therefore, the use of morcellation is limited in the USA. A large sample study is necessary to assess the proportion of uterine malignant tumors found in patients with laparoscopic myomectomy. Methods: A national multicenter study was performed in China. From 2002 to 2014, 33,723 cases were retrospectively selected. We calculated the prevalence and recorded the clinical characteristics of the patients with malignancy after morcellation application. A total of 62 cases were finally pathologically confirmed as malignant postoperatively. Additionally, the medical records of the 62 patients were analyzed in details. Results: The proportion of postoperative malignancy after morcellation application was 0.18% (62/33,723) for patients who underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Nearly 62.9% (39/62) of patients had demonstrated blood flow signals in the uterine fibroids before surgery. And, 23 (37.1%) patients showed rapid growth at the final preoperative ultrasound. With respect to the pathological types, 38 (61.3%) patients had detectable endometrial stromal sarcoma, 13 (21.0%) had detectable uterine leiomyosarcoma, only 3 (3.2%) had detectable carcinosarcoma, and 5 (8.1%) patients with leiomyoma had an undetermined malignant potential. Conclusions: The proportion of malignancy is low after using morcellation in patients who undergo laparoscopic myomectomy. Patients with fast-growing uterine fibroids and abnormal ultrasonic tumor blood flow should be considered for malignant potential, and morcellation should be avoided. PMID:29133752

  4. CDB-4124 does not cause apoptosis in cultured fibroid cells.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Hilary; Jayes, Friederike; Feng, Liping; Leppert, Phyllis C

    2011-09-01

    Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs), such as asoprisnil (J867) and ulipristal (CDB-2914), have been shown to reduce fibroid volume in vivo and to induce apoptosis in vitro. CDB-4124 (telapristone), a SPRM with different side groups, also reduced fibroid volume in vivo, and we hypothesized that this SPRM would also cause apoptosis in cultured fibroid cells. Immortalized, progesterone receptor-positive fibroid cells, known to be capable of apoptosis, were grown to 80% confluence in serum-containing media. Cells were then treated for 48 hours in serum-free media with 0, 10, 100, or 1000 nmol/L CDB-4124. Actinomycin-D and staurosporine were used as positive controls to induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was quantified using a TUNEL-fluorescein kit. Images were captured with a widefield-fluorescence microscope and analyzed using MetaMorph image analysis software. To validate results, Western blots of total cell lysates were probed for cleaved caspase-3 (c-CASP3). Experiments were repeated 3 times using independent cell batches. Analysis of 19 712 nuclei indicated 14.8% ± 10.9% (mean ± SEM), 8.4% ± 4.6%, 8.2% ± 4.7%, and 9.3% ± 6.3% apoptosis in 0, 10, 100, and 1000 nmol/L CDB-4124-treated cells, respectively. There was no evidence of elevated c-CASP3 over vehicle control after treatment with CDB-4124. CDB-4124 did not significantly induce apoptosis in cultured fibroid cells under the conditions described suggesting apoptosis may not be the main pathway responsible for CDB-4124-induced fibroid shrinkage. Variations in SPRM biological effects may be due to differences in fibroid source cells, binding kinetics, or extracellular matrix characteristics, and can be exploited in further investigations of the mechanisms of action of SPRMs in fibroid biology.

  5. Mifepristone versus placebo to treat uterine myoma: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Josep Lluis Carbonell; Acosta, Rita; Pérez, Yasmirian; Rodriguez, Barbara; Seigler, Isabel; Sanchez, Carlos; Tomasi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and quality of life of 5 mg mifepristone per day compared with a placebo in treating uterine fibroids. Design Randomized, double-blind clinical study. Location Eusebio Hernández Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital, Havana, Cuba. Subjects One hundred twenty-four subjects with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Treatment One daily capsule of 5 mg mifepristone or a mifepristone placebo over 3 months. Variables in evaluating safety Changes in fibroid and uterine volumes, changes in symptom prevalence and intensity, and changes in quality of life. Results Three months into treatment, fibroid volume was reduced by 28.5% in the mifepristone group with an increase of 1.8% in the placebo group (P = 0.031). There were significant differences between the groups with respect to pelvic pain prevalence (P = 0.006), pelvic pressure (P = 0.027), rectal pain (P = 0.013), hypermenorrhea (P < 0.001), and metrorrhagia (P = 0.002) at the end of treatment. Amenorrhea was 93.1% and 4.3% in the mifepristone and placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Treatment side effects were significantly greater in the mifepristone group. Estradiol levels did not differ significantly between the placebo and mifepristone groups at the end of treatment. Improvement in quality of life was significantly greater in the categories of “symptoms” (P = 0.004) and “activity” (P = 0.045) in the mifepristone group. Conclusion The 5 mg dosage of mifepristone presented significantly superior efficacy compared to the placebo. PMID:23843709

  6. The Mechanism and Function of Epigenetics in Uterine Leiomyoma Development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiwei; Mas, Aymara; Diamond, Michael P.; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas, also known as uterine fibroids, are the most common pelvic tumors, occurring in nearly 70% of all reproductive-aged women and are the leading indication for hysterectomy worldwide. The development of uterine leiomyomas involve a complex and heterogeneous constellation of hormones, growth factors, stem cells, genetic, and epigenetic abnormalities. An increasing body of evidence emphasizes the important contribution of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of leiomyomas. Genome-wide methylation analysis demonstrates that a subset of estrogen receptor (ER) response genes exhibit abnormal hypermethylation levels that are inversely correlated with their RNA expression. Several tumor suppressor genes, including Kruppel-like factor 11 (KLF11), deleted in lung and esophageal cancer 1 (DLEC1), keratin 19 (KRT19), and death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) also display higher hypermethylation levels in leiomyomas when compared to adjacent normal tissues. The important role of active DNA demethylation was recently identified with regard to the ten-eleven translocation protein 1 and ten-eleven translocation protein 3-mediated elevated levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in leiomyoma. In addition, both histone deacetylase and histone methyltransferase are reported to be involved in the biology of leiomyomas. A number of deregulated microRNAs have been identified in leiomyomas, leading to an altered expression of their targets. More recently, the existence of side population (SP) cells with characteristics of tumor-initiating cells have been characterized in leiomyomas. These SP cells exhibit a tumorigenic capacity in immunodeficient mice when exposed to 17β-estradiol and progesterone, giving rise to fibroid-like tissue in vivo. These new findings will likely enhance our understanding of the crucial role epigenetics plays in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas as well as point the way to novel therapeutic options. PMID:25922306

  7. A gata2-dependent transcription network regulates uterine progesterone responsiveness and endometrial function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Altered progesterone responsiveness leads to female infertility and cancer, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Mice with uterine-specific ablation of GATA binding protein 2 (Gata2) are infertile, showing failures in embryo implantation, endometrial decidualization, and uninhibited estrogen si...

  8. Uterine length and fertility outcomes: a cohort study in the IVF population.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, L K; Correia, K F; Srouji, S S; Hornstein, M D; Missmer, S A

    2013-11-01

    What is the relationship between pre-cycle uterine length and IVF outcome (chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion and live birth)? Women at extremes of uterine length (<7.0 or >9.0 cm) were less likely to achieve live birth and women with uterine lengths <6.0 cm were also more likely to experience spontaneous abortion. A prospective study of 807 women published in 2000 found that implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were highest in women with uterine lengths between 7.0 and 9.0 cm, though the difference was not significant. The relationship between pre-cycle uterine length and live birth has not been evaluated. A retrospective cohort study of all cycles performed after uterine length measurement at an academic hospital IVF clinic from 2001 to 2012. A total of 8981 fresh cycles were performed in 5120 adult women with normal uterine anatomy. Women with uterine anomalies (unicornuate, bicornuate, septate or uterus exposed to diethylstilbestrol) were excluded and women with fibroids were identified for subanalysis. Uterine length was measured by uterine sounding. Cycles were divided by uterine length into groups: <6.0 cm (very short, n = 76), 6.0-6.9 cm (short, n = 2014), 7.0-7.9 cm (referent, n = 4984), 8.0-8.9 cm (long, n = 1664) and ≥9 cm (very long, n = 243). Multivariate logistic regression (first-cycle analyses) and generalized estimating equations (all-cycle analyses) were adjusted for age, fibroids and ART treatment (assisted hatching, intracytoplasmic sperm injection) to generate relative risk (RR) of cycle outcomes by uterine length. Median uterine length in the IVF population was 7.0 cm (interquartile range 7.0-7.8) and was positively associated with BMI (P < 0.001) and fibroids (P = 0.02). Compared with the referent group, women with uterine lengths <6.0 cm were half as likely to achieve live birth (RR: 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-0.81) and women with lengths of 6.0-6.9 cm were also less likely (RR: 0.91; CI: 0

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  10. Focal adenomyosis (intramural endometriotic cyst) in a very young patient - differential diagnosis with uterine fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Manta, L; Suciu, N; Constantin, A; Toader, O; Popa, F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Adenomyosis is a widespread disease usually affecting the late reproductive years of the women’s life, which has a great impact on their fertility. The most common form is diffuse adenomyosis, while focal adenomyosis, a cystic variant, is very rare, particularly in patients younger than 30 years old. Materials and methods. We reported a rare case of a 20-year-old Caucasian woman with cystic adenomyosis who was admitted in our service with severe chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia, who had received conservative surgical treatment to preserve fertility and improve her obstetrical prognosis. Results and Discussions. Although the necrobiosis of a uterine fibroid was suspected preoperatively, the extemporaneous histopathological exam revealed adenomyosis associated with fibroleiomyoma with hyaline dystrophy and multiple foci of endometriosis of cystic formation in the wall of a young woman without any risk factors. Conclusion. Although a rare lesion in young patients, cystic adenomyosis should be considered when chronic pelvic pain is exacerbated during menstruation and is associated with a uterine tumor. In young patients, the differential diagnosis should be made with uterine malformations (hematometra), necrobiosis of uterine fibroids, pelvic endometriosis. The surgical treatment should be conservative with the excision of the lesion, always taking into account fertility preservation in young patients. PMID:27453751

  11. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. [Embolization of the uterine artery in the treatment of uterine myoma].

    PubMed

    Simonetti, G; Romanini, C; Pocek, M; Piccione, E; Guazzaroni, M; Zupi, E; Gandini, R; Gabriele, A; Vaquero, E

    2001-03-01

    months and a 75% reduction at 1 year. All patients reported a marked decrease in symptoms. No major complications were observed. The appearance of pelvic pain in the 24-48 hours after the procedure required sedation by analgesic pump; transitorial amenorrhea was observed in 3 patients. As for term complications, 2 patients have eliminated necrotic material through the vagina four weeks after procedure. The patients reported great satisfaction with the procedure. Many treatment options are currently available for symptomatic uterine myomas. One is surgical myomectomy which is associated with increased blood loss, pain and post operative morbidity and requires an additional surgical procedure for fibroma recurrence in 20-25% of patients. Another alternative treatment is hormonal therapy, which drammatically improves symptoms and reduces fibroid size although leiomyomas regrow to their original size within a few months of discontinuing treatment. Uterine embolization is a relatively new treatment for uterine fibroids that can be considered as an alternative to surgical and medical procedures. The radiation exposure adsorbed by the patient is reduced by using pulsed fluoroscopy and taking all the precautionary measures required to minimize the dose. The technical success, the patient' satisfation, the short hospitalization time and preservation of fertility confer to uterine artery embolization the role of a new alternative therapy for the treatment of symptomatic uterine myomas.

  13. Endometrial Ablation

    MedlinePlus

    ... or lighter levels. If ablation does not control heavy bleeding, further treatment or surgery may be needed. ... ablation is used to treat many causes of heavy bleeding. In most cases, women with heavy bleeding ...

  14. Uterine artery embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... be severe and may last more than 6 hours at a time. Most women recover quickly and are able to return to normal activities within 7 to 10 days. Sometimes portions of the treated fibroid tissue may pass through your vagina.

  15. Uterine Artery Embolization: An Analysis of Online Patient Information Quality and Readability with Historical Comparison.

    PubMed

    Murray, Timothy E; Mansoor, Tayyaub; Bowden, Dermot J; O'Neill, Damien C; Lee, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    Investigators aimed to assess online information describing uterine artery embolization (UAE) to examine the quality and readability of websites patients are accessing. A list of applicable, commonly used searchable terms was generated, including "Uterine Artery Embolization," "Fibroid Embolization," "Uterine Fibroid Embolization," and "Uterine Artery Embolisation." Each possible term was assessed across the five most-used English language search engines to determine the most commonly used term. The most common term was then investigated across each search engine, with the first 25 pages returned by each engine included for analysis. Duplicate pages, nontext content such as video or audio, and pages behind paywalls were excluded. Pages were analyzed for quality and readability using validated tools including DISCERN score, JAMA Benchmark Criteria, HONcode Certification, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, and Gunning-Fog Index. Secondary features such as age, rank, author, and publisher were recorded. The most common applicable term was "Uterine Artery Embolization" (492,900 results). Mean DISCERN quality of information provided by UAE websites is "fair"; however, it has declined since comparative 2012 studies. Adherence to JAMA Benchmark Criteria has reduced to 6.7%. UAE website readability remains more difficult than the World Health Organization-recommended 7-8th grade reading levels. HONcode-certified websites (35.6%) demonstrated significantly higher quality than noncertified websites. Quality of online UAE information remains "fair." Adherence to JAMA benchmark criteria is poor. Readability is above recommended 7-8th grade levels. HONcode certification was predictive of higher website quality, a useful guide to patients requesting additional information. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Non puerperal uterine inversion in a young female- a case report.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Setu; Samal, Sunil Kumar; Pallavee, P; Ghose, Seetesh

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of 28-year-old, primipara who presented with complaints of mass descending per vaginum along with excessive bleeding and foul smelling vaginal discharge for the past six months. Clinical examination revealed an inverted uterus, cervix and vagina with a large submucosal fundal fibroid. A diagnosis of non-puerperal uterine inversion was made. Surgical management included vaginal myomectomy with repositioning of the uterus using an abdomino-vaginal approach and a successful outcome. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyoma. Hence, we conclude that uterus-sparing surgery should be considered in young females desirous for future pregnancy until the final pathology is known.

  17. Three-dimension finite-element analyses of multiple electrodes bipolar RF global endometrial ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tao; Panhao, Tang; Xiao, Jiahua

    2015-03-01

    Radio-frequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure to thermally ablate the targeted diseased tissue. There have been many finite-element method (FEM) studies of cardiac and hepatic RFA, but hardly find any FEM study on endometrial ablation for abnormal uterine bleeding. In this paper, a FEM model was generated to analyze the temperature distribution of bipolar RF global endometrial ablation with three pairs of bipolar electrodes placed at the perimeter of the uterine cavity. COMSOL was utilized to calculate the RF electric fields and temperature fields by numerically solving the bioheat equation in the triangle uterine cavity range. The 55°C isothermal surfaces show the shape of the ablation dimensions (depth and width), which reasonably matched the experimental results.

  18. Endometrial ablation: normal appearance and complications.

    PubMed

    Drylewicz, Monica R; Robinson, Kathryn; Siegel, Cary Lynn

    2018-03-14

    Global endometrial ablation is a commonly performed, minimally invasive technique aimed at improving/resolving abnormal uterine bleeding and menorrhagia in women. As non-resectoscopic techniques have come into existence, endometrial ablation performance continues to increase due to accessibility and decreased requirements for operating room time and advanced technical training. The increased utilization of this method translates into increased imaging of patients who have undergone the procedure. An understanding of the expected imaging appearances of endometrial ablation using different modalities is important for the abdominal radiologist. In addition, the frequent usage of the technique naturally comes with complications requiring appropriate imaging work-up. We review the expected appearance of the post-endometrial ablated uterus on multiple imaging modalities and demonstrate the more common and rare complications seen in the immediate post-procedural time period and remotely.

  19. Cost and Distribution of Hysterectomy and Uterine Artery Embolization in the United States: Regional/Rural/Urban Disparities.

    PubMed

    Glass Lewis, Marquisette; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T

    2017-05-16

    Hysterectomy, the driving force for symptomatic uterine fibroids since 1895, has decreased over the years, but it is still the number one choice for many women. Since 1995, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been proven by many researchers to be an effective treatment for uterine fibroids while allowing women to keep their uteri. The preponderance of data collection and research has focused on care quality in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, with little on location and viability related to care utilization, accessibility and physical availability. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the cost of UAE and classical abdominal hysterectomy with regard to race/ethnicity, region, and location. Data from National Hospital Discharge for 2004 through 2008 were accessed and analyzed for uterine artery embolization and hysterectomy. Frequency analyses were performed to determine distribution of variables by race/ethnicity, location, region, insurance coverage, cost and procedure. Based on frequency distributions of cost and length of stay, outliers were trimmed and categorized. Crosstabs were used to determine cost distributions by region, place/location, procedure, race, and primary payer. For abdominal hysterectomy, 9.8% of the sample were performed in rural locations accross the country. However, for UAE, only seven procedures were performed nationally in the same period. Therefore, all inferential analyses and associations for UAE were assumed for urban locations only. The pattern differed from region to region, regarding the volume of care (numbers of cases by location) and care cost. Comparing hysterectomy and UAE, the patterns indicate generally higher costs for UAE with a mean cost difference of $4223.52. Of the hysterectomies performed for fibroids on Black women in the rural setting, 92.08% were in the south. Overall, data analyzed in this examination indicated a significant disparity between rural and urban residence in both data

  20. Cost and Distribution of Hysterectomy and Uterine Artery Embolization in the United States: Regional/Rural/Urban Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Glass Lewis, Marquisette; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.

    2017-01-01

    Hysterectomy, the driving force for symptomatic uterine fibroids since 1895, has decreased over the years, but it is still the number one choice for many women. Since 1995, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been proven by many researchers to be an effective treatment for uterine fibroids while allowing women to keep their uteri. The preponderance of data collection and research has focused on care quality in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, with little on location and viability related to care utilization, accessibility and physical availability. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the cost of UAE and classical abdominal hysterectomy with regard to race/ethnicity, region, and location. Data from National Hospital Discharge for 2004 through 2008 were accessed and analyzed for uterine artery embolization and hysterectomy. Frequency analyses were performed to determine distribution of variables by race/ethnicity, location, region, insurance coverage, cost and procedure. Based on frequency distributions of cost and length of stay, outliers were trimmed and categorized. Crosstabs were used to determine cost distributions by region, place/location, procedure, race, and primary payer. For abdominal hysterectomy, 9.8% of the sample were performed in rural locations accross the country. However, for UAE, only seven procedures were performed nationally in the same period. Therefore, all inferential analyses and associations for UAE were assumed for urban locations only. The pattern differed from region to region, regarding the volume of care (numbers of cases by location) and care cost. Comparing hysterectomy and UAE, the patterns indicate generally higher costs for UAE with a mean cost difference of $4223.52. Of the hysterectomies performed for fibroids on Black women in the rural setting, 92.08% were in the south. Overall, data analyzed in this examination indicated a significant disparity between rural and urban residence in both data

  1. Uterine Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat. Start here to find information on uterine cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  2. Myomectomy for Retained Placenta Due to Incarcerated Fibroid Mass

    PubMed Central

    Mbamara, SU; Daniyan, ABC; Osaro, Ejenobo; Mbah, IC

    2015-01-01

    Retained placenta is one of the most common complications of preterm delivery and/or mid-trimester miscarriage. It is an important cause of increased maternal morbidity and sometimes mortality especially in developing countries. It is associated with several complications that could be tasking to the facility and of great challenge to the obstetrician. Here we present a very rare event in obstetrics which is retained placenta due to incarcerated, posteriorly-sited fibroid that was successfully managed with myomectomy. PMID:25861539

  3. Myomectomy for retained placenta due to incarcerated fibroid mass.

    PubMed

    Mbamara, S U; Daniyan, Abc; Osaro, Ejenobo; Mbah, I C

    2015-01-01

    Retained placenta is one of the most common complications of preterm delivery and/or mid-trimester miscarriage. It is an important cause of increased maternal morbidity and sometimes mortality especially in developing countries. It is associated with several complications that could be tasking to the facility and of great challenge to the obstetrician. Here we present a very rare event in obstetrics which is retained placenta due to incarcerated, posteriorly-sited fibroid that was successfully managed with myomectomy.

  4. Ablation article and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. D.; Sullivan, E. M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An ablation article, such as a conical heat shield, having an ablating surface is provided with at least one discrete area of at least one seed material, such as aluminum. When subjected to ablation conditions, the seed material is ablated. Radiation emanating from the ablated seed material is detected to analyze ablation effects without disturbing the ablation surface. By providing different seed materials having different radiation characteristics, the ablating effects on various areas of the ablating surface can be analyzed under any prevailing ablation conditions. The ablating article can be provided with means for detecting the radiation characteristics of the ablated seed material to provide a self-contained analysis unit.

  5. Selective progesterone receptor modulators for fertility preservation in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids†

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Uterine fibroids (UFs, AKA leiomyoma) are the most important benign neoplastic threat to women's health, with costs up to hundreds of billions of health care dollars worldwide. Uterine fibroids caused morbidities exert a tremendous health toll, impacting the quality of life of women of all ethnicities, especially women of color. Clinical presentations include heavy vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, bulk symptoms, subfertility, and obstetric complications. Current management strategies heavily lean toward surgical procedures; nonetheless, the choice of treatment is generally subject to patient's age and her desire to preserve future fertility. Women with UF who desire to maintain future fertility potential face a dilemma because of the limited treatment choices that are currently available to help them achieve that goal. Recently, ulipristal acetate the first of the promising family of oral selective progesterone receptor modulators has been approved for UF treatment in Europe, Canada, and several other countries and is under review for possible approval in the USA. In this review article, we discuss recent advances in the management options against UF with a bend toward oral effective long-term treatment alternatives who are particularly suited for those seeking to preserve their future fertility potential. We also explore the transformative concept of primary and secondary UF prevention using these new anti-UF agents. We envision a remarkable shift in the management of UF in future years from surgical/invasive treatment to orally administrated options; clearly, this potential shift will require additional intense clinical research. PMID:29025038

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  7. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Gynecologists website. ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www.acog.org/Resources-And-Publications/Committee-Opinions/ ...

  8. Stages of Uterine Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat uterine sarcoma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment ...

  9. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doing AMIGAS Stay Informed Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer. U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool The Data Visualizations tool makes ...

  10. Urological complications of uterine leiomyoma: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dagur, Gautam; Suh, Yiji; Warren, Kelly; Singh, Navjot; Fitzgerald, John; Khan, Sardar A

    2016-06-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are common gynecologic tumor in reproductive-aged women, by age 50, diagnosis shared by urologist, gynecologists and radiologists. The goal of this article is to review the current literature, study the impact of leiomyoma on female lower urinary tract, examine the cause female sexual dysfunction and provide a comprehensive review of current diagnostic, imaging studies, and current treatment of leiomyoma. Clinical leiomyoma studies published from 1956 through 2015 were identified using the PubMed search engines and the key words leiomyoma, fibroid in the current literature. Impact of leiomyoma on the lower urinary tract including female sexual dysfunction was reviewed with terms of "urinary retention", "bladder", "urethra", "dyspareunia", "incontinence", "incomplete bladder emptying", "female sexual dysfunction", and "lower urinary tract" to study the urological and sexual effects of leiomyoma. Literature related to leiomyoma was reviewed from 1965 to present. Women with uterine leiomyomata complained of pelvic pain, menstrual irregularities, infertility, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction. Leiomyoma is a common tumor of the uterus that often clinically impacts on the lower urinary tract and results in urological and sexual symptoms. Leiomyoma can compress and grow into and become adherent to the bladder and surrounding pelvic organs or metastasize into peritoneal organs. Leiomyoma can enlarge and compress the urinary bladder, urethra, and lower end of the ureters. Leiomyoma can cause embarrassing sexual dysfunction in females. Current literature of non-surgical and surgical therapy of leiomyoma is described.

  11. General Information About Uterine Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Uterine Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  12. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  13. Ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp causing chronic ileocolic intussusception and mimicking cecal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Naveen; Falzarano, John S; Limm, Whitney ML; Namiki, Thomas S; Tom, Laurie KS

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a rare, idiopathic pseudotumorous lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. While mostly reported as solitary gastric lesions, multiple cases of small bowel IFPs are also reported. It is a documented cause of intussusception in adults. In the case reports of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyps with intussusception, an emergent presentation with small bowel obstruction has been most often described. Here we depict a case of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp presenting with chronic intermittent ileocolic intussusception, anemia and weight loss with an endoscopic appearance mimicking necrotic cecal carcinoma. PMID:21160780

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  15. Effect of fibroids not distorting the endometrial cavity on the outcome of in vitro fertilization treatment: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; Ding, Lingling; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Yu; Tang, Rong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of fibroids that do not distort the endometrial cavity on IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes and to identify certain fibroid subgroups that may be deleterious to fertility outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. University-based reproductive medicine center. A total of 10,268 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI between 2009 and 2011 in our unit. Transvaginal ultrasound and hysteroscopy; controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and IVF/ICSI; strict matching criteria. Cycle cancellation, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and delivery rates. We included 249 patients with fibroids who underwent IVF/ICSI. Higher day 3 FSH levels were found in women with fibroids compared with in control subjects. No significant differences were found in IVF/ICSI outcomes between the two groups. Patients with intramural fibroids with the largest diameter <2.85 cm or the sum of reported diameters <2.95 cm had a significantly higher delivery rate than patients with larger fibroids. A significant negative effect on delivery rate was noted when intramural fibroids with the largest diameter greater than 2.85 cm were considered, compared with matched controls without fibroids. Our results suggest that although non-cavity-distorting fibroids do not affect IVF/ICSI outcomes, intramural fibroids greater than 2.85 cm in size significantly impair the delivery rate of patients undergoing IVF/ICSI. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Docetaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-13

    Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma

  17. Cesarean scar defects: an underrecognized cause of abnormal uterine bleeding and other gynecologic complications.

    PubMed

    Tower, Amanda M; Frishman, Gary N

    2013-01-01

    The gynecologic sequelae due to deficient uterine scar healing after cesarean section are only recently being identified and described. These include conditions such as abnormal bleeding, pelvic pain, infertility, and cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, as well as a potentially higher risk of complications and difficulties during gynecologic procedures such as uterine evacuation, hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, and insertion of an intrauterine device. The proposed mechanism of abnormal uterine bleeding is a pouch or "isthmocele" in the lower uterine segment that causes delayed menstrual bleeding. The prevalence of symptomatic or clinically relevant cesarean scar defects (CSDs) ranges from 19.4% to 88%. Possible risk factors for CSD include number of cesarean sections, uterine position, labor before cesarean section, and surgical technique used to close the uterine incision. There are no accepted guidelines for the diagnostic criteria of CSD. We propose that a CSD be defined on transvaginal ultrasound or saline infusion sonohysterography as a triangular hypoechoic defect in the myometrium at the site of the previous hysterotomy. We also propose a classification system to aid in standardized classification for future research. Surgical techniques for repair of CSD include laparoscopic excision, resectoscopic treatment, vaginal revision, and endometrial ablation. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene therapy of uterine leiomyomas: adenovirus-mediated expression of dominant negative estrogen receptor inhibits tumor growth in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Hendy, Ayman; Lee, Eun J; Wang, Hui Q; Copland, John A

    2004-11-01

    Leiomyomas (fibroids) are common estrogen-dependent uterine tumors with no effective medicinal treatment; hysterectomy is the mainstay of management. This study was undertaken to investigate a potential therapy for leiomyoma; we used a mutated dominant-negative estrogen receptor gene delivered via an adenoviral vector (Ad-ER-DN). Ad-ER-DN transduction, in both human and rat leiomyoma cell lines, induced an increase in both caspase-3 levels and BAX/Bcl-2 ratio with evident apoptosis in the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. In nude mice, rat leiomyoma cells ex vivo transduced with Ad-ER-DN supported significantly smaller tumors compared with Ad-LacZ-treated cells 5 weeks after implantation. In mice treated by direct intratumor injection into preexisting lesions, Ad-ER-DN caused immediate overall arrest of tumor growth. The Ad-ER-DN-treated tumors demonstrated severely inhibited cell proliferation (BrdU index) and a marked increase in the number of apoptotic cells (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling index). Dominant-negative estrogen receptor gene therapy may provide a nonsurgical treatment option for women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who want to preserve their uteri.

  19. Role of MR imaging of uterine leiomyomas before and after embolization.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sandeep P; Gonsalves, Carin F; Guglielmo, Flavius F; Mitchell, Donald G

    2012-10-01

    Leiomyoma, the most common uterine neoplasm, is composed of smooth muscle with varying amounts of fibrous connective tissue. Most leiomyomas are asymptomatic, but patients may present with abnormal uterine bleeding or bulk-related symptoms. Over the past decade, uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) has been an effective minimally invasive treatment for symptomatic patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most accurate imaging technique for detection and evaluation of leiomyomas and therefore has become the imaging modality of choice before and after UFE. As leiomyomas enlarge, they may outgrow their blood supply, resulting in various forms of degeneration that change their appearance. Leiomyomas are classified as submucosal, intramural, or subserosal. Submucosal and subserosal leiomyomas may be pedunculated, thus simulating other conditions. Understanding the MR imaging appearance of leiomyomas allows differentiation from other entities. The superior tissue contrast of MR imaging allows diagnosis of leiomyomas with a high level of confidence, ultimately leading to a decrease in the number of surgeries performed and thus reducing healthcare expenditures. MR imaging findings that influence the planning of UFE include the location, size, number, and vascular supply of leiomyomas. In addition, MR imaging can be used to assess the success of UFE and evaluate for potential complications. © RSNA, 2012.

  20. Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the Uterus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Uterine cancer Cancer of the uterus (uterine cancer) is cancer ... Institute . Expand all | Collapse all What is uterine cancer? Cancer is a disease in which certain body ...

  1. Global microwave endometrial ablation for menorrhagia treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahi, Hojjatollah; Å ebek, Jan; Frattura, Eric; Schenck, Jessica; Prakash, Punit

    2017-02-01

    Thermal ablation is a dominant therapeutic option for minimally invasive treatment of menorrhagia. Compared to other energy modalities for ablation, microwaves offer the advantages of conformal energy delivery to tissue within short times. The objective of endometrial ablation is to destroy the endometrial lining of the uterine cavity, with the clinical goal of achieving reduction in bleeding. Previous efforts have demonstrated clinical use of microwaves for endometrial ablation. A considerable shortcoming of most systems is that they achieve ablation of the target by translating the applicator in a point-to-point fashion. Consequently, treatment outcome may be highly dependent on physician skill. Global endometrial ablation (GEA) not only eliminates this operator dependence and simplifies the procedure but also facilitates shorter and more reliable treatments. The objective of our study was to investigate antenna structures and microwave energy delivery parameters to achieve GEA. Another objective was to investigate a method for automatic and reliable determination of treatment end-point. A 3D-coupled FEM electromagnetic and heat transfer model with temperature and frequency dependent material properties was implemented to characterize microwave GEA. The unique triangular geometry of the uterus where lateral narrow walls extend from the cervix to the fundus forming a wide base and access afforded through an endocervical approach limit the overall diameter of the final device. We investigated microwave antenna designs in a deployed state inside the uterus. The impact of ablation duration on treatment outcome was investigated. Prototype applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in ex vivo tissue to verify the simulation results and demonstrate proof-of-concept.

  2. Incidental Finding of Metastatic Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma at Uterine Leiomyoma, A Thai University Hospital Experience: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chanthasenanont, Athita; Nantakomon, Tongta; Kintarak, Jutatip; Vithisuvanakul, Nophadol; Pongrojpaw, Densak; Suwannarurk, Komsun

    2015-04-01

    Metastatic malignant melanomas to the uterus are extremely rare; to our knowledge, no more than 13 cases have been reported to date. A 44-years-old multigravida woman presented with a black and irregular surface mass at medial aspect of left thigh. There was also an enlarged left groin node. Wide excision with lymph node dissection revealed malignant melanoma. Further examination found a huge pelvic mass with left deep vein thrombosis consequent by pressure effect. Chest and complete abdominal computed tomography revealed an enlarged, fibroid uterus with pressure effect at left common iliac vein. A total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy were performed. Intra-operative finding was scattered hyperpigment spots at surface of the uterus and its tumor Histopathological report showed metastatic malignant melanoma involving myometrium and uterine serosa. Diagnosis of stage IV malignant melanoma (uterine metastasis) was achieved. The patient was counseled about her diagnosis, stage, prognosis and further treatment. Uterine metastatic malignant melanoma was a rare condition. This report represents the first case of a cutaneous malignant melanoma involving a uterine leiomyoma in Thailand.

  3. Huge (9 Kg) Broad Ligament Fibroid Mimicking Sarcoma of Uterus: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Katke, Rajshree Dayanand

    2017-01-01

    Fibroids are most common benign tumors of the uterus, mostly situated in the body of the uterus. Rarely, they arise from extrauterine sites with broad ligament fibroids being uncommon. We present a case of a 47-year-old female, multipara who presented in outpatient department in CAMA hospital with a history of sudden development of dysuria 10 days back. Intraoperatively, uterus was pushed to side and large broad ligament fibroid of 25 cm × 20 cm × 20 cm seen arising from right-sided broad ligament. The fibroid was densely adherent to bowel and bladder. Exploratory laparotomy with excision of broad ligament fibroid of 9 Kg with total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy was done.

  4. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Promotes Proliferation of Human Uterine Leiomyoma: A Biological Link to a New Epigenetic Modification in Benign Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Antonia; Yin, Ping; Ono, Masanori; Monsivais, Diana; Moravek, Molly B.; Coon, John S.; Dyson, Matthew T.; Wei, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Context: Uterine leiomyoma, or fibroids, represent the most common benign tumors of the female reproductive tract. A newly discovered epigenetic modification, 5-hydroxymethylation (5-hmC), and its regulators, the TET (Ten Eleven Translocation) enzymes, were implicated in the pathology of malignant tumors; however, their roles in benign tumors, including uterine fibroids, remain unknown. Objective: To determine the role of 5-hmC and TET proteins in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma using human uterine leiomyoma and normal matched myometrial tissues and primary cells. Design: 5-hmC levels were determined by ELISA and immunofluorescent staining in matched myometrial and leiomyoma tissues. TET expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. TET1 or TET3 were silenced or inhibited by small interfering RNA or 2-hydroxyglutarate to study their effects on 5-hmC content and cell proliferation. Results: We demonstrated significantly higher 5-hmC levels in the genomic DNA of leiomyoma tissue compared to normal myometrial tissue. The increase in 5-hmC levels was associated with the up-regulation of TET1 or TET3 mRNA and protein expression in leiomyoma tissue. TET1 or TET3 knockdown significantly reduced 5-hmC levels in leiomyoma cells and decreased cell proliferation. Treatment with 2-hydroxyglutarate, a competitive TET enzyme inhibitor, significantly decreased both 5-hmC content and cell proliferation of leiomyoma cells. Conclusion: An epigenetic imbalance in the 5-hmC content of leiomyoma tissue, caused by up-regulation of the TET1 and TET3 enzymes, might lead to discovery of new therapeutic targets in leiomyoma. PMID:25057885

  5. Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Uterine Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-16

    Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  6. Chronic Hypoxia Suppresses Pregnancy-Induced Upregulation of Large-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channel Activity in Uterine Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Xiao, Daliao; Zhu, Ronghui; Huang, Xiaohui; Yang, Shumei; Wilson, Sean M.; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that increased Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channel activity played a key role in the normal adaptation of reduced myogenic tone of uterine arteries in pregnancy. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia during gestation inhibits pregnancy-induced upregulation of BKCa channel function in uterine arteries. Resistance-sized uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant sheep maintained at sea level (≈300 m) or exposed to high-altitude (3801 m) hypoxia for 110 days. Hypoxia during gestation significantly inhibited pregnancy-induced upregulation of BKCa channel activity and suppressed BKCa channel current density in pregnant uterine arteries. This was mediated by a selective downregulation of BKCa channel β1 subunit in the uterine arteries. In accordance, hypoxia abrogated the role of the BKCa channel in regulating pressure-induced myogenic tone of uterine arteries that was significantly elevated in pregnant animals acclimatized to chronic hypoxia. In addition, hypoxia abolished the steroid hormone-mediated increase in the β1 subunit and BKCa channel current density observed in nonpregnant uterine arteries. Although the activation of protein kinase C inhibited BKCa channel current density in pregnant uterine arteries of normoxic sheep, this effect was ablated in the hypoxic animals. The results demonstrate that selectively targeting BKCa channel β1 subunit plays a critical role in the maladaption of uteroplacental circulation caused by chronic hypoxia, which contributes to the increased incidence of preeclampsia and fetal intrauterine growth restriction associated with gestational hypoxia. PMID:22665123

  7. Uterine transplantation: Review in human research.

    PubMed

    Favre-Inhofer, A; Rafii, A; Carbonnel, M; Revaux, A; Ayoubi, J M

    2018-06-01

    Uterine transplantation is the solution to treat absolute uterine fertility. In this review, we present the historical, medical, technical, psychological and ethical perspectives in human uterine transplantation research. We reviewed the PubMed database following PRISMA guidelines and added data presented by several research teams during the first international congress on uterine transplantation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Uterine Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Most uterine cancers start in the endometrium, which is called endometrial cancer. Uterine sarcoma is a form of uterine cancer of the muscle and tissue that support the uterus. Find evidence-based information on uterine cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.

  9. Uterine atony: definition, prevention, nonsurgical management, and uterine tamponade.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Fionnuala; Geary, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Uterine atony, or failure of the uterus to contract following delivery, is the most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage. This review serves to examine the prevention and treatment of uterine atony, including risk-factor recognition and active management of the third stage of labor. A range of uterotonic agents will be compared for efficacy, safety, and ease of administration. Oxytocin and ergot alkaloids represent the cornerstone of uterotonic therapy, while prostaglandin therapy has been studied more recently as an attractive alternative, particularly for resource-poor settings. Newer supplementary medical therapies, such as recombinant factor VII and hemostatic agents, and adjunctive nonsurgical methods aimed at achieving uterine tamponade will be evaluated.

  10. Post-uterine artery embolization pain and clinical outcomes for symptomatic myomas using gelfoam pledgets alone versus embospheres plus gelfoam pledgets: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vilos, Angelos G; Vilos, George A; Hollett-Caines, Jackie; Garvin, Greg; Kozak, Roman; Abu-Rafea, Basim

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and post-procedural pain associated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) using Gelfoam alone versus Embospheres plus Gelfoam in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. We conducted a prospective, non-randomized pilot study. Fluoroscopy-guided trans-femoral artery UAE was performed using Gelfoam pledgets alone or Embospheres (500 to 700 mg) plus Gelfoam under conscious sedation and local anaesthesia. This was followed by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) using a morphine pump overnight. Post-procedural pain was assessed by the mean amount of self-administered morphine delivered by PCA pump (mL) from 0 to 19 hours in each group. The mean volumes of the uterus and the dominant fibroid were calculated by ultrasound at baseline, three months, six months, and 12 months. A total of 17 women participated in the study. Bilateral uterine artery occlusion was performed in eight women using Gelfoam alone, and in nine women using Embosphere + Gelfoam. One woman in the Embosphere + Gelfoam group developed a puncture-site hematoma requiring further intervention one week later. The mean (SD) amount of morphine self-administered by PCA pump at time 0, 1, and 2 hours was 3.4 mg (3.1), 2.9 mg (2.2), and 2.4 mg (3.3) in the Gelfoam-only group and 6.1 mg (3.0), 9.6 mg (7.1), and 5.3 mg (4.4) in the Embosphere + Gelfoam group, respectively. After three hours, the amount of morphine used was equal in both groups. The mean (SD) total dose of morphine used was 29.5 mg (18.6) in the Gelfoam group and 41.1 mg (19.3) in the Embosphere + Gelfoam group (P = 0.228). At 12 months, the reduction in median total uterine volume and median dominant fibroid volume in each group was equal. Clinical outcomes were equivalent after uterine artery embolization using Gelfoam alone versus Gelfoam + Embospheres. Although the amount of immediate post-procedure pain may be less with Gelfoam alone, we could not demonstrate this objectively using morphine use as a measure of pain.

  11. Uterine Contraction Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Miao; Belfore, Lee A.; Shen, Yuzhong; Scerbo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Building a training system for medical personnel to properly interpret fetal heart rate tracing requires developing accurate models that can relate various signal patterns to certain pathologies. In addition to modeling the fetal heart rate signal itself, the change of uterine pressure that bears strong relation to fetal heart rate and provides indications of maternal and fetal status should also be considered. In this work, we have developed a group of parametric models to simulate uterine contractions during labor and delivery. Through analysis of real patient records, we propose to model uterine contraction signals by three major components: regular contractions, impulsive noise caused by fetal movements, and low amplitude noise invoked by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus. The regular contractions are modeled by an asymmetric generalized Gaussian function and least squares estimation is used to compute the parameter values of the asymmetric generalized Gaussian function based on uterine contractions of real patients. Regular contractions are detected based on thresholding and derivative analysis of uterine contractions. Impulsive noise caused by fetal movements and low amplitude noise by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus are modeled by rational polynomial functions and Perlin noise, respectively. Experiment results show the synthesized uterine contractions can mimic the real uterine contractions realistically, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Uterine Artery Embolisation for Symptomatic Adenomyosis with Polyzene F-Coated Hydrogel Microspheres: Three-Year Clinical Follow-Up Using UFS–QoL Questionnaire

    SciTech Connect

    Nijenhuis, R. J., E-mail: nijenhuis@maastrichtuniversity.nl; Smeets, A. J., E-mail: a.smeets@elisabeth.nl; Morpurgo, M., E-mail: m.morpurgo@elisabeth.nl

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess midterm outcome of uterine artery embolisation (UAE) for women with therapy-resistant adenomyosis using polyzene F-coated hydrogel microspheres.MethodsBetween September 2006 and January 2010, 29 consecutive women with adenomyosis (15 in combination with fibroids) were treated with UAE using polyzene F-coated hydrogel microspheres. Junction zone thickness was assessed with MRI at baseline and 3 months. Women filled out the uterine fibroid symptom and quality of life questionnaire at baseline, 3 months and after a mean clinical follow-up of 37 months (median 35, range 29–64 months).ResultsAt baseline, symptom severity score of 29 women was mean 67 (median 72, range 23–100). Atmore » 3 months, this score decreased to mean 22 (median 15, range 0–66) and mean 15 (median 17, range 0–34) at final follow-up. At final follow-up of mean 37 months (median 35, range 29–64 months), 22 of 29 (76 %) patients were asymptomatic. Of these 22 women, 3 underwent a second UAE at 6, 7, and 14 months. The remaining seven patients clinically improved but still had symptoms; one underwent a hysterectomy. There was no difference in outcome between women with pure adenomyosis and women with additional fibroids. The junction zone of 4 women with additional therapy was significantly thicker compared with the remaining 25 patients.ConclusionsIn women with therapy resistant adenomyosis, UAE using polyzene F-coated hydrogel microspheres resulted in 3 years preservation of the uterus in 28 of 29 (97 %) with good clinical outcome in the vast majority of patients. Initial thickness of the junction zone is related to additional therapy.« less

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Uterine Sarcoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat uterine sarcoma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment ...

  14. Spontaneous uterine laceration in labor: a type of intrapartum uterine injury different from the classical uterine rupture.

    PubMed

    Hishikawa, Kenji; Watanabe, Remi; Onuma, Kazuya; Kusaka, Takeshi; Fukuda, Takanori; Kohata, Yutaka; Inoue, Hiromi

    2018-02-01

    Uterine rupture, a complete disruption of uterine wall, is synonymously used of intrapartum uterine corpus injuries. However, uterine laceration, partial and minor myometrial tear, is not well characterized. A 35-year-old Japanese woman with unscarred uterus was delivered of a baby at 38 gestational weeks. Shortly after delivering the placenta, she complained of severe lower abdominal pain with shock vitals. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a partial and shallow myometrial and serosal tear with massive hemoperitoneum. Despite its shallow and minor nature of the injury, uterine laceration can cause a catastrophic massive hemoperitoneum and should be noted as a type of intrapartum uterine injury in clinical practice.

  15. Primary uterine inertia in four labrador bitches.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Autumn P

    2011-01-01

    Uterine inertia is a common cause of dystocia in the bitch and is designated as primary (i.e., uterine contractions fail to ever be initiated) or secondary (i.e., uterine contractions cease after a period of time but before labor is completed). The etiology of primary uterine inertia is not well understood. The accurate diagnosis of primary uterine inertia requires the use of tocodynamometry (uterine monitoring). Primary uterine inertia has been postulated to result from a failure of luteolysis resulting in persistently elevated progesterone concentrations. In this study, primary uterine inertia was diagnosed in a series of four bitches in which luteolysis was documented suggesting some other etiopathogenesis for primary uterine inertia.

  16. Global ablation techniques.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah; Taylor, Betsy

    2013-12-01

    Global endometrial ablation techniques are a relatively new surgical technology for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding that can now be used even in an outpatient clinic setting. A comparison of global ablation versus earlier ablation technologies notes no significant differences in success rates and some improvement in patient satisfaction. The advantages of the newer global endometrial ablation systems include less operative time, improved recovery time, and decreased anesthetic risk. Ablation procedures performed in an outpatient surgical or clinic setting provide advantages both of potential cost savings for patients and the health care system and improved patient convenience. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Foley catheter balloon endometrial ablation: successful treatment of three cases.

    PubMed

    Api, Murat; Api, Olus

    2012-03-01

    Endometrial ablation is one of the most effective methods for treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Balloon devices with circulating hot water inside or electrodes on the outer surface and radiofrequency-induced thermal destructors are the most recently introduced available tools for endometrial ablation. All of these methods are effective and simple but expensive technologies. The aim of this brief report is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a new, simple and money-saving procedure, namely foley catheter balloon endometrial ablation (FCBEA), for treatment of DUB. We present our experience with FCBEA performed on 3 women with severe meno-metrorrhagia unresponsive to medical therapy. There were no procedure-related complications with achievement of complete amenorrhea for a 19 months follow-up period. Although FCBA has yielded encouraging results, there exists a need for further investigation and validation on larger groups, before its universal application.

  18. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Treatment Shrinks Uterine Leiomyoma Tumors in the Eker Rat Model1

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sunil K.; Sharan, Chakradhari; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common benign tumors in women of reproductive age. These tumors are three to four times more prevalent in African American women, who also have a 10 times higher incidence of hypovitaminosis D than white women. Recent studies have demonstrated the antitumor effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on several cancers, but its effects on uterine leiomyomas are still unknown. To determine the antitumor and therapeutic effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on uterine leiomyomas, female Eker rats (14–16 mo old) harboring uterine leiomyomas were randomized into control and experimental groups and were given vehicle versus 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.5 μg/kg per day) subcutaneously for 3 wk, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized, and the leiomyoma tumors were analyzed. Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 significantly reduced leiomyoma tumor size in Eker rats. It also reduced leiomyoma size by suppressing cell growth and proliferation-related genes (Pcna, cyclin D1 [Ccnd1], Myc, Cdk1, Cdk2, and Cdk4), antiapoptotic genes (Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 [Bcl-x]), and estrogen and progesterone receptors. Additionally, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of PCNA and MKI67 (a marker of proliferation) and increased expression of caspase 3 in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated Eker rat leiomyomas. Toxicity analyses using serum samples showed similar levels of SGOT, SGPT, calcium, and total bilirubin in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated and vehicle-treated control Eker rats. These results support that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is an antitumor agent that may be a potential safe, nonsurgical therapeutic option for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas. PMID:22302692

  19. A case of diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis who had two successful pregnancies after medical management.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Jay Gopal; Singh, Sarabjeet

    2011-06-01

    To describe a case report of diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis who had successful pregnancy twice following conservative management. Retrospective report. Private general hospital. A nulliparous woman 25 years of age presented with menorrhagia and infertility. She had innumerable small fibroids of 4-42 mm size throughout the myometrium. Size of the symmetrically enlarged uterus was 131×80×60 mm, clinically corresponding to that of 12 weeks of gestation. She received a GnRH analogue (GnRHa; leuprolide acetate) 3.75 mg per month for 6 months. Reduction of uterus size, menstrual amount, conception, pregnancy outcome. Enlarged uterus reduced to almost normal size after 3 doses of GnRHa. She did not experience heavy bleeding during menstruation. She conceived spontaneously in the first cycle after discontinuation of GnRHa. Antenatal course was uneventful. A healthy male baby of 2.5 kg was delivered by cesarean section at 39 weeks. The placenta weighed 330 g. There was no postpartum hemorrhage. She conceived spontaneously for the second time in the first cycle after resumption of menses. Antenatal, intranatal (cesarean section), and postnatal courses of the second pregnancy were uneventful. The second neonate weighed 3.0 kg and the placenta 400 g. Conservative treatment may help to achieve successful pregnancy in case of diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonequilibrium Ablation of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih K.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, an equilibrium ablation and thermal response model for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was developed. In general, over a wide range of test conditions, model predictions compared well with arcjet data for surface recession, surface temperature, in-depth temperature at multiple thermocouples, and char depth. In this work, additional arcjet tests were conducted at stagnation conditions down to 40 W/sq cm and 1.6 kPa. The new data suggest that nonequilibrium effects become important for ablation predictions at heat flux or pressure below about 80 W/sq cm or 10 kPa, respectively. Modifications to the ablation model to account for nonequilibrium effects are investigated. Predictions of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared with the arcjet data.

  1. Malignant presentation of uterine lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Szpurek, Dariusz; Szubert, Sebastian; Zielinski, Pawel; Frankowski, Andrzej; Sajdak, Stefan; Moszynski, Rafal

    2015-10-01

    The main aim of this case report was to present the method of diagnosis, management, and the 12-year-follow-up of a patient diagnosed with primary uterine lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). A 47-year-old woman was admitted to the Department of Thoracosurgery due to pulmonary lesions suspected to be metastatic. The potential primary site of the neoplasm was not identified by previous imaging studies and specialist counseling. The patient had a history of total abdominal hysterectomy without ovaries due to a uterine tumor recognized as cellular leiomyoma and left salpingo-oophorectomy due to a solid ovarian tumor also recognized as leiomyoma. She had previously undergone the removal of a left kidney angiomyolipoma. After histopathological examination of the pulmonary lesions and repeated evaluation of the ovarian and uterine tumors, the diagnosis of primary uterine LAM with metastases to the ovary and the lungs was established. Although new metastatic lesions occurred, the patient remained in good condition during the 12-year-follow-up. The history of our patient and review of the literature suggest that although uterine LAM presents malignant features (i.e., metastasis), the disease is long lasting and the patient can be in good condition for a number of years. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Transgenic Reproductive Cell Ablation.

    PubMed

    Lawit, Shai J; Chamberlin, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous cell ablation technologies are available and have been used in reproductive tissues, particularly for male tissues and cells. The importance of ablation of reproductive tissues is toward a fundamental understanding reproductive tissue development and fertilization, as well as, in developing sterility lines important to breeding strategies. Here, we describe techniques for developing ablation lines for both male and female reproductive cells. Also discussed are techniques for analysis, quality control, maintenance, and the lessening of pleiotropism in such lines.

  3. [Management of uterine myomas during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Levast, F; Legendre, G; Bouet, P-E; Sentilhes, L

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of myomas on pregnancy and discuss the role of myomectomy during cesarean section. Databases PubMed, Medline and Cochrane were searched until 30 June 2015. The most commonly reported obstetric complications relative to fibroids are: increased rate of spontaneous miscarriage in women with submucosal or intramural fibroids, pain, placentation disorders and malpresentation. A higher cesarean section rate is found among pregnant women with fibroids. The most common postpartum complication is postpartum haemorrhage. For years, risk of haemorrhage led caregivers not to practice myomectomy during cesarean section. Current data are rather reassuring. No study shows significant hemorrhage differences between myomectomy during cesarean section and cesarean section alone or myomectomy alone. The long-term morbidity of myomectomy during cesarean section is not enough studied but does not appear higher than expected for fertility and complications during pregnancy. Therefore, myomectomy during cesarean section is not currently recommended by learned societies. Women with fibroids is a common obstetric situation. Complications are rare. Myomectomy during cesarean section seems to be not associated with higher short-term maternal morbidity. But studies with a longer-term follow-up of patients are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Uterine-sparing Laparoscopic Resection of Accessory Cavitated Uterine Masses.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ann; Rindos, Noah B; Guido, Richard S; Donnellan, Nicole M

    2018-01-01

    To demonstrate surgical techniques utilized during uterine-sparing laparoscopic resections of accessory cavitated uterine masses (ACUMs). ACUMs represent a rare uterine entity observed in premenopausal women suffering from dysmenorrhea and recurrent pelvic pain. The diagnosis is made when an isolated extra-cavitated uterine mass is resected from an otherwise normal appearing uterus with unremarkable endometrial lumen and adnexal structures. Pathologic confirmation requires an accessory cavity lined with endometrial epithelium (and corresponding glands and stroma) filled with chocolate-brown fluid. Adenomyosis must be absent. Although the origin of ACUMs is currently unknown, the most common presentation is a 2-4 cm lateral uterine wall mass at the level of the insertion of the round ligament. Hence it has been hypothesized that gubernaculum dysfunction may be responsible for duplication or persistence of paramesonephric tissue leading to ACUM formation as a new Müllerian anomaly. A stepwise surgical tutorial describing 2 laparoscopic ACUM resections using a narrated video (Canadian Task Force classification III). An academic tertiary care hospital. In this video, we present 2 patients who underwent uterine-sparing laparoscopic resections of their ACUM in order to preserve fertility (Case 1) or avoid the complications and surgical recovery time of a total laparoscopic hysterectomy (Case 2). Case 1 is a 19-year-old, gravida 0, para 0 woman with dysmenorrhea and recurrent pelvic pain who presented for multiple emergency room and outpatient evaluations. Transvaginal ultrasonography was unremarkable except for a 28×30×26mm left lateral uterine mass with peripheral vascular flow that was initially felt to be a leiomyoma or rudimentary uterine horn. MRI imaging, however, demonstrated this mass to be more consistent with an ACUM. This was based on the lack of communication between the lesion and the main uterine cavity exhibited by high T2 signal (compatible with

  5. ExAblate magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound system in multiple body applications.

    PubMed

    Dick, E A; Gedroyc, W M W

    2010-09-01

    Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is a completely noninvasive method of thermally destroying a target tissue while sparing adjacent tissues and organs. Treatment is relatively painless and can be carried out under conscious sedation on an out-patient basis. The combination of magnetic resonance guidance with FUS (MRgFUS) provides the ability to plan and monitor treatments in near real-time, further increasing the safety profile of MRgFUS. This technology provides a very personalized treatment, adjusted to the individual patient anatomy, pathology and treatment response, hence it meets the needs of patients, as well as of physicians. MRgFUS has been used extensively in the successful treatment of uterine fibroids, and has been shown to be an effective treatment in the breast and in bone metastases in smaller scale studies. It shows great potential in the treatment of prostate and liver tumors, as well as in the brain and facet joints.

  6. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  7. Ultrasound assessment of endometrial cavity in perimenopausal women on oral progesterone for abnormal uterine bleeding: comparison of diagnostic accuracy of imaging with hysteroscopy-guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Subhankar; Dasgupta, Shyamal; Sharma, Partha Pratim; Mukherjee, Amitabha; Ghosh, Tarun Kumar

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effect of oral progesterone on the accuracy of imaging studies performed to detect endometrial pathology in comparison to hysteroscopy-guided biopsy in perimenopausal women on progesterone treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. The study population comprised of women aged 40-55 years with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding who were also undergoing oral progesterone therapy. Women with a uterus ≥ 12 weeks' gestation size, previous abnormal endometrial biopsy, cervical lesion on speculum examination, abnormal Pap smear, active pelvic infection, adnexal mass on clinical examination or during ultrasound scan and a positive pregnancy test were excluded. A transvaginal ultrasound followed by saline infusion sonography were done. On the following day, a hysteroscopy followed by a guided biopsy of the endometrium or any endometrial lesion was performed. Comparison between the results of the imaging study with the hysteroscopy and guided biopsy was done. The final analysis included 83 patients. For detection of overall pathology, polyp and fibroid transvaginal ultrasound had a positive likelihood ratio of 1.65, 5.45 and 5.4, respectively, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.47, 0.6 and 0.43, respectively. For detection of overall pathology, polyp and fibroid saline infusion sonography had a positive likelihood ratio of 4.4, 5.35 and 11.8, respectively, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.3, 0.2 and 0.15, respectively. In perimenopausal women on oral progesterone therapy for abnormal uterine bleeding, imaging studies cannot be considered as an accurate method for diagnosing endometrial pathology when compared to hysteroscopy and guided biopsy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Docetaxel, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Uterine Sarcoma That Has Been Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-16

    Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma

  9. Ulipristal Acetate for Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Leiomyomas: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Simon, James A; Catherino, William; Segars, James H; Blakesley, Rick E; Chan, Anna; Sniukiene, Vilma; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2018-03-01

    To assess efficacy and tolerability of ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, for treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomas. This phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled premenopausal women (aged 18-50 years) with abnormal uterine bleeding, one or more discrete leiomyomas, and uterine size 20 weeks of gestation or less. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to 5 mg ulipristal, 10 mg ulipristal, or placebo once daily for 12 weeks followed by 12-week drug-free follow-up. Coprimary endpoints were rate of and time to amenorrhea, defined as no bleeding for the last 35 consecutive days of treatment. Secondary endpoints included rates of amenorrhea from day 11 and change from baseline to endpoint in the Revised Activities subscale of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire, which includes questions pertaining to physical and social activities. Safety assessments included adverse event monitoring and endometrial biopsies. A sample size of 150 was planned to compare separately each dose of ulipristal with placebo. From March 2014 to March 2016, 157 patients were randomized. Demographics were similar across treatment groups. Amenorrhea was achieved by 25 of 53 (47.2% [97.5% CI 31.6-63.2]) and 28 of 48 (58.3% [97.5% CI 41.2-74.1]) patients treated with 5 mg and 10 mg ulipristal, respectively, compared with 1 of 56 (1.8% [97.5% CI 0.0-10.9]) placebo-treated patients (both P<.001). Time to amenorrhea was shorter for both ulipristal doses compared with placebo (P<.001), and both doses of ulipristal resulted in improved quality of life compared with placebo (P<.001). Common adverse events (5% or greater in either ulipristal group during treatment) were hypertension, elevated blood creatinine phosphokinase, and hot flushes. Serious adverse events occurred in four patients, but none was considered related to treatment. Endometrial biopsies were benign. Ulipristal at 5 mg and 10 mg were well tolerated and superior to

  10. Sprayable lightweight ablative coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G. (Inventor); Sharpe, Max H. (Inventor); Hill, William E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved lightweight, ablative coating is disclosed that may be spray applied and cured without the development of appreciable shrinkage cracks. The ablative mixture consists essentially of phenolic microballoons, hollow glass spheres, glass fibers, ground cork, a flexibilized resin binder, and an activated colloidal clay.

  11. Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To review the effectiveness, safety, and costing of ablation methods to manage atrial fibrillation (AF). The ablation methods reviewed were catheter ablation and surgical ablation. Clinical Need Atrial fibrillation is characterized by an irregular, usually rapid, heart rate that limits the ability of the atria to pump blood effectively to the ventricles. Atrial fibrillation can be a primary diagnosis or it may be associated with other diseases, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart muscle function, chronic lung diseases, and coronary heart disease. The most common symptom of AF is palpitations. Symptoms caused by decreased blood flow include dizziness, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Some patients with AF do not experience any symptoms. According to United States data, the incidence of AF increases with age, with a prevalence of 1 per 200 people aged between 50 and 60 years, and 1 per 10 people aged over 80 years. In 2004, the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) estimated that the rate of hospitalization for AF in Canada was 582.7 per 100,000 population. They also reported that of the patients discharged alive, 2.7% were readmitted within 1 year for stroke. One United States prevalence study of AF indicated that the overall prevalence of AF was 0.95%. When the results of this study were extrapolated to the population of Ontario, the prevalence of AF in Ontario is 98,758 for residents aged over 20 years. Currently, the first-line therapy for AF is medical therapy with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs). There are several AADs available, because there is no one AAD that is effective for all patients. The AADs have critical adverse effects that can aggravate existing arrhythmias. The drug selection process frequently involves trial and error until the patient’s symptoms subside. The Technology Ablation has been frequently described as a “cure” for AF, compared with drug therapy, which controls AF but does not cure it

  12. A Comparative Observational Study of the Use of Saline Uterine Hydrosonography for the Diagnosis and Assessment of Uterine Cavity Lesions in Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of saline hydrosonography (HSGM) (also known as saline infusion sonography (SIS)) against transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVS) and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine cavity lesions. Diagnostic hysteroscopy with biopsy is considered as the “gold standard” to diagnose intrauterine abnormalities. The introduction of HSGM has improved the diagnostic capability of ultrasound. It is important to establish the efficacy and safety of HSGM before it is widely recommended for use. This retrospective observational data was collected from all 223 patients who underwent TVS, HSGM, and hysteroscopy as part of their gynaecological investigations from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 at Central Middlesex Hospital, London. Endometrial Polyps. TVS: sensitivity 60.53%, specificity 97.06%, positive predictive value (PPV) 95.83%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 68.75% and HSGM: sensitivity 95%, specificity 97.14%, PPV 97.44%, and NPV 94.44%. Submucous Leiomyoma. TVS: sensitivity 57.14%, specificity 93.48%, PPV 84.21%, and NPV 78.18% and HSGM: sensitivity 96.55%, specificity 100.00%, PPV 100.00%, and NPV 97.92%. Diagnostic efficacy of HSGM is superior to TVS for the diagnosis of endometrial polyps and submucous fibroids. HSGM should be considered as an intermediate investigation after TVS to assess intracavity pathology and to confirm the diagnosis; hysteroscopy should become a therapeutic intervention. PMID:27597989

  13. Global Endometrial Ablation in the Presence of Essure® Microinserts

    PubMed Central

    Aldape, Diana; Chudnoff, Scott G; Levie, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) affects 30% of women at some time during their reproductive years and is one of the most common reasons a woman sees a gynecologist. Many women are turning to endometrial ablation to manage their AUB. This article reviews the data relating to the available endometrial ablation techniques performed with hysteroscopic sterilization, and focuses on data from patients who had Essure® (Conceptus, San Carlos, CA) coils placed prior to performance of endometrial ablation. Reviewed specifically are data regarding safety and efficacy of these two procedures when combined. Data submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration for the three devices currently approved are reviewed, as well as all published case series. Articles included were selected based on a PubMed search for endometrial ablation (also using the brand names of the different techniques currently available), hysteroscopic sterilization, and Essure. PMID:24358407

  14. Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) in Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Myomas

    PubMed Central

    Filipowska, Justyna; Łoziński, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Summary Magnetic Resonance-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a noninvasive technique for ablation therapy for uterine myomas, where focused ultrasound energy beam generates localized high temperature in the selected area and coagulates chosen tissue, leaving the skin and tissues in between unharmed. Magnetic resonance imaging enables accurate targeting for HIFU as well as temperature monitoring during treatment. MR guidance with 3D anatomical imaging provides reference data for treatment planning, while real-time temperature monitoring aids in controlling ablation process. This review provides basic information regarding methodology, clinical indications for this kind of treatment, expected outcome and patient management during MR-HIFU procedure. The aim of this work is to introduce a new, noninvasive treatment method for uterine leiomyomas and to present a comparison with other currently used methods. PMID:25469176

  15. Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) in Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Myomas.

    PubMed

    Filipowska, Justyna; Loziński, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a noninvasive technique for ablation therapy for uterine myomas, where focused ultrasound energy beam generates localized high temperature in the selected area and coagulates chosen tissue, leaving the skin and tissues in between unharmed. Magnetic resonance imaging enables accurate targeting for HIFU as well as temperature monitoring during treatment. MR guidance with 3D anatomical imaging provides reference data for treatment planning, while real-time temperature monitoring aids in controlling ablation process. This review provides basic information regarding methodology, clinical indications for this kind of treatment, expected outcome and patient management during MR-HIFU procedure. The aim of this work is to introduce a new, noninvasive treatment method for uterine leiomyomas and to present a comparison with other currently used methods.

  16. Robotic navigation and ablation.

    PubMed

    Malcolme-Lawes, L; Kanagaratnam, P

    2010-12-01

    Robotic technologies have been developed to allow optimal catheter stability and reproducible catheter movements with the aim of achieving contiguous and transmural lesion delivery. Two systems for remote navigation of catheters within the heart have been developed; the first is based on a magnetic navigation system (MNS) Niobe, Stereotaxis, Saint-Louis, Missouri, USA, the second is based on a steerable sheath system (Sensei, Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA, USA). Both robotic and magnetic navigation systems have proven to be feasible for performing ablation of both simple and complex arrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation. Studies to date have shown similar success rates for AF ablation compared to that of manual ablation, with many groups finding a reduction in fluoroscopy times. However, the early learning curve of cases demonstrated longer procedure times, mainly due to additional setup times. With centres performing increasing numbers of robotic ablations and the introduction of a pressure monitoring system, lower power settings and instinctive driving software, complication rates are reducing, and fluoroscopy times have been lower than manual ablation in many studies. As the demand for catheter ablation for arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation increases and the number of centres performing these ablations increases, the demand for systems which reduce the hand skill requirement and improve the comfort of the operator will also increase.

  17. Thermotolerance of human myometrium: implications for minimally invasive uterine therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Aaron C.; Grisez, Brian T.; McMillan, Kathleen; Chill, Nicholas; Harclerode, Tyler P.; Radabaugh, Rebecca; Jones, Ryan M.; Coad, James E.

    2013-02-01

    Endometrial ablation has gained significant clinical acceptance over the last decade as a minimally invasive treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. To improve upon current thermal injury modeling, it is important to better characterize the myometrium's thermotolerance. The extent of myometrial thermal injury was determined across a spectrum of thermal histories/doses (time-temperature combinations). Fresh extirpated human myometrium was obtained from 13 subjects who underwent a previous scheduled benign hysterectomy. Within two hours of hysterectomy, the unfixed myometrium was treated in a stabilized saline bath with temperatures ranging from 45-70 °C and time intervals from 30- 150 seconds. The time-temperature combinations were selected to simulate treatment times under 2.5 minutes. A total of six such thermal matrices, each comprised of 45 time-temperature combinations, were prepared for evaluation. The treated myometrium was cryosectioned for nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining to assess for thermal respiratory enzyme inactivation. Image analysis was subsequently used to quantitatively assess the stained myometrium's capacity to metabolize the tetrazolium at each time-temperature combination. This colorimetric data was then used as marker of cellular viability and determine survival parameters with implications for developing minimally invasive uterine therapies.

  18. Effects of liver depression and psychological stress on human uterine leiomyoma cells by an AR-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Li, Shuang; Ma, Ruihong; Guan, Sufen; Li, Jiacui; Li, Hongqin; Zhang, Hexin; Lin, Qiu; Zhao, Zhimei; Wang, Baojuan

    2017-06-01

    Based on the emotional theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and combined with the modern medicine theory of psychological stress, a research model of human uterine leiomyoma cells (ULM) was cultured in vitro to determine the effectiveness of adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists in human ULM cell growth. In addition, we studied the functional influence of "liver depression and psychological stress theory" on fibroid formation by intervening in the AR-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. The intention was to establish a new method to prevent and cure fibroids through "liver depression and psychological stress theory" and provide an experimental basis for the Traditional Chinese Medicine emotional theory. Primary human ULM cells were enriched by collagenase digestion. Immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining were used for cytological identification. Using this model, we studied intervention using specific AR agonists on ULM cells to observe the influence of "liver depression and psychological stress theory" on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factors (FGF). Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) are adrenergic receptor agonists. They promoted ULM cell proliferation and increased the levels of ER, PR, VEGF and FGF. In contrast, isoproterenol (ISO) inhibited ULM cell proliferation and decreased the levels of ER, PR, VEGF and FGF. The protein expression of cAMP and PKA in ULM cells was reduced and the levels of ER, PR, VEGF and FGF were increased when co-treatment with the α-AR blocker (phentolamine). The β-AR blocker (metoprolol) displayed an opposite effect. AR agonists modulated ER, PR, VEGF and FGF levels in ULM cells in an AR-cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathways to influence fibroid occurrence and development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Uterine diseases in cattle after parturition

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, I. Martin; Williams, Erin J.; Miller, Aleisha N.A.; Nash, Deborah M.; Herath, Shan

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen is common in cattle after parturition, often leading to infection and uterine disease. Clinical disease can be diagnosed and scored by examination of the vaginal mucus, which reflects the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Viruses may also cause uterine disease and bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is tropic for endometrial cells, causing a rapid cytopathic effect. The elimination of pathogens by the innate immune system is dependent on pattern recognition receptors binding pathogen-associated molecules. Uterine epithelial and stromal cells express receptors such as Toll-like Receptor 4 that binds E. coli lipopolysaccharide. The infertility associated with uterine disease is caused by damage to the endometrium and disruption of ovarian cyclic activity. Bacteria modulate endometrial prostaglandin secretion, and perturb ovarian follicle growth and function. Understanding the molecular basis of uterine disease will lead to novel approaches to treating infertility. PMID:18329302

  20. Moldable cork ablation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A successful thermal ablative material was manufactured. Moldable cork sheets were tested for density, tensile strength, tensile elongation, thermal conductivity, compression set, and specific heat. A moldable cork sheet, therefore, was established as a realistic product.

  1. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Review literature on uterine carcinosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma of the uterus is a rare gynaecological neoplasm, which is also known as malignant mixed mesodermal tumor. Traditionally this tumour has been regarded as a subtype of uterine sarcoma, and its origin remains controversial. The exact nature and prognosis was not clear in the past. It is believed that uterine carcinosarcoma have a Mullerian duct origin and have a capacity to differentiate into various mesenchymal and epithelial components. Regarding the histogensis, various theories have been given; of which 'conversion theory' was broadly accepted. Carcinosarcoma are mostly of monoclonal origin with the carcinomatous component being the driving force. This type of tumor is broadly divided into two groups, homologous and heterologous, depending on the characteristics of the stroma or mesenchymal components of endometrial tissue. It is more frequent in black women and postmenopausal women. Radiation is a possible etiological factor but the exact etiology is not known yet. However, tamoxifen may induce carcinogenesis in some patients. Its clinical feature is very similar to endometrial carcinoma i.e. postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, have a very aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis. This pelvic malignancy is treated by multimodality therapy including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here we are reviewing old concepts about the disease and modern understandings of the origin, classification, pathogenesis and recent advances in the treatment of the uterine carcinosarcoma.

  3. Medroxyprogesterone in Treating Patients With Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Corpus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer

  4. Bisphenol A Concentrates Preferentially in Human Uterine Leiomyoma and Induces Proliferation in Rat Myometrium.

    PubMed

    Othman, Essam R; Al-Adly, Dina M M; Elgamal, Dalia A; Ghandour, Nagwa; El-Sharkawy, Sawsan

    2016-04-01

    To measure tissue levels of bisphenol A (BPA) in uterine leiomyoma (ULM), adjacent myometrium (Myo-F), and normal myometrium (Myo-N). Also, we tested the effect of BPA treatment on rat myometrium. Uterine leiomyomas and Myo-F tissues were isolated from hysterectomy specimens done to treat symptomatic ULMs (N = 30). Normal myometrium is isolated from hysterectomies done on ULM-free uteri for other benign indications (N = 25). Bisphenol A was measured in 1 g of tissue using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography, with fluorescence detectors. Experimentally, adult female rats were fed BPA orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d for 90 days. Animals were killed, and their myometrial thickness and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining were evaluated. Tissue concentration of BPA in each of ULM (12.3 ± 2.8 µg/g) and Myo-F (10.1 ± 0.2 µg/g) was significantly higher than that of Myo-N (0.58 ± 0.2 µg/g). There was no statistically significant difference in BPA level between ULM and Myo-F within submucous or interstitial/subserous fibroid groups. Compared to control rats, BPA-treated animals showed significantly higher myometrial thickness (168.67 ± 5.7 µm and 281.6 ± 20.32 µm, respectively, P = .003) and increased myometrial PCNA immunoscores (1.5 ± 0.37 and 10.38 ± 0.67, respectively, P ≤ .001). Bisphenol A concentrates in human ULM tissue and its adjacent Myo-F compared to Myo-N. No significant difference is detected in BPA content of ULM tissue of different subtypes. Bisphenol A increases thickness and induces cellular proliferation in rat myometrium. Taken together, our results support a role of BPA in ULM development/growth. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Primary Uterine Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xuefeng; Yang, Panpan; Wang, Li; Jing, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary uterine non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is extremely rare accounting for <1% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Imaging findings of primary uterine lymphoma have rarely been reported before. We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT findings in a patient with primary uterine peripheral T-cell lymphoma. A 27-year-old female presented with intermittent fever with neutropenia for 7 months. MRI showed an ill-defined mass involved both the uterine corpus and cervix, resulting in diffuse enlargement of the uterus. This mass showed inhomogeneous hypointensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images, hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted imaging, relative hypointensity compared to the surrounding myometrium on T2-weighted images and lower enhancement than the surrounding myometrium on enhanced T1-weighted images. FDG PET/CT showed intense FDG uptake in the thickened wall of the uterine corpus and cervix with SUVmax of 26.9. There were multiple hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the pelvis and retroperitoneum. Uterine curettage and CT-guided biopsy of the uterine mass revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Bone marrow biopsy revealed no evidence of lymphomatous involvement. The imaging and pathologic findings were consistent with primary uterine lymphoma. After 3 circles of chemotherapy, follow-up enhanced MRI showed decreased thickness of the uterine wall. Despite its rarity, primary uterine non-Hodgkin's lymphoma should be taken into consideration when a uterine tumor shows large size, relative hypointesity on both T2-weighted images and enhanced T1-weighted images compared to the surrounding myometrium, and intense FDG uptake on PET/CT. MRI may be helpful for describing the relationship between the tumor and adjacent structures. FDG PET/CT may be useful for tumor detection and staging. PMID:27124063

  6. Photodynamic therapy for endometrial ablation: a study of treatment parameters and effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerath, Maya R.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Manganiello, Paul D.

    1995-05-01

    The use of PDT for endometrial ablation has been the focus of much recent research. However, the mechanism of action, optimal treatment parameters, and long-term clinical effect are still poorly understood. This study was undertaken to further the understanding of the endometrial response to this drug/light- induced damage. Postpartum rat (Charles River) uterine horns were used as the animal model for fluorescence and treatment studies. Aminolevulinic acid was administered topically (intrauterine), and following a 0.5- to 3-hour drug incubation time, the endometrium was either removed and processed for fluorescence microscopy to assess drug localization or exposed to 150-200 J/cm2 of 630-nm laser light via a 1-cm cylindrical diffusing tip. The light=treated uterine horns were removed and histologically examine 7 to 10 days following treatment. The extent and character of uterine and endometrial damage (gross and histological analysis) were recorded for the varying light doses and incubation times. With topical (intrauterine) application of photosensitizer, incubation time and penetration ability of drug were found to be crucial factors. The use of a drug penetration enhancing vehicle produced greater tissue effects (endometrial ablation). These preliminary studies also showed that tissue effect is drug and light dose related and that the most profound effects may be vascular mediated. The study provided preliminary information for the use of PDT in gynecological applications such as endometrial ablation and female sterilization through Fallopian tube occlusion.

  7. Paclitaxel and Intraperitoneal Carboplatin Followed by Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Uterine Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-10

    Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC1 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC2 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  8. Extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma pathogenesis: a potential target for future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Soriful; Ciavattini, Andrea; Petraglia, Felice; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2018-01-01

    Uterine leiomyoma (also known as fibroid or myoma) is the most common benign tumor of the uterus found in women of reproductive age. It is not usually fatal but can produce serious clinical symptoms, including excessive uterine bleeding, pelvic pain or pressure, infertility and pregnancy complications. Due to lack of effective medical treatments surgery has been a definitive choice for the management of this tumor. Extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and remodeling are thought to be crucial for fibrotic diseases such as uterine leiomyoma. Indeed, ECM plays important role in forming the bulk structure of leiomyoma, and the ECM-rich rigid structure within these tumors is thought to be a cause of abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain. Therefore, a better understanding of ECM accumulation and remodeling is critical for developing new therapeutics for uterine leiomyoma. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for all original and review articles/book chapters related to ECM and medical treatments of uterine leiomyoma published in English until May 2017. This review discusses the involvement of ECM in leiomyoma pathogenesis as well as current and future medical treatments that target ECM directly or indirectly. Uterine leiomyoma is characterized by elevated levels of collagens, fibronectin, laminins and proteoglycans. They can induce the mechanotransduction process, such as activation of the integrin-Rho/p38 MAPK/ERK pathway, resulting in cellular responses that are involved in pathogenesis and altered bidirectional signaling between leiomyoma cells and the ECM. ECM accumulation is affected by growth factors (TGF-β, activin-A and PDGF), cytokines (TNF-α), steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and microRNAs (miR-29 family, miR-200c and miR-93/106b). Among these, TGF-βs (1 and 3) and activin-A have been suggested as key players in the accumulation of excessive ECM (fibrosis) in leiomyoma. The presence of elevated levels of ECM and myofibroblasts in leiomyoma

  9. Value of in vitro acoustic radiation force impulse application on uterine adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Bildaci, Tevfik Berk; Cevik, Halime; Yilmaz, Birnur; Desteli, Guldeniz Aksan

    2017-11-24

    Adenomyosis is the presence of endometrial glandular and stromal tissue in the myometrium. This phenomenon can be the cause of excessive bleeding and menstrual pain in premenopausal women. Diagnosis of adenomyosis may present difficulty with conventional methods such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Frequently, diagnosis is accomplished retrospectively based on the hysterectomy specimen. This is a prospective case control study done in vitro on 90 patients' hysterectomy specimens. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) and color elastography were used to determine the elasticity of hysterectomy specimens of patients undergoing indicated surgeries. Based on histopathological examinations, two groups were formed: a study group (n = 28-with adenomyosis) and a control group (n = 62-without adenomyosis). Elasticity measurements of tissue with adenomyosis were observed to be significantly higher than measurements of normal myometrial tissue (p < 0.01). Uterine fibroids were found to have higher values on ARFI study compared to normal myometrial tissues (p < 0.01). The findings lead to the conclusion that adenomyosis tissue is significantly softer than the normal myometrium. ARFI was found to be beneficial in differentiating myometrial tissue with adenomyosis from normal myometrial tissue. It was found to be feasible and beneficial to implement ARFI in daily gynecology practice for diagnosis of adenomyosis.

  10. Uterine injuries complicating hypertonic saline abortion

    PubMed Central

    Willems, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two cases of uterine injury complicating midtrimester abortion induced by hypertonic saline are described, one with an extensive laceration of the cervix and the other with a rupture of the lower uterine segment extending into the vault of the vagina. The etiology, diagnosis and possible obstetric sequelae are discussed. PMID:4434292

  11. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB) (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... English Español Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) KidsHealth / For Teens / Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) What's in this article? ...

  12. Assessing the risk of laparoscopic morcellation of occult uterine sarcomas during hysterectomy and myomectomy: Literature review and the ISGE recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sizzi, Ornella; Manganaro, Lucia; Rossetti, Alfonso; Saldari, Matteo; Florio, Giuseppe; Loddo, Alessandro; Zurawin, Robert; van Herendael, Bruno; Djokovic, Dusan

    2018-01-01

    This project of the International Society for Gynecologic Endoscopy (ISGE) had the objective to review the literature and provide recommendations on the occult sarcoma risk assessment in patients who are candidates for minimally invasive gynecological surgery involving intra-abdominal electromechanical tissue morcellation. The ISGE Task Force for Estimation of the Risk in Endoscopic Morcellation initially defined key topics and clinical questions which may guide a comprehensive preoperative patient assessment. A literature search within the Medline/PubMed and Cochrane Database was carried out using keywords "morcellation", "uterine fibroids", "uterine sarcoma", "myomectomy" and "hysterectomy". Relevant publications (original studies, meta-analyses and previous reviews), written in English and published until May 30th, 2017, were selected and analyzed. Previously emitted statements of 12 recognized professional societies or government institutions and their supporting literature were also studied. For each topic/clinical question, the available information was graded by the level of evidence. The ISGE recommendations were established in accordance with the evidence quality. In the light of available information, 9 recommendations on preoperative clinical, laboratorial and imaging evaluation of the candidates for intracorporeal uterus/leiomyoma morcellation were formulated, mainly based on consensus and expert opinions. There is a lack of high-quality evidence, which does not allow the establishment of strong recommendations. Electromechanical tissue morcellation may be used in gynecological patients who are considered "low risk" upon appropriate preoperative evaluation; however, further studies and prospective data collection are greatly needed to improve sarcoma risk assessment in women with presumed uterine leiomyomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Uterine angioleiomyoma: a rare variant of uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Garg, Garima; Mohanty, Sambit K

    2014-08-01

    Uterine angioleiomyoma is an extremely rare and unique variant of leiomyoma. It usually occurs in middle-aged women, who commonly present with menorrhagia, abdominal pain, or abdominal mass. The lesions are either single or multiple and manifest as submucosal, intramural, or subserosal whorled nodules. Microscopy of the individual nodule shows interlacing fascicles of spindle cells swirling around thick-walled blood vessels. Angioleiomyoma usually lacks mitotic figures, pleomorphism, or necrosis, although cases with marked nuclear atypia and multinucleated giant cells have been reported. The tumor cells are immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, desmin, h-caldesmon, and progesterone receptor, with a low Ki-67 labeling index. Because these lesions are vascular, they may undergo spontaneous rupture and pose a life-threatening emergency, especially in pregnancy. There are no specific imaging findings; therefore, a preoperative diagnosis is extremely difficult. It is important to recognize this entity and differentiate it from a malignancy, particularly when angioleiomyoma shows significant cytologic atypia or raised cancer antigen 125 levels by thorough sampling. When required, a proper immunohistochemical panel should be used to arrive at a correct diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on uterine angioleiomyoma and its clinical relevance.

  14. Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation of the fundamentals of ablative TPS materials for a short course at TFAWS 2017. It gives an overall description of what an ablator is, the equations that define it, and how to model it.

  15. Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding with Emphasis on Alternatives to Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Billow, Megan R; El-Nashar, Sherif A

    2016-09-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common problem that negatively impacts a woman's health-related quality of life and activity. Initial medical treatment includes hormonal and nonhormonal medications. If bleeding persists and no structural abnormalities are present, a repeat trial of medical therapy, a levonorgestrel intrauterine system, or an endometrial ablation can be used dependent on future fertility wishes. The levonorgestrel intrauterine system and endometrial ablation are effective, less invasive, and safe alternatives to a hysterectomy in women with AUB. A hysterectomy is the definitive treatment of AUB irrespective of the suspected cause when alternative treatments fail. Future studies should focus on detection of predictors for treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Advanced Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Early NASA missions (Gemini, Apollo, Mars Viking) employed new ablative TPS that were tailored for the entry environment. After 40 years, heritage ablative TPS materials using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for future exploration missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable any subsequent human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. This poster summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid/conformable and flexible ablators that could potentially be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular the effort focuses technologies required to land heavy (approx.40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate future exploration plans.

  17. Efficacy of ormeloxifene versus oral contraceptive in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding due to uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Kriplani, Alka; Srivastava, Astha; Kulshrestha, Vidushi; Kachhawa, Garima; Agarwal, Nutan; Bhatla, Neerja; Hari, Smriti

    2016-12-01

    To compare ormeloxifene with combined oral contraceptive (COC) in abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) due to leiomyoma (AUB-L). Fifty women with AUB-L were randomized after informed consent and institute ethics clearance. Group I (n = 25) was given ormeloxifene (a SERM i.e. selective estrogen receptor modulator) 60 mg twice per week and group II (n = 25) was given COC (ethinyl estradiol 30 μg with desogestrel 150 μg) on days 1-21 for 6 months. Menstrual blood loss was assessed on pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) score and leiomyoma volume was assessed on ultrasound. Fibroids were classified according to FIGO-PALM-COEIN classification for AUB where leiomyomas were further sub-classified as types 0 to 8 according to their location. Follow up was done at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. Mean PBAC score reduced by 81% with ormeloxifene (group I) compared with 43.8% for COC (group II). After 6 months, 18 patients (72%) in group I had PBAC score in the non-menorrhagic range (<100) compared with only two (8%) in group II. In group I, PBAC score in FIGO-PALM-COEIN leiomyoma types 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 reduced by 90.2%, 82.5%, 93.3%, 56.4% and 100%, respectively and 14 (56%) developed amenorrhea; compared with reduction of 64%, 27.5%, 25.9% in types 4, 5 and 6, respectively in group II. Dysmenorrhea visual analog scale score decreased in both groups. Mean leiomyoma volume increased in both groups: by 25.7% with ormeloxifene versus 16.9% with COC; only grade 2 leiomyoma in group I reduced by 44%. One patient in group II with grade 2 leiomyoma discontinued treatment at 3 months. Seven patients (28%) developed ovarian cyst in group I with no other major adverse effect in either group. Ormeloxifene with its convenient twice-weekly dosage schedule was effective in treating AUB-L, with 72% of patients responding to 6-month treatment compared with 8% with COC, even though leiomyoma volume increased insignificantly with both ormeloxifene and COCs. © 2016 Japan Society of

  18. Uterine caliper and depth gauge

    DOEpatents

    King, Loyd L.; Wheeler, Robert G.; Fish, Thomas M.

    1977-01-01

    A uterine caliper and sound consisting of an elongated body having outwardly biased resilient caliper wings and a spring-loaded slidable cervical stop. A slide on the body is operatively connected to the wings by a monofilament and operates with respect to a first scale on the body as a width indicator. A rod extending longitudinally on the body is connected to the cervical stop and cooperates with a second scale on the body as a depth indicator. The instrument can be positioned to measure the distance from the outer cervical ostium to the fundus, as read on said second scale. The wings may be allowed to open by moving the slide, and when the wings engage the utero-tubal junctions, the width may be read on said first scale. By adjustment of the caliper wings the instrument may be retracted until the resistance of the inner ostium of the cervix is felt, enabling the length of the cervical canal to be read directly by the position of the longitudinal indicator rod with respect to said second scale. The instrument may be employed to measure the width of the uterine cavity at any position between the inner ostium of the cervix and the fundus.

  19. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section... Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor. (a) Identification. A home uterine activity monitor (HUAM) is an electronic system for at home antepartum measurement of uterine contractions, data...

  20. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section... Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor. (a) Identification. A home uterine activity monitor (HUAM) is an electronic system for at home antepartum measurement of uterine contractions, data...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section... Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor. (a) Identification. A home uterine activity monitor (HUAM) is an electronic system for at home antepartum measurement of uterine contractions, data...

  2. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section... Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor. (a) Identification. A home uterine activity monitor (HUAM) is an electronic system for at home antepartum measurement of uterine contractions, data...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section... Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor. (a) Identification. A home uterine activity monitor (HUAM) is an electronic system for at home antepartum measurement of uterine contractions, data...

  4. Is Myomectomy Prior to Assisted Reproductive Technology Cost Effective in Women with Intramural Fibroids?

    PubMed

    Ojo-Carons, Mary; Mumford, Sunni L; Armstrong, Alicia Y; DeCherney, Alan H; Devine, Kate

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the cost effectiveness of surgery to remove intramural (IM) fibroids prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART). The decision tree mathematical model along with sensitivity analysis was performed to analyze cost effectiveness of: (1) myomectomy followed by ART or (2) ART with IM myoma(s) in situ. At the median ongoing pregnancy (OP) rate (OPR) reported in the literature for a fresh, autologous ART cycle with IM fibroids in situ vs. post-IM myomectomy, average cost per OP was $72,355 vs. 66,075, indicating a cost savings with myomectomy. Sensitivity analysis over the range of reported OPRs demonstrated that pre-ART IM myomectomy was always cost effective when OPR among women with in situ myomas was <15.4%. However, for OPRs ≥15.4%, pre-ART IM myomectomy was only cost effective if it increased OPR by at least 9.6%. At the high end of OPRs reported for patients with IM myomas in situ (31.4%), a 19.5% improvement in OPR was needed to justify IM myomectomy from a cost perspective. Myomectomy should be used sparingly in cases where the goal of surgery is to achieve improvement in the outcomes of ART. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Using endometrial ablation as a treatment for abnormal bleeding: energy source comparisons and clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.

    2000-01-01

    A great number of women suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding. Most do not want to undergo a hysterectomy and have searched for an alternative treatment. Ablation of the endometrium has become a viable alternative. Initially, surgical applications utilized thermal ablation by passing a rolling electrode, energized by monopolar radiofrequency (RF) energy, to ablate the inner uterine lining. This procedure was done under visual guidance and required practiced surgical skills to perform the ablation. It was not possible to assess subsurface damage. More recently, various energy systems have been applied to the endometrium such as lasers, microwaves, monopolar and bipolar RF, hot fluid balloons, and cryotherapy. They are being used in computer controlled treatments that obviate the user's skill, and utilize a self-positioning device paired with a temperature monitored, thermal treatment. Finite element models have also been created to predict heating profiles with devices that either rely on conductive heating or that deposit power in tissue. This is a very active field in terms of innovation with creative solutions using contemporary technology to reduce or halt the bleeding. Devices and minimally invasive treatments will offer choices to women and will be able to replace a surgical procedure with an office-based procedure. They are very promising and are discussed at length herein.

  6. Uterine transplantation: a promising surrogate to surrogacy?

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michael; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Bulletti, Carlo; Frydman, Rene; Fanchin, Renato

    2011-03-01

    Infertility due to the inability of the uterus to carry a pregnancy ranks among the most unresolved issues in reproductive medicine. It affects millions of women worldwide who have congenital or acquired uterine affections, often requiring hysterectomy, and potentially represents a considerable fraction of the general infertile population. Patients suffering from severe uterine infertility are currently compelled to go through gestational surrogacy or adoption; both approaches, unfortunately, deprive them of the maternal experience of pregnancy and birth. Uterine transplantation represents an outstanding, yet complex, perspective to alleviating definitive uterine infertility. In the past decades, a number of scientific experiments conducted both in animals and women, focusing on uterine transplantation, have led to promising results. Collectively, these findings undoubtedly constitute a sound basis to clinically apply uterine transplantation in the near future. This paper is, however, an overview not only of the extent and limitations of accumulated scientific knowledge on uterine transplantation, but also its ethical implications, in an effort to define the actual place of such an approach among the therapeutic arsenal for alleviating infertility. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Advanced Rigid Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate s (ESMD) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project (TDP) and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate s (ARMD) Hypersonics Project are developing new advanced rigid ablators in an effort to substantially increase reliability, decrease mass, and reduce life cycle cost of rigid aeroshell-based entry systems for multiple missions. Advanced Rigid Ablators combine ablation resistant top layers capable of high heat flux entry and enable high-speed EDL with insulating mass-efficient bottom that, insulate the structure and lower the areal weight. These materials may benefit Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) vendors and may potentially enable new NASA missions for higher velocity returns (e.g. asteroid, Mars). The materials have been thermally tested to 400-450 W/sq cm at the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Lab (LHMEL), Hypersonics Materials Evaluation Test System (HyMETS) and in arcjet facilities. Tested materials exhibit much lower backface temperatures and reduced recession over the baseline materials (PICA). Although the EDL project is ending in FY11, NASA in-house development of advanced ablators will continue with a focus on varying resin systems and fiber/resin interactions.

  8. Modelling ultrafast laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rethfeld, Baerbel; Ivanov, Dmitriy S.; E Garcia, Martin; Anisimov, Sergei I.

    2017-05-01

    This review is devoted to the study of ultrafast laser ablation of solids and liquids. The ablation of condensed matter under exposure to subpicosecond laser pulses has a number of peculiar properties which distinguish this process from ablation induced by nanosecond and longer laser pulses. The process of ultrafast ablation includes light absorption by electrons in the skin layer, energy transfer from the skin layer to target interior by nonlinear electronic heat conduction, relaxation of the electron and ion temperatures, ultrafast melting, hydrodynamic expansion of heated matter accompanied by the formation of metastable states and subsequent formation of breaks in condensed matter. In case of ultrashort laser excitation, these processes are temporally separated and can thus be studied separately. As for energy absorption, we consider peculiarities of the case of metal irradiation in contrast to dielectrics and semiconductors. We discuss the energy dissipation processes of electronic thermal wave and lattice heating. Different types of phase transitions after ultrashort laser pulse irradiation as melting, vaporization or transitions to warm dense matter are discussed. Also nonthermal phase transitions, directly caused by the electronic excitation before considerable lattice heating, are considered. The final material removal occurs from the physical point of view as expansion of heated matter; here we discuss approaches of hydrodynamics, as well as molecular dynamic simulations directly following the atomic movements. Hybrid approaches tracing the dynamics of excited electrons, energy dissipation and structural dynamics in a combined simulation are reviewed as well.

  9. Uterine fibrosarcoma in a Warmblood mare.

    PubMed

    Govaere, J; Maes, S; Saey, V; Blancke, W; Hoogewijs, M; Deschauwer, C; Smits, K; Roels, K; Vercauteren, G; de Kruif, A

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a case of uterine fibrosarcoma in an 18-year-old Warmblood mare. The mare had exhibited bloody fluid accumulation inside the uterus and vaginal haemorrhagic discharge since the previous foaling. The mare was euthanized, and on pathological examination, in addition to the uterine neoplasia, multiple metastases were found in the lungs, liver and spleen. The histological and immunohistochemical examination determined that the tumour was a fibrosarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to describe a uterine fibrosarcoma in a mare. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Endometrial receptivity and implantation are not affected by the presence of uterine intramural leiomyomas: a clinical and functional genomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Horcajadas, José A; Goyri, Eduardo; Higón, María A; Martínez-Conejero, José A; Gambadauro, Pietro; García, Gabriela; Meseguer, Marcos; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most frequent benign tumors during reproductive age. Whether intramural leiomyomas cause infertility and should be removed is controversial because no study has addressed the underlying mechanism of infertility. The objective of the study was to test the effect of intramural leiomyomas on endometrial function by comparing gene during the window of implantation and implantation in an oocyte donation program, in which the quality of the embryos replaced is similar and the endocrine environment of the endometrium is standardized by exogenous steroids. Human endometria of women with single intramural leiomyomas (group A, <5 cm and group B, > or =5 cm) and controls (group C) were collected on day LH+7 and processed for histology and gene expression analysis, using different methods and validated by quantitative RT-PCR. To compare in vitro fertilization outcome, a total of 1035 cases from our oocyte donation database were included, comprising patients with one fibroid less than 5 cm (A1, n = 532); two leiomyomas less than 5 cm (A2, n = 128); three or more leiomyomas less than 5 cm (A3, n = 125); one fibroid 5 cm or greater (B, n = 22); and two control groups: C1 (n = 93), women with previous myomectomy; and C2 (n = 135), women without uterine pathology treated on the same dates as C1. There was a strong positive and negative correlation in the expression profile of 69 genes according to the leiomyomas's size, but only three of the 25 genes related to the window of implantation were dysregulated. Term pregnancy rates after oocyte donation were 36.9, 34.1, 39.0, 36.4, 39.2, and 42.6% (P = 0.769) among the established groups. Similarly, no correlation between implantation and miscarriage with leiomyoma number and size was found. This study provides evidence that intramural leiomyomas not affecting the endometrial cavity alters the expression pattern of some endometrial genes, but the genes involved in implantation are not affected. This is

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Uterine Sarcoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat uterine sarcoma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment ...

  12. Fetal heart and uterine contraction monitor (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The fetal heart monitor and uterine contraction monitor provide a continuous record of the baby's heart rate and the mother's contraction rate as labor progresses. This device can provide early warning of fetal distress.

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as uterine metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woo Dae; Kim, Cheol Hong; Cho, Moon Kyung; Kim, Jong Woon; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Yoon Ha; Choi, Ho Sun; Kim, Seok Mo

    2008-09-01

    Metastatic extragenital cancer that spreads to the uterus is rare. When it occurs, the extragenital primary disease is often in the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We report here on a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that metastasis to the uterus. The patient was admitted for evaluation of a pelvic mass. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was highly elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis showed hepatic and uterine masses. The patient underwent surgical treatment. The histopathologic findings and immunohistochemical staining results of the uterine mass were characteristics of metastatic HCC. The endometrium and both ovaries were free of tumor. Up to now, there have been only two cases of uterine metastasis from HCC reported in the English literature. This case is the first documented instance of a metastatic uterine tumor from HCC that spared both ovaries.

  14. Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Li, Quanxi; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2(d/d)), the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2(d/d) mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy.

  15. Msx Homeobox Genes Critically Regulate Embryo Implantation by Controlling Paracrine Signaling between Uterine Stroma and Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Li, Quanxi; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2 d/d), the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2 d/d mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy. PMID:22383889

  16. Short and medium term outcomes after rollerball endometrial ablation for menorrhagia.

    PubMed

    Fraser, I S; Angsuwathana, S; Mahmoud, F; Yezerski, S

    1993-04-05

    To review prospectively the intraoperative, short and medium term outcomes of patients treated by rollerball endometrial ablation during the learning curve for this relatively new procedure. Seventy-seven women with menorrhagia (71 with dysfunctional bleeding; six with additional small intramural myomas) underwent hysteroscopic rollerball endometrial ablation by coagulation diathermy during 1.5% glycine irrigation, after a two-month period of hormonal suppression. OPERATIVE AND SHORT-TERM EFFECTS: These were recorded at operation and six-week follow-up. No serious short-term complications were recorded. Objective measurement of intraoperative blood loss was always less than 20 mL. One woman experienced uterine perforation with a narrow cervical dilator which did not interfere with the ablation, and two patients had mild postoperative uterine infections. One patient experienced persistent postoperative pain. MEDIUM-TERM OUTCOME: This was recorded at each visit, or by telephone, and confirmed by questionnaire at one year. Twenty-five per cent achieved complete amenorrhoea, 29% staining only, 30% light periods, 10% "normal" or erratic periods and 6% were unchanged. Five patients underwent a second ablation, and three of these later underwent hysterectomy. Measured menstrual blood loss fell from 104 +/- 19 mL (mean +/- standard error of mean) to 1.7 +/- 1.1 mL at six months in 18 women. Other menstrual symptoms were also often dramatically reduced. Of those women with dysmenorrhoea, 33% were cured and 43% markedly improved; of those with midcycle pain, 28% were cured and 53% markedly improved; of those with significant premenstrual symptoms, 13% were cured, 47% markedly improved, 11% unchanged, and 6% were worse. This new procedure is a safe and effective treatment for menorrhagia caused by dysfunctional uterine bleeding, with impressive ancillary benefits for dysmenorrhoea, midcycle pain and premenstrual tension. It is often called minimally invasive surgery, but it

  17. Laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion for symptomatic leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Lichtinger, Moises; Hallson, Laurey; Calvo, Patricia; Adeboyejo, Ghea

    2002-05-01

    To describe a laparoscopic technique that safely occludes both uterine arteries, overcoming an altered surgical field resulting from scarring and/or uterine leiomyomatous growth. Prospective analysis (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Nonprofit community hospital. Eight women with leiomyomas with abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain or pressure, and/or anemia. Bilateral laparoscopic retroperitoneal uterine artery occlusion. Occlusion at the initial track of the uterine artery was performed by laparoscopic coated ligature in six patients. In two obese patients with deep retroperitoneal space, vascular clips were placed endoscopically using the same dissecting technique. All patients were discharged within 20 hours after the procedure. All five women with abnormal bleeding reported satisfactory decrease; none reported amenorrhea. Of eight with preoperative pain or pressure, seven reported complete disappearance and one significant relief. All three patients with anemia had normal red cell counts after 1 month. Laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion using a lateral retroperitoneal technique is safe and effective in women with pelvic scarring and altered pelvic anatomy.

  18. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    PubMed

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  19. Inflammatory fibroid polyp of the gallbladder bearing a platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha mutation.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maurizio; Santoro, Luisa; Familiari, Pietro; Costamagna, Guido; Ricci, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    The inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a benign lesion occurring in the digestive tract, mostly in the stomach and small bowel, composed of fibrovascular tissue infiltrated by inflammatory cells including eosinophils and mastocytes. Its pathogenesis has been controversial (reactive versus neoplastic). The recent finding of mutations in platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) in most gastric and small intestinal IFPs supported their neoplastic etiology, moreover helping in their differential diagnosis. In the only gallbladder IFP reported so far, the diagnosis was based on morphologic and immunohistochemical grounds, which in current standards would probably be considered not fully conclusive. Conversely, the gallbladder IFP we report shows typical pathologic features supported by a PDGFRA mutation, similar to its usual gastric and small intestinal counterparts, constituting the first report of an unequivocal IFP at gallbladder level. Thus, IFPs must be considered in the differential diagnosis of gallbladder mesenchymal masses, and genetic analysis of PDGFRA is a helpful tool for this purpose.

  20. OCDR guided laser ablation device

    DOEpatents

    Dasilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A guided laser ablation device. The device includes a mulitmode laser ablation fiber that is surrounded by one or more single mode optical fibers that are used to image in the vicinity of the laser ablation area to prevent tissue damage. The laser ablation device is combined with an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) unit and with a control unit which initializes the OCDR unit and a high power laser of the ablation device. Data from the OCDR unit is analyzed by the control unit and used to control the high power laser. The OCDR images up to about 3 mm ahead of the ablation surface to enable a user to see sensitive tissue such as a nerve or artery before damaging it by the laser.

  1. Laparoscopic uterine surgery as a risk factor for uterine rupture during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chao, An-Shine; Chang, Yao-Lung; Yang, Lan-Yan; Chao, Angel; Chang, Wei-Yang; Su, Sheng-Yuan; Wang, Chin-Jung

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of uterine rupture through a previous cesarean scar (CS) is declining as a result of a lower parity and fewer options for vaginal birth after cesarean. However, uterine ruptures attributable to other causes that traumatize the myometrium are on the rise. To determine whether changes in the causes of uterine rupture had occurred in recent years, we retrospective retrieved the clinical records of all singletons with uterine rupture observed in the delivery room of a Taiwanese tertiary obstetric center over a 15-year period. The overall uterine rupture rate was 3.8 per 10,000 deliveries. A total of 22 cases in 20 women (with two of them experiencing two episodes). Seven uterine ruptures occurred through a previous cesarean scar (CS ruptures, 32%), 13 through a non-cesarean scar (non-CS ruptures, 59%), whereas the remaining two (9%) were in women who did not previously undergo any surgery. All of the 13 non-CS ruptures were identified in women with a history of laparoscopic procedures to the uterus. Specifically, 10 (76%) occurred after a previous laparoscopic myomectomy, one (8%) following a hysteroscopic myomectomy, and two (16%) after a laparoscopic wedge resection of cornual ectopic pregnancy. Severe bleeding (blood loss >1500 mL) requiring transfusions was more frequent in women who experienced non-CS compared with CS ruptures (10 versus 1 case, respectively, P = 0.024). Patients with a history of endoscopic uterine surgery should be aware of uterine rupture during pregnancy.

  2. Uterine distension differentially affects remodelling and distensibility of the uterine vasculature in non-pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Osol, George; Barron, Carolyn; Mandalà, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    During pregnancy the mammalian uterine circulation undergoes significant expansive remodelling necessary for normal pregnancy outcome. The underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that myometrial stretch actively stimulates uterine vascular remodelling by developing a new surgical approach to induce unilateral uterine distension in non-pregnant rats. Three weeks after surgery, which consisted of an infusion of medical-grade silicone into the uterine lumen, main and mesometrial uterine artery and vein length, diameter and distensibility were recorded. Radial artery diameter, distensibility and vascular smooth muscle mitotic rate (Ki67 staining) were also measured. Unilateral uterine distension resulted in significant increases in the length of main uterine artery and vein and mesometrial segments but had no effect on vessel diameter or distensibility. In contrast, there were significant increases in the diameter of the radial arteries associated with the distended uterus. These changes were accompanied by reduced arterial distensibility and increased vascular muscle hyperplasia. In summary, this is the first report to show that myometrial stretch is a sufficient stimulus to induce significant remodelling of uterine vessels in non-pregnant rats. Moreover, the results indicate differential regulation of these growth processes as a function of vessel size and type.

  3. Laparoscopic uterine surgery as a risk factor for uterine rupture during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chao, An-Shine; Chang, Yao-Lung; Yang, Lan-Yan; Chao, Angel; Chang, Wei-Yang; Su, Sheng-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of uterine rupture through a previous cesarean scar (CS) is declining as a result of a lower parity and fewer options for vaginal birth after cesarean. However, uterine ruptures attributable to other causes that traumatize the myometrium are on the rise. To determine whether changes in the causes of uterine rupture had occurred in recent years, we retrospective retrieved the clinical records of all singletons with uterine rupture observed in the delivery room of a Taiwanese tertiary obstetric center over a 15-year period. The overall uterine rupture rate was 3.8 per 10,000 deliveries. A total of 22 cases in 20 women (with two of them experiencing two episodes). Seven uterine ruptures occurred through a previous cesarean scar (CS ruptures, 32%), 13 through a non-cesarean scar (non-CS ruptures, 59%), whereas the remaining two (9%) were in women who did not previously undergo any surgery. All of the 13 non-CS ruptures were identified in women with a history of laparoscopic procedures to the uterus. Specifically, 10 (76%) occurred after a previous laparoscopic myomectomy, one (8%) following a hysteroscopic myomectomy, and two (16%) after a laparoscopic wedge resection of cornual ectopic pregnancy. Severe bleeding (blood loss >1500 mL) requiring transfusions was more frequent in women who experienced non-CS compared with CS ruptures (10 versus 1 case, respectively, P = 0.024). Patients with a history of endoscopic uterine surgery should be aware of uterine rupture during pregnancy. PMID:29787604

  4. Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation and Retained Placenta Increta.

    PubMed

    Roach, Michelle K; Thomassee, May S

    2015-09-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations are rare and have been reported to occur after uterine trauma (eg, surgery, gestational trophoblastic disease, malignancy). A 33-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 3, presented 4 weeks post-cesarean delivery with episodic profuse vaginal bleeding. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left uterine arteriovenous malformation. After consideration of all treatment options, total laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed. Acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations and placental ingrowth into the myometrium are increasingly reported after surgical uterine procedures. This case of a postpartum patient with both uterine arteriovenous malformation and retained placenta increta suggests a correlation between the two complications.

  5. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  6. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  7. Intrapartum uterine rupture with coincidental uterine adenomyosis in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Newell-Fugate, Annie; Lane, Emily

    2009-12-01

    A 7-yr-old African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) multiparous bitch experienced severe dystocia and death one day after the onset of parturition. Necropsy revealed three placental attachments in the right uterine horn and one in the left. A full-thickness rupture of the right horn at the middle placental attachment and an autolysed fetus free in the abdomen were present. Death was attributed to hypovolemic and endotoxemic shock after uterine rupture. Myometrium adjacent to the rupture and in the left uterine horn was subdivided into irregular pseudolobules by fibrous connective tissue tracts containing small endometrial glandular acini suggestive of adenomyosis, which may have facilitated uterine rupture. This is the first reported case of dystocia-induced uterine rupture and of adenomyosis in a wild dog.

  8. Comparison of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, hysterectomy, and endometrial ablation for heavy menstrual bleeding in a decision analysis model.

    PubMed

    Louie, Michelle; Spencer, Jennifer; Wheeler, Stephanie; Ellis, Victoria; Toubia, Tarek; Schiff, Lauren D; Siedhoff, Matthew T; Moulder, Janelle K

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the relative risks and benefits of common treatment options for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) can help providers and patients to make balanced, evidence-based decisions. To provide comparative estimates of clinical outcomes after placement of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), ablation, or hysterectomy for AUB. A PubMED search was done using combinations of search terms related to abnormal uterine bleeding, LNG-IUS, hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness, and quality-adjusted life years. Full articles published in 2006-2016 available in English comparing at least two treatment modalities of interest among women of reproductive age with AUB were included. A decision tree was generated to compare clinical outcomes in a hypothetical cohort of 100 000 premenopausal women with nonmalignant AUB. We evaluated complications, mortality, and treatment outcomes over a 5-year period, calculated cumulative quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and conducted probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system had the highest number of QALYs (406 920), followed by hysterectomy (403 466), non-resectoscopic ablation (399 244), and resectoscopic ablation (395 827). Ablation had more treatment failures and complications than LNG-IUS and hysterectomy. Findings were robust in probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and hysterectomy outperformed endometrial ablation for treatment of AUB. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  9. [Apoptosis and uterine cervical carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Lin, H; Song, H

    2000-11-01

    To investigate the possible role of apoptosis in the development of uterine cervical carcinoma. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from 190 patients [41 patients with severe dysplasia (SD); 37 with carcinoma in situ(CIS); 31 with microinvasive carcinoma (MIC), 40 with fran invasive large cell non-keratinizing epidermoid carcinoma (IC)], and 41 samples from normal cervical squamous epithelium (NE) were studied. The number of apoptotic cells was assessed in situ by the TDT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. PCNA, p53 and bcl-2 were demonstrated immunohistochemically. (1) In NE, TUNEL-positive cells were found in the superficial layer and PCNA-positive cells were confined in the lamina profunda, while in cervical neoplasia these cells were irregulasly scattered throughout the cervical lesions. (2) The TUNEL staining index decreased while PCNA increased with progression of the neoplasm, showing a significant negative correlation between apoptosis and proliferation. (3) In patients with SD and CIS who had overexpression of p53 and bcl-2 proteins, the cells positively stained by TUNEL were significantly less in number than in these with negative p53 and bcl-2 expression. No such observation for PCNA expression. These results suggest that apoptosis is associated with the early process of cervical carcinogenesis and apoptosis is closely correlated with overexpression of p53 and bcl-2 proteins.

  10. Intra-uterine contraceptive devices.

    PubMed

    Elias, J

    1985-05-01

    Among the advantages of IUDs are the device's high continuation rate, the lack of systemic side effects, and the absence of a need for continual motivation to practice contraception. The effectiveness of plastic IUDs is directly proportional to their surface area, but the degree of excessive bleeding experienced is inversely related to device size. Thus, devices represent a compromise between large size for effectiveness and small size for acceptability. The optimum time to fit an IUD is during the 1st hald of the menstrual cycle. Absolute contraindications to IUD use include the presence of active pelvic inflammatory disease, undiagnosed irregular bleeding, a history of ectopic pregnancy or tubal surgery, and a distorted uteine cavity. Failure rates associated with IUD use range from 2-3% in the 1st year and then decrease. Since the main mechanism of action appears to be production of a sterile inflammatory reaction in the uterine cavity, the IUD prevents intrauterine pregnancy more effectively than ectopic pregnancy. Nonetheless, there is little evidence to suggest that IUD use actually increases the incidence of ectopic pregnancy. Resumption of fertility after IUD removal is not delayed. There is not need to change inert plastic IUDs in women who remain symptom free. The copper devices should be changed every 3-4 years. A search is under way for antifertility agents that can be incorporated into the device to reduce side effects. In general, the IUD is most suitable for older, parous women.

  11. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Uterine sarcoma treatment is primarily surgery, with or without radiation or chemotherapy. Get detailed information about the treatment options for newly diagnosed or recurrent uterine sarcoma cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  12. Role of bevacizumab in uterine leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martineli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Fonatella, Caterina; Sanfilippo, Roberta; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ferrero, Simone; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    In the recent years, angiogenetic inhibitors have emerged for the treatment of several malignancies. In particular, bevacizumab has proved to be effective in many types of cancers (including sarcoma), but the limitations of antiangiogenic therapy have been shown in practice. Here, we sought to review the current evidence on the role and efficacy of bevacizumab in patients affected by uterine leiomyosarcoma. On April 2017, Literature was searched in order to identify studies reporting outcomes of patients affected either by early stage or advanced/recurred uterine leiomyosarcoma undergoing treatment with bevacizumab, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic regimens. Searching the literature data of 69 patients affected by metastatic, unresectable uterine leiomyosarcoma were retrieved; on the contrary, no data regarding the use of bevacizumab in patients with early-stage uterine leiomyosarcoma was published. Current evidence suggested that the addiction of bevacizumab to standard treatment modality does not increase grade 3 or worse toxicity (assessed by CTCAE). Pooled data regarding response rate suggested that 35%, 28%, 26% and 11% of patients experienced objective cure (complete + partial response), stable disease, progressive disease and unknown response, respectively. Data from the only one randomized controlled trial suggested that objective cure rate does not differ from standard chemotherapy treatment, thus limiting the indication to add bevacizumab in patients affected by metastatic, unresectable uterine leiomyosarcoma. The current evidence does not justify the use of bevacizumab into clinical practice. Further randomized studies testing the role of bevacizumab are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species. PMID:22958877

  14. Improved Ablative Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-12-01

    Equipment 62 2. Gas Analysis 62 3. Chemical Analysis for Titanium and Boron 63 4. Tensile Strength Determinations 64 5. Density Determinations 64 6. X-ray...mils, and its density was about 4. 45 g/cm 3. Elastic modulus values averaged about 71 x 106 psi for the filament. -X- I. INTRODUCTION Ablative liner...20 4 /50 percent N 2H 4 -50 percent UDMH or L0 2 /LH. The more-energetic propellant systems, using fluorine or FLOX, demand more-effective abla- tive

  15. High temperature ablative foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ablative foam composition is formed of approximately 150 to 250 parts by weight polymeric isocyanate having an isocyanate functionality of 2.6 to 3.2; approximately 15 to 30 parts by weight reactive flame retardant having a hydroxyl number range from 200-260; approximately 10 to 40 parts by weight non-reactive flame retardant; approximately 10 to 40 parts by weight nonhydrolyzable silicone copolymer having a hydroxyl number range from 75-205; and approximately 3 to 16 parts by weight amine initiated polyether resin having an isocyanate functionality greater than or equal to 3.0 and a hydroxyl number range from 400-800.

  16. A comparison between electrical uterine monitor, tocodynamometer and intra uterine pressure catheter for uterine activity in labor.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Eran; Biron-Shental, Tal; Gavish, Oz; Raban, Oded; Yogev, Yariv

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the performance of a non-invasive EMG electrical uterine monitor (EUM) versus tocodynamometry (TOCO) by comparing both to internal uterine pressure catheter (IUPC). Prospective observational trial. Uterine activity was recorded continuously and simultaneously, in women during active term labor, with TOCO, EUM and IUPC. Uterine activity tracings were analyzed by three blinded physicians. Overall, 385 tracings from 43 women were analyzed. A similar rate of interpretable tracings between physicians was demonstrated for EUM (87%; 95% CI 80.9-92.7%) and IUPC (94.8%; 95% CI 83.4-96.3%), with a significantly lower rate for TOCO (67.5%; 95% CI 59.4-76.8%, p < 0.001). There is a significant difference in the contraction frequency for EUM versus IUPC (0.77 ± 2.3) compared to TOCO versus IUPC (-3.34 ± 4.97). There is a high variability between the timing of TOCO contractions as compared to IUPC (4.74 ± 10.03 seconds), while a gap of 8.46 ± 4.24 seconds was detected for EUM. The sensitivity, positive predictive value and false positive rate for individual contraction identification by TOCO and EUM are 54.0%, 84.4%, 15.6% and 94.2%, 87.6%, 12.4%, respectively. EUM is efficient as IUPC for uterine activity assessment and both techniques are superior in comparison to external tocodynamometry. Our results support the use of non-invasive EMG technology to monitor uterine activity.

  17. Alternative Oral Agents in Prophylaxis and Therapy of Uterine Fibroids—An Up-to-Date Review

    PubMed Central

    Łukaszuk, Krzysztof; Męczekalski, Błażej; Ciebiera, Magdalena; Wojtyła, Cezary; Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, Aneta; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs) are the most common tumors of the female genital tract. The effect of UFs on the quality of life and the overall cost of treatment are significant issues worldwide. Tumor size and location are the two specific factors which influence the occurrence of symptoms, the need for, and method of, treatment (some tumors require surgery while some can be treated with selected drugs). Primary prevention and treatment of early UF disease are worthy goals that might have a great impact on health care systems. Several treatments and prophylactic methods can be used in this endeavor. This publication presents current data about lesser-known substances which may have a beneficial effect on the treatment or prophylaxis of UFs and can be administered orally, serving as an alternative to (or complement of) surgery or selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). Early prevention and treatment of UFs in women from high-risk groups should be our priority. Innovative forms of UF management are under intensive investigation and may be promising options in the near future. Many of them evaluated vitamin D, paricalcitol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), elagolix, aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and cabergoline and deemed them to be safe and effective. The next step in such projects should be properly constructed randomized control trials (RCTs), carried out by successive phases. PMID:29194370

  18. Paracrine Pathways in Uterine Leiomyoma Stem Cells Involve Insulinlike Growth Factor 2 and Insulin Receptor A.

    PubMed

    Moravek, Molly B; Yin, Ping; Coon, John S; Ono, Masanori; Druschitz, Stacy A; Malpani, Saurabh S; Dyson, Matthew T; Rademaker, Alfred W; Robins, Jared C; Wei, Jian-Jun; Kim, J Julie; Bulun, Serdar E

    2017-05-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common benign tumors in women. Recently, three populations of leiomyoma cells were discovered on the basis of CD34 and CD49b expression, but molecular differences between these populations remain unknown. To define differential gene expression and signaling pathways in leiomyoma cell populations. Cells from human leiomyoma tissue were sorted by flow cytometry into three populations: CD34+/CD49b+, CD34+/CD49b-, and CD34-/CD49b-. Microarray gene expression profiling and pathway analysis were performed. To investigate the insulinlike growth factor (IGF) pathway, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation studies were performed in cells isolated from fresh leiomyoma. Research laboratory. Eight African American women. None. Gene expression patterns, cell proliferation, and differentiation. A total of 1164 genes were differentially expressed in the three leiomyoma cell populations, suggesting a hierarchical differentiation order whereby CD34+/CD49b+ stem cells differentiate to CD34+/CD49b- intermediary cells, which then terminally differentiate to CD34-/CD49b- cells. Pathway analysis revealed differential expression of several IGF signaling pathway genes. IGF2 was overexpressed in CD34+/CD49b- vs CD34-/CD49b- cells (83-fold; P < 0.05). Insulin receptor A (IR-A) expression was higher and IGF1 receptor lower in CD34+/CD49b+ vs CD34-/CD49b- cells (15-fold and 0.35-fold, respectively; P < 0.05). IGF2 significantly increased cell number (1.4-fold; P < 0.001), proliferation indices, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. ERK inhibition decreased IGF2-stimulated cell proliferation. IGF2 and IR-A are important for leiomyoma stem cell proliferation and may represent paracrine signaling between leiomyoma cell types. Therapies targeting the IGF pathway should be investigated for both treatment and prevention of leiomyomas. Copyright © 2017 by the

  19. Are women satisfied when using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding?

    PubMed Central

    Mansukhani, Nina; Unni, Jyothi; Dua, Meenakshi; Darbari, Reeta; Malik, Sonia; Verma, Sohani; Bathla, Sonal

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the efficacy of levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUS) in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in women over 35 years and to determine satisfaction of users of LNG IUS in case of AUB. Materials and Methods: This was a multicentric, retrospective, and observational study. Case records of patients with AUB from the hospitals in Pune, Delhi, and Gurgaon for the last 6 years were examined. Records of 80 women who had an LNG IUS inserted were included. The chief complaints and their duration were recorded. Investigation results, histopathology reports, and date of LNG IUS insertion were noted. The incidence of spotting, heavy menstrual bleeding, pain, expulsion, and amenorrhea were recorded at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months following treatment. Following this a telephonic interview was conducted to determine the efficacy of LNG IUS in treating the symptoms. Patients’ satisfaction in percentage was also noted and they were asked if they would recommend the LNG IUS to other women. Results: The mean age of women was 42.3 years. 77.5% of the women had menorrhagia as the chief complaint, and the mean duration was 12 months. Fibroids and adenomyosis were the most common pathology, present in 21.3% and 20% of the patients respectively. At 3 months, spotting seemed to be the predominant symptom (59.4%) and only 15% women had heavy bleeding. 49.3% of women were asymptomatic at 6 months. 27.5% had amenorrhea by the end of 18 months. 14 women in whom the device was expelled or removed due to persistent symptoms, underwent hysterectomy at various stages during the study period. Overall patient satisfaction was high at about 80%. Furthermore, 73.8% patients agreed to recommend it to other women. Conclusion: LNG IUS seems to be a viable and effective treatment option for AUB in women after 35 years. There is a high rate of patient satisfaction in appropriately selected patients. PMID:23833531

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Is Associated With Increased BMP7 Expression in Human Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elliott G; El-Nashar, Sherif A; Schoolmeester, John K; Keeney, Gary L; Mariani, Andrea; Hopkins, Matthew R; Dowdy, Sean C; Daftary, Gaurang S; Famuyide, Abimbola O

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), a common health concern of women, is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is traditionally categorized into organic and nonorganic causes. Despite varied pharmacologic treatments, few offer sustained efficacy, as most are empiric, unfocused, and do not directly address underlying dysregulated molecular mechanisms. Characterization of such molecular derangements affords the opportunity to develop and use novel, more successful treatments for AUB. Given its implication in other organ systems, we hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression is altered in patients with AUB and hence comprehensively investigated dysregulation of BMP signaling pathways by systematically screening 489 samples from 365 patients for differences in the expression of BMP2, 4, 6, and 7 ligands, BMPR1A and B receptors, and downstream SMAD4, 6, and 7 proteins. Expression analysis was correlated clinically with data abstracted from medical records, including bleeding history, age at procedure, ethnicity, body mass index, hormone treatment, and histological diagnosis of fibroids, polyps, adenomyosis, hyperplasia, and cancer. Expression of BMP7 ligand was significantly increased in patients with AUB (H-score: 18.0 vs 26.7; P < .0001). Patients reporting heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) as their specific AUB pattern demonstrated significantly higher BMP7 expression. Significantly, no differences in the expression of any other BMP ligands, receptors, or SMAD proteins were observed in this large patient cohort. However, expression of BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and SMAD4 was significantly decreased in cancer compared to benign samples. Our study demonstrates that BMP7 is a promising target for future investigation and pharmacologic treatment of AUB.

  1. [Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Bale, Reto

    2013-03-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is well established in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to its curative potential, it is the method of choice for non resectable BCLC (Barcelona Liver Clinic) 0 and A. RFA challenges surgical resection for small HCC and is the method of choice in bridging for transplantation and recurrence after resection or transplantation. The technical feasibility of RFA depends on the size and location of the HCC and the availability of ablation techniques (one needle techniques, multi-needle techniques). More recently, stereotactic multi-needle techniques with 3D trajectory planning and guided needle placement substantially improve the spectrum of treatable lesions including large volume tumors. Treatment success depends on the realization of ablations with large intentional margins of tumor free tissue (A0 ablation in analogy to R0 resection), which has to be documented by fusion of post- with pre-ablation images, and confirmed during follow-up imaging.

  2. HMB-45 reactivity in conventional uterine leiomyosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Karen W; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    We studied the human melanoma black-45 (HMB-45) reactivity in 25 uterine leiomyosarcomas including 23 conventional and 2 myxoid variants. Eleven tumors were poorly differentiated, and 14 were well to moderately differentiated. Nine uterine leiomyosarcomas labeled with HMB-45 in 10% or less of the tumor cells. Six were poorly differentiated and 3 were well differentiated. Our study indicates that 36% of conventional leiomyosarcomas focally express HMB-45. HMB-45 reactivity was more common in the poorly differentiated than in the well-differentiated group of leiomyosarcomas. In light of our findings and of those recently reported in the literature, we believe that the term PEComa should not be used for uterine leiomyosarcomas with clear cells or for conventional leiomyosarcomas that stain positively with HMB-45.

  3. Simulation of Pellet Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, P. B.; Ishizaki, Ryuichi

    2000-10-01

    In order to clarify the structure of the ablation flow, 2D simulation is carried out with a fluid code solving temporal evolution of MHD equations. The code includes electrostatic sheath effect at the cloud interface.(P.B. Parks et al.), Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 38, 571 (1996). An Eulerian cylindrical coordinate system (r,z) is used with z in a spherical pellet. The code uses the Cubic-Interpolated Psudoparticle (CIP) method(H. Takewaki and T. Yabe, J. Comput. Phys. 70), 355 (1987). that divides the fluid equations into non-advection and advection phases. The most essential element of the CIP method is in calculation of the advection phase. In this phase, a cubic interpolated spatial profile is shifted in space according to the total derivative equations, similarly to a particle scheme. Since the profile is interpolated by using the value and the spatial derivative value at each grid point, there is no numerical oscillation in space, that often appears in conventional spline interpolation. A free boundary condition is used in the code. The possibility of a stationary shock will also be shown in the presentation because the supersonic ablation flow across the magnetic field is impeded.

  4. Laboratory Simulations of Micrometeoroid Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Evan Williamson

    Each day, several tons of meteoric material enters Earth's atmosphere, the majority of which consist of small dust particles (micrometeoroids) that completely ablate at high altitudes. The dust input has been suggested to play a role in a variety of phenomena including: layers of metal atoms and ions, nucleation of noctilucent clouds, effects on stratospheric aerosols and ozone chemistry, and the fertilization of the ocean with bio-available iron. Furthermore, a correct understanding of the dust input to the Earth provides constraints on inner solar system dust models. Various methods are used to measure the dust input to the Earth including satellite detectors, radar, lidar, rocket-borne detectors, ice core and deep-sea sediment analysis. However, the best way to interpret each of these measurements is uncertain, which leads to large uncertainties in the total dust input. To better understand the ablation process, and thereby reduce uncertainties in micrometeoroid ablation measurements, a facility has been developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to accelerate iron particles to relevant meteoric velocities (10-70 km/s). The particles are then introduced into a chamber pressurized with a target gas, and they partially or completely ablate over a short distance. An array of diagnostics then measure, with timing and spatial resolution, the charge and light that is generated in the ablation process. In this thesis, we present results from the newly developed ablation facility. The ionization coefficient, an important parameter for interpreting meteor radar measurements, is measured for various target gases. Furthermore, experimental ablation measurements are compared to predictions from commonly used ablation models. In light of these measurements, implications to the broader context of meteor ablation are discussed.

  5. Success of uterus-preserving treatments for abnormal uterine bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, and symptomatic fibroids: age and bridges to menopause.

    PubMed

    Learman, Lee A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Gregorich, Steven E; Jackson, Rebecca A; Jacoby, Alison; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age at first uterus-preserving treatment (UPT) predicts symptom resolution among women with common pelvic problems. We conducted an analysis of 557 participants in the Study of Pelvic Problems, Hysterectomy and Intervention Alternatives cohort who reported having undergone a UPT. We performed multivariable regression modeling age at first UPT, hysterectomy, menopause, and other covariates to predict symptom resolution. Mean ± SD age at enrollment was 42.7 ± 4.7 years; mean follow-up time was 4.4 ± 2.7 years. Sixteen percent of the women underwent hysterectomy; 37% of the women entered menopause. Hysterectomy was a strong predictor of symptom resolution (P < .001). Compared with women who were younger (first UPT at age <40 years), older women reported greater symptom resolution, even after the data were controlled for hysterectomy use and menopausal status (P = .028). Women who are ≥40 years old when they undergo their first uterus-preserving treatment experience greater symptom resolution than younger women. Framing UPTs as hysterectomy alternatives may be accurate only for a subset of women who are >40 years old. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is AF Ablation Cost Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Doyle, William; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of catheter ablation to treat AF is increasing rapidly, but there is presently an incomplete understanding of its cost-effectiveness. AF ablation procedures involve significant up-front expenditures, but multiple randomized trials have demonstrated that ablation is more effective than antiarrhythmic drugs at maintaining sinus rhythm in a second-line and possibly first-line rhythm control setting. Although truly long-term data are limited, ablation, as compared with antiarrrhythmic drugs, also appears associated with improved symptoms and quality of life and a reduction in downstream hospitalization and other health care resource utilization. Several groups have developed cost effectiveness models comparing AF ablation primarily to antiarrhythmic drugs and the model results suggest that ablation likely falls within the range generally accepted as cost-effective in developed nations. This paper will review available information on the cost-effectiveness of catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, and discuss continued areas of uncertainty where further research is required. PMID:20936083

  7. Increased expression of electron transport chain genes in uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Tuncal, Akile; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan; Askar, Niyazi; Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Akdemir, Ali; Ak, Handan

    2014-01-01

    The etiology and pathophysiology of uterine leiomyomas, benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus, are not well understood. To evaluate the role of mitochondria in uterine leiomyoma, we compared electron transport gene expressions of uterine leiomyoma tissue with myometrium tissue in six uterine leiomyoma patients by RT-PCR array. Our results showed an average of 1.562 (±0.445) fold increase in nuclear-encoded electron transport genes. These results might suggest an increase in size, number, or activity of mitochondria in uterine leiomyoma that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. © 2014 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  8. [Pregnancy in rudimentary uterine horn: diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties].

    PubMed

    Sefrioui, O; Azyez, M; Babahabib, A; Kaanane, F; Matar, N

    2004-04-01

    Ectopic pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is extremely uncommon. Implantation of one embryo in the uterine cavity and of another in a rudimentary uterine horn is an extremely uncommon form of twin pregnancy. The authors report three cases of pregnancies in a rudimentary uterine horn. One was associated to a heterotopic pregnancy in the other eutrophic horn. Through these three cases, they report the risks incurred and the difficulties of the assumption of responsibility of this type of pathology, on the diagnostic as well as therapeutic level. But generally underline the interest of echography especially endovaginale and the coelioscopy in the early diagnosis of this type of uterine malformation.

  9. Ablative heat shield design for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiferth, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Ablator heat shield configuration optimization studies were conducted for the orbiter. Ablator and reusable surface insulation (RSI) trajectories for design studies were shaped to take advantage of the low conductance of ceramic RSI and high temperature capability of ablators. Comparative weights were established for the RSI system and for direct bond and mechanically attached ablator systems. Ablator system costs were determined for fabrication, installation and refurbishment. Cost penalties were assigned for payload weight penalties, if any. The direct bond ablator is lowest in weight and cost. A mechanically attached ablator using a magnesium subpanel is highly competitive for both weight and cost.

  10. WNT4 is a key regulator of normal postnatal uterine development and progesterone signaling during embryo implantation and decidualization in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Heather L.; Dai, Daisy; Lee, Kevin Y.; Rubel, Cory A.; Roop, Dennis; Boerboom, Derek; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Lydon, John P.; Bagchi, Indrani C.; Bagchi, Milan K.; DeMayo, Francesco J.

    2011-01-01

    WNT4, a member of the Wnt family of ligands, is critical for the development of the female reproductive tract. Analysis of Wnt4 expression in the adult uterus during pregnancy indicates that it may play a role in the regulation of endometrial stromal cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, which is required to support the developing embryo. To investigate the role of Wnt4 in adult uterine physiology, conditional ablation of Wnt4 using the PRcre mouse model was accomplished. Ablation of Wnt4 rendered female mice subfertile due to a defect in embryo implantation and subsequent defects in endometrial stromal cell survival, differentiation, and responsiveness to progesterone signaling. In addition to altered stromal cell function, the uteri of PRcre/+Wnt4f/f (Wnt4d/d) mice displayed altered epithelial differentiation characterized by a reduction in the number of uterine glands and the emergence of a p63-positive basal cell layer beneath the columnar luminal epithelial cells. The altered epithelial cell phenotype was further escalated by chronic estrogen treatment, which caused squamous cell metaplasia of the uterine epithelium in the Wnt4d/d mice. Thus, WNT4 is a critical regulator not only of proper postnatal uterine development, but also embryo implantation and decidualization.—Franco, H. L., Dai, D., Lee, K. Y., Rubel, C. S., Roop, D., Boerboom, D., Jeong, J.-W., Lydon, J.-P., Bagchi, I. C., Bagchi, M. K., DeMayo, F. J. WNT4 is a key regulator of normal postnatal uterine development and progesterone signaling during embryo implantation and decidualization in the mouse. PMID:21163860

  11. Experimental study on ablation of leiomyoma by combination high-intensity focused ultrasound and iodized oil in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Yi; Ren, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Cui; Gu, Heng-Fang; Mou, Meng; Xiao, Yan-Bing

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether iodized oil (IO) enhances high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of uterine leiomyoma and to determine the features of hyperechoic changes in the target region. Forty samples of uterine leiomyoma were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. In the experimental group, the leiomyoma was ablated by HIFU 30 min after 1 mL of iodized oil had been injected into the center of the myoma. The hyperechoic values and areas in the target region were observed by B-modal ultrasound after HIFU ablation. The samples were cut successively into slices and stained by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution within 1 h after HIFU ablation. The diameters of TTC-non-stained areas were measured and tissues in the borderline of the TTC-stained and -non-stained areas were observed pathologically. All procedures in the control group were the same as those in the experimental group except IO was replaced by physiological saline. The hyperechoic value in the target region in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group 4 min after HIFU ablation (P < 0.05). Hyperechoic areas in the target region as well as TTC-non-stained volumes in the experimental group were greater than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Routine pathologic observation showed that coagulation necrosis of leiomyoma occurred in the target region in both groups. IO causes coagulation necrosis, enlarges tissue damage, and postpones the attenuation of hyperechoic changes in the target region when HIFU ablation is carried out for leiomyoma in vitro. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Steroid Hormones and Uterine Vascular Adaptation to Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Katherine; Zhang, Lubo

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological state that involves a significant decrease in uterine vascular tone and an increase in uterine blood flow, which is mediated in part by steroid hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of these hormones in the regulation of uterine artery contractility through signaling pathways specific to the endothelium and the vascular smooth muscle. Alterations in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity, nitric oxide production, and expression of enzymes involved in PGI2 production contribute to the uterine artery endothelium-specific responses. Steroid hormones also have an effect on calcium-activated potassium channel activity, PKC signaling pathway and myogenic tone, and alterations in pharmacomechanical coupling in the uterine artery smooth muscle. This review addresses current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which steroid hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol modulate uterine artery contractility to alter uterine blood flow during pregnancy with an emphasis on the pregnant ewe model. PMID:18497342

  13. Neonatal Progesterone Programs Adult Uterine Responses to Progesterone and Susceptibility to Uterine Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Rumi, M. A. Karim; Kubota, Kaiyu; Chakraborty, Damayanti; Chien, Jeremy; Roby, Katherine F.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we investigated the consequences of neonatal progesterone exposure on adult rat uterine function. Female pups were subcutaneously injected with vehicle or progesterone from postnatal days 3 to 9. Early progesterone exposure affected endometrial gland biogenesis, puberty, decidualization, and fertility. Because decidualization and pregnancy success are directly linked to progesterone action on the uterus, we investigated the responsiveness of the adult uterus to progesterone. We first identified progesterone-dependent uterine gene expression using RNA sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR in Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats and progesterone-resistant Brown Norway rats. The impact of neonatal progesterone treatment on adult uterine progesterone responsiveness was next investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. Progesterone resistance affected the spectrum and total number of progesterone-responsive genes and the magnitude of uterine responses for a subset of progesterone targets. Several progesterone-responsive genes in adult uterus exhibited significantly dampened responses in neonatally progesterone-treated females compared with those of vehicle-treated controls, whereas other progesterone-responsive transcripts did not differ between female rats exposed to vehicle or progesterone as neonates. The organizational actions of progesterone on the uterus were dependent on signaling through the progesterone receptor but not estrogen receptor 1. To summarize, neonatal progesterone exposure leads to disturbances in endometrial gland biogenesis, progesterone resistance, and uterine dysfunction. Neonatal progesterone effectively programs adult uterine responsiveness to progesterone. PMID:26204463

  14. Heparin-like activity in uterine fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, M E; Griffin, B D; Zuzel, M; Aparicio, S R; Bradbury, K; Bird, C C; Clayton, J K; Jenkins, D M; Scott, J S; Rajah, S M; McNichol, G P

    1978-01-01

    Uterine fluid was collected from a group of normal patients and a group of patients with menorrhagia. Heparin-like activity was detected in 34 out of 38 samples using an anti-Xa heparin assay. The heparin-like activity in uterine fluid was inhibited by adding the heparin antagonist hexadimethrine bromide to the assay. Concentrations of fibrinogen-fibrin degradation products (FDPs) were measured in five samples of uterine fluid. FDPs in the concentration detected had no effect on the anti-Xa assay. Heparin-like activity was higher in the group with menorrhagia, although the differences were not significant. Heparin-like activity increased throughout the menstrual cycle and decreased during menstruation, suggesting a possible cyclical variation in activity. There was no correlation between mast cell numbers in the endometrium and myometrium and heparin-like activity in uterine fluid and no correlation between the numbers and the stage in the menstrual cycle. In a few patients with intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) heparin-like activity was increased. PMID:687899

  15. TPS Ablator Technologies for Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Ablator technologies and the preparation for use in interplanetary spacecraft. NASA does not have adequate TPS ablatives and sufficient selection for planned missions. It includes a comparison of shuttle and interplanetary TPS requirements, the status of mainline TPS charring ablator materials, a summary of JSC SBIR accomplishments in developing advanced charring ablators and the benefits of SBIR Ablator/fabrication technology.

  16. Ion acceleration enhanced by target ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, S.; State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Key Lab of HEDPS, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871; Institute of Radiation, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden

    2015-07-15

    Laser proton acceleration can be enhanced by using target ablation, due to the energetic electrons generated in the ablation preplasma. When the ablation pulse matches main pulse, the enhancement gets optimized because the electrons' energy density is highest. A scaling law between the ablation pulse and main pulse is confirmed by the simulation, showing that for given CPA pulse and target, proton energy improvement can be achieved several times by adjusting the target ablation.

  17. Locally infiltrative inflammatory fibroid polyp of the ileum: report of a case showing transmural proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2016-06-10

    Morphologically, an inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is usually centred in the submucosa. Extension of an IFP to the subserosa with destruction of the muscularis propria is exceedingly rare. Herein, we describe a 70-year-old woman who presented with right lower abdominal pain but was finally diagnosed with an IFP. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a target-like structure with a hypovascular mass at the leading edge, which was consistent with intussusception due to a tumour. Following surgery, the resected specimen displayed a mass measuring 4 × 3 × 3 cm that was protruding into the lumen. Microscopically, the mass was centred in the submucosa, extending up to the mucosal surface and down to the subserosa and serosa. The muscularis mucosae and muscularis propria were destroyed focally. A PDGFRA gene mutation in exon 2 (1837_1851 del) that was found in this case, as well as a highly infiltrative growth pattern, strongly supported the neoplastic nature of IFP. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press and Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University.

  18. Invasive inflammatory fibroid polyp of the stomach: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Harima, Hirofumi; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Hamabe, Kouichi; Hisano, Fusako; Matsuzaki, Yuko; Sanuki, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Tadahiko; Tada, Kohsuke; Sakaida, Isao

    2018-05-31

    Inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) are rare mesenchymal lesions that affect the gastrointestinal tract. IFPs are generally considered benign, noninvasive lesions; however, we report a case of an invasive gastric IFP. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case report of an invasive gastric IFP. A 62-year-old woman presented with complaints of epigastric pain and vomiting. Computed tomography showed a 27-mm, hyper-enhancing tumor in the prepyloric antrum. Upper endoscopy also showed a submucosal tumor causing subtotal obstruction of the gastric outlet. Because a gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suspected, distal gastrectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed spindle cell proliferation in the submucosal layer. The spindle cells had invaded the muscularis propria layer and extended to the subserosal layer. The tumor was finally diagnosed as an IFP based on immunohistochemical findings. No mutations were identified in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) gene via molecular genetic analysis. After the discovery that IFPs often harbor PDGFRA mutations, these growths have been considered neoplastic lesions rather than reactive lesions. Based on the present case, IFPs might be considered not only neoplastic but also potentially invasive lesions.

  19. Inflammatory fibroid polyp in the duodenum of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Yokouchi, Yusuke; Imaoka, Masako; Sayama, Ayako; Jindo, Toshimasa; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    A 32-month-old male common marmoset had a firm and white-colored mass in the duodenal wall. The cut surface was smooth and grayish white in color. Histologically, the mass consisted of a proliferation of spindle cells with an oval to spindle-shaped nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a loose myxoid or fibrotic background. Most of the lesion displayed no specific growth pattern whereas some of the cells concentrated around the vessels and created an onion-bulb structure. Additionally, marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, mainly eosinophils, was observed throughout the lesion. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were positive for vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, fascin, and cyclin D1, and negative for S-100, factor VIII-related antigen, and c-kit. These histological and immunohistochemical features did not meet any differential diagnoses such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma, smooth muscle tumor, schwannoma, and hemangiosarcoma. Collectively, the authors diagnosed the mass as a lesion that corresponded to an inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) in humans. IFP is defined as a mesenchymal proliferation composed of spindle stromal cells, small blood vessels, and inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, and is currently classified as a nonneoplastic lesion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous IFP in nonhuman primates.

  20. Is a history of cesarean section a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyoma?

    PubMed

    Kinay, Tugba; Basarir, Zehra O; Tuncer, Serap F; Akpinar, Funda; Kayikcioglu, Fulya; Koc, Sevgi; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether a history of cesarean section was a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas, and to identify other risk factors for this symptom. We analyzed retrospectively, the medical records of patients who underwent hysterectomies due to the presence of uterine leiomyomas during a 6-year period (2009 and 2014) at Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women's Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Uterine leiomyoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination of hysterectomy specimens. Demographic characteristics, and laboratory and histopathological findings were compared between patients with uterine leiomyoma with and without abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 501 (57.9%) patients had abnormal uterine bleeding and 364 (42.1%) patients had other symptoms. A history of cesarean section was more common in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding than in those with other symptoms (17.6% versus 9.3%, p=0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.3). The presence of a submucosal leiomyoma (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-3.1) and coexistent adenomyosis (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4) were also associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. A history of cesarean section was an independent risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas; submucosal leiomyoma and coexisting adenomyosis were also independent risk factors.

  1. Is a history of cesarean section a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyoma?

    PubMed Central

    Kinay, Tugba; Basarir, Zehra O.; Tuncer, Serap F.; Akpinar, Funda; Kayikcioglu, Fulya; Koc, Sevgi; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether a history of cesarean section was a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas, and to identify other risk factors for this symptom. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively, the medical records of patients who underwent hysterectomies due to the presence of uterine leiomyomas during a 6-year period (2009 and 2014) at Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women’s Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Uterine leiomyoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination of hysterectomy specimens. Demographic characteristics, and laboratory and histopathological findings were compared between patients with uterine leiomyoma with and without abnormal uterine bleeding. Results: In total, 501 (57.9%) patients had abnormal uterine bleeding and 364 (42.1%) patients had other symptoms. A history of cesarean section was more common in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding than in those with other symptoms (17.6% versus 9.3%, p=0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.3). The presence of a submucosal leiomyoma (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-3.1) and coexistent adenomyosis (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4) were also associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. Conclusion: A history of cesarean section was an independent risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas; submucosal leiomyoma and coexisting adenomyosis were also independent risk factors. PMID:27464864

  2. Effects of tachykinins on uterine smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Patak, E N; Pennefather, J N; Story, M E

    2000-11-01

    1. Sensory nerves supplying the mammalian uterus have been shown to contain substance P (SP) and neurokinin (NK)A. This review presents some of the advances that have led to a greater understanding of the effects of tachykinins on uterine smooth muscle. 2. The cell-surface peptidase neprilysin (EC.3 24.11, endopeptidase 24.11, enkephalinase, CALLA, CD10) has been shown to play a major role in regulating the actions of tachykinins on both rat and human myometrium. Because this peptidase is known to be regulated by steroids and pregnancy, its effects may be of physiological relevance. 3. Tachykinins produce contractions of isolated myometrial preparations from non-pregnant rats and mice. The NK2 receptor mediates these effects in rat uterus, while the NK1 receptor may mediate these effects in the mouse uterus. 4. The effects of tachykinins have been examined on myometrial preparations obtained at Caesarean section from near-term pregnant women. In the presence of the peptidase inhibitors (thiorphan, captopril and bestatin), the mammalian tachykinins SP, NKA and NKB produced concentration-dependent uterine contractions. 5. The order of agonist potency NKA > SP = NKB suggested that NK2 receptors mediate uterine contractions in the human. This was confirmed using the stable analogues [Sar9,Met(O2)11]SP, [Lys5MeLeu9Nle10]NKA(4-10) and [N-MePhe7]NKB, which are NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptor selective, respectively. Only [Lys5MeLeu9Nle10]NKA(4-10) produced concentration-related contractions of human uterine smooth muscle. 6. The experimental findings described in the present review, taken together with results published previously in the literature, indicate that tachykinin peptides may play a physiological or pathophysiological role in regulating uterine smooth muscle activity. However, more extensive research will be required to confirm such a role for these peptides.

  3. Uterine Artery Embolization for Leiomyomata: Optimization of the Radiation Dose to the Patient Using a Flat-Panel Detector Angiographic Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: marc.sapoval2@egp.aphp.fr; Pellerin, Olivier; Rehel, Jean-Luc

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy/angiography with a flat-panel detector angiographic suite to reduce the dose delivered to patients during uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). A two-step prospective dosimetric study was conducted, with a flat-panel detector angiography suite (Siemens Axiom Artis) integrating automatic exposure control (AEC), during 20 consecutive UFEs. Patient dosimetry was performed using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters placed on the lower posterior pelvis skin. The first step (10 patients; group A) consisted in UFE (bilateral embolization, calibrated microspheres) performed using the following parameters: standard fluoroscopy (15 pulses/s) and angiography (3 frames/s). The secondmore » step (next consecutive 10 patients; group B) used low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy (7.5 pulses/s for catheterization and 3 pulses/s for embolization) and angiography (1 frame/s). We also recorded the total dose-area product (DAP) delivered to the patient and the fluoroscopy time as reported by the manufacturer's dosimetry report. The mean peak skin dose decreased from 2.4 {+-} 1.3 to 0.4 {+-} 0.3 Gy (P = 0.001) for groups A and B, respectively. The DAP values decreased from 43,113 {+-} 27,207 {mu}Gy m{sup 2} for group A to 9,515 {+-} 4,520 {mu}Gy m{sup 2} for group B (P = 0.003). The dose to ovaries and uterus decreased from 378 {+-} 238 mGy (group A) to 83 {+-} 41 mGy (group B) and from 388 {+-} 246 mGy (group A) to 85 {+-} 39 mGy (group B), respectively. Effective doses decreased from 112 {+-} 71 mSv (group A) to 24 {+-} 12 mSv (group B) (P = 0.003). In conclusion, the use of low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy/angiography, based on a good understanding of the AEC system and also on the technique during uterine fibroid embolization, allows a significant decrease in the dose exposure to the patient.« less

  4. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Ablation.

    PubMed

    Hue, Yik-Kiong; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Cohen, Ouri; Nevo, Erez; Roth, Abraham; Ackerman, Jerome L

    2018-02-01

    To introduce magnetic resonance mediated radiofrequency ablation (MR-RFA), in which the MRI scanner uniquely serves both diagnostic and therapeutic roles. In MR-RFA scanner-induced RF heating is channeled to the ablation site via a Larmor frequency RF pickup device and needle system, and controlled via the pulse sequence. MR-RFA was evaluated with simulation of electric and magnetic fields to predict the increase in local specific-absorption-rate (SAR). Temperature-time profiles were measured for different configurations of the device in agar phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver in a 1.5 T scanner. Temperature rise in MR-RFA was imaged using the proton resonance frequency method validated with fiber-optic thermometry. MR-RFA was performed on the livers of two healthy live pigs. Simulations indicated a near tenfold increase in SAR at the RFA needle tip. Temperature-time profiles depended significantly on the physical parameters of the device although both configurations tested yielded temperature increases sufficient for ablation. Resected livers from live ablations exhibited clear thermal lesions. MR-RFA holds potential for integrating RF ablation tumor therapy with MRI scanning. MR-RFA may add value to MRI with the addition of a potentially disposable ablation device, while retaining MRI's ability to provide real time procedure guidance and measurement of tissue temperature, perfusion, and coagulation.

  5. MIG-6 negatively regulates STAT3 phosphorylation in uterine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Yang, Woo Sub; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Byung Gak; Broaddus, Russell R.; Lim, Jeong M.; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jeong, Jae-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract. Progesterone (P4) has been used for several decades in endometrial cancer treatment, especially in women who wish to retain fertility. However, it is unpredictable which patients will respond to P4 treatment and which may have a P4 resistant cancer. Therefore, identifying the mechanism of P4 resistance is essential to improve the therapies for endometrial cancer. Mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) is a critical mediator of progesterone receptor (PGR) action in the uterus. In order to study the function of Mig-6 in P4 resistance, we generated a mouse model in which we specifically ablated Mig-6 in uterine epithelial cells using Sprr2f-cre mice (Sprr2fcre+Mig-6f/f). Female mutant mice develop endometrial hyperplasia due to aberrant phosphorylation of STAT3 and proliferation of the endometrial epithelial cells. The results from our immunoprecipitation and cell culture experiments showed that MIG-6 inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 via protein interactions. Our previous study showed P4 resistance in mice with Mig-6 ablation in Pgr positive cells (Pgrcre/+Mig-6f/f). However, Sprr2fcre+Mig-6f/f mice were P4 responsive. P4 treatment significantly decreased STAT3 phosphorylation and epithelial proliferation in the uterus of mutant mice. We showed that Mig-6 has an important function of tumor suppressor via inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation in uterine epithelial cells and the anti-tumor effects of P4 are mediated by the endometrial stroma. This data helps to develop a new signaling pathway in the regulation of steroid hormones in the uterus, and to overcome P4 resistance in human reproductive diseases, such as endometrial cancer. PMID:28925396

  6. Atrial fibrillation ablation using a closed irrigation radiofrequency ablation catheter.

    PubMed

    Golden, Keith; Mounsey, John Paul; Chung, Eugene; Roomiani, Pahresah; Morse, Michael Andew; Patel, Ankit; Gehi, Anil

    2012-05-01

    Catheter ablation is an effective therapy for symptomatic, medically refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). Open-irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation catheters produce transmural lesions at the cost of increased fluid delivery. In vivo models suggest closed-irrigated RF catheters create equivalent lesions, but clinical outcomes are limited. A cohort of 195 sequential patients with symptomatic AF underwent stepwise AF ablation (AFA) using a closed-irrigation ablation catheter. Recurrence of AF was monitored and outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. Mean age was 59.0 years, 74.9% were male, 56.4% of patients were paroxysmal and mean duration of AF was 5.4 years. Patients had multiple comorbidities including hypertension (76.4%), tobacco abuse (42.1%), diabetes (17.4%), and obesity (mean body mass index 30.8). The median follow-up was 55.8 weeks. Overall event-free survival was 73.6% with one ablation and 77.4% after reablation (reablation rate was 8.7%). Median time to recurrence was 26.9 weeks. AF was more likely to recur in patients being treated with antiarrhythmic therapy at the time of last follow-up (recurrence rate 30.3% with antiarrhythmic drugs, 13.2% without antiarrhythmic drugs; hazard ratio [HR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.4, P = 0.024) and in those with a history of AF greater than 2 years duration (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.9, P = 0.038). Our study represents the largest cohort of patients receiving AFA with closed-irrigation ablation catheters. We demonstrate comparable outcomes to those previously reported in studies of open-irrigation ablation catheters. Given the theoretical benefits of a closed-irrigation system, a large head-to-head comparison using this catheter is warranted. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Uterine massage for preventing postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Abdel-Aleem, Mahmoud A

    2013-07-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) (bleeding from the genital tract after childbirth) is a major cause of maternal mortality and disability, particularly in under-resourced areas. In these settings, uterotonics are often not accessible. There is a need for simple, inexpensive techniques which can be applied in low-resourced settings to prevent and treat PPH. Uterine massage is recommended as part of the routine active management of the third stage of labour. However, it is not known whether it is effective. If shown to be effective, uterine massage would represent a simple intervention with the potential to have a major effect on PPH and maternal mortality in under-resourced settings. To determine the effectiveness of uterine massage after birth and before or after delivery of the placenta, or both, to reduce postpartum blood loss and associated morbidity and mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013). All published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials comparing uterine massage alone or in addition to uterotonics before or after delivery of the placenta, or both, with non-massage. Two researchers independently considered trials for eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted the data using the agreed form. Data were checked for accuracy. The effect of uterine massage commenced before or after placental delivery were first assessed separately, and then the combined for an overall result. This review included two randomised controlled trials. The first trial included 200 women who were randomised to receive uterine massage or no massage following delivery of the placenta, after active management of the third stage of labour including use of oxytocin. The numbers of women with blood loss more than 500 mL was small, with no statistically significant difference (risk ratio (RR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 1.67). There were no cases of retained placenta in either group. The mean

  8. Uterine activin receptor-like kinase 5 is crucial for blastocyst implantation and placental development

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jia; Monsivais, Diana; You, Ran; Zhong, Hua; Pangas, Stephanie A.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily are key regulators in most developmental and physiological processes. However, the in vivo roles of TGF-β signaling in female reproduction remain uncertain. Activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) is the major type 1 receptor for the TGF-β subfamily. Absence of ALK5 leads to early embryonic lethality because of severe defects in vascular development. In this study, we conditionally ablated uterine ALK5 using progesterone receptor-cre mice to define the physiological roles of ALK5 in female reproduction. Despite normal ovarian functions and artificial decidualization in conditional knockout (cKO) mice, absence of uterine ALK5 resulted in substantially reduced female reproduction due to abnormalities observed at different stages of pregnancy, including implantation defects, disorganization of trophoblast cells, fewer uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and impairment of spiral artery remodeling. In our microarray analysis, genes encoding proteins involved in cytokine–cytokine receptor interactions and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity were down-regulated in cKO decidua compared with control decidua. Flow cytometry confirmed a 10-fold decrease in uNK cells in cKO versus control decidua. According to these data, we hypothesize that TGF-β acts on decidual cells via ALK5 to induce expression of other growth factors and cytokines, which are key regulators in luminal epithelium proliferation, trophoblast development, and uNK maturation during pregnancy. Our findings not only generate a mouse model to study TGF-β signaling in female reproduction but also shed light on the pathogenesis of many pregnancy complications in human, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:26305969

  9. Symptomatic improvement in uterine myomas after MRgFUS: 4 year follow up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Kaoru; Fukunishi, Hidenobu

    2011-09-01

    Objective: To assess the long-term improvement in symptoms after magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) for uterine myomas. Methods: Japanese women with symptomatic myomas underwent MRgFUS using the ExAblate 2000 system. The symptom severity score (SSS) was examined before and after the treatment at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 months. Simultaneously, we asked the patients' satisfaction level regarding the overall change of subjective symptoms: symptom free, improved a great deal, improved to some extent, no change, or worsened. The myoma volumes were measured at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months after MRgFUS. Results: No severe adverse event occurred with any of the patients. The mean SSS value before treatment was 38.3±21.5 (n = 106), which diminished significantly during follow-up for 3-48 months after treatment. Patients' satisfaction level was favorable, although the response rate was low. Over 80% of the patients replied that their symptoms were improved to at least some extent, and over 50% of the patients replied that their symptoms were improved a great deal. This trend continued throughout this follow up period. The mean myoma volume was also decreased from the pretreatment volume in this follow up period. Conclusion: MRgFUS is an effective and safe method for treating symptomatic uterine myomas. Long-term symptomatic improvement is promising.

  10. Uterine DCs are crucial for decidua formation during embryo implantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Plaks, Vicki; Birnberg, Tal; Berkutzki, Tamara; Sela, Shay; BenYashar, Adi; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Mor, Gil; Keshet, Eli; Dekel, Nava; Neeman, Michal; Jung, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Implantation is a key stage during pregnancy, as the fate of the embryo is often decided upon its first contact with the maternal endometrium. Around this time, DCs accumulate in the uterus; however, their role in pregnancy and, more specifically, implantation, remains unknown. We investigated the function of uterine DCs (uDCs) during implantation using a transgenic mouse model that allows conditional ablation of uDCs in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Depletion of uDCs resulted in a severe impairment of the implantation process, leading to embryo resorption. Depletion of uDCs also caused embryo resorption in syngeneic and T cell–deficient pregnancies, which argues against a failure to establish immunological tolerance during implantation. Moreover, even in the absence of embryos, experimentally induced deciduae failed to adequately form. Implantation failure was associated with impaired decidual proliferation and differentiation. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealed perturbed angiogenesis characterized by reduced vascular expansion and attenuated maturation. We suggest therefore that uDCs directly fine-tune decidual angiogenesis by providing two critical factors, sFlt1 and TGF-β1, that promote coordinated blood vessel maturation. Collectively, uDCs appear to govern uterine receptivity, independent of their predicted role in immunological tolerance, by regulating tissue remodeling and angiogenesis. Importantly, our results may aid in understanding the limited implantation success of embryos transferred following in vitro fertilization. PMID:19033665

  11. A Gata2-Dependent Transcription Network Regulates Uterine Progesterone Responsiveness and Endometrial Function.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Cory A; Wu, San-Pin; Lin, Lin; Wang, Tianyuan; Lanz, Rainer B; Li, Xilong; Kommagani, Ramakrishna; Franco, Heather L; Camper, Sally A; Tong, Qiang; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J

    2016-10-25

    Altered progesterone responsiveness leads to female infertility and cancer, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Mice with uterine-specific ablation of GATA binding protein 2 (Gata2) are infertile, showing failures in embryo implantation, endometrial decidualization, and uninhibited estrogen signaling. Gata2 deficiency results in reduced progesterone receptor (PGR) expression and attenuated progesterone signaling, as evidenced by genome-wide expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation. GATA2 not only occupies at and promotes expression of the Pgr gene but also regulates downstream progesterone responsive genes in conjunction with the PGR. Additionally, Gata2 knockout uteri exhibit abnormal luminal epithelia with ectopic TRP63 expressing squamous cells and a cancer-related molecular profile in a progesterone-independent manner. Lastly, we found a conserved GATA2-PGR regulatory network in both human and mice based on gene signature and path analyses using gene expression profiles of human endometrial tissues. In conclusion, uterine Gata2 regulates a key regulatory network of gene expression for progesterone signaling at the early pregnancy stage. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Assessment of uterine cavity size and shape: a systematic review addressing relevance to intrauterine procedures and events.

    PubMed

    Goldstuck, Norman

    2012-09-01

    Uterine cavity measurement began with evaluation of post-mortem and surgical specimens. It has been extended in vivo by use of mechanical instruments and visualization techniques. This is a systematic review of the range of values for the uterine cavity and the practical implications of these measurements, Following a review of multiple data bases & a QUORUM analysis. Only articles with clearly defined quantitative measurements were included. Mechanical cavity measurements with a variety of instruments gave a mean endometrial cavity length (ECL) of 33.73 mm (18-22.1) and a mean endometrial cavity width (ECW) of 25.1 mm (17.8-32.2) for nulliparae. The values for multiparae were mean ECL 38.6mm(20.61-40.3) and mean ECW 34.9 mm (23.4-53). Imaging measurements for the uterine cavity by hysterography and ultrasound were mean ECL 44.3 mm (29-64) for multiparae and ECL 37 mm for nulliparae. Mean ECW was 28.2 mm (21-33) for nulliparae and 32.1 mm (26-38) for multiparae. There were wide variations due to parity, ethnicity and gestational states. Accurate measurement of intrauterine parameters is valuable for improving and enhancing many intrauterine procedures including IUD insertion, endometrial ablation, embryo placement in IVF and management of spontaneous and therapeutic abortion.

  13. Comparison of remote magnetic navigation ablation and manual ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia after failed manual ablation.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Scheinman, Melvin M; Tseng, Zian H; Lee, Byron K; Marcus, Gregory M; Badhwar, Nitish

    2017-01-01

    Catheter ablation for idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia (VA) is effective and safe, but efficacy is frequently limited due to an epicardial origin and difficult anatomy. The remote magnetic navigation (RMN) catheter has a flexible catheter design allowing access to difficult anatomy. We describe the efficacy of the RMN for ablation of idiopathic VA after failed manual ablation. Among 235 patients with idiopathic VA referred for catheter ablation, we identified 51 patients who were referred for repeat ablation after a failed manual ablation. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, including the successful ablation site and findings at electrophysiology study, in repeat procedures conducted using RMN as compared with manual ablation. Among these patients, 22 (43 %) underwent repeat ablation with the RMN and 29 (57 %) underwent repeat ablation with a manual ablation. Overall, successful ablation rate was significantly higher using RMN as compared with manual ablation (91 vs. 69 %, P = 0.02). Fluoroscopy time in the RMN was 17 ± 12 min as compared with 43 ± 18 min in the manual ablation (P = 0.009). Successful ablation rate in the posterior right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) plus posterior-tricuspid annulus was higher with RMN as compared with manual ablation (92 vs. 50 %, P = 0.03). Neither groups exhibited any major complications. The RMN is more effective in selected patients with recurrent idiopathic VA after failed manual ablation and is associated with less fluoroscopy time. The RMN catheters have a flexible design enabling them to access otherwise difficult anatomy including the posterior tricuspid annulus and posterior RVOT.

  14. CO2 laser laparoscopic surgery. Adhesiolysis, salpingostomy, laser uterine nerve ablation and tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Donnez, J; Nisolle, M

    1989-09-01

    Used endoscopically, the CO2 laser offers some advantages over other operative techniques for endometriosis and adhesions but, in spite of the continuing development of new instrumentation there are still problems with the system. The technique needs specialized equipment requiring ongoing biomedical maintenance and specialized technical care in the operating room. Some problems such as the intraperitoneal accumulation of smoke, gas leakage, and difficulty with maintenance of proper beam alignment still occur. In spite of these problems the advantages are numerous: the system allows precise bloodless destruction of diseased tissue and eliminates the risks of cautery. In the hands of an experienced laparoscopist, it appears safe and effective in vaporization of endometriotic lesions, utero-sacral neurectomy, adhesiolysis and salpingostomy. The judicious use of these techniques, combined with carefully planned further investigations by well-trained and experienced laparoscopists and continuing improvements in the delivery systems, will soon reveal the true efficacy of the CO2 laser laparoscope. If studies continue to show pregnancy rates and pain relief to be equivalent to those patients treated by laparotomy, CO2 laser laparoscopy will become the preferred procedure for the management of pelvic endometriosis and its associated adhesions, distal tubal occlusion, pelvic pain and tubal pregnancy. With the exception of using the argon laser to treat endometriosis, the selective absorption characteristic of lasers has not been greatly utilized. While the CO2 laser is heavily absorbed by water and hence vaporizes most cells in a rather indiscriminate fashion, this is not true for other wavelengths, such as argon, Nd-YAG, KTP, krypton, xenon, copper and gold vapour lasers. The energy form of each of these lasers has different properties of penetration, absorption, reflection and heat dissipation. Many of these lasers have not yet been evaluated in human subjects. An exciting, although not new, area of possible laser application involves the use of photosensitizers and fluorescing agents (Dougherty et al, 1978). Some recent experimental studies (Schellhas and Schneider, 1986; Schneider et al, 1988) may lead to new therapeutic possibilities. The surgical laser is not, however, a panacea. Only controlled trials carried out carefully over the next few years will clearly define its potential. In the meantime it is incumbent upon all of us to investigate the clinical, gynaecological and surgical applications in a careful, methodical and scientific manner.

  15. Transvaginal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Endovaginal ultrasound; Ultrasound - transvaginal; Fibroids - transvaginal ultrasound; Vaginal bleeding - transvaginal ultrasound; Uterine bleeding - transvaginal ultrasound; Menstrual bleeding - transvaginal ultrasound; ...

  16. Uterine Transplants in the Canadian Setting: A Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Balayla, Jacques

    2016-10-01

    The uterine transplant is an innovative surgical procedure whereby a healthy uterus is transplanted into a woman with uterine factor infertility (UFI) for the purpose of procreation. Twelve uterine transplants have been attempted in the world in the last two decades, and five have led to viable births. While uterine transplantation is still in its experimental stages, it remains unclear whether Canadian centres plan to attempt the procedure in the near future. Herein, I raise several observations that are specific to the Canadian setting and apply the Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation to determine whether there is fertile ground for a uterine transplantation program to be adopted in Canada. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sonographic and MR features of puerperal uterine inversion.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Shruti; Sharma, Sanjiv; Jhobta, Anupam; Aggarwal, Neeti; Thakur, Charu S

    2014-06-01

    Puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of a mismanaged third stage of labour. Early diagnosis is mandatory for proper management of the patient. Complete uterine inversion is a clinical diagnosis. However, incomplete uterine inversion is difficult to identify and warrants further workup. Sonographic evaluation, although a bedside procedure, may be confusing. The conspicuity of findings is much greater on MR examination than on ultrasound. Only a few diagnostic imaging findings in uterine inversion have been described in previous reports. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman who had a full-term vaginal delivery and presented after 20 days with acute urinary retention and mild vaginal bleeding. She was diagnosed as a case of neglected subacute incomplete uterine inversion. Both greyscale and Doppler sonographic and MR features of the case are described with an emphasis on better delineation of uterine and adnexal anatomy on MR imaging.

  18. Imaging for uterine myomas and adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Shwayder, James; Sakhel, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Uterine myomas and adenomyosis are common findings, in particular in patients with symptoms of abdominal enlargement, pelvic pressure, abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia. Diagnosis and differentiation between the 2 entities are critical in establishing treatment options and the operative approach for surgical management. Herein are reviewed diagnostic options, their relative accuracy, and the effect of accurate diagnosis on treatment. A review was performed using PubMed, MdConsult, OVID, and reviews including cross-referenced articles and prospective and retrospective studies published from 1980 to 2013. Also reviewed are use of ultrasound with its various methods, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography in the diagnosis, pretreatment evaluation, and differentiation of myomas and adenomyosis. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Uterine Microbiota: Residents, Tourists, or Invaders?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, James M.; Chase, Dana M.; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.

    2018-01-01

    Uterine microbiota have been reported under various conditions and populations; however, it is uncertain the level to which these bacteria are residents that maintain homeostasis, tourists that are readily eliminated or invaders that contribute to human disease. This review provides a historical timeline and summarizes the current status of this topic with the aim of promoting research priorities and discussion on this controversial topic. Discrepancies exist in current reports of uterine microbiota and are critically reviewed and examined. Established and putative routes of bacterial seeding of the human uterus and interactions with distal mucosal sites are discussed. Based upon the current literature, we highlight the need for additional robust clinical and translational studies in this area. In addition, we discuss the necessity for investigating host–microbiota interactions and the physiologic and functional impact of these microbiota on the local endometrial microenvironment as these mechanisms may influence poor reproductive, obstetric, and gynecologic health outcomes and sequelae. PMID:29552006

  20. Integrated Molecular Characterization of Uterine Carcinosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Cherniack, Andrew D; Shen, Hui; Walter, Vonn; Stewart, Chip; Murray, Bradley A; Bowlby, Reanne; Hu, Xin; Ling, Shiyun; Soslow, Robert A; Broaddus, Russell R; Zuna, Rosemary E; Robertson, Gordon; Laird, Peter W; Kucherlapati, Raju; Mills, Gordon B; Weinstein, John N; Zhang, Jiashan; Akbani, Rehan; Levine, Douglas A

    2017-03-13

    We performed genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic characterizations of uterine carcinosarcomas (UCSs). Cohort samples had extensive copy-number alterations and highly recurrent somatic mutations. Frequent mutations were found in TP53, PTEN, PIK3CA, PPP2R1A, FBXW7, and KRAS, similar to endometrioid and serous uterine carcinomas. Transcriptome sequencing identified a strong epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene signature in a subset of cases that was attributable to epigenetic alterations at microRNA promoters. The range of EMT scores in UCS was the largest among all tumor types studied via The Cancer Genome Atlas. UCSs shared proteomic features with gynecologic carcinomas and sarcomas with intermediate EMT features. Multiple somatic mutations and copy-number alterations in genes that are therapeutic targets were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Uterine myomata and outcome of assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ramzy, A M; Sattar, M; Amin, Y; Mansour, R T; Serour, G I; Aboulghar, M A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of uterine myomata on the implantation rate and outcome in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Among 406 patients, 51 (12.6%) were found to have uterine corporeal myomata. Twelve patients were excluded from the study as they had large myomata, submucous myomata or intramural myomata encroaching on the cavity. These patients were advised to have myomectomy before being enrolled in the IVF/ICSI programme. The remaining patients (n = 39) were sorted according to the number, site and size of the myomata as assessed by transvaginal sonography. Three patients had more than one myoma. Most of the myomata were subserous (72.7%) and the mean diameter of the myomata was 3.5 +/- 0.9 cm. A control group (n = 367) was chosen with normal uteri and no history of uterine reconstruction surgery. The mean age of myoma patients was 34.7 +/- 3.6 years as compared to 34.0 +/- 4.4 years in the control group. The age, period of infertility, body mass index, duration and number of human menopausal gonadotrophin ampoules needed for stimulation, oestradiol levels, number of oocytes retrieved and the fertilization rate were not significantly different in the myoma patients compared to the control group. Fifteen myoma patients (38.5%) subsequently showed one or more pregnancy sacs on ultrasonography of which three (20%) spontaneously aborted during the first trimester and two (13.3%) had preterm labour, as compared to 123 (33.5%), 19 (15.5%) and nine (7.3%) respectively, among the control group (P = 0.27, 0.33 and 0.21). In conclusion, uterine corporeal myomata, not encroaching on the cavity and <7 cm in mean diameter, do not affect the implantation or miscarriage rates in IVF or ICSI.

  2. Uterine activty and plasma progesterone levels in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Jones, D E; Kinfton, A

    1977-01-01

    Uterine activity was recorded during the last few weeks of pregnacy in goats, and related to changes in plasma progesterone concentration. In six of the 14 pregnancies, there was little activity until immediately pre-partum, but the remainder showed a progressive increase in uterine motility, particularly during the last seven days of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between increased uterine activity and decline of peripheral plasma progesterone levels.

  3. Measurement of uterine activity in vitro by integrating muscle tension

    PubMed Central

    Styles, P. R.; Sullivan, T. J.

    1962-01-01

    Spontaneous or electrically stimulated activity of the uterus is measured isometrically in vitro by integrating tension against time. Uterine contractions move the operating rod of a potentiometer transducer, the output voltage from which is coupled to an electrical integrator motor and a servo recorder. Several parameters of uterine activity can be expressed in a single measurement, and a record of isometric contractions is obtained simultaneously. Oxytocin can be assayed accurately and the effect of drugs on uterine motility can be measured. PMID:13918066

  4. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  5. Comparing the effect of aromatase inhibitor (letrozole) + cabergoline (Dostinex) and letrozole alone on uterine myoma regression,a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sayyah-Melli, M; Mobasseri, M; Gharabaghi, P M; Ouladsahebmadarek, E; Rahmani, V

    2017-03-01

    of uterine fibroids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of abnormal uterine masses.

    PubMed

    al-Ahwani, S; Assem, M; Belal, A; Abdel-Hamid, H

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen women with clinically diagnosed uterine masses were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic study was carried out in the coronal, sagittal and axial planes. Uterine leiomyomas were detected in 12 cases, while the remaining cases were one each of uterine sarcoma, invasive molar pregnancy, cervical malignancy with pyometra and haematometra with congenital cervical stenosis. The uterine origin of the masses could be clearly detected in all patients, as well as the nature of the masses, the presence of degenerative or malignant changes and the nature of the intrauterine fluid. MRI characteristic findings of the studied masses are presented and discussed.

  7. Image-Guided Ablation of Adrenal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yamakado, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy has remained the standard of care for the treatment for adrenal tumors, percutaneous image-guided ablation therapy, such as chemical ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and microwave ablation, has been shown to be clinically useful in many nonsurgical candidates. Ablation therapy has been used to treat both functioning adenomas and malignant tumors, including primary adrenal carcinoma and metastasis. For patients with functioning adenomas, biochemical and symptomatic improvement is achieved in 96 to 100% after ablation; for patients with malignant adrenal neoplasms, however, the survival benefit from ablation therapy remains unclear, though good initial results have been reported. This article outlines the current role of ablation therapy for adrenal lesions, as well as identifying some of the technical considerations for this procedure. PMID:25049444

  8. Gap junction communication between uterine stromal cells plays a critical role in pregnancy-associated neovascularization and embryo survival.

    PubMed

    Laws, Mary J; Taylor, Robert N; Sidell, Neil; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P; Gutstein, David E; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2008-08-01

    In the uterus, the formation of new maternal blood vessels in the stromal compartment at the time of embryonic implantation is critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Although uterine angiogenesis is known to be influenced by the steroid hormones estrogen (E) and progesterone (P), the underlying molecular pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), a major gap junction protein, is markedly enhanced in response to E in uterine stromal cells surrounding the implanted embryo during the early phases of pregnancy. Conditional deletion of the Cx43 gene in these stromal cells and the consequent disruption of their gap junctions led to a striking impairment in the development of new blood vessels within the stromal compartment, resulting in the arrest of embryo growth and early pregnancy loss. Further analysis of this phenotypical defect revealed that loss of Cx43 expression resulted in aberrant differentiation of uterine stromal cells and impaired production of several key angiogenic factors, including the vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf). Ablation of CX43 expression in human endometrial stromal cells in vitro led to similar findings. Collectively, these results uncovered a unique link between steroid hormone-regulated cell-cell communication within the pregnant uterus and the development of an elaborate vascular network that supports embryonic growth. Our study presents the first evidence that Cx43-type gap junctions play a critical and conserved role in modulating stromal differentiation, and regulate the consequent production of crucial paracrine signals that control uterine neovascularization during implantation.

  9. The effects of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on uterine vascular impedance and uterine artery mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Benjamin J.; Phernetton, Terrance M.; Magness, Ronald R.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Uterine vascular resistance (UVR) is the ratio of systemic mean arterial pressure to mean uterine blood flow and is sensitive to changes in small arteries and arterioles. However, it provides little or no insight into changes in large, conduit arteries. Fluctuations in estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels during the ovarian cycle are thought to cause uterine resistance artery vasodilation; the effects on large arteries are unknown. Herein, our objective was to use the uterine vascular impedance, which is sensitive to changes in small and large arteries, to determine the effects of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on the entire uterine vasculature. Study Design Uterine vascular perfusion pressure and flow rate were recorded simultaneously on anesthetized sheep in the nonpregnant (NP) luteal (NP-L, n=6) and follicular (NP-F, n=7) phases and in late gestation pregnant (CP, n=10) sheep. Impedance and metrics of impedance (input impedance Z0, index of wave reflection RW, characteristic impedance ZC) were calculated. E2 and P4 levels were measured from jugular vein blood samples. Finally, from pressure-diameter tests post-mortem, large uterine artery circumferential elastic modulus (ECirc) was measured. Significant differences were evaluated by two-way ANOVA or Student’s t-test. Results As expected, E2:P4 was higher in the NP-F group compared to the NP-L group (p<0.05). Also as expected, UVR and Z0 decreased in the follicular phase compared to the luteal (p<0.05), but RW, ZC, and ECirc were unaltered. Pregnancy not only substantially decreased UVR (and Z0) (p<0.00001) but also decreased ZC (p<0.001), RW (p<0.0001), ECirc (p<0.01), and pulse wave velocity (p<0.0001). Conclusions The E2:P4 ratio mediates resistance artery vasodilatation in nonpregnant states, but has no effect on conduit artery size or stiffness. In contrast, pregnancy causes dramatic vasodilation and remodeling, including substantial reductions in conduit artery stiffness and increases

  10. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  11. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-11

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  12. A comparison of uterine peristalsis in women with normal uteri and uterine leiomyoma by cine magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Orisaka, Makoto; Kurokawa, Tetsuji; Shukunami, Ken-Ichi; Orisaka, Sanae; Fukuda, Mika T; Shinagawa, Akiko; Fukuda, Shin; Ihara, Noboru; Yamada, Hiroki; Itoh, Harumi; Kotsuji, Fumikazu

    2007-11-01

    The non-pregnant uterus shows wave-like activity (uterine peristalsis). This pilot study was intended to determine: (1) whether uterine peristalsis during the menstrual cycle is detectable by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) the effects of leiomyoma on uterine peristalsis. Mid-sagittal MRI was performed sequentially with T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) in 3 normal ovulatory volunteers and 19 premenopausal women with uterine leiomyoma. Direction and frequency of movement of the junctional zone were evaluated using a cine mode display. Junctional zone movement was identified in all subjects. Direction of uterine peristalsis in normal volunteers was fundus-to-cervix during menstruation, cervix-to-fundus during the periovulatory phase, and isthmical during the mid- and late-luteal phases. Abnormal peristaltic patterns were detected in three of five patients with uterine leiomyoma during menstruation and in the mid-luteal phase of the cycle, respectively. Cine MRI is a novel method for evaluation of uterine peristalsis. Results of this pilot study suggest that abnormal uterine peristalsis during menstruation and the mid-luteal phase might be one of the causes of hypermenorrhea and infertility associated with uterine leiomyoma.

  13. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

    1998-06-23

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

  14. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    1998-01-01

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition.

  15. Ablative Therapies for Barrett's Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Katherine S.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus has gained increased clinical attention because of its association with esophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer with increasing incidence and poor survival rates. The goals of ablating Barrett's esophagus are to decrease esophageal cancer rates and to improve overall survival and quality of life. Different techniques have been developed and tested for their effectiveness eradicating Barrett's epithelium. This review assesses the literature associated with different ablative techniques. The safety and efficacy of different techniques are discussed. This review concludes with recommendations for the clinician, including specific strategies for patient care decisions for patients with Barrett's esophagus with varying degrees of dysplasia. PMID:21373836

  16. Tektite ablation - Some confirming calculations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, J. A., III; Silver, A. D.; Cameron, W. S.; Adams , E. W.; Warmbrod, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The calculation of tektite ablation has been redone, taking into account transient effects, internal radiation, melting and nonequilibrium vaporization of the glass, and the drag effect of the flanges. It is found that the results confirm the earlier calculations of Chapman and his group and of Adams and his co-workers. The general trend of the results is not sensitive to reasonable changes of the physical parameters. The ablation is predominantly by melting rather than by vaporization at all velocities up to 11 km/sec; this is surprising in view of the lack of detectable melt flow in most tektites. Chemical effects have not been considered.

  17. Ablative therapy for liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    Dick, E A; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Thomas, H C; Gedroyc, W M W

    2002-01-01

    Established ablative therapies for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumours, including percutaneous ethanol injection, cryotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation, are discussed. Newer techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging guided laser interstitial thermal therapy of liver tumours has produced a median survival rate of 40.8 months after treatment. The merits of this newly emerging technique are discussed, together with future developments, such as focused ultrasound therapy, which holds the promise of non-invasive thermoablation treatment on an outpatient basis. PMID:11950826

  18. Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human uterus determined by the Monte Carlo inversion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, P. M.; Laufer, J. G.; Gordon, A. D.; Connell, R. J.; Bown, S. G.

    1999-10-01

    The optical properties, absorption (µa) and reduced scattering coefficient (µs´), of ex vivo human myometrium and leiomyoma (fibroid) have been determined by the Monte Carlo inversion technique over the wavelength range 600 - 1000 nm. This region is currently of interest for new, minimal-access, surgical laser procedures such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) for abnormalities of the uterus, and interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) for the thermal ablation of fibroids. In the region 630 - 675 nm (corresponding to PDT), the optical coefficients of myometrium are µa = 0.041±0.012 mm-1 and µs´ = 1.37±0.19 mm-1. For the wavelength range 800-1000 nm (associated with infrared lasers for ILP), the optical coefficients of fibroid were found to be µa = 0.020±0.003 mm-1 and µs´ = 0.56±0.03 mm-1. Overall, the optical properties of fibroid were found to be lower than myometrium, and this was attributed to the differences in both anatomy and vascularity. The results show that PDT for ablation of the uterine endometrium is most unlikely to affect any tissues beyond the myometrium, and that the region around 800 nm is the most effective for ablation of fibroids using ILP as the penetration depth of light is greatest at this wavelength.

  19. Fractional ablative laser skin resurfacing: a review.

    PubMed

    Tajirian, Ani L; Tarijian, Ani L; Goldberg, David J

    2011-12-01

    Ablative laser technology has been in use for many years now. The large side effect profile however has limited its use. Fractional ablative technology is a newer development which combines a lesser side effect profile along with similar efficacy. In this paper we review fractional ablative laser skin resurfacing.

  20. Radiofrequency ablation during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toru; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Horigome, Ryoko; Kimura, Naruhiro; Honda, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Akito; Seki, Keiichi; Honma, Terasu; Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether fluid injection during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can increase the coagulation area. METHODS: Bovine liver (1-2 kg) was placed on an aluminum tray with a return electrode affixed to the base, and the liver was punctured by an expandable electrode. During RFA, 5% glucose; 50% glucose; or saline fluid was infused continuously at a rate of 1.0 mL/min through the infusion line connected to the infusion port. The area and volume of the thermocoagulated region of bovine liver were determined after RFA. The Joule heat generated was determined from the temporal change in output during the RFA experiment. RESULTS: No liquid infusion was 17.3 ± 1.6 mL, similar to the volume of a 3-cm diameter sphere (14.1 mL). Mean thermocoagulated volume was significantly larger with continuous infusion of saline (29.3 ± 3.3 mL) than with 5% glucose (21.4 ± 2.2 mL), 50% glucose (16.5 ± 0.9 mL) or no liquid infusion (17.3 ± 1.6 mL). The ablated volume for RFA with saline was approximately 1.7-times greater than for RFA with no liquid infusion, representing a significant difference between these two conditions. Total Joule heat generated during RFA was highest with saline, and lowest with 50% glucose. CONCLUSION: RFA with continuous saline infusion achieves a large ablation zone, and may help inhibit local recurrence by obtaining sufficient ablation margins. RFA during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins, and may be prevent local recurrence. PMID:23483097

  1. Brain Emboli After Left Ventricular Endocardial Ablation.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Isaac R; Gladstone, Rachel A; Badhwar, Nitish; Hsia, Henry H; Lee, Byron K; Josephson, S Andrew; Meisel, Karl M; Dillon, William P; Hess, Christopher P; Gerstenfeld, Edward P; Marcus, Gregory M

    2017-02-28

    Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) is common. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation is associated with a risk of cerebral emboli attributed to cardioversions and numerous ablation lesions in the low-flow left atrium, but cerebral embolic risk in ventricular ablation has not been evaluated. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients meeting study criteria scheduled for ventricular tachycardia or PVC ablation over a 9-month period. Patients undergoing left ventricular (LV) ablation were compared with a control group of those undergoing right ventricular ablation only. Patients were excluded if they had implantable cardioverter defibrillators or permanent pacemakers. Radiofrequency energy was used for ablation in all cases and heparin was administered with goal-activated clotting times of 300 to 400 seconds for all LV procedures. Pre- and postprocedural brain MRI was performed on each patient within a week of the ablation procedure. Embolic infarcts were defined as new foci of reduced diffusion and high signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery brain MRI within a vascular distribution. The mean age was 58 years, half of the patients were men, half had a history of hypertension, and the majority had no known vascular disease or heart failure. LV ablation was performed in 12 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=2; PVC, n=10) and right ventricular ablation was performed exclusively in 6 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=1; PVC, n=5). Seven patients (58%) undergoing LV ablation experienced a total of 16 cerebral emboli, in comparison with zero patients undergoing right ventricular ablation ( P =0.04). Seven of 11 patients (63%) undergoing a retrograde approach to the LV developed at least 1 new brain lesion. More than half of patients undergoing routine LV ablation procedures (predominately PVC ablations) experienced new brain emboli after the procedure. Future research is critical to understanding the

  2. [Pregnancy outcomes and symptom improvement of patients with adenomyosis treated with high intensity focused ultrasound ablation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, C Y; Xu, X J; He, J

    2016-11-25

    Objective: To investigate the symptom improvement and pregnancy outcomes of patients with adenomyosis after treatment with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Methods: From October 2010 to October 2015, 68 patients with adenomyosis who wish to get pregnancies were treated with HIFU ablation in Suining Central Hospital. Among these patients, 56 presented with dysmenorrhea, 11 presented with menorrhagia, and 1 patient complained both; 41 of them had histories of abnormal pregnancy. The clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Fifty-four patients got pregnancy at the median of 10 months(range:1 to 31 months) after HIFU ablation, and 21 of them had delivered healthy babies. No uterine rupture occurred during gestation or delivery, and the newborn babies were healthy. Dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia in the patients who had pregnancies after HIFU ablation treatment were significantly relieved. The average menstruation volume score before and 1, 3, 6-month post-HIFU were 2.6±1.7, 1.7±0.8, 1.4±0.6, 1.3±0.6, respectively ( P< 0.05). The menstruation pain score before and 1, 3, 6-month after HIFU were 1.4±0.9, 0.9±0.7, 0.6±0.5, and 0.9±0.7, respectively ( P< 0.05). The volume of the adenomyotic lesions before and after HIFU at 1, 3, 6 month were (34±23), (23±15), (20±17), (20±12) cm 3 ( P< 0.05). Although the spontaneous abortion rate was decreased after HIFU ablation treatment, there was no significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative [43% (23/54) versus 37% (20/54), P> 0.05]. However, 20 of the 54 patients had spontaneous abortion, compared with 21 patients who had delivered babies, there were no significant statistical difference in terms of age, duration of disease, lesion size, non-perfused volume ratio, as well as the symptom scores before and after HIFU ablation treatment. Conclusions: HIFU ablation treatment is effective in improving symptoms of patients with adenomyosis. Based on our results, HIFU ablation

  3. Uterine uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine during the menstrual phase of uterine cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bomanji, J.; Britton, K.E.

    Radioiodinated I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used for diagnostic purposes for detection of apudomas. In this paper normal physiological uptake of I-123 MIBG by the uterus during the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle is reported. It is likely that I-123 MIBG can be used to evaluate some of the problems in this context.

  4. Analysis of intra-uterine fluid motion induced by uterine contractions.

    PubMed

    Eytan, O; Elad, D

    1999-03-01

    Evaluation of the fluid flow pattern in a non-pregnant uterus is important for understanding embryo transport in the uterus. Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube and the embryo (fertilized ovum) enters the uterine cavity within 3 days of ovulation. In the uterus, the embryo is conveyed by the uterine fluid for another 3 to 4 days to a successful implantation site at the upper part of the uterus. Fluid movements within the uterus may be induced by several mechanisms, but they seem to be dominated by myometrial contractions. Intra-uterine fluid transport in a sagittal cross-section of the uterus was simulated by a model of wall-induced fluid motion within a two-dimensional channel. The time-dependent fluid pattern was studied by employing the lubrication theory. A comprehensive analysis of peristaltic transpo