Science.gov

Sample records for ablation increases docosahexaenoic

  1. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid increases adiponectin and normalizes IUGR-induced changes in rat adipose deposition.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Heidi N; Wang, Yan; Campbell, Michael S; Yu, Xing; Lane, Robert H; Joss-Moore, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes to obesity and adipose dysfunction. We previously demonstrated IUGR-induced increased visceral adipose deposition and dysregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor- γ 2 (PPAR γ 2) in male adolescent rats, prior to the onset of obesity. In other studies, activation of PPAR γ increases subcutaneous adiponectin expression and normalizes visceral adipose deposition. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a PPAR γ agonist, would normalize IUGR adipose deposition in association with increased PPAR γ , adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor expression in subcutaneous adipose. To test these hypotheses, we used a well-characterized model of uteroplacental-insufficiency-(UPI-) induced IUGR in the rat with maternal DHA supplementation. Our primary findings were that maternal DHA supplementation during rat pregnancy and lactation (1) normalizes IUGR-induced changes in adipose deposition and visceral PPAR γ expression in male rats and (2) increases serum adiponectin, as well as adipose expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in former IUGR rats. Our novel findings suggest that maternal DHA supplementation may normalize adipose dysfunction and promote adiponectin-induced improvements in metabolic function in IUGR.

  2. High levels of retinal membrane docosahexaenoic acid increase susceptibility to stress-induced degenerations⃞

    PubMed Central

    Tanito, Masaki; Brush, Richard S.; Elliott, Michael H.; Wicker, Lea D.; Henry, Kimberly R.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The fat-1 gene cloned from C. elegans encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 PUFA. Mice carrying the fat-1 transgene and wild-type controls were fed an n-3-deficient/n-6-enriched diet [fat-1- safflower oil (SFO) and wt-SFO, respectively]. Fatty acid profiles of rod outer segments (ROS), cerebellum, plasma, and liver demonstrated significantly lower n-6/n-3 ratios and higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in fat-1-SFO compared with wt-SFO. When mice were exposed to light stress: 1) the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was reduced; 2) amplitudes of the electroretinogram (ERG) were lower; 3) the number of apoptotic photoreceptor cells was greater; and 4) modification of retinal proteins by 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of n-3 PUFA oxidation was increased in both fat-1-SFO and wt mice fed a regular lab chow diet compared with wt-SFO. The results indicate a positive correlation between the level of DHA, the degree of n-3 PUFA lipid peroxidation, and the vulnerability of the retina to photooxidative stress. In mice not exposed to intense light, the reduction in DHA resulted in reduced efficacy in phototransduction gain steps, while no differences in the retinal morphology or retinal biochemistry. These results highlight the dual roles of DHA in cellular physiology and pathology. PMID:19023138

  3. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  4. Increased hepatic beta-oxidation of docosahexaenoic acid, elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid, and acylation of lysophosphatidate in rats fed a docosahexaenoic acid-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, A; Shirota, Y; Fujimoto, K

    1997-07-01

    Rats were fed a diet supplemented with corn oil (n-3 deficient), soy oil, or a mixture containing 8% 22:6n-3 ethyl ester for 6 wk. The hepatic capacities for the beta-oxidation and synthesis of 22:6n-3, in addition to the acylation of lysophosphatidate, were tested in vitro. In rats that were fed a 22:6n-3-enriched diet, both the beta-oxidation of 22:6n-3 and elongation of 20:5n-3 were enhanced compared to those in rats fed the other diets. Acylation of lysophosphatidate was also enhanced in rats fed a 22:6n-3-enriched diet, while the rate of dephosphorylation of phosphatidate was not changed. The amount of 22:6n-3 in the liver was much less than that consumed in a docosahexaenoic acid-enriched diet. These results suggest that a significant amount of dietary 22:6n-3 was degraded via beta-oxidation, and that a portion of the retroconverted 20:5n-3 was recycled for the synthesis of 22:6n-3. The recycling of 20:5n-3 might contribute to the low level of 22:6n-3 in rats fed an n-3-deficient diet.

  5. Oral supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid and uridine-5'-monophosphate increases dendritic spine density in adult gerbil hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Toshimasa; Cansev, Mehmet; Wurtman, Richard J

    2007-11-28

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is an essential component of membrane phosphatides and has been implicated in cognitive functions. Low levels of circulating or brain DHA are associated with various neurocognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), while laboratory animals, including animal models of AD, can exhibit improved cognitive ability with a diet enriched in DHA. Various cellular mechanisms have been proposed for DHA's behavioral effects, including increases in cellular membrane fluidity, promotion of neurite extension and inhibition of apoptosis. However, there is little direct evidence that DHA affects synaptic structure in living animals. Here we show that oral supplementation with DHA substantially increases the number of dendritic spines in adult gerbil hippocampus, particularly when animals are co-supplemented with a uridine source, uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP), which increases brain levels of the rate-limiting phosphatide precursor CTP. The increase in dendritic spines (>30%) is accompanied by parallel increases in membrane phosphatides and in pre- and post-synaptic proteins within the hippocampus. Hence, oral DHA may promote neuronal membrane synthesis to increase the number of synapses, particularly when co-administered with UMP. Our findings provide a possible explanation for the effects of DHA on behavior and also suggest a strategy to treat cognitive disorders resulting from synapse loss.

  6. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase the degradation of amyloid-β by affecting insulin-degrading enzyme.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Mett, Janine; Stahlmann, Christoph P; Haupenthal, Viola J; Blümel, Tamara; Stötzel, Hannah; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proposed to be highly beneficial in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology is closely linked to an overproduction and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides as extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Total Aβ levels are not only dependent on its production by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), but also on Aβ-clearance mechanisms, including Aβ-degrading enzymes. Here we show that the omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increase Aβ-degradation by affecting insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), the major Aβ-degrading enzyme secreted into the extracellular space of neuronal and microglial cells. The identification of the molecular mechanisms revealed that EPA directly increases IDE enzyme activity and elevates gene expression of IDE. DHA also directly stimulates IDE enzyme activity and affects IDE sorting by increasing exosome release of IDE, resulting in enhanced Aβ-degradation in the extracellular milieu. Apart from the known positive effect of DHA in reducing Aβ production, EPA and DHA might ameliorate AD pathology by increasing Aβ turnover.

  7. Intraperitoneal administration of docosahexaenoic acid for 14days increases serum unesterified DHA and seizure latency in the maximal pentylenetetrazol model.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lim, Joonbum; Lai, Terence K Y; Cho, Hye Jin; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Chen, Chuck T; Taha, Ameer Y; Bazinet, Richard P; Burnham, W M

    2014-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) which has been shown to raise seizure thresholds following acute administration in rats. The aims of the present experiment were the following: 1) to test whether subchronic DHA administration raises seizure threshold in the maximal pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model 24h following the last injection and 2) to determine whether the increase in seizure threshold is correlated with an increase in serum and/or brain DHA. Animals received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 50mg/kg of DHA, DHA ethyl ester (DHA EE), or volume-matched vehicle (albumin/saline) for 14days. On day 15, one subset of animals was seizure tested in the maximal PTZ model (Experiment 1). In a separate (non-seizure tested) subset of animals, blood was collected, and brains were excised following high-energy, head-focused microwave fixation. Lipid analysis was performed on serum and brain (Experiment 2). For data analysis, the DHA and DHA EE groups were combined since they did not differ significantly from each other. In the maximal PTZ model, DHA significantly increased seizure latency by approximately 3-fold as compared to vehicle-injected animals. This increase in seizure latency was associated with an increase in serum unesterified DHA. Total brain DHA and brain unesterified DHA concentrations, however, did not differ significantly in the treatment and control groups. An increase in serum unesterified DHA concentration reflecting increased flux of DHA to the brain appears to explain changes in seizure threshold, independent of changes in brain DHA concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    PubMed

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  9. Supplementation with high-dose docosahexaenoic acid increases the Omega-3 Index more than high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Janie; Harris, William S; Vors, Cécile; Charest, Amélie; Marin, Johanne; Jackson, Kristina Harris; Tchernof, André; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the O3I in men and women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation. In a double-blind controlled crossover study, 48 men and 106 women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation were randomized to a sequence of three treatment phases: 1-2.7g/d of EPA, 2-2.7g/d of DHA, and 3-3g/d of corn oil (0g of EPA+DHA). All supplements were provided as 3×1g capsules for a total of 3g/d. The 10-week treatment phases were separated by nine-week washouts. RBC membrane fatty acid composition and O3I were assessed at baseline and the end of each phase. Differences in O3I between treatments were assessed using mixed models for repeated measures. The increase in the O3I after supplementation with DHA (+5.6% compared with control, P<0.0001) was significantly greater than after EPA (+3.3% compared with control, P<0.0001; DHA vs. EPA, P<0.0001). Compared to control, DHA supplementation decreased (-0.8%, P<0.0001) while EPA increased (+2.5%, P<0.0001) proportion of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in RBCs (DHA vs. EPA, P<0.0001). The baseline O3I was higher in women than in men (6.3% vs. 5.8%, P=0.011). The difference between DHA and EPA in increasing the O3I tended to be higher in men than in women (+2.6% vs. +2.2% respectively, P for the treatment by sex interaction=0.0537). The increase in the O3I is greater with high dose DHA supplementation than with high dose EPA, which is consistent with the greater potency of DHA to modulate cardiometabolic risk factors. The extent to which such differences between EPA and DHA in increasing the O3I relates

  10. Increase in pulmonary arterial pressure after atrial fibrillation ablation: incidence and associated findings.

    PubMed

    Witt, Chance M; Fenstad, Eric R; Cha, Yong-Mei; Kane, Garvan C; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Hodge, David O; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Oh, Jae K; Packer, Douglas L; Powell, Brian D

    2014-06-01

    The stiff left atrial (LA) syndrome is defined as pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to reduced LA compliance and has recently been shown to be one cause of PH after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. We aimed to determine the incidence of an increase in pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure post-ablation and examine the clinical and echocardiographic associations. Patients who underwent AF ablation between 1999 and 2011 were included if they had both an echocardiogram pre-ablation and 3 months post-ablation. Patients were then separated into two groups with the increased PA pressure group defined as patients with >10 mmHg increase in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) post-ablation and a post-ablation RVSP >35 mmHg. Of the 499 patients meeting the study criteria, 41 (8.2%) had an increase in RVSP >10 mmHg and RVSP >35 mmHg post-ablation. On echocardiogram, the two groups had similar E/A and E/e' ratios pre-ablation. However, post-ablation, the increased PA pressure group had higher E/A (2.12 vs. 1.49, p < 0.01) and E/e' (14.7 vs. 11.2, p < 0.01) ratios. LA expansion index values were lower in the increased PA pressure group pre-ablation (51 vs. 92%, p < 0.01), but not significantly different post-ablation (82 vs. 88%, p = 0.44). Around 8% of patients develop an increase in estimated PA pressure after AF ablation. Echocardiographic parameters suggest that patients who develop increased PA pressure are developing (or unmasking) left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

  11. Laser Ablation Increases PEM/Catalyst Interfacial Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; Yalisove, Steve

    2009-01-01

    An investigational method of improving the performance of a fuel cell that contains a polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) is based on the concept of roughening the surface of the PEM, prior to deposition of a thin layer of catalyst, in order to increase the PEM/catalyst interfacial area and thereby increase the degree of utilization of the catalyst. The roughening is done by means of laser ablation under carefully controlled conditions. Next, the roughened membrane surface is coated with the thin layer of catalyst (which is typically platinum), then sandwiched between two electrode/catalyst structures to form a membrane/ele c t - rode assembly. The feasibility of the roughening technique was demonstrated in experiments in which proton-conducting membranes made of a perfluorosulfonic acid-based hydrophilic, protonconducting polymer were ablated by use of femtosecond laser pulses. It was found that when proper combinations of the pulse intensity, pulse-repetition rate, and number of repetitions was chosen, the initially flat, smooth membrane surfaces became roughened to such an extent as to be converted to networks of nodules interconnected by filaments (see Figure 1). In further experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed on a pristine (smooth) membrane and on two laser-roughened membranes after the membranes were coated with platinum on both sides. Some preliminary EIS data were interpreted as showing that notwithstanding the potential for laser-induced damage, the bulk conductivities of the membranes were not diminished in the roughening process. Other preliminary EIS data (see Figure 2) were interpreted as signifying that the surface areas of the laser-roughened membranes were significantly greater than those of the smooth membrane. Moreover, elemental analyses showed that the sulfur-containing molecular groups necessary for proton conduction remained intact, even near the laser-roughened surfaces. These preliminary results can be taken

  12. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid, but not arachidonic acid, alone or in combination with uridine, increases brain phosphatide and synaptic protein levels in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Cansev, M; Wurtman, R J

    2007-08-24

    Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant brain membrane phosphatide, requires three circulating precursors: choline; a pyrimidine (e.g. uridine); and a polyunsaturated fatty acid. Supplementing a choline-containing diet with the uridine source uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) or, especially, with UMP plus the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (given by gavage), produces substantial increases in membrane phosphatide and synaptic protein levels within gerbil brain. We now compare the effects of various polyunsaturated fatty acids, given alone or with UMP, on these synaptic membrane constituents. Gerbils received, daily for 4 weeks, a diet containing choline chloride with or without UMP and/or, by gavage, an omega-3 (docosahexaenoic or eicosapentaenoic acid) or omega-6 (arachidonic acid) fatty acid. Both of the omega-3 fatty acids elevated major brain phosphatide levels (by 18-28%, and 21-27%) and giving UMP along with them enhanced their effects significantly. Arachidonic acid, given alone or with UMP, was without effect. After UMP plus docosahexaenoic acid treatment, total brain phospholipid levels and those of each individual phosphatide increased significantly in all brain regions examined (cortex, striatum, hippocampus, brain stem, and cerebellum). The increases in brain phosphatides in gerbils receiving an omega-3 (but not omega-6) fatty acid, with or without UMP, were accompanied by parallel elevations in levels of pre- and post-synaptic proteins (syntaxin-3, PSD-95 and synapsin-1) but not in those of a ubiquitous structural protein, beta-tubulin. Hence administering omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can enhance synaptic membrane levels in gerbils, and may do so in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially when given with a uridine source, while the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid is ineffective.

  13. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid, but not arachidonic acid, alone or in combination with uridine, increases brain phosphatide and synaptic protein levels in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Cansev, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant brain membrane phosphatide, requires three circulating precursors: choline; a pyrimidine (e.g., uridine); and a polyunsaturated fatty acid. Supplementing a choline-containing diet with the uridine source uridine-5′-monophosphate (UMP) or, especially, with UMP plus the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (given by gavage), produces substantial increases in membrane phosphatide and synaptic protein levels within gerbil brain. We now compare the effects of various polyunsaturated fatty acids, given alone or with UMP, on these synaptic membrane constituents. Gerbils received, daily for 4 weeks, a diet containing choline chloride with or without UMP and/or, by gavage, an omega-3 (docosahexaenoic or eicosapentaenoic acid) or omega-6 (arachidonic acid) fatty acid. Both of the omega-3 fatty acids elevated major brain phosphatide levels (by 18-28%, and 21-27%) and giving UMP along with them enhanced their effects significantly. Arachidonic acid, given alone or with UMP, was without effect. After UMP plus docosahexaenoic acid treatment, total brain phospholipids levels and those of each individual phosphatide increased significantly in all brain regions examined (cortex, striatum, hippocampus, brain stem, and cerebellum). The increases in brain phosphatides in gerbils receiving an omega-3 (but not omega-6) fatty acid, with or without UMP, were accompanied by parallel elevations in levels of pre- and post-synaptic proteins (syntaxin-3, PSD-95 and Synapsin-1) but not in those of a ubiquitous structural protein, β-tubulin. Hence administering omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can enhance synaptic membrane levels in gerbils, and may do so in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially when given with a uridine source, while the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid is ineffective. PMID:17683870

  14. Giving uridine and/or docosahexaenoic acid orally to rat dams during gestation and nursing increases synaptic elements in brains of weanling pups.

    PubMed

    Cansev, Mehmet; Marzloff, George; Sakamoto, Toshimasa; Ulus, Ismail H; Wurtman, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Developing neurons synthesize substantial quantities of membrane phospholipids in producing new synapses. We investigated the effects of maternal uridine (as uridine-5'-monophosphate) and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on pups' brain phospholipids, synaptic proteins and dendritic spine densities. Dams consumed neither, 1 or both compounds for 10 days before parturition and 20 days while nursing. By day 21, brains of weanlings receiving both exhibited significant increases in membrane phosphatides, various pre- and postsynaptic proteins (synapsin-1, mGluR1, PSD-95), and in hippocampal dendritic spine densities. Administering these phosphatide precursors to lactating mothers or infants could be useful for treating developmental disorders characterized by deficient synapses. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Maternal liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) stores are increased via higher serum unesterified DHA uptake in pregnant long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-08-01

    Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplies the developing fetus during pregnancy; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We utilized pregnant rats to determine rates of DHA accretion, tissue unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion. Female rats maintained on a DHA-free, 2% α-linolenic acid diet were either:1) sacrificed at 56 days for baseline measures, 2) mated and sacrificed at 14-18 days of pregnancy or 3) or sacrificed at 14-18 days as age-matched virgin controls. Maternal brain, adipose, liver and whole body fatty acid concentrations was determined for balance analysis, and kinetic modeling was used to determine brain and liver plasma unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. Total liver DHA was significantly higher in pregnant (95±5 μmol) versus non-pregnant (49±5) rats with no differences in whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. However, liver uptake of plasma unesterified DHA was 3.8-fold higher in pregnant animals compared to non-pregnant controls, and periuterine adipose DHA was lower in pregnant (0.89±0.09 μmol/g) versus non-pregnant (1.26±0.06) rats. In conclusion, higher liver DHA accretion during pregnancy appears to be driven by higher unesterified DHA uptake, potentially via DHA mobilization from periuterine adipose for delivery to the fetus during the brain growth spurt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Robotic assistance and general anaesthesia improve catheter stability and increase signal attenuation during atrial fibrillation ablation.

    PubMed

    Malcolme-Lawes, Louisa C; Lim, Phang Boon; Koa-Wing, Michael; Whinnett, Zachary I; Jamil-Copley, Shahnaz; Hayat, Sajad; Francis, Darrel P; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Davies, D Wyn; Peters, Nicholas S; Kanagaratnam, Prapa

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent arrhythmias after ablation procedures are often caused by recovery of ablated tissue. Robotic catheter manipulation systems increase catheter tip stability which improves energy delivery and could produce more transmural lesions. We tested this assertion using bipolar voltage attenuation as a marker of lesion quality comparing robotic and manual circumferential pulmonary vein ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Twenty patients were randomly assigned to robotic or manual AF ablation at standard radiofrequency (RF) settings for our institution (30 W 60 s manual, 25 W 30 s robotic, R30). A separate group of 10 consecutive patients underwent robotic ablation at increased RF duration, 25 W for 60 s (R60). Lesions were marked on an electroanatomic map before and after ablation to measure distance moved and change in bipolar electrogram amplitude during RF. A total of 1108 lesions were studied (761 robotic, 347 manual). A correlation was identified between voltage attenuation and catheter movement during RF (Spearman's rho -0.929, P < 0.001). The ablation catheter was more stable during robotic RF; 2.9 ± 2.3 mm (R30) and 2.6 ± 2.2 mm (R60), both significantly less than the manual group (4.3 ± 3.0 mm, P < 0.001). Despite improved stability, there was no difference in signal attenuation between the manual and R30 group. However, there was increased signal attenuation in the R60 group (52.4 ± 19.4%) compared with manual (47.7 ± 25.4%, P = 0.01). When procedures under general anaesthesia (GA) and conscious sedation were analysed separately, the improvement in signal attenuation in the R60 group was only significant in the procedures under GA. Robotically assisted ablation has the capability to deliver greater bipolar voltage attenuation compared with manual ablation with appropriate selection of RF parameters. General anaesthesia confers additional benefits of catheter stability and greater signal attenuation. These findings may have a significant impact on

  17. Increased Erythrocyte Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Are Associated With Improved Attention and Behavior in Children With ADHD in a Randomized Controlled Three-Way Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; Parletta, Natalie; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Young, Ross M; Howe, Peter R C

    2015-11-01

    To investigate effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on attention, literacy, and behavior in children with ADHD. Ninety children were randomized to consume supplements high in EPA, DHA, or linoleic acid (control) for 4 months each in a crossover design. Erythrocyte fatty acids, attention, cognition, literacy, and Conners' Parent Rating Scales (CPRS) were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12 months. Fifty-three children completed the treatment. Outcome measures showed no significant differences between the three treatments. However, in children with blood samples (n = 76-46), increased erythrocyte EPA + DHA was associated with improved spelling (r = .365, p < .001) and attention (r = -.540, p < .001) and reduced oppositional behavior (r = -.301, p < .003), hyperactivity (r = -.310, p < .001), cognitive problems (r = -.326, p < .001), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) hyperactivity (r = -.270, p = .002) and DSM-IV inattention (r = -.343, p < .001). Increasing erythrocyte DHA and EPA via dietary supplementation may improve behavior, attention, and literacy in children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Germline Ablation of VGF Increases Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fargali, Samira; Scherer, Thomas; Shin, Andrew C.; Sadahiro, Masato; Buettner, Christoph; Salton, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted deletion of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine secreted protein and neuropeptide precursor, produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse that is resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that increased sympathetic nervous system activity in Vgf−/Vgf− knockout mice is responsible for increased energy expenditure and decreased fat storage, and that increased beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation induces lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) of Vgf−/Vgf− mice. We found that fat mass was markedly reduced in Vgf−/Vgf− mice. Within knockout WAT, phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) substrate increased in males and females, phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) (Ser563) increased in females, and levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), and phospho-perilipin, were higher in male Vgf−/Vgf− WAT compared to wild type, consistent with increased lipolysis. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Thr172) and levels of the AMPK kinase, transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK-1), were decreased. This was associated with a decrease in HSL Ser565 phosphorylation, the site phosphorylated by AMPK, in both male and female Vgf−/Vgf− WAT. No significant differences in phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) or the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were noted. Despite this evidence supporting increased cAMP signaling and lipolysis, lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC) was not decreased. Our data suggest that the VGF precursor or selected VGF-derived peptides dampen sympathetic outflow pathway activity to WAT to regulate fat storage and lipolysis. PMID:22942234

  19. Germline ablation of VGF increases lipolysis in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Fargali, Samira; Scherer, Thomas; Shin, Andrew C; Sadahiro, Masato; Buettner, Christoph; Salton, Stephen R

    2012-11-01

    Targeted deletion of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine secreted protein and neuropeptide precursor, produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse that is resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically induced obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that increased sympathetic nervous system activity in Vgf-/Vgf- knockout mice is responsible for increased energy expenditure and decreased fat storage and that increased β-adrenergic receptor stimulation induces lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) of Vgf-/Vgf- mice. We found that fat mass was markedly reduced in Vgf-/Vgf- mice. Within knockout WAT, phosphorylation of protein kinase A substrate increased in males and females, phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) (ser563) increased in females, and levels of adipose triglyceride lipase, comparative gene identification-58, and phospho-perilipin were higher in male Vgf-/Vgf- WAT compared with wild-type, consistent with increased lipolysis. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Thr172) and levels of the AMPK kinase, transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1, were decreased. This was associated with a decrease in HSL ser565 phosphorylation, the site phosphorylated by AMPK, in both male and female Vgf-/Vgf- WAT. No significant differences in phosphorylation of CREB or the p42/44 MAPK were noted. Despite this evidence supporting increased cAMP signaling and lipolysis, lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase protein expression and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase was not decreased. Our data suggest that the VGF precursor or selected VGF-derived peptides dampen sympathetic outflow pathway activity to WAT to regulate fat storage and lipolysis.

  20. Enteral Arg-Gln Dipeptide Administration Increases Retinal Docosahexaenoic Acid and Neuroprotectin D1 in a Murine Model of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Lynn Calvin; Li Calzi, Sergio; Li, Nan; Moldovan, Leni; Sengupta-Caballero, Nilanjana; Quigley, Judith Lindsey; Ivan, Mircea; Jun, Bokkyoo; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Boulton, Michael Edwin; Busik, Julia; Neu, Josef; Grant, Maria B.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Low levels of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been implicated in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, oral DHA suffers from poor palatability and is associated with increased bleeding in premature infants. We asked whether oral administration of the neutraceutical arginine-glutamine (Arg-Glu) could increase retinal DHA and improve outcomes in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Methods Postnatal day 7 (P7) pups were maintained at 75% oxygen for 5 days and then returned to room air on P12. Pups were gavaged twice daily with Arg-Gln or vehicle from P12 to P17 and eyes were harvested for analysis on P17. Vaso-obliteration and vascular density were assessed on retinal flat mounts and preretinal neovascularization was assessed on retinal cross sections. Retinas were used for measurement of DHA and 10,17S-docosatriene (neuroprotectin D1, NPD1), a key DHA-derived lipid, and for analysis by reverse-phase protein array (RPPA). Results With Arg-Gln treatment, retinal DHA and NPD1 levels were increased in OIR pups. Arg-Gln reduced preretinal neovascularization by 39 ± 6% (P < 0.05) relative to vehicle control. This was accompanied by a restoration of vascular density of the retina in the pups treated with Arg-Gln (73.0 ± 3.0%) compared to vehicle (53.1 ± 3.4%; P < 0.05). Arg-Gln dipeptide restored OIR-induced signaling changes toward normoxia and was associated with normalization of insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 signaling and reduction of apoptosis and an increase in anti-apoptosis proteins. Conclusions Arg-Gln may serve as a safer and easily tolerated nutraceutical agent for prevention or treatment of ROP. PMID:29490339

  1. Enteral Arg-Gln Dipeptide Administration Increases Retinal Docosahexaenoic Acid and Neuroprotectin D1 in a Murine Model of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lynn Calvin; Li Calzi, Sergio; Li, Nan; Moldovan, Leni; Sengupta-Caballero, Nilanjana; Quigley, Judith Lindsey; Ivan, Mircea; Jun, Bokkyoo; Bazan, Nicolas G; Boulton, Michael Edwin; Busik, Julia; Neu, Josef; Grant, Maria B

    2018-02-01

    Low levels of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been implicated in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, oral DHA suffers from poor palatability and is associated with increased bleeding in premature infants. We asked whether oral administration of the neutraceutical arginine-glutamine (Arg-Glu) could increase retinal DHA and improve outcomes in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Postnatal day 7 (P7) pups were maintained at 75% oxygen for 5 days and then returned to room air on P12. Pups were gavaged twice daily with Arg-Gln or vehicle from P12 to P17 and eyes were harvested for analysis on P17. Vaso-obliteration and vascular density were assessed on retinal flat mounts and preretinal neovascularization was assessed on retinal cross sections. Retinas were used for measurement of DHA and 10,17S-docosatriene (neuroprotectin D1, NPD1), a key DHA-derived lipid, and for analysis by reverse-phase protein array (RPPA). With Arg-Gln treatment, retinal DHA and NPD1 levels were increased in OIR pups. Arg-Gln reduced preretinal neovascularization by 39 ± 6% (P < 0.05) relative to vehicle control. This was accompanied by a restoration of vascular density of the retina in the pups treated with Arg-Gln (73.0 ± 3.0%) compared to vehicle (53.1 ± 3.4%; P < 0.05). Arg-Gln dipeptide restored OIR-induced signaling changes toward normoxia and was associated with normalization of insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 signaling and reduction of apoptosis and an increase in anti-apoptosis proteins. Arg-Gln may serve as a safer and easily tolerated nutraceutical agent for prevention or treatment of ROP.

  2. Docosahexaenoic Acid Modulates a HER2-Associated Lipogenic Phenotype, Induces Apoptosis, and Increases Trastuzumab Action in HER2-Overexpressing Breast Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ravacci, Graziela Rosa; Brentani, Maria Mitzi; Tortelli, Tharcisio Citrângulo; Torrinhas, Raquel Suzana M M; Santos, Jéssica Reis; Logullo, Angela Flávia; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2015-01-01

    In breast cancer, lipid metabolic alterations have been recognized as potential oncogenic stimuli that may promote malignancy. To investigate whether the oncogenic nature of lipogenesis closely depends on the overexpression of HER2 protooncogene, the normal breast cell line, HB4a, was transfected with HER2 cDNA to obtain HER2-overexpressing HB4aC5.2 cells. Both cell lines were treated with trastuzumab and docosahexaenoic acid. HER2 overexpression was accompanied by an increase in the expression of lipogenic genes involved in uptake (CD36), transport (FABP4), and storage (DGAT) of exogenous fatty acids (FA), as well as increased activation of "de novo" FA synthesis (FASN). We further investigate whether this lipogenesis reprogramming might be regulated by mTOR/PPARγ pathway. Inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway markers, p70S6 K1, SREBP1, and LIPIN1, as well as an increase in DEPTOR expression (the main inhibitor of the mTOR) was detected in HB4aC5.2. Based on these results, a PPARγ selective antagonist, GW9662, was used to treat both cells lines, and the lipogenic genes remained overexpressed in the HB4aC5.2 but not HB4a cells. DHA treatment inhibited all lipogenic genes (except for FABP4) in both cell lines yet only induced death in the HB4aC5.2 cells, mainly when associated with trastuzumab. Neither trastuzumab nor GW9662 alone was able to induce cell death. In conclusion, oncogenic transformation of breast cells by HER2 overexpression may require a reprogramming of lipogenic genetic that is independent of mTORC1 pathway and PPARγ activity. This reprogramming was inhibited by DHA.

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid Modulates a HER2-Associated Lipogenic Phenotype, Induces Apoptosis, and Increases Trastuzumab Action in HER2-Overexpressing Breast Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ravacci, Graziela Rosa; Brentani, Maria Mitzi; Tortelli, Tharcisio Citrângulo; Torrinhas, Raquel Suzana M. M.; Santos, Jéssica Reis; Logullo, Angela Flávia; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2015-01-01

    In breast cancer, lipid metabolic alterations have been recognized as potential oncogenic stimuli that may promote malignancy. To investigate whether the oncogenic nature of lipogenesis closely depends on the overexpression of HER2 protooncogene, the normal breast cell line, HB4a, was transfected with HER2 cDNA to obtain HER2-overexpressing HB4aC5.2 cells. Both cell lines were treated with trastuzumab and docosahexaenoic acid. HER2 overexpression was accompanied by an increase in the expression of lipogenic genes involved in uptake (CD36), transport (FABP4), and storage (DGAT) of exogenous fatty acids (FA), as well as increased activation of “de novo” FA synthesis (FASN). We further investigate whether this lipogenesis reprogramming might be regulated by mTOR/PPARγ pathway. Inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway markers, p70S6 K1, SREBP1, and LIPIN1, as well as an increase in DEPTOR expression (the main inhibitor of the mTOR) was detected in HB4aC5.2. Based on these results, a PPARγ selective antagonist, GW9662, was used to treat both cells lines, and the lipogenic genes remained overexpressed in the HB4aC5.2 but not HB4a cells. DHA treatment inhibited all lipogenic genes (except for FABP4) in both cell lines yet only induced death in the HB4aC5.2 cells, mainly when associated with trastuzumab. Neither trastuzumab nor GW9662 alone was able to induce cell death. In conclusion, oncogenic transformation of breast cells by HER2 overexpression may require a reprogramming of lipogenic genetic that is independent of mTORC1 pathway and PPARγ activity. This reprogramming was inhibited by DHA. PMID:26640797

  4. Embryonic ablation of neuronal VGF increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng; Lin, Wei-Jye; Sadahiro, Masato; Shin, Andrew C.; Buettner, Christoph; Salton, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Germline ablation of VGF, a secreted neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine peptide precursor, results in lean, hypermetabolic, and infertile adult mice that are resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes (Hahm et al., 1999, 2002). To assess whether this phenotype is predominantly driven by reduced VGF expression in developing and/or adult neurons, or in peripheral endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, we generated and analyzed conditional VGF knockout mice, obtained by mating loxP-flanked (floxed) Vgf mice with either pan-neuronal Synapsin-Cre- or forebrain alpha-CaMKII-Cre-recombinase-expressing transgenic mice. Adult male and female mice, with conditional ablation of the Vgf gene in embryonic neurons had significantly reduced body weight, increased energy expenditure, and were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Conditional forebrain postnatal ablation of VGF in male mice, primarily in adult excitatory neurons, had no measurable effect on body weight nor on energy expenditure, but led to a modest increase in adiposity, partially overlapping the effect of AAV-Cre-mediated targeted ablation of VGF in the adult ventromedial hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus of floxed Vgf mice (Foglesong et al., 2016), and also consistent with results of icv delivery of the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 to adult mice, which resulted in increased energy expenditure and reduced adiposity (Bartolomucci et al., 2006). Because the lean, hypermetabolic phenotype of germline VGF knockout mice is to a great extent recapitulated in Syn-Cre+/−,Vgfflpflox/flpflox mice, we conclude that the metabolic profile of germline VGF knockout mice is largely the result of VGF ablation in embryonic CNS neurons, rather than peripheral endocrine and/or neuroendocrine cells, and that in forebrain structures such as hypothalamus, VGF and/or VGF-derived peptides play uniquely different roles in the developing and adult nervous system. PMID:28024880

  5. Embryonic ablation of neuronal VGF increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Lin, Wei-Jye; Sadahiro, Masato; Shin, Andrew C; Buettner, Christoph; Salton, Stephen R

    2017-08-01

    Germline ablation of VGF, a secreted neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine peptide precursor, results in lean, hypermetabolic, and infertile adult mice that are resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes (Hahm et al., 1999, 2002). To assess whether this phenotype is predominantly driven by reduced VGF expression in developing and/or adult neurons, or in peripheral endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, we generated and analyzed conditional VGF knockout mice, obtained by mating loxP-flanked (floxed) Vgf mice with either pan-neuronal Synapsin-Cre- or forebrain alpha-CaMKII-Cre-recombinase-expressing transgenic mice. Adult male and female mice, with conditional ablation of the Vgf gene in embryonic neurons had significantly reduced body weight, increased energy expenditure, and were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Conditional forebrain postnatal ablation of VGF in male mice, primarily in adult excitatory neurons, had no measurable effect on body weight nor on energy expenditure, but led to a modest increase in adiposity, partially overlapping the effect of AAV-Cre-mediated targeted ablation of VGF in the adult ventromedial hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus of floxed Vgf mice (Foglesong et al., 2016), and also consistent with results of icv delivery of the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 to adult mice, which resulted in increased energy expenditure and reduced adiposity (Bartolomucci et al., 2006). Because the lean, hypermetabolic phenotype of germline VGF knockout mice is to a great extent recapitulated in Syn-Cre +/- ,Vgf flpflox/flpflox mice, we conclude that the metabolic profile of germline VGF knockout mice is largely the result of VGF ablation in embryonic CNS neurons, rather than peripheral endocrine and/or neuroendocrine cells, and that in forebrain structures such as hypothalamus, VGF and/or VGF-derived peptides play uniquely different roles in the developing and adult nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Percoll gradient-centrifuged capacitated mouse sperm have increased fertilizing ability and higher contents of sulfogalactosylglycerolipid and docosahexaenoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine compared to washed capacitated mouse sperm.

    PubMed

    Furimsky, Anna; Vuong, Ngoc; Xu, Hongbin; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Xu, Min; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bou Khalil, Maroun; Kates, Morris; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj

    2005-03-01

    Although Percoll gradient centrifugation has been used routinely to prepare motile human sperm, its use in preparing motile mouse sperm has been limited. Here, we showed that Percoll gradient-centrifuged (PGC) capacitated mouse sperm had markedly higher fertilizing ability (sperm-zona pellucida [ZP] binding and in vitro fertilization) than washed capacitated mouse sperm. We also showed that the lipid profiles of PGC capacitated sperm and washed capacitated sperm differed significantly. The PGC sperm had much lower contents of cholesterol and phospholipids. This resulted in relative enrichment of male germ cell-specific sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a ZP-binding ligand, in PGC capacitated sperm, and this would explain, in part, their increased ZP-binding ability compared with that of washed capacitated sperm. Analyses of phospholipid fatty acyl chains revealed that PGC capacitated sperm were enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species containing highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22: 6n-3) being the predominant HUFA (42% of total hydrocarbon chains of PC). In contrast, the level of PC-HUFAs comprising arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6), and DHA in washed capacitated sperm was only 27%. Having the highest unsaturation degree among all HUFAs in PC, DHA would enhance membrane fluidity to the uppermost. Therefore, membranes of PGC capacitated sperm would undergo fertilization-related fusion events at higher rates than washed capacitated sperm. These results suggested that PGC mouse sperm should be used in fertilization experiments and that SGG and DHA should be considered to be important biomarkers for sperm fertilizing ability.

  7. Numerical models to evaluate the temperature increase induced by ex vivo microwave thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, M; Pinto, R; Lopresto, V

    2015-04-21

    Microwave thermal ablation (MTA) therapies exploit the local absorption of an electromagnetic field at microwave (MW) frequencies to destroy unhealthy tissue, by way of a very high temperature increase (about 60 °C or higher). To develop reliable interventional protocols, numerical tools able to correctly foresee the temperature increase obtained in the tissue would be very useful. In this work, different numerical models of the dielectric and thermal property changes with temperature were investigated, looking at the simulated temperature increments and at the size of the achievable zone of ablation. To assess the numerical data, measurement of the temperature increases close to a MTA antenna were performed in correspondence with the antenna feed-point and the antenna cooling system, for increasing values of the radiated power. Results show that models not including the changes of the dielectric and thermal properties can be used only for very low values of the power radiated by the antenna, whereas a good agreement with the experimental values can be obtained up to 20 W if water vaporization is included in the numerical model. Finally, for higher power values, a simulation that dynamically includes the tissue's dielectric and thermal property changes with the temperature should be performed.

  8. Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation: Increase in Lesion Diameter with Continuous Acetic Acid Infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lubienski, Andreas; Duex, Markus; Lubienski, Katrin

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of continuous infusion of acetic acid 50% during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on the size of the thermal lesion produced. Methods. Radiofrequency (RF) was applied to excised bovine liver by using an expandable needle electrode with 10 retractable tines (LeVeen Needle Electrode, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA) connected to a commercially available RF generator (RF 2000, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA). Experiments were performed using three different treatment modalities: RF only (n = 15), RF with continuous saline 0.9% infusion (n = 15), and RF with continuous acetic acid 50% infusion (n = 15). RF duration, power output, tissue impedance,more » and time to a rapid rise in impedance were recorded. The ablated lesions were evaluated both macroscopically and histologically. Results. The ablated lesions appeared as spherical or ellipsoid, well-demarcated pale areas with a surrounding brown rim with both RF only and RF plus saline 0.9% infusion. In contrast, thermolesions generated with RF in combination with acetic acid 50% infusion were irregular in shape and the central portion was jelly-like. Mean diameter of the coagulation necrosis was 22.3 {+-} 2.1 mm (RF only), 29.2 {+-} 4.8 mm (RF + saline 0.9%) and 30.7 {+-} 5.7 mm (RF + acetic acid 50%), with a significant increase in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Time to a rapid rise in impedance was significantly prolonged in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Conclusions. A combination of RF plus acetic acid 50% infusion is able to generate larger thermolesions than RF only or RF combined with saline 0.9% infusion.« less

  9. Effects of cholesterol oxides on cell death induction and calcium increase in human neuronal cells (SK-N-BE) and evaluation of the protective effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3).

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Amira; Nury, Thomas; Samadi, Mohammad; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; Hammami, Mohamed; O'Brien, Nora M; Lizard, Gérard; Mackrill, John J

    2015-07-01

    Some oxysterols are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Their lipotoxicity is characterized by an oxidative stress and induction of apoptosis. To evaluate the capacity of these molecules to trigger cellular modifications involved in neurodegeneration, human neuronal cells SK-N-BE were treated with 7-ketocholesterol, 7α- and 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 6α- and 6β-hydroxycholesterol, 4α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol (50-100μM, 24h) without or with docosahexaenoic acid (50μM). The effects of these compounds on mitochondrial activity, cell growth, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions (O2(-)), catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were determined. The ability of the oxysterols to induce increases in Ca(2+) was measured after 10min and 24h of treatment using fura-2 videomicroscopy and Von Kossa staining, respectively. Cholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (100μM) induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cell growth inhibition, ROS overproduction and cell death. A slight increase in the percentage of cells with condensed and/or fragmented nuclei, characteristic of apoptotic cells, was detected. With 27-hydroxycholesterol, a marked increase of O2(-) was observed. Increases in intracellular Ca(2+) were only found with 7-ketocholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol. Pre-treatment with docosahexaenoic acid showed some protective effects depending on the oxysterol considered. According to the present data, 7-ketocholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol could favor neurodegeneration by their abilities to induce mitochondrial dysfunctions, oxidative stress and/or cell death associated or not with increases in cytosolic calcium levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols increases DHA incorporation in brown, but not in white adipose tissue, of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paula A; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Martins, Susana V; Madeira, Marta S; Ferreira, Júlia; Guil-Guerrero, José L; Prates, José A M

    2018-06-01

    We hypothesised that the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) across adipose tissues will be higher when it is ingested as triacylglycerols (TAG) structured at the sn-2 position. Ten-week old male hamsters were allocated to 4 dietary treatments (n = 10): linseed oil (LSO-control group), fish oil (FO), fish oil ethyl esters (FO-EE) and structured DHA at the sn-2 position of TAG (DHA-SL) during 12 weeks. In opposition to the large variations found for fatty acid composition in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) was less responsive to diets. DHA was not found in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT depots but it was successfully incorporated in BAT reaching the highest percentage in DHA-SL. The PCA on plasma hormones (insulin, leptin, adiponectin) and fatty acids discriminated BAT from WATs pointing towards an individual signature on fatty acid deposition, but did not allow for full discrimination of dietary treatments within each adipose tissue.

  11. Increased preference of surface ablation over laser in situ keratomileusis between 2008–2011 is correlated to risk of ecatasia

    PubMed Central

    Moisseiev, Elad; Sela, Tzahi; Minkev, Liza; Varssano, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the trends in corneal refractive procedure selection for the correction of myopia, focusing on the relative proportions of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and surface ablation procedures. Methods Only eyes that underwent LASIK or surface ablation for the correction of myopia between 2008–2011 were included in this retrospective study. Additional recorded parameters included patient age, preoperative manifest refraction, corneal thickness, and calculated residual corneal bed thickness. A risk score was given to each eye, based on these parameters, according to the Ectasia Risk Factor Score System (ERFSS), without the preoperative corneal topography. Results This study included 16,163 eyes, of which 38.4% underwent LASIK and 61.6% underwent surface ablation. The risk score correlated with procedure selection, with LASIK being preferred in eyes with a score of 0 and surface ablation in eyes with a score of 2 or higher. When controlling for age, preoperative manifest refraction, corneal thickness, and all parameters, the relative proportion of surface ablation compared with LASIK was found to have grown significantly during the study period. Conclusions Our results indicate that with time, surface ablation tended to be performed more often than LASIK for the correction of myopia in our cohort. Increased awareness of risk factors and preoperative risk assessment tools, such as the ERFSS, have shifted the current practice of refractive surgery from LASIK towards surface ablation despite the former’s advantages, especially in cases in which the risk for ectasia is more than minimal (risk score 2 and higher). PMID:23345963

  12. Increased locomotor and thermogenic activity in mice with targeted ablation of the GHRH gene.

    PubMed

    Leone, Sheila; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Shohreh, Rugia; Ferrante, Claudio; Ricciuti, Adriana; Manippa, Fabio; Recinella, Lucia; Di Nisio, Chiara; Orlando, Giustino; Salvatori, Roberto; Vacca, Michele; Brunetti, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) leads to growth failure and changes in body composition, including increased fat accumulation and reduced lean body mass in both humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to examine the factors that contribute to energy imbalance in the GH releasing hormone knock out (GHRHKO) mice, a well established model of GHD. We evaluated food intake (of standard laboratory chow), total body weight (TBW), locomotor activity, body temperature and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight in 8 adult male mice homozygous for the GHRHKO allele (-/-) and 8 heterozygous (+/-) animals as controls. The gene expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in BAT and the levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the ventral striatum were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, respectively. Throughout 2 months of observation -/- mice consumed approximately 40% more food (normalized to TBW; P<0.001), and showed increased locomotor activity in 24h time compared to controls (P<0.05). Moreover, -/- animals showed increased body temperature (P<0.001), BAT weight (P<0.001), and UCP-1 gene expression (P<0.001), while NE levels in the striatum area were lower (P<0.05) than controls. The present study demonstrates that the increased food intake observed in GHRH ablated animals is associated with increased locomotor and thermogenic activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrophysiological changes correlated with temperature increases induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziqi; Kumon, Ronald E; Laughner, Jacob I; Efimov, Igor R; Deng, Cheri X

    2015-02-01

    To gain better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for cardiac arrhythmias, we investigated how the cellular electrophysiological (EP) changes were correlated with temperature increases and thermal dose (cumulative equivalent minutes [CEM43]) during HIFU application using Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Employing voltage-sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS, we measured the EP and temperature during HIFU using simultaneous optical mapping and infrared imaging. Both action potential amplitude (APA) and action potential duration at 50% repolarization (APD50) decreased with temperature increases, and APD50 was more thermally sensitive than APA. EP and tissue changes were irreversible when HIFU-induced temperature increased above 52.3 ± 1.4°C and log10(CEM43) above 2.16 ± 0.51 (n = 5), but were reversible when temperature was below 50.1 ± 0.8°C and log10(CEM43) below -0.9 ± 0.3 (n = 9). EP and temperature/thermal dose changes were spatially correlated with HIFU-induced tissue necrosis surrounded by a transition zone. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conditional Sox9 ablation improves locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury by increasing reactive sprouting.

    PubMed

    McKillop, William M; York, Elisa M; Rubinger, Luc; Liu, Tony; Ossowski, Natalie M; Xu, Kathy; Hryciw, Todd; Brown, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The absence of axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been attributed to the up-regulation of axon-repelling molecules, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present in the glial scar that forms post-SCI. We previously identified the transcription factor SOX9 as a key up-regulator of CSPG production and also demonstrated that conditional Sox9 ablation leads to decreased CSPG levels and improved recovery of hind limb function after SCI. We herein demonstrate increased neural input onto spinal neurons caudal to the lesion in spinal cord injured Sox9 conditional knock out mice as indicated by increased levels of the presynaptic markers synaptophysin and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) compared to controls. Axonal sparing, long-range axonal regeneration and reactive sprouting were investigated as possible explanations for the increase in neural inputs caudal to the lesion and for the improved locomotor outcomes in spinal cord-injured Sox9 conditional knock out mice. Whereas retrograde tract-tracing studies failed to reveal any evidence for increased axonal sparing or for long-range regeneration in the Sox9 conditional knock out mice, anterograde tract-tracing experiments demonstrated increased reactive sprouting caudal to the lesion after SCI. Finally we demonstrate that application of a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor to reduce CSPG degradation in Sox9 conditional knock out mice prevents the improvements in locomotor recovery observed in untreated Sox9 conditional knock out mice. These results suggest that improved recovery of locomotor function in Sox9 conditional knock out mice after SCI is due to increased reactive sprouting secondary to reduced CSPG levels distal to the lesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fabp1 gene ablation inhibits high-fat diet-induced increase in brain endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Dangott, Lawrence J; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Liver cancer: increased microwave delivery to ablation zone with cooled-shaft antenna--experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ming; Lu, Ming D; Xie, Xiao Y; Xu, Hui X; Mo, Li Q; Liu, Guang J; Xu, Zuo F; Zheng, Yan L; Liang, Jin Y

    2007-03-01

    To prospectively investigate whether the ablation zone induced with microwaves could be increased by delivering greater energy with a cooled-shaft antenna. All studies were animal care and ethics committee approved. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Microwave ablation was performed by using a cooled-shaft antenna in 48 ex vivo and 12 in vivo experiments with porcine livers. The coagulation diameters achieved in different microwave ablation parameter groups (60-90 W for 5-25 minutes) were compared. Ninety patients (78 men, 12 women; mean age, 53 years; age range, 20-82 years) with 133 0.8-8.0-cm (mean, 2.7 cm +/- 1.5 [standard deviation]) primary or metastatic liver cancers were treated with the same microwave ablation technique. Complete ablation (CA) and local tumor progression (LTP) rates were determined. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare differences in tumor size, ablation zone diameter, and CA and LTP rates between different patient subgroups. In the ex vivo livers, in vivo livers, and liver cancers, one application of microwave energy with 80 W for 25 minutes produced mean coagulation diameters of 5.6 x 7.4 cm, 3.5 x 5.9 cm, and 3.6 x 5.0 cm, respectively. Skin burn was not observed. CA rates in small (ablation zones in ex vivo and in vivo livers and in liver cancers. Effective local tumor control was achieved during one microwave ablation session. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  17. Bone Marrow Cells Expressing Clara Cell Secretory Protein Increase Epithelial Repair After Ablation of Pulmonary Clara Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Martha L; Mura, Marco; Marcus, Paula; Hwang, David; Ludkovski, Olga; Wong, Amy P; Waddell, Thomas K

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported a subpopulation of bone marrow cells (BMC) that express Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP), generally felt to be specific to lung Clara cells. Ablation of lung Clara cells has been reported using a transgenic mouse that expresses thymidine kinase under control of the CCSP promoter. Treatment with ganciclovir results in permanent elimination of CCSP+ cells, failure of airway regeneration, and death. To determine if transtracheal delivery of wild-type bone marrow CCSP+ cells is beneficial after ablation of lung CCSP+ cells, transgenic mice were treated with ganciclovir followed by transtracheal administration of CCSP+ or CCSP− BMC. Compared with mice administered CCSP− cells, mice treated with CCSP+ cells had more donor cells lining the airway epithelium, where they expressed epithelial markers including CCSP. Although donor CCSP+ cells did not substantially repopulate the airway, their administration resulted in increased host ciliated cells, better preservation of airway epithelium, reduction of inflammatory cells, and an increase in animal survival time. Administration of CCSP+ BMC is beneficial after permanent ablation of lung Clara cells by increasing bronchial epithelial repair. Therefore, CCSP+ BMC could be important for treatment of lung diseases where airways re-epithelialization is compromised. PMID:23609017

  18. Advances in radio frequency tumor ablation therapy: technical considerations, strategies for increasing coagulation necrosis volume, and preliminary clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, S. Nahum; Gazelle, G. Scott

    1998-04-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation has been demonstrated as a reliable method for creating thermally induced coagulation necrosis using either a percutaneous approach with image- guidance or direct surgical application of thin electrodes into treated tissues. Early clinical trials with this technology have studied the treatment of hepatic, cerebral, and bony malignancies. The extent of coagulation necrosis induced with conventional monopolar radiofrequency electrodes is dependent on overall energy deposition, the duration of RF application, and RF electrode tip length and gauge. This article will discuss these technical considerations with the goal of defining optimal parameters for RF ablation. Strategies to further increase induced coagulation necrosis including: multiprobe and bipolar arrays, and internally-cooled RF electrodes, with or without pulsed-RF or cluster technique will be presented. The development and laboratory results for many of these radiofrequency techniques, initial clinical results, and potential biophysical limitations to RF induced coagulation, such as perfusion mediated tissue cooling (vascular flow) will likewise be discussed.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid Increases SorLA/LR11, a Sorting Protein with Reduced Expression in Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (AD): Relevance to AD Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiu-Lan; Teter, Bruce; Ubeda, Oliver J.; Morihara, Takashi; Dhoot, Dilsher; Nyby, Michael D.; Tuck, Michael L.; Frautschy, Sally A.; Cole, Greg M.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and genetic factors, notably ApoE4, contribute to the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). Reduced mRNA and protein for an apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor family member, SorLA (LR11) has been found in LOAD but not early-onset AD, suggesting that LR11 loss is not secondary to pathology. LR11 is a neuronal sorting protein that reduces amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking to secretases that generate β-amyloid (Aβ). Genetic polymorphisms that reduce LR11 expression are associated with increased AD risk. However these polymorphisms account for only a fraction of cases with LR11 deficits, suggesting involvement of environmental factors. Because lipoprotein receptors are typically lipid-regulated, we postulated that LR11 is regulated by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential ω-3 fatty acid related to reduced AD risk and reduced Aβ accumulation. In this study, we report that DHA significantly increases LR11 in multiple systems, including primary rat neurons, aged non-Tg mice and an aged DHA-depleted APPsw AD mouse model. DHA also increased LR11 in a human neuronal line. In vivo elevation of LR11 was also observed with dietary fish oil in young rats with insulin resistance, a model for type II diabetes, another AD risk factor. These data argue that DHA induction of LR11 does not require DHA-depleting diets and is not age dependent. Because reduced LR11 is known to increase Aβ production and may be a significant genetic cause of LOAD, our results indicate that DHA increases in SorLA/LR11 levels may play an important role in preventing LOAD. PMID:18160637

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid provides protection from impairment of learning ability in Alzheimer's disease model rats.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio; Hossain, Shahdat; Shimada, Toshio; Sugioka, Kozo; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yoshimi; Ishibashi, Yutaka; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Shido, Osamu

    2002-06-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3), a major n-3 fatty acid of the brain, has been implicated in restoration and enhancement of memory-related functions. Because Alzheimer's disease impairs memory, and infusion of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide (1-40) into the rat cerebral ventricle reduces learning ability, we investigated the effect of dietary pre-administration of docosahexaenoic acid on avoidance learning ability in Abeta peptide-produced Alzheimer's disease model rats. After a mini-osmotic pump filled with Abeta peptide or vehicle was implanted in docosahexaenoic acid-fed and control rats, they were subjected to an active avoidance task in a shuttle avoidance system apparatus. Pre-administration of docosahexaenoic acid had a profoundly beneficial effect on the decline in avoidance learning ability in the Alzheimer's disease model rats, associated with an increase in the cortico-hippocampal docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid molar ratio, and a decrease in neuronal apoptotic products. Docosahexaenoic acid pre-administration furthermore increased cortico-hippocampal reduced glutathione levels and glutathione reductase activity, and suppressed the increase in lipid peroxide and reactive oxygen species levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the Alzheimer's disease model rats, suggesting an increase in antioxidative defence. Docosahexaenoic acid is thus a possible prophylactic means for preventing the learning deficiencies of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Higher contact force during radiofrequency ablation leads to a much larger increase in edema as compared to chronic lesion size.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Samuel; Silvernagel, Josh; Angel, Nathan; Kholmovski, Eugene; Ghafoori, Elyar; Hu, Nan; Ashton, John; Dosdall, Derek J; MacLeod, Rob; Ranjan, Ravi

    2018-05-18

    Reversible edema is a part of any radiofrequency ablation but its relationship with contact force is unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize through histology and MRI, acute and chronic ablation lesions and reversible edema with contact force. In a canine model (n = 14), chronic ventricular lesions were created with a 3.5-mm tip ThermoCool SmartTouch (Biosense Webster) catheter at 25 W or 40 W for 30 seconds. Repeat ablation was performed after 3 months to create a second set of lesions (acute). Each ablation procedure was followed by in vivo T2-weighted MRI for edema and late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE) MRI for lesion characterization. For chronic lesions, the mean scar volumes at 25 W and 40 W were 77.8 ± 34.5 mm 3 (n = 24) and 139.1 ± 69.7 mm 3 (n = 12), respectively. The volume of chronic lesions increased (25 W: P < 0.001, 40 W: P < 0.001) with greater contact force. For acute lesions, the mean volumes of the lesion were 286.0 ± 129.8 mm 3 (n = 19) and 422.1 ± 113.1 mm 3 (n = 16) for 25 W and 40 W, respectively (P < 0.001 compared to chronic scar). On T2-weighted MRI, the acute edema volume was on average 5.6-8.7 times higher than the acute lesion volume and increased with contact force (25 W: P = 0.001, 40 W: P = 0.011). With increasing contact force, there is a marginal increase in lesion size but accompanied with a significantly larger edema. The reversible edema that is much larger than the chronic lesion volume may explain some of the chronic procedure failures. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ablation of cholesterol biosynthesis in neural stem cells increases their VEGF expression and angiogenesis but causes neuron apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kanako; Dubreuil, Veronique; Arai, Yoko; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Schwudke, Dominik; Saher, Gesine; Miyata, Takaki; Breier, Georg; Thiele, Christoph; Shevchenko, Andrej; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Huttner, Wieland B

    2009-05-19

    Although sufficient cholesterol supply is known to be crucial for neurons in the developing mammalian brain, the cholesterol requirement of neural stem and progenitor cells in the embryonic central nervous system has not been addressed. Here we have conditionally ablated the activity of squalene synthase (SQS), a key enzyme for endogenous cholesterol production, in the neural stem and progenitor cells of the ventricular zone (VZ) of the embryonic mouse brain. Mutant embryos exhibited a reduced brain size due to the atrophy of the neuronal layers, and died at birth. Analyses of the E11.5-E15.5 dorsal telencephalon and diencephalon revealed that this atrophy was due to massive apoptosis of newborn neurons, implying that this progeny of the SQS-ablated neural stem and progenitor cells was dependent on endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis for survival. Interestingly, the neural stem and progenitor cells of the VZ, the primary target of SQS inactivation, did not undergo significant apoptosis. Instead, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in these cells was strongly upregulated via a hypoxia-inducible factor-1-independent pathway, and angiogenesis in the VZ was increased. Consistent with an increased supply of lipoproteins to these cells, the level of lipid droplets containing triacylglycerides with unsaturated fatty acyl chains was found to be elevated. Our study establishes a direct link between intracellular cholesterol levels, VEGF expression, and angiogenesis. Moreover, our data reveal a hitherto unknown compensatory process by which the neural stem and progenitor cells of the developing mammalian brain evade the detrimental consequences of impaired endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis.

  3. Ablation of cholesterol biosynthesis in neural stem cells increases their VEGF expression and angiogenesis but causes neuron apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kanako; Dubreuil, Veronique; Arai, Yoko; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Schwudke, Dominik; Saher, Gesine; Miyata, Takaki; Breier, Georg; Thiele, Christoph; Shevchenko, Andrej; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Huttner, Wieland B.

    2009-01-01

    Although sufficient cholesterol supply is known to be crucial for neurons in the developing mammalian brain, the cholesterol requirement of neural stem and progenitor cells in the embryonic central nervous system has not been addressed. Here we have conditionally ablated the activity of squalene synthase (SQS), a key enzyme for endogenous cholesterol production, in the neural stem and progenitor cells of the ventricular zone (VZ) of the embryonic mouse brain. Mutant embryos exhibited a reduced brain size due to the atrophy of the neuronal layers, and died at birth. Analyses of the E11.5–E15.5 dorsal telencephalon and diencephalon revealed that this atrophy was due to massive apoptosis of newborn neurons, implying that this progeny of the SQS-ablated neural stem and progenitor cells was dependent on endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis for survival. Interestingly, the neural stem and progenitor cells of the VZ, the primary target of SQS inactivation, did not undergo significant apoptosis. Instead, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in these cells was strongly upregulated via a hypoxia-inducible factor-1–independent pathway, and angiogenesis in the VZ was increased. Consistent with an increased supply of lipoproteins to these cells, the level of lipid droplets containing triacylglycerides with unsaturated fatty acyl chains was found to be elevated. Our study establishes a direct link between intracellular cholesterol levels, VEGF expression, and angiogenesis. Moreover, our data reveal a hitherto unknown compensatory process by which the neural stem and progenitor cells of the developing mammalian brain evade the detrimental consequences of impaired endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:19416849

  4. Global ablation of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter increases glycolysis in cortical neurons subjected to energetic stressors.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Matthew; Elustondo, Pia A; Warford, Jordan; Thirumaran, Aruloli; Pavlov, Evgeny V; Robertson, George S

    2017-08-01

    The effects of global mitochondrial calcium (Ca 2+ ) uniporter (MCU) deficiency on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, neuronal Ca 2+ handling, bioenergetics and hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) were examined. Forebrain mitochondria isolated from global MCU nulls displayed markedly reduced Ca 2+ uptake and Ca 2+ -induced opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. Despite evidence that these effects should be neuroprotective, global MCU nulls and wild-type (WT) mice suffered comparable HI brain damage. Energetic stress enhanced glycolysis and depressed Complex I activity in global MCU null, relative to WT, cortical neurons. HI reduced forebrain NADH levels more in global MCU nulls than WT mice suggesting that increased glycolytic consumption of NADH suppressed Complex I activity. Compared to WT neurons, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) was hyper-phosphorylated in MCU nulls at several sites that lower the supply of substrates for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Elevation of cytosolic Ca 2+ with glutamate or ionomycin decreased PDH phosphorylation in MCU null neurons suggesting the use of alternative mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport. Under basal conditions, global MCU nulls showed similar increases of Ca 2+ handling genes in the hippocampus as WT mice subjected to HPC. We propose that long-term adaptations, common to HPC, in global MCU nulls compromise resistance to HI brain injury and disrupt HPC.

  5. mGluR5 Ablation in Cortical Glutamatergic Neurons Increases Novelty-Induced Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Huang, Jui-Yen; Yu, Dinghui; Justice, Nicholas J.; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has been implicated in the pathology of various neurological disorders including schizophrenia, ADHD, and autism. mGluR5-dependent synaptic plasticity has been described at a variety of neural connections and its signaling has been implicated in several behaviors. These behaviors include locomotor reactivity to novel environment, sensorimotor gating, anxiety, and cognition. mGluR5 is expressed in glutamatergic neurons, inhibitory neurons, and glia in various brain regions. In this study, we show that deleting mGluR5 expression only in principal cortical neurons leads to defective cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) dependent synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex. These cortical glutamatergic mGluR5 knockout mice exhibit increased novelty-induced locomotion, and their locomotion can be further enhanced by treatment with the psychostimulant methylphenidate. Despite a modest reduction in repetitive behaviors, cortical glutamatergic mGluR5 knockout mice are normal in sensorimotor gating, anxiety, motor balance/learning and fear conditioning behaviors. These results show that mGluR5 signaling in cortical glutamatergic neurons is required for precisely modulating locomotor reactivity to a novel environment but not for sensorimotor gating, anxiety, motor coordination, several forms of learning or social interactions. PMID:23940572

  6. Genetic Ablation of CD68 Results in Mice with Increased Bone and Dysfunctional Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Jason W.; Shi, Zhenqi; Zhao, Haibo; Li, Xingsheng; Kesterson, Robert A.; Feng, Xu

    2011-01-01

    CD68 is a member of the lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP) family that is restricted in its expression to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. This lineage restriction includes osteoclasts, and, while previous studies of CD68 in macrophages and dendritic cells have proposed roles in lipid metabolism, phagocytosis, and antigen presentation, the expression and function of CD68 in osteoclasts have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the expression and localization of CD68 in macrophages and osteoclasts in response to the monocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). We found that M-CSF stimulates CD68 expression and RANKL alters the apparent molecular weight of CD68 as measured by Western immunoblotting. In addition, we explored the significance of CD68 expression in osteoclasts by generating mice that lack expression of CD68. These mice have increased trabecular bone, and in vitro assessment of CD68−/− osteoclasts revealed that, in the absence of CD68, osteoclasts demonstrate an accumulation of intracellular vesicle-like structures, and do not efficiently resorb bone. These findings demonstrate a role for CD68 in the function of osteoclasts, and future studies will determine the mechanistic nature of the defects seen in CD68−/− osteoclasts. PMID:21991369

  7. Endometrial Ablation

    MedlinePlus

    ... or lighter levels. If ablation does not control heavy bleeding, further treatment or surgery may be needed. ... ablation is used to treat many causes of heavy bleeding. In most cases, women with heavy bleeding ...

  8. Colorectal Histology Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Local Failure in Lung Metastases Treated With Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, Michael S.; Trakul, Nicholas; Jacobs, Lisa Rose

    Purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) is increasingly used to treat lung oligometastases. We set out to determine the safety and efficacy of this approach and to identify factors associated with outcomes. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of patients treated with SABR for metastatic lung tumors at our institution from 2003 to 2014. We assessed the association between various patient and treatment factors with local failure (LF), progression, subsequent treatment, systemic treatment, and overall survival (OS), using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: We identified 122 tumors in 77 patients meeting inclusion criteria for this study. Median follow-upmore » was 22 months. The 12- and 24-month cumulative incidence rates of LF were 8.7% and 16.2%, respectively; the 24-month cumulative incidence rates of progression, subsequent treatment, and subsequent systemic treatment were 75.2%, 64.5%, and 35.1%, respectively. Twenty-four-month OS was 74.6%, and median OS was 36 months. Colorectal metastases had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of LF at 12 and 24 months (25.5% and 42.2%, respectively), than all other histologies (4.4% and 9.9%, respectively; P<.0004). The 24-month cumulative incidences of LF for colorectal metastases treated with a biologically effective dose at α/β = 10 (BED{sub 10}) of <100 Gy versus BED{sub 10} of ≥100 Gy were 62.5% and 16.7%, respectively (P=.08). Toxicity was minimal, with only a single grade 3 or higher event observed. Conclusions: SABR for metastatic lung tumors appears to be safe and effective with excellent local control, treatment-free intervals, and OS. An exception is metastases from colorectal cancer, which have a high LF rate consistent with a radioresistant phenotype, suggesting a potential role for dose escalation.« less

  9. Robotic navigation and ablation.

    PubMed

    Malcolme-Lawes, L; Kanagaratnam, P

    2010-12-01

    Robotic technologies have been developed to allow optimal catheter stability and reproducible catheter movements with the aim of achieving contiguous and transmural lesion delivery. Two systems for remote navigation of catheters within the heart have been developed; the first is based on a magnetic navigation system (MNS) Niobe, Stereotaxis, Saint-Louis, Missouri, USA, the second is based on a steerable sheath system (Sensei, Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA, USA). Both robotic and magnetic navigation systems have proven to be feasible for performing ablation of both simple and complex arrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation. Studies to date have shown similar success rates for AF ablation compared to that of manual ablation, with many groups finding a reduction in fluoroscopy times. However, the early learning curve of cases demonstrated longer procedure times, mainly due to additional setup times. With centres performing increasing numbers of robotic ablations and the introduction of a pressure monitoring system, lower power settings and instinctive driving software, complication rates are reducing, and fluoroscopy times have been lower than manual ablation in many studies. As the demand for catheter ablation for arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation increases and the number of centres performing these ablations increases, the demand for systems which reduce the hand skill requirement and improve the comfort of the operator will also increase.

  10. Ablation of the Locus Coeruleus Increases Oxidative Stress in Tg-2576 Transgenic but Not Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hurko, Orest; Boudonck, Kurt; Gonzales, Cathleen; Hughes, Zoe A.; Jacobsen, J. Steve; Reinhart, Peter H.; Crowther, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Mice transgenic for production of excessive or mutant forms of beta-amyloid differ from patients with Alzheimer's disease in the degree of inflammation, oxidative damage, and alteration of intermediary metabolism, as well as the paucity or absence of neuronal atrophy and cognitive impairment. Previous observers have suggested that differences in inflammatory response reflect a discrepancy in the state of the locus coeruleus (LC), loss of which is an early change in Alzheimer's disease but which is preserved in the transgenic mice. In this paper, we extend these observations by examining the effects of the LC on markers of oxidative stress and intermediary metabolism. We compare four groups: wild-type or Tg2576 Aβ transgenic mice injected with DSP4 or vehicle. Of greatest interest were metabolites different between ablated and intact transgenics, but not between ablated and intact wild-type animals. The Tg2576_DSP4 mice were distinguished from the other three groups by oxidative stress and altered energy metabolism. These observations provide further support for the hypothesis that Tg2576 Aβ transgenic mice with this ablation may be a more congruent model of Alzheimer's disease than are transgenics with an intact LC. PMID:20981353

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid in cardiac metabolism and function.

    PubMed

    Gudbjarnason, S; Doell, B; Oskarsdóttir, G

    1978-01-01

    The polyene fatty acid compostition of cardiac phospholipids is modified by a) dietary cod liver oil, b) norepinephrine, c) chronic administration of nicotine to animals fed a high cholesterol diet. Polyene fatty acids stimulate microsomal oxydation of epinephrine to cardiotoxic adrenochrome. Adrenochrome stimulates microsomal peroxydation or oxygenation of polyene fatty acids. There is an exponential relationship between docosahexaenoic acid of cardiac phospholipids and the heart rate.

  12. Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To review the effectiveness, safety, and costing of ablation methods to manage atrial fibrillation (AF). The ablation methods reviewed were catheter ablation and surgical ablation. Clinical Need Atrial fibrillation is characterized by an irregular, usually rapid, heart rate that limits the ability of the atria to pump blood effectively to the ventricles. Atrial fibrillation can be a primary diagnosis or it may be associated with other diseases, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart muscle function, chronic lung diseases, and coronary heart disease. The most common symptom of AF is palpitations. Symptoms caused by decreased blood flow include dizziness, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Some patients with AF do not experience any symptoms. According to United States data, the incidence of AF increases with age, with a prevalence of 1 per 200 people aged between 50 and 60 years, and 1 per 10 people aged over 80 years. In 2004, the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) estimated that the rate of hospitalization for AF in Canada was 582.7 per 100,000 population. They also reported that of the patients discharged alive, 2.7% were readmitted within 1 year for stroke. One United States prevalence study of AF indicated that the overall prevalence of AF was 0.95%. When the results of this study were extrapolated to the population of Ontario, the prevalence of AF in Ontario is 98,758 for residents aged over 20 years. Currently, the first-line therapy for AF is medical therapy with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs). There are several AADs available, because there is no one AAD that is effective for all patients. The AADs have critical adverse effects that can aggravate existing arrhythmias. The drug selection process frequently involves trial and error until the patient’s symptoms subside. The Technology Ablation has been frequently described as a “cure” for AF, compared with drug therapy, which controls AF but does not cure it

  13. Ablation article and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. D.; Sullivan, E. M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An ablation article, such as a conical heat shield, having an ablating surface is provided with at least one discrete area of at least one seed material, such as aluminum. When subjected to ablation conditions, the seed material is ablated. Radiation emanating from the ablated seed material is detected to analyze ablation effects without disturbing the ablation surface. By providing different seed materials having different radiation characteristics, the ablating effects on various areas of the ablating surface can be analyzed under any prevailing ablation conditions. The ablating article can be provided with means for detecting the radiation characteristics of the ablated seed material to provide a self-contained analysis unit.

  14. Ablation of the Galnt3 gene leads to low-circulating intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23) concentrations and hyperphosphatemia despite increased Fgf23 expression.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Sorenson, Andrea H; Austin, Anthony M; Mackenzie, Donald S; Fritz, Timothy A; Moh, Akira; Hui, Siu L; Econs, Michael J

    2009-06-01

    Familial tumoral calcinosis is characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), Klotho (KL), and uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3). In vitro studies indicate that GALNT3 O-glycosylates a phosphaturic hormone, FGF23, and prevents its proteolytic processing, thereby allowing secretion of intact FGF23. In this study we generated mice lacking the Galnt3 gene, which developed hyperphosphatemia without apparent calcifications. In response to hyperphosphatemia, Galnt3-deficient mice had markedly increased Fgf23 expression in bone. However, compared with wild-type and heterozygous littermates, homozygous mice had only about half of circulating intact Fgf23 levels and higher levels of C-terminal Fgf23 fragments in bone. Galnt3-deficient mice also exhibited an inappropriately normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Furthermore, renal expression of sodium-phosphate cotransporters and Kl were elevated in Galnt3-deficient mice. Interestingly, there were sex-specific phenotypes; only Galnt3-deficient males showed growth retardation, infertility, and significantly increased bone mineral density. In summary, ablation of Galnt3 impaired secretion of intact Fgf23, leading to decreased circulating Fgf23 and hyperphosphatemia, despite increased Fgf23 expression. Our findings indicate that Galnt3-deficient mice have a biochemical phenotype of tumoral calcinosis and provide in vivo evidence that Galnt3 plays an essential role in proper secretion of Fgf23 in mice.

  15. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Cognition throughout the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Michael J.; Butt, Christopher M.; Mohajeri, M. Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the predominant omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in the brain and can affect neurological function by modulating signal transduction pathways, neurotransmission, neurogenesis, myelination, membrane receptor function, synaptic plasticity, neuroinflammation, membrane integrity and membrane organization. DHA is rapidly accumulated in the brain during gestation and early infancy, and the availability of DHA via transfer from maternal stores impacts the degree of DHA incorporation into neural tissues. The consumption of DHA leads to many positive physiological and behavioral effects, including those on cognition. Advanced cognitive function is uniquely human, and the optimal development and aging of cognitive abilities has profound impacts on quality of life, productivity, and advancement of society in general. However, the modern diet typically lacks appreciable amounts of DHA. Therefore, in modern populations, maintaining optimal levels of DHA in the brain throughout the lifespan likely requires obtaining preformed DHA via dietary or supplemental sources. In this review, we examine the role of DHA in optimal cognition during development, adulthood, and aging with a focus on human evidence and putative mechanisms of action. PMID:26901223

  16. Ablation of ceramide synthase 2 exacerbates dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in mice due to increased intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Ryung; Volpert, Giora; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Kim, So-Yeon; Shin, Sun-Hye; Lee, Younghay; Sung, Sun Hee; Lee, Yong-Moon; Ahn, Jung-Hyuck; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Park, Woo-Jae; Futerman, Anthony H; Park, Joo-Won

    2017-12-01

    Ceramides mediate crucial cellular processes including cell death and inflammation and have recently been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease. Ceramides consist of a sphingoid long-chain base to which fatty acids of various length can be attached. We now investigate the effect of alerting the ceramide acyl chain length on a mouse model of colitis. Ceramide synthase (CerS) 2 null mice, which lack very-long acyl chain ceramides with concomitant increase of long chain bases and C16-ceramides, were more susceptible to dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis, and their survival rate was markedly decreased compared with that of wild-type littermates. Using mixed bone-marrow chimeric mice, we showed that the host environment is primarily responsible for intestinal barrier dysfunction and increased intestinal permeability. In the colon of CerS2 null mice, the expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A was markedly decreased and the phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 was increased. In vitro experiments using Caco-2 cells also confirmed an important role of CerS2 in maintaining epithelial barrier function; CerS2-knockdown via CRISPR-Cas9 technology impaired barrier function. In vivo myriocin administration, which normalized long-chain bases and C16-ceramides of the colon of CerS2 null mice, increased intestinal permeability as measured by serum FITC-dextran levels, indicating that altered SLs including deficiency of very-long-chain ceramides are critical for epithelial barrier function. In conclusion, deficiency of CerS2 influences intestinal barrier function and the severity of experimental colitis and may represent a potential mechanism for inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Advanced Rigid Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate s (ESMD) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project (TDP) and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate s (ARMD) Hypersonics Project are developing new advanced rigid ablators in an effort to substantially increase reliability, decrease mass, and reduce life cycle cost of rigid aeroshell-based entry systems for multiple missions. Advanced Rigid Ablators combine ablation resistant top layers capable of high heat flux entry and enable high-speed EDL with insulating mass-efficient bottom that, insulate the structure and lower the areal weight. These materials may benefit Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) vendors and may potentially enable new NASA missions for higher velocity returns (e.g. asteroid, Mars). The materials have been thermally tested to 400-450 W/sq cm at the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Lab (LHMEL), Hypersonics Materials Evaluation Test System (HyMETS) and in arcjet facilities. Tested materials exhibit much lower backface temperatures and reduced recession over the baseline materials (PICA). Although the EDL project is ending in FY11, NASA in-house development of advanced ablators will continue with a focus on varying resin systems and fiber/resin interactions.

  18. Increasing CNS norepinephrine levels by the precursor L-DOPS facilitates beam-walking recovery after sensorimotor cortex ablation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, K; Nishino, K; Ohyu, H

    2000-03-31

    The present investigation was conducted to document a role of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), precursor of L-norepinephrine (NE), in the functional recovery from beam-walking performance deficits in rats after unilateral sensorimotor cortex ablation. L-DOPS was administered simultaneously with benserazide (BSZ; a peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor), and the regional contents of NE in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum were assayed. Behavioral recovery was demonstrated by the rats treated with L-DOPS and BSZ, and the rate of recovery was significantly different from that of either BSZ-treated or vehicle-treated control rats. The NE tissue levels in the three discrete regions of the rat brain were significantly elevated in the experimental rats receiving both L-DOPS and BSZ. The present studies indicate that increasing NE levels by the precursor L-DOPS may be responsible for facilitating behavioral recovery from beam-walking performance deficits in rats, and further suggest that L-DOPS may become one of the candidate compounds for further clinical human trials promoting functional recovery after injuries to the cerebral cortex.

  19. Is AF Ablation Cost Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Doyle, William; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of catheter ablation to treat AF is increasing rapidly, but there is presently an incomplete understanding of its cost-effectiveness. AF ablation procedures involve significant up-front expenditures, but multiple randomized trials have demonstrated that ablation is more effective than antiarrhythmic drugs at maintaining sinus rhythm in a second-line and possibly first-line rhythm control setting. Although truly long-term data are limited, ablation, as compared with antiarrrhythmic drugs, also appears associated with improved symptoms and quality of life and a reduction in downstream hospitalization and other health care resource utilization. Several groups have developed cost effectiveness models comparing AF ablation primarily to antiarrhythmic drugs and the model results suggest that ablation likely falls within the range generally accepted as cost-effective in developed nations. This paper will review available information on the cost-effectiveness of catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, and discuss continued areas of uncertainty where further research is required. PMID:20936083

  20. Parvalbumin Cell Ablation of NMDA-R1 Causes Increased Resting Network Excitability with Associated Social and Self-Care Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Billingslea, Eddie N; Tatard-Leitman, Valerie M; Anguiano, Jaynie; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Suh, Jimmy; Saunders, John A; Morita, Susumu; Featherstone, Robert E; Ortinski, Pavel I; Gandal, Michael J; Lin, Robert; Liang, Yuling; Gur, Raquel E; Carlson, Gregory C; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Siegel, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that net excitation propagated by impaired NMDAR signaling on GABAergic interneurons may be of particular interest in mediating several aspects of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear which behavioral domains are governed by a net increase of excitation and whether modulating downstream GABAergic signaling can reverse neural and thus behavioral deficits. The current study determines the selective contributions of NMDAR dysfunction on PV-containing interneurons to electrophysiological, cognitive, and negative-symptom-related behavioral phenotypes of schizophrenia using mice with a PVcre-NR1flox-driven ablation of NR1 on PV-containing interneurons. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of one agent that directly modulates GABAergic signaling (baclofen) and one agent that indirectly modifies NMDAR-mediated signaling through antagonism of mGluR5 receptors (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP)). The data indicate that loss of NMDAR function on PV interneurons impairs self-care and sociability while increasing N1 latency and baseline gamma power, and reducing induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation. Baclofen normalized baseline gamma power without corresponding effects on behavior. MPEP further increased N1 latency and reduced social behavior in PVcre/NR1+/+ mice. These two indices were negatively correlated before and following MPEP such that as N1 latency increases, sociability decreases. This finding suggests a predictive role for N1 latency with respect to social function. Although previous data suggest that MPEP may be beneficial for core features of autism spectrum disorders, current data suggest that such effects require intact function of NMDAR on PV interneurons. PMID:24525709

  1. Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces Amyloid β Production via Multiple Pleiotropic Mechanisms*

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Kuchenbecker, Johanna; Grösgen, Sven; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Friess, Petra; de Wilde, Martijn C.; Broersen, Laus M.; Penke, Botond; Péter, Mária; Vígh, László; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is characterized by accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) generated by β- and γ-secretase processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with decreased amyloid deposition and a reduced risk in Alzheimer disease in several epidemiological trials; however, the exact underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we systematically investigate the effect of DHA on amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic APP processing and the potential cross-links to cholesterol metabolism in vivo and in vitro. DHA reduces amyloidogenic processing by decreasing β- and γ-secretase activity, whereas the expression and protein levels of BACE1 and presenilin1 remain unchanged. In addition, DHA increases protein stability of α-secretase resulting in increased nonamyloidogenic processing. Besides the known effect of DHA to decrease cholesterol de novo synthesis, we found cholesterol distribution in plasma membrane to be altered. In the presence of DHA, cholesterol shifts from raft to non-raft domains, and this is accompanied by a shift in γ-secretase activity and presenilin1 protein levels. Taken together, DHA directs amyloidogenic processing of APP toward nonamyloidogenic processing, effectively reducing Aβ release. DHA has a typical pleiotropic effect; DHA-mediated Aβ reduction is not the consequence of a single major mechanism but is the result of combined multiple effects. PMID:21324907

  2. Distinguishing Health Benefits of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Fraser D.; Bürgin-Maunder, Corinna S.

    2012-01-01

    Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) are recommended for management of patients with wide-ranging chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, and depression. Increased consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended by many health authorities to prevent (up to 0.5 g/day) or treat chronic disease (1.0 g/day for coronary heart disease; 1.2–4 g/day for elevated triglyceride levels). Recommendations for dietary intake of LC n-3 PUFAs are often provided for α-linolenic acid, and for the combination of EPA and DHA. However, many studies have also reported differential effects of EPA, DHA and their metabolites in the clinic and at the laboratory bench. The aim of this article is to review studies that have identified divergent responses to EPA and DHA, and to explore reasons for these differences. In particular, we review potential contributing factors such as differential membrane incorporation, modulation of gene expression, activation of signaling pathways and metabolite formation. We suggest that there may be future opportunity to refine recommendations for intake of individual LC n-3 PUFAs. PMID:23203276

  3. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Ablation.

    PubMed

    Hue, Yik-Kiong; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Cohen, Ouri; Nevo, Erez; Roth, Abraham; Ackerman, Jerome L

    2018-02-01

    To introduce magnetic resonance mediated radiofrequency ablation (MR-RFA), in which the MRI scanner uniquely serves both diagnostic and therapeutic roles. In MR-RFA scanner-induced RF heating is channeled to the ablation site via a Larmor frequency RF pickup device and needle system, and controlled via the pulse sequence. MR-RFA was evaluated with simulation of electric and magnetic fields to predict the increase in local specific-absorption-rate (SAR). Temperature-time profiles were measured for different configurations of the device in agar phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver in a 1.5 T scanner. Temperature rise in MR-RFA was imaged using the proton resonance frequency method validated with fiber-optic thermometry. MR-RFA was performed on the livers of two healthy live pigs. Simulations indicated a near tenfold increase in SAR at the RFA needle tip. Temperature-time profiles depended significantly on the physical parameters of the device although both configurations tested yielded temperature increases sufficient for ablation. Resected livers from live ablations exhibited clear thermal lesions. MR-RFA holds potential for integrating RF ablation tumor therapy with MRI scanning. MR-RFA may add value to MRI with the addition of a potentially disposable ablation device, while retaining MRI's ability to provide real time procedure guidance and measurement of tissue temperature, perfusion, and coagulation.

  4. Analysis of iodinated contrast delivered during thermal ablation: is material trapped in the ablation zone?

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Hung; Brace, Chris L

    2016-08-21

    Intra-procedural contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) has been proposed to evaluate treatment efficacy of thermal ablation. We hypothesized that contrast material delivered concurrently with thermal ablation may become trapped in the ablation zone, and set out to determine whether such an effect would impact ablation visualization. CECT images were acquired during microwave ablation in normal porcine liver with: (A) normal blood perfusion and no iodinated contrast, (B) normal perfusion and iodinated contrast infusion or (C) no blood perfusion and residual iodinated contrast. Changes in CT attenuation were analyzed from before, during and after ablation to evaluate whether contrast was trapped inside of the ablation zone. Visualization was compared between groups using post-ablation contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Attenuation gradients were calculated at the ablation boundary and background to quantitate ablation conspicuity. In Group A, attenuation decreased during ablation due to thermal expansion of tissue water and water vaporization. The ablation zone was difficult to visualize (CNR  =  1.57  ±  0.73, boundary gradient  =  0.7  ±  0.4 HU mm(-1)), leading to ablation diameter underestimation compared to gross pathology. Group B ablations saw attenuation increase, suggesting that iodine was trapped inside the ablation zone. However, because the normally perfused liver increased even more, Group B ablations were more visible than Group A (CNR  =  2.04  ±  0.84, boundary gradient  =  6.3  ±  1.1 HU mm(-1)) and allowed accurate estimation of the ablation zone dimensions compared to gross pathology. Substantial water vaporization led to substantial attenuation changes in Group C, though the ablation zone boundary was not highly visible (boundary gradient  =  3.9  ±  1.1 HU mm(-1)). Our results demonstrate that despite iodinated contrast being trapped in the ablation zone, ablation visibility

  5. Genetic ablation of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein/StarD2 in ob/ob mice improves glucose tolerance without increasing energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Krisko, Tibor I; LeClair, Katherine B; Cohen, David E

    2017-03-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP; synonym StarD2) is highly expressed in liver and oxidative tissues. PC-TP promotes hepatic glucose production during fasting and aggravates glucose intolerance in high fat fed mice. However, because PC-TP also suppresses thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), its direct contribution to obesity-associated diabetes in mice remains unclear. Here we examined the effects of genetic PC-TP ablation on glucose homeostasis in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which exhibit both diabetes and altered thermoregulation. Mice lacking both PC-TP and leptin (Pctp -/- ;ob/ob) were prepared by crossing Pctp -/- with ob/+ mice. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by standard assays, and energy expenditure was determined by indirect calorimetry using a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system, which also recorded physical activity and food intake. Body composition was determined by NMR and hepatic lipids by enzymatic assays. Core body temperature was measured using a rectal thermocouple probe. Pctp -/- ;ob/ob mice demonstrated improved glucose homeostasis, as evidenced by markedly improved glucose and pyruvate tolerance tests, without changes in insulin tolerance. However, there were no differences in EE at any ambient temperature. There were also no effects of PC-TP expression on physical activity, food intake or core body temperature. Improved glucose tolerance in Pctp -/- ;ob/ob mice in the absence of increases in energy expenditure or core body temperature indicates a direct pathogenic role for PC-TP in diabetes in leptin deficient mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ablation of the transcriptional regulator Id1 enhances energy expenditure, increases insulin sensitivity, and protects against age and diet induced insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, Ande; Klarmann, Kimberly D.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Keller, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    , J. R. Ablation of the transcriptional regulator Id1 enhances energy expenditure, increases insulin sensitivity, and protects against age and diet-induced insulin resistance and hepatosteatosis. PMID:21990377

  7. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 ablation causes dysregulation of the HPA axis and increases hippocampal BDNF protein levels: implications for stress-related psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Kayo; Mombereau, Cedric; Lötscher, Erika; Uzunov, Doncho P; van der Putten, Herman; Flor, Peter J; Cryan, John F

    2006-06-01

    Regulation of neurotransmission via group-III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR4, -6, -7, and -8) has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders, such as major depression and anxiety. For instance, mice with a targeted deletion of the gene for mGluR7 (mGluR7-/-) showed antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects in a variety of stress-related paradigms, including the forced swim stress and the stress-induced hyperthermia tests. Deletion of mGluR7 reduces also amygdala- and hippocampus-dependent conditioned fear and aversion responses. Since the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates the stress response we investigate whether parameters of the HPA axis at the levels of selected mRNA transcripts and endocrine hormones are altered in mGluR7-deficient mice. Over all, mGluR7-/- mice showed only moderately lower serum levels of corticosterone and ACTH compared with mGluR7+/+ mice. More strikingly however, we found strong evidence for upregulated glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent feedback suppression of the HPA axis in mice with mGluR7 deficiency: (i) mRNA transcripts of GR were significantly upregulated in the hippocampus of mGluR7-/- animals, (ii) similar increases were seen with 5-HT1A receptor transcripts, which are thought to be directly controlled by the transcription factor GR and finally (iii) mGluR7-/- mice showed elevated sensitivity to dexamethasone-induced suppression of serum corticosterone when compared with mGluR7+/+ animals. These results indicate that mGluR7 deficiency causes dysregulation of HPA axis parameters, which may account, at least in part, for the phenotype of mGluR7-/- mice in animal models for anxiety and depression. In addition, we present evidence that protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor are also elevated in the hippocampus of mGluR7-/- mice, which we discuss in the context of the antidepressant-like phenotype found in those animals. We conclude that genetic ablation of m

  8. Atrial fibrillation ablation using a closed irrigation radiofrequency ablation catheter.

    PubMed

    Golden, Keith; Mounsey, John Paul; Chung, Eugene; Roomiani, Pahresah; Morse, Michael Andew; Patel, Ankit; Gehi, Anil

    2012-05-01

    Catheter ablation is an effective therapy for symptomatic, medically refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). Open-irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation catheters produce transmural lesions at the cost of increased fluid delivery. In vivo models suggest closed-irrigated RF catheters create equivalent lesions, but clinical outcomes are limited. A cohort of 195 sequential patients with symptomatic AF underwent stepwise AF ablation (AFA) using a closed-irrigation ablation catheter. Recurrence of AF was monitored and outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. Mean age was 59.0 years, 74.9% were male, 56.4% of patients were paroxysmal and mean duration of AF was 5.4 years. Patients had multiple comorbidities including hypertension (76.4%), tobacco abuse (42.1%), diabetes (17.4%), and obesity (mean body mass index 30.8). The median follow-up was 55.8 weeks. Overall event-free survival was 73.6% with one ablation and 77.4% after reablation (reablation rate was 8.7%). Median time to recurrence was 26.9 weeks. AF was more likely to recur in patients being treated with antiarrhythmic therapy at the time of last follow-up (recurrence rate 30.3% with antiarrhythmic drugs, 13.2% without antiarrhythmic drugs; hazard ratio [HR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.4, P = 0.024) and in those with a history of AF greater than 2 years duration (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.9, P = 0.038). Our study represents the largest cohort of patients receiving AFA with closed-irrigation ablation catheters. We demonstrate comparable outcomes to those previously reported in studies of open-irrigation ablation catheters. Given the theoretical benefits of a closed-irrigation system, a large head-to-head comparison using this catheter is warranted. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Robert G; Mellon, Michael W; Katusic, Slavica K; Weaver, Amy L; Matern, Dietrich; Mellon, Bryan; Jensen, Craig L; Barbaresi, William J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation improves the behavior of children with autism. A group of 3- to 10-year-old children with autism were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive a supplement containing 200 mg of DHA or a placebo for 6 months. The parents and the investigator completed the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale to rate changes in core symptoms of autism after 3 and 6 months. The parents completed the Child Development Inventory and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and both parents and teachers completed the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC) at enrollment and after 6 months. A total of 48 children (40 [83%] boys, mean age [standard deviation] 6.1 [2.0] years) were enrolled; 24 received DHA and 24 placebo. Despite a median 431% increase in total plasma DHA levels after 6 months, the DHA group was not rated as improved in core symptoms of autism compared to the placebo group on the CGI-I. Based on the analysis of covariance models adjusted for the baseline rating scores, parents (but not teachers) provided a higher average rating of social skills on the BASC for the children in the placebo group compared to the DHA group (P = 0.04), and teachers (but not parents) provided a higher average rating of functional communication on the BASC for the children in the DHA group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.02). Dietary DHA supplementation of 200 mg/day for 6 months does not improve the core symptoms of autism. Our results may have been limited by inadequate sample size.

  10. Ablative Therapies for Barrett's Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Katherine S.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus has gained increased clinical attention because of its association with esophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer with increasing incidence and poor survival rates. The goals of ablating Barrett's esophagus are to decrease esophageal cancer rates and to improve overall survival and quality of life. Different techniques have been developed and tested for their effectiveness eradicating Barrett's epithelium. This review assesses the literature associated with different ablative techniques. The safety and efficacy of different techniques are discussed. This review concludes with recommendations for the clinician, including specific strategies for patient care decisions for patients with Barrett's esophagus with varying degrees of dysplasia. PMID:21373836

  11. Adiponectin receptor 1 conserves docosahexaenoic acid and promotes photoreceptor cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Dennis S.; Calandria, Jorgelina M.; Gordon, William C.; Jun, Bokkyoo; Zhou, Yongdong; Gelfman, Claire M.; Li, Songhua; Jin, Minghao; Knott, Eric J.; Chang, Bo; Abuin, Alex; Issa, Tawfik; Potter, David; Platt, Kenneth A.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of pathways necessary for photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) function is critical to uncover therapies for blindness. Here we report the discovery of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) as a regulator of these cells’ functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is avidly retained in photoreceptors, while mechanisms controlling DHA uptake and retention are unknown. Thus, we demonstrate that AdipoR1 ablation results in DHA reduction. In situ hybridization reveals photoreceptor and RPE cell AdipoR1 expression, blunted in AdipoR1−/− mice. We also find decreased photoreceptor-specific phosphatidylcholine containing very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and severely attenuated electroretinograms. These changes precede progressive photoreceptor degeneration in AdipoR1−/− mice. RPE-rich eyecup cultures from AdipoR1−/− reveal impaired DHA uptake. AdipoR1 overexpression in RPE cells enhances DHA uptake, whereas AdipoR1 silencing has the opposite effect. These results establish AdipoR1 as a regulatory switch of DHA uptake, retention, conservation and elongation in photoreceptors and RPE, thus preserving photoreceptor cell integrity. PMID:25736573

  12. The Femtosecond Laser Ablation on Ultrafine-Grained Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianxun; Wu, Xiaoyu; Ruan, Shuangchen; Guo, Dengji; Du, Chenlin; Liang, Xiong; Wu, Zhaozhi

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the effects of femtosecond laser ablation on the surface morphology and microstructure of ultrafine-grained copper, point, single-line scanning, and area scanning ablation of ultrafine-grained and coarse-grained copper were performed at room temperature. The ablation threshold gradually increased and materials processing became more difficult with decreasing grain size. In addition, the ablation depth and width of the channels formed by single-line scanning ablation gradually increased with increasing grain size for the same laser pulse energy. The microhardness of the ablated specimens was also evaluated as a function of laser pulse energy using area scanning ablation. The microhardness difference before and after ablation increased with decreasing grain size for the same laser pulse energy. In addition, the microhardness after ablation gradually decreased with increasing laser pulse energy for the ultrafine-grained specimens. However, for the coarse-grained copper specimens, no clear changes of the microhardness were observed after ablation with varying laser pulse energies. The grain sizes of the ultrafine-grained specimens were also surveyed as a function of laser pulse energy using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The heat generated by laser ablation caused recrystallization and grain growth of the ultrafine-grained copper; moreover, the grain size gradually increased with increasing pulse energy. In contrast, no obvious changes in grain size were observed for the coarse-grained copper specimens with increasing pulse energy.

  13. The Femtosecond Laser Ablation on Ultrafine-Grained Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianxun; Wu, Xiaoyu; Ruan, Shuangchen; Guo, Dengji; Du, Chenlin; Liang, Xiong; Wu, Zhaozhi

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the effects of femtosecond laser ablation on the surface morphology and microstructure of ultrafine-grained copper, point, single-line scanning, and area scanning ablation of ultrafine-grained and coarse-grained copper were performed at room temperature. The ablation threshold gradually increased and materials processing became more difficult with decreasing grain size. In addition, the ablation depth and width of the channels formed by single-line scanning ablation gradually increased with increasing grain size for the same laser pulse energy. The microhardness of the ablated specimens was also evaluated as a function of laser pulse energy using area scanning ablation. The microhardness difference before and after ablation increased with decreasing grain size for the same laser pulse energy. In addition, the microhardness after ablation gradually decreased with increasing laser pulse energy for the ultrafine-grained specimens. However, for the coarse-grained copper specimens, no clear changes of the microhardness were observed after ablation with varying laser pulse energies. The grain sizes of the ultrafine-grained specimens were also surveyed as a function of laser pulse energy using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The heat generated by laser ablation caused recrystallization and grain growth of the ultrafine-grained copper; moreover, the grain size gradually increased with increasing pulse energy. In contrast, no obvious changes in grain size were observed for the coarse-grained copper specimens with increasing pulse energy.

  14. Global ablation techniques.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah; Taylor, Betsy

    2013-12-01

    Global endometrial ablation techniques are a relatively new surgical technology for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding that can now be used even in an outpatient clinic setting. A comparison of global ablation versus earlier ablation technologies notes no significant differences in success rates and some improvement in patient satisfaction. The advantages of the newer global endometrial ablation systems include less operative time, improved recovery time, and decreased anesthetic risk. Ablation procedures performed in an outpatient surgical or clinic setting provide advantages both of potential cost savings for patients and the health care system and improved patient convenience. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil supplementation in pregnant women with Type 2 diabetes on membrane fatty acids and fetal body composition--double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Min, Y; Djahanbakhch, O; Hutchinson, J; Bhullar, A S; Raveendran, M; Hallot, A; Eram, S; Namugere, I; Nateghian, S; Ghebremeskel, K

    2014-11-01

    To test if docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil supplementation rectifies red cell membrane lipid anomaly in pregnant women with Type 2 diabetes and their neonates, and alters fetal body composition. Women with Type 2 diabetes (n = 88; 41 fish oil, 47 placebo) and healthy women (n = 85; 45 fish oil, 40 placebo) were supplemented from the first trimester until delivery. Blood fatty acid composition, fetal biometric and neonatal anthropometric measurements were assessed. A total of 117 women completed the trial. The women with Type 2 diabetes who took fish oil compared with those who received placebo had higher percentage of docosahexaenoic acid in red cell phosphatidylethanolamine in the third trimester (12.0% vs. 8.9%, P = 0.000) and at delivery (10.7% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.001). Similarly, the neonates of the women with Type 2 diabetes supplemented with the fish oil had increased docosahexaenoic acid in the red cell phosphatidylethanolamine (9.2% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.027) and plasma phosphatidylcholine (6.1% vs. 4.7%, P = 0.020). Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil had no effect on the body composition of the fetus and neonates of the women with Type 2 diabetes. A daily dose of 600 mg of docosahexaenoic acid was effective in ameliorating red cell membrane docosahexaenoic acid anomaly in pregnant women with Type 2 diabetes and neonates, and in preventing the decline of maternal docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy. We suggest that the provision of docosahexaenoic acid supplement should be integrated in the antenatal care of pregnant women with Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  16. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  17. Nonequilibrium Ablation of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih K.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, an equilibrium ablation and thermal response model for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was developed. In general, over a wide range of test conditions, model predictions compared well with arcjet data for surface recession, surface temperature, in-depth temperature at multiple thermocouples, and char depth. In this work, additional arcjet tests were conducted at stagnation conditions down to 40 W/sq cm and 1.6 kPa. The new data suggest that nonequilibrium effects become important for ablation predictions at heat flux or pressure below about 80 W/sq cm or 10 kPa, respectively. Modifications to the ablation model to account for nonequilibrium effects are investigated. Predictions of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared with the arcjet data.

  18. Transgenic Reproductive Cell Ablation.

    PubMed

    Lawit, Shai J; Chamberlin, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous cell ablation technologies are available and have been used in reproductive tissues, particularly for male tissues and cells. The importance of ablation of reproductive tissues is toward a fundamental understanding reproductive tissue development and fertilization, as well as, in developing sterility lines important to breeding strategies. Here, we describe techniques for developing ablation lines for both male and female reproductive cells. Also discussed are techniques for analysis, quality control, maintenance, and the lessening of pleiotropism in such lines.

  19. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  20. Endometrial ablation: normal appearance and complications.

    PubMed

    Drylewicz, Monica R; Robinson, Kathryn; Siegel, Cary Lynn

    2018-03-14

    Global endometrial ablation is a commonly performed, minimally invasive technique aimed at improving/resolving abnormal uterine bleeding and menorrhagia in women. As non-resectoscopic techniques have come into existence, endometrial ablation performance continues to increase due to accessibility and decreased requirements for operating room time and advanced technical training. The increased utilization of this method translates into increased imaging of patients who have undergone the procedure. An understanding of the expected imaging appearances of endometrial ablation using different modalities is important for the abdominal radiologist. In addition, the frequent usage of the technique naturally comes with complications requiring appropriate imaging work-up. We review the expected appearance of the post-endometrial ablated uterus on multiple imaging modalities and demonstrate the more common and rare complications seen in the immediate post-procedural time period and remotely.

  1. Boundary of Phase Co-existence in Docosahexaenoic Acid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lor, Chai; Hirst, Linda S.

    2011-11-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that exhibits six double bonds in the hydrocarbon tail. It induces phase separation of the membrane into liquid order and liquid disorder in mixtures containing other lipids with more saturation and cholesterol. With the utilization of atomic force microscopy, phase co-existence is observed in lipid mixtures containing DHA on a single supported lipid bilayer. The boundary of phase co-existence with decreasing DHA concentration is explored. The elastic force, thickness, and roughness of the different phases are investigated.

  2. Thermal Ablation by High-Intensity-Focused Ultrasound Using a Toroid Transducer Increases the Coagulated Volume and Allows Coagulation Near Portal and Hepatic veins in Pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Melodelima, D.; N'Djin, W. A.; Parmentier, H.

    2009-04-14

    A new geometry of HIFU transducer is described to enlarge the coagulated volume. The geometry of the transducer was not spherical. The surface of the transducer was built based on a toroid geometry. The transducer was generated by the revolution of a circle about an axis lying in its plane. Eight emitters operating at a frequency of 3 MHz were diced out of a single toroid piezocomposite element. Each of the eight emitters was divided into 32 transducers. The focal zone is conical and located at 70 mm from the transducer. A 7.5 MHz ultrasound imaging probe is placed inmore » the centre of the device for guiding the treatment. Our long-term objective is to develop a device that can be used during surgery. In vivo trials have been performed on 13 pigs to demonstrate this new principle and to evaluate the vascular tolerance of the treatment. This new geometry combined with consecutive activation of the eight emitters around the toroid allows achieving a mean thermal ablation of 7.0{+-}2.5 cm3 in 40 seconds. All lesions were visible with high contrast on sonograms. The correlation between the size of lesions observed on sonograms and during gross examination was 92%. This allows the user to easily enlarge the coagulated volume by juxtaposing single lesions. The pigs tolerate the treatment well over the experimental period even when coagulation was produced through portal and/or hepatic veins.« less

  3. Radiofrequency ablation during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toru; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Horigome, Ryoko; Kimura, Naruhiro; Honda, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Akito; Seki, Keiichi; Honma, Terasu; Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether fluid injection during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can increase the coagulation area. METHODS: Bovine liver (1-2 kg) was placed on an aluminum tray with a return electrode affixed to the base, and the liver was punctured by an expandable electrode. During RFA, 5% glucose; 50% glucose; or saline fluid was infused continuously at a rate of 1.0 mL/min through the infusion line connected to the infusion port. The area and volume of the thermocoagulated region of bovine liver were determined after RFA. The Joule heat generated was determined from the temporal change in output during the RFA experiment. RESULTS: No liquid infusion was 17.3 ± 1.6 mL, similar to the volume of a 3-cm diameter sphere (14.1 mL). Mean thermocoagulated volume was significantly larger with continuous infusion of saline (29.3 ± 3.3 mL) than with 5% glucose (21.4 ± 2.2 mL), 50% glucose (16.5 ± 0.9 mL) or no liquid infusion (17.3 ± 1.6 mL). The ablated volume for RFA with saline was approximately 1.7-times greater than for RFA with no liquid infusion, representing a significant difference between these two conditions. Total Joule heat generated during RFA was highest with saline, and lowest with 50% glucose. CONCLUSION: RFA with continuous saline infusion achieves a large ablation zone, and may help inhibit local recurrence by obtaining sufficient ablation margins. RFA during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins, and may be prevent local recurrence. PMID:23483097

  4. Ablation mass features in multi-pulses femtosecond laser ablate molybdenum target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongye; Gierse, Niels; Wegner, Julian; Pretzler, Georg; Oelmann, Jannis; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Liang, Yunfeng; Neubauer, Olaf; Rasinski, Marcin; Linsmeier, Christian; Ding, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the ablation mass features related to reflectivity of bulk Molybdenum (Mo) were investigated by a Ti: Sa 6 fs laser pulse at central wavelength 790 nm. The ablated mass removal was determined using Confocal Microscopy (CM) technique. The surface reflectivity was calibrated and measured by a Lambda 950 spectrophotometer as well as a CCD camera during laser ablation. The ablation mass loss per pulse increase with the increasing of laser shots, meanwhile the surface reflectivity decrease. The multi-pulses (100 shots) ablation threshold of Mo was determined to be 0.15 J/cm2. The incubation coefficient was estimated as 0.835. The reflectivity change of the Mo target surface following multi-pulses laser ablation were studied as a function of laser ablation shots at various laser fluences from 1.07 J/cm2 to 36.23 J/cm2. The results of measured reflectivity indicate that surface reflectivity of Mo target has a significant decline in the first 3-laser pulses at the various fluences. These results are important for developing a quantitative analysis model for laser induced ablation and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the first wall diagnosis of EAST tokamak.

  5. Considerations for incorporating eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids into the military food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adam; Rice, Harry B

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA and DHA intake, the military should consider using one of three strategies, including mandates or recommendations on omega-3 supplement usage, contracts to purchase commercially available foods for distribution in the food supply chain, or direct addition of EPA and DHA into currently consumed foods. This review presents the challenges and strategies and provides potential suggestions to the military to increase the likelihood of success. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Sprayable lightweight ablative coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G. (Inventor); Sharpe, Max H. (Inventor); Hill, William E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved lightweight, ablative coating is disclosed that may be spray applied and cured without the development of appreciable shrinkage cracks. The ablative mixture consists essentially of phenolic microballoons, hollow glass spheres, glass fibers, ground cork, a flexibilized resin binder, and an activated colloidal clay.

  7. Pro-Inflammatory cytokines increases hepatocellular carcinoma cells thermotolerance: Evidence of how local inflammation may negatively impact radiofrequency ablation local control rates

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Wade G.; Wang, Yangping; Gibbs, John F.; Tracy, Erin; Kuvshinoff, Boris; Huntoon, Kristin; Baumann, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) associated with inflammation that undergo radiofrequency ablation (RFA) appear to have poorer local control rates. Little is known of how mediators of inflammation influence HCC cellular thermotolerance which in part is mediated by heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70). This study determines how inflammatory mediators effect cellular thermotolerance and provides insight into how associated inflammation may impact HCC RFA local control rates. Methods HepG2 cell lines were cultured in control medium (CM) or CM containing conditioned medium of endotoxin-activated macrophage (CMM). Serial dilutions of CMM established microenvironments approximating low, medium and high CMM. All groups underwent a heat shock challenge (HSC) at 45° C for 10 minutes. Western blot, northern blot, densometric analysis, along with Thymidine and clonagenic assays determined how inflammation influenced multiple biologic endpoints. Results Cells cultured in low CMM, expressed significantly more HSP 70 RNA and protein compared to control cells after HSC. The cells also had a higher proliferative and survival rate after HSC compared to control cells. Medium CMM cultured cells had no significant difference in HSP 70 RNA and protein production or proliferation and survival rates after HSC, compared to CM cultured cells. AT high CMM the inhibitory effects of inflammatory mediators prevailed, all the measured endpoints were significantly less compared to CM cultured cells. Conclusions This study demonstrates that inflammation can alter the responsiveness of HCC cells to a HSC in a dose dependent manner. This study supports the clinical observation that HCC associated with chronic inflammation have worse RFA local control rates. PMID:18262552

  8. Monitoring radiofrequency ablation with ultrasound Nakagami imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chiao-Yin; Geng, Xiaonan; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Liu, Hao-Li; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2013-07-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a widely used alternative modality in the treatment of liver tumors. Ultrasound B-mode imaging is an important tool to guide the insertion of the RFA electrode into the tissue. However, it is difficult to visualize the ablation zone because RFA induces the shadow effect in a B-scan. Based on the randomness of ultrasonic backscattering, this study proposes ultrasound Nakagami imaging, which is a well-established method for backscattered statistics analysis, as an approach to complement the conventional B-scan for evaluating the ablation region. Porcine liver samples (n = 6) were ablated using a RFA system and monitored by employing an ultrasound scanner equipped with a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. During the stages of ablation (0-12 min) and postablation (12-24 min), the raw backscattered data were acquired at a sampling rate of 30 MHz for B-mode, Nakagami imaging, and polynomial approximation of Nakagami imaging. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was also calculated to compare the image contrasts of the B-mode and Nakagami images. The results demonstrated that the Nakagami image has the ability to visualize changes in the backscattered statistics in the ablation zone, including the shadow region during RFA. The average Nakagami parameter increased from 0.2 to 0.6 in the ablation stage, and then decreased to approximately 0.3 at the end of the postablation stage. Moreover, the CNR of the Nakagami image was threefold that of the B-mode image, showing that the Nakagami image has a better image contrast for monitoring RFA. Specifically, the use of the polynomial approximation equips the Nakagami image with an enhanced ability to estimate the range of the ablation region. This study demonstrated that ultrasound Nakagami imaging based on the analysis of backscattered statistics has the ability to visualize the RFA-induced ablation zone, even if the shadow effect exists in the B-scan.

  9. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Joseph F.; Raman, Rema; Thomas, Ronald G.; Yurko-Mauro, Karin; Nelson, Edward B.; Van Dyck, Christopher; Galvin, James E.; Emond, Jennifer; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael; Shinto, Lynne; Aisen, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Context Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of DHA is associated with a reduced incidence of Alzheimer disease. Animal studies demonstrate that oral intake of DHA reduces Alzheimer-like brain pathology. Objective To determine if supplementation with DHA slows cognitive and functional decline in individuals with Alzheimer disease. Design, Setting, and Patients A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DHA supplementation in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (Mini-Mental State Examination scores, 14–26) was conducted between November 2007 and May 2009 at 51 US clinical research sites of the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to algal DHA at a dose of 2 g/d or to identical placebo (60% were assigned to DHA and 40% were assigned to placebo). Duration of treatment was 18 months. Main Outcome Measures Change in the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) and change in the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) sum of boxes. Rate of brain atrophy was also determined by volumetric magnetic resonance imaging in a subsample of participants (n = 102). Results A total of 402 individuals were randomized and a total of 295 participants completed the trial while taking study medication (DHA: 171; placebo: 124). Supplementation with DHA had no beneficial effect on rate of change on ADAS-cog score, which increased by a mean of 7.98 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.51–9.45 points) for the DHA group during 18 months vs 8.27 points (95% CI, 6.72–9.82 points) for the placebo group (linear mixed-effects model: P = .41). The CDR sum of boxes score increased by 2.87 points (95% CI, 2.44–3.30 points) for the DHA group during 18 months compared with 2.93 points (95% CI, 2.44–3.42 points) for the placebo group (linear mixed-effects model: P = .68). In

  10. Ablation enhancement of silicon by ultrashort double-pulse laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Shin, Yung C.

    In this study, the ultrashort double-pulse ablation of silicon is investigated. An atomistic simulation model is developed to analyze the underlying physics. It is revealed that the double-pulse ablation could significantly increase the ablation rate of silicon, compared with the single pulse ablation with the same total pulse energy, which is totally different from the case of metals. In the long pulse delay range (over 1 ps), the enhancement is caused by the metallic transition of melted silicon with the corresponding absorption efficiency. At ultrashort pulse delay (below 1 ps), the enhancement is due to the electron excitation by the first pulse.more » The enhancement only occurs at low and moderate laser fluence. The ablation is suppressed at high fluence due to the strong plasma shielding effect.« less

  11. Synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid from eicosapentaenoic acid in retina neurons protects photoreceptors from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Simón, María Victoria; Agnolazza, Daniela L; German, Olga Lorena; Garelli, Andrés; Politi, Luis E; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Anderson, Robert E; Rotstein, Nora P

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in activating photoreceptor death in several retinal degenerations. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in the retina, protects cultured retina photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and promotes photoreceptor differentiation. Here, we investigated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a metabolic precursor to DHA, had similar effects and whether retinal neurons could metabolize EPA to DHA. Adding EPA to rat retina neuronal cultures increased opsin expression and protected photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by the oxidants paraquat and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Palmitic, oleic, and arachidonic acids had no protective effect, showing the specificity for DHA. We found that EPA supplementation significantly increased DHA percentage in retinal neurons, but not EPA percentage. Photoreceptors and glial cells expressed Δ6 desaturase (FADS2), which introduces the last double bond in DHA biosynthetic pathway. Pre-treatment of neuronal cultures with CP-24879 hydrochloride, a Δ5/Δ6 desaturase inhibitor, prevented EPA-induced increase in DHA percentage and completely blocked EPA protection and its effect on photoreceptor differentiation. These results suggest that EPA promoted photoreceptor differentiation and rescued photoreceptors from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through its elongation and desaturation to DHA. Our data show, for the first time, that isolated retinal neurons can synthesize DHA in culture. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in retina photoreceptors, and its precursor, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have multiple beneficial effects. Here, we show that retina neurons in vitro express the desaturase FADS2 and can synthesize DHA from EPA. Moreover, addition of EPA to these cultures protects photoreceptors from oxidative stress and promotes their differentiation through its metabolization to DHA. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    PubMed

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira

    2015-08-21

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  13. Restorative Effects of Uridine Plus Docosahexaenoic Acid in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cansev, Mehmet; Ulus, Ismail H.; Wang, Lei; Maher, Timothy J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Administering uridine-5’-monophosphate (UMP) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increases synaptic membranes (as characterized by pre-and post-synaptic proteins) and dendritic spines in rodents. We examined their effects on rotational behavior and dopaminergic markers in rats with partial unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced striatal lesions. Rats receiving UMP, DHA, both, or neither, daily, and intrastriatal 6-OHDA 3 days after treatment onset, were tested for d-amphetamine-induced rotational behavior and dopaminergic markers after 24 and 28 days, respectively. UMP/DHA treatment reduced ipsilateral rotations by 57% and significantly elevated striatal dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity, TH protein and Synapsin-1 on the lesioned side. Hence, giving uridine and DHA may partially restore dopaminergic neurotransmission in this model of Parkinson’s Disease. PMID:18761383

  14. Restorative effects of uridine plus docosahexaenoic acid in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cansev, Mehmet; Ulus, Ismail H; Wang, Lei; Maher, Timothy J; Wurtman, Richard J

    2008-11-01

    Administering uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increases synaptic membranes (as characterized by pre- and post-synaptic proteins) and dendritic spines in rodents. We examined their effects on rotational behavior and dopaminergic markers in rats with partial unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced striatal lesions. Rats receiving UMP, DHA, both, or neither, daily, and intrastriatal 6-OHDA 3 days after treatment onset, were tested for d-amphetamine-induced rotational behavior and dopaminergic markers after 24 and 28 days, respectively. UMP/DHA treatment reduced ipsilateral rotations by 57% and significantly elevated striatal dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity, TH protein and synapsin-1 on the lesioned side. Hence, giving uridine and DHA may partially restore dopaminergic neurotransmission in this model of Parkinson's disease.

  15. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26307979

  16. [The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on the loss of appetite in pediatric patients with pneumonia].

    PubMed

    López-Alarcón, Mardya; Furuya-Meguro, María Magdalena; García-Zúñiga, Pedro Alberto; Tadeo-Pulido, Irsa

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the role of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administered during the acute phase of pneumonia in infants, on appetite, cytokines and leptin concentrations. Seventeen children between three months and 12 years of age were followed from hospitalization to discharge. Children were randomly assigned to receive DHA or placebo. The effect of treatment was evaluated on energy intake, cytokines, and leptin concentrations. Cytokine concentrations tended to decrease earlier in DHA children. By day 4, concentrations of IL-1beta and TNFalpha had decreased by 12%, while such concentrations increased by 12% and 250% in placebo children. Energy intake recovered in DHA children at discharge, but placebo children were still consuming only 60% of their requirements. Our results suggest that DHA administered in the acute phase of infection could modulate IL-1 and TNF production, and secondarily, decrease the effect of infection on appetite.

  17. Artificial meteor ablation studies: Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Cunningham, G. G.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial meteor ablation was performed on a Mg-rich olivine sample using an arc-heated plasma of ionized air. Experimental conditions simulated a meteor traveling about 12 km/sec at an altitude of 70 km. The mineral content of the original olivine sample was 98% olivine (including traces of olivine alteration products) and 2% chromite. Forsterite content of the original olivine was Fo-89. After ablation, the forsterite content had increased to Fo-94 in the recrystallized olivine. In addition, lamella-like intergrowths of magnetite were prevalent constituents. Wherever magnetite occurred, there was an increase in Mg and a corresponding decrease in Fe for the recrystallized olivine. The Allende fusion crust consisted of a recrystallized olivine, which was more Mg-rich and Fe-deficient than the original meteorite's olivine, and abundant magnetite grains. Although troilite and pentlandite were the common opaque mineral constituents in this meteorite, magnetite was the principal opaque mineral found in the fusion crust.

  18. Microwave Tissue Ablation: Biophysics, Technology and Applications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an emerging treatment option for many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. During treatment, microwaves are applied directly to tissues to produce rapid temperature elevations sufficient to produce immediate coagulative necrosis. The engineering design criteria for each application differ, with individual consideration for factors such as desired ablation zone size, treatment duration, and procedural invasiveness. Recent technological developments in applicator cooling, power control and system optimization for specific applications promise to increase the utilization of microwave ablation in the future. This article will review the basic biophysics of microwave tissue heating, provide an overview of the design and operation of current equipment, and outline areas for future research for microwave ablation. PMID:21175404

  19. Thermal distribution of microwave antenna for atrial fibrillation catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Nan, Qun; Liu, Youjun

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ablation parameters on thermal distribution during microwave atrial fibrillation catheter ablation, such as ablation time, ablation power, blood condition and antenna placement, and give proper ablative parameters to realise transmural ablation. In this paper, simplified 3D antenna-myocardium-blood finite element method models were built to simulate the endocardial ablation operation. Thermal distribution was obtained based on the coupled electromagnetic-thermal analysis. Under different antenna placement conditions and different microwave power inputs within 60 s, the lesion dimensions (maximum depth, maximum width) of the ablation zones were analysed. The ablation width and depth increased with the ablation time. The increase rate significantly slowed down after 10 s. The maximum temperature was located in 1 mm under the antenna tip when perpendicular to the endocardium, while 1.5 mm away from the antenna axis and 26 mm along the antenna (with antenna length about 30 mm) in the myocardium when parallel to the endocardium. The maximum temperature in the ablated area decreased and the effective ablation area (with the temperature raised to 50°C) shifted deeper into the myocardium due to the blood cooling. The research validated that the microwave antenna can provide continuous long and linear lesions for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. The dimensions of the created lesion widths were all larger than those of the depths. It is easy for the microwave antenna to produce transmural lesions for an atrial wall thickness of 2-6 mm by adjusting the applied power and ablation time.

  20. Spatiotemporal Variability of Great Lakes Basin Snow Cover Ablation Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriano, Z. J.; Leathers, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    In the Great Lakes basin of North America, annual runoff is dominated by snowmelt. This snowmelt-induced runoff plays an important role within the hydrologic cycle of the basin, influencing soil moisture availability and driving the seasonal cycle of spring and summer Lake levels. Despite this, relatively little is understood about the patterns and trends of snow ablation event frequency and magnitude within the Great Lakes basin. This study uses a gridded dataset of Canadian and United States surface snow depth observations to develop a regional climatology of snow ablation events from 1960-2009. An ablation event is defined as an inter-diurnal snow depth decrease within an individual grid cell. A clear seasonal cycle in ablation event frequency exists within the basin and peak ablation event frequency is latitudinally dependent. Most of the basin experiences peak ablation frequency in March, while the northern and southern regions of the basin experience respective peaks in April and February. An investigation into the inter-annual frequency of ablation events reveals ablation events significantly decrease within the northeastern and northwestern Lake Superior drainage basins and significantly increase within the eastern Lake Huron and Georgian Bay drainage basins. In the eastern Lake Huron and Georgian Bay drainage basins, larger ablation events are occurring more frequently, and a larger impact to the hydrology can be expected. Trends in ablation events are attributed primarily to changes in snowfall and snow depth across the region.

  1. Ablation properties of carbon/carbon composites with tungsten carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jian; Zhang, Hongbo; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Baiyun; Zuo, Jinlv

    2009-02-01

    The ablation properties and morphologies of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites with tungsten carbide (WC) filaments were investigated by ablation test on an arc heater and scanning electron microscopy. And the results were compared with those without tungsten carbide (WC) filaments tested under the same conditions. It shows that there is a big difference between C/C composites with and without WC filaments on both macroscopic and microscopic ablation morphologies and the ablation rates of the former are higher than the latter. It is found that the ablation process of C/C composites with WC filaments includes oxidation of carbon fibers, carbon matrices and WC, melting of WC and WO 3, and denudation of WC, WO 3 and C/C composites. Oxidation and melting of WC leads to the formation of holes in z directional carbon fiber bundles, which increases the coarseness of the ablation surfaces of the composites, speeds up ablation and leads to the higher ablation rate. Moreover, it is further found that the molten WC and WO 3 cannot form a continuous film on the ablation surface to prevent further ablation of C/C composites.

  2. Miniaturization of Microwave Ablation Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyen, Hung

    Microwave ablation (MWA) is a promising minimally invasive technique for the treatment of various types of cancers as well as non-oncological diseases. In MWA, an interstitial antenna is typically used to deliver microwave energy to the diseased tissue and heat it up to lethal temperature levels that induce cell death. The desired characteristics of the interstitial antenna include a narrow diameter to minimize invasiveness of the treatment, a low input reflection coefficient at the operating frequency, and a localized heating zone. Most interstitial MWA antennas are fed by coaxial cables and designed for operation at either 915 MHz or 2.45 GHz. Coax-fed MWA antennas are commonly equipped with coaxial baluns to achieve localized heating. However, the conventional implementation of coaxial baluns increases the overall diameters of the antennas and therefore make them more invasive. It is highly desirable to develop less invasive antennas with shorter active lengths and smaller diameters for MWA applications. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher frequency microwaves for tissue ablation and present several techniques for decreasing diameters of MWA antennas. First, we investigated MWA at higher frequencies by conducting numerical and experimental studies to compare ablation performance at 10 GHz and 1.9 GHz. Simulation and ex vivo ablation experiment results demonstrate comparable ablation zone dimensions achieved at these two frequencies. Operating at higher frequencies enables interstitial antennas with shorter active lengths. This can be combined with smaller-diameter antenna designs to create less invasive applicators or allow integration of multiple radiating elements on a single applicator to have better control and customization of the heating patterns. Additionally, we present three different coax-fed antenna designs and a non-coaxial-based balanced antenna that have smaller-diameter configurations than conventional coax-fed balun

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, is essential for normal brain development. DHA is found predominantly in seafood, fish oil, breastmilk and supplemented formula. DHA intake in Western countries is often below recommendations. Observational studies have demonstrated an association between DHA intake in pregnancy and neurodevelopment of offspring but cannot fully adjust for confounding factors that influence child development. Randomised clinical trials of DHA supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation, and of term infants, have not shown a consistent benefit nor harm on neurodevelopment of healthy children born at term. The evidence does not support DHA supplementation of healthy pregnant and lactating women, nor healthy infants. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Production of docosahexaenoic acid by Aurantiochytrium sp. ATCC PRA-276.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Valcenir Júnior Mendes; Maus, Victor; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    The high costs and environmental concerns associated with using marine resources as sources of oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have prompted searches for alternative sources of such oils. Some microorganisms, among them members of the genus Aurantiochytrium, can synthesize large amounts of these biocompounds. However, various parameters that affect the polyunsaturated fatty acids production of these organisms, such as the carbon and nitrogen sources supplied during their cultivation, require further elucidation. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different concentrations of carbon and total nitrogen on the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, by Aurantiochytrium sp. ATCC PRA-276. We performed batch system experiments using an initial glucose concentration of 30g/L and three different concentrations of total nitrogen, including 3.0, 0.44, and 0.22g/L, and fed-batch system experiments in which 0.14g/L of glucose and 0.0014g/L of total nitrogen were supplied hourly. To assess the effects of these different treatments, we determined the biomass, glucose, total nitrogen and polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration. The maximum cell concentration (23.9g/L) was obtained after 96h of cultivation in the batch system using initial concentrations of 0.22g/L total nitrogen and 30g/L glucose. Under these conditions, we observed the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids production (3.6g/L), with docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid ω6 concentrations reaching 2.54 and 0.80g/L, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Moldable cork ablation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A successful thermal ablative material was manufactured. Moldable cork sheets were tested for density, tensile strength, tensile elongation, thermal conductivity, compression set, and specific heat. A moldable cork sheet, therefore, was established as a realistic product.

  6. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Shido, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney.

  8. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Shido, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney. PMID:26485038

  9. Measurement of intrahepatic pressure during radiofrequency ablation in porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Chiaki; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Baba, Yoko; Kaneko, Keiko; Yakabi, Koji

    2010-04-01

    To identify the most effective procedures to avoid increased intrahepatic pressure during radiofrequency ablation, we evaluated different ablation methods. Laparotomy was performed in 19 pigs. Intrahepatic pressure was monitored using an invasive blood pressure monitor. Radiofrequency ablation was performed as follows: single-step standard ablation; single-step at 30 W; single-step at 70 W; 4-step at 30 W; 8-step at 30 W; 8-step at 70 W; and cooled-tip. The array was fully deployed in single-step methods. In the multi-step methods, the array was gradually deployed in four or eight steps. With the cooled-tip, ablation was performed by increasing output by 10 W/min, starting at 40 W. Intrahepatic pressure was as follows: single-step standard ablation, 154.5 +/- 30.9 mmHg; single-step at 30 W, 34.2 +/- 20.0 mmHg; single-step at 70 W, 46.7 +/- 24.3 mmHg; 4-step at 30 W, 42.3 +/- 17.9 mmHg; 8-step at 30 W, 24.1 +/- 18.2 mmHg; 8-step at 70 W, 47.5 +/- 31.5 mmHg; and cooled-tip, 114.5 +/- 16.6 mmHg. The radiofrequency ablation-induced area was spherical with single-step standard ablation, 4-step at 30 W, and 8-step at 30 W. Conversely, the ablated area was irregular with single-step at 30 W, single-step at 70 W, and 8-step at 70 W. The ablation time was significantly shorter for the multi-step method than for the single-step method. Increased intrahepatic pressure could be controlled using multi-step methods. From the shapes of the ablation area, 30-W 8-step expansions appear to be most suitable for radiofrequency ablation.

  10. Secular trend of serum docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid concentrations among Japanese-a 4- and 13-year descriptive epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Rei; Kato, Yuki; Imai, Tomoko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown age-related increases in blood docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid and decreases in arachidonic acid. We describe serum docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic, and arachidonic acid concentrations over 13 years (1997-2012) across four study waves and serum fatty acid composition over 4 years (2006-2012) between two study waves according to age groups by sex in the same subjects. We included 443 men and 435 women aged 40-79 years at baseline. Serum arachidonic acid concentrations increased in all sex and age groups over 13 years, and eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid concentrations increased in males and females who were younger and middle-aged at baseline. Only serum arachidonic acid composition increased over 4 years in men and women who were 40-69 years at baseline, even after adjustment for arachidonic acid intake. These findings suggest a secular increase trend in serum arachidonic acid levels over 13 years among randomly selected community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Enhances Expression of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 at the Blood-Brain Barrier and Brain Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yijun; Morris, Elonie R; Scanlon, Martin J; Marriott, Philip J; Porter, Christopher Jh; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2018-03-27

    The cytoplasmic trafficking of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a cognitively-beneficial fatty acid, across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is governed by fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). Lower levels of brain DHA have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is associated with diminished BBB expression of FABP5. Therefore, upregulating FABP5 expression at the BBB may be a novel approach for enhancing BBB transport of DHA in AD. DHA supplementation has been shown to be beneficial in various mouse models of AD, and therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether DHA has the potential to upregulate the BBB expression of FABP5, thereby enhancing its own uptake into the brain. Treating human brain microvascular brain endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cells with the maximum tolerable concentration of DHA (12.5 μM) for 72 hr resulted in a 1.4-fold increase in FABP5 protein expression. Associated with this was increased expression of fatty acid transport proteins 1 and 4. To study the impact of dietary DHA supplementation, 6-8 week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a control diet or a DHA-enriched diet for 21 days. Brain microvascular FABP5 protein expression was upregulated 1.7-fold in mice fed the DHA-enriched diet, and this was associated with increased brain DHA levels (1.3-fold). Despite an increase in brain DHA levels, reduced BBB transport of 14 C-DHA was observed over a 1 min perfusion, possibly as a result of competitive binding to FABP5 between dietary DHA and 14 C-DHA. The current study has demonstrated that DHA can increase BBB expression of FABP5, as well as fatty acid transporters, overall increasing brain DHA levels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Radiofrequency Ablation With Magnetically Directed Metallic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy T; Tzou, Wendy S; Zheng, Lijun; Barham, Waseem; Schuller, Joseph L; Shillinglaw, Benjamin; Quaife, Robert A; Sauer, William H

    2016-05-01

    Remote heating of metal located near a radiofrequency ablation source has been previously demonstrated. Therefore, ablation of cardiac tissue treated with metallic nanoparticles may improve local radiofrequency heating and lead to larger ablation lesions. We sought to evaluate the effect of magnetic nanoparticles on tissue sensitivity to radiofrequency energy. Ablation was performed using an ablation catheter positioned with 10 g of force over prepared ex vivo specimens. Tissue temperatures were measured and lesion volumes were acquired. An in vivo porcine thigh model was used to study systemically delivered magnetically guided iron oxide (FeO) nanoparticles during radiofrequency application. Magnetic resonance imaging and histological staining of ablated tissue were subsequently performed as a part of ablation lesion analysis. Ablation of ex vivo myocardial tissue treated with metallic nanoparticles resulted in significantly larger lesions with greater impedance changes and evidence of increased thermal conductivity within the tissue. Magnet-guided localization of FeO nanoparticles within porcine thigh preps was demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging and iron staining. Irrigated ablation in the regions with greater FeO, after FeO infusion and magnetic guidance, created larger lesions without a greater incidence of steam pops. Metal nanoparticle infiltration resulted in significantly larger ablation lesions with altered electric and thermal conductivity. In vivo magnetic guidance of FeO nanoparticles allowed for facilitated radiofrequency ablation without direct infiltration into the targeted tissue. Further research is needed to assess the clinical applicability of this ablation strategy using metallic nanoparticles for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Chronic sucrose intake decreases concentrations of n6 fatty acids, but not docosahexaenoic acid in the rat brain phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Mašek, Tomislav; Starčević, Kristina

    2017-07-13

    We investigated the influence of high sucrose intake, administered in drinking water, on the lipid profile of the brain and on the expression of SREBP1c and Δ-desaturase genes. Adult male rats received 30% sucrose solution for 20 weeks (Sucrose group), or plain water (Control group). After the 20th week of sucrose treatment, the Sucrose group showed permanent hyperglycemia. Sucrose treatment also increased the amount of total lipids and fatty acids in the brain. The brain fatty acid profile of total lipids as well as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin of the Sucrose group was extensively changed. The most interesting change was a significant decrease in n6 fatty acids, including the important arachidonic acid, whereas the content of oleic and docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. RT-qPCR revealed an increase in Δ-5-desaturase and SREBP1c gene expression. In conclusion, high sucrose intake via drinking water extensively changes rat brain fatty acid profile by decreasing n6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. In contrast, the content of docosahexaenoic acid remains constant in the brain total lipids as well as in phospholipids. Changes in the brain fatty acid profile reflect changes in the lipid metabolism of the rat lipogenic tissues and concentrations in the circulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation of the fundamentals of ablative TPS materials for a short course at TFAWS 2017. It gives an overall description of what an ablator is, the equations that define it, and how to model it.

  15. Advanced Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Early NASA missions (Gemini, Apollo, Mars Viking) employed new ablative TPS that were tailored for the entry environment. After 40 years, heritage ablative TPS materials using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for future exploration missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable any subsequent human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. This poster summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid/conformable and flexible ablators that could potentially be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular the effort focuses technologies required to land heavy (approx.40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate future exploration plans.

  16. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid and ascorbate on peroxidation of retinal membranes of ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Ye; Sekine, Seiji; Saito, Morio

    2003-04-01

    Mutant male osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats, unable to synthesize ascorbic acid, were fed diets containing a high content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and different amounts of ascorbic acid, to study the effect of DHA on peroxidative susceptibility of the retina and possible antioxidant action of ascorbic acid. ODS rats were fed from 7 weeks of age with diets containing high DHA (6.4% of total energy). A control group received a diet high in linoleic acid. The diets also contained varying amounts of ascorbic acid. Fatty acid compositions and phospholipid hydroperoxides in rod outer segment (ROS) membranes, and retinal ascorbic acid were analyzed. DHA in ROS membranes was significantly increased in rats fed high DHA, compared with the linoleic acid diet. Levels of phospholipid hydroperoxides in the DHA-fed rats were significantly higher than the linoleic acid-fed rats. Ascorbic acid supplementation did not suppress the phospholipid hydroperoxide levels after a high DHA diet, even when the supplement increased the content of retinal ascorbic acid. In conclusion, high DHA feeding induced a marked increase of phospholipid hydroperoxides in ROS membranes of ODS rats. Supplementation of ascorbic acid did not reverse this increase.

  17. Differential incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid into distinct cholesterol-rich membrane raft domains.

    PubMed

    Duraisamy, Yasotha; Lambert, Daniel; O'Neill, Catherine A; Padfield, Philip J

    2007-09-07

    We investigated the influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the fatty acid and protein compositions of two populations of membrane rafts present in Caco-2 cells. DHA (100 microM) had no significant influence on the fatty acid or protein compositions of tight junction-associated, Lubrol insoluble, membrane rafts. However, DHA did significantly alter the fatty acid and protein compositions of "archetypal" Triton X-100 insoluble membrane rafts. The DHA content of the raft lipids increased 25-fold and was accompanied by a redistribution of src and fyn out of the rafts. DHA also increased Caco-2 cell monolayer permeability producing a 95% drop in transepithelial electrical resistance and a 8.56-fold increase in the flux of dextran. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that DHA does not increase permeability through modifying the TJ-associated rafts. The data do, however, show that DHA is differentially incorporated into different classes of membrane rafts, which has significant implications to our understanding of how omega-3 PUFAs modulate plasma membrane organization and cell function.

  18. Genetic Ablation of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ Prevents Obesity and Insulin Resistance during High Fat Feeding by Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Increased Adipocyte Fatty Acid Oxidation*

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, David J.; Sims, Harold F.; Yang, Kui; Kiebish, Michael A.; Su, Xiong; Jenkins, Christopher M.; Guan, Shaoping; Moon, Sung Ho; Pietka, Terri; Nassir, Fatiha; Schappe, Timothy; Moore, Kristin; Han, Xianlin; Abumrad, Nada A.; Gross, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipases are critical enzyme mediators participating in many aspects of cellular function through modulating the generation of lipid 2nd messengers, membrane physical properties, and cellular bioenergetics. Here, we demonstrate that mice null for calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ−/−) are completely resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain, adipocyte hypertrophy, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance, which occur in iPLA2γ+/+ mice after high fat feeding. Notably, iPLA2γ−/− mice were lean, demonstrated abdominal lipodystrophy, and remained insulin-sensitive despite having a marked impairment in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion after high fat feeding. Respirometry of adipocyte explants from iPLA2γ−/− mice identified increased rates of oxidation of multiple different substrates in comparison with adipocyte explants from wild-type littermates. Shotgun lipidomics of adipose tissue from wild-type mice demonstrated the anticipated 2-fold increase in triglyceride content after high fat feeding. In sharp contrast, the adipocyte triglyceride content was identical in iPLA2γ−/− mice fed either a standard diet or a high fat diet. Respirometry of skeletal muscle mitochondria from iPLA2γ−/− mice demonstrated marked decreases in state 3 respiration using multiple substrates whose metabolism was uncoupled from ATP production. Shotgun lipidomics of skeletal muscle revealed a decreased content of cardiolipin with an altered molecular species composition thereby identifying the mechanism underlying mitochondrial uncoupling in the iPLA2γ−/− mouse. Collectively, these results identify iPLA2γ as an obligatory upstream enzyme that is necessary for efficient electron transport chain coupling and energy production through its participation in the alterations of cellular bioenergetics that promote the development of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20817734

  19. Docosahexaenoic Acid Inhibits Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yoo Kyung; Lee, Sle; Lim, Joo Weon

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important regulator in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Reactive oxygen species induce activation of inflammatory cascades, inflammatory cell recruitment, and tissue damage. NF-κB regulates inflammatory cytokine gene expression, which induces an acute, edematous form of pancreatitis. Protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) activates NF-κB as shown in a mouse model of cerulein-induced AP. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 fatty acid, exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in various cells and tissues. This study investigated whether DHA inhibits cerulein-induced AP in rats by assessing pancreatic edema, myeloperoxidase activity, levels of lipid peroxide and IL-6, activation of NF-κB and PKCδ, and by histologic observation. AP was induced by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of cerulein (50 μg/kg) every hour for 7 h. DHA (13 mg/kg) was administered i.p. for three days before AP induction. Pretreatment with DHA reduced cerulein-induced activation of NF-κB, PKCδ, and IL-6 in pancreatic tissues of rats. DHA suppressed pancreatic edema and decreased the abundance of lipid peroxide, myeloperoxidase activity, and inflammatory cell infiltration into the pancreatic tissues of cerulein-stimulated rats. Therefore, DHA may help prevent the development of pancreatitis by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and PKCδ, expression of IL-6, and oxidative damage to the pancreas. PMID:28704954

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid and the Aging Brain1–3

    PubMed Central

    Lukiw, Walter J.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2008-01-01

    The dietary essential PUFA docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)] is a critical contributor to cell structure and function in the nervous system, and deficits in DHA abundance are associated with cognitive decline during aging and in neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies underscore the importance of DHA-derived neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) in the homeostatic regulation of brain cell survival and repair involving neurotrophic, antiapoptotic and antiinflammatory signaling. Emerging evidence suggests that NPD1 synthesis is activated by growth factors and neurotrophins. Evolving research indicates that NPD1 has important determinant and regulatory interactions with the molecular-genetic mechanisms affecting β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) and amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide neurobiology. Deficits in DHA or its peroxidation appear to contribute to inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer disease (AD), a common and progressive age-related neurological disorder unique to structures and processes of the human brain. This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the interactions of DHA and NPD1 on βAPP processing and Aβ peptide signaling and how this contributes to oxidative and pathogenic processes characteristic of aging and AD pathology. PMID:19022980

  1. Molecular Organization of Cholesterol in Docosahexaenoate-Rich Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassall, Stephen R.; Brzustowicz, Michael R.; Cherezov, Vadim; Caffrey, Martin; Zerouga, Mustapha; Stillwell, William

    2002-03-01

    We investigated the molecular organization of cholesterol in 1,2-didocosahexaenoylphosphatidylcholine (22:6-22:6PC) and 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoylphosphatidylcholine (18:0-22:6PC) bilayers. The solubility of the sterol measured by wide-angle x-ray diffraction was < 20 mol% in 22:6-22:6PC bilayers which contrasts with > 50 mol% in 18:0-22:6PC. Solid state ^2H NMR of [3α-^2H_1]cholesterol suggests that the reduction in solubility correlates with a larger tilt angle α0 = 24^o for the steroid moiety in 22:6-22:6PC bilayers than in 18:0-22:6PC where α0 < 24^o. We attribute the low solubility of cholesterol in 22:6-22:6PC membranes to steric incompatibility between the rigid steroid moiety and the highly polyunsaturated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) chain, which has the potential to promote lateral heterogeneity within neural membranes rich in DHA and has implications for receptor activation.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid confers enduring neuroprotection in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Ha; Belayev, Ludmila; Khoutorova, Larissa; Obenaus, Andre; Bazan, Nicolas G

    2014-03-15

    Recently we demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is highly neuroprotective when animals were allowed to survive during one week. This study was conducted to establish whether the neuroprotection induced by DHA persists with chronic survival. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 2h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated with DHA or saline at 3h after MCAo. Animals received neurobehavioral examination (composite neuroscore, rota-rod, beam walking and Y maze tests) followed by ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology at 3 weeks. DHA improved composite neurologic score beginning on day 1 by 20%, which persisted throughout weeks 1-3 by 24-41% compared to the saline-treated group. DHA prolonged the latency in rota-rod on weeks 2-3 by 162-178%, enhanced balance performance in the beam walking test on weeks 1 and 2 by 42-51%, and decreased the number of entries in the Y maze test by 51% and spontaneous alteration by 53% on week 2 compared to the saline-treated group. DHA treatment reduced tissue loss (computed from T2-weighted images) by 24% and total and cortical infarct volumes by 46% and 54% compared to the saline-treated group. These results show that DHA confers enduring ischemic neuroprotection. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prenatal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and infant morbidity: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Imhoff-Kunsch, Beth; Stein, Aryeh D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Parra-Cabrera, Socorro; Romieu, Isabelle; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2011-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) influence immune function and inflammation; however, the influence of maternal DHA supplementation on infant morbidity is unknown. We investigated the effects of prenatal DHA supplementation on infant morbidity. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in Mexico, pregnant women received daily supplementation with 400 mg of DHA or placebo from 18 to 22 weeks' gestation through parturition. In infants aged 1, 3, and 6 months, caregivers reported the occurrence of common illness symptoms in the preceding 15 days. Data were available at 1, 3, and 6 months for 849, 834, and 834 infants, respectively. The occurrence of specific illness symptoms did not differ between groups; however, the occurrence of a combined measure of cold symptoms was lower in the DHA group at 1 month (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-1.00). At 1 month, the DHA group experienced 26%, 15%, and 30% shorter duration of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, respectively, but 22% longer duration of rash (all P ≤ .01). At 3 months, infants in the DHA group spent 14% less time ill (P < .0001). At 6 months, infants in the DHA group experienced 20%, 13%, 54%, 23%, and 25% shorter duration of fever, nasal secretion, difficulty breathing, rash, and "other illness," respectively, but 74% longer duration of vomiting (all P < .05). DHA supplementation during pregnancy decreased the occurrence of colds in children at 1 month and influenced illness symptom duration at 1, 3, and 6 months.

  4. Phloridzin docosahexaenoate, a novel flavonoid derivative, suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Arumuggam, Niroshaathevi; Melong, Nicole; Too, Catherine Kl; Berman, Jason N; Rupasinghe, Hp Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    The overall clinical outcome in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) can be improved by minimizing risk for treatment failure using effective pharmacological adjuvants. Phloridzin (PZ), a flavonoid precursor found in apple peels, was acylated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) yielding a novel ester known as phloridzin docosahexaenoate (PZ-DHA). Here, we have studied the cytotoxic effects of PZ-DHA on human leukemia cells using in vitro and in vivo models. The inhibitory effects of PZ-DHA were tested on human Jurkat T-ALL cells in comparison to K562 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells and non-malignant murine T-cells. PZ-DHA, not PZ or DHA alone, reduced cell viability and ATP levels, increased intracellular LDH release, and caused extensive morphological alterations in both Jurkat and K562 cells. PZ-DHA also inhibited cell proliferation, and selectively induced apoptosis in Jurkat and K562 cells while sparing normal murine T-cells. The cytotoxic effects of PZ-DHA on Jurkat cells were associated with caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and selective down-regulation of STAT3 phosphorylation. PZ-DHA significantly inhibited Jurkat cell proliferation in zebrafish larvae; however, the proliferation of K562 cells was not affected in vivo . We propose that PZ-DHA-induced cytotoxic response is selective towards T-ALL in the presence of a tumor-stromal microenvironment. Prospective studies evaluating the combinatorial effects of PZ-DHA with conventional chemotherapy for T-ALL are underway.

  5. Pulsed Tm:YAG laser ablation of knee joint tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Qiang; Vari, Sandor G.; Duffy, J. T.; Miller, J. M.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1992-06-01

    We investigated the effect of a free-running 2.01 micron pulsed Tm:YAG laser on bovine knee joint tissues. Ablation rates of fresh fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and bone were measured in saline as a function of laser fluence (160 - 640 J/cm2) and fiber core size (400 and 600 microns). All tissues could be effectively ablated and the ablation rate increased linearly with the increasing fluence. Use of fibers of different core sizes, while maintaining constant energy fluence, did not result in significant difference in ablation rate. Histology analyses of the ablated tissue samples reveal average Tm:YAG radiation induced thermal damage (denatunalization) zones ranging between 130 and 540 microns, depending on the laser parameters and the tissue type.

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid Protects from Dendritic Pathology in an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Calon, Frédéric; Lim, Giselle P.; Yang, Fusheng; Morihara, Takashi; Teter, Bruce; Ubeda, Oliver; Rostaing, Phillippe; Triller, Antoine; Salem, Norman; Ashe, Karen H.; Frautschy, Sally A.; Cole, Greg M.

    2005-01-01

    Learning and memory depend on dendritic spine actin assembly and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PFA). High DHA consumption is associated with reduced Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk, yet mechanisms and therapeutic potential remain elusive. Here, we report that reduction of dietary n-3 PFA in an AD mouse model resulted in 80%–90% losses of the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the postsynaptic actin-regulating protein drebrin, as in AD brain. The loss of postsynaptic proteins was associated with increased oxidation, without concomitant neuron or pre-synaptic protein loss. N-3 PFA depletion increased caspase-cleaved actin, which was localized in dendrites ultrastructurally. Treatment of n-3 PFA-restricted mice with DHA protected against these effects and behavioral deficits and increased antiapoptotic BAD phosphorylation. Since n-3 PFAs are essential for p85-mediated CNS insulin signaling and selective protection of postsynaptic proteins, these findings have implications for neurodegenerative diseases where synaptic loss is critical, especially AD. PMID:15339646

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid protects from dendritic pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Calon, Frédéric; Lim, Giselle P; Yang, Fusheng; Morihara, Takashi; Teter, Bruce; Ubeda, Oliver; Rostaing, Phillippe; Triller, Antoine; Salem, Norman; Ashe, Karen H; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Greg M

    2004-09-02

    Learning and memory depend on dendritic spine actin assembly and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PFA). High DHA consumption is associated with reduced Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, yet mechanisms and therapeutic potential remain elusive. Here, we report that reduction of dietary n-3 PFA in an AD mouse model resulted in 80%-90% losses of the p85alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the postsynaptic actin-regulating protein drebrin, as in AD brain. The loss of postsynaptic proteins was associated with increased oxidation, without concomitant neuron or presynaptic protein loss. n-3 PFA depletion increased caspase-cleaved actin, which was localized in dendrites ultrastructurally. Treatment of n-3 PFA-restricted mice with DHA protected against these effects and behavioral deficits and increased antiapoptotic BAD phosphorylation. Since n-3 PFAs are essential for p85-mediated CNS insulin signaling and selective protection of postsynaptic proteins, these findings have implications for neurodegenerative diseases where synaptic loss is critical, especially AD.

  8. The Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Jacqueline K.; Calder, Philip C.

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%. Eighteen identified articles were included, corresponding to six unique studies involving 527 participants. Both EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride concentration, with DHA having a greater triglyceride-lowering effect. Whilst total cholesterol levels were largely unchanged by EPA and DHA, DHA increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, particularly HDL2, and increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration and LDL particle size. Both EPA and DHA inhibited platelet activity, whilst DHA improved vascular function and lowered heart rate and blood pressure to a greater extent than EPA. The effects of EPA and DHA on inflammatory markers and glycaemic control were inconclusive; however both lowered oxidative stress. Thus, EPA and DHA appear to have differential effects on cardiometabolic risk factors, but these need to be confirmed by larger clinical studies. PMID:29425187

  9. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Soni, Nikul K; Ross, Alastair B; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-09-03

    Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM). Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD) with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (HFD-ED), a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4) protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation.

  10. Synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid from eicosapentaenoic acid in retina neurons protects photoreceptors from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Simón, María Victoria; Agnolazza, Daniela L.; German, Olga Lorena; Garelli, Andrés; Politi, Luis E.; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Anderson, Robert E.; Rotstein, Nora P.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in activating photoreceptor death in several retinal degenerations. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in the retina, protects cultured retina photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and promotes photoreceptor differentiation. Here we investigated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a metabolic precursor to DHA, had similar effects and whether retinal neurons could metabolize EPA to DHA. Adding EPA to rat retina neuronal cultures increased opsin expression and protected photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by the oxidants paraquat (PQ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Palmitic, oleic, and arachidonic acids had no protective effect, showing the specificity for DHA. We found that EPA supplementation significantly increased DHA percentage in retinal neurons, but not EPA percentage. Photoreceptors and glial cells expressed Δ6 desaturase (FADS2), which introduces the last double bond in DHA biosynthetic pathway. Pre-treatment of neuronal cultures with CP-24879 hydrochloride, a Δ5/Δ6 desaturase inhibitor, prevented EPA-induced increase in DHA percentage and completely blocked EPA protection and its effect on photoreceptor differentiation. These results suggest that EPA promoted photoreceptor differentiation and rescued photoreceptors from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through its elongation and desaturation to DHA. Our data show, for the first time, that isolated retinal neurons can synthesize DHA in culture. PMID:26662863

  11. Long-Term Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Bound Phospholipids and the Combination of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Bound Triglyceride and Egg Yolk Phospholipid on Lipid Metabolism in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Hongxia; Cui, Jie; Wen, Min; Xu, Jie; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Wang, Qi; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2018-04-01

    The bioavailability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depends on their chemical forms. This study investigated the long-term effects of DHA-bound triglyceride (TG-DHA), DHA-bound phospholipid (PL-DHA), and the combination of TG-DHA and egg yolk phospholipid (Egg-PL) on lipid metabolism in mice fed with a high-fat diet (fat levels of 22.5%). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with different formulations containing 0.5% DHA, including TG-DHA, PL-DHA, and the combination of TG-DHA and Egg-PL, for 6 weeks. Serum, hepatic, and cerebral lipid concentrations and the fatty acid compositions of the liver and brain were determined. The concentrations of serum total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and hepatic TG in the PL-DHA group and the combination group were significantly lower than those in the high-fat (HF) group ( P < 0.05). Atherogenic index (AI) of the PL-DHA group was significantly lower than that of the combination group ( P < 0.05). Hepatic TC level in the combination group was significantly lower than that in the HF group ( P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the combination group and the PL-DHA group. Both the PL-DHA and the combination groups showed significantly increased DHA levels in the liver compared with the HF group ( P < 0.05). However, there were no obvious increases in the cerebral DHA levels in all DHA diet groups. These results suggest that PL-DHA was superior to the combination of TG-DHA and Egg-PL in decreasing the AI. Long-term dietary supplementation with low amount of DHA (0.5%) may improve hepatic DHA levels, although cerebral DHA levels may not be enhanced.

  12. Biophysics and clinical utility of irrigated-tip radiofrequency catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Houmsse, Mahmoud; Daoud, Emile G

    2012-01-01

    Catheter ablation by radiofrequency (RF) energy has successfully eliminated cardiac tachyarrhythmias. RF ablation lesions are created by thermal energy. Electrode catheters with 4-mm-tips have been adequate to ablate arrhythmias located near the endocardium; however, the 4-mm-tip electrode does not readily ablate deeper tachyarrhythmia substrate. With 8- and 10-mm-tip RF electrodes, ablation lesions were larger; yet, these catheters are associated with increased risk for coagulum, char and thrombus formation, as well as myocardial steam rupture. Cooled-tip catheter technology was designed to cool the electrode tip, prevent excessive temperatures at the electrode tip-tissue interface, and thus allow continued delivery of RF current into the surrounding tissue. This ablation system creates larger and deeper ablation lesions and minimizes steam pops and thrombus formation. The purpose of this article is to review cooled-tip RF ablation biophysics and outcomes of clinical studies as well as to discuss future technological improvements.

  13. Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Sarter, Barbara; Kelsey, Kristine S; Schwartz, Todd A; Harris, William S

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that vegetarians and vegans have much lower plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) when compared to those who eat fish. The purposes of this study were 1) to define the age and/or sex-specific docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids levels in red blood cell membranes (expressed as a percent of total fatty acids; hereafter the omega-3 index) in long-term vegans, and 2) to determine the effects of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement (254 mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids/day for 4 months) on the omega-3 index. A sample (n = 165) of vegans was recruited, and their omega-3 index was determined using a dried blood spot methodology. A subset of 46 subjects with a baseline omega-3 index of <4% was given a vegetarian omega-3 supplement for 4 months and then retested. The mean ± SD omega-3 index was 3.7 ± 1.0% which was similar to that of a cohort of omnivores (deployed US soldiers) from a recently-reported study. Among the vegan cohort, the index was significantly higher in females than males (3.9 ± 1.0% vs. 3.5 ± 1.0%; p = 0.026) and was directly related to age (p for trend = 0.009). The omega-3 index increased from 3.1 ± 0.6% to 4.8 ± 0.8% (p = 0.009) in the supplementation study. We conclude that vegans have low baseline omega-3 levels, but not lower than omnivores who also consume very little docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The vegans responded robustly to a relatively low dose of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10-20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode.

  15. Modeling topology formation during laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodapp, T. W.; Fleming, P. R.

    1998-07-01

    Micromachining high aspect-ratio structures can be accomplished through ablation of surfaces with high-powered lasers. Industrial manufacturers now use these methods to form complex and regular surfaces at the 10-1000 μm feature size range. Despite its increasingly wide acceptance on the manufacturing floor, the underlying photochemistry of the ablation mechanism, and hence the dynamics of the machining process, is still a question of considerable debate. We have constructed a computer model to investigate and predict the topological formation of ablated structures. Qualitative as well as quantitative agreement with excimer-laser machined polyimide substrates has been demonstrated. This model provides insights into the drilling process for high-aspect-ratio holes.

  16. Performance of Conformable Ablators in Aerothermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, J.; Fan, W.; Skokova, K.; Stackpoole, M.; Beck, R.; Chavez-Garcia, J.

    2012-01-01

    Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICAs performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.

  17. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, W. II; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10--20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode. 12 figs.

  18. Modelling ultrafast laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rethfeld, Baerbel; Ivanov, Dmitriy S.; E Garcia, Martin; Anisimov, Sergei I.

    2017-05-01

    This review is devoted to the study of ultrafast laser ablation of solids and liquids. The ablation of condensed matter under exposure to subpicosecond laser pulses has a number of peculiar properties which distinguish this process from ablation induced by nanosecond and longer laser pulses. The process of ultrafast ablation includes light absorption by electrons in the skin layer, energy transfer from the skin layer to target interior by nonlinear electronic heat conduction, relaxation of the electron and ion temperatures, ultrafast melting, hydrodynamic expansion of heated matter accompanied by the formation of metastable states and subsequent formation of breaks in condensed matter. In case of ultrashort laser excitation, these processes are temporally separated and can thus be studied separately. As for energy absorption, we consider peculiarities of the case of metal irradiation in contrast to dielectrics and semiconductors. We discuss the energy dissipation processes of electronic thermal wave and lattice heating. Different types of phase transitions after ultrashort laser pulse irradiation as melting, vaporization or transitions to warm dense matter are discussed. Also nonthermal phase transitions, directly caused by the electronic excitation before considerable lattice heating, are considered. The final material removal occurs from the physical point of view as expansion of heated matter; here we discuss approaches of hydrodynamics, as well as molecular dynamic simulations directly following the atomic movements. Hybrid approaches tracing the dynamics of excited electrons, energy dissipation and structural dynamics in a combined simulation are reviewed as well.

  19. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida for production of docosahexaenoic acid based on a myxobacterial PUFA synthase.

    PubMed

    Gemperlein, Katja; Zipf, Gregor; Bernauer, Hubert S; Müller, Rolf; Wenzel, Silke C

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) can be produced de novo via polyketide synthase-like enzymes known as PUFA synthases, which are encoded by pfa biosynthetic gene clusters originally discovered from marine microorganisms. Recently similar gene clusters were detected and characterized in terrestrial myxobacteria revealing several striking differences. As the identified myxobacterial producers are difficult to handle genetically and grow very slowly we aimed to establish heterologous expression platforms for myxobacterial PUFA synthases. Here we report the heterologous expression of the pfa gene cluster from Aetherobacter fasciculatus (SBSr002) in the phylogenetically distant model host bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida. The latter host turned out to be the more promising PUFA producer revealing higher production rates of n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). After several rounds of genetic engineering of expression plasmids combined with metabolic engineering of P. putida, DHA production yields were eventually increased more than threefold. Additionally, we applied synthetic biology approaches to redesign and construct artificial versions of the A. fasciculatus pfa gene cluster, which to the best of our knowledge represents the first example of a polyketide-like biosynthetic gene cluster modulated and synthesized for P. putida. Combination with the engineering efforts described above led to a further increase in LC-PUFA production yields. The established production platform based on synthetic DNA now sets the stage for flexible engineering of the complex PUFA synthase. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid alleviates autistic-like behaviors resulting from maternal immune activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Michael J; Mucha, Brittany; Denheyer, Heather; Atkinson, Devon; Schanz, Norman; Vassiliou, Evros; Benno, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders over the last several decades has risen at an alarming rate. Factors such as broadened clinical definitions and increased parental age only partially account for this precipitous increase, suggesting that recent changes in environmental factors may also be responsible. One such factor could be the dramatic decrease in consumption of anti-inflammatory dietary omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relative to the amount of pro-inflammatory omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and saturated fats in the Western diet. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principle n-3 PUFA found in neural tissue and is important for optimal brain development, especially during late gestation when DHA rapidly and preferentially accumulates in the brain. In this study, we tested whether supplementation of a low n-3 PUFA diet with DHA throughout development could improve measures related to autism in a mouse model of maternal immune activation. We found that dietary DHA protected offspring from the deleterious effects of gestational exposure to the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid on behavioral measures of autism and subsequent adulthood immune system reactivity. These data suggest that elevated dietary levels of DHA, especially during pregnancy and nursing, may help protect normal neurodevelopment from the potentially adverse consequences of environmental insults like maternal infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of culture conditions on growth and docosahexaenoic acid production from Schizochytrium limacinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Luying; Zhang, Xuecheng; Ren, Xueying; Zhu, Qinghua

    2008-02-01

    The effects of temperature, initial pH, salinity of culture medium, and carbon and nitrogen sources on growth and docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6 n-3, DHA) production from Schizochytrium limacinum OUC88 were investigated in the present study. The results revealed that the optimal temperature, initial pH and salinity level of the medium for DHA production were 23°C, 7.0 and 18, respectively. Glucose was proved the best carbon source for the growth and DHA production from S. limacinum. Among the nitrogen sources tested, soybean cake hydrolysate, a cheap by-product, was found to be effective for the accumulation of DHA in S. limacinum cells. In addition, increasing the concentration of carbon sources in the medium caused a significant increase in cell biomass; however, accumulation of DHA in cells was mainly stimulated by the ratio of C/N in the medium. Under the optimal culture conditions, the maximum DHA yield achieved in flasks was 4.08 g L-1 after 5 d of cultivation.

  2. Regulation of docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp.: effect of nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lu-Jing; Sun, Li-Na; Zhuang, Xiao-Yan; Qu, Liang; Ji, Xiao-Jun; Huang, He

    2014-05-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) percentage in total fatty acids (TFAs) is an important index in DHA microbial production. In this study, the change of DHA percentage in response to fermentation stages and the strategies to increase DHA percentage were investigated. Two kinds of conventional nitrogen sources, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and ammonium sulfate (AS), were tested to regulate DHA synthesis. Results showed that MSG addition could accelerate the substrate consumption rate but inhibit lipid accumulation, while AS addition could increase DHA percentage in TFAs effectively but extend fermentation period slightly. Finally, the AS addition strategy was successfully applied in 7,000-L fermentor and DHA percentage in TFAs and DHA yield reached 46.06 % and 18.48 g/L, which was 19.54 and 17.41 % higher than that of no-addition strategy. This would provide guidance for the large-scale production of the other similar polyunsaturated fatty acid, and give insight into the nitrogen metabolism in oil-producing microorganisms.

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy Modulates Placental Cellular Signaling and Nutrient Transport Capacity in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Acosta, Ometeotl; Meireles, Christiane; Miller, Evelyn; Gaccioli, Francesca; Rosario, Fredrick J; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Hakala, Kevin; Weintraub, Susan T; Krummel, Debra A; Powell, Theresa L

    2017-12-01

    Maternal obesity in pregnancy has profound impacts on maternal metabolism and promotes placental nutrient transport, which may contribute to fetal overgrowth in these pregnancies. The fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has bioactive properties that may improve outcomes in obese pregnant women by modulating placental function. To determine the effects of DHA supplementation in obese pregnant women on maternal metabolism and placental function. Pregnant women were supplemented with DHA or placebo. Maternal fasting blood was collected at 26 and 36 weeks' gestation, and placentas were collected at term. Academic health care institution. Thirty-eight pregnant women with pregravid body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. DHA (800 mg, algal oil) or placebo (corn/soy oil) daily from 26 weeks to term. DHA content of maternal erythrocyte and placental membranes, maternal fasting blood glucose, cytokines, metabolic hormones, and circulating lipids were determined. Insulin, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling were assessed in placental homogenates, and nutrient transport capacity was determined in isolated syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes. DHA supplementation increased erythrocyte (P < 0.0001) and placental membrane DHA levels (P < 0.0001) but did not influence maternal inflammatory status, insulin sensitivity, or lipids. DHA supplementation decreased placental inflammation, amino acid transporter expression, and activity (P < 0.01) and increased placental protein expression of fatty acid transporting protein 4 (P < 0.05). Maternal DHA supplementation in pregnancy decreases placental inflammation and differentially modulates placental nutrient transport capacity and may mitigate adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  4. Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Nalin; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2012-01-01

    Marine-based fish and fish oil are the most popular and well-known sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These n-3 PUFAs are known to have variety of health benefits against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including well-established hypotriglyceridemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Also, various studies indicate promising antihypertensive, anticancer, antioxidant, antidepression, antiaging, and antiarthritis effects. Moreover, recent studies also indicate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of these fatty acids in metabolic disorders. Classically, n-3 PUFAs mediate some of these effects by antagonizing n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid)-induced proinflammatory prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) formation. Another well-known mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs impart their anti-inflammatory effects is via reduction of nuclear factor-κB activation. This transcription factor is a potent inducer of proinflammatory cytokine production, including interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, both of which are decreased by EPA and DHA. Other evidence also demonstrates that n-3 PUFAs repress lipogenesis and increase resolvins and protectin generation, ultimately leading to reduced inflammation. Finally, beneficial effects of EPA and DHA in insulin resistance include their ability to increase secretion of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. In summary, n-3 PUFAs have multiple health benefits mediated at least in part by their anti-inflammatory actions; thus their consumption, especially from dietary sources, should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Investigation of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Hat-Type Ablation Mode

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hongya; Chen, Fei; Yan, Sijing; Ding, Xiaoya; Ma, Dazhao; Wen, Jing; Xu, Die; Zou, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the application of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) hat-type ablation mode in in vitro and in vivo models, and to compare the ablation effects of different parameter combinations. Material/Methods HIFU hat-type ablation was performed in isolated bovine liver tissue and in the liver tissue in living rabbits, and the coagulative necrosis for different parameter combinations (plane angles and irradiation order) was investigated. We also analyzed and compared the ablation effects of traditional ablation and hat-type ablation modes. Coagulative necrosis morphology was detected with TTC staining, and the coagulative necrosis volume and energy efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated and compared. Results Coagulative necrosis was observed in all the ablated groups, and the coagulative necrosis volume was much larger than the irradiation area. The coagulative necrosis induced by the hat-type ablation was more regular and controllable than the traditional ablation. The angles between the ablation planes determined the coagulative necrosis morphology, but did not affect the coagulative necrosis volume. Moreover, the irradiation order significantly influenced the coagulative necrosis. Importantly, under certain conditions, hat-type ablation achieved higher efficiency compared with the traditional ablation mode. Conclusions Compared with the traditional ablation mode, HIFU hat-type ablation effectively shortened the irradiation time, reduced the over-accumulation of energy, and increased the HIFU ablation efficiency. PMID:28699626

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Investigation of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Hat-Type Ablation Mode.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongya; Chen, Fei; Yan, Sijing; Ding, Xiaoya; Ma, Dazhao; Wen, Jing; Xu, Die; Zou, Jianzhong

    2017-07-12

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the application of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) hat-type ablation mode in in vitro and in vivo models, and to compare the ablation effects of different parameter combinations. MATERIAL AND METHODS HIFU hat-type ablation was performed in isolated bovine liver tissue and in the liver tissue in living rabbits, and the coagulative necrosis for different parameter combinations (plane angles and irradiation order) was investigated. We also analyzed and compared the ablation effects of traditional ablation and hat-type ablation modes. Coagulative necrosis morphology was detected with TTC staining, and the coagulative necrosis volume and energy efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated and compared. RESULTS Coagulative necrosis was observed in all the ablated groups, and the coagulative necrosis volume was much larger than the irradiation area. The coagulative necrosis induced by the hat-type ablation was more regular and controllable than the traditional ablation. The angles between the ablation planes determined the coagulative necrosis morphology, but did not affect the coagulative necrosis volume. Moreover, the irradiation order significantly influenced the coagulative necrosis. Importantly, under certain conditions, hat-type ablation achieved higher efficiency compared with the traditional ablation mode. CONCLUSIONS Compared with the traditional ablation mode, HIFU hat-type ablation effectively shortened the irradiation time, reduced the over-accumulation of energy, and increased the HIFU ablation efficiency.

  7. Atriocaval Rupture After Right Atrial Isthmus Ablation for Atrial Flutter.

    PubMed

    Vloka, Caroline; Nelson, Daniel W; Wetherbee, Jule

    2016-06-01

    A patient with symptomatic typical atrial flutter (AFL) underwent right atrial isthmus ablation with an 8-mm catheter. Eight months later, his typical AFL recurred. Ten months later, he underwent a repeat right atrial isthmus ablation with an irrigated tip catheter and an 8-mm tip catheter. Six weeks after his second procedure, while performing intense sprint intervals on a treadmill, he developed an abrupt onset of chest pain, hypotension, and cardiac tamponade. He underwent emergency surgery to repair an atriocaval rupture and has done well since. Our report suggests that an association of multiple radiofrequency ablations with increased risk for delayed atriocaval rupture occurring 1 to 3 months after ablation. In conclusion, although patients generally were advised to limit exercise for 1 to 2 weeks after AFL ablation procedures in the past, it may be prudent to avoid intense exercise for at least 3 months after procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid affects arachidonic acid uptake in megakaryocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schick, P.K.; Webster, P.

    1987-05-01

    Dietary omega 3 fatty acids are thought to prevent atherosclerosis, possibly by modifying platelet (PT) function and arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism. The study was designed to determine whether omega 3 fatty acids primarily affect 20:4 metabolism in megakaryocytes (MK), bone marrow precursors of PT, rather than in circulating PT. MK and PT were isolated from guinea pigs and incubated with (/sup 14/C)-20:4 (0.13uM). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) is a major omega 3 fatty acid in marine oils. The incubation of MK with 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) resulted in the decrease of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into total MK phospholipids, 16% andmore » 41% respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), a major omega 3 fatty acid present in American diets, had no effect on 20:4 uptake in MK. 22:6 primarily affected the uptake of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in MK. In MK, 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) caused a decrease of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into PE, 21% and 55% respectively; a decrease into PS, 16% and 48% respectively; but only a decrease of 4% and 18%, respectively, into phosphatidylcholine; and a decrease of 3% and 21% into phosphatidylinositol 22:6 (3.0 uM) had no effect on the uptake of AA into PT phospholipids. The study shows that 22:6 has a selective effect on AA uptake in MK and that the acylation or transacylation of PE and PS are primarily affected. 22:6 and other marine omega 3 fatty acids appear to primarily affect megakaryocytes which may result in the production of platelets with abnormal content and compartmentalization of AA.« less

  9. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Infant Morbidity: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Imhoff-Kunsch, Beth; Stein, Aryeh D.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Parra-Cabrera, Socorro; Romieu, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) influence immune function and inflammation; however, the influence of maternal DHA supplementation on infant morbidity is unknown. We investigated the effects of prenatal DHA supplementation on infant morbidity. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in Mexico, pregnant women received daily supplementation with 400 mg of DHA or placebo from 18 to 22 weeks' gestation through parturition. In infants aged 1, 3, and 6 months, caregivers reported the occurrence of common illness symptoms in the preceding 15 days. RESULTS: Data were available at 1, 3, and 6 months for 849, 834, and 834 infants, respectively. The occurrence of specific illness symptoms did not differ between groups; however, the occurrence of a combined measure of cold symptoms was lower in the DHA group at 1 month (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58–1.00). At 1 month, the DHA group experienced 26%, 15%, and 30% shorter duration of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, respectively, but 22% longer duration of rash (all P ≤ .01). At 3 months, infants in the DHA group spent 14% less time ill (P < .0001). At 6 months, infants in the DHA group experienced 20%, 13%, 54%, 23%, and 25% shorter duration of fever, nasal secretion, difficulty breathing, rash, and “other illness,” respectively, but 74% longer duration of vomiting (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: DHA supplementation during pregnancy decreased the occurrence of colds in children at 1 month and influenced illness symptom duration at 1, 3, and 6 months. PMID:21807696

  10. Helicobacter pylori's cholesterol uptake impacts resistance to docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Correia, Marta; Casal, Susana; Vinagre, João; Seruca, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette; Machado, José C

    2014-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the world population and is associated with gastric cancer. We have previously demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid known for its anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects, directly inhibits H. pylori growth in vitro and in mice. Nevertheless, the concentration of DHA shown to reduce H. pylori mice gastric colonization was ineffective in vitro. Related to the auxotrophy of H. pylori for cholesterol, we hypothesize that other mechanisms, in addition to DHA direct antibacterial effect, must be responsible for the reduction of the infection burden. In the present study we investigated if DHA affects also H. pylori growth, by reducing the availability of membrane cholesterol in the epithelial cell for H. pylori uptake. Levels of cholesterol in gastric epithelial cells and of cholesteryl glucosides in H. pylori were determined by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The consequences of epithelial cells' cholesterol depletion on H. pylori growth were assessed in liquid cultures. We show that H. pylori uptakes cholesterol from epithelial cells. In addition, DHA lowers cholesterol levels in epithelial cells, decreases its de novo synthesis, leading to a lower synthesis of cholesteryl glucosides by H. pylori. A previous exposition of H. pylori to cholesterol influences the bacterium response to the direct inhibitory effect of DHA. Overall, our results suggest that a direct effect of DHA on H. pylori survival is modulated by its access to epithelial cell cholesterol, supporting the notion that cholesterol enhances the resistance of H. pylori. The cholesterol-dependent resistance of H. pylori to antimicrobial compounds raises new important aspects for the development of new anti-bacterial strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrafast dynamics of hard tissue ablation using fs-lasers.

    PubMed

    Domke, Matthias; Wick, Sebastian; Laible, Maike; Rapp, Stephan; Huber, Heinz P; Sroka, Ronald

    2018-05-29

    Several studies on hard tissue laser ablation demonstrated that ultrafast lasers enable precise material removal without thermal side effects. Although the principle ablation mechanisms have been thoroughly investigated, there are still open questions regarding the influence of material properties on transient dynamics. In this investigation, we applied pump-probe microscopy to record ablation dynamics of biomaterials with different tensile strengths (dentin, chicken bone, gallstone, kidney stones) at delay times between 1 ps and 10 μs. Transient reflectivity changes, pressure and shock wave velocities, and elastic constants were determined. The result revealed that absorption and excitation show the typical well-known transient behaviour of dielectric materials. We observed for all samples a photomechanical laser ablation process, where ultrafast expansion of the excited volume generates pressure waves leading to fragmentation around the excited region. Additionally, we identified tensile-strength-related differences in the size of ablated craters and ejected particles. The elastic constants derived were in agreement with literature values. In conclusion, pressure-wave-assisted material removal seems to be a general mechanism for hard tissue ablation with ultrafast lasers. This photomechanical process increases ablation efficiency and removes heated material, thus ultrafast laser ablation is of interest for clinical application where heating of the tissue must be avoided. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrafast laser ablation for targeted atherosclerotic plaque removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanvin, Thomas; Conkey, Donald B.; Descloux, Laurent; Frobert, Aurelien; Valentin, Jeremy; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Cook, Stéphane; Giraud, Marie-Noelle; Psaltis, Demetri

    2015-07-01

    Coronary artery disease, the main cause of heart disease, develops as immune cells and lipids accumulate into plaques within the coronary arterial wall. As a plaque grows, the tissue layer (fibrous cap) separating it from the blood flow becomes thinner and increasingly susceptible to rupturing and causing a potentially lethal thrombosis. The stabilization and/or treatment of atherosclerotic plaque is required to prevent rupturing and remains an unsolved medical problem. Here we show for the first time targeted, subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast laser pulses. Excised atherosclerotic mouse aortas were ablated with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. The physical damage was characterized with histological sections of the ablated atherosclerotic arteries from six different mice. The ultrafast ablation system was integrated with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for plaque-specific targeting and monitoring of the resulting ablation volume. We find that ultrafast ablation of plaque just below the surface is possible without causing damage to the fibrous cap, which indicates the potential use of ultrafast ablation for subsurface atherosclerotic plaque removal. We further demonstrate ex vivo subsurface ablation of a plaque volume through a catheter device with the high-energy ultrafast pulse delivered via hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

  13. Optical aberrations induced by subclinical decentrations of the ablation pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Kaemmerer, Maik; Riedel, Peter; Mierdel, Peter; Krinke, Hans-Eberhard; Seiler, Theo

    2000-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to study the effect of currently used ablation profiles along with eccentric ablations on the increase of higher order aberrations observed after PRK. Material and Methods: The optical aberrations of 10 eyes were tested before and after PRK. Refractive surgery was performed using a ArF-excimer laser system. In all cases, the ablation zone was 6 mm or larger. The spherical equivalent of the correction was ranging from -2.5 D to -6.0 D. The measured wavefront error was compared to numerical simulations done with the reduced eye model and currently used ablation profiles as well as compared with experimental results obtained from ablation on PMMA balls. Results: The aberration measurements result in a considerable change of the spherical- and coma-like wavefront errors. This result was in good correlation with the numerical simulations and the experimental results. Furthermore, it has been derived that the major contribution on the induced higher order aberrations are a result of the small decentration (less than 1.0 mm) of the ablation zone. Conclusions: Higher order spherical- and coma-like aberrations after PRK are mainly determined by the decentration of the ablation zone during laser refractive surgery. However, future laser systems should use efficient eye-tracking systems and aspherical ablation profiles to overcome this problem.

  14. Combined Supplementation of Choline and Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy Enhances Neurodevelopment of Fetal Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Thomas Rajarethnem, Huban; Megur Ramakrishna Bhat, Kumar; Jc, Malsawmzuali; Kumar Gopalkrishnan, Siva; Mugundhu Gopalram, Ramesh Babu; Rai, Kiranmai Sesappa

    2017-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for humans which plays an important role in structural integrity and signaling functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, highly enriched in cell membranes of the brain. Dietary intake of choline or DHA alone by pregnant mothers directly affects fetal brain development and function. But no studies show the efficacy of combined supplementation of choline and DHA on fetal neurodevelopment. The aim of the present study was to analyze fetal neurodevelopment on combined supplementation of pregnant dams with choline and DHA. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: normal control [NC], saline control [SC], choline [C], DHA, and C + DHA. Saline, choline, and DHA were given as supplements to appropriate groups of dams. NC dams were undisturbed during entire gestation. On postnatal day (PND) 40, brains were processed for Cresyl staining. Pups from choline or DHA supplemented group showed significant ( p < 0.05) increase in number of neurons in hippocampus when compared to the same in NC and SC groups. Moreover, pups from C + DHA supplemented group showed significantly higher number of neurons ( p < 0.001) in hippocampus when compared to the same in NC and SC groups. Thus combined supplementation of choline and DHA during normal pregnancy enhances fetal hippocampal neurodevelopment better than supplementation of choline or DHA alone.

  15. Omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid induces pyroptosis cell death in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pizato, Nathalia; Luzete, Beatriz Christina; Kiffer, Larissa Fernanda Melo Vasconcelos; Corrêa, Luís Henrique; de Oliveira Santos, Igor; Assumpção, José Antônio Fagundes; Ito, Marina Kiyomi; Magalhães, Kelly Grace

    2018-01-31

    The implication of inflammation in pathophysiology of several type of cancers has been under intense investigation. Omega-3 fatty acids can modulate inflammation and present anticancer effects, promoting cancer cell death. Pyroptosis is an inflammation related cell death and so far, the function of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pyroptosis cell death has not been described. This study investigated the role of DHA in triggering pyroptosis activation in breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were supplemented with DHA and inflammation cell death was analyzed. DHA-treated breast cancer cells triggered increased caspase-1and gasdermin D activation, enhanced IL-1β secretion, translocated HMGB1 towards the cytoplasm, and membrane pore formation when compared to untreated cells, suggesting DHA induces pyroptosis programmed cell death in breast cancer cells. Moreover, caspase-1 inhibitor (YVAD) could protect breast cancer cells from DHA-induced pyroptotic cell death. In addition, membrane pore formation showed to be a lysosomal damage and ROS formation-depended event in breast cancer cells. DHA triggered pyroptosis cell death in MDA-MB-231by activating several pyroptosis markers in these cells. This is the first study that shows the effect of DHA triggering pyroptosis programmed cell death in breast cancer cells and it could improve the understanding of the omega-3 supplementation during breast cancer treatment.

  16. Liquid human milk fortifier significantly improves docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid status in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Berseth, C L; Harris, C L; Wampler, J L; Hoffman, D R; Diersen-Schade, D A

    2014-09-01

    We report the fatty acid composition of mother׳s own human milk from one of the largest US cohorts of lactating mothers of preterm infants. Milk fatty acid data were used as a proxy for intake at enrollment in infants (n=150) who received human milk with a powder human milk fortifier (HMF; Control) or liquid HMF [LHMF; provided additional 12mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 20mg arachidonic acid (ARA)/100mL human milk]. Mothers provided milk samples (n=129) and reported maternal DHA consumption (n=128). Infant blood samples were drawn at study completion (Study Day 28). Human milk and infant PPL fatty acids were analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography. DHA and ARA were within ranges previously published for US term and preterm human milk. Compared to Control HMF (providing no DHA or ARA), human milk fortified with LHMF significantly increased infant PPL DHA and ARA and improved preterm infant DHA and ARA status. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Curcumin and docosahexaenoic acid block insulin-induced colon carcinoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Jenifer I; McCaskey, Sarah J

    2013-03-01

    Diets high in fish and curcumin are associated with a decreased risk of CRC. Insulin resistance and obesity are associated with increased CRC risk and higher reoccurrence rates. We utilized cell culture to determine if dietary compounds could reduce insulin-induced cell proliferation comparing the response in normal and metastatic colon epithelial cells. We treated model normal murine colon epithelial cells (YAMC) and adenocarcinoma cells (MC38) with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or curcumin alone and then co-treatments of the diet-derived compound and insulin were combined. Cell proliferation was stimulated with insulin (1 ug/mL) to model insulin resistance in obesity. Despite the presence of insulin, proliferation was reduced in the MC38 cells treated with 10 μM curcumin (p<0.001) and 50 μM DHA (p<0.001). Insulin stimulated MAPK and MEK phosphorylation was inhibited by DHA and curcumin in MC38 cancer cells. Here we show that curcumin and DHA can block insulin-induced colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro via a MEK mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower docosahexaenoic acid in men with pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Mincke, Elda; Cosyns, Paul; Christophe, Armand B; De Vriese, Stephanie; Maes, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that abnormalities in plasma phospholipid fatty acids may play a role in aggressive behavior. Recently, it was suggested that a dysfunctional serotonergic turnover in the brain may be involved in the etiopathology of pedophilia. Depletion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may cause alterations in the serotonergic system that may be related to pedophilia and aggression. This study examines the serum phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFA fractions in pedophilia. Twenty-seven pedophilic men and eighteen healthy volunteers participated in this study. In pedophilia there was a significant depletion of the C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), total n-3 fractions and an increase in the total n-6/n-3 and C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3 (arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid) ratios. Using the NEO Personality Inventory, lower DHA in pedophiles is related to more impulsiveness and lower agreeableness (trust, altruism, straightforwardness, compliance) and conscientiousness (self-discipline). The results of this study suggest that a depletion of the serum phospholipid n-3 higher unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) and, in particular, of DHA may take part in the pathophysiology of pedophilia. One hypothesis is that a depletion of n-3 HUFAs and DHA may cause alterations in the serotonergic turnover, which are related to impulse discontrol and aggression-hostility, behaviors which are associated with pedophilia.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Bivalent Ligand Combining Caffeine and Docosahexaenoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Azuaje, Jhonny; Morató, Xavier; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sotelo, Eddy; Ciruela, Francisco

    2017-02-27

    Caffeine is a promising drug for the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), demonstrating neuroprotective properties that have been attributed to its interaction with the basal ganglia adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). However, the doses needed to exert these neuroprotective effects may be too high. Thus, it is important to design novel approaches that selectively deliver this natural compound to the desired target. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the brain and can act as a specific carrier of caffeine. Furthermore, DHA displays properties that may lead to its use as a neuroprotective agent. In the present study, we constructed a novel bivalent ligand covalently linking caffeine and DHA and assessed its pharmacological activity and safety profile in a simple cellular model. Interestingly, the new bivalent ligand presented higher potency as an A2AR inverse agonist than caffeine alone. We also determined the range of concentrations inducing toxicity both in a heterologous system and in primary striatal cultures. The novel strategy presented here of attaching DHA to caffeine may enable increased effects of the drug at desired sites, which could be of interest for the treatment of PD.

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): an ancient nutrient for the modern human brain.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Joanne

    2011-05-01

    Modern humans have evolved with a staple source of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet. An important turning point in human evolution was the discovery of high-quality, easily digested nutrients from coastal seafood and inland freshwater sources. Multi-generational exploitation of seafood by shore-based dwellers coincided with the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex, which characterizes the modern human brain. The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for grey matter, which is membrane-rich tissue. An important metabolic role for DHA has recently been identified as the precursor for resolvins and protectins. The rudimentary source of DHA is marine algae; therefore it is found concentrated in fish and marine oils. Unlike the photosynthetic cells in algae and higher plants, mammalian cells lack the specific enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursor for all omega-3 fatty acid syntheses. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from ALA in humans is much lower and more limited than previously assumed. The excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in the modern Western diet further displaces DHA from membrane phospholipids. An emerging body of research is exploring a unique role for DHA in neurodevelopment and the prevention of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. DHA is increasingly being added back into the food supply as fish oil or algal oil supplementation.

  1. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves seminal antioxidant status and decreases sperm DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Soto, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Joan Carles; Cordobilla, Begoña; Nicolás, María; Fernández, Laura; Albero, Pilar; Gadea, Joaquín; Landeras, José

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on semen quality, fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and DNA fragmentation. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 74 subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to either the placebo group (n=32) or to the DHA group (n=42) to consume three 500-mg capsules of oil per day over 10 weeks. The placebo group received 1,500 mg/day of sunflower oil and the DHA group 1,500 mg/day of DHA-enriched oil. Seminal parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and vitality), total antioxidant capacity, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, and lipid composition were evaluated prior to the treatment and after 10 weeks. Finally, 57 subjects were included in the study with 25 in the placebo group and 32 in the DHA group. No differences were found in traditional sperm parameters or lipid composition of the sperm membrane after treatment. However, an increase in DHA and Omega-3 fatty acid content in seminal plasma, an improvement in antioxidant status, and a reduction in the percentage of spermatozoa with deoxyribonucleic acid damage were observed in the DHA group after 10 weeks of treatment.

  2. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Modern humans have evolved with a staple source of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet. An important turning point in human evolution was the discovery of high-quality, easily digested nutrients from coastal seafood and inland freshwater sources. Multi-generational exploitation of seafood by shore-based dwellers coincided with the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex, which characterizes the modern human brain. The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for grey matter, which is membrane-rich tissue. An important metabolic role for DHA has recently been identified as the precursor for resolvins and protectins. The rudimentary source of DHA is marine algae; therefore it is found concentrated in fish and marine oils. Unlike the photosynthetic cells in algae and higher plants, mammalian cells lack the specific enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursor for all omega-3 fatty acid syntheses. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from ALA in humans is much lower and more limited than previously assumed. The excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in the modern Western diet further displaces DHA from membrane phospholipids. An emerging body of research is exploring a unique role for DHA in neurodevelopment and the prevention of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. DHA is increasingly being added back into the food supply as fish oil or algal oil supplementation. PMID:22254110

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Provides Neuroprotection in Traumatic Brain Injury Models via Activating Nrf2-ARE Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Ding, Yuexia; Kong, Wei; Li, Tuo; Chen, Hongguang

    2018-04-16

    In this study, we explored the neuroprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) models. In this study, we first confirmed that DHA was neuroprotective against TBI via the NSS test and Morris water maze experiment. Western blot was conducted to identify the expression of Bax, caspase-3, and Bcl-2. And the cell apoptosis of the TBI models was validated by TUNEL staining. Relationships between nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway-related genes and DHA were explored by RT-PCR and Western blot. Rats of the DHA group performed remarkably better than those of the TBI group in both NSS test and water maze experiment. DHA conspicuously promoted the expression of Bcl-2 and diminished that of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, indicating the anti-apoptotic role of DHA. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cortical malondialdehyde content, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were renovated in rats receiving DHA treatment, implying that the neuroprotective influence of DHA was derived from lightening the oxidative stress caused by TBI. Moreover, immunofluorescence and Western blot experiments revealed that DHA facilitated the translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. DHA administration also notably increased the expression of the downstream factors NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO-1) and heme oxygenase 1(HO-1). DHA exerted neuroprotective influence on the TBI models, potentially through activating the Nrf2- ARE pathway.

  4. Enhancement of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production from Schizochytrium sp. S31 using different growth medium conditions.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Deniz; Tas, Ezgi; Altindag, Ulkü Hüma

    2018-01-24

    Schizochytrium species is one of the most studied microalgae for production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which is an omega-3 fatty acid with positive effects for human health. However, high cost and low yield in production phase makes optimization of cultivation process inevitable. We focus on the optimization of DHA production using Schizochytrium sp. using different media supplements; glucose, fructose and glycerol as carbon variants, proteose peptone and tryptone as nitrogen variants. The highest biomass (5.61 g/L) and total fatty acid yield (1.74 g/L) were obtained in proteose peptone medium which was used as the alternative nitrogen source instead of yeast extract. The highest DHA yield (0.40 g/L) was achieved with glycerol as the carbon source although it had the second lowest biomass production after ethanol containing medium. Ethanol, as an alternative carbon source and a precursor for acetyl-CoA, increased DHA percentage in total lipid content from 29.94 to 40.04% but decreasing the biomass drastically. Considering different carbon and nitrogen sources during cultivation of Schizochytrium sp. will improve DHA production. Combination of proteose peptone and glycerol as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, and addition of ethanol with a proper timing will be useful to have higher DHA yield.

  5. Thraustochytrids as production organisms for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), squalene, and carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Aasen, Inga Marie; Ertesvåg, Helga; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan; Liu, Bin; Brautaset, Trygve; Vadstein, Olav; Ellingsen, Trond E

    2016-05-01

    Thraustochytrids have been applied for industrial production of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic (DHA) since the 1990s. During more than 20 years of research on this group of marine, heterotrophic microorganisms, considerable increases in DHA productivities have been obtained by process and medium optimization. Strains of thraustochytrids also produce high levels of squalene and carotenoids, two other commercially interesting compounds with a rapidly growing market potential, but where yet few studies on process optimization have been reported. Thraustochytrids use two pathways for fatty acid synthesis. The saturated fatty acids are produced by the standard fatty acid synthesis, while DHA is synthesized by a polyketide synthase. However, fundamental knowledge about the relationship between the two pathways is still lacking. In the present review, we extract main findings from the high number of reports on process optimization for DHA production and interpret these in the light of the current knowledge of DHA synthesis in thraustochytrids and lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms in general. We also summarize published reports on squalene and carotenoid production and review the current status on strain improvement, which has been hampered by the yet very few published genome sequences and the lack of tools for gene transfer to the organisms. As more sequences now are becoming available, targets for strain improvement can be identified and open for a system-level metabolic engineering for improved productivities.

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid conjugated near infrared flourescence probe for in vivo early tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Siwen; Cao, Jie; Qin, Jingyi; Zhang, Xin; Achilefu, Samuel; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) is an omega-3 C22 natural fatty acid with six cis double bonds and as a constituent of membranes used as a precursor for metabolic and biochemical path ways. In this manuscript,we describe the synthesis of near-infrared(NIR) flourescence ICG-Der-01 labeled DHA for in vitro and vivo tumor targeting.The structure of the probe was intensively characterized by UV and MS. The in vitro and vivo tumor targeting abilities of the DHA-based NIR probes were investigeted in MCF-7 cells and MCF-7 xenograft mice model differently by confocal microscopy and CCD camera. The cell cytotoxicity were tested in tumor cells MCF-7 .The results shows that the DHA-based NIR probes have high affinity with the tumor both in vitro and vivo.In addition ,we also found that the DHA-based NIR probes have the apparent cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells .which demonstrated that DHA was conjugated with other antitumor drug could increase the abilities of antirumor efficacy .So DHA-ICG-Der-01 is a promising optical agent for diagnosis of tumors especially in their early stage.

  7. Defining a mechanistic link between pigment epithelium-derived factor, docosahexaenoic acid, and corneal nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thang Luong; He, Jiucheng; Kakazu, Azucena H; Jun, Bokkyoo; Bazan, Nicolas G; Bazan, Haydee E P

    2017-11-10

    The cornea is densely innervated to sustain the integrity of the ocular surface. Corneal nerve damage produced by aging, diabetes, refractive surgeries, and viral or bacterial infections impairs tear production, the blinking reflex, and epithelial wound healing, resulting in loss of transparency and vision. A combination of the known neuroprotective molecule, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been shown to stimulate corneal nerve regeneration, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. Here, we sought to define the molecular events of this effect in an in vivo mouse injury model. We first confirmed that PEDF + DHA increased nerve regeneration in the mouse cornea. Treatment with PEDF activates the phospholipase A 2 activity of the PEDF-receptor (PEDF-R) leading to the release of DHA; this free DHA led to enhanced docosanoid synthesis and induction of bdnf, ngf , and the axon growth promoter semaphorin 7a ( sema7a ), and as a consequence, their products appeared in the mouse tears. Surprisingly, corneal injury and treatment with PEDF + DHA induced transcription of neuropeptide y ( npy ), small proline-rich protein 1a ( sprr1a ), and vasoactive intestinal peptide ( vip ) in the trigeminal ganglia (TG). The PEDF-R inhibitor, atglistatin, blocked all of these changes in the cornea and TG. In conclusion, we uncovered here an active cornea-TG axis, driven by PEDF-R activation, that fosters axon outgrowth in the cornea. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Growth and development of preterm infants fed infant formulas containing docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Clandinin, M Thomas; Van Aerde, John E; Merkel, Kimberly L; Harris, Cheryl L; Springer, Mary Alice; Hansen, James W; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate safety and benefits of feeding preterm infants formulas containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) until 92 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), with follow-up to 118 weeks PMA. This double-blinded study of 361 preterm infants randomized across three formula groups: (1) control, no supplementation; (2) algal-DHA (DHA from algal oil, ARA from fungal oil); and (3) fish-DHA (DHA from fish oil, ARA from fungal oil). Term infants breast-fed > or =4 months (n = 105) were a reference group. Outcomes included growth, tolerance, adverse events, and Bayley development scores. Weight of the algal-DHA group was significantly greater than the control group from 66 to 118 weeks PMA and the fish-DHA group at 118 weeks PMA but did not differ from term infants at 118 weeks PMA. The algal-DHA group was significantly longer than the control group at 48, 79, and 92 weeks PMA and the fish-DHA group at 57, 79, and 92 weeks PMA but did not differ from term infants from 79 to 118 weeks PMA. Supplemented groups had higher Bayley mental and psychomotor development scores at 118 weeks PMA than did the control group. Supplementation did not increase morbidity or adverse events. Feeding formulas with DHA and ARA from algal and fungal oils resulted in enhanced growth. Both supplemented formulas provided better developmental outcomes than unsupplemented formulas.

  9. Membrane docosahexaenoate is supplied to the developing brain and retina by the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.L.; Bazan, N.G.

    1989-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid is concentrated in phospholipids of cellular membranes from brain and retina. Although linolenic acid is the major {omega}3 fatty acid of mouse dams' milk, 22:6 is the prevalent {omega}3 fatty acid in serum and tissues. Intraperitoneal injection of (1-{sup 14}C)18:3 into 3-day-old mouse pups resulted in liver and serum lipid labeling that was initially high, followed by a rapid decline. In contrast, labeling of brain and retinal lipids were initially low and increased with time. Labeled 22:6 first appeared in liver 2 hr after injection and later in brain and retina. The authors suggest that 22:6 synthesized frommore » 18:3 by the liver is secreted into the bloodstream in lipoproteins, taken up by brain and retina, and incorporated into cell membranes. They hypothesize that the 22;6 requirements of membranes (e.g., during synaptogenesis, photoreceptor membrane biogenesis, or repair after ischemic injury or neurodegenerative disorders) are met by a signal that is sent by the appropriate tissues to the liver to evoke the secretion of 22:6-containing lipoproteins.« less

  10. Efficacy of docosahexaenoic acid-choline-vitamin E in paediatric NASH: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zöhrer, Evelyn; Alisi, Anna; Jahnel, Jörg; Mosca, Antonella; Della Corte, Claudia; Crudele, Annalisa; Fauler, Günter; Nobili, Valerio

    2017-09-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial on children with biopsy-proven NASH based on a combinatorial nutritional approach compared with placebo. Participants were assigned to lifestyle modification plus placebo or lifestyle modification plus a mix containing docosahexaenoic acid, choline, and vitamin E (DHA-CHO-VE). Forty children and adolescents participated in the entire trial. The primary outcome was the improvement of liver hyperechogenicity. Secondary outcomes included alterations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and other metabolic parameters. Furthermore, changes of serum bile acids (BA) and plasma fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) levels were evaluated as inverse biomarkers of disease severity. At the end of the study, we observed a significant decrease in severe steatosis in the treatment group (50% to 5%, p = 0.001). Furthermore, although the anthropometric and biochemical measurements in the placebo and DHA-CHO-VE groups were comparable at baseline, at the end of the study ALT and fasting glucose levels improved only in the treatment group. Finally, we found that BA levels were not influenced whereas FGF19 levels were significantly increased by DHA-CHO-VE. The results suggest that a combination of DHA, VE, and CHO could improve steatosis and reduce ALT and glucose levels in children with NASH. However, further studies are needed to assess the impact of a DHA and VE combination on repair of liver damage in paediatric NASH.

  11. Beyond Building Better Brains: Bridging the Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) Gap of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Harris, William

    2014-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are essential for normal vision and neurodevelopment. DHA accretion in utero occurs primarily in the last trimester of pregnancy to support rapid growth and brain development. Premature infants, born before this process is complete, are relatively deficient in this essential fatty acid. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants remain deficient for a long period of time due to ineffective conversion from precursor fatty acids, lower fat stores, and a limited nutritional provision of DHA after birth. In addition to long- term visual and neurodevelopmental risks, VLBW infants have significant morbidity and mortality from diseases specific to premature birth, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). There is increasing evidence that DHA has protective benefits against these disease states. The aim of this article is to identify the unique needs of premature infants, review the current recommendations for LCPUFA provision in infants, and discuss the caveats and innovative new ways to overcome the DHA deficiency through postnatal supplementation, with the long term goal of improving morbidity and mortality in this at risk population. PMID:25357095

  12. Beyond building better brains: bridging the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) gap of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Harris, W S; Baack, M L

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for normal vision and neurodevelopment. DHA accretion in utero occurs primarily in the last trimester of pregnancy to support rapid growth and brain development. Premature infants, born before this process is complete, are relatively deficient in this essential fatty acid. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants remain deficient for a long period of time due to ineffective conversion from precursor fatty acids, lower fat stores and a limited nutritional provision of DHA after birth. In addition to long-term visual and neurodevelopmental risks, VLBW infants have significant morbidity and mortality from diseases specific to premature birth, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity. There is increasing evidence that DHA has protective benefits against these disease states. The aim of this article is to identify the unique needs of premature infants, review the current recommendations for LCPUFA provision in infants and discuss the caveats and innovative new ways to overcome the DHA deficiency through postnatal supplementation, with the long-term goal of improving morbidity and mortality in this at-risk population.

  13. Bimodal electric tissue ablation (BETA) - in-vivo evaluation of the effect of applying direct current before and during radiofrequency ablation of porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, J F; Maddern, G J; Wemyss-Holden, S A

    2007-03-01

    To examine the effect of applying increasing amounts of direct current (DC) before and during alternating current radiofrequency ablation of porcine liver. Using a Radiotherapeutics RF3000 generator, a 9 V AC/DC transformer and a 16 G plain aluminium tube as an electrode, a control group of 24 porcine hepatic radiofrequency ablation zones was compared with 24 zones created using a bimodal electric tissue ablation (BETA) technique in three pigs. All ablations were terminated when tissue impedance rose to greater than 999 Omega or radiofrequency energy input fell below 5 W on three successive measurements taken at 1 min intervals. BETA ablations were performed in two phases: an initial phase of variable duration DC followed by a second phase during which standard radiofrequency ablation was applied simultaneously with DC. During this second phase, radiofrequency power input was regulated by the feedback circuitry of the RF3000 generator according to changes in tissue impedance. The diameters (mm) of each ablation zone were measured by two observers in two planes perpendicular to the plane of needle insertion. The mean short axis diameter of each ablation zone was subjected to statistical analysis. With increased duration of prior application of DC, there was a progressive increase in the diameter of the ablation zone (p<0.001). This effect increased sharply up to 300 s of pre-treatment after which a further increase in diameter occurred, but at a much lesser rate. A maximum ablation zone diameter of 32 mm was produced (control diameters 10-13 mm). Applying a 9 V DC to porcine liver in vivo, and continuing this DC application during subsequent radiofrequency ablation, results in larger ablation zone diameters compared with radiofrequency ablation alone.

  14. Femtosecond laser for cavity preparation in enamel and dentin: ablation efficiency related factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Li, H; Sun, Yc; Wang, Y; Lü, Pj

    2016-02-11

    To study the effects of laser fluence (laser energy density), scanning line spacing and ablation depth on the efficiency of a femtosecond laser for three-dimensional ablation of enamel and dentin. A diode-pumped, thin-disk femtosecond laser (wavelength 1025 nm, pulse width 400 fs) was used for the ablation of enamel and dentin. The laser spot was guided in a series of overlapping parallel lines on enamel and dentin surfaces to form a three-dimensional cavity. The depth and volume of the ablated cavity was then measured under a 3D measurement microscope to determine the ablation efficiency. Different values of fluence, scanning line spacing and ablation depth were used to assess the effects of each variable on ablation efficiency. Ablation efficiencies for enamel and dentin were maximized at different laser fluences and number of scanning lines and decreased with increases in laser fluence or with increases in scanning line spacing beyond spot diameter or with increases in ablation depth. Laser fluence, scanning line spacing and ablation depth all significantly affected femtosecond laser ablation efficiency. Use of a reasonable control for each of these parameters will improve future clinical application.

  15. Prophylactic Catheter Ablation for the Prevention of Defibrillator Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vivek Y.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Neuzil, Petr; Richardson, Allison W.; Taborsky, Milos; Jongnarangsin, Krit; Kralovec, Stepan; Sediva, Lucie; Ruskin, Jeremy N.; Josephson, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND For patients who have a ventricular tachyarrhythmic event, implantable cardioverter–defibrillators (ICDs) are a mainstay of therapy to prevent sudden death. However, ICD shocks are painful, can result in clinical depression, and do not offer complete protection against death from arrhythmia. We designed this randomized trial to examine whether prophylactic radiofrequency catheter ablation of arrhythmogenic ventricular tissue would reduce the incidence of ICD therapy. METHODS Eligible patients with a history of a myocardial infarction underwent defibrillator implantation for spontaneous ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. The patients did not receive antiarrhythmic drugs. Patients were randomly assigned to defibrillator implantation alone or defibrillator implantation with adjunctive catheter ablation (64 patients in each group). Ablation was performed with the use of a substrate-based approach in which the myocardial scar is mapped and ablated while the heart remains predominantly in sinus rhythm. The primary end point was survival free from any appropriate ICD therapy. RESULTS The mortality rate 30 days after ablation was zero, and there were no significant changes in ventricular function or functional class during the mean (±SD) follow-up period of 22.5±5.5 months. Twenty-one patients assigned to defibrillator implantation alone (33%) and eight patients assigned to defibrillator implantation plus ablation (12%) received appropriate ICD therapy (antitachycardia pacing or shocks) (hazard ratio in the ablation group, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.78, P = 0.007). Among these patients, 20 in the control group (31%) and 6 in the ablation group (9%) received shocks (P = 0.003). Mortality was not increased in the group assigned to ablation as compared with the control group (9% vs. 17%, P = 0.29). CONCLUSIONS In this randomized trial, prophylactic substrate-based catheter ablation reduced the incidence of ICD therapy in patients with a

  16. OCDR guided laser ablation device

    DOEpatents

    Dasilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A guided laser ablation device. The device includes a mulitmode laser ablation fiber that is surrounded by one or more single mode optical fibers that are used to image in the vicinity of the laser ablation area to prevent tissue damage. The laser ablation device is combined with an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) unit and with a control unit which initializes the OCDR unit and a high power laser of the ablation device. Data from the OCDR unit is analyzed by the control unit and used to control the high power laser. The OCDR images up to about 3 mm ahead of the ablation surface to enable a user to see sensitive tissue such as a nerve or artery before damaging it by the laser.

  17. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Collins, Carmel T; Makrides, Maria; McPhee, Andrew J; Sullivan, Thomas R; Davis, Peter G; Thio, Marta; Simmer, Karen; Rajadurai, Victor S; Travadi, Javeed; Berry, Mary J; Liley, Helen G; Opie, Gillian F; Tan, Kenneth; Lui, Kei; Morris, Scott A; Stack, Jacqueline; Stark, Michael J; Chua, Mei-Chien; Jayagobi, Pooja A; Holberton, James; Bolisetty, Srinivas; Callander, Ian R; Harris, Deborah L; Gibson, Robert A

    2017-03-30

    Studies in animals and in humans have suggested that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, might reduce the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but appropriately designed trials are lacking. We randomly assigned 1273 infants born before 29 weeks of gestation (stratified according to sex, gestational age [<27 weeks or 27 to <29 weeks], and center) within 3 days after their first enteral feeding to receive either an enteral emulsion providing DHA at a dose of 60 mg per kilogram of body weight per day or a control (soy) emulsion without DHA until 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. The primary outcome was bronchopulmonary dysplasia, defined on a physiological basis (with the use of oxygen-saturation monitoring in selected infants), at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age or discharge home, whichever occurred first. A total of 1205 infants survived to the primary outcome assessment. Of the 592 infants assigned to the DHA group, 291 (49.1% by multiple imputation) were classified as having physiological bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as compared with 269 (43.9%) of the 613 infants assigned to the control group (relative risk adjusted for randomization strata, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.25; P=0.02). The composite outcome of physiological bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death before 36 weeks of postmenstrual age occurred in 52.3% of the infants in the DHA group and in 46.4% of the infants in the control group (adjusted relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23; P=0.045). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the rates of death or any other neonatal illnesses. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia based on a clinical definition occurred in 53.2% of the infants in the DHA group and in 49.7% of the infants in the control group (P=0.06). Enteral DHA supplementation at a dose of 60 mg per kilogram per day did not result in a lower risk of physiological bronchopulmonary dysplasia than a control emulsion among preterm infants

  18. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  19. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  20. Ablation-cooled material removal with ultrafast bursts of pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerse, Can; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Elahi, Parviz; Çetin, Barbaros; Kesim, Denizhan K.; Akçaalan, Önder; Yavaş, Seydi; Aşık, Mehmet D.; Öktem, Bülent; Hoogland, Heinar; Holzwarth, Ronald; Ilday, Fatih Ömer

    2016-09-01

    The use of femtosecond laser pulses allows precise and thermal-damage-free removal of material (ablation) with wide-ranging scientific, medical and industrial applications. However, its potential is limited by the low speeds at which material can be removed and the complexity of the associated laser technology. The complexity of the laser design arises from the need to overcome the high pulse energy threshold for efficient ablation. However, the use of more powerful lasers to increase the ablation rate results in unwanted effects such as shielding, saturation and collateral damage from heat accumulation at higher laser powers. Here we circumvent this limitation by exploiting ablation cooling, in analogy to a technique routinely used in aerospace engineering. We apply ultrafast successions (bursts) of laser pulses to ablate the target material before the residual heat deposited by previous pulses diffuses away from the processing region. Proof-of-principle experiments on various substrates demonstrate that extremely high repetition rates, which make ablation cooling possible, reduce the laser pulse energies needed for ablation and increase the efficiency of the removal process by an order of magnitude over previously used laser parameters. We also demonstrate the removal of brain tissue at two cubic millimetres per minute and dentine at three cubic millimetres per minute without any thermal damage to the bulk.

  1. Ablation-cooled material removal with ultrafast bursts of pulses.

    PubMed

    Kerse, Can; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Elahi, Parviz; Çetin, Barbaros; Kesim, Denizhan K; Akçaalan, Önder; Yavaş, Seydi; Aşık, Mehmet D; Öktem, Bülent; Hoogland, Heinar; Holzwarth, Ronald; Ilday, Fatih Ömer

    2016-09-01

    The use of femtosecond laser pulses allows precise and thermal-damage-free removal of material (ablation) with wide-ranging scientific, medical and industrial applications. However, its potential is limited by the low speeds at which material can be removed and the complexity of the associated laser technology. The complexity of the laser design arises from the need to overcome the high pulse energy threshold for efficient ablation. However, the use of more powerful lasers to increase the ablation rate results in unwanted effects such as shielding, saturation and collateral damage from heat accumulation at higher laser powers. Here we circumvent this limitation by exploiting ablation cooling, in analogy to a technique routinely used in aerospace engineering. We apply ultrafast successions (bursts) of laser pulses to ablate the target material before the residual heat deposited by previous pulses diffuses away from the processing region. Proof-of-principle experiments on various substrates demonstrate that extremely high repetition rates, which make ablation cooling possible, reduce the laser pulse energies needed for ablation and increase the efficiency of the removal process by an order of magnitude over previously used laser parameters. We also demonstrate the removal of brain tissue at two cubic millimetres per minute and dentine at three cubic millimetres per minute without any thermal damage to the bulk.

  2. Effects of supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid on reproduction of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sinedino, Letícia D P; Honda, Paula M; Souza, Letícia R L; Lock, Adam L; Boland, Maurice P; Staples, Charles R; Thatcher, William W; Santos, José E P

    2017-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplementing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on reproduction of dairy cows. Holstein cows were assigned randomly to either a control ( n  = 373) or the same diet supplemented daily with 100 g/cow of an algae product containing 10% DHA (algae, n  = 366) from 27 to 147 days postpartum. Measurements included yields of milk and milk components, fatty acids (FA) profiles in milk fat and plasma phospholipids, resumption of ovulation by 57 days postpartum, pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) and expression of interferon-stimulated genes in leukocytes. Feeding algae increased resumption of estrous cyclicity (77.6 vs 65.9%) and pregnancy at first AI (47.6 vs 32.8%) in primiparous cows. Algae increased pregnancy per AI in all AI in both primiparous and multiparous cows (41.6 vs 30.7%), which reduced days to pregnancy by 22 days (102 vs 124 days) compared with control cows. Pregnant cows fed algae had greater expression of RTP4 in blood leukocytes compared with those in pregnant control cows. Feeding algae increased the incorporation of DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis -9 trans -11, trans -10 cis -12 and total n-3 FA in phospholipids in plasma and milk fat. Yields of milk and true protein increased by 1.1 kg/day and 30 g/day respectively, whereas fat yield decreased 40 g/day in algae compared with that in control. Supplementing DHA-rich algae altered the FA composition of lipid fractions and improved reproduction in dairy cows. The benefits on reproduction might be mediated by enhanced embryo development based on changes in interferon-stimulated gene expression. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  3. Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Brown, E R; Subbaiah, P V

    1994-12-01

    To better understand the mode of action of omega 3 fatty acids in cell membranes, human foreskin fibroblasts were grown in serum-free medium supplemented with 50 microM oleic acid linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the effects on membrane composition, fluorescence polarization and enzyme activities were followed. The cells were enriched with EPA and DHA up to 7 and 13% of total lipids, respectively, of which > 95% was associated with phospholipids. In addition, the concentration of 22:5n-3 increased with both EPA and DHA to 7.5, and 2.1% of the total fatty acids, respectively. When compared to controls (oleic acid), cells treated with DHA showed a decrease in cholesterol, phospholipids, arachidonic acid (AA) and free cholesterol/phospholipid ratio (P < 0.05). In the presence of EPA, only decreases in AA and cholesterol were significant (P < 0.05). Membrane fluidity, assessed by fluorescence anisotropy, was increased 16% in cells enriched with DHA (P < 0.05), but showed no change with EPA or linoleic acid. There was an increase in membrane-associated 5'-nucleotidase (+27%) and adenylate cyclase (+19%) activities (P < 0.05), in DHA-enriched, but not in EPA-enriched cells, when compared with oleate controls. The studies show that incorporation of DHA, but not EPA, into cell membranes of fibroblasts alters membrane biophysical characteristics and function. We suggest that these two major n-3 fatty acids of fish oils have differential effects on cell membranes, and this may be related to the known differences in their physiological effects.

  4. In vitro effects of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid on human meibomian gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Ulrike; Krüger, Magret; Kunnen, Carolina; Garreis, Fabian; Willcox, Mark; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs, cell line) in vitro. HMGECs were stimulated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or combinations with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and acetyl sialic acid (ASA). Sudan III fat staining, viability and proliferation assays, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, real-time PCR for gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and 15-lipoxygenase and ELISAs for resolvin D1 (RvD1), IFNγ, TNFα and IL-6 were applied. Lipid droplet accumulation and viability was increased by 100 μM DHA in the presence or absence of EPA in serum cultured HMGECs. In contrast, HMGECs cultured with DHA and EPA under serum-free conditions showed minimal lipid accumulation, decreased proliferation and viability. Normalized impedance was significantly reduced in serum-free cultured HMGECs when stimulated with DHA and EPA. HMGECs cultured in serum containing medium showed increased normalized impedance under DHA and EPA stimulation compared to DHA or EPA alone or controls. IL-6 and IFNγ were downregulated in HMGECs treated for 72 h with DHA and EPA. In general, TNFα, IFNγ and IL-6 levels were decreased after 72 h compared to 24 h in serum containing medium with or without DHA or EPA. The concentration of RvD1 was elevated 2-fold after DHA treatment. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression decreased compared to controls during DHA stimulation after 72 h. Treatment with DHA and ASA revealed a decreased 15-lipoxygenase gene expression which was reduced after three days of DHA incubation. DHA and EPA supplementation affected HMGECs in vitro and supported anti-inflammatory effects by influencing cytokine levels, decreasing COX-2 expression and increasing the production of RvD1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of frequency on the performance of microwave ablation.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, James F; Shea, Jacob D; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C

    2017-02-01

    The use of higher frequencies in percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) may offer compelling interstitial antenna design advantages over the 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz frequencies typically employed in current systems. To evaluate the impact of higher frequencies on ablation performance, we conducted a comprehensive computational and experimental study of microwave absorption and tissue heating as a function of frequency. We performed electromagnetic and thermal simulations of MWA in ex vivo and in vivo porcine muscle at discrete frequencies in the 1.9-26 GHz range. Ex vivo ablation experiments were performed in the 1.9-18 GHz range. We tracked the size of the ablation zone across frequency for constant input power and ablation duration. Further, we conducted simulations to investigate antenna feed line heating as a function of frequency, input power, and cable diameter. As the frequency was increased from 1.9 to 26 GHz the resulting ablation zone dimensions decreased in the longitudinal direction while remaining relatively constant in the radial direction; thus at higher frequencies the overall ablation zone was more spherical. However, cable heating at higher frequencies became more problematic for smaller diameter cables at constant input power. Comparably sized ablation zones are achievable well above 1.9 GHz, despite increasingly localised power absorption. Specific absorption rate alone does not accurately predict ablation performance, particularly at higher frequencies where thermal diffusion plays an important role. Cable heating due to ohmic losses at higher frequencies may be controlled through judicious choices of input power and cable diameter.

  6. Catheter ablation in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Calkins, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Catheter ablation is increasingly offered to patients who suffer from symptoms due to atrial fibrillation (AF), based on a growing body of evidence illustrating its efficacy compared with antiarrhythmic drug therapy. Approximately one-third of AF ablation procedures are currently performed in patients with persistent or long-standing persistent AF. Here, we review the available information to guide catheter ablation in these more chronic forms of AF. We identify the following principles: Our clinical ability to discriminate paroxysmal and persistent AF is limited. Pulmonary vein isolation is a reasonable and effective first approach for catheter ablation of persistent AF. Other ablation strategies are being developed and need to be properly evaluated in controlled, multicentre trials. Treatment of concomitant conditions promoting recurrent AF by life style interventions and medical therapy should be a routine adjunct to catheter ablation of persistent AF. Early rhythm control therapy has a biological rationale and trials evaluating its value are underway. There is a clear need to generate more evidence for the best approach to ablation of persistent AF beyond pulmonary vein isolation in the form of adequately powered controlled multi-centre trials. PMID:27389907

  7. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (...

  8. High-oleic ready-to-use therapeutic food maintains docosahexaenoic acid status in severe malnutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the preferred treatment for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. It contains large amounts of linoleic acid and little a-linolenic acid, which may reduce the availability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to the recovering child...

  9. Improved Ablative Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-12-01

    Equipment 62 2. Gas Analysis 62 3. Chemical Analysis for Titanium and Boron 63 4. Tensile Strength Determinations 64 5. Density Determinations 64 6. X-ray...mils, and its density was about 4. 45 g/cm 3. Elastic modulus values averaged about 71 x 106 psi for the filament. -X- I. INTRODUCTION Ablative liner...20 4 /50 percent N 2H 4 -50 percent UDMH or L0 2 /LH. The more-energetic propellant systems, using fluorine or FLOX, demand more-effective abla- tive

  10. High temperature ablative foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ablative foam composition is formed of approximately 150 to 250 parts by weight polymeric isocyanate having an isocyanate functionality of 2.6 to 3.2; approximately 15 to 30 parts by weight reactive flame retardant having a hydroxyl number range from 200-260; approximately 10 to 40 parts by weight non-reactive flame retardant; approximately 10 to 40 parts by weight nonhydrolyzable silicone copolymer having a hydroxyl number range from 75-205; and approximately 3 to 16 parts by weight amine initiated polyether resin having an isocyanate functionality greater than or equal to 3.0 and a hydroxyl number range from 400-800.

  11. Analysis of the change in peak corneal temperature during excimer laser ablation in porcine eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, Samuel Arba; Verma, Shwetabh

    2015-07-01

    The objective is to characterize the impact of different ablation parameters on the thermal load during corneal refractive surgery by means of excimer laser ablation on porcine eyes. One hundred eleven ablations were performed in 105 porcine eyes. Each ablation was recorded using infrared thermography and analyzed mainly based on the two tested local frequencies (40 Hz, clinical local frequency; 1000 Hz, no local frequency). The change in peak corneal temperature was analyzed with respect to varying ablation parameters [local frequency, system repetition rate, pulse energy, optical zone (OZ) size, and refractive correction]. Transepithelial ablations were also compared to intrastromal ablations. The average of the baseline temperature across all eyes was 20.5°C±1.1 (17.7°C to 22.2°C). Average of the change in peak corneal temperature for all clinical local frequency ablations was 5.8°C±0.8 (p=3.3E-53 to baseline), whereas the average was 9.0°C±1.5 for all no local frequency ablations (p=1.8E-35 to baseline, 1.6E-16 to clinical local frequency ablations). A logarithmic relationship was observed between the changes in peak corneal temperature with increasing local frequency. For clinical local frequency, change in peak corneal temperature was comparatively flat (r2=0.68 with a range of 1.5°C) with increasing system repetition rate and increased linearly with increasing OZ size (r2=0.95 with a range of 2.4°C). Local frequency controls help maintain safe corneal temperature increase during excimer laser ablations. Transepithelial ablations induce higher thermal load compared to intrastromal ablations, indicating a need for stronger thermal controls in transepithelial refractive procedures.

  12. Thermochemical Ablation Analysis of the Orion Heatshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sixel, William

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will one day carry astronauts to the Moon and beyond, and Orion's heatshield is a critical component in ensuring their safe return to Earth. The Orion heatshield is the structural component responsible for absorbing the intense heating environment caused by re-entry to Earth's atmosphere. The heatshield is primarily composed of Avcoat, an ablative material that is consumed during the re-entry process. Ablation is primarily characterized by two processes: pyrolysis and recession. The decomposition of in-depth virgin material is known as pyrolysis. Recession occurs when the exposed surface of the heatshield reacts with the surrounding flow. The Orion heatshield design was changed from an individually filled Avcoat honeycomb to a molded block Avcoat design. The molded block Avcoat heatshield relies on an adhesive bond to keep it attached to the capsule. In some locations on the heatshield, the integrity of the adhesive bond cannot be verified. For these locations, a mechanical retention device was proposed. Avcoat ablation was modelled in CHAR and the in-depth virgin material temperatures were used in a Thermal Desktop model of the mechanical retention device. The retention device was analyzed and shown to cause a large increase in the maximum bondline temperature. In order to study the impact of individual ablation modelling parameters on the heatshield sizing process, a Monte Carlo simulation of the sizing process was proposed. The simulation will give the sensitivity of the ablation model to each of its input parameters. As part of the Monte Carlo simulation, statistical uncertainties on material properties were required for Avcoat. Several properties were difficult to acquire uncertainties for: the pyrolysis gas enthalpy, non-dimensional mass loss rate (B´c), and Arrhenius equation parameters. Variability in the elemental composition of Avcoat was used as the basis for determining the statistical uncertainty in pyrolysis gas

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid triglyceride-based microemulsions with an added dendrimer - Structural considerations.

    PubMed

    Lidich, Nina; Francesca Ottaviani, M; Hoffman, Roy E; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2016-12-01

    Omega fatty acids, mainly the triglyceride of docosahexaenoic acid (TG-DHA), are considered important nutraceuticals. These compounds are water-insoluble and their transport across membranes depends on their carriers. Dendrimers are known as drug carriers across cell membranes and also as permeation enhancers. The solubilization of TG-DHA and dendrimer into a microemulsion (ME) system serving as a carrier could be used for a targeted delivery in the future. The interactions between TG-DHA and second generation poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers (PPI-G2) and their effect on structural transitions of ME were explored along the water dilution line using electron paramagnetic resonance and pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR along with other analytical techniques. The microviscosity, order parameter, and micropolarity of all studied systems decrease upon water dilution. Incorporation of TG-DHA reduces the microviscosity, order, and micropolarity, whereas PPI-G2 leads to an increase in these parameters. The effect of PPI-G2 is more pronounced at relative high contents (1 and 5wt%) where PPI-G2 interacts with the hydrophilic headgroups of the surfactants. In the macroscale, the effects of TG-DHA and PPI-G2 differ mostly in the bicontinuous region, where macroviscosity increases upon TG-DHA incorporation and decreases upon solubilization of 5wt% PPI-G2. From DSC measurements it was concluded that in the presence of TG-DHA the PPI-G2 is intercalated easily at the interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) balance in developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Colombo, John; Jill Shaddy, D; Kerling, Elizabeth H; Gustafson, Kathleen M; Carlson, Susan E

    2017-06-01

    The DHA Intake and Measurement of Neural Development (DIAMOND) trial represents one of only a few studies of the long-term dose-response effects of LCPUFA-supplemented formula feeding during infancy. The trial contrasted the effects of four formulations: 0.00% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/0.00% arachidonic acid (ARA), 0.32% DHA/0.64% ARA, 0.64% DHA/0.64% ARA, and 0.96% DHA/0.64% ARA against a control condition (0.00% DHA/0.00% ARA). The results of this trial have been published elsewhere, and show improved cognitive outcomes for infants fed supplemented formulas, but a common finding among many of the outcomes show a reduction of benefit for the highest DHA dose (i.e., 0.96%DHA/0.64% ARA, that is, a DHA: ARA ratio 1.5:1.0). The current paper gathers and summarizes the evidence for the reduction of benefit at this dose, and in an attempt to account for this reduced benefit, presents for the first time data from infants' red blood cell (RBC) assays taken at 4 and 12 months of age. Those assays indicate that blood DHA levels generally rose with increased DHA supplementation, although those levels tended to plateau as the DHA-supplemented level exceeded 0.64%. Perhaps more importantly, ARA levels showed a strong inverted-U function in response to increased DHA supplementation; indeed, infants assigned to the formula with the highest dose of DHA (and highest DHA/ARA ratio) showed a reduction in blood ARA relative to more intermediate DHA doses. This finding raises the possibility that reduced ARA may be responsible for the reduction in benefit on cognitive outcomes seen at this dose. The findings implicate the DHA/ARA balance as an important variable in the contribution of LCPUFAs to cognitive and behavioral development in infancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation modulates hippocampal development in the Pemt-/- mouse.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Rai, Kiranmai S; Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Parikh, Komal; Mehedint, Mihai G; Sanders, Lisa M; McLean-Pottinger, Audrey; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-01-08

    The development of fetal brain is influenced by nutrients such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) and choline. Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) catalyzes the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine from phosphatidylethanolamine enriched in DHA and many humans have functional genetic polymorphisms in the PEMT gene. Previously, it was reported that Pemt(-/-) mice have altered hippocampal development. The present study explores whether abnormal phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis causes altered incorporation of DHA into membranes, thereby influencing brain development, and determines whether supplemental dietary DHA can reverse some of these changes. Pregnant C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and Pemt(-/-) mice were fed a control diet, or a diet supplemented with 3 g/kg of DHA, from gestational day 11 to 17. Brains from embryonic day 17 fetuses derived from Pemt(-/-) dams fed the control diet had 25-50% less phospholipid-DHA as compared with WT (p < 0.05). Also, they had 60% more neural progenitor cell proliferation (p < 0.05), 60% more neuronal apoptosis (p < 0.01), and 30% less calretinin expression (p < 0.05; a marker of neuronal differentiation) in the hippocampus compared with WT. The DHA-supplemented diet increased fetal brain Pemt(-/-) phospholipid-DHA to WT levels, and abrogated the neural progenitor cell proliferation and apoptosis differences. Although this diet did not change proliferation in the WT group, it halved the rate of apoptosis (p < 0.05). In both genotypes, the DHA-supplemented diet increased calretinin expression 2-fold (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the changes in hippocampal development in the Pemt(-/-) mouse could be mediated by altered DHA incorporation into membrane phospholipids, and that maternal dietary DHA can influence fetal brain development.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid alters Gsα localization in lipid raft and potentiates adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhuoran; Tan, Zhoubin; Li, Yan; Luo, Hongyan; Hu, Xinwu; Tang, Ming; Hescheler, Jürgen; Mu, Yangling; Zhang, Lanqiu

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), recently has become popular for the amelioration of depression; however the molecular mechanism of DHA action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the antidepressant effect of DHA by evaluating Gsα localization in lipid raft and the activity of adenylate cyclase in an in vitro glioma cell model. Lipid raft fractions from C6 glioma cells treated chronically with DHA were isolated by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The content of Gsα in lipid raft was analyzed by immunoblotting and colocalization of Gsα with lipid raft was subjected to confocal microscopic analysis. The intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level was determined by cAMP immunoassay kit. DHA decreased the amount of Gsα in lipid raft, whereas whole cell lysate Gsα was not changed. Confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated that colocalization of Gsα with lipid raft was decreased, whereas DHA increased intracellular cAMP accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, we found that DHA increased the lipid raft level, instead of disrupting it. The results of this study suggest that DHA may exert its antidepressant effect by translocating Gsα from lipid raft and potentiating the activity of adenylate cyclase. Importantly, the reduced Gsα in lipid raft by DHA is independent of disruption of lipid raft. Overall, the study provides partial preclinical evidence supporting a safe and effective therapy using DHA for depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation in extremely-low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Daniel T; Caplan, Michael; Carlson, Susan E; Yoder, Rachel; Murthy, Karna; Frost, Brandy

    2016-10-01

    Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants accrue large deficits in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) and require improved supplementation strategies. We hypothesized that once daily DHA+ARA drops applied to buccal mucosa will increase blood levels. Thirty ELBW infants were randomized to receive DHA 20 mg/kg/d + ARA 40 or 60 mg/kg/d + ARA 120 mg/kg/d or placebo within 72 h of age for 8 wk duration. Red blood cell phospholipid levels of DHA (primary) and ARA (secondary) were measured at 2 and 8 wk of age. Twenty-eight survivors with a median birth weight of 806 g completed dosing and sampling. Red blood cell levels were similar between the three groups at 2 wk (DHA: 4.62 wt% (interquartile range (IQR) 4.1-5.5) for all, P = 0.29 between groups; ARA: 21.1 wt% (IQR 18.78-22.6) for all, P = 0.41 between groups) and 8 wk (DHA: 6.0 wt% (IQR 5.1-7.1) for all, P = 0.57 between groups; ARA: 20.1 wt% (IQR 18.3-23.1) for all, P = 0.63 between groups). DHA in all infants showed a median increase of 31% from 2 to 8 wk (P < 0.04). ARA levels did not significantly change over time (P > 0.6). Daily buccal DHA and ARA supplements did not affect fatty acid levels in ELBW infants.

  18. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Fumiyoshi; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Asztalos, Bela F; Iyer, Lakshmanan K; Richardson, Kris; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2015-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Subjects were sampled at baseline and six weeks after receiving either: olive oil 6.0 g/day (n = 16), EPA 1.8 g/day (n = 16), or DHA 1.8 g/day (n = 18). PBMC were subjected to gene expression analysis by microarray with key findings confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Plasma phospholipid EPA increased 3 fold in the EPA group, and DHA increased 63% in the DHA group (both p < 0.01), while no effects were observed in the olive oil group. Microarray analysis indicated that EPA but not DHA or olive oil significantly affected the gene expression in the following pathways: 1) interferon signaling, 2) receptor recognition of bacteria and viruses, 3) G protein signaling, glycolysis and glycolytic shunting, 4) S-adenosyl-l-methionine biosynthesis, and 5) cAMP-mediated signaling including cAMP responsive element protein 1 (CREB1), as well as many other individual genes including hypoxia inducible factor 1, α subunit (HIF1A). The findings for CREB1 and HIF1A were confirmed by Q-PCR analysis. Our data indicate that EPA supplementation was associated with significant effects on gene expression involving the interferon pathway as well as down-regulation of CREB1 and HIF1A, which may relate to its beneficial effect on CVD risk reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Randomized controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in midwestern U.S. human milk donors.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Christina J; Morrow, Georgia; Pennell, Michael; Morrow, Ardythe L; Hodge, Amanda; Haban-Bartz, Annette; Collins, Kristin; Rogers, Lynette K

    2013-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid important for neonatal neurodevelopment and immune homeostasis. Preterm infants fed donor milk from a Midwestern source receive only 20% of the intrauterine accretion of DHA. We tested the hypothesis that DHA supplementation of donor mothers would provide preterm infants with DHA intake equivalent to fetal accretion. After Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, human milk donors to the Mother's Milk Bank of Ohio were randomized to receive 1 g of DHA (Martek(®) [now DSM Nutritional Lipids, Columbia, MD]) or placebo soy oil. Dietary intake data were collected and analyzed by a registered dietitian. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Statistical analysis used linear mixed models. Twenty-one mothers were randomly assigned to either the DHA group (n=10) or the placebo group (n=11). Donor age was a median of 31 years in both groups with a mean lactational stage of 19 weeks. Dietary intake of DHA at baseline in both groups was a median of 23 mg/day (range, 0-194 mg), significantly (p<0.0001) less than the minimum recommended intake of 200 mg/day. The DHA content of milk increased in the DHA-supplemented group (p<0.05). The women enrolled in this study had low dietary DHA intake. Supplementation with preformed DHA at 1 g/day resulted in increased DHA concentrations in the donor milk with no adverse outcomes. Infants fed donor milk from supplemented women receive dietary DHA levels that closely mimic normal intrauterine accretion during the third trimester.

  20. Nd:YAG laser ablation and acid resistance of enamel.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Won; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2003-09-01

    The acid resistance of Nd:YAG laser-ablated enamel surfaces was studied by evaluating crystal structure, mineral distribution, and fluorescence radiance and image in the present study. For comparison, 37% phosphoric acid etching was performed. The formation of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) was confirmed in the laser-ablated surface. The Ca/P ratio increased after ablation due to mineral re-distribution. In contrast, the Ca/P ratio decreased after acid etching due to mineral loss. The laser-ablated enamels showed a smaller increase of fluorescence radiances and less clear laser confocal scanning microscope images than those observed in the acid-etched enamels. The former suggests a minimized mineral loss. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation will enhance the acid resistance and retard the carious progression in enamel.

  1. Phloridzin docosahexaenoate, a novel flavonoid derivative, suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Arumuggam, Niroshaathevi; Melong, Nicole; Too, Catherine KL; Berman, Jason N; Rupasinghe, HP Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    The overall clinical outcome in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) can be improved by minimizing risk for treatment failure using effective pharmacological adjuvants. Phloridzin (PZ), a flavonoid precursor found in apple peels, was acylated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) yielding a novel ester known as phloridzin docosahexaenoate (PZ-DHA). Here, we have studied the cytotoxic effects of PZ-DHA on human leukemia cells using in vitro and in vivo models. The inhibitory effects of PZ-DHA were tested on human Jurkat T-ALL cells in comparison to K562 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells and non-malignant murine T-cells. PZ-DHA, not PZ or DHA alone, reduced cell viability and ATP levels, increased intracellular LDH release, and caused extensive morphological alterations in both Jurkat and K562 cells. PZ-DHA also inhibited cell proliferation, and selectively induced apoptosis in Jurkat and K562 cells while sparing normal murine T-cells. The cytotoxic effects of PZ-DHA on Jurkat cells were associated with caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and selective down-regulation of STAT3 phosphorylation. PZ-DHA significantly inhibited Jurkat cell proliferation in zebrafish larvae; however, the proliferation of K562 cells was not affected in vivo. We propose that PZ-DHA-induced cytotoxic response is selective towards T-ALL in the presence of a tumor-stromal microenvironment. Prospective studies evaluating the combinatorial effects of PZ-DHA with conventional chemotherapy for T-ALL are underway. PMID:29312799

  2. Recent Advances in Tumor Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided tumor ablation for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an accepted non-surgical treatment that provides excellent local tumor control and favorable survival benefit. This review summarizes the recent advances in tumor ablation for HCC. Diagnostic imaging and molecular biology of HCC has recently undergone marked improvements. Second-generation ultrasonography (US) contrast agents, new computed tomography (CT) techniques, and liver-specific contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have enabled the early detection of smaller and inconspicuous HCC lesions. Various imaging-guidance tools that incorporate imaging-fusion between real-time US and CT/MRI, that are now common for percutaneous tumor ablation, have increased operator confidence in the accurate targeting of technically difficult tumors. In addition to radiofrequency ablation (RFA), various therapeutic modalities including microwave ablation, irreversible electroporation, and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation have attracted attention as alternative energy sources for effective locoregional treatment of HCC. In addition, combined treatment with RFA and chemoembolization or molecular agents may be able to overcome the limitation of advanced or large tumors. Finally, understanding of the biological mechanisms and advances in therapy associated with tumor ablation will be important for successful tumor control. All these advances in tumor ablation for HCC will result in significant improvement in the prognosis of HCC patients. In this review, we primarily focus on recent advances in molecular tumor biology, diagnosis, imaging-guidance tools, and therapeutic modalities, and refer to the current status and future perspectives for tumor ablation for HCC. PMID:26674766

  3. Photoactive dye enhanced tissue ablation for endoscopic laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Minwoo; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-02-01

    Laser light has been widely used as a surgical tool to treat benign prostate hyperplasia with high laser power. The purpose of this study was to validate the feasibility of photoactive dye injection to enhance light absorption and eventually to facilitate tissue ablation with low laser power. The experiment was implemented on chicken breast due to minimal optical absorption Amaranth (AR), black dye (BD), hemoglobin powder (HP), and endoscopic marker (EM), were selected and tested in vitro with a customized 532-nm laser system with radiant exposure ranging from 0.9 to 3.9 J/cm2. Light absorbance and ablation threshold were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer and Probit analysis, respectively, and compared to feature the function of the injected dyes. Ablation performance with dye-injection was evaluated in light of radiant exposure, dye concentration, and number of injection. Higher light absorption by injected dyes led to lower ablation threshold as well as more efficient tissue removal in the order of AR, BD, HP, and EM. Regardless of the injected dyes, ablation efficiency principally increased with input parameter. Among the dyes, AR created the highest ablation rate of 44.2+/-0.2 μm/pulse due to higher absorbance and lower ablation threshold. Preliminary tests on canine prostate with a hydraulic injection system demonstrated that 80 W with dye injection yielded comparable ablation efficiency to 120 W with no injection, indicating 33 % reduced laser power with almost equivalent performance. In-depth comprehension on photoactive dye-enhanced tissue ablation can help accomplish efficient and safe laser treatment for BPH with low power application.

  4. [Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Bale, Reto

    2013-03-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is well established in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to its curative potential, it is the method of choice for non resectable BCLC (Barcelona Liver Clinic) 0 and A. RFA challenges surgical resection for small HCC and is the method of choice in bridging for transplantation and recurrence after resection or transplantation. The technical feasibility of RFA depends on the size and location of the HCC and the availability of ablation techniques (one needle techniques, multi-needle techniques). More recently, stereotactic multi-needle techniques with 3D trajectory planning and guided needle placement substantially improve the spectrum of treatable lesions including large volume tumors. Treatment success depends on the realization of ablations with large intentional margins of tumor free tissue (A0 ablation in analogy to R0 resection), which has to be documented by fusion of post- with pre-ablation images, and confirmed during follow-up imaging.

  5. Effect of nonparallel placement of in-circle bipolar radiofrequency ablation probes on volume of tissue ablated with heat sink.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Krishna; Al-Alem, Ihssan; Akhter, Javed; Chua, Terence C; Shehata, Mena; Morris, David L

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive technique for treating liver tumors. It is not always possible to insert the bipolar probes parallel to each other on either side of tumor, since it restricts maneuverability away from vital structures or ablate certain tumor shape. Therefore, we investigated how nonparallel placement of probes affected ablation. Bipolar RFA in parallel and in divergent positions were submerged in tissue model (800 mL egg white) at 37°C and ablated. Temperature probes, T1 and T2 were placed 8.00 mm below the tip of the probes, T3 in between the probe coil elements and T4 and T5 at water inlet and outlet, respectively. Both models with heat sink (+HS) and without (-HS) were investigated. The mean ablated tissue volume, mass, density and height increased linearly with unit angle increase for -HS model. With +HS, a smaller increase in mean volume and mass, a slightly greater increase in mean density but a reduction in height of tissue was seen. The mean ablation time and duration of maximum temperature with +HS was slightly larger, compared with -HS, while -HS ablated at a slightly higher temperature. The heat sink present was minimal for probes in parallel position compared to nonparallel positions. Divergence from parallel insertion of bipolar RFA probes increased the mean volume, mass, and density of tissue ablated. However, the presence of large heat sinks may limit the application of this technique, when tumors border on larger vessels. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Simulation of Pellet Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, P. B.; Ishizaki, Ryuichi

    2000-10-01

    In order to clarify the structure of the ablation flow, 2D simulation is carried out with a fluid code solving temporal evolution of MHD equations. The code includes electrostatic sheath effect at the cloud interface.(P.B. Parks et al.), Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 38, 571 (1996). An Eulerian cylindrical coordinate system (r,z) is used with z in a spherical pellet. The code uses the Cubic-Interpolated Psudoparticle (CIP) method(H. Takewaki and T. Yabe, J. Comput. Phys. 70), 355 (1987). that divides the fluid equations into non-advection and advection phases. The most essential element of the CIP method is in calculation of the advection phase. In this phase, a cubic interpolated spatial profile is shifted in space according to the total derivative equations, similarly to a particle scheme. Since the profile is interpolated by using the value and the spatial derivative value at each grid point, there is no numerical oscillation in space, that often appears in conventional spline interpolation. A free boundary condition is used in the code. The possibility of a stationary shock will also be shown in the presentation because the supersonic ablation flow across the magnetic field is impeded.

  7. Laboratory Simulations of Micrometeoroid Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Evan Williamson

    Each day, several tons of meteoric material enters Earth's atmosphere, the majority of which consist of small dust particles (micrometeoroids) that completely ablate at high altitudes. The dust input has been suggested to play a role in a variety of phenomena including: layers of metal atoms and ions, nucleation of noctilucent clouds, effects on stratospheric aerosols and ozone chemistry, and the fertilization of the ocean with bio-available iron. Furthermore, a correct understanding of the dust input to the Earth provides constraints on inner solar system dust models. Various methods are used to measure the dust input to the Earth including satellite detectors, radar, lidar, rocket-borne detectors, ice core and deep-sea sediment analysis. However, the best way to interpret each of these measurements is uncertain, which leads to large uncertainties in the total dust input. To better understand the ablation process, and thereby reduce uncertainties in micrometeoroid ablation measurements, a facility has been developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to accelerate iron particles to relevant meteoric velocities (10-70 km/s). The particles are then introduced into a chamber pressurized with a target gas, and they partially or completely ablate over a short distance. An array of diagnostics then measure, with timing and spatial resolution, the charge and light that is generated in the ablation process. In this thesis, we present results from the newly developed ablation facility. The ionization coefficient, an important parameter for interpreting meteor radar measurements, is measured for various target gases. Furthermore, experimental ablation measurements are compared to predictions from commonly used ablation models. In light of these measurements, implications to the broader context of meteor ablation are discussed.

  8. A cost-utility analysis of ablative therapy for Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Inadomi, John M.; Somsouk, Ma; Madanick, Ryan D.; Thomas, Jennifer P.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Recommendations for patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) include endoscopic surveillance with esophagectomy for early-stage cancer, although new technologies to ablate dysplasia and metaplasia are available. This study compares the cost-utility of ablation with that of endoscopic surveillance strategies. Methods A decision analysis model was created to examine a population of patients with BE (mean age 50), with separate analyses for patients with no dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia (LGD), or high-grade dysplasia (HGD). Strategies compared were: no endoscopic surveillance; endoscopic surveillance with ablation for incident dysplasia; immediate ablation followed by endoscopic surveillance in all patients or limited to patients in whom metaplasia persisted, and esophagectomy. Ablation modalities modeled included radiofrequency, argon plasma coagulation, multipolar electrocoagulation and photodynamic therapy. Results Endoscopic ablation for patients with HGD could increase life expectancy by 3 quality-adjusted years at an incremental cost of < $6,000, compared with no intervention. Patients with LGD or no dysplasia can also be optimally managed with ablation, but continued surveillance after eradication of metaplasia is expensive. If ablation permanently eradicates at least 28% of LGD or 40% of non-dysplastic metaplasias, ablation would be preferred to surveillance. Conclusions Endoscopic ablation could be the preferred strategy for managing patients with BE with HGD. Ablation might also be preferred in subjects with LGD or no dysplasia, but the cost-effectiveness depends on the long-term effectiveness of ablation and whether surveillance endoscopy can be discontinued following successful ablation. As further post-ablation data become available, the optimal management strategy will be clarified. PMID:19272389

  9. Thermal ablation of an aluminium film upon absorption of a femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Bezhanov, S G; Kanavin, A P; Uryupin, S A

    We have found the time dependence of the ablation depth of aluminium irradiated by a femtosecond laser pulse. It is shown to what extent an increase in the radiation energy flux density leads to an increase in the quasi-stationary value of the ablation depth. By reducing the aluminium film thickness down to one hundred nanometres and less, the ablation depth significantly increases. At the same time, the quasi-stationary value of the ablation depth of a thin film is obtained due to the removal of heat from the focal spot region. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Randall; Lanni, Lydia; Jen, K.-L. Catherine

    In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact cognitive development in their children, but that Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most prominent n-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-PUFA) present in fish may counteract negative effects of mercury on the nervous system. Aside from effects on the nervous system, epidemiological and animal studies have also suggested that low level mercury exposure maymore » be a risk factor for autoimmune disease. However unlike the nervous system where a mechanism linking mercury to impaired cognitive development remains elusive, we have previously suggested a potential mechanism linking low level mercury exposures to immune system dysfunction and autoimmunity. In the immune system it is well established that disruption of CD95 mediated apoptosis leads to autoimmune disease. We have previously shown in vitro as well as in vivo that in lymphocytes burdened with low levels of mercury, CD95 mediated cell death is impaired. In this report we now show that DHA counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling in T lymphocytes. T cells which have been pre-exposed to DHA are able to cleave pro-caspase 3 and efficiently signal programmed cell death through the CD95 signaling pathway, whether or not they are burdened with low levels of mercury. Thus DHA may lower the risk of autoimmune disease after low level mercury exposures. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) interferes with CD95 mediated cell death in Jurkat T cells • DHA restores the ability of CD95 to signal cell death in Hg{sup 2+} intoxicated T cells • The restoration of CD95 mediated cell death by DHA is correlated with increased activation of Caspase 3.« less

  11. Safety Assessment of Docosahexaenoic Acid in X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa: The 4-Year DHAX Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hughbanks-Wheaton, Dianna K.; Birch, David G.; Fish, Gary E.; Spencer, Rand; Pearson, N. Shirlene; Takacs, Alison; Hoffman, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) continues to be evaluated and recommended as treatment and prophylaxis for various diseases. We recently assessed efficacy of high-dose DHA supplementation to slow vision loss in patients with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) in a randomized clinical trial. Because DHA is a highly unsaturated fatty acid, it could serve as a target for free-radical induced oxidation, resulting in increased oxidative stress. Biosafety was monitored during the 4-year trial to determine whether DHA supplementation was associated with identifiable risks. Methods. Males (n = 78; 7–31 years) meeting entry criteria were enrolled. The modified intent-to-treat cohort (DHA = 33; placebo = 27) adhered to the protocol ≥ 1 year. Participants were randomized to an oral dose of 30 mg/kg/d DHA or placebo plus a daily multivitamin. Comprehensive metabolic analyses were assessed for group differences. Treatment-emergent adverse events including blood chemistry metabolites were recorded. Results. By year 4, supplementation elevated plasma and red blood cell–DHA 4.4- and 3.6-fold, respectively, compared with the placebo group (P < 0.00001). Over the trial duration, no significant differences between DHA and placebo groups were found for vitamin A, vitamin E, platelet aggregation, antioxidant activity, lipoprotein cholesterol, or oxidized LDL levels (all P > 0.14). Adverse events were transient and not considered severe (e.g., gastrointestinal [GI] irritability, blood chemistry alterations). One participant was unable to tolerate persistent GI discomfort. Conclusions. Long-term, high-dose DHA supplementation to patients with XLRP was associated with limited safety risks in this 4-year trial. Nevertheless, GI symptoms should be monitored in all patients taking high dose DHA especially those with personal or family history of GI disturbances. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00100230.) PMID:25015354

  12. Screening of new British thraustochytrids isolates for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production.

    PubMed

    Marchan, Loris Fossier; Lee Chang, Kim J; Nichols, Peter D; Polglase, Jane L; Mitchell, Wilfrid J; Gutierrez, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Thraustochytrids isolated from hot tropical and sub-tropical waters have been well studied for DHA and biodiesel production in the last decades. However, little research has been performed on the oils of cold water thraustochytrids, in particular from the North Sea region. In this study, thraustochytrid strains from British waters showed high relative levels of omega-3 long-chain (≥C 20 ) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3). The relative levels of DHA (as % of total fatty acids, TFA) in the different British strains are hitherto amongst the highest recorded from any thraustochytrid screening study, with strain TL18 reaching up to 67% DHA in modified Glucose-Yeast Extract-Peptone (GYP) medium. At this screening stage, low final biomass and fatty acid yield were observed in modified GYP and MarChiquita-Brain Heart Broth (MCBHB), while PUFA profiles (as % of PUFA) remained unaltered regardless of the culture medium used. Hence, optimizing the medium and culture conditions to improve growth and lipid content, without impacting the relative percentage of DHA, has the potential to increase the final DHA concentration. With this in mind, three strains were identified as promising organisms for the production of DHA. In the context of possible future industrial exploitation involving a winterization step, we investigated the recycling of the residual oil for biodiesel use. To do this, a mathematical model was used to assess the intrinsic properties of the by-product oil. The results showed the feasibility of producing primary DHA-rich oil, assuming optimized conditions, while using the by-product oil for biodiesel use.

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid, but not eicosapentaenoic acid, improves septic shock-induced arterial dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Clere-Jehl, Raphaël; Le Borgne, Pierrick; Merdji, Hamid; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Meziani, Ferhat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Long chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation may modulate septic shock-induced host response to pathogen-induced sepsis. The composition of lipid emulsions for parenteral nutrition however remains a real challenge in intensive care, depending on their fatty acid content. Because they have not been assessed yet, we aimed at determining the respective effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during septic shock-induced vascular dysfunction. Methods In a peritonitis-induced septic shock model, rats were infused with EPA, DHA, an EPA/DHA mixture or 5% dextrose (D5) during 22 hours. From H18, rats were resuscitated and monitored during 4 hours. At H22, plasma, aorta and mesenteric resistance arteries were collected to perform ex vivo experiments. Results We have shown that septic rats needed an active resuscitation with fluid challenge and norepinephrine treatment, while SHAM rats did not. In septic rats, norepinephrine requirements were significantly decreased in DHA and EPA/DHA groups (10.6±12.0 and 3.7±8.0 μg/kg/min respectively versus 17.4±19.3 μg/kg/min in D5 group, p<0.05) and DHA infusion significantly improved contractile response to phenylephrine through nitric oxide pathway inhibition. DHA moreover significantly reduced vascular oxidative stress and nitric oxide production, phosphorylated IκB expression and vasodilative prostaglandin production. DHA also significantly decreased polyunsaturated fatty acid pro-inflammatory mediators and significantly increased several anti-inflammatory metabolites. Conclusions DHA infusion in septic rats improved hemodynamic dysfunction through decreased vascular oxidative stress and inflammation, while EPA infusion did not have beneficial effects. PMID:29261735

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid loaded lipid nanoparticles with bactericidal activity against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Seabra, Catarina Leal; Nunes, Cláudia; Gomez-Lazaro, Maria; Correia, Marta; Machado, José Carlos; Gonçalves, Inês C; Reis, Celso A; Reis, Salette; Martins, M Cristina L

    2017-03-15

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in fish oil, has been described as a promising molecule to the treatment of Helicobacter pylori gastric infection. However, due to its highly unsaturated structure, DHA can be easily oxidized loosing part of its bioactivity. This work aims the nanoencapsulation of DHA to improve its bactericidal efficacy against H. pylori. DHA was loaded into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) produced by hot homogenization and ultrasonication using a blend of lipids (Precirol ATO5 ® , Miglyol-812 ® ) and a surfactant (Tween 60 ® ). Homogeneous NLC with 302±14nm diameter, -28±3mV surface charge (dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering) and containing 66±7% DHA (UV/VIS spectroscopy) were successfully produced. Bacterial growth curves, performed over 24h in the presence of different DHA concentrations (free or loaded into NLC), demonstrated that nanoencapsulation enhanced DHA bactericidal effect, since DHA-loaded NLC were able to inhibit H. pylori growth in a much lower concentrations (25μM) than free DHA (>100μM). Bioimaging studies, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and also imaging flow cytometry, demonstrated that DHA-loaded NLC interact with H. pylori membrane, increasing their periplasmic space and disrupting membrane and allowing the leakage of cytoplasmic content. Furthermore, the developed nanoparticles are not cytotoxic to human gastric adenocarcinoma cells at bactericidal concentrations. DHA-loaded NLC should, therefore, be envisaged as an alternative to the current treatments for H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid in the goat kid diet: effects on immune system and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Indias, I; Morales-delaNuez, A; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Sánchez-Macías, D; Capote, J; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2012-11-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3; DHA) supplementation on meat quality and immunity in goat (Capra hircus) kids was examined. Goat kids (n = 30) were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: goat milk (GM), cow (Bos taurus) milk (CM), and CM supplemented with DHA (CM-DHA). Animals were fed ad libitum twice daily and weighed twice each week. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture daily during the first 10 d of life and were subsequently collected every 5 d until slaughter at a BW of 8 kg. Carcass size (linear measurements) and weight, as well as meat pH, color, tenderness, and chemical composition were determined. Fatty acid profiles of intramuscular, peri-renal, pelvic, subcutaneous, and intermuscular fats were analyzed. Blood IgG and IgM concentrations, complement system activity (classical and alternative pathways), and chitotriosidase activity were recorded. Results indicated that the diet containing DHA did not affect (P > 0.05) carcass linear measurements, meat quality characteristics, or proximate composition of the meat. However, C22:6n3 fatty acid levels, mainly in intramuscular fat, were enriched (P < 0.05) in CM-DHA animals, and the n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio was improved (P < 0.05). No differences (P > 0.05) in immune function were observed among groups. In conclusion, powdered whole CM is an effective option for feeding goat kids, and the inclusion of DHA to CM increases the quantity of this fatty acid in the meat.

  16. Role of docosahexaenoic acid treatment in improving liver histology in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Carpino, Guido; Alisi, Anna; De Vito, Rita; Franchitto, Antonio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Onori, Paolo; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality in children. Recently, we have reported the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, in children with NAFLD. DHA exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity through the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)120. Our aim was to investigate in pediatric NAFLD the mechanisms underlying the effects of DHA administration on histo-pathological aspects, GPR120 expression, hepatic progenitor cell activation and macrophage pool. 20 children with untreated NAFLD were included. Children were treated with DHA for 18 months. Liver biopsies before and after the treatment were analyzed. Hepatic progenitor cell activation, macrophage pool and GPR120 expression were evaluated and correlated with clinical and histo-pathological parameters. GPR120 was expressed by hepatocytes, liver macrophages, and hepatic progenitor cells. After DHA treatment, the following modifications were present: i) the improvement of histo-pathological parameters such as NAFLD activity score, ballooning, and steatosis; ii) the reduction of hepatic progenitor cell activation in correlation with histo-pathological parameters; iii) the reduction of the number of inflammatory macrophages; iv) the increase of GPR120 expression in hepatocytes; v) the reduction of serine-311-phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) nuclear translocation in hepatocytes and macrophages in correlation with serum inflammatory cytokines. DHA could modulate hepatic progenitor cell activation, hepatocyte survival and macrophage polarization through the interaction with GPR120 and NF-κB repression. In this scenario, the modulation of GPR120 exploits a novel crucial role in the regulation of the cell-to-cell cross-talk that drives inflammatory response, hepatic progenitor cell activation and hepatocyte survival.

  17. The therapeutic effects of docosahexaenoic acid on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Luo, Fei; Zhou, Ying

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the major disorders of the urinary system in elderly men. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the main component of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and has nerve protective, anti-inflammatory and tumour-growth inhibitory effects. Here, the therapeutic potential of DHA in treating BPH was investigated. Seal oil effectively prevented the development of prostatic hyperplasia induced by oestradiol/testosterone in a rat model by suppressing the increase of the prostatic index (PI), reducing the thickness of the peri-glandular smooth muscle layer, inhibiting the proliferation of both prostate epithelial and stromal cells, and downregulating the expression ofmore » androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα). An in vitro study showed that DHA inhibited the growth of the human prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1 and the epithelial cell line RWPE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In both cell lines, the DHA arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. In addition, DHA also reduced the expression of ERα and AR in the WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 cells. These results indicate that DHA inhibits the multiplication of prostate stromal and epithelial cells through a mechanism that may involve cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of ERα and AR expression. - Highlights: • Seal oil prevents oestradiol/testosterone (E2/T)-induced BPH in castrated rats. • Seal oil downregulates the expression of oestrogen receptor α(ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) in rat BPH tissues. • DHA inhibits the growth of human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in vitro. • DHA arrests human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in the G2/M phase and downregulates the expression of cyclin B1. • DHA inhibits the expression of ERα and AR in human prostate stromal and epithelial cells.« less

  18. Ablative and transport fractionation of trace elements during laser sampling of glass and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outridge, P. M.; Doherty, W.; Gregoire, D. C.

    1997-12-01

    The fractionation of trace elements due to ablation and transport processes was quantified during Q-switched infrared laser sampling of glass and copper reference materials. Filter-trapping of the ablated product at different points in the sample introduction system showed ablation and transport sometimes caused opposing fractionation effects, leading to a confounded measure of overall (ablative + transport) fractionation. An unexpected result was the greater ablative fractionation of some elements (Au, Ag, Bi, Te in glass and Au, Be, Bi, Ni, Te in copper) at a higher laser fluence of 1.35 × 10 4W cm -2 than at 0.62 × 10 4W cm -2, which contradicted predictions from modelling studies of ablation processes. With glass, there was an inverse logarithmic relationship between the extent of ablative and overall fractionation and element oxide melting point (OMPs), with elements with OMPs < 1000° C exhibiting overall concentration increases of 20-1340%. Fractionation during transport was quantitatively important for most certified elements in copper, and for the most volatile elements (Au, Ag, Bi, Te) in glass. Elements common to both matrices showed 50-100% higher ablative fractionation in copper, possibly because of greater heat conductance away from the ablation site causing increased element volatilisation or zone refinement. These differences between matrices indicate that non-matrix-matched standardisation is likely to provide inaccurate calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses of at least some elements.

  19. Amalgam ablation with the Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigdor, Harvey A.; Visuri, Steven R.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    Any laser that will be used by dentist to replace the dental drill (handpiece) must remove dental hard tissues safely. These lasers must also have the ability to ablate the restorative dental materials which are present in the teeth being treated. Prior to any laser being used to treat humans a thorough knowledge of the effects of the laser treatment on dental materials must be understood. Cores of dental amalgam were created and sliced into thin wafers for this experiment. Ablation efficiency and thermal changes were evaluated with and without water. It appears as if the Er:YAG laser can effectively ablate amalgam dental material with and without water. The water prevents the temperature from increasing much above baseline and does not reduce efficiency of ablation.

  20. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation and its Impact on Stroke.

    PubMed

    Graves, Kevin G; Jacobs, Victoria; May, Heidi T; Cutler, Michael J; Day, John D; Bunch, T Jared

    2018-01-24

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a commonly encountered arrhythmia, which is not yet fully understood. Catheter ablation has shown to be an effective strategy for rhythm management and several small or retrospective studies have shown that stroke rates are decreased in ablated AF patients compared to those medically managed. Several studies even show that ablation returns stroke risk to that of non-AF patients. Large scale, prospective trials will further illuminate this connection and provide mechanistic understanding of the role of the procedure versus the process of selection for the procedure and peri- and post-procedural therapy and management. Furthermore, modification of risk factors associated with AF show a significant increase in the sustained success of AF ablation and can also moderate the progression of AF.

  1. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation during mitral-valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Gillinov, A Marc; Gelijns, Annetine C; Parides, Michael K; DeRose, Joseph J; Moskowitz, Alan J; Voisine, Pierre; Ailawadi, Gorav; Bouchard, Denis; Smith, Peter K; Mack, Michael J; Acker, Michael A; Mullen, John C; Rose, Eric A; Chang, Helena L; Puskas, John D; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Gardner, Timothy J; Varghese, Robin; Horvath, Keith A; Bolling, Steven F; Michler, Robert E; Geller, Nancy L; Ascheim, Deborah D; Miller, Marissa A; Bagiella, Emilia; Moquete, Ellen G; Williams, Paula; Taddei-Peters, Wendy C; O'Gara, Patrick T; Blackstone, Eugene H; Argenziano, Michael

    2015-04-09

    Among patients undergoing mitral-valve surgery, 30 to 50% present with atrial fibrillation, which is associated with reduced survival and increased risk of stroke. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation has been widely adopted, but evidence regarding its safety and effectiveness is limited. We randomly assigned 260 patients with persistent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation who required mitral-valve surgery to undergo either surgical ablation (ablation group) or no ablation (control group) during the mitral-valve operation. Patients in the ablation group underwent further randomization to pulmonary-vein isolation or a biatrial maze procedure. All patients underwent closure of the left atrial appendage. The primary end point was freedom from atrial fibrillation at both 6 months and 12 months (as assessed by means of 3-day Holter monitoring). More patients in the ablation group than in the control group were free from atrial fibrillation at both 6 and 12 months (63.2% vs. 29.4%, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the rate of freedom from atrial fibrillation between patients who underwent pulmonary-vein isolation and those who underwent the biatrial maze procedure (61.0% and 66.0%, respectively; P=0.60). One-year mortality was 6.8% in the ablation group and 8.7% in the control group (hazard ratio with ablation, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.84; P=0.55). Ablation was associated with more implantations of a permanent pacemaker than was no ablation (21.5 vs. 8.1 per 100 patient-years, P=0.01). There were no significant between-group differences in major cardiac or cerebrovascular adverse events, overall serious adverse events, or hospital readmissions. The addition of atrial fibrillation ablation to mitral-valve surgery significantly increased the rate of freedom from atrial fibrillation at 1 year among patients with persistent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation, but the risk of implantation of a permanent pacemaker

  2. Ablative heat shield design for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiferth, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Ablator heat shield configuration optimization studies were conducted for the orbiter. Ablator and reusable surface insulation (RSI) trajectories for design studies were shaped to take advantage of the low conductance of ceramic RSI and high temperature capability of ablators. Comparative weights were established for the RSI system and for direct bond and mechanically attached ablator systems. Ablator system costs were determined for fabrication, installation and refurbishment. Cost penalties were assigned for payload weight penalties, if any. The direct bond ablator is lowest in weight and cost. A mechanically attached ablator using a magnesium subpanel is highly competitive for both weight and cost.

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) effects on proliferation and steroidogenesis of bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Virginie; Desmarchais, Alice; Durcin, Maeva; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Elis, Sebastien

    2018-04-26

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) belonging to a family of biologically active fatty acids (FA), which are known to have numerous health benefits. N-3 PUFAs affect reproduction in cattle, and notably directly affect follicular cells. In terms of reproduction in cattle, n-3 PUFA-enriched diets lead to increased follicle size or numbers. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of DHA (1, 10, 20 and 50 μM) on proliferation and steroidogenesis (parametric and/or non parametric (permutational) ANOVA) of bovine granulosa cells in vitro and mechanisms of action through protein expression (Kruskal-Wallis) and signaling pathways (non parametric ANOVA) and to investigate whether DHA could exert part of its action through the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4). DHA (10 and 50 μM) increased granulosa cell proliferation and DHA 10 μM led to a corresponding increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression level. DHA also increased progesterone secretion at 1, 20 and 50 μM, and estradiol secretion at 1, 10 and 20 μM. Consistent increases in protein levels were also reported for the steroidogenic enzymes, cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1 (CYP11A1) and hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 1 (HSD3B1), and of the cholesterol transporter steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), which are necessary for production of progesterone or androstenedione. FFAR4 was expressed in all cellular types of bovine ovarian follicles, and in granulosa cells it was localized close to the cellular membrane. TUG-891 treatment (1 and 50 μM), a FFAR4 agonist, increased granulosa cell proliferation and MAPK14 phosphorylation in a similar way to that observed with DHA treatment. However, TUG-891 treatment (1, 10 and 50 μM) showed no effect on progesterone or estradiol secretion. These data show that DHA stimulated proliferation and steroidogenesis of bovine

  4. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with concomitant sinus bradycardia-Insights from the German Ablation Registry.

    PubMed

    Zylla, Maura M; Brachmann, Johannes; Lewalter, Thorsten; Hoffmann, Ellen; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Andresen, Dietrich; Willems, Stephan; Hochadel, Matthias; Senges, Jochen; Katus, Hugo A; Thomas, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    This investigation addresses procedural characteristics of catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and sinus bradycardia. From the prospective, multi-center German Ablation Registry 1073 patients with sinus rhythm at the time of AF ablation were divided into two groups according to heart rate at start of procedure (A, <60 beats per minute (bpm), n=197; B, 60-99bpm, n=876). Acute procedural success was high (≥98%) and similar between groups. Procedure duration and energy application time were increased in group A (180min vs. 155min and 2561s vs. 1879s, respectively). Major complications were more frequent in group A (2.2% vs. 0.5%), and a greater proportion of these patients was discharged under antiarrhythmic medication (64% vs. 52%). Catheter ablation of AF with concomitant sinus bradycardia is associated with high procedural efficacy, longer procedure- and energy application durations, and a slightly elevated complication rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Artificial ascites and pneumoperitoneum to facilitate thermal ablation of liver tumors: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Bhagavatula, Sharath K; Chick, Jeffrey F B; Chauhan, Nikunj R; Shyn, Paul B

    2017-02-01

    Image-guided percutaneous thermal ablation is increasingly utilized in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. Peripherally located hepatic tumors can be difficult to access or located adjacent to critical structures that can be injured. As a result, ablation of peripheral tumors may be avoided or may be performed too cautiously, leading to inadequate ablation coverage. In these cases, separating the tumor from adjacent critical structures can increase the efficacy and safety of procedures. Artificial ascites and artificial pneumoperitoneum are techniques that utilize fluid and gas, respectively, to insulate critical structures from the thermal ablation zone. Induction of artificial ascites and artificial pneumoperitoneum can enable complete ablation of otherwise inaccessible hepatic tumors, improve tumor visualization, minimize unintended thermal injury to surrounding organs, and reduce post-procedural pain. This pictorial essay illustrates and discusses the proper technique and clinical considerations for successful artificial ascites and pneumoperitoneum creation to facilitate safe peripheral hepatic tumor ablation.

  6. Atrial fibrillation ablation using cryoballoon technology: Recent advances and practical techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaojie; Schmidt, Boris; Bordignon, Stefano; Bologna, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Laura; Nagase, Takahiko; Chun, K R Julian

    2018-04-16

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects 1-2% of the population, and its prevalence is estimated to double in the next 50 years as the population ages. AF results in impaired patients' life quality, deteriorated cardiac function, and even increased mortality. Antiarrhythmic drugs frequently fail to restore sinus rhythm. Catheter ablation is a valuable treatment approach for AF, even as a first-line therapy strategy in selected patients. Effective electrical pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is the cornerstone of all AF ablation strategies. Use of radiofrequency (RF) catheter in combination of a three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping system is the most established ablation approach. However, catheter ablation of AF is challenging even sometimes for experienced operators. To facilitate catheter ablation of AF without compromising the durability of the pulmonary vein isolation, "single shot" ablation devices have been developed; of them, cryoballoon ablation, is by far the most widely investigated. In this report, we review the current knowledge of AF and discuss the recent evidence in catheter ablation of AF, particularly cryoballoon ablation. Moreover, we review relevant data from the literature as well as our own experience and summarize the key procedural practical techniques in PVI using cryoballoon technology, aiming to shorten the learning curve of the ablation technique and to contribute further to reduction of the disease burden. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Docosahexaenoic diet supplementation, exercise and temperature affect cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Juan Miguel; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise induces changes in peripheral mononuclear cells' (PBMCs) capabilities to produce cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on cytokine production, by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs after exercise, and the in vitro influence of temperature. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA (1.16 g DHA/day) for 8 weeks, whereas the placebo group consumed a similar non-enriched beverage. Blood samples were taken before and after the nutritional intervention in basal conditions and 2 h after acute exercise. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocytes only in experimental group (from 34 ± 3.6 to 43 ± 3.6 nmols DHA/10(9) erythrocytes). Exercise significantly increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in PBMCs but only in the placebo group (203 %). Exercise also significantly increased IL6, IL8, VEGF, INFγ, TNFα, IL1α, IL1β, MCP1, and EGG production rates by LPS-stimulated PBMCs, and this response was attenuated by DHA supplementation. Temperature but not DHA also affected the pattern of cytokine production increasing IL6, IL8, IL1β, and MCP1 synthesis. The higher change was evidenced in IL1β increasing the production rate at 39.5 °C from 3.19 ± 0.77 to 22.4 ± 6.1 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in placebo and from 2.36 ± 0.11 to 10.6 ± 0.38 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in the supplemented group. The profile of affected cytokines differs between temperature and exercise, suggesting a different PBMC activation pathway. DHA diet supplementation only attenuated cytokine production after exercise and not that induced by temperature.

  8. TPS Ablator Technologies for Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Ablator technologies and the preparation for use in interplanetary spacecraft. NASA does not have adequate TPS ablatives and sufficient selection for planned missions. It includes a comparison of shuttle and interplanetary TPS requirements, the status of mainline TPS charring ablator materials, a summary of JSC SBIR accomplishments in developing advanced charring ablators and the benefits of SBIR Ablator/fabrication technology.

  9. Ion acceleration enhanced by target ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, S.; State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Key Lab of HEDPS, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871; Institute of Radiation, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden

    2015-07-15

    Laser proton acceleration can be enhanced by using target ablation, due to the energetic electrons generated in the ablation preplasma. When the ablation pulse matches main pulse, the enhancement gets optimized because the electrons' energy density is highest. A scaling law between the ablation pulse and main pulse is confirmed by the simulation, showing that for given CPA pulse and target, proton energy improvement can be achieved several times by adjusting the target ablation.

  10. The effect of dietary supplementation of algae rich in docosahexaenoic acid on boar fertility.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E M; Stanton, C; Brien, C O '; Murphy, C; Holden, S; Murphy, R P; Varley, P; Boland, M P; Fair, S

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of a commercial algal product rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on boar fertility as assessed in vitro and in vivo. Boars were fed one of three experimental diets for 19 weeks: (i) Control (Ctl) diet (n = 31), (ii) Ctl diet plus 75g All-G-Rich per day (n = 31) or (iii) Ctl diet plus 150g All-G-Rich per day (n = 30). Parameters assessed were (i) raw semen quality; volume, sperm concentration, total motility and morphology (ii) liquid semen quality; progressive motility, viability, hypotonic resistance and acrosomal integrity (iii) frozen-thawed semen quality; motility, thermal stress, viability, membrane fluidity and mitochondrial activity (iv) sperm and seminal plasma (SP) fatty acid composition (FAC) (v) total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of SP and (vi) farrowing rates and litter sizes of sows (n = 1158) inseminated with liquid semen. Boars consuming 75g All-G-Rich had a larger semen volume (P < 0.05) and a higher total sperm number (P < 0.01) than the Ctl treatment, however, there was no effect of treatment on any other semen quality parameter (P > 0.05). There was no effect of dietary treatment on the FAC and TAC of SP or on farrowing rate and litter size (P > 0.05). There was an effect of dietary treatment on the FAC of sperm, represented by an 1.72 and 1.60 fold increase in the DHA content for 75 and 150g treatments, respectively, compared to the Ctl treatment. In conclusion, a significant increase in semen volume and total sperm number in boars supplemented 75g All-G-Rich daily, resulted in an increase in production of 3 to 4 more doses per ejaculate, thus, indicating that the feeding regime described within this study has the potential for increasing the output of boar studs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous determination of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in common seafood using ultrasonic cell crusher extraction combined with gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juanjuan; Ren, Yan; Yu, Chen; Chen, Xiangming; Shi, Yanan

    2017-02-01

    An effective method for the simultaneous determination of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in common seafood by gas chromatography was developed and validated. Total docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were extracted from seafood by ultrasonic cell crusher assisted extraction and methyl esterified for gas chromatography analysis in the presence of the internal standard. The linearity was good (r > 0.999) in 9.59 ∼ 479.5 μg/mL for docosahexaenoic acid and 9.56 ∼ 477.8 μg/mL for eicosapentaenoic acid. The intrarun and interrun precisions were both within 4.8 and 6.1% for the two analytes, while the accuracy was less than 5.8%. The developed method was applied for determination of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in six kinds of seafood. The result showed the content of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid was all higher than 1 mg/g in yellow croaker, hairtail, venerupis philippinarum, mussel, and oyster. Our work may be helpful for dietary optimization and production of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Influence of Ablation on Radiative Heating for Earth Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Sutton, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Using the coupled ablation and radiation capability recently included in the LAURA flowfield solver, this paper investigates the influence of ablation on the shock-layer radiative heating for Earth entry. The extension of the HARA radiation model, which provides the radiation predictions in LAURA, to treat a gas consisting of the elements C, H, O, and N is discussed. It is shown that the absorption coefficient of air is increased with the introduction of the C and H elements. A simplified shock layer model is studied to show the impact of temperature, as well as the abundance of C and H, on the net absorption or emission from an ablation contaminated boundary layer. It is found that the ablation species reduce the radiative flux in the vacuum ultraviolet, through increased absorption, for all temperatures. However, in the infrared region of the spectrum, the ablation species increase the radiative flux, through strong emission, for temperatures above 3,000 K. Thus, depending on the temperature and abundance of ablation species, the contaminated boundary layer may either provide a net increase or decrease in the radiative flux reaching the wall. To assess the validity of the coupled ablation and radiation LAURA analysis, a previously analyzed Mars-return case (15.24 km/s), which contains significant ablation and radiation coupling, is studied. Exceptional agreement with previous viscous shock-layer results is obtained. A 40% decrease in the radiative flux is predicted for ablation rates equal to 20% of the free-stream mass flux. The Apollo 4 peak-heating case (10.24 km/s) is also studied. For ablation rates up to 3.4% of the free-stream mass flux, the radiative heating is reduced by up to 19%, while the convective heating is reduced by up to 87%. Good agreement with the Apollo 4 radiometer data is obtained by considering absorption in the radiometer cavity. For both the Mars return and the Apollo 4 cases, coupled radiation alone is found to reduce the radiative

  13. Echo Decorrelation Imaging of Rabbit Liver and VX2 Tumor during In Vivo Ultrasound Ablation.

    PubMed

    Fosnight, Tyler R; Hooi, Fong Ming; Keil, Ryan D; Ross, Alexander P; Subramanian, Swetha; Akinyi, Teckla G; Killin, Jakob K; Barthe, Peter G; Rudich, Steven M; Ahmad, Syed A; Rao, Marepalli B; Mast, T Douglas

    2017-01-01

    In open surgical procedures, image-ablate ultrasound arrays performed thermal ablation and imaging on rabbit liver lobes with implanted VX2 tumor. Treatments included unfocused (bulk ultrasound ablation, N = 10) and focused (high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, N = 13) exposure conditions. Echo decorrelation and integrated backscatter images were formed from pulse-echo data recorded during rest periods after each therapy pulse. Echo decorrelation images were corrected for artifacts using decorrelation measured prior to ablation. Ablation prediction performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results revealed significantly increased echo decorrelation and integrated backscatter in both ablated liver and ablated tumor relative to unablated tissue, with larger differences observed in liver than in tumor. For receiver operating characteristic curves computed from all ablation exposures, both echo decorrelation and integrated backscatter predicted liver and tumor ablation with statistically significant success, and echo decorrelation was significantly better as a predictor of liver ablation. These results indicate echo decorrelation imaging is a successful predictor of local thermal ablation in both normal liver and tumor tissue, with potential for real-time therapy monitoring. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective rear side ablation of thin nickel-chromium-alloy films using ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabst, Linda; Ullmann, Frank; Ebert, Robby; Exner, Horst

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the selective laser structuring from the transparent substrate side plays an increased role in thin film processing. The rear side ablation is a highly effective ablation method for thin film structuring and revels a high structuring quality. Therefore, the rear side ablation of nickel-chromium-alloy thin films on glass substrate was investigated using femtosecond laser irradiation. Single and multiple pulses ablation thresholds as well as the incubation coefficient were determined. By irradiation from the transparent substrate side at low fluences a cracking or a partly delamination of the film could be observed. By increasing the fluence the most part of the film was ablated, however, a very thin film remained at the interface of the glass substrate. This thin remaining layer could be completely ablated by two pulses. A further increase of the pulse number had no influence on the ablation morphology. The ablated film was still intact and an entire disc or fragments could be collected near the ablation area. The fragments showed no morphology change and were still in solid state.

  15. Effects of pulse durations and environments on femtosecond laser ablation of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shizhen; Ding, Renjie; Yao, Caizhen; Liu, Hao; Wan, Yi; Wang, Jingxuan; Ye, Yayun; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2018-04-01

    The influence of pulse durations (35fs and 260 fs) and environments (air and vacuum) on the laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) and ablation rates of 304 stainless steel were studied. Two distinct ablation regimes were obtained from the ablation rate curves. At low fluence regime, the ablation rates were similar in spite of the differences of pulse durations and experiment environments. At high fluence regime, the ablation rates of 35 fs pulse duration in vacuum were obviously higher than others. The ablation craters showed smooth edges, moth-eye such as structures, and laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs). At a fixed fluence, the periods of LIPSSs decreased monotonously in their mean spatial period between 700 nm (5 pulses) and 540 nm (200 pulses) with the increase of pulse numbers in air with 35 fs pulse duration. The formation mechanisms of moth-eye like structures and LIPSSs were also discussed.

  16. Calcified lesion modeling for excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Holly A.; Archuleta, Andrew; Splinter, Robert

    2009-06-01

    Objective: Develop a representative calcium target model to evaluate penetration of calcified plaque lesions during atherectomy procedures using 308 nm Excimer laser ablation. Materials and Methods: An in-vitro model representing human calcified plaque was analyzed using Plaster-of-Paris and cement based composite materials as well as a fibrinogen model. The materials were tested for mechanical consistency. The most likely candidate(s) resulting from initial mechanical and chemical screening was submitted for ablation testing. The penetration rate of specific multi-fiber catheter designs and a single fiber probe was obtained and compared to that in human cadaver calcified plaque. The effects of lasing parameters and catheter tip design on penetration speed in a representative calcified model were verified against the results in human cadaver specimens. Results: In Plaster of Paris, the best penetration was obtained using the single fiber tip configuration operating at 100 Fluence, 120 Hz. Calcified human lesions are twice as hard, twice as elastic as and much more complex than Plaster of Paris. Penetration of human calcified specimens was highly inconsistent and varied significantly from specimen to specimen and within individual specimens. Conclusions: Although Plaster of Paris demonstrated predictable increases in penetration with higher energy density and repetition rate, it can not be considered a totally representative laser ablation model for calcified lesions. This is in part due to the more heterogeneous nature and higher density composition of cadaver intravascular human calcified occlusions. Further testing will require a more representative model of human calcified lesions.

  17. Microwave ablation in primary and secondary liver tumours: technical and clinical approaches.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Maria Franca; Chiang, Jason; Laeseke, Paul F; Dietrich, Christoph F; Sannino, Angela; Solbiati, Marco; Nocerino, Elisabetta; Brace, Christopher L; Lee, Fred T

    2017-02-01

    Thermal ablation is increasingly being utilised in the treatment of primary and metastatic liver tumours, both as curative therapy and as a bridge to transplantation. Recent advances in high-powered microwave ablation systems have allowed physicians to realise the theoretical heating advantages of microwave energy compared to other ablation modalities. As a result there is a growing body of literature detailing the effects of microwave energy on tissue heating, as well as its effect on clinical outcomes. This article will discuss the relevant physics, review current clinical outcomes and then describe the current techniques used to optimise patient care when using microwave ablation systems.

  18. Local ablative treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma: An updated review

    PubMed Central

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Serviddio, Gaetano; Muscatiello, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Ablative treatments currently represent the first-line option for the treatment of early stage unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Furthermore, they are effective as bridging/downstaging therapies before orthotopic liver transplantation. Contraindications based on size, number, and location of nodules are quite variable in literature and strictly dependent on local expertise. Among ablative therapies, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has gained a pivotal role due to its efficacy, with a reported 5-year survival rate of 40%-70%, and safety. Although survival outcomes are similar to percutaneous ethanol injection, the lower local recurrence rate stands for a wider application of RFA in hepato-oncology. Moreover, RFA seems to be even more cost-effective than liver resection for very early HCC (single nodule ≤ 2 cm) and in the presence of two or three nodules ≤ 3 cm. There is increasing evidence that combining RFA to transarterial chemoembolization may increase the therapeutic benefit in larger HCCs without increasing the major complication rate, but more robust prospective data is still needed to validate these pivotal findings. Among other thermal treatments, microwave ablation (MWA) uses high frequency electromagnetic energy to induce tissue death via coagulation necrosis. In comparison to RFA, MWA has several theoretical advantages such as a broader zone of active heating, higher temperatures within the targeted area in a shorter treatment time and the lack of heat-sink effect. The safety concerns raised on the risks of this procedure, due to the broader and less predictable necrosis areas, have been recently overcome. However, whether MWA ability to generate a larger ablation zone will translate into a survival gain remains unknown. Other treatments, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, laser ablation, and cryoablation, are less investigated but showed promising results in early HCC patients and could be a valuable therapeutic option in

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid blocks progression of western diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in obese Ldlr-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Kelli A.; Wong, Carmen P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health concern in western societies. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of NAFLD, is characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. NASH is a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is predicted to be the leading cause of liver transplants by 2020. Despite this growing public health concern, there remain no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved NASH treatments. Using Ldlr -/- mice as a preclinical model of western diet (WD)-induced NASH, we previously established that dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6,ω3) attenuated WD-induced NASH in a prevention study. Herein, we evaluated the capacity of DHA supplementation of the WD and a low fat diet to fully reverse NASH in mice with pre-existing disease. Methods Ldlr -/- mice fed the WD for 22 wks developed metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a severe NASH phenotype, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and low hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content. These mice were randomized to 5 groups: a baseline group (WDB, sacrificed at 22 wks) and 4 treatments: 1) WD + olive oil (WDO); 2) WD + DHA (WDD); 3) returned to chow + olive oil (WDChO); or 4) returned to chow + DHA (WDChD). The four treatment groups were maintained on their respective diets for 8 wks. An additional group was maintained on standard laboratory chow (Reference Diet, RD) for the 30-wk duration of the study. Results When compared to the WDB group, the WDO group displayed increased hepatic expression of genes linked to inflammation (Opn, Il1rn, Gdf15), hepatic fibrosis (collagen staining, Col1A1, Thbs2, Lox) reflecting disease progression. Mice in the WDD group, in contrast, had increased hepatic C20-22 ω3 PUFA and no evidence of NASH progression. MetS and NASH markers in the WDChO or WDChD groups were significantly attenuated

  20. Contemporary Tools and Techniques for Substrate Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Structural Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Mathew D; Garza, Hyon-He K

    2018-02-24

    As we have witnessed in other arenas of catheter-based therapeutics, ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation has become increasingly anatomical in its execution. Multi-modality imaging provides anatomical detail in substrate characterization, which is often complex in nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients. Patients with intramural, intraseptal, and epicardial substrates provide challenges in delivering effective ablation to the critical arrhythmia substrate due to the depth of origin or the presence of adjacent critical structures. Novel ablation techniques such as simultaneous unipolar or bipolar ablation can be useful to achieve greater lesion depth, though at the expense of increasing collateral damage. Disruptive technologies like stereotactic radioablation may provide a tailored approach to these complex patients while minimizing procedural risk. Substrate ablation is a cornerstone of the contemporary VT ablation procedure, and recent data suggest that it is as effective and more efficient that conventional activation guided ablation. A number of specific targets and techniques for substrate ablation have been described, and all have shown a fairly high success in achieving their acute procedural endpoint. Substrate ablation also provides a novel and reproducible procedural endpoint, which may add predictive value for VT recurrence beyond conventional programmed stimulation. Extrapolation of outcome data to nonischemic phenotypes requires caution given both the variability in substrate nonischemic distribution and the underrepresentation of these patients in previous trials.

  1. Photoactive dye-enhanced tissue ablation for endoscopic laser prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Minwoo; Hau, Nguyen Trung; Van Phuc, Nguyen; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2014-11-01

    Laser light has been widely used as a surgical tool to treat benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) over 20 years. Recently, application of high laser power up to 200 W was often reported to swiftly remove a large amount of prostatic tissue. The purpose of this study was to validate the feasibility of photoactive dye injection to enhance light absorption and eventually to facilitate tissue vaporization with low laser power. Chicken breast tissue was selected as a target tissue due to minimal optical absorption at the visible wavelength. Four biocompatible photoactive dyes, including amaranth (AR), black dye (BD), hemoglobin powder (HP), and endoscopic marker (EM), were selected and tested in vitro with a customized 532 nm laser system with radiant exposure ranging from 0.9 to 3.9 J/cm(2) . Light absorbance and ablation threshold were measured with UV-Vis spectrometer and Probit analysis, respectively, and compared to feature the function of the injected dyes. Ablation performance with dye-injection was evaluated in light of radiant exposure, dye concentration, and number of injection. Higher light absorption by injected dyes led to lower ablation threshold as well as more efficient tissue removal in the order of AR, BD, HP, and EM. Regardless of the injected dyes, ablation efficiency principally increased with radiant exposure, dye concentration, and number of injection. Among the dyes, AR created the highest ablation rate of 44.2 ± 0.2 µm/pulse due to higher absorbance and lower ablation threshold. High aspect ratios up to 7.1 ± 0.4 entailed saturation behavior in the tissue ablation injected with AR and BD, possibly resulting from plume shielding and increased scattering due to coagulation. Preliminary tests on canine prostate with a hydraulic injection system demonstrated that 80 W with dye injection yielded comparable ablation efficiency to 120 W with no injection, indicating 33% reduced laser power with almost equivalent performance. Due to

  2. Comparison of remote magnetic navigation ablation and manual ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia after failed manual ablation.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Scheinman, Melvin M; Tseng, Zian H; Lee, Byron K; Marcus, Gregory M; Badhwar, Nitish

    2017-01-01

    Catheter ablation for idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia (VA) is effective and safe, but efficacy is frequently limited due to an epicardial origin and difficult anatomy. The remote magnetic navigation (RMN) catheter has a flexible catheter design allowing access to difficult anatomy. We describe the efficacy of the RMN for ablation of idiopathic VA after failed manual ablation. Among 235 patients with idiopathic VA referred for catheter ablation, we identified 51 patients who were referred for repeat ablation after a failed manual ablation. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, including the successful ablation site and findings at electrophysiology study, in repeat procedures conducted using RMN as compared with manual ablation. Among these patients, 22 (43 %) underwent repeat ablation with the RMN and 29 (57 %) underwent repeat ablation with a manual ablation. Overall, successful ablation rate was significantly higher using RMN as compared with manual ablation (91 vs. 69 %, P = 0.02). Fluoroscopy time in the RMN was 17 ± 12 min as compared with 43 ± 18 min in the manual ablation (P = 0.009). Successful ablation rate in the posterior right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) plus posterior-tricuspid annulus was higher with RMN as compared with manual ablation (92 vs. 50 %, P = 0.03). Neither groups exhibited any major complications. The RMN is more effective in selected patients with recurrent idiopathic VA after failed manual ablation and is associated with less fluoroscopy time. The RMN catheters have a flexible design enabling them to access otherwise difficult anatomy including the posterior tricuspid annulus and posterior RVOT.

  3. Ablation of silicon with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiuso, Caterina; Kämmer, Helena; Dreisow, Felix; Ancona, Antonio; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    We report on an experimental investigation of ultrafast laser ablation of silicon with bursts of pulses. The pristine 1030nm-wavelength 200-fs pulses were split into bursts of up to 16 sub-pulses with time separation ranging from 0.5ps to 4080ps. The total ablation threshold fluence was measured depending on the burst features, finding that it strongly increases with the number of sub-pulses for longer sub-pulse delays, while a slowly increasing trend is observed for shorter separation time. The ablation depth per burst follows two different trends according to the time separation between the sub-pulses, as well as the total threshold fluence. For delays shorter than 4ps it decreases with the number of pulses, while for time separations longer than 510ps, deeper craters were achieved by increasing the number of subpulses in the burst, probably due to a change of the effective penetration depth.

  4. Physiological and Biochemical Changes Reveal Differential Patterns of Docosahexaenoic Acid Partitioning in Two Marine Algal Strains of Isochrysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Mao, Xuemei; Liu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    The marine microalgae Isochrysis are a good producer of natural docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). To better understand the patterns of DHA accumulation and distribution, two Isochrysis strains, CL153180 and CCMP462, were evaluated in this study. In a batch culture, CL153180 showed a decline in DHA content while CCMP462 exhibited a progressive increase during the late growth period when nitrogen was almost exhausted. In response to nitrogen deficiency (ND), both strains showed a considerable increase in neutral lipids (NL) at the expense of glycolipids (GL) but had little variation in phospholipids (PL). In CL153180, the DHA percentage of NL decreased gradually upon ND, while that in CCMP462 increased progressively to 21.4% after 4 days of ND, which is around 5-fold higher than CL153180. Accordingly, in contrast to CL153180 that stored DHA predominantly in GL, CCMP462 accumulated DHA mainly in NL in late days of ND. Taken together, we proposed a working model for the differential DHA partitioning patterns between two Isochrysis strains: for CCMP462, the degradation of GL released free fatty acids including DHA, which was incorporated into NL upon ND; whereas for CL153180, the released DHA from GL might not be incorporated into NL, and, consequently, might be subject to β-oxidation for degradation. PMID:29137149

  5. Optimum Laser Beam Characteristics for Achieving Smoother Ablations in Laser Vision Correction.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shwetabh; Hesser, Juergen; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2017-04-01

    Controversial opinions exist regarding optimum laser beam characteristics for achieving smoother ablations in laser-based vision correction. The purpose of the study was to outline a rigorous simulation model for simulating shot-by-shot ablation process. The impact of laser beam characteristics like super Gaussian order, truncation radius, spot geometry, spot overlap, and lattice geometry were tested on ablation smoothness. Given the super Gaussian order, the theoretical beam profile was determined following Lambert-Beer model. The intensity beam profile originating from an excimer laser was measured with a beam profiler camera. For both, the measured and theoretical beam profiles, two spot geometries (round and square spots) were considered, and two types of lattices (reticular and triangular) were simulated with varying spot overlaps and ablated material (cornea or polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA]). The roughness in ablation was determined by the root-mean-square per square root of layer depth. Truncating the beam profile increases the roughness in ablation, Gaussian profiles theoretically result in smoother ablations, round spot geometries produce lower roughness in ablation compared to square geometry, triangular lattices theoretically produce lower roughness in ablation compared to the reticular lattice, theoretically modeled beam profiles show lower roughness in ablation compared to the measured beam profile, and the simulated roughness in ablation on PMMA tends to be lower than on human cornea. For given input parameters, proper optimum parameters for minimizing the roughness have been found. Theoretically, the proposed model can be used for achieving smoothness with laser systems used for ablation processes at relatively low cost. This model may improve the quality of results and could be directly applied for improving postoperative surface quality.

  6. Improving Thermal Ablation Delineation With Electrode Vibration Elastography Using a Bidirectional Wave Propagation Assumption

    PubMed Central

    DeWall, Ryan J.; Varghese, Tomy

    2013-01-01

    Thermal ablation procedures are commonly used to treat hepatic cancers and accurate ablation representation on shear wave velocity images is crucial to ensure complete treatment of the malignant target. Electrode vibration elastography is a shear wave imaging technique recently developed to monitor thermal ablation extent during treatment procedures. Previous work has shown good lateral boundary delineation of ablated volumes, but axial delineation was more ambiguous, which may have resulted from the assumption of lateral shear wave propagation. In this work, we assume both lateral and axial wave propagation and compare wave velocity images to those assuming only lateral shear wave propagation in finite element simulations, tissue-mimicking phantoms, and bovine liver tissue. Our results show that assuming bidirectional wave propagation minimizes artifacts above and below ablated volumes, yielding a more accurate representation of the ablated region on shear wave velocity images. Area overestimation was reduced from 13.4% to 3.6% in a stiff-inclusion tissue-mimicking phantom and from 9.1% to 0.8% in a radio-frequency ablation in bovine liver tissue. More accurate ablation representation during ablation procedures increases the likelihood of complete treatment of the malignant target, decreasing tumor recurrence. PMID:22293748

  7. Improving thermal ablation delineation with electrode vibration elastography using a bidirectional wave propagation assumption.

    PubMed

    DeWall, Ryan J; Varghese, Tomy

    2012-01-01

    Thermal ablation procedures are commonly used to treat hepatic cancers and accurate ablation representation on shear wave velocity images is crucial to ensure complete treatment of the malignant target. Electrode vibration elastography is a shear wave imaging technique recently developed to monitor thermal ablation extent during treatment procedures. Previous work has shown good lateral boundary delineation of ablated volumes, but axial delineation was more ambiguous, which may have resulted from the assumption of lateral shear wave propagation. In this work, we assume both lateral and axial wave propagation and compare wave velocity images to those assuming only lateral shear wave propagation in finite element simulations, tissue-mimicking phantoms, and bovine liver tissue. Our results show that assuming bidirectional wave propagation minimizes artifacts above and below ablated volumes, yielding a more accurate representation of the ablated region on shear wave velocity images. Area overestimation was reduced from 13.4% to 3.6% in a stiff-inclusion tissue-mimicking phantom and from 9.1% to 0.8% in a radio-frequency ablation in bovine liver tissue. More accurate ablation representation during ablation procedures increases the likelihood of complete treatment of the malignant target, decreasing tumor recurrence. © 2012 IEEE

  8. Improved Ablation Resistance of Silicone Rubber Composites by Introducing Montmorillonite and Silicon Carbide Whisker

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangwu; Wang, Fuzhong; Huang, Zhixiong; Dai, Jing; Shi, Minxian

    2016-01-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to silicone rubber (SR) to improve the ablation resistance of the silicone. Following this, different quantities of silicon carbide whiskers (SiCw) were incorporated into the MMT/SR to yield a hybrid, ablative composite. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the composite increased after the addition of MMT. The ablation test results showed that MMT helped to form a covering layer by bonding with the silica and other components on the ablated surface. The linear and mass ablation rates exhibited decreases of 22.5% and 18.2%, respectively, in comparison to a control sample. After further incorporation of SiCw as the second filler, the resulting composites exhibited significantly higher tensile strength and ablation resistance, but not particularly lower elongation at break in comparison to the control sample. The SiCw/MMT fillers were beneficial in forming a dense and compact covering layer that delayed the heat and oxygen diffusion into the inner layers, which improved the ablation properties effectively. The remaining whiskers acted as a micro skeleton to maintain the composite’s char strength. Compared to the control sample, the linear and mass ablation rates of the composite after incorporating 6 phr SiCw and 10 phr MMT decreased by 59.2% and 43.6%, respectively. These experimental results showed that the fabricated composites exhibited outstanding mechanical properties and excellent ablation resistance. PMID:28773846

  9. Thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ya-Qi; Liang, Ping

    2013-05-01

    Many studies have been conducted on splenic thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In this article, we review the evolution and current status of radiofrequency and microwave ablation in the treatment of spleen diseases. All publications from 1990 to 2011 on radiofrequency and microwave ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism were retrieved by searching PubMed. Thermal ablation in the spleen for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism can preserve part of the spleen and maintain splenic immunologic function. Thermal ablation for assisting hemostasis in partial splenectomy minimizes blood loss during operation. Thermal ablation for spleen trauma reduces the number of splenectomy and the amount of blood transfusion. Thermal ablation for splenic metastasis is minimally invasive and can be done under the guidance of an ultrasound, which helps shorten the recovery time. Thermal ablation for hypersplenism increases platelet (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and improves liver function. It also helps to maintain splenic immunologic function and even improves splenic immunologic function in the short-term. In conclusion, thermal ablative approaches are promising for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In order to improve therapeutic effects, directions for future studies may include standardized therapeutic indications, prolonged observation periods and enlarged sample sizes.

  10. Improved Ablation Resistance of Silicone Rubber Composites by Introducing Montmorillonite and Silicon Carbide Whisker.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangwu; Wang, Fuzhong; Huang, Zhixiong; Dai, Jing; Shi, Minxian

    2016-08-24

    Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to silicone rubber (SR) to improve the ablation resistance of the silicone. Following this, different quantities of silicon carbide whiskers (SiCw) were incorporated into the MMT/SR to yield a hybrid, ablative composite. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the composite increased after the addition of MMT. The ablation test results showed that MMT helped to form a covering layer by bonding with the silica and other components on the ablated surface. The linear and mass ablation rates exhibited decreases of 22.5% and 18.2%, respectively, in comparison to a control sample. After further incorporation of SiCw as the second filler, the resulting composites exhibited significantly higher tensile strength and ablation resistance, but not particularly lower elongation at break in comparison to the control sample. The SiCw/MMT fillers were beneficial in forming a dense and compact covering layer that delayed the heat and oxygen diffusion into the inner layers, which improved the ablation properties effectively. The remaining whiskers acted as a micro skeleton to maintain the composite's char strength. Compared to the control sample, the linear and mass ablation rates of the composite after incorporating 6 phr SiCw and 10 phr MMT decreased by 59.2% and 43.6%, respectively. These experimental results showed that the fabricated composites exhibited outstanding mechanical properties and excellent ablation resistance.

  11. Pneumothorax as a complication of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for lung neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Takuji; Kato, Takeharu; Hirota, Tatsuya; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2006-10-01

    The present study was performed to determine the frequency of the complication of pneumothorax after radiofrequency (RF) ablation for lung neoplasms and risk factors affecting such pneumothoraces. The study was based on 129 consecutive sessions of percutaneous RF ablation of lung neoplasms under real-time computed tomographic fluoroscopic guidance performed in a single institution between May 2003 and November 2005 in 41 patients (17 women, 24 men; mean age, 63 years; age range, 29-82 y). Correlation was determined between the incidence of pneumothorax after RF ablation and multiple factors: sex, age, presence of emphysema, lesion size, lesion depth, contact of tumor with pleura, number of punctures, maximum power of RF generator, period of ablation, tissue temperature at the end of the RF ablation session, and patient position during the procedure. Management of each case of iatrogenic pneumothorax was reviewed. Pneumothorax after RF ablation occurred in 38 of 129 RF ablation sessions (29.5%). Fourteen of the 38 cases were treated by manual aspiration, and 24 were simply observed. In five cases (3.9%), chest tube placement was required as therapy for pneumothorax. The risk of pneumothorax was significantly increased in patients with pulmonary emphysema. The frequency of pneumothorax after RF ablation in our experience is similar to the frequency of pneumothorax after lung biopsy reported in the literature. Various conditions for RF ablation did not influence the incidence of pneumothorax. Emphysema was the only individual factor that correlated significantly with the development of iatrogenic pneumothorax.

  12. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment in Proximity to the Gallbladder Without Subsequent Acute Cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Patti, Jay W.; Neeman, Ziv, E-mail: zneeman@cc.hih.gov; Wood, Bradford J.

    2003-08-15

    Initial reports have suggested that proximity of liver tumors to the gallbladder may increase the risk for cholecystitis after radiofrequency ablation. A colon adenocarcinoma metastasis to the liver in contact with the gallbladder was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation without subsequent cholecystitis.

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from alpha-linolenic acid is inhibited by diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R A; Neumann, M A; Lien, E L; Boyd, K A; Tu, W C

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of the plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) to the long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) can be increased by ALA sufficient diets compared to ALA deficient diets. Diets containing ALA above an optimal level result in no further increase in DHA levels in animals and humans. The present study evaluates means of maximizing plasma DHA accumulation by systematically varying both linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and ALA dietary level. Weanling rats were fed one of 54 diets for three weeks. The diets varied in the percentage of energy (en%) of LA (0.07-17.1 en%) and ALA (0.02-12.1 en%) by manipulating both the fat content and the balance of vegetable oils. The peak of plasma phospholipid DHA (>8% total fatty acids) was attained as a result of feeding a narrow dietary range of 1-3 en% ALA and 1-2 en% LA but was suppressed to basal levels (∼2% total fatty acids) at dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) above 3 en%. We conclude it is possible to enhance the DHA status of rats fed diets containing ALA as the only source of n-3 fatty acids but only when the level of dietary PUFA is low (<3 en%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of the Docosapentaenoic Acid/Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio (DPA/DHA Ratio) in Schizochytrium limacinum B4D1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Huidong; Chen, Wuxi; Zhao, Minli; Cui, Haiyang; Min, Qingsong; Wang, Haijun; Chen, Shulin; Li, Demao

    2017-05-01

    Docosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio (DPA/DHA ratio) in Schizochytrium was relatively stable. But ideally the ratio of DPA/DHA will vary according to the desired end use. This study reports several ways of modulating the DPA/DHA ratio. Incubation times changed the DPA/DHA ratio, and changes in this ratio were associated with the variations in the saturated fatty acid (SFAs) content. Propionic acid sharply increased the SFAs content in lipids, dramatically decreased the even-chain SFAs content, and reduced the DPA/DHA ratio. Pentanoic acid (C5:0) and heptanoic acid (C7:0) had similar effects as propionic acid, whereas butyric acid (C4:0), hexanoic acid (C6:0), and octanoic acid (C8:0) did not change the fatty acid profile and the DPA/DHA ratio. Transcription analyses show that β-oxidation might be responsible for this phenomenon. Iodoacetamide upregulated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase genes, reduced the DHA content, and improved the DPA content, causing the DPA/DHA ratio to increase. These results present new insights into the regulation of the DPA/DHA ratio.

  16. The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in the Control of Obesity and Metabolic Derangements in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Monti, Massimo; Arcieri, Stefano; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2016-04-05

    Obesity represents a major under-recognized preventable risk factor for cancer development and recurrence, including breast cancer (BC). Healthy diet and correct lifestyle play crucial role for the treatment of obesity and for the prevention of BC. Obesity is significantly prevalent in western countries and it contributes to almost 50% of BC in older women. Mechanisms underlying obesity, such as inflammation and insulin resistance, are also involved in BC development. Fatty acids are among the most extensively studied dietary factors, whose changes appear to be closely related with BC risk. Alterations of specific ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly low basal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, appear to be important in increasing cancer risk and its relapse, influencing its progression and prognosis and affecting the response to treatments. On the other hand, DHA supplementation increases the response to anticancer therapies and reduces the undesired side effects of anticancer therapies. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that higher fish consumption or intake of DHA reduces BC cell growth and its relapse risk. Controversy exists on the potential anticancer effects of marine ω-3 PUFAs and especially DHA, and larger clinical trials appear mandatory to clarify these aspects. The present review article is aimed at exploring the capacity of DHA in controlling obesity-related inflammation and in reducing insulin resistance in BC development, progression, and response to therapies.

  17. Localized delivery of low-density lipoprotein docosahexaenoic acid nanoparticles to the rat brain using focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mulik, Rohit S; Bing, Chenchen; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; Munaweera, Imalka; Chopra, Rajiv; Corbin, Ian R

    2016-03-01

    Focused ultrasound exposures in the presence of microbubbles can achieve transient, non-invasive, and localized blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening, offering a method for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) nanoparticles reconstituted with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could have significant therapeutic value in the brain, since DHA is known to be neuroprotective. BBB opening was achieved using pulsed ultrasound exposures in a localized brain region in normal rats, after which LDL nanoparticles containing the fluorescent probe DiR (1,1'-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-Tetramethylindotricarbocyanine Iodide) or DHA were administered intravenously. Fluorescent imaging of brain tissue from rats administered LDL-DiR demonstrated strong localization of fluorescence signal in the exposed hemisphere. LDL-DHA administration produced 2 × more DHA in the exposed region of the brain, with a corresponding increase in Resolvin D1 levels, indicating DHA was incorporated into cells and metabolized. Histological evaluation did not indicate any evidence of increased tissue damage in exposed brain regions compared to normal brain. This work demonstrates that localized delivery of DHA to the brain is possible using systemically-administered LDL nanoparticles combined with pulsed focused ultrasound exposures in the brain. This technology could be used in regions of acute brain injury or as a means to target infiltrating tumor cells in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Localized Delivery of Low-Density Lipoprotein Docosahexaenoic Acid Nanoparticles to the Rat Brain using Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mulik, Rohit S.; Bing, Chenchen; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; Munaweera, Imalka; Chopra, Rajiv; Corbin, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Focused ultrasound exposures in the presence of microbubbles can achieve transient, non-invasive, and localized blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening, offering a method for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) nanoparticles reconstituted with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could have significant therapeutic value in the brain, since DHA is known to be neuroprotective. BBB opening was achieved using pulsed ultrasound exposures in a localized brain region in normal rats, after which LDL nanoparticles containing the fluorescent probe DiR (1,1′-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-Tetramethylindotricarbocyanine Iodide) or DHA were administered intravenously. Fluorescent imaging of brain tissue from rats administered LDL-DiR demonstrated strong localization of fluorescence signal in the exposed hemisphere. LDL-DHA administration produced 2× more DHA in the exposed region of the brain, with a corresponding increase in Resolvin D1 levels, indicating DHA was incorporated into cells and metabolized. Histological evaluation did not indicate any evidence of increased tissue damage in exposed brain regions compared to normal brain. This work demonstrates that localized delivery of DHA to the brain is possible using systemically-administered LDL nanoparticles combined with pulsed focused ultrasound exposures in the brain. This technology could be used in regions of acute brain injury or as a means to target infiltrating tumor cells in the brain. PMID:26790145

  19. Combined oral supplementation of chromium picolinate, docosahexaenoic acid, and boron enhances neuroprotection in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed

    Orhan, Cemal; Şahin, Nurhan; Tuzcu, Zeynep; Komorowski, James R.; Şahin, Kazım

    2017-11-13

    Background/aim: A novel complex of a nutritional supplement (CDB) contains chromium picolinate (CrPic), phosphatidylserine (PS), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and boron (B). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CDB on the metabolic profile and memory acquisition in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Materials and methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups and received either a regular diet or HFD supplemented with or without different levels of CDB (0, 11, or 22 mg/kg BW). Results: Rats fed the HFD had greater glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and serum malondialdehyde concentrations, but lower serotonin and tryptophan in the serum and brain and lower Cr concentrations in serum, kidney, brain, and liver (P < 0.0001). CDB complex supplementation reversed all the effects, and the reversal effect was more pronounced with HFD for some parameters. Latency was less (P < 0.05) but probe was greater (P < 0.0001) for rats fed a regular diet. Increasing CDB complex levels in the diets resulted in a linear decrease in latency (P < 0.0002) but a linear increase in probe (P < 0.0002). Conclusion: Findings of the present work indicate that the CDB complex could be considered as an alternative treatment for preventing certain metabolic diseases and improving neurological functions, such as learning and memory.

  20. Image-Guided Ablation of Adrenal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yamakado, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy has remained the standard of care for the treatment for adrenal tumors, percutaneous image-guided ablation therapy, such as chemical ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and microwave ablation, has been shown to be clinically useful in many nonsurgical candidates. Ablation therapy has been used to treat both functioning adenomas and malignant tumors, including primary adrenal carcinoma and metastasis. For patients with functioning adenomas, biochemical and symptomatic improvement is achieved in 96 to 100% after ablation; for patients with malignant adrenal neoplasms, however, the survival benefit from ablation therapy remains unclear, though good initial results have been reported. This article outlines the current role of ablation therapy for adrenal lesions, as well as identifying some of the technical considerations for this procedure. PMID:25049444

  1. [Research on cells ablation characters by laser plasma].

    PubMed

    Han, Jing-hua; Zhang, Xin-gang; Cai, Xiao-tang; Duan, Tao; Feng, Guo-ying; Yang, Li-ming; Zhang, Ya-jun; Wang, Shao-peng; Li, Shi-wen

    2012-08-01

    The study on the mechanism of laser ablated cells is of importance to laser surgery and killing harmful cells. Three radiation modes were researched on the ablation characteristics of onion epidermal cells under: laser direct irradiation, focused irradiation and the laser plasma radiation. Based on the thermodynamic properties of the laser irradiation, the cell temperature rise and phase change have been analyzed. The experiments show that the cells damage under direct irradiation is not obvious at all, but the focused irradiation can cause cells to split and moisture removal. The removal shape is circular with larger area and rough fracture edges. The theoretical analysis found out that the laser plasma effects play a key role in the laser ablation. The thermal effects, radiation ionization and shock waves can increase the deposition of laser pulses energy and impact peeling of the cells, which will greatly increase the scope and efficiency of cell killing and is suitable for the cell destruction.

  2. Ablation of atrial fibrillation with concomitant cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Gillinov, A Marc; Saltman, Adam E

    2007-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is present in approximately 35% of patients presenting for mitral valve surgery and in 1 to 6% of adult patients undergoing other forms of cardiac surgery. If left untreated, atrial fibrillation is associated with increased morbidity, and, in some subgroups, increased mortality. Therefore, concomitant management of the arrhythmia is indicated in most cardiac surgery patients with preexisting atrial fibrillation. Although the cut-and-sew Cox-maze III procedure is extremely effective, it has been supplanted by newer operations that rely on alternate energy sources to create lines of conduction block. Early and mid-term results are good with a variety of technologies. Choice of lesion set remains a matter of debate, but results of ablation appear to be enhanced by a biatrial lesion set. Targeted areas for improvement in concomitant ablation include acceptance of uniform standards for reporting results, development of improved technology for ablation and intraoperative assessment, and creation of instrumentation that facilitates minimally invasive approaches.

  3. Skin pre-ablation and laser assisted microjet injection for deep tissue penetration.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hun-Jae; Yeo, Seonggu; Yoh, Jack J

    2017-04-01

    For conventional needless injection, there still remain many unresolved issues such as the potential for cross-contamination, poor reliability of targeted delivery dose, and significantly painstaking procedures. As an alternative, the use of microjets generated with Er:YAG laser for delivering small doses with controlled penetration depths has been reported. In this study, a new system with two stages is evaluated for effective transdermal drug delivery. First, the skin is pre-ablated to eliminate the hard outer layer and second, laser-driven microjet penetrates the relatively weaker and freshly exposed epidermis. Each stage of operation shares a single Er:YAG laser that is suitable for skin ablation as well as for the generation of a microjet. In this study, pig skin is selected for quantification of the injection depth based on the two-stage procedure, namely pre-ablation and microjet injection. The three types of pre-ablation devised here consists of bulk ablation, fractional ablation, and fractional-rotational ablation. The number of laser pulses are 12, 18, and 24 for each ablation type. For fractional-rotational ablation, the fractional beams are rotated by 11.25° at each pulse. The drug permeation in the skin is evaluated using tissue marking dyes. The depth of penetration is quantified by a cross sectional view of the single spot injections. Multi-spot injections are also carried out to control the dose and spread of the drug. The benefits of a pre-ablation procedure prior to the actual microjet injection to the penetration is verified. The four possible combinations of injection are (a) microjet only; (b) bulk ablation and microjet injection; (c) fractional ablation and microjet injection; and (d) fractional-rotational ablation and microjet injection. Accordingly, the total depth increases with injection time for all cases. In particular, the total depth of penetration attained via fractional pre-ablation increased by 8 ∼ 11% and that of fractional

  4. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

    1998-06-23

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

  5. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    1998-01-01

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition.

  6. Tektite ablation - Some confirming calculations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, J. A., III; Silver, A. D.; Cameron, W. S.; Adams , E. W.; Warmbrod, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The calculation of tektite ablation has been redone, taking into account transient effects, internal radiation, melting and nonequilibrium vaporization of the glass, and the drag effect of the flanges. It is found that the results confirm the earlier calculations of Chapman and his group and of Adams and his co-workers. The general trend of the results is not sensitive to reasonable changes of the physical parameters. The ablation is predominantly by melting rather than by vaporization at all velocities up to 11 km/sec; this is surprising in view of the lack of detectable melt flow in most tektites. Chemical effects have not been considered.

  7. Ablative therapy for liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    Dick, E A; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Thomas, H C; Gedroyc, W M W

    2002-01-01

    Established ablative therapies for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumours, including percutaneous ethanol injection, cryotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation, are discussed. Newer techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging guided laser interstitial thermal therapy of liver tumours has produced a median survival rate of 40.8 months after treatment. The merits of this newly emerging technique are discussed, together with future developments, such as focused ultrasound therapy, which holds the promise of non-invasive thermoablation treatment on an outpatient basis. PMID:11950826

  8. Tissue healing response following hyperthermic vapor ablation in the porcine longissimus muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, John T.; Grisez, Brian T.; Famoso, Justin; Hoey, Michael; Dixon, Chris; Coad, James E.

    2015-03-01

    As the use of hyperthermic ablation technologies has increased, so too has the need to understand their effects on tissue and their healing responses. This study was designed to characterize tissue injury and healing following hyperthermic vapor ablation in the in vivo porcine longissimus muscle model. The individual ablations were performed using the NxThera Vapor Delivery System (NxThera Inc., Minneapolis, MN). To assess the vapor ablation's evolution, the swine were euthanized post-treatment on Day 0, Day 3, Day 7, Day 14, Day 28, Day 45 and Day 90. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride viability staining (TTC staining) was used to macroscopically assess the extent of each vapor ablation within the tissue. The ablation associated healing responses were then histologically evaluated for acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, foreign body reaction and fibrosis. Two zones of tissue injury were initially identified in the ablations: 1) a central zone of complete coagulative necrosis and 2) an outer "transition zone" of viable and non-viable cells. The ablations initially increased in size from Day 0 to Day 7 and then progressively decreased in size though Day 45. The initial Day 3 healing changes originated in the transition zone with minimal acute and chronic inflammation. As time progressed, granulation tissue began to form by Day 7 and peaked around Day 14. Collagen formation, deposition and remodeling began in the adjacent healthy tissue by Day 28, replaced the ablation site by Day 45 and reorganized by Day 90. In conclusion, this vapor ablation technology provided a non-desiccating form of hyperthermic ablation that resulted in coagulative necrosis without a central thermally/heat-fixed tissue component, followed a classical wound healing pathway, and healed with minimal associated inflammation.

  9. Use of CT Hounsfield unit density to identify ablated tumor after laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Berber, E; Foroutani, A; Garland, A M; Rogers, S J; Engle, K L; Ryan, T L; Siperstein, A E

    2000-09-01

    When attempting to interpret CT scans after radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) of liver tumors, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish ablated from viable tumor tissue. Identification of the two types of tissue is specially problematic for lesions that are hypodense before ablation. The aim of this study was to determine whether quantitative Hounsfield unit (HU) density measurements can be used to document the lack of tumor perfusion and thereby identify ablated tissue. Liver spiral CT scans of 13 patients with 51 lesions undergoing laparoscopic RFA for metastatic liver tumors within a 2-year time period were reviewed. HU density of the lesions as well as normal liver were measured pre- and postoperatively in each CT phase (noncontrast, arterial, portovenous). Statistical analyses were performed using Student's paired t-test and ANOVA. Normal liver parenchyma, which was used as a control, showed a similar increase with contrast injection in both pre- and postprocedure CT scans (56.4 +/- 2.4 vs 57.1 +/- 2.4 HU, respectively; p = 0.3). In contrast, ablated liver lesions showed a preablation increase of 45.7 +/- 3.4 HU but only a minimal postablation increase of 6.6 +/- 0.7 HU (p < 0.0001). This was true for highly vascular tumors (neuroendocrine) as well as hypovascular ones (adenocarcinoma). This is the first study to define quantitative radiological criteria using HU density for the evaluation of ablated tissues. A lack of increase in HU density with contrast injection indicates necrotic tissue, whereas perfused tissue shows an increase in HU density. This technique can be used in the evaluation of patients undergoing RFA.

  10. Fractional ablative laser skin resurfacing: a review.

    PubMed

    Tajirian, Ani L; Tarijian, Ani L; Goldberg, David J

    2011-12-01

    Ablative laser technology has been in use for many years now. The large side effect profile however has limited its use. Fractional ablative technology is a newer development which combines a lesser side effect profile along with similar efficacy. In this paper we review fractional ablative laser skin resurfacing.

  11. Modeling and Validation of Microwave Ablations with Internal Vaporization

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Jason; Birla, Sohan; Bedoya, Mariajose; Jones, David; Subbiah, Jeyam; Brace, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulation is increasingly being utilized for computer-aided design of treatment devices, analysis of ablation growth, and clinical treatment planning. Simulation models to date have incorporated electromagnetic wave propagation and heat conduction, but not other relevant physics such as water vaporization and mass transfer. Such physical changes are particularly noteworthy during the intense heat generation associated with microwave heating. In this work, a numerical model was created that integrates microwave heating with water vapor generation and transport by using porous media assumptions in the tissue domain. The heating physics of the water vapor model was validated through temperature measurements taken at locations 5, 10 and 20 mm away from the heating zone of the microwave antenna in homogenized ex vivo bovine liver setup. Cross-sectional area of water vapor transport was validated through intra-procedural computed tomography (CT) during microwave ablations in homogenized ex vivo bovine liver. Iso-density contours from CT images were compared to vapor concentration contours from the numerical model at intermittent time points using the Jaccard Index. In general, there was an improving correlation in ablation size dimensions as the ablation procedure proceeded, with a Jaccard Index of 0.27, 0.49, 0.61, 0.67 and 0.69 at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes. This study demonstrates the feasibility and validity of incorporating water vapor concentration into thermal ablation simulations and validating such models experimentally. PMID:25330481

  12. Ablating Atrial Fibrillation: Customizing Lesion Sets Guided by Rotor Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Junaid A. B.; Narayan, Sanjiv M.

    2015-01-01

    Ablation occupies an increasing role in the contemporary management of atrial fibrillation (AF), but results are suboptimal, particularly for persistent AF. While an anatomic approach to ablation is a highly efficacious and safe method to isolate pulmonary vein (PV) triggers, recurrence of AF is not always associated with PV reconnection, and there is compelling evidence that non-PV sites sustain AF after it is triggered. Recent developments in wide-area mapping and signal processing now identify rotors in the vast majority of AF patients that sustain AF and whose elimination improves long-term freedom from AF in multicenter studies. Investigators have now demonstrated rotor and focal sources for AF that show many analogous properties between approaches: they lie in spatially reproducible regions temporally over hours to days, and they are amenable to targeted ablation. This review outlines the rationale and technical developments supporting this mechanistic paradigm for human AF, and discusses how rotor mapping may be implemented for individual patient customization of lesion sets. Mechanistic studies are required to explain why rotor elimination (or other ablation approaches) producing long-term elimination of AF may not always terminate AF acutely, how AF correlates with structural changes on magnetic resonance imaging, and how these findings can be integrated clinically with current ablation strategies to improve patient outcomes. PMID:26306123

  13. Analysis of plasma-mediated ablation in aqueous tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jian; Guo, Zhixiong

    2012-06-01

    Plasma-mediated ablation using ultrafast lasers in transparent media such as aqueous tissues is studied. It is postulated that a critical seed free electron density exists due to the multiphoton ionization in order to trigger the avalanche ionization which causes ablation and during the avalanche ionization process the contribution of laser-induced photon ionization is negligible. Based on this assumption, the ablation process can be treated as two separate processes - the multiphoton and avalanche ionizations - at different time stages; so that an analytical solution to the evolution of plasma formation is obtained for the first time. The analysis is applied to plasma-mediated ablation in corneal epithelium and validated via comparison with experimental data available in the literature. The critical seed free-electron density and the time to initiate the avalanche ionization for sub-picosecond laser pulses are analyzed. It is found that the critical seed free-electron density decreases as the pulse width increases, obeying a tp-5.65 rule. This model is further extended to the estimation of crater size in the ablation of tissue-mimic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The results match well with the available experimental measurements.

  14. Ablating Atrial Fibrillation: Customizing Lesion Sets Guided by Rotor Mapping.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Junaid A B; Narayan, Sanjiv M

    2015-01-01

    Ablation occupies an increasing role in the contemporary management of atrial fibrillation (AF), but results are suboptimal, particularly for persistent AF. While an anatomic approach to ablation is a highly efficacious and safe method to isolate pulmonary vein (PV) triggers, recurrence of AF is not always associated with PV reconnection, and there is compelling evidence that non-PV sites sustain AF after it is triggered. Recent developments in wide-area mapping and signal processing now identify rotors in the vast majority of AF patients that sustain AF and whose elimination improves long-term freedom from AF in multicenter studies. Investigators have now demonstrated rotor and focal sources for AF that show many analogous properties between approaches: they lie in spatially reproducible regions temporally over hours to days, and they are amenable to targeted ablation. This review outlines the rationale and technical developments supporting this mechanistic paradigm for human AF, and discusses how rotor mapping may be implemented for individual patient customization of lesion sets. Mechanistic studies are required to explain why rotor elimination (or other ablation approaches) producing long-term elimination of AF may not always terminate AF acutely, how AF correlates with structural changes on magnetic resonance imaging, and how these findings can be integrated clinically with current ablation strategies to improve patient outcomes.

  15. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation with 2 × 2 electrodes as a building block for matrix radiofrequency ablation: Ex vivo liver experiments and finite element method modelling.

    PubMed

    Mulier, Stefaan; Jiang, Yansheng; Jamart, Jacques; Wang, Chong; Feng, Yuanbo; Marchal, Guy; Michel, Luc; Ni, Yicheng

    2015-01-01

    Size and geometry of the ablation zone obtained by currently available radiofrequency (RF) electrodes is highly variable. Reliability might be improved by matrix radiofrequency ablation (MRFA), in which the whole tumour volume is contained within a cage of x × y parallel electrodes. The aim of this study was to optimise the smallest building block for matrix radiofrequency ablation: a recently developed bipolar 2 × 2 electrode system. In ex vivo bovine liver, the parameters of the experimental set-up were changed one by one. In a second step, a finite element method (FEM) modelling of the experiment was performed to better understand the experimental findings. The optimal power to obtain complete ablation in the shortest time was 50-60 W. Performing an ablation until impedance rise was superior to ablation for a fixed duration. Increasing electrode diameter improved completeness of ablation due to lower temperature along the electrodes. A chessboard pattern of electrode polarity was inferior to a row pattern due to an electric field void in between the electrodes. Variability of ablation size was limited. The FEM correctly simulated and explained the findings in ex vivo liver. These experiments and FEM modelling allowed a better insight in the factors influencing the ablation zone in a bipolar 2 × 2 electrode RF system. With optimal parameters, complete ablation was obtained quickly and with limited variability. This knowledge will be useful to build a larger system with x × y electrodes for MRFA.

  16. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Versus Docosahexaenoic Acid as Options for Vascular Risk Prevention: A Fish Story.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Arora, Rohit R; Singh, Mukesh; Khosla, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Vascular inflammation is a key component involved in the process of arthrosclerosis, which in turn increases the risk for cardiovascular injury. In the last 10 years, there have been many trials that looked at omega-3 fatty acids as a way to reduce cardiovascular risk. These trials observed the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the traditional lipid panel and found that both EPA and DHA reduce triglyceride (TG) level and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels but also increase the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In the 2 more recent trials, the MARINE and ANCHOR, EPA was given as an adjunct therapy to high-risk patients and not only was the traditional lipids measured but also examined the vascular inflammatory biomarkers. The results of these 2 trials not only showed reduction in cardiovascular risk because of reduction in vascular inflammation and reduction in the lipid panel but also showed that one of the MARINE-derived omega-3 fatty acid is superior to the other. Data search for omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular risk was performed, and articles were selected for review from 2006 to date. The research studies were all double-blind randomized trials except for one, which was a single-blind and focused on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the entire lipid panel. The participants received DHA/EPA and compared with a placebo group on the effect seen in the lipid panel. The first 7 studies looked at the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C; of the 7, 1 directly compared DHA and EPA, 2 focused on EPA, and 4 were directed towards DHA alone. The MARINE and ANCHOR trials were more recent and also looked at the same parameter but also monitored vascular inflammatory biomarkers and how they were affected by omega-3 fatty acids. A second data search was performed for vascular biomarkers and cardiovascular risk, and articles that focused on high-sensitivity C

  17. Improved docosahexaenoic acid production in Aurantiochytrium by glucose limited pH-auxostat fed-batch cultivation.

    PubMed

    Janthanomsuk, Panyawut; Verduyn, Cornelis; Chauvatcharin, Somchai

    2015-11-01

    Fed-batch, pH auxostat cultivation of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-producing microorganism Aurantiochytrium B072 was performed to obtain high cell density and record high productivity of both total fatty acid (TFA) and DHA. Using glucose feeding by carbon excess (C-excess) and by C-limitation at various feeding rates (70%, 50% or 20% of C-excess), high biomass density was obtained and DHA/TFA content (w/w) was improved from 30% to 37% with a 50% glucose feed rate when compared with C-excess. To understand the biochemistry behind these improvements, lipogenic enzyme assays and in silico metabolic flux calculations were used and revealed that enzyme activity and C-fluxes to TFA were reduced with C-limited feeding but that the carbon flux to the polyketide synthase pathway increased relative to the fatty acid synthase pathway. As a result, a new strategy to improve the DHA to TFA content while maintaining relatively high DHA productivity is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation in pregnancy differentially modulates arachidonic acid and DHA status across FADS genotypes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, S A; Kerling, E H; Shaddy, D J; Li, S; Thodosoff, J M; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-03-01

    Some FADS alleles are associated with lower DHA and ARA status assessed by the relative amount of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma and red blood cell (RBC) phospholipids (PL). We determined two FADS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cohort of pregnant women and examined the relationship of FADS1rs174533 and FADS2rs174575 to DHA and ARA status before and after supplementation with 600mg per day of DHA. The 205 pregnant women studied were randomly assigned to placebo (mixed soy and corn oil) (n=96) or 600mg algal DHA (n=109) in 3 capsules per day for the last two trimesters of pregnancy. Women homozygous for the minor allele of FADS1rs174533 (but not FADS2rs174575) had lower DHA and ARA status at baseline. At delivery, minor allele homozygotes of FADS1rs174533 in the placebo group had lower RBC-DHA compared to major-allele carriers (P=0.031), while in the DHA-supplemented group, all genotypes had higher DHA status compared to baseline (P=0.001) and status did not differ by genotype (P=0.941). Surprisingly, DHA but not the placebo decreased ARA status of minor allele homozygotes of both FADS SNPs but not major allele homozygotes at delivery. Any physiological effects of changing the DHA to ARA ratio by increasing DHA intake appears to be greater in minor allele homozygotes of some FADS SNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Evidence for α-Linolenic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease Benefits: Comparisons with Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid12

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Jennifer A.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) benefits of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n–3) has advanced markedly during the past decade. It is now evident that ALA benefits CVD risk. The expansion of the ALA evidence base has occurred in parallel with ongoing research on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n–3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n–3) and CVD. The available evidence enables comparisons to be made for ALA vs. EPA + DHA for CVD risk reduction. The epidemiologic evidence suggests comparable benefits of plant-based and marine-derived n–3 (omega-3) PUFAs. The clinical trial evidence for ALA is not as extensive; however, there have been CVD event benefits reported. Those that have been reported for EPA + DHA are stronger because only EPA + DHA differed between the treatment and control groups, whereas in the ALA studies there were diet differences beyond ALA between the treatment and control groups. Despite this, the evidence suggests many comparable CVD benefits of ALA vs. EPA + DHA. Thus, we believe that it is time to revisit what the contemporary dietary recommendation should be for ALA to decrease the risk of CVD. Our perspective is that increasing dietary ALA will decrease CVD risk; however, randomized controlled clinical trials are necessary to confirm this and to determine what the recommendation should be. With a stronger evidence base, the nutrition community will be better positioned to revise the dietary recommendation for ALA for CVD risk reduction. PMID:25398754

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid induces the degradation of HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins by activating the ubiquitin–proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Jing, K; Shin, S; Jeong, S; Kim, S; Song, K-S; Park, J-H; Heo, J-Y; Seo, K-S; Park, S-K; Kweon, G-R; Wu, T; Park, J-I; Lim, K

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 proteins are essential for the onset and maintenance of HPV-associated malignancies. Here, we report that activation of the cellular ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) by the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), leads to proteasome-mediated degradation of E6/E7 viral proteins and the induction of apoptosis in HPV-infected cancer cells. The increases in UPS activity and degradation of E6/E7 oncoproteins were associated with DHA-induced overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exogenous oxidative stress and pharmacological induction of mitochondrial ROS showed effects similar to those of DHA, and inhibition of ROS production abolished UPS activation, E6/E7 viral protein destabilization, and apoptosis. These findings identify a novel role for DHA in the regulation of UPS and viral proteins, and provide evidence for the use of DHA as a mechanistically unique anticancer agent for the chemoprevention and treatment of HPV-associated tumors. PMID:25393480

  1. Global survey of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood stream of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stark, Ken D; Van Elswyk, Mary E; Higgins, M Roberta; Weatherford, Charli A; Salem, Norman

    2016-07-01

    Studies reporting blood levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were systematically identified in order to create a global map identifying countries and regions with different blood levels. Included studies were those of healthy adults, published in 1980 or later. A total of 298 studies met all inclusion criteria. Studies reported fatty acids in various blood fractions including plasma total lipids (33%), plasma phospholipid (32%), erythrocytes (32%) and whole blood (3.0%). Fatty acid data from each blood fraction were converted to relative weight percentages (wt.%) and then assigned to one of four discrete ranges (high, moderate, low, very low) corresponding to wt.% EPA+DHA in erythrocyte equivalents. Regions with high EPA+DHA blood levels (>8%) included the Sea of Japan, Scandinavia, and areas with indigenous populations or populations not fully adapted to Westernized food habits. Very low blood levels (≤4%) were observed in North America, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The present review reveals considerable variability in blood levels of EPA+DHA and the very low to low range of blood EPA+DHA for most of the world may increase global risk for chronic disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H

    2013-12-01

    Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, which are predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Each of these omega-3 fatty acids has distinct biological effects that may have variable clinical effects. In addition, plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids are affected not only by dietary intake, but also by the polymorphisms of coding genes fatty acid desaturase 1-3 for the desaturase enzymes that convert short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The clinical significance of this new understanding regarding the complexity of omega-3 fatty acid biology is the purpose of this review. FADS polymorphisms that result in either lower levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or higher levels of long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, are associated with dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. EPA and DHA have differences in their effects on lipoprotein metabolism, in which EPA, with a more potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha effect, decreases hepatic lipogenesis, whereas DHA not only enhances VLDL lipolysis, resulting in greater conversion to LDL, but also increases HDL cholesterol and larger, more buoyant LDL particles. Overall, these results emphasize that blood concentrations of individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which reflect both dietary intake and metabolic influences, may have independent, but also complementary- biological effects and reinforce the need to potentially provide a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction.

  3. Supra-Additive Interaction of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Naproxen and Gastric Safety on the Formalin Test in Rats.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Lira, Arlette Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Ramos, Fernando; Ortiz, Mario I; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Chávez-Piña, Aracely Evangelina

    2017-11-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics-nociception-of naproxen in rats, as well as to determine the gastric safety resulting from this combination versus naproxen alone. Female Wistar rats were orally administered DHA, naproxen or the DHA-naproxen mixture at fixed-ratio combination of 1:3. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the formalin test. The gastric injury was determined 3 h after naproxen administration. An isobolographic analysis was performed to characterize the antinociceptive interaction between DHA and naproxen. To determine the possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions, the oral bioavailability of naproxen was evaluated in presence and absence of oral DHA. The experimental effective dose ED 30 values (Zexp) were decreased from theoretical additive dose values (Zadd; P < 0.05). The isobolographic analysis showed that the combination exhibited supra-additive interaction. The oral administration of DHA increased the pharmacokinetic parameter AUC 0- t of naproxen (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the gastric damage induced by naproxen was abolished when this drug was combined with DHA. These data suggest that oral administration of DHA-naproxen combination induces gastric safety and supra-additive antinociceptive effect in the formalin test so that this combination could be useful to management of inflammatory pain. Drug Dev Res 78 : 332-339, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of the New Analgesic Combination Beta-Caryophyllene and Docosahexaenoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Fiorenzani, Paolo; Lamponi, Stefania; Magnani, Agnese; Ceccarelli, Ilaria; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are components of several plants with documented anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in animal pain models. In the present study, in vitro and in vivo tests were carried out to evaluate their effects, alone or in combination, during long-lasting administration in a model of persistent pain. IR spectra of the two compounds were obtained to determine their chemical stability and then in vitro toxicity was evaluated in fibroblasts and astrocytes. In the in vivo tests, the analgesic effects of BCP and BCP+DHA were determined in male rats subjected to a model of persistent recurrent pain (three repetitions of the formalin test once a week) to mimic recurrent pain. Both substances were administered per os in almond oil for 2 weeks. Gonadal hormones were determined at the end of the tests to evaluate treatment-induced effects on their levels. BCP changed fibroblast and astrocyte survival in a dose-dependent manner and the effect was counteracted by DHA coadministration. In the in vivo tests, pain responses were significantly decreased in the BCP and BCP+DHA groups with respect to OIL after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. Estradiol and testosterone levels were increased only in the BCP group. In conclusion, BCP alone or at lower concentration in combination with DHA was efficacious in modulating pain, showing a clear analgesic activity. PMID:25097659

  5. Draft genome sequence of the docosahexaenoic acid producing thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. T66.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Ertesvåg, Helga; Aasen, Inga Marie; Vadstein, Olav; Brautaset, Trygve; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan

    2016-06-01

    Thraustochytrids are unicellular, marine protists, and there is a growing industrial interest in these organisms, particularly because some species, including strains belonging to the genus Aurantiochytrium, accumulate high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Aurantiochytrium sp. T66 (ATCC PRA-276), with a size of 43 Mbp, and 11,683 predicted protein-coding sequences. The data has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/Genbank under the accession LNGJ00000000. The genome sequence will contribute new insight into DHA biosynthesis and regulation, providing a basis for metabolic engineering of thraustochytrids.

  6. Brain Emboli After Left Ventricular Endocardial Ablation.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Isaac R; Gladstone, Rachel A; Badhwar, Nitish; Hsia, Henry H; Lee, Byron K; Josephson, S Andrew; Meisel, Karl M; Dillon, William P; Hess, Christopher P; Gerstenfeld, Edward P; Marcus, Gregory M

    2017-02-28

    Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) is common. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation is associated with a risk of cerebral emboli attributed to cardioversions and numerous ablation lesions in the low-flow left atrium, but cerebral embolic risk in ventricular ablation has not been evaluated. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients meeting study criteria scheduled for ventricular tachycardia or PVC ablation over a 9-month period. Patients undergoing left ventricular (LV) ablation were compared with a control group of those undergoing right ventricular ablation only. Patients were excluded if they had implantable cardioverter defibrillators or permanent pacemakers. Radiofrequency energy was used for ablation in all cases and heparin was administered with goal-activated clotting times of 300 to 400 seconds for all LV procedures. Pre- and postprocedural brain MRI was performed on each patient within a week of the ablation procedure. Embolic infarcts were defined as new foci of reduced diffusion and high signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery brain MRI within a vascular distribution. The mean age was 58 years, half of the patients were men, half had a history of hypertension, and the majority had no known vascular disease or heart failure. LV ablation was performed in 12 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=2; PVC, n=10) and right ventricular ablation was performed exclusively in 6 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=1; PVC, n=5). Seven patients (58%) undergoing LV ablation experienced a total of 16 cerebral emboli, in comparison with zero patients undergoing right ventricular ablation ( P =0.04). Seven of 11 patients (63%) undergoing a retrograde approach to the LV developed at least 1 new brain lesion. More than half of patients undergoing routine LV ablation procedures (predominately PVC ablations) experienced new brain emboli after the procedure. Future research is critical to understanding the

  7. Ablation experiment and threshold calculation of titanium alloy irradiated by ultra-fast pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Buxiang; Jiang, Gedong; Wang, Wenjun, E-mail: wenjunwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    The interaction between an ultra-fast pulse laser and a material's surface has become a research hotspot in recent years. Micromachining of titanium alloy with an ultra-fast pulse laser is a very important research direction, and it has very important theoretical significance and application value in investigating the ablation threshold of titanium alloy irradiated by ultra-fast pulse lasers. Irradiated by a picosecond pulse laser with wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm, the surface morphology and feature sizes, including ablation crater width (i.e. diameter), ablation depth, ablation area, ablation volume, single pulse ablation rate, and so forth, of the titanium alloymore » were studied, and their ablation distributions were obtained. The experimental results show that titanium alloy irradiated by a picosecond pulse infrared laser with a 1064 nm wavelength has better ablation morphology than that of the green picosecond pulse laser with a 532 nm wavelength. The feature sizes are approximately linearly dependent on the laser pulse energy density at low energy density and the monotonic increase in laser pulse energy density. With the increase in energy density, the ablation feature sizes are increased. The rate of increase in the feature sizes slows down gradually once the energy density reaches a certain value, and gradually saturated trends occur at a relatively high energy density. Based on the linear relation between the laser pulse energy density and the crater area of the titanium alloy surface, and the Gaussian distribution of the laser intensity on the cross section, the ablation threshold of titanium alloy irradiated by an ultra-fast pulse laser was calculated to be about 0.109 J/cm{sup 2}.« less

  8. Performance of Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator in Aerothermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Jeremy; Fan, Wendy; Stackpoole, Mairead; Kao, David; Skokova, Kristina; Chavez-Garcia, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICA's performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.

  9. Mucosal ablation in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Walker, S J; Selvasekar, C R; Birbeck, N

    2002-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is a prevalent, premalignant condition affecting the gastroesophageal junction and distal esophagus. Ablation plus antireflux therapy has recently been advocated to prevent the development of adenocarcinoma or to treat those unfit or unwilling to undergo esophagectomy. The present article, based on a search of Medline/ISI databases and cross-referencing of relevant articles, reviews the literature on this subject. A number of techniques have been used to remove the affected mucosa, including laser, electrocoagulation, argon plasma coagulation and photodynamic therapy but, as yet, none has been shown to be superior. Depending on the method used, ablation results in complete removal of Barrett's esophagus in approximately one third of patients and a partial response in nearly two-thirds. The resultant squamous mucosa is apparently 'normal' but may regress. To promote and maintain regeneration, antireflux therapy must be sufficient to reduce repetitive injury to the esophageal mucosa. Whether ablation reduces the cancer risk or delays its occurrence is unknown, though recent data suggests benefit. Complications are infrequent and usually mild. Regular follow-up endoscopy and deep biopsies continue to be necessary. Careful data from much larger populations with long-term follow-up is required before ablation reaches the stage of broad clinical application.

  10. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Physics of Hypersonic Flow and TPS Considerations. Destinations, Missions and Requirements. State of the Art Thermal Protection Systems Capabilities. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS. Entry Systems Concepts. Flexible TPS for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators. Conformal TPS for Rigid Aeroshell. 3-D Woven TPS for Extreme Entry Environment. Multi-functional Carbon Fabric for Mechanically Deployable.

  11. Predictors of cerebral microembolization during phased radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation: analysis of biophysical parameters from the ablation generator.

    PubMed

    Nagy-Balo, Edina; Kiss, Alexandra; Condie, Catherine; Stewart, Mark; Edes, Istvan; Csanadi, Zoltan

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation with phased radiofrequency current and use of a pulmonary vein ablation catheter (PVAC) has recently been associated with a high incidence of clinically silent brain infarcts on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and a high microembolic signal (MES) count detected by transcranial Doppler. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between different biophysical parameters of energy delivery (ED) and MES generation during PVAC ablation. MES counts during consecutive PVAC ablations were recorded for each ED and time stamped for correlation with temperature, power, and impedance data from the GENius 14.4 generator. Additionally, catheter-tissue contact was characterized by the template deviation score, calculated by comparing the temperature curve with an ideal template representing good contact, and by the respiratory contact failure score, to quantify temperature variations indicative of intermittent contact due to respiration. A total of 834 EDs during 48 PVAC ablations were analyzed. A significant increase in MES count was associated with a lower average temperature, a temperature integral over 62°C, a higher average power, the total energy delivered, higher respiration and template deviation scores (P <.0001), and simultaneous ED to the most proximal and distal poles of the PVAC (P <.0001). MES generation during ablation is related to different indicators of poor electrode-tissue contact, the total power delivered, and the interaction between the most distal and the most proximal electrodes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Critical phase transitions during ablation of atrial fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iravanian, Shahriar; Langberg, Jonathan J.

    2017-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological agents are not very effective in the management of AF. Therefore, ablation procedures have become the mainstay of AF management. The irregular and seemingly chaotic atrial activity in AF is caused by one or more meandering spiral waves. Previously, we have shown the presence of sudden rhythm organization during ablation of persistent AF. We hypothesize that the observed transitions from a disorganized to an organized rhythm is a critical phase transition. Here, we explore this hypothesis by simulating ablation in an anatomically-correct 3D AF model. In 722 out of 2160 simulated ablation, at least one sudden transition from AF to an organized rhythm (flutter) was noted (33%). They were marked by a sudden decrease in the cycle length entropy and increase in the mean cycle length. At the same time, the number of reentrant wavelets decreased from 2.99 ± 0.06 in AF to 1.76 ± 0.05 during flutter, and the correlation length scale increased from 13.3 ± 1.0 mm to 196.5 ± 86.6 mm (both P < 0.0001). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that transitions from AF to an anatomical flutter behave as phase transitions in complex non-equilibrium dynamical systems with flutter acting as an absorbing state. Clinically, the facilitation of phase transition should be considered a novel mechanism of ablation and may help to design effective ablation strategies.

  13. Atrial Tachycardias Following Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Sághy, László; Tutuianu, Cristina; Szilágyi, Judith

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important proarrhythmic complications after left atrial (LA) ablation is regular atrial tachycardia (AT) or flutter. Those tachycardias that occur after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation can cause even more severe symptoms than those from the original arrhythmia prior to the index ablation procedure since they are often incessant and associated with rapid ventricular response. Depending on the method and extent of LA ablation and on the electrophysiological properties of underlying LA substrate, the reported incidence of late ATs is variable. To establish the exact mechanism of these tachycardias can be difficult and controversial but correlates with the ablation technique and in the vast majority of cases the mechanism is reentry related to gaps in prior ablation lines. When tachycardias occur, conservative therapy usually is not effective, radiofrequency ablation procedure is mostly successful, but can be challenging, and requires a complex approach. PMID:25308808

  14. Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of sporadic angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Prevoo, Warner; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Horenblas, Simon

    2008-07-01

    Symptomatic angiomyolipoma (AML) and asymptomatic AML larger than 4 cm in size are usually treated with nephron-sparing surgery or arterial embolization. We used another technique, that is, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), for treatment of a sporadic AML in a patient with a solitary kidney, in whom maximal sparing of normal renal tissue was required. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed an enhancing well-defined mainly lipomatous tumor, with a maximum diameter of 4.5 cm in the upper pole of the left kidney. Diagnosis of AML was confirmed with fine-needle aspiration biopsy. RFA was performed with a RF 3000 system, consisting of a generator that supplied up to 200W of power, connected to a 15-gauge LeVeen multipolar array electrode that was placed under CT-guidance centrally in the AML. Initial power was set at low power and increased with increments of 10W, according to the algorithm provided by the manufacturer, resulting in a final tumor end temperature above 65 degrees C. No complications occurred and the patient was discharged home the day after. During follow-up (12 months) function of the solitary kidney of the patient was preserved and patient did not have any AML-related symptoms develop. Contrast-enhanced CT scan showed complete (100%) tumor ablation with absence of enhancement in the tumor and decreased tumor size from 4.5 cm to 2.9 cm at 12 months. CT-guided RFA is a minimally invasive ablation procedure that allowed successful treatment of a sporadic AML in a patient with a solitary kidney. No complications occurred and no AML recurrence was observed during the 12-month follow-up.

  15. Pulsed laser ablation of complex oxides: The role of congruent ablation and preferential scattering for the film stoichiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wicklein, S.; Koehl, A.; Dittmann, R.

    2012-09-24

    By combining structural and chemical thin film analysis with detailed plume diagnostics and modeling of the laser plume dynamics, we are able to elucidate the different physical mechanisms determining the stoichiometry of the complex oxides model material SrTiO{sub 3} during pulsed laser deposition. Deviations between thin film and target stoichiometry are basically a result of two effects, namely, incongruent ablation and preferential scattering of lighter ablated species during their motion towards the substrate in the O{sub 2} background gas. On the one hand, a progressive preferential ablation of the Ti species with increasing laser fluence leads to a regime ofmore » Ti-rich thin film growth at larger fluences. On the other hand, in the low laser fluence regime, a more effective scattering of the lighter Ti plume species results in Sr rich films.« less

  16. Treatment with Docosahexaenoic Acid, but Not Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Delays Ca2+-Induced Mitochondria Permeability Transition in Normal and Hypertrophied Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Khairallah, Ramzi J.; O'Shea, Karen M.; Brown, Bethany H.; Khanna, Nishanth; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Intake of fish oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) prevents heart failure; however, the mechanisms are unclear. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening contributes to myocardial pathology in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and treatment with DHA + EPA delays MPTP opening. Here, we assessed: 1) whether supplementation with both DHA and EPA is needed for optimal prevention of MPTP opening, and 2) whether this benefit occurs in hypertrophied myocardium. Rats with either normal myocardium or cardiac hypertrophy induced by 8 weeks of abdominal aortic banding were fed one of four diets: control diet without DHA or EPA or diets enriched with either DHA, EPA, or DHA + EPA (1:1 ratio) at 2.5% of energy intake for 17 weeks. Aortic banding caused a 27% increase in left ventricular mass and 25% depletion in DHA in mitochondrial phosopholipids in rats fed the control diet. DHA supplementation raised DHA in phospholipids ∼2-fold in both normal and hypertrophied hearts and increased EPA. DHA + EPA supplementation also increased DHA, but to a lesser extent than DHA alone. EPA supplementation increased EPA, but did not affect DHA compared with the control diet. Ca2+-induced MPTP opening was delayed by DHA and DHA + EPA supplementation in both normal and hypertrophied hearts, but EPA had no effect on MPTP opening. These results show that supplementation with DHA alone effectively increases both DHA and EPA in cardiac mitochondrial phospholipids and delays MPTP and suggest that treatment with DHA + EPA offers no advantage over DHA alone. PMID:20624993

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuronmore » loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.« less

  18. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jiang; Wu, Liguo; Liu, Zhou; Zou, Haibo; Li, Ning; Chen, Heping; Liu, Jinheng; Li, Tao; Zhang, Gang

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU) ablation on human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and apoptotic proteins (bcl-2 and p-53). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at stage B were treated with HIFU ablation. Levels of bcl-2 and p53 protein and the apoptosis rate were evaluated both in the pre-treatment and post-treatment tissue specimens using immunochemistry and TUNEL methods, respectively. After HIFU ablation, p53 protein levels were significantly increased around the coagulation necrosis area, whereas, the level of bcl-2 was significantly decreased. More apoptosis cells were found post ablation compared with those in the pretreatment tissues. Additionally, no significant correlation was found between p53/bcl-2 levels and apoptotic index. HIFU ablation may exert promote the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the effect has a closely association with the change of p53 and bcl-2 expression.

  19. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation alters select physiological endocannabinoid-system metabolites in brain and plasma.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jodianne T; Williams, John S; Pandarinathan, Lakshmipathi; Janero, David R; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2010-06-01

    The endocannabinoid metabolome consists of a growing, (patho)physiologically important family of fatty-acid derived signaling lipids. Diet is a major source of fatty acid substrate for mammalian endocannabinoid biosynthesis. The principal long-chain PUFA found in mammalian brain, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), supports neurological function, retinal development, and overall health. The extent to which dietary DHA supplementation influences endocannabinoid-related metabolites in brain, within the context of the circulating endocannabinoid profile, is currently unknown. We report the first lipidomic analysis of acute 2-week DHA dietary supplementation effects on the physiological state of 15 fatty-acid, N-acylethanolamine, and glycerol-ester endocannabinoid metabolome constituents in murine plasma and brain. The DHA-rich diet markedly elevated DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, 2-eicosapentanoylglycerol (EPG), and docosahexanoylethanolamine in both compartments. Dietary DHA enhancement generally affected the synthesis of the N-acyl-ethanolamine and glycerol-ester metabolites to favor the docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic vs. arachidonoyl and oleoyl homologs in both brain and plasma. The greater overall responsiveness of the endocannabinoid metabolome in plasma versus brain may reflect a more circumscribed homeostatic response range of brain lipids to dietary DHA supplementation. The ability of short-term DHA enhancement to modulate select constituents of the physiological brain and plasma endocannabinoid metabolomes carries metabolic and therapeutic implications.

  20. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation alters select physiological endocannabinoid-system metabolites in brain and plasma

    PubMed Central

    Wood, JodiAnne T.; Williams, John S.; Pandarinathan, Lakshmipathi; Janero, David R.; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    The endocannabinoid metabolome consists of a growing, (patho)physiologically important family of fatty-acid derived signaling lipids. Diet is a major source of fatty acid substrate for mammalian endocannabinoid biosynthesis. The principal long-chain PUFA found in mammalian brain, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), supports neurological function, retinal development, and overall health. The extent to which dietary DHA supplementation influences endocannabinoid-related metabolites in brain, within the context of the circulating endocannabinoid profile, is currently unknown. We report the first lipidomic analysis of acute 2-week DHA dietary supplementation effects on the physiological state of 15 fatty-acid, N-acylethanolamine, and glycerol-ester endocannabinoid metabolome constituents in murine plasma and brain. The DHA-rich diet markedly elevated DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, 2-eicosapentanoylglycerol (EPG), and docosahexanoylethanolamine in both compartments. Dietary DHA enhancement generally affected the synthesis of the N-acyl-ethanolamine and glycerol-ester metabolites to favor the docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic vs. arachidonoyl and oleoyl homologs in both brain and plasma. The greater overall responsiveness of the endocannabinoid metabolome in plasma versus brain may reflect a more circumscribed homeostatic response range of brain lipids to dietary DHA supplementation. The ability of short-term DHA enhancement to modulate select constituents of the physiological brain and plasma endocannabinoid metabolomes carries metabolic and therapeutic implications. PMID:20071693

  1. One-pot synthesis of bioactive cyclopentenones from α-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Daniel; Müller, Sara Mareike; Hahmeier, Monika; Löwe, Jana; Feussner, Ivo; Gröger, Harald; Viehhauser, Andrea; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2018-04-01

    Oxidation products of the poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are bioactive in plants and animals as shown for the cyclopentenones prostaglandin 15d-PGJ 2 and PGA 2 , cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid (12-OPDA), and 14-A-4 neuroprostane. In this study an inexpensive and simple enzymatic multi-step one-pot synthesis is presented for 12-OPDA, which is derived from α-linolenic acid, and the analogous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived cyclopentenone [(4Z,7Z,10Z)-12-[[-(1S,5S)-4-oxo-5-(2Z)-pent-2-en-1yl]-cyclopent-2-en-1yl] dodeca-4,7,10-trienoic acid, OCPD]. The three enzymes utilized in this multi-step cascade were crude soybean lipoxygenase or a recombinant lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase and allene oxide cyclase from Arabidopsis thaliana. The DHA-derived 12-OPDA analog OCPD is predicted to have medicinal potential and signaling properties in planta. With OCPD in hand, it is shown that this compound interacts with chloroplast cyclophilin 20-3 and can be metabolized by 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase (OPR3) which is an enzyme relevant for substrate bioactivity modulation in planta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Ablative Therapies in Swine: Response of Respiratory Diaphragm to Varying Doses.

    PubMed

    Singal, Ashish; Mattison, Lars M; Soule, Charles L; Ballard, John R; Rudie, Eric N; Cressman, Erik N K; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2018-03-28

    Ablation is a common procedure for treating patients with cancer, cardiac arrhythmia, and other conditions, yet it can cause collateral injury to the respiratory diaphragm. Collateral injury can alter the diaphragm's properties and/or lead to respiratory dysfunction. Thus, it is important to understand the diaphragm's physiologic and biomechanical properties in response to ablation therapies, in order to better understand ablative modalities, minimize complications, and maximize the safety and efficacy of ablative procedures. In this study, we analyzed physiologic and biomechanical properties of swine respiratory diaphragm muscle bundles when exposed to 5 ablative modalities. To assess physiologic properties, we performed in vitro tissue bath studies and measured changes in peak force and baseline force. To assess biomechanical properties, we performed uniaxial stress tests, measuring force-displacement responses, stress-strain characteristics, and avulsion forces. After treating the muscle bundles with all 5 ablative modalities, we observed dose-dependent sustained reductions in peak force and transient increases in baseline force-but no consistent dose-dependent biomechanical responses. These data provide novel insights into the effects of various ablative modalities on the respiratory diaphragm, insights that could enable improvements in ablative techniques and therapies.

  3. Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian J; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391  mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.

  4. Irreversible electroporation ablation area enhanced by synergistic high- and low-voltage pulses.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chenguo; Lv, Yanpeng; Dong, Shoulong; Zhao, Yajun; Liu, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) produced by a pulsed electric field can ablate tissue. In this study, we achieved an enhancement in ablation area by using a combination of short high-voltage pulses (HVPs) to create a large electroporated area and long low-voltage pulses (LVPs) to ablate the electroporated area. The experiments were conducted in potato tuber slices. Slices were ablated with an array of four pairs of parallel steel electrodes using one of the following four electric pulse protocols: HVP, LVP, synergistic HVP+LVP (SHLVP) or LVP+HVP. Our results showed that the SHLVPs more effectively necrotized tissue than either the HVPs or LVPs, even when the SHLVP dose was the same as or lower than the HVP or LVP doses. The HVP and LVP order mattered and only HVPs+LVPs (SHLVPs) treatments increased the size of the ablation zone because the HVPs created a large electroporated area that was more susceptible to the subsequent LVPs. Real-time temperature change monitoring confirmed that the tissue was non-thermally ablated by the electric pulses. Theoretical calculations of the synergistic effects of the SHLVPs on tissue ablation were performed. Our proposed SHLVP protocol provides options for tissue ablation and may be applied to optimize the current clinical IRE protocols.

  5. Irreversible electroporation ablation area enhanced by synergistic high- and low-voltage pulses

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) produced by a pulsed electric field can ablate tissue. In this study, we achieved an enhancement in ablation area by using a combination of short high-voltage pulses (HVPs) to create a large electroporated area and long low-voltage pulses (LVPs) to ablate the electroporated area. The experiments were conducted in potato tuber slices. Slices were ablated with an array of four pairs of parallel steel electrodes using one of the following four electric pulse protocols: HVP, LVP, synergistic HVP+LVP (SHLVP) or LVP+HVP. Our results showed that the SHLVPs more effectively necrotized tissue than either the HVPs or LVPs, even when the SHLVP dose was the same as or lower than the HVP or LVP doses. The HVP and LVP order mattered and only HVPs+LVPs (SHLVPs) treatments increased the size of the ablation zone because the HVPs created a large electroporated area that was more susceptible to the subsequent LVPs. Real-time temperature change monitoring confirmed that the tissue was non-thermally ablated by the electric pulses. Theoretical calculations of the synergistic effects of the SHLVPs on tissue ablation were performed. Our proposed SHLVP protocol provides options for tissue ablation and may be applied to optimize the current clinical IRE protocols. PMID:28253331

  6. Experimental Evaluation of the Heat Sink Effect in Hepatic Microwave Ablation.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Kristina I; Lutat, Carolin; Rieder, Christian; Schenk, Andrea; Wacker, Frank; Raatschen, Hans-Juergen

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate and quantify the heat sink effect in hepatic microwave ablation (MWA) in a standardized ex vivo model, and to analyze the influence of vessel distance and blood flow on lesion volume and shape. 108 ex vivo MWA procedures were performed in freshly harvested pig livers. Antennas were inserted parallel to non-perfused and perfused (700,1400 ml/min) glass tubes (diameter 5mm) at different distances (10, 15, 20mm). Ablation zones (radius, area) were analyzed and compared (Kruskal-Wallis Test, Dunn's multiple comparison Test). Temperature changes adjacent to the tubes were measured throughout the ablation cycle. Maximum temperature decreased significantly with increasing flow and distance (p<0.05). Compared to non-perfused tubes, ablation zones were significantly deformed by perfused tubes within 15 mm distance to the antenna (p<0.05). At a flow rate of 700 ml/min ablation zone radius was reduced to 37.2% and 80.1% at 10 and 15 mm tube distance, respectively; ablation zone area was reduced to 50.5% and 89.7%, respectively. Significant changes of ablation zones were demonstrated in a pig liver model. Considerable heat sink effect was observed within a diameter of 15 mm around simulated vessels, dependent on flow rate. This has to be taken into account when ablating liver lesions close to vessels.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of the Heat Sink Effect in Hepatic Microwave Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Ringe, Kristina I.; Lutat, Carolin; Rieder, Christian; Schenk, Andrea; Wacker, Frank; Raatschen, Hans-Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate and quantify the heat sink effect in hepatic microwave ablation (MWA) in a standardized ex vivo model, and to analyze the influence of vessel distance and blood flow on lesion volume and shape. Materials and Methods 108 ex vivo MWA procedures were performed in freshly harvested pig livers. Antennas were inserted parallel to non-perfused and perfused (700,1400 ml/min) glass tubes (diameter 5mm) at different distances (10, 15, 20mm). Ablation zones (radius, area) were analyzed and compared (Kruskal-Wallis Test, Dunn’s multiple comparison Test). Temperature changes adjacent to the tubes were measured throughout the ablation cycle. Results Maximum temperature decreased significantly with increasing flow and distance (p<0.05). Compared to non-perfused tubes, ablation zones were significantly deformed by perfused tubes within 15mm distance to the antenna (p<0.05). At a flow rate of 700ml/min ablation zone radius was reduced to 37.2% and 80.1% at 10 and 15mm tube distance, respectively; ablation zone area was reduced to 50.5% and 89.7%, respectively. Conclusion Significant changes of ablation zones were demonstrated in a pig liver model. Considerable heat sink effect was observed within a diameter of 15mm around simulated vessels, dependent on flow rate. This has to be taken into account when ablating liver lesions close to vessels. PMID:26222431

  8. Microwave Ablation Compared with Radiofrequency Ablation for Breast Tissue in an Ex Vivo Bovine Udder Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihir@bf6.so-net.ne.jp; Westphal, Saskia, E-mail: swestphal@ukaachen.de; Isfort, Peter, E-mail: isfort@hia.rwth-aachen.de

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation with radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treating breast tissue in a nonperfused ex vivo model of healthy bovine udder tissue. Materials and Methods: MW ablations were performed at power outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W using a 915-MHz frequency generator and a 2-cm active tip antenna. RF ablations were performed with a bipolar RF system with 2- and 3-cm active tip electrodes. Tissue temperatures were continuously monitored during ablation. Results: The mean short-axis diameters of the coagulation zones were 1.34 {+-} 0.14, 1.45 {+-} 0.13, and 1.74 {+-} 0.11 cm for MWmore » ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W. For RF ablation, the corresponding values were 1.16 {+-} 0.09 and 1.26 {+-} 0.14 cm with electrodes having 2- and 3-cm active tips, respectively. The mean coagulation volumes were 2.27 {+-} 0.65, 2.85 {+-} 0.72, and 4.45 {+-} 0.47 cm{sup 3} for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W and 1.18 {+-} 0.30 and 2.29 {+-} 0.55 cm{sup 3} got RF ablation with 2- and 3-cm electrodes, respectively. MW ablations at 35W and 45W achieved significantly longer short-axis diameters than RF ablations (P < 0.05). The highest tissue temperature was achieved with MW ablation at 45W (P < 0.05). On histological examination, the extent of the ablation zone in MW ablations was less affected by tissue heterogeneity than that in RF ablations. Conclusion: MW ablation appears to be advantageous with respect to the volume of ablation and the shape of the margin of necrosis compared with RF ablation in an ex vivo bovine udder.« less

  9. Comparison of holmium:YAG and thulium fiber laser lithotripsy: ablation thresholds, ablation rates, and retropulsion effects.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Richard L; Irby, Pierce B; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2011-07-01

    The holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser lithotriptor is capable of operating at high pulse energies, but efficient operation is limited to low pulse rates (∼10 Hz) during lithotripsy. On the contrary, the thulium fiber laser (TFL) is limited to low pulse energies, but can operate efficiently at high pulse rates (up to 1000 Hz). This study compares stone ablation threshold, ablation rate, and retropulsion for the two different Ho:YAG and TFL operation modes. The TFL (λ = 1908 nm) was operated with pulse energies of 5 to 35 mJ, 500-μs pulse duration, and pulse rates of 10 to 400 Hz. The Ho:YAG laser (λ = 2120 nm) was operated with pulse energies of 30 to 550 mJ, 350-μs pulse duration, and a pulse rate of 10 Hz. Laser energy was delivered through 200- and 270-μm-core optical fibers in contact mode with human calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones for ablation studies and plaster-of-Paris stone phantoms for retropulsion studies. The COM stone ablation threshold for Ho:YAG and TFL measured 82.6 and 20.8 J∕cm(2), respectively. Stone retropulsion with the Ho:YAG laser linearly increased with pulse energy. Retropulsion with TFL was minimal at pulse rates less than 150 Hz, then rapidly increased at higher pulse rates. For minimal stone retropulsion, Ho:YAG operation at pulse energies less than 175 mJ at 10 Hz and TFL operation at 35 mJ at 100 Hz is recommended, with both lasers producing comparable ablation rates. Further development of a TFL operating with both high pulse energies of 100 to 200 mJ and high pulse rates of 100 to 150 Hz may also provide an alternative to the Ho:YAG laser for higher ablation rates, when retropulsion is not a primary concern.

  10. Thermal and mechanical high-intensity focused ultrasound: perspectives on tumor ablation, immune effects and combination strategies.

    PubMed

    van den Bijgaart, Renske J E; Eikelenboom, Dylan C; Hoogenboom, Martijn; Fütterer, Jurgen J; den Brok, Martijn H; Adema, Gosse J

    2017-02-01

    Tumor ablation technologies, such as radiofrequency-, cryo- or high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation will destroy tumor tissue in a minimally invasive manner. Ablation generates large volumes of tumor debris in situ, releasing multiple bio-molecules like tumor antigens and damage-associated molecular patterns. To initiate an adaptive antitumor immune response, antigen-presenting cells need to take up tumor antigens and, following activation, present them to immune effector cells. The impact of the type of tumor ablation on the precise nature, availability and suitability of the tumor debris for immune response induction, however, is poorly understood. In this review, we focus on immune effects after HIFU-mediated ablation and compare these to findings using other ablation technologies. HIFU can be used both for thermal and mechanical destruction of tissue, inducing coagulative necrosis or subcellular fragmentation, respectively. Preclinical and clinical results of HIFU tumor ablation show increased infiltration and activation of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. As previously observed for other types of tumor ablation technologies, however, this ablation-induced enhanced infiltration alone appears insufficient to generate consistent protective antitumor immunity. Therapies combining ablation with immune stimulation are therefore expected to be key to boost HIFU-induced immune effects and to achieve systemic, long-lasting, antitumor immunity.

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have distinct membrane locations and lipid interactions as determined by X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Samuel C R; Mason, R Preston

    2018-01-31

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) differentially influence lipid oxidation, signal transduction, fluidity, and cholesterol domain formation, potentially due in part to distinct membrane interactions. We used small angle X-ray diffraction to evaluate the EPA and DHA effects on membrane structure. Membrane vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and cholesterol (C) (0.3C:POPC mole ratio) were prepared and treated with vehicle, EPA, or DHA (1:10 mol ratio to POPC). Electron density profiles generated from the diffraction data showed that EPA increased membrane hydrocarbon core electron density over a broad area, up to ± 20 Å from the membrane center, indicating an energetically favorable extended orientation for EPA likely stabilized by van der Waals interactions. By contrast, DHA increased electron density in the phospholipid head group region starting at ± 12 Å from the membrane center, presumably due to DHA-surface interactions, with coincident reduction in electron density in the membrane hydrocarbon core centered ± 7-9 Å from the membrane center. The membrane width (d-space) decreased by 5 Å in the presence of vehicle as the temperature increased from 10 °C to 30 °C due to increased acyl chain trans-gauche isomerizations, which was unaffected by addition of EPA or DHA. The influence of DHA on membrane structure was modulated by temperature changes while the interactions of EPA were unaffected. The contrasting EPA and DHA effects on membrane structure indicate distinct molecular locations and orientations that may contribute to observed differences in biological activity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient and controllable thermal ablation induced by short-pulsed HIFU sequence assisted with perfluorohexane nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Chang, Nan; Lu, Shukuan; Qin, Dui; Xu, Tianqi; Han, Meng; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2018-07-01

    A HIFU sequence with extremely short pulse duration and high pulse repetition frequency can achieve thermal ablation at a low acoustic power using inertial cavitation. Because of its cavitation-dependent property, the therapeutic outcome is unreliable when the treatment zone lacks cavitation nuclei. To overcome this intrinsic limitation, we introduced perfluorocarbon nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei into short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. Two types of nanodroplets were used with perfluorohexane (PFH) as the core material coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or an anionic fluorosurfactant (FS) to demonstrate the feasibility of this study. The thermal ablation process was recorded by high-speed photography. The inertial cavitation activity during the ablation was revealed by sonoluminescence (SL). The high-speed photography results show that the thermal ablation volume increased by ∼643% and 596% with BSA-PFH and FS-PFH, respectively, than the short-pulsed HIFU alone at an acoustic power of 19.5 W. Using nanodroplets, much larger ablation volumes were created even at a much lower acoustic power. Meanwhile, the treatment time for ablating a desired volume significantly reduced in the presence of nanodroplets. Moreover, by adjusting the treatment time, lesion migration towards the HIFU transducer could also be avoided. The SL results show that the thermal lesion shape was significantly dependent on the inertial cavitation in this short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. The inertial cavitation activity became more predictable by using nanodroplets. Therefore, the introduction of PFH nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei made the short-pulsed HIFU thermal ablation more efficient by increasing the ablation volume and speed, and more controllable by reducing the acoustic power and preventing lesion migration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Impact of steerable sheaths on contact forces and reconnection sites in ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Waqas; Hunter, Ross J; McLean, Ailsa; Dhinoja, Mehul; Earley, Mark J; Sporton, Simon; Schilling, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    In preclinical studies, catheter contact force (CF) during radiofrequency ablation correlates with the subsequent lesion size. We investigated the impact of steerable sheaths on ablation CF, its consistency, and wide area circumferential ablation (WACA) line reconnection sites. Five thousand and sixty-four ablations were analyzed across 60 patients undergoing first-time ablation for persistent AF using a CF-sensing catheter: 19 manual nonsteerable sheath (Manual-NSS), 11 manual steerable sheath, and 30 robotic steerable sheath (Sensei, Hansen Medical Inc.) procedures were studied. Ablation CFs were higher in the steerable sheath groups for all left atrial ablations and also WACA ablations specifically (P < 0.006), but less consistent per WACA segment (P < 0.005). There were significant differences in the CFs around both WACAs by group: in the left WACA CFs were lower with Manual-NSS, other than at the anterior-inferior and posterior-superior regions, and lower in the right WACA, other than the anterior-superior region. There was a difference in the proportion of segments chronically reconnecting across groups: Manual-NSS 26.5%, manual steerable sheath 4.6%, robotic 12% (P < 0.0005). The left atrial appendage/PV ridge and right posterior wall were common sites of reconnection in all groups. Steerable sheaths increased ablation CF; however, there were region-specific heterogeneities in the extent of increment, with some segments where they failed to increase CF. Steerable sheath use was associated with reduced WACA-segment reconnection. It may be that the benefits of steerable sheath use in terms of higher CFs could be translated to improved clinical outcomes if regional weaknesses of this technology are taken into account during ablation procedures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of a Novel Nutritional Formula Enriched With Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Specially Developed for Tube-Fed Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Esaki, Shinga; Iwahori, Motokazu-Tohru; Takagi, Yuri; Wada, Toshikazu; Morita, Shunsuke; Sonoki, Hirofumi; Nakao, Toshiyuki

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a nutritional formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in tube-fed bedridden hemodialysis patients. A prospective, multicenter, single-arm study. Koyukai Memorial Hospital, Orimoto Hospital, and Chofu Hospital, Japan. Eleven tube-fed bedridden hemodialysis patients. Patients were fed a nutritional formula enriched with EPA and DHA for 12 weeks. Body weight; body mass index (BMI); serum levels of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and C-reactive protein (CRP); serum fatty acid composition. Body weight; BMI; and serum levels of total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP at 12 weeks were not significantly different from baseline levels. Serum prealbumin, EPA, and DHA levels significantly increased after 12 weeks of treatment. A nutritional formula enriched with EPA and DHA may be beneficial for nutritional management in tube-fed bedridden hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Glue septal ablation: A promising alternative to alcohol septal ablation

    PubMed Central

    Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined as myocardial hypertrophy in the absence of another cardiac or systemic disease capable of producing the magnitude of present hypertrophy. In about 70% of patients with HCM, there is left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (LVOTO) and this is known as obstructive type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Cases refractory to medical treatment have had two options either surgical septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation (ASA) to alleviate LVOT gradient. ASA may cause some life-threatening complications including conduction disturbances and complete heart block, hemodynamic compromise, ventricular arrhythmias, distant and massive myocardial necrosis. Glue septal ablation (GSA) is a promising technique for the treatment of HOCM. Glue seems to be superior to alcohol due to some intrinsic advantageous properties of glue such as immediate polymerization which prevents the leak into the left anterior descending coronary artery and it is particularly useful in patients with collaterals to the right coronary artery in whom alcohol ablation is contraindicated. In our experience, GSA is effective and also a safe technique without significant complications. GSA decreases LVOT gradient immediately after the procedure and this reduction persists during 12 months of follow-up. It improves New York Heart Association functional capacity and decrease interventricular septal wall thickness. Further studies are needed in order to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of this technique. PMID:27011786

  16. Discharge reliability in ablative pulsed plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiwen; Sun, Guorui; Yuan, Shiyue; Huang, Tiankun; Liu, Xiangyang; Xie, Kan; Wang, Ningfei

    2017-08-01

    Discharge reliability is typically neglected in low-ignition-cycle ablative pulsed plasma thrusters (APPTs). In this study, the discharge reliability of an APPT is assessed analytically and experimentally. The goals of this study are to better understand the ignition characteristics and to assess the accuracy of the analytical method. For each of six sets of operating conditions, 500 tests of a parallel-plate APPT with a coaxial semiconductor spark plug are conducted. The discharge voltage and current are measured with a high-voltage probe and a Rogowski coil, respectively, to determine whether the discharge is successful. Generally, the discharge success rate increases as the discharge voltage increases, and it decreases as the electrode gap and the number of ignitions increases. The theoretical analysis and the experimental results are reasonably consistent. This approach provides a reference for designing APPTs and improving their stability.

  17. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, cognition, and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; Parletta, Natalie; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Young, Ross M; Howe, Peter R C

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effects of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich oil and a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil versus an ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich safflower oil (control) on literacy and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a randomized controlled trial. Supplements rich in EPA, DHA, or safflower oil were randomly allocated for 4 mo to 90 Australian children 7 to 12 y old with ADHD symptoms higher than the 90th percentile on the Conners Rating Scales. The effect of supplementation on cognition, literacy, and parent-rated behavior was assessed by linear mixed modeling. Pearson correlations determined associations between the changes in outcome measurements and the erythrocyte fatty acid content (percentage of total) from baseline to 4 mo. There were no significant differences between the supplement groups in the primary outcomes after 4 mo. However, the erythrocyte fatty acid profiles indicated that an increased proportion of DHA was associated with improved word reading (r = 0.394) and lower parent ratings of oppositional behavior (r = 0.392). These effects were more evident in a subgroup of 17 children with learning difficulties: an increased erythrocyte DHA was associated with improved word reading (r = 0.683), improved spelling (r = 0.556), an improved ability to divide attention (r = 0.676), and lower parent ratings of oppositional behavior (r = 0.777), hyperactivity (r = 0.702), restlessness (r = 0.705), and overall ADHD symptoms (r = 0.665). Increases in erythrocyte ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically DHA, may improve literacy and behavior in children with ADHD. The greatest benefit may be observed in children who have comorbid learning difficulties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits IL-6 expression via PPARγ-mediated expression of catalase in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Ah; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2017-07-01

    Cerulein pancreatitis mirrors human acute pancreatitis. In pancreatic acinar cells exposed to cerulein, reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate inflammatory signaling by Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, and cytokine induction. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) acts as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which mediates the expression of some antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesized that DHA may induce PPARγ-target catalase expression and reduce ROS levels, leading to the inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 activation and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated acinar cells. Pancreatic acinar AR42J cells were treated with DHA in the presence or absence of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, or treated with the PPARγ agonist troglitazone, and then stimulated with cerulein. Expression of IL-6 and catalase, ROS levels, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and nuclear translocation of PPARγ were assessed. DHA suppressed the increase in ROS, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and IL-6 expression induced nuclear translocation of PPARγ and catalase expression in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Troglitazone inhibited the cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression, but induced catalase expression similar to DHA in AR42J cells. GW9662 abolished the inhibitory effect of DHA on cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression in AR42J cells. DHA-induced expression of catalase was suppressed by GW9662 in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Thus, DHA induces PPARγ activation and catalase expression, which inhibits ROS-mediated activation of JAK2/STAT3 and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates oxidative stress and protects human gingival fibroblasts against cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide and butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Zgorzynska, Emilia; Wierzbicka-Ferszt, Anita; Dziedzic, Barbara; Witusik-Perkowska, Monika; Zwolinska, Anna; Janas, Anna; Walczewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative burst of the host cells associated with bacterial pathogen infection contributes to the destruction of periodontal tissue. The present study investigates the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) viability and ROS generation. The cell viability by MTT assay, ROS level using H2DCF-DA probe, and protein thiol content were measured in HGFs after 24h preincubation with different concentrations of DHA followed by treatment with H2O2. The cell death rate was determined by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was examined by MitoTracker Red probe in H2O2- and butyric acid-treated HGFs. The fatty acid composition of plasma membranes after incubation with DHA was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. DHA preincubation in a dose-dependent manner increased the viability of HGFs exposed to H2O2 and decreased ROS generation compared to the control cells. In HGFs preincubated with 30μM DHA, the ΔΨm significantly increased in both H2O2- and butyric acid-treated cells. Moreover, incubation with DHA preserved the protein thiol level as effectively as N-acetylcysteine. Application of 50μM DHA increased the quantity of viable cells, decreased the number of necrotic cells after H2O2 treatment, and protected HGFs from apoptosis induced by butyric acid. DHA in the plasma membranes of these HGFs represented about 6% of the total amount of fatty acids. These results demonstrate that enrichment of HGFs with DHA reduces ROS generation and enhances the mitochondrial membrane potential protecting the fibroblasts against cytotoxic factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Current oncologic applications of radiofrequency ablation therapies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dhruvil R; Green, Sari; Elliot, Angelina; McGahan, John P; Khatri, Vijay P

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) uses high frequency alternating current to heat a volume of tissue around a needle electrode to induce focal coagulative necrosis with minimal injury to surrounding tissues. RFA can be performed via an open, laparoscopic, or image guided percutaneous approach and be performed under general or local anesthesia. Advances in delivery mechanisms, electrode designs, and higher power generators have increased the maximum volume that can be ablated, while maximizing oncological outcomes. In general, RFA is used to control local tumor growth, prevent recurrence, palliate symptoms, and improve survival in a subset of patients that are not candidates for surgical resection. It’s equivalence to surgical resection has yet to be proven in large randomized control trials. Currently, the use of RFA has been well described as a primary or adjuvant treatment modality of limited but unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, liver metastasis, especially colorectal cancer metastases, primary lung tumors, renal cell carcinoma, boney metastasis and osteoid osteomas. The role of RFA in the primary treatment of early stage breast cancer is still evolving. This review will discuss the general features of RFA and outline its role in commonly encountered solid tumors. PMID:23671734

  1. Animal Studies of Epicardial Atrial Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Schuessler, Richard B.; Lee, Anson M.; Melby, Spencer J.; Voeller, Rochus K.; Gaynor, Sydney L.; Sakamoto, Shun-Ichiro; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    The Cox-Maze procedure is an effective treatment for atrial fibrillation with a long-term freedom from recurrence of >90%. The original procedure was highly invasive and required cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Modifications of the procedure have been proposed so that the procedure can be done without CPB. These approaches proposed to use alternative energy sources, to replace cut and sew lesions with lines of ablation, made from the epicardium on the beating heart. This has been challenging because the atrial wall muscle thickness is extremely variable and can be covered with an epicardial layer of fat. Moreover, the circulating intracavitary blood acts as a potential heat sink, making transmural lesions difficult to obtain. In this report, we summarize the use of nine different unidirectional devices to create continuous transmural lines of ablation from the atrial epicardium in a porcine model. We define a unidirectional device as one in which all the energy is applied by a single transducer on a single heart surface. These include four radiofrequency, two microwave, two lasers, and one cryothermic device. The maximum penetration of any device was 8.3 mm. All devices except one, the Atricure IsolatorT pen, failed to penetrate 2.0 mm in some non-transmural sections. Future development of unidirectional energy sources should be directed at increasing the maximum depth and the consistency of penetration. PMID:19959142

  2. [Percutaneous lung thermo-ablation].

    PubMed

    Palussière, Jean; Catena, Vittorio; Gaubert, Jean-Yves; Buy, Xavier; de Baere, Thierry

    2017-05-01

    Percutaneous lung thermo-ablation has steadily been developed over the past 15years. Main indications are early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) for non-surgical patients and slow evolving localized metastatic disease, either spontaneous or following a general treatment. Radiofrequency, being the most evaluated technique, offers a local control rate of about 80-90% for tumors <3 cm in diameter. With excellent tolerance and very few complications, radiofrequency may be proposed for patients with a chronic disease. Other ablation techniques under investigation such as microwaves and cryotherapy could allow overcoming radiofrequency limits. Furthermore, stereotactic radiotherapy proposed for the same indications is efficient. Comparative studies are warranted to differentiate these techniques in terms of efficacy, tolerance and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Percutaneous ablation of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ciaravino, Valentina; De Robertis, Riccardo; Barbi, Emilio; Salvia, Roberto; Girelli, Roberto; Paiella, Salvatore; Gasparini, Camilla; Cardobi, Nicolò; Bassi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive tumor with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Prognosis and treatment depend on whether the tumor is resectable or not, which mostly depends on how quickly the diagnosis is made. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be both used in cases of non-resectable pancreatic cancer. In cases of pancreatic neoplasm that is locally advanced, non-resectable, but non-metastatic, it is possible to apply percutaneous treatments that are able to induce tumor cytoreduction. The aim of this article will be to describe the multiple currently available treatment techniques (radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation), their results, and their possible complications, with the aid of a literature review. PMID:27956791

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid differentially affects TNFalpha and IL-6 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is generally reported to have anti-inflammatory properties, however, prior work has documented differential effects on individual pro-inflammatory cytokines: reduced IL-6, but not TNFalpha, mRNA expression in macrophages. To elucidate the mechanism, the roles of prostaglan...

  5. Emotional based cognition in mice is differentially influenced by dose and lipid origin of dietary docosahexaenoic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major constituent, and primary omega-3 fatty acid, in the brain. Evidence suggests that DHA consumption may promote cognitive functioning and prevent cognitive decline, and these effects may be particularly relevant in the context of fear or stress. However, the pot...

  6. Attitudes toward Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation: A Nationwide Survey among Danish Cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Vadmann, Henrik; Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Rodrigo-Domingo, Maria; Pehrson, Steen; Johannessen, Arne; Hansen, Peter Steen; Johansen, Jens Brock; Riahi, Sam

    2015-10-01

    Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important but expensive procedure that is the subject of some debate. Physicians' attitudes toward catheter ablation may influence promotion and patient acceptance. This is the first study to examine the attitudes of Danish cardiologists toward catheter ablation for AF, using a nationwide survey. We developed a purpose-designed questionnaire to evaluate attitudes toward catheter ablation for AF that was sent to all Danish cardiologists (n = 401; response n = 272 (67.8%)). There was no association between attitudes toward ablation and the experience or age of the cardiologist with respect to patients with recurrent AF episodes with a duration of <48 hours or >7 days and/or need for cardioversion. The majority (69%) expected a recurrence of AF after catheter ablation in more than 30% of the cases. For patients with persistent longstanding AF with a duration of >1 year, the attitude toward ablation for longstanding AF was more likely to be positive with increasing age (P < 0.01) and years of experience of the cardiologist (P = 0.002). Danish cardiologists generally have a positive attitude toward catheter ablation for AF, maintain up-to-date knowledge of the procedure, and are aware what information on ablation treatment should be given to patients with AF. The cardiologists had a positive attitude toward ablation for AF in patients with AF episodes <48 hours and patients with episodes >7 days, or those who needed medical/electrical conversion, but a more negative attitude toward treating longstanding AF patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Feasibility of zero or near zero fluoroscopy during catheter ablation procedures.

    PubMed

    Haegeli, Laurent M; Stutz, Linda; Mohsen, Mohammed; Wolber, Thomas; Brunckhorst, Corinna; On, Chol-Jun; Duru, Firat

    2018-04-03

    Awareness of risks associated with radiation exposure to patients and medical staff has significantly increased. It has been reported before that the use of advanced three-dimensional electro-anatomical mapping (EAM) system significantly reduces fluoroscopy time, however this study aimed for zero or near zero fluoroscopy ablation to assess its feasibility and safety in ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) and other tachyarrhythmias in a "real world" experience of a single tertiary care center. This was a single-center study where ablation procedures were attempted without fluoroscopy in 34 consecutive patients with different tachyarrhythmias under the support of EAM system. When transseptal puncture (TSP) was needed, it was attempted under the guidance of intracardiac echocardiography (ICE). Among 34 patients consecutively enrolled in this study, 28 (82.4%) patients were referred for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of AF, 3 (8.8%) patients for ablation of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) ventricular extrasystole (VES), 1 (2.9%) patient for ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT), 2 (5.9%) patients for typical atrial flutter ablation. In 21 (62%) patients the entire procedure was carried out without the use of fluoroscopy. Among 28 AF patients, 15 (54%) patients underwent ablation without the use of fluoroscopy and among these 15 patients, 10 (67%) patients required TSP under ICE guidance while 5 (33%) patients the catheters were introduced to left atrium through a patent foramen ovale. In 13 AF patients, fluoroscopy was only required for double TSP. The total procedure time of AF ablation was 130 ± 50 min. All patients referred for atrial flutter, AVNRT, and VES of the RVOT ablation did not require any fluoroscopy. This study demonstrates the feasibility of zero or near zero fluoroscopy procedure including TSP with the support of EAM and ICE guidance in a "real world" experience of a single tertiary care center. When fluoroscopy was

  8. Caries selective ablation: the handpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Thomas; Rechmann, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    1995-05-01

    Caries selective ablation is fixed to a window of fluences predicted by the ablation thresholds of carious and healthy dentin, respectively. The aim of the study was to develop a dental handpiece which guarantees homogeneous fluence at the irradiated tooth surface. Furthermore the point of treatment should be cooled down without energy losses due to the cooling system. We suggest the direct coupling of the laser radiation into a laminar stream of liquid, which acts in turn as a lengthened beam guide. The impacts of the laser radiation and of the cooling medium fall exactly into the same point. Hot ablation debris is removed out of the crater by the flush of the water jet. Fluences are constant if the handpiece is used in contact mode or at a distance. Normally the surface of a bare fiber working in contact mode is destroyed after a few shots. Coupling the laser radiation into a stream of liquid prevents this destruction. Putting together the benefits of this special handpiece short overall treatment times seem to be possible. High average power can be applied to the tooth without the threat of thermal damage. Furthermore no time consuming cutting of the fiber prolongs the treatment time.

  9. Navigational Guidance and Ablation Planning Tools for Interventional Radiology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Yadiel; Anvari, Arash; Samir, Anthony E; Arellano, Ronald S; Prabhakar, Anand M; Uppot, Raul N

    Image-guided biopsy and ablation relies on successful identification and targeting of lesions. Currently, image-guided procedures are routinely performed under ultrasound, fluoroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, or computed tomography (CT) guidance. However, these modalities have their limitations including inadequate visibility of the lesion, lesion or organ or patient motion, compatibility of instruments in an magnetic resonance imaging field, and, for CT and fluoroscopy cases, radiation exposure. Recent advances in technology have resulted in the development of a new generation of navigational guidance tools that can aid in targeting lesions for biopsy or ablations. These navigational guidance tools have evolved from simple hand-held trajectory guidance tools, to electronic needle visualization, to image fusion, to the development of a body global positioning system, to growth in cone-beam CT, and to ablation volume planning. These navigational systems are promising technologies that not only have the potential to improve lesion targeting (thereby increasing diagnostic yield of a biopsy or increasing success of tumor ablation) but also have the potential to decrease radiation exposure to the patient and staff, decrease procedure time, decrease the sedation requirements, and improve patient safety. The purpose of this article is to describe the challenges in current standard image-guided techniques, provide a definition and overview for these next-generation navigational devices, and describe the current limitations of these, still evolving, next-generation navigational guidance tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids Attenuate Progression of Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Elajami, Tarec K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Lakshminarayan, Dharshan; Soliman, Michael; Chandnani, Madhuri; Welty, Francine K

    2017-07-14

    Albuminuria is a marker of inflammation and an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The current study evaluated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation attenuates progression of albuminuria in subjects with coronary artery disease. Two-hundred sixty-two subjects with stable coronary artery disease were randomized to either Lovaza (1.86 g of EPA and 1.5 g of DHA daily) or no Lovaza (control) for 1 year. Percent change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was compared. Mean (SD) age was 63.3 (7.6) years; 17% were women and 30% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. In nondiabetic subjects, no change in urine ACR occurred in either the Lovaza or control groups. In contrast, ACR increased 72.3% ( P <0.001) in diabetic subjects not receiving Lovaza, whereas those receiving Lovaza had no change. In diabetic subjects on an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker, those receiving Lovaza had no change in urine ACR, whereas those not receiving Lovaza had a 64.2% increase ( P <0.001). Change in ACR was directly correlated with change in systolic blood pressure ( r =0.394, P =0.01). EPA and DHA supplementation attenuated progression of albuminuria in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, most of whom were on an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker. Thus, EPA and DHA supplementation should be considered as additional therapy to an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01624727. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enhances the therapeutic potential of neonatal neural stem cell transplantation post-Traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ghazale, Hussein; Ramadan, Naify; Mantash, Sara; Zibara, Kazem; El-Sitt, Sally; Darwish, Hala; Chamaa, Farah; Boustany, Rose Mary; Mondello, Stefania; Abou-Kheir, Wassim; Soueid, Jihane; Kobeissy, Firas

    2018-03-15

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide with 1.5 million people inflicted yearly. Several neurotherapeutic interventions have been proposed including drug administration as well as cellular therapy involving neural stem cells (NSCs). Among the proposed drugs is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, exhibiting neuroprotective properties. In this study, we utilized an innovative intervention of neonatal NSCs transplantation in combination with DHA injections in order to ameliorate brain damage and promote functional recovery in an experimental model of TBI. Thus, NSCs derived from the subventricular zone of neonatal pups were cultured into neurospheres and transplanted in the cortex of an experimentally controlled cortical impact mouse model of TBI. The effect of NSC transplantation was assessed alone and/or in combination with DHA administration. Motor deficits were evaluated using pole climbing and rotarod tests. Using immunohistochemistry, the effect of transplanted NSCs and DHA treatment was used to assess astrocytic (Glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP) and microglial (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1, IBA-1) activity. In addition, we quantified neuroblasts (doublecortin; DCX) and dopaminergic neurons (tyrosine hydroxylase; TH) expression levels. Combined NSC transplantation and DHA injections significantly attenuated TBI-induced motor function deficits (pole climbing test), promoted neurogenesis, coupled with an increase in glial reactivity at the cortical site of injury. In addition, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons was found to increase markedly in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra in the combination therapy group. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that DHA+NSCs treated animals showed decreased levels of 38kDa GFAP-BDP (breakdown product) and 145kDa αII-spectrin SBDP indicative of attenuated calpain/caspase activation. These data demonstrate that prior

  12. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on inflammatory cytokine levels in infants at high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chase, H Peter; Boulware, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Donaldson, David; Chritton, Sonia; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krischer, Jeffrey; Skyler, Jay S; Clare-Salzler, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D. This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double-blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first 5 months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1 µg/mL. The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61-100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6-36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα, or IL-12p40 at any of the six timepoints measured. The inflammatory marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at the age of 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies. This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in Infants at High Genetic Risk for Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chase, H. Peter; Boulware, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Donaldson, David; Chritton, Sonia; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krischer, Jeffrey; Skyler, Jay S.; Clare-Salzler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first five months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex Multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1μg/mL. RESULTS The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61–100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6 to 36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα or IL-12p40 at any of the 6 time points measured. The inflammatory marker, hsCRP, was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at age 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥ two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced. PMID:25039804

  14. Influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on the overall rumen microbiota of dairy cows and linkages with production parameters.

    PubMed

    Torok, Valeria A; Percy, Nigel J; Moate, Peter J; Ophel-Keller, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    The rumen microbiota contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and has an impact on feed efficiency and ruminant product fatty acid composition. Dietary fat supplements have shown promise in reducing enteric methane production and in altering the fatty acid profiles of ruminant-derived products, yet in vivo studies on how these impact the rumen microbiota are limited. In this study, we investigated the rumen bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and ciliate protozoan communities of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with 4 levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (0, 25, 50, and 75 g·cow(-1)·day(-1)) and established linkages between microbial communities and production parameters. Supplementation with DHA significantly (P < 0.05) altered rumen bacterial and archaeal, including methanogenic archaeal, communities but had no significant (P > 0.05) effects on rumen fungal or ciliate protozoan communities. Rumen bacterial communities of cows receiving no DHA were correlated with increased saturated fatty acids (C18:0 and C11:0) in their milk. Furthermore, rumen bacterial communities of cows receiving a diet supplemented with 50 g DHA·cow(-1)·day(-1) were correlated with increases in monounsaturated fatty acids (C20:1n-9) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (C22:5n-3; C22:6n-3; C18:2 cis-9, trans-11; C22:3n-6; and C18:2n-6 trans) in their milk. The significant diet-associated changes in rumen archaeal communities observed did not result in altered enteric methane outputs in these cows.

  15. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women.

    PubMed

    Corder, Katherine E; Newsham, Katherine R; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R; Weiss, Edward P

    2016-03-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m(-2)) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  16. Artificial pneumothorax: a safe and simple method to relieve pain during microwave ablation of subpleural lung malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaowei; Zhuang, Xingjun; Zhang, Haiwen; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yuanxin

    2017-08-01

    Microwave ablation has been extensively used for eliminating pulmonary tumors; however, it is usually associated with severe pain under local anesthesia. Decreasing the power and shortening the ablation time can help to relieve the pain; however, this leads to incomplete ablation and an increasing recurrence rate. This research aims to employ an artificial pneumothorax to increase both the curative effect and pain relief during the ablation procedure. From July 2013 to January 2015, nine patients presenting with 10 subpleural lung tumors (age: 44-78 years) with a high possibility of severe pain underwent the artificial pneumothorax during microwave ablation. The pain assessment scores and complications induced by the artificial pneumothorax were recorded and analyzed by a CT scan follow-up. The tumors of the nine patients were eliminated successfully using microwave ablation with artificial pneumothorax under local anesthesia. The pain caused by the ablation was relieved to a great extent with an average rate of 94.66% (range: 63.3%-100%) and all tumors were ablated completely. No severe complications occurred after the operation. The artificial pneumothorax is a reliable therapy to improve the curative effect of microwave ablation under local anesthesia by relieving the pain of the patients.

  17. Alternate energy sources for catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Wang, P J; Homoud, M K; Link, M S; Estes III, N A

    1999-07-01

    Because of the limitations of conventional radiofrequency ablation in creating large or linear lesions, alternative energy sources have been used as possible methods of catheter ablation. Modified radiofrequency energy, cryoablation, and microwave, laser, and ultrasound technologies may be able to create longer, deeper, and more controlled lesions and may be particularly suited for the treatment of ventricular tachycardias and for linear atrial ablation. Future studies will establish the efficacy of these new and promising technologies.

  18. Emergency catheter ablation in critical patients

    PubMed Central

    Tebbenjohanns, Jürgen; Rühmkorf, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Emergency catheter ablation is justified in critical patients with drug-refractory life-threatening arrhythmias. The procedure can be used for ablation of an accessory pathway in preexcitation syndrome with high risk of ventricular fibrillation and in patients with shock due to ischemic cardiomyopathy and incessant ventricular tachycardia. Emergency catheter ablation can also be justified in patients with an electrical storm of the implanted cardioverter-defibrillator or in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. PMID:20606793

  19. Data Fitting to Study Ablated Hard Dental Tissues by Nanosecond Laser Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Daiem, A. M.; Ansari, M. Shahnawaze; Babkair, Saeed S.; Salah, Numan A.; Al-Mujtaba, A.

    2016-01-01

    Laser ablation of dental hard tissues is one of the most important laser applications in dentistry. Many works have reported the interaction of laser radiations with tooth material to optimize laser parameters such as wavelength, energy density, etc. This work has focused on determining the relationship between energy density and ablation thresholds using pulsed, 5 nanosecond, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) laser at 1064 nanometer. For enamel and dentin tissues, the ablations have been performed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. The ablation thresholds and relationship between energy densities and peak areas of calcium lines, which appeared in LIBS, were determined using data fitting. Furthermore, the morphological changes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Moreover, the chemical stability of the tooth material after ablation has been studied using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The differences between carbon atomic % of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were tested using statistical t-test. Results revealed that the best fitting between energy densities and peak areas of calcium lines were exponential and linear for enamel and dentin, respectively. In addition, the ablation threshold of Nd:YAG lasers in enamel was higher than that of dentin. The morphology of the surrounded ablated region of enamel showed thermal damages. For enamel, the EDX quantitative analysis showed that the atomic % of carbon increased significantly when laser energy density increased. PMID:27228169

  20. Data Fitting to Study Ablated Hard Dental Tissues by Nanosecond Laser Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadeethi, Y; Al-Jedani, S; Razvi, M A N; Saeed, A; Abdel-Daiem, A M; Ansari, M Shahnawaze; Babkair, Saeed S; Salah, Numan A; Al-Mujtaba, A

    2016-01-01

    Laser ablation of dental hard tissues is one of the most important laser applications in dentistry. Many works have reported the interaction of laser radiations with tooth material to optimize laser parameters such as wavelength, energy density, etc. This work has focused on determining the relationship between energy density and ablation thresholds using pulsed, 5 nanosecond, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) laser at 1064 nanometer. For enamel and dentin tissues, the ablations have been performed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. The ablation thresholds and relationship between energy densities and peak areas of calcium lines, which appeared in LIBS, were determined using data fitting. Furthermore, the morphological changes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Moreover, the chemical stability of the tooth material after ablation has been studied using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The differences between carbon atomic % of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were tested using statistical t-test. Results revealed that the best fitting between energy densities and peak areas of calcium lines were exponential and linear for enamel and dentin, respectively. In addition, the ablation threshold of Nd:YAG lasers in enamel was higher than that of dentin. The morphology of the surrounded ablated region of enamel showed thermal damages. For enamel, the EDX quantitative analysis showed that the atomic % of carbon increased significantly when laser energy density increased.

  1. Comparative study on laser tissue ablation between PV and HPS lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Jebens, David; Mitchell, Gerald; Koullick, Ed

    2008-02-01

    Laser therapy for obstructive benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has gained broad adoption due to effective tissue removal, immediate hemostasis, and minor complications. The aim of this study is to quantitatively compare ablation characteristics of PV (Photoselective Vaporization) and the newly introduced HPS (High Performance System) 532 nm lasers. Bovine prostatic tissues were ablated in vitro, using a custom-made scanning system. Laser-induced volume produced by two lasers was quantified as a function of applied power, fiber working distance (WD), and treatment speed. Given the same power of 80 W and speed of 4 mm/s, HPS created up to 50 % higher tissue ablation volume than PV did. PV induced a rapid decrease of ablation volume when WD increased from 0.5 mm to 3 mm while HPS yielded almost constant tissue removal up to 3 mm for both 80 W and 120 W. As the treatment speed increased, both lasers reached saturation in tissue ablation volume. Lastly, both PV and HPS lasers exhibited approximately 1 mm thick heat affected zone (HAZ) in this study although HPS created twice deeper ablation channels with a depth of up to 4 mm. Due to a smaller beam size and a higher output power, HPS maximized tissue ablation rate with minimal thermal effects to the adjacent tissue. Furthermore, more collimated beam characteristics provides more spatial flexibility and may even help to decrease the rate of fiber degradation associated with thermal damage from debris reattachment to the tip.

  2. ABLATIVE COMPOSITES FOR LIFTING REENTRY THERMAL PROTECTION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, ABLATION, DENSITY, TABLES(DATA), SPECIFIC HEAT, THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS, CORROSION RESISTANCE, COLORIMETRY , HEAT RESISTANT MATERIALS, ATMOSPHERE ENTRY.

  3. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Sergi; Turon, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM) with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10–0.12 h−1), biomass (0.7–0.8 g cells/g Substrate) and product (0.14–0.15 g DHA/g cells) yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct. PMID:26690180

  4. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sergi; Turon, Xavier

    2015-12-05

    Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM) with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10-0.12 h(-1)), biomass (0.7-0.8 g cells/g Substrate) and product (0.14-0.15 g DHA/g cells) yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct.

  5. A dose response randomised controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Collins, C T; Sullivan, T R; McPhee, A J; Stark, M J; Makrides, M; Gibson, R A

    2015-08-01

    Thirty one infants born less than 30 weeks׳ gestational age were randomised to receive either 40 (n=11), 80 (n=9) or 120 (n=11) mg/kg/day of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) respectively as an emulsion, via the feeding tube, commenced within 4 days of the first enteral feed. Twenty three infants were enroled in non-randomised reference groups; n=11 who had no supplementary DHA and n=12 who had maternal DHA supplementation. All levels of DHA in the emulsion were well tolerated with no effect on number of days of interrupted feeds or days to full enteral feeds. DHA levels in diets were directly related to blood DHA levels but were unrelated to arachidonic acid (AA) levels. All randomised groups and the maternal supplementation reference group prevented the drop in DHA levels at study end that was evident in infants not receiving supplementation. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000382077. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of significant medium components that affect docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp. SW1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikan, Vidyah; Hamid, Aidil A.

    2013-11-01

    Central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the significance of glucose, yeast extract, MSG and sea salt in affecting the amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulated by a locally isolated strain of Schizochytrium. Design Expert software was used to construct a set of experiments where each medium component mentioned above was varied over three levels. Cultivation was carried out in 250mL flasks containing 50mL of medium, incubated at 30°C with 200 rpm agitation for 96 hours. ANOVA was conducted to identify the influential factors and the level of their significance where factors that scored a probability value of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The level of influence for each independent variable was also interpreted using perturbation whereas pattern of interaction between the factors were interpreted using interaction plots. This experiment revealed that yeast extract and monosodium glutamate have significant influence on DHA accumulation process by Schizochytrium sp. SW1.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid affects markers of inflammation and muscle damage after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    DiLorenzo, Frank M; Drager, Christopher J; Rankin, Janet W

    2014-10-01

    The effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on inflammatory and muscle damage response to acute eccentric exercise and to the subsequent initiation of a resistance training program was studied in 41 untrained men. Subjects consumed either 2 g·d of either DHA or placebo (PL) for 28 days before a 17-day exercise phase (day 1 to day 17) that began with an eccentric exercise bout of the elbow flexors (day 1). For analysis, the exercise period was further divided into an acute response phase (day 1-4). Isometric muscle strength (STR), range of motion (ROM), and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 12, and 17. Fasted blood was measured for interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, C-reactive protein (CRP), and creatine kinase (CK) on days 1, 2, and 4. Serum CK and CRP were also measured in blood collected on days 7, 12, and 17. In the acute phase, DHA significantly reduced the serum CK (12.5%) and the IL-6 response (32%) but did not affect STR or DOMS. Over the entire 17-day resistance exercise period, DOMS area under the curve was 183.2 ± 96.2 for DHA and 203.2 ± 120.9 for PL (p = 0.054) and the CK response was numerically lower for DHA (p = 0.093). Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation reduced some but not all indicators of muscle damage and inflammation in the 4 days after an acute eccentric exercise bout but did not significantly affect the response to initiation of resistance exercise.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid and human brain development: evidence that a dietary supply is needed for optimal development.

    PubMed

    Brenna, J Thomas; Carlson, Susan E

    2014-12-01

    Humans evolved a uniquely large brain among terrestrial mammals. Brain and nervous tissue is rich in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Docosahexaenoic acid is required for lower and high order functions in humans because of understood and emerging molecular mechanisms. Among brain components that depend on dietary components, DHA is limiting because its synthesis from terrestrial plant food precursors is low but its utilization when consumed in diet is very efficient. Negligible DHA is found in terrestrial plants, but in contrast, DHA is plentiful at the shoreline where it is made by single-celled organisms and plants, and in the seas supports development of very large marine mammal brains. Modern human brains accumulate DHA up to age 18, most aggressively from about half-way through gestation to about two years of age. Studies in modern humans and non-human primates show that modern infants consuming infant formulas that include only DHA precursors have lower DHA levels than for those with a source of preformed DHA. Functional measures show that infants consuming preformed DHA have improved visual and cognitive function. Dietary preformed DHA in the breast milk of modern mothers supports many-fold greater breast milk DHA than is found in the breast milk of vegans, a phenomenon linked to consumption of shore-based foods. Most current evidence suggests that the DHA-rich human brain required an ample and sustained source of dietary DHA to reach its full potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Syndecan-1-Dependent Suppression of PDK1/Akt/Bad Signaling by Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yunping; Sun, Haiguo; Owens, Rick T; Gu, Zhennan; Wu, Jansheng; Chen, Yong Q; O'Flaherty, Joseph T; Edwards, Iris J

    2010-01-01

    Evidence indicates that diets enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) reduce the risk of prostate cancer, but biochemical mechanisms are unclear. Syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan, supports the integrity of the epithelial compartment. In tumor cells of epithelial lineage, SDC-1 is generally downregulated. This may result in perturbation of homeostasis and lead to progression of malignancy. Our studies have shown that the n-3 PUFA species, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), increases SDC-1 expression in prostate tissues of Pten knockout (PtenP-/-) mice/cells and human prostate cancer cells. We have now determined that DHA-mediated up-regulation of SDC-1 induces apoptosis. Bovine serum albumin-bound DHA and exogenous human recombinant SDC-1 ecotodomain were delivered to PC3 and LNCaP cells in the presence or absence of SDC-1 small interfering (si)RNA. In the presence of control siRNA, both DHA and SDC-1 ectodomain induced apoptosis, whereas SDC-1 silencing blocked DHA-induced but not SDC-1 ectodomain-induced apoptosis. Downstream effectors of SDC-1 signaling linked to n-3 PUFA-induced apoptosis involved the 3′-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)/Akt/Bad integrating network. A diet enriched in n-3 PUFA decreased phosphorylation of PDK1, Akt (T308), and Bad in prostates of PtenP-/- mice. Similar results were observed in human prostate cancer cells in response to DHA and SDC-1 ectodomain. The effect of DHA on PDK1/Akt/Bad signaling was abrogated by SDC-1 siRNA. These findings define a mechanism by which SDC-1-dependent suppression of phosphorylation of PDK1/Akt/Bad mediates n-3 PUFA-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer. PMID:20927321

  10. Mechanisms of Docosahexaenoic and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Loss from Pacific Saury and Comparison of Their Retention Rates after Various Cooking Methods.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Lennie K Y; Tomita, Haruo; Takemori, Toshikazu

    2016-08-01

    The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) contents of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), a fatty fish and staple of the Japanese diet, have been reported to decrease after cooking. This study compared the DHA and EPA contents remaining in saury after grilling, pan-frying or deep-frying to center temperatures of 75, 85, or 95 °C, and examined physical loss, lipid oxidation, and thermal degradation as mechanisms of DHA and EPA loss. Temperature changes inside the saury were monitored using thermocouples, while DHA and EPA contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and measurements of lipid oxidation (that is, carbonyl value and thiobarbituric acid value) were determined chemically. Visualization of temperature distribution inside fish samples during cooking revealed large differences in heat transfer among cooking methods. True retention rates in grilled (DHA: 84 ± 15%; EPA: 87 ± 14%) and pan-fried samples (DHA: 85 ± 16%; EPA: 77 ± 17%) were significantly higher than deep-fried samples (DHA: 58 ± 17%; EPA: 51 ± 18%), but were not affected by final center temperatures despite differences in cooking times. Physical loss via cooking losses (grilling and pan-frying) or migration into frying oil (deep-frying) accounted for large quantities of DHA and EPA loss, while lipid oxidation and thermal degradation did not appear to be major mechanisms of loss. The antioxidant capacity of saury was not significantly affected by cooking treatments. The results of this study suggest that minimization of physical losses during cooking may increase DHA and EPA contents retained in cooked Pacific saury. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. High-cell-density fed-batch cultivation of the docosahexaenoic acid producing marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii.

    PubMed

    De Swaaf, Martin E; Sijtsma, Lolke; Pronk, Jack T

    2003-03-20

    The heterotrophic marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii is known to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid with food and pharmaceutical applications, during batch cultivation on complex media containing sea salt, yeast extract, and glucose. In the present study, fed-batch cultivation was studied as an alternative fermentation strategy for DHA production. Glucose and acetic acid were compared as carbon sources. For both substrates, the feed rate was adapted to the maximum specific consumption rate of C. cohnii. In glucose-grown cultures, this was done by maintaining a significant glucose concentration (between 5 and 20 g/L) throughout fermentation. In acetic acid-grown cultures, the medium feed was automatically controlled via the culture pH. A feed consisting of acetic acid (50% w/w) resulted in a higher overall volumetric productivity of DHA (r(DHA)) than a feed consisting of 50% (w/v) glucose (38 and 14 mg/L/h, respectively). The r(DHA) was further increased to 48 mg/L/h using a feed consisting of pure acetic acid. The latter fermentation strategy resulted in final concentrations of 109 g/L dry biomass, 61 g/L lipid, and 19 g/L DHA. These are the highest biomass, lipid, and DHA concentrations reported to date for a heterotrophic alga. Vigorous mixing was required to sustain aerobic conditions during high-cell-density cultivation. This was complicated by culture viscosity, which resulted from the production of viscous extracellular polysaccharides. These may present a problem for large-scale industrial production of DHA. Addition of a commercial polysaccharide-hydrolase preparation could decrease the viscosity of the culture and the required stirring. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 81: 666-672, 2003.

  12. Two-Stage Enzymatic Preparation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Enriched Fish Oil Triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Fang; Ma, Xiang; Huang, Huihua; Wang, Yong

    2018-01-10

    Fish oil products in the form of triacylglycerols generally have relatively low contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and so it is of potential research and industrial interest to enrich the related contents in commercial products. Thereby an economical and efficient two-stage preparation of EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols is proposed in this study. The first stage was the partial hydrolysis of fish oil by only 0.2 wt.‰ AY "Amano" 400SD which led to increases of EPA and DHA contents in acylglycerols from 19.30 and 13.09 wt % to 25.95 and 22.06 wt %, respectively. Subsequently, products of the first stage were subjected to transesterification with EPA and DHA enriched fatty acid ethyl esters (EDEE) as the second stage to afford EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols by using as low as 2 wt % Novozyme 435. EDEEs prepared from fish oil ethyl ester, and recycled DHA and EPA, respectively, were applied in this stage. Final products prepared with two different sources of EDEEs were composed of 97.62 and 95.92 wt % of triacylglycerols, respectively, with EPA and DHA contents of 28.20 and 21.41 wt % for the former and 25.61 and 17.40 wt % for the latter. Results not only demonstrate this two-stage process's capability and industrial value for enriching EPA and DHA in fish oil products, but also offer new opportunities for the development of fortified fish oil products.

  13. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results from the Welcome* study.

    PubMed

    Scorletti, Eleonora; Bhatia, Lokpal; McCormick, Keith G; Clough, Geraldine F; Nash, Kathryn; Hodson, Leanne; Moyses, Helen E; Calder, Philip C; Byrne, Christopher D

    2014-10-01

    There is no licensed treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition that increases risk of chronic liver disease, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We tested whether 15-18 months treatment with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (Omacor/Lovaza) (4 g/day) decreased liver fat and improved two histologically-validated liver fibrosis biomarker scores (primary outcomes). Patients with NAFLD were randomised in a double blind placebo-controlled trial [DHA+EPA(n=51), placebo(n=52)]. We quantified liver fat percentage (%) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in three liver zones. We measured liver fibrosis using two validated scores. We tested adherence to the intervention (Omacor group) and contamination (with DHA and EPA) (placebo group) by measuring erythrocyte percentage DHA and EPA enrichment (gas chromatography). We undertook multivariable linear regression to test effects of: a) DHA+EPA treatment (ITT analyses) and b) erythrocyte DHA and EPA enrichment (secondary analysis). Median (IQR) baseline and end of study liver fat% were 21.7 (19.3) and 19.7 (18.0) (placebo), and 23.0 (36.2) and 16.3 (22.0), (DHA+EPA). In the fully adjusted regression model there was a trend towards improvement in liver fat% with DHA+EPA treatment (β=-3.64 (95%CI -8.0,0.8); p=0.1) but there was evidence of contamination in the placebo group and variable adherence to the intervention in the Omacor group. Further regression analysis showed that DHA enrichment was independently associated with a decrease in liver fat% (for each 1% enrichment, β=-1.70 (95%CI -2.9,-0.5); p=0.007). No improvement in the fibrosis scores occurred. Conclusion. Erythrocyte DHA enrichment with DHA+EPA treatment is linearly associated with decreased liver fat%. Substantial decreases in liver fat% can be achieved with high percentage erythrocyte DHA enrichment in NAFLD. (Hepatology 2014;).

  14. Antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm growing Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengjun; Dong, Jiachen; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm modes of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The effects on planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were evaluated by growth curve determination and MTT assay, respectively. Then, colony forming unit (CFU) counting, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and real-time PCR were performed to further investigate the actions of DHA and EPA on exponential phase-S. mutans. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to detect the influences on mature biofilms. The MICs of DHA and EPA against S. mutans were 100 μM and 50 μM, respectively; the MBC of both compounds was 100 μM. In the presence of 12.5 μM-100 μM DHA or EPA, the planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were reduced in varying degrees. For exponential-phase S. mutans, the viable counts, the bacterial membranes and the biofilm-associated gene expression were damaged by 100 μM DHA or EPA treatment. For 1-day-old biofilms, the thickness was decreased and the proportion of membrane-damaged bacteria was increased in the presence of 100 μM DHA or EPA. These results indicated that, DHA and EPA possessed antibacterial activities against planktonic and biofilm growing S. mutans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Translating plasma and whole blood fatty acid compositional data into the sum of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Stark, Ken D; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Metherel, Adam H; Pilote, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Specific blood levels of eicosapentaenoic plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA, wt% of total) in erythrocytes or "the omega-3 index" have been recommended for cardio-protection, but fatty acids are often measured in different blood fractions. The ability to estimate the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from the fatty acid composition of other blood fractions would enable clinical assessments of omega-3 status when erythrocyte fractions are not available and increase the ability to compare blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids across clinical studies. The fatty acid composition of baseline plasma, erythrocytes and whole blood samples from participants (n=1104) in a prospective, multicenter study examining acute coronary syndrome were determined. The ability to predict the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from other blood fractions were examined using bivariate and multiple linear regression modelling. Concordance analysis was also used to compare the actual erythrocytes EPA+DHA values to values estimated from other blood fractions. EPA+DHA in erythrocytes was significantly (p<0.001) correlated EPA+DHA in plasma (r(2)=0.54) and whole blood (r(2)=0.79). Using multiple linear regression to predict EPA+DHA in erythrocytes resulted in stronger coefficients of determination in both plasma (R(2)=0.70) and whole blood (R(2)=0.84). Concordance analyses indicated agreement between actual and estimated EPA+DHA in erythrocytes, although estimating from plasma fatty acids appears to require translation by categorization rather than by translation as continuous data. This study shows that the fatty acid composition of different blood fractions can be used to estimate erythrocyte EPA+DHA in a population with acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors (I): biological background.

    PubMed

    Vanagas, Tomas; Gulbinas, Antanas; Pundzius, Juozas; Barauskas, Giedrius

    2010-01-01

    Majority of patients suffering from liver tumors are not candidates for surgery. Currently, minimal invasive techniques have become available for local destruction of hepatic tumors. Radiofrequency ablation is based on biological response to tissue hyperthermia. The aim of this article is to review available biological data on tissue destruction mechanisms. Experimental evidence shows that tissue injury following thermal ablation occurs in two distinct phases. The initial phase is direct injury, which is determined by energy applied, tumor biology, and tumor microenvironment. The temperature varies along the ablation zone and this is reflected by different morphological changes in affected tissues. The local hyperthermia alters metabolism, exacerbates tissue hypoxia, and increases thermosensitivity. The second phase - indirect injury - is observed after the cessation of heat stimulus. This phase represents a balance of several promoting and inhibiting mechanisms, such as induction of apoptosis, heat shock proteins, Kupffer cell activation, stimulation of the immune response, release of cytokines, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms may possibly lead to refinements in radiofrequency ablation technology, resulting in advanced local tumor control and prolonged overall survival.

  17. Test and Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Ablative Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. Louie

    2017-01-01

    Asbestos free solid motor internal insulation samples were tested at the MSFC Hyperthermal Facility. Objectives of the test were to gather data for analog characterization of ablative and in-depth thermal performance of rubber materials subject to high enthalpy/pressure flow conditions. Tests were conducted over a range of convective heat fluxes for both inert and chemically reactive sub-sonic free stream gas flow. Instrumentation included use of total calorimeters, thermocouples, and a surface pyrometer for surface temperature measurement. Post-test sample forensics involved measurement of eroded depth, charred depth, total sample weight loss, and documentation of the general condition of the eroded profile. A complete Charring Material Ablator (CMA) style aero-thermal analysis was conducted for the test matrix and results compared to the measured data. In general, comparisons were possible for a number of the cases and the results show a limited predictive ability to model accurately both the ablative response and the in-depth temperature profiles. Lessons learned and modeling recommendations are made regarding future testing and modeling improvements that will increase understanding of the basic chemistry/physics associated with the complicated material ablation process of rubber materials.

  18. Pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Pürerfellner, Helmut; Martinek, Martin

    2005-11-01

    This review provides an update on the mechanisms, incidence, and current management of significant pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Catheter ablation involving the pulmonary veins and the surrounding left atrial tissue is increasingly used to treat atrial fibrillation. In parallel with the fact that these procedures may cure a substantial proportion of patients, severe complications have been observed. Pulmonary vein stenosis is a new clinical entity produced by radiofrequency energy delivery mainly within or at the orifice of the pulmonary veins. The exact incidence is currently unknown because the diagnosis is dependent on the imaging modality and on the rigor with which patients are followed up. The optimal method for screening patients has not been determined. Stenosis of a pulmonary vein may be assessed by combining anatomic and functional imaging using computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging, transesophageal echocardiography, and lung scanning. Symptoms vary considerably and may be misdiagnosed, leading to severe clinical consequences. Current treatment strategies involve pulmonary vein dilatation or stenting; however, the restenosis rate remains high. The long-term outcome in patients with pulmonary vein stenosis is unclear. Strategies under development to prevent pulmonary vein stenosis include alternate energy sources and modified ablation techniques. Pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation is a new clinical entity that has been described in various reports recently. There is much uncertainty with respect to causative factors, incidence, diagnosis, and treatment, and long-term sequelae are unclear.

  19. The Research of Feasibility and Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation in Treating Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; Shu, Shan-rong; Ma, Xue-feng; Shuai, Han-lin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To explore the feasibility and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in treating uterine fibroids. Ninety patients with multiple uterine fibroids, who had undergone hysterectomy were included in the study. After the uterus was resected, the temperature of 60, 80, 100°C were adopted to ablate the in vitro fibroid with each temperature dealing with 30 patients. Simultaneously, 5 patients were included, whose in vivo fibroid were ablated with the temperature of 100°C before the fibroids were removed after laparotomy. After the fibroids were ablated, the smooth muscle in the ablated center (group A), the ablated edge (group B) and 1 cm away from the ablated edge (group C) were taken. Then, the samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) to examine the histopathological changes, and immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). After radiofrequency ablation, the ablated lesions were round, toast tan, and dry on gross appearance. There were no obvious tissue carbonization and there were distinct boundary from periphery tissue. In vitro: On automated analysis, the average optical density of ER and PR in group A, B, and C was lower than the control group (P < 0.05), and which were gradually raised with the increased distance to electrode. In the same treatment group, ER optical density was gradually decreased with the increased temperature among 3 different groups. The PR optical density was decreased with the increased temperature under different temperatures in group A and group B, there was significant difference among groups (P < 0.05). But in group C, there was no difference in PR expression among the temperature of 60, 80, and 100°C (P > 0.05). In vivo: Compared with the control group, the average optical density of ER and PR were significantly different among group A, B, and C (P < 0.05), what's more, it was gradually raised with the increased distance to

  20. Optical radiative properties of ablating polymers exposed to high-power arc plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Marley; Pettersson, Jonas

    2018-03-01

    The radiative properties of polymers exposed to high-intensity radiation are of importance for the numerical simulation of arc-induced ablation. The paper investigates the optical properties of polymethylmethacrylate PMMA and polyamide PA6 films exposed to high-power arc plasmas, which can cause ablation of the material. A four-flux radiative approximation is first used to estimate absorption and scattering coefficients of the tested materials in the ultraviolet (UV) and in the visible (VIS) ranges from spectrophotometric measurements. The temperature-induced variation of the collimated transmissivity of the polymers is also measured from room temperature to the glass temperature of PMMA and the melting temperature of PA6. Furthermore, band-averaged absorption and scattering coefficients of non-ablating and ablating polymers are estimated from the UV to the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR), covering the range of interest for the simulation of arc-induced ablation. These estimates are obtained from collimated transmissivities measured with an additional in situ photometric system that uses a high-power, transient arc plasma to both illuminate the samples and to induce ablation. It is shown that the increase in the bulk temperature of PA6 leads to a strong reversible increase in collimated transmissivity, significantly reducing the absorption and scattering coefficients of the material. A weaker but opposite effect of temperature on the optical properties is found in PMMA. As a consequence, it is suggested that the absorption coefficient of polymers used for arc-induced ablation estimates should not be taken directly from direct collimated transmissivity measurements at room temperature. The band-averaged radiation measurements also show that the layer of products released by ablation of PMMA produces scattering radiation losses mainly in the VIS-SWIR ranges, which are only a small fraction of the total incident arc radiation. In a similar manner, the ablation layer

  1. Ablation of hypertrophic septum using radiofrequency energy: an alternative for gradient reduction in patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed

    Riedlbauchová, Lucie; Janoušek, Jan; Veselka, Josef

    2013-06-01

    Alcohol septal ablation and surgical myectomy represent accepted therapeutic options for treatment of symptomatic patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Long-term experience with radiofrequency ablation of arrhythmogenic substrates raised a question if this technique might be effective for left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient reduction. We report on a 63-year-old patient with recurrence of symptoms 1 year after alcohol septal ablation (ASA) leading originally to a significant reduction of both symptoms and gradient. Due to a new increase of gradient in the LVOT up to 200 mm Hg with corresponding worsening of symptoms and due to refusal of surgical myectomy by the patient, endocardial radiofrequency ablation of the septal hypertrophy (ERASH) was indicated. Radiofrequency ablation was performed in the LVOT using irrigated-tip ablation catheter; the target site was identified using intracardiac echocardiography and electroanatomical CARTO mapping. ERASH caused an immediate gradient reduction due to hypokinesis of the ablated septum. At 2-month follow-up exam, significant clinical improvement was observed, together with persistent gradient reduction assessed with Doppler echocardiography. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance revealed persistent septal hypokinesis and slight thinning of the ablated region. Septal ablation using radiofrequency energy may be a promising alternative or adjunct to the treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Intracardiac echocardiography and electroanatomical CARTO mapping enable exact lesion placement and preservation of atrioventricular conduction.

  2. Additive Effects of Mechanical Marrow Ablation and PTH Treatment on de Novo Bone Formation in Mature Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Miller, Christopher; Bible, Jesse; Li, Jiliang; Xu, Xiaoqing; Mehta, Nozer; Gilligan, James; Vignery, Agnès; Scholz, Jodi A Carlson

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical ablation of bone marrow in young rats induces rapid but transient bone growth, which can be enhanced and maintained for three weeks by the administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Additionally, marrow ablation, followed by PTH treatment for three months leads to increased cortical thickness. In this study, we sought to determine whether PTH enhances bone formation after marrow ablation in aged rats. Aged rats underwent unilateral femoral marrow ablation and treatment with PTH or vehicle for four weeks. Both femurs from each rat were analyzed by X-ray and pQCT, then analyzed either by microCT, histology or biomechanical testing. Marrow ablation alone induced transient bone formation of low abundance that persisted over four weeks, while marrow ablation followed by PTH induced bone formation of high abundance that also persisted over four weeks. Our data confirms that the osteo-inducive effect of marrow ablation and the additive effect of marrow ablation, followed by PTH, occurs in aged rats. Our observations open new avenues of investigations in the field of tissue regeneration. Local marrow ablation, in conjunction with an anabolic agent, might provide a new platform for rapid site-directed bone growth in areas of high bone loss, such as in the hip and wrist, which are subject to fracture. PMID:24710549

  3. A comparison of the DPSS UV laser ablation characteristic of 1024 and H10F WC-Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Tian Long; Chantzis, Dimitrios; Royer, Raphael; Metsios, Ioannis; Antar, Mohammad; Marimuthu, Sundar

    2017-07-01

    An investigation on ablation characteristics of 1024 and H10F cobalt cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) with a DPSS nanosecond UV laser (50 ns pulse width, 355 nm wavelength, 90 W average power and 10 kHz repetition rate) is presented. The ablation characteristic parameters such as ablation threshold, incubation effect and optical penetration depth were evaluated based on the spot ablation diameter and depth. It was observed that the ablation threshold is significantly influenced by the number of pulses (NOP) and it decreases with increase NOP which is attributed to the incubation effect. Only one ablation region is observed at low laser fluence and an additional molten ablation region is observed at high laser fluence accompanied with cracks. The cracks formation is due to the thermal induced stress and changes in WC microstructure during laser beam irradiation. The crack depth is proportional to the thickness of the molten WC region. The ablation threshold of 1024 WC-Co and H10F WC-Co were found to be Fth1 =4.32 J/cm2 and Fth1 =4.26 J/cm2 respectively. The difference in chemical composition has insignificant effect on the ablation threshold value of the material. The incubation factor and optical penetration depth values of 1024 WC-Co and H10F WC-Co were found to be ξ=0.73, α-1 =411 nm and ξ=0.75, α-1 =397 nm respectively.

  4. Quantification of the effect of electrical and thermal parameters on radiofrequency ablation for concentric tumour model of different sizes.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad; Ng, E Y K

    2015-07-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been increasingly used in treating cancer for multitude of situations in various tissue types. To perform the therapy safely and reliably, the effect of critical parameters needs to be known beforehand. Temperature plays an important role in the outcome of the therapy and any uncertainties in temperature assessment can be lethal. This study presents the RFA case of fixed tip temperature where we've analysed the effect of electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and blood perfusion rate of the tumour and surrounding normal tissue on the radiofrequency ablation. Ablation volume was chosen as the characteristic to be optimised and temperature control was achieved via PID controller. The effect of all 6 parameters each having 3 levels was quantified with minimum number of experiments harnessing the fractional factorial characteristic of Taguchi's orthogonal arrays. It was observed that as the blood perfusion increases the ablation volume decreases. Increasing electrical conductivity of the tumour results in increase of ablation volume whereas increase in normal tissue conductivity tends to decrease the ablation volume and vice versa. Likewise, increasing thermal conductivity of the tumour results in enhanced ablation volume whereas an increase in thermal conductivity of the surrounding normal tissue has a debilitating effect on the ablation volume and vice versa. With increase in the size of the tumour (i.e., 2-3cm) the effect of each parameter is not linear. The parameter effect varies with change in size of the tumour that is manifested by the different gradient observed in ablation volume. Most important is the relative insensitivity of ablation volume to blood perfusion rate for smaller tumour size (2cm) that is also in accordance with the previous results presented in literature. These findings will provide initial insight for safe, reliable and improved treatment planning perceptively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Perioral Rejuvenation With Ablative Erbium Resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L

    2015-11-01

    Since the introduction of the scanning full-field erbium laser, misconceptions regarding ablative erbium resurfacing have resulted in its being largely overshadowed by ablative fractional resurfacing. This case report illustrates the appropriateness of full-field erbium ablation for perioral resurfacing. A patient with profoundly severe perioral photodamage etched-in lines underwent full-field ablative perioral resurfacing with an erbium laser (Contour TRL, Sciton Inc., Palo Alto, CA) that allows separate control of ablation and coagulation. The pre-procedure consultations included evaluation of the severity of etched-in lines, and discussion of patient goals, expectations, and appropriate treatment options, as well as a review of patient photos and post-treatment care required. The author generally avoids full-field erbium ablation in patients with Fitzpatrick type IV and above. For each of 2 treatment sessions (separated by approximately 4 months), the patient received (12 cc plain 2% lidodaine) sulcus blocks before undergoing 4 passes with the erbium laser at 150 μ ablation, no coagulation, and then some very focal 30 μ ablation to areas of residual lines still visualized through the pinpoint bleeding. Similarly, full-field ablative resurfacing can be very reliable for significant wrinkles and creping in the lower eyelid skin--where often a single treatment of 80 μ ablation, 50 μ coagulation can lead to a nice improvement. Standardized digital imaging revealed significant improvement in deeply etched rhytides without significant adverse events. For appropriately selected patients requiring perioral (or periorbital) rejuvenation, full-field ablative erbium resurfacing is safe, efficacious and merits consideration.

  6. Optimization of direct current-enhanced radiofrequency ablation: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Isfort, Peter; Bruners, Philipp; Penzkofer, Tobias; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimal setting for radiofrequency (RF) ablation combined with direct electrical current (DC) ablation in ex vivo bovine liver. An electrical circuit combining a commercially available RF ablation system with DC was developed. The negative electrode of a rectifier that provides DC was connected to a 3-cm multitined expandable RF probe. A 100-mH inductor was used to prevent electrical leakage from the RF generator. DC was applied for 15 min and followed by RF ablation in freshly excised bovine livers. Electric current was measured by an ammeter. Coagulation volume, ablation duration, and mean amperage were assessed for various DC voltages (no DC, 2.2, 4.5, and 9.0 V) and different RF ablation protocols (stepwise increase from 40 to 80 W, 40 W fixed, and 80 W fixed). Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Applying DC with 4.5 or 9.0 V, in combination with 40 W fixed or a stepwise increase of RF energy, resulted in significantly increased zone of ablation size compared with 2.2 V or no DC (P = 0.009). At 4.5 V DC, the stepwise increase of RF energy resulted in the same necrosis size as a 40 W fixed protocol (26.6 +/- 3.9 vs. 26.5 +/- 4.0 ml), but ablation duration was significantly decreased (296 +/- 85 s vs. 423 +/- 104 s; P = 0.028). Mean amperage was significantly lower at 4.5 V compared with 9.0 V (P = 0.028). Combining a stepwise increase of RF energy with a DC voltage of 4.5 V is most appropriate to increase coagulation volume and to minimize procedure time.

  7. Optimization of Direct Current-Enhanced Radiofrequency Ablation: An Ex Vivo Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihir@bf6.so-net.ne.jp; Isfort, Peter; Bruners, Philipp

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimal setting for radiofrequency (RF) ablation combined with direct electrical current (DC) ablation in ex vivo bovine liver. An electrical circuit combining a commercially available RF ablation system with DC was developed. The negative electrode of a rectifier that provides DC was connected to a 3-cm multitined expandable RF probe. A 100-mH inductor was used to prevent electrical leakage from the RF generator. DC was applied for 15 min and followed by RF ablation in freshly excised bovine livers. Electric current was measured by an ammeter. Coagulation volume, ablation duration, andmore » mean amperage were assessed for various DC voltages (no DC, 2.2, 4.5, and 9.0 V) and different RF ablation protocols (stepwise increase from 40 to 80 W, 40 W fixed, and 80 W fixed). Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Applying DC with 4.5 or 9.0 V, in combination with 40 W fixed or a stepwise increase of RF energy, resulted in significantly increased zone of ablation size compared with 2.2 V or no DC (P = 0.009). At 4.5 V DC, the stepwise increase of RF energy resulted in the same necrosis size as a 40 W fixed protocol (26.6 {+-} 3.9 vs. 26.5 {+-} 4.0 ml), but ablation duration was significantly decreased (296 {+-} 85 s vs. 423 {+-} 104 s; P = 0.028). Mean amperage was significantly lower at 4.5 V compared with 9.0 V (P = 0.028). Combining a stepwise increase of RF energy with a DC voltage of 4.5 V is most appropriate to increase coagulation volume and to minimize procedure time.« less

  8. Evolution of the ablation region after magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation in a Vx2 tumor model.

    PubMed

    Wijlemans, Joost W; Deckers, Roel; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Seinstra, Beatrijs A; van Stralen, Marijn; van Diest, Paul J; Moonen, Chrit T W; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2013-06-01

    Volumetric magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a completely noninvasive image-guided thermal ablation technique. Recently, there has been growing interest in the use of MR-HIFU for noninvasive ablation of malignant tumors. Of particular interest for noninvasive ablation of malignant tumors is reliable treatment monitoring and evaluation of response. At this point, there is limited evidence on the evolution of the ablation region after MR-HIFU treatment. The purpose of the present study was to comprehensively characterize the evolution of the ablation region after volumetric MR-HIFU ablation in a Vx2 tumor model using MR imaging, MR temperature data, and histological data. Vx2 tumors in the hind limb muscle of New Zealand White rabbits (n = 30) were ablated using a clinical MR-HIFU system. Twenty-four animals were available for analyses. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and immediately after ablation; MR temperature mapping was performed during the ablation. The animals were distributed over 7 groups with different follow-up lengths. Depending on the group, animals were reimaged and then killed on day 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, or 28 after ablation. For all time points, the size of nonperfused areas (NPAs) on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CE-T1-w) images was compared with lethal thermal dose areas (ie, the tissue area that received a thermal dose of 240 equivalent minutes or greater [EM] at 43°C) and with the necrotic tissue areas on histology sections. The NPA on CE-T1-w imaging showed an increase in median size from 266 ± 148 to 392 ± 178 mm(2) during the first day and to 343 ± 170 mm(2) on day 3, followed by a gradual decrease to 113 ± 103 mm(2) on day 28. Immediately after ablation, the NPA was 1.6 ± 1.4 times larger than the area that received a thermal dose of 240 EM or greater in all animals. The median size of the necrotic area on histology was 1.7 ± 0.4 times larger than the NPA immediately after

  9. The ablation threshold of Er;Cr:YSGG laser radiation in bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Carolina; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2015-06-01

    In laser cut clinical applications, the use of energy densities lower than the ablation threshold causes increase of temperature of the irradiated tissue, which might result in an irreversible thermal damage. Hence, knowing the ablation threshold is crucial for insuring the safety of these procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the ablation threshold of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in bone tissue. Bone pieces from jaws of New Zealand rabbits were cut as blocks of 5 mm × 8 mm and polished with sandpaper. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser used in this study had wavelength of 2780 nm, 20 Hz of frequency, and the irradiation condition was chosen so as to simulate the irradiation during a surgical procedure. The laser irradiation was performed with 12 different values of laser energy densities, between 3 J/cm2 and 42 J/cm2, during 3 seconds, resulting in the overlap of 60 pulses. This process was repeated in each sample, for all laser energy densities. After irradiation, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and it was measured the crater diameter for each energy density. By fitting a curve that related the ablation threshold with the energy density and the corresponding diameter of ablation crater, it was possible to determine the ablation threshold. The results showed that the ablation threshold of the Er,Cr:YSGG in bone tissue was 1.95+/-0.42 J/cm2.

  10. Picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide: Effect of crystallinity on the material response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Rocío; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Lejardi, Ainhoa; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon

    2011-11-01

    The picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) as a function of laser fluence and degree of crystallinity was examined. The ablation parameters and the surface modifications were analyzed under various irradiation conditions using laser wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet through the visible. When processing the amorphous PLLA, both energy threshold and topography varied considerably depending on laser wavelength. Laser irradiation showed a reduction in the energy ablation threshold as the degree of crystallinity increased, probably related to photomechanical effects involved in laser ablation with ultra-short pulses and the lower stress accommodation behavior of semicrystalline polymers. In particular, cooperative chain motions are impeded by the higher degree of crystallinity, showing fragile mechanical behavior and lower energy dissipation. The experimental results on ablation rate versus laser energy showed that UV laser ablation on semicrystalline PLLA was more efficient than the visible ablation, i.e., it exhibits higher etch rates over a wide range of pulse energy conditions. These results were interpreted in terms of photo-thermal and photo-chemical response of polymers as a function of material micro-structure and incident laser wavelength. High quality micro-grooves were produced in amorphous PLLA, reveling the potential of ultra-fast laser processing technique in the field of micro-structuring biocompatible and biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications.

  11. Laser ablation surface-enhanced Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Londero, Pablo S; Lombardi, John R; Leona, Marco

    2013-06-04

    Improved identification of trace organic compounds in complex matrixes is critical for a variety of fields such as material science, heritage science, and forensics. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a vibrational spectroscopy technique that can attain single-molecule sensitivity and has been shown to complement mass spectrometry, but lacks widespread application without a robust method that utilizes the effect. We demonstrate a new, highly sensitive, and widely applicable approach to SERS analysis based on laser ablation in the presence of a tailored plasmonic substrate. We analyze several challenging compounds, including non-water-soluble pigments and dyed leather from an ancient Egyptian chariot, achieving sensitivity as high as 120 amol for a 1:1 signal-to-noise ratio and 5 μm spatial resolution. This represents orders of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution and sensitivity compared to those of other SERS approaches intended for widespread application, greatly increasing the applicability of SERS.

  12. Possible role for cryoballoon ablation of right atrial appendage tachycardia when conventional ablation fails.

    PubMed

    Amasyali, Basri; Kilic, Ayhan

    2015-06-01

    Focal atrial tachycardia arising from the right atrial appendage usually responds well to radiofrequency ablation; however, successful ablation in this anatomic region can be challenging. Surgical excision of the right atrial appendage has sometimes been necessary to eliminate the tachycardia and prevent or reverse the resultant cardiomyopathy. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who had right atrial appendage tachycardia resistant to multiple attempts at ablation with use of conventional radiofrequency energy guided by means of a 3-dimensional mapping system. The condition led to cardiomyopathy in 3 months. The arrhythmia was successfully ablated with use of a 28-mm cryoballoon catheter that had originally been developed for catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cryoballoon ablation without isolation of the right atrial appendage. It might also be an alternative to epicardial ablation or surgery when refractory atrial tachycardia originates from the right atrial appendage.

  13. Enhanced ablation of small anodes in a carbon nanotube arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fetterman, Abraham; Keidar, Michael

    2008-11-01

    An atmospheric pressure helium arc discharge is used for carbon nanotube synthesis. The arc discharge operates in an anodic mode with the ablating anode made from a graphite material. For such conditions, models predict the electron-repelling (negative) anode sheath. In the present experiments, the anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of the anode diameter. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters (< 0.4 cm). This result is explained by the formation of an electron-attracting (positive) anode sheath leading to increased power losses on small anodes as compared to larger anodes [1]. The suggested mechanism for the positive anode sheath formation is plasma convergence. The increased ablation rate due to this positive sheath could imply a greater yield of carbon nanotube production. [1] A. J. Fetterman, Y. Raitses and M. Keidar, Carbon (2008).

  14. Applications of laser ablation to microengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gower, Malcolm C.; Rizvi, Nadeem H.

    2000-08-01

    Applications of pulsed laser ablation to the manufacture of micro- electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) devices are presented. Laser ablative processes used to manufacture a variety of microsystems technology (MST) components in the computer peripheral, sensing and biomedical industries are described together with a view of some future developments.

  15. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

  16. The contemporary role of ablative treatment approaches in the management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC): focus on radiofrequency ablation (RFA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and cryoablation.

    PubMed

    Klatte, Tobias; Kroeger, Nils; Zimmermann, Uwe; Burchardt, Martin; Belldegrun, Arie S; Pantuck, Allan J

    2014-06-01

    Currently, most of renal tumors are small, low grade, with a slow growth rate, a low metastatic potential, and with up to 30 % of these tumors being benign on the final pathology. Moreover, they are often diagnosed in elderly patients with preexisting medical comorbidities in whom the underlying medical conditions may pose a greater risk of death than the small renal mass. Concerns regarding overdiagnosis and overtreatment of patients with indolent small renal tumors have led to an increasing interest in minimally invasive, ablative as an alternative to extirpative interventions for selected patients. To provide an overview about the state of the art in radiofrequency ablation (RFA), high-intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation in the clinical management of renal cell carcinoma. A PubMed wide the literature search of was conducted. International consensus panels recommend ablative techniques in patients who are unfit for surgery, who are not considered candidates for or elect against elective surveillance, and who have small renal masses. The most often used techniques are cryoablation and RFA. These ablative techniques offer potentially curative outcomes while conferring several advantages over extirpative surgery, including improved patient procedural tolerance, faster recovery, preservation of renal function, and reduction in the risk of intraoperative and postsurgical complications. While it is likely that outcomes associated with ablative modalities will improve with further advances in technology, their application will expand to more elective indications as longer-term efficacy data become available. Ablative techniques pose a valid treatment option in selected patients.

  17. Mechanisms for the Termination of Atrial Fibrillation by Localized Ablation: Computational and Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Zaman, Junaid A B; Narayan, Sanjiv M

    2015-12-01

    Human atrial fibrillation (AF) can terminate after ablating localized regions, which supports the existence of localized rotors (spiral waves) or focal drivers. However, it is unclear why ablation near a spiral wave tip would terminate AF and not anchor reentry. We addressed this question by analyzing competing mechanisms for AF termination in numeric simulations, referenced to clinical observations. Spiral wave reentry was simulated in monodomain 2-dimensional myocyte sheets using clinically realistic rate-dependent values for repolarization and conduction. Heterogeneous models were created by introduction of parameterized variations in tissue excitability. Ablation lesions were applied as nonconducting circular regions. Models confirmed that localized ablation may anchor spiral wave reentry, producing organized tachycardias. Several mechanisms referenced to clinical observations explained termination of AF to sinus rhythm. First, lesions may create an excitable gap vulnerable to invasion by fibrillatory waves. Second, ablation of rotors in regions of low-excitability (from remodeling) produced re-entry in more excitable tissue allowing collision of wavefront and back. Conversely, ablation of rotors in high-excitability regions migrated spiral waves to less excitable tissue, where they detached to collide with nonconducting boundaries. Third, ablation may connect rotors to nonconducting anatomic orifices. Fourth, reentry through slow-conducting channels may terminate if ablation closes these channels. Limited ablation can terminate AF by several mechanisms. These data shed light on how clinical AF may be sustained in patients' atria, emphasizing heterogeneities in tissue excitability, slow-conducting channels, and obstacles that are increasingly detectable in patients and should be the focus of future translational studies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Rapid Recovery of Visual Function Associated with Blue Cone Ablation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hagerman, Gordon F.; Noel, Nicole C. L.; Cao, Sylvia Y.; DuVal, Michèle G.; Oel, A. Phillip; Allison, W. Ted

    2016-01-01

    Hurdles in the treatment of retinal degeneration include managing the functional rewiring of surviving photoreceptors and integration of any newly added cells into the remaining second-order retinal neurons. Zebrafish are the premier genetic model for such questions, and we present two new transgenic lines allowing us to contrast vision loss and recovery following conditional ablation of specific cone types: UV or blue cones. The ablation of each cone type proved to be thorough (killing 80% of cells in each intended cone class), specific, and cell-autonomous. We assessed the loss and recovery of vision in larvae via the optomotor behavioural response (OMR). This visually mediated behaviour decreased to about 5% or 20% of control levels following ablation of UV or blue cones, respectively (P<0.05). We further assessed ocular photoreception by measuring the effects of UV light on body pigmentation, and observed that photoreceptor deficits and recovery occurred (p<0.01) with a timeline coincident to the OMR results. This corroborated and extended previous conclusions that UV cones are required photoreceptors for modulating body pigmentation, addressing assumptions that were unavoidable in previous experiments. Functional vision recovery following UV cone ablation was robust, as measured by both assays, returning to control levels within four days. In contrast, robust functional recovery following blue cone ablation was unexpectedly rapid, returning to normal levels within 24 hours after ablation. Ablation of cones led to increased proliferation in the retina, though the rapid recovery of vision following blue cone ablation was demonstrated to not be mediated by blue cone regeneration. Thus rapid visual recovery occurs following ablation of some, but not all, cone subtypes, suggesting an opportunity to contrast and dissect the sources and mechanisms of outer retinal recovery during cone photoreceptor death and regeneration. PMID:27893779

  19. Pulmonary Microwave Ablation Near the Heart: Antenna Positioning Can Mitigate Cardiac Complications in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Nocerino, Elisabetta; Mason, Peter J.; Schwahn, Denise J.; Hetzel, Scott; Turnquist, Alyssa M.; Lee, Fred T.; Brace, Christopher L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine how close to the heart pulmonary microwave ablation can be performed without causing cardiac tissue injury or significant arrhythmia. Materials and Methods The study was performed with approval from the institutional animal care and use committee. Computed tomographic fluoroscopically guided microwave ablation of the lung was performed in 12 swine. Antennas were randomized to either parallel (180° ± 20°) or perpendicular (90° ± 20°) orientation relative to the heart surface and to distances of 0–10 mm from the heart. Ablations were performed at 65 W for 5 minutes or until a significant arrhythmia (asystole, heart block, bradycardia, supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia) developed. Heart tissue was evaluated with vital staining and histologic examination. Data were analyzed with mixed effects logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic curves, and the Fisher exact test. Results Thirty-four pulmonary microwave ablations were performed with the antenna a median distance of 4 mm from the heart in both perpendicular (n = 17) and parallel (n = 17) orientation. Significant arrhythmias developed during six (18%) ablations. Cardiac tissue injury occurred with 17 ablations (50%). Risk of arrhythmia and tissue injury decreased with increasing antenna distance from the heart with both antenna orientations. No cardiac complication occurred with a distance of greater than or equal to 4.4 mm from the heart. The ablation zone extended to the pleural surface adjacent to the heart in 71% of parallel and 17% of perpendicular ablations performed 5–10 mm from the heart. Conclusion Microwave lung ablations performed more than or equal to 5 mm from the heart were associated with a low risk of cardiac complications. © RSNA, 2016 PMID:27732159

  20. An investigation on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of K9 glass in air and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shi-zhen; Yao, Cai-zhen; Dou, Hong-qiang; Liao, Wei; Li, Xiao-yang; Ding, Ren-jie; Zhang, Li-juan; Liu, Hao; Yuan, Xiao-dong; Zu, Xiao-tao

    2017-06-01

    Ablation rates of K9 glass were studied as a function of femtosecond laser fluences. The central wavelength was 800 nm, and pulse durations of 35 fs and 500 fs in air and vacuum were employed. Ablation thresholds of 0.42 J/cm2 and 2.1 J/cm2 were obtained at 35 fs and 500 fs, respectively, which were independent with the ambient conditions and depend on the incident pulse numbers due to incubation effects. The ablation rate of 35 fs pulse laser increased with the increasing of laser fluence in vacuum, while in air condition, it slowly increased to a plateau at high fluence. The ablation rate of 500 fs pulse laser showed an increase at low fluence and a slow drop of ablation rate was observed at high fluence in air and vacuum, which may due to the strong defocusing effects associated with the non-equilibrium ionization of air, and/or the shielding effects of conduction band electrons (CBEs) produced by multi-photon ionization and impact ionization in K9 glass surface. The typical ablation morphologies, e.g. smooth zone and laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were also presented and illustrated.

  1. Surface ablation of aluminum and silicon by ultrashort laser pulses of variable width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayarny, D. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Makarov, S. V.; Kuchmizhak, A. A.; Vitrik, O. B.; Kulchin, Yu. N.

    2016-06-01

    Single-shot thresholds of surface ablation of aluminum and silicon via spallative ablation by infrared (IR) and visible ultrashort laser pulses of variable width τlas (0.2-12 ps) have been measured by optical microscopy. For increasing laser pulse width τlas < 3 ps, a drastic (threefold) drop of the ablation threshold of aluminum has been observed for visible pulses compared to an almost negligible threshold variation for IR pulses. In contrast, the ablation threshold in silicon increases threefold with increasing τlas for IR pulses, while the corresponding thresholds for visible pulses remained almost constant. In aluminum, such a width-dependent decrease in ablation thresholds has been related to strongly diminished temperature gradients for pulse widths exceeding the characteristic electron-phonon thermalization time. In silicon, the observed increase in ablation thresholds has been ascribed to two-photon IR excitation, while in the visible range linear absorption of the material results in almost constant thresholds.

  2. Endometrial ablation in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Philippe; Leyland, Nicholas; Murji, Ally; Fortin, Claude; Martyn, Paul; Vilos, George; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Yeung, Grace

    2015-04-01

    visceral injury. (III-B) 7. With resectoscopic endometrial ablation, if uterine perforation has been ruled out acute hemorrhage may be managed by using intrauterine Foley balloon tamponade, injecting intracervical vasopressors, or administering rectal misoprostol. (III-B) 8. If repeat endometrial ablation (EA) is considered following non-resectoscopic or resectoscopic EA, it should be performed by a hysteroscopic surgeon with direct visualization of the cavity. Patients should be counselled about the increased risk of complications with repeat EA. (II-2A) 9. If significant intracavitary pathology is present, resectoscopic endometrial ablation combined with hysteroscopic myomectomy or polypectomy should be considered in a non-fertility sparing setting. (II-3A).

  3. Radiofrequency ablation versus electrocautery in tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Daniel J; Littlefield, Philip D; Birkmire-Peters, Deborah P; Holtel, Michael R

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the safety, difficulty of removal, and postoperative pain profile of radiofrequency ablation versus standard electrocautery removal of tonsils. A prospective, blinded study was designed to remove 1 tonsil with each of the 2 methods. Time of operation, estimated blood loss, difficulty of operation, postoperative pain, rate of postoperative hemorrhage, and the patient's preferred technique were evaluated. The operating time was significantly longer (P < 0.007) and the patients reported significantly less pain (P < 0.001) with radiofrequency ablation. There were no differences in blood loss, difficulty of operation, or postoperative hemorrhage rates. The patients preferred the radiofrequency ablation technique (P < 0.001). Radiofrequency ablation is a viable method to remove tonsillar tissue. Operating time for this procedure will likely decrease with experience. There was significantly less pain reported with radiofrequency ablation compared with standard electrocautery.

  4. Artificial meteor ablation studies - Iron oxides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.

    1972-01-01

    Artificial meteor ablation was performed on natural minerals composed predominantly of magnetite and hematite by using an arc-heated plasma stream of air. Analysis indicates that most of the ablated debris was composed of two or more minerals. Wustite, a metastable mineral, was found to occur as a common product. The 'magnetite' sample, which was 80% magnetite, 14% hematite, 4% apatite, and 2% quartz, yielded ablated products consisting of more than 12 different minerals. Magnetite occurred in 91% of the specimens examined, hematite in 16%, and wustite in 30%. The 'hematite' sample, which was 96% hematite and 3% quartz, yielded ablated products consisting of more than 13 different minerals. Hematite occurred in 47% of the specimens examined, magnetite in 60%, and wustite in 28%. The more volatile elements (Si, P, and Cl) were depleted by about 50%. This study has shown that artificially created ablation products from iron oxides exhibit unique properties that can be used for identification.

  5. Process and structures for fabrication of solar cells with laser ablation steps to form contact holes

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-11-19

    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accomodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thickness.

  6. Stellar Ablation of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    We review observations and theories of the solar ablation of planetary atmospheres, focusing on the terrestrial case where a large magnetosphere holds off the solar wind, so that there is little direct atmospheric impact, but also couples the solar wind electromagnetically to the auroral zones. We consider the photothermal escape flows known as the polar wind or refilling flows, the enhanced mass flux escape flows that result from localized solar wind energy dissipation in the auroral zones, and the resultant enhanced neutral atom escape flows. We term these latter two escape flows the "auroral wind." We review observations and theories of the heating and acceleration of auroral winds, including energy inputs from precipitating particles, electromagnetic energy flux at magnetohydrodynamic and plasma wave frequencies, and acceleration by parallel electric fields and by convection pickup processes also known as "centrifugal acceleration." We consider also the global circulation of ionospheric plasmas within the magnetosphere, their participation in magnetospheric disturbances as absorbers of momentum and energy, and their ultimate loss from the magnetosphere into the downstream solar wind, loading reconnection processes that occur at high altitudes near the magnetospheric boundaries. We consider the role of planetary magnetization and the accumulating evidence of stellar ablation of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Finally, we suggest and discuss future needs for both the theory and observation of the planetary ionospheres and their role in solar wind interactions, to achieve the generality required for a predictive science of the coupling of stellar and planetary atmospheres over the full range of possible conditions.

  7. Femtosecond ablation of ultrahard materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, G.; Romano, V.; Weber, H. P.; Sentis, M.; Marine, W.

    Several ultrahard materials and coatings of definite interest for tribological applications were tested with respect to their response when irradiated with fs laser pulses. Results on cemented tungsten carbide and on titanium carbonitride are reported for the first time and compared with outcomes of investigations on diamond and titanium nitride. The experiments were carried out in air, in a regime of 5-8 J/cm2 fluences, using the beam of a commercial Ti:sapphire laser. The changes induced in the surface morphology were analysed with a Nomarski optical microscope, and with SEM and AFM techniques. From the experimental data and from the calculated incident energy density distributions, the damage and ablation threshold values were determined. As expected, the diamond showed the highest threshold, while the cemented tungsten carbide exhibited typical values for metallic surfaces. The ablation rates determined (under the above-mentioned experimental conditions) were in the range 0.1-0.2 μm per pulse for all the materials investigated.

  8. Ablative shielding for hypervelocity projectiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hypervelocity projectile shield which includes a hollow semi-flexible housing fabricated from a plastic like, or otherwise transparent membrane which is filled with a fluid (gas or liquid) is presented. The housing has a inlet valve, similar to that on a tire or basketball, to introduce an ablating fluid into the housing. The housing is attached by a Velcro mount or double-sided adhesive tape to the outside surface of a structure to be protected. The housings are arrayed in a side-by-side relationship for complete coverage of the surface to be protected. In use, when a hypervelocity projectile penetrates the outer wall of a housing it is broken up and then the projectile is ablated as it travels through the fluid, much like a meteorite 'burns up' as it enters the earth's atmosphere, and the housing is deflated. The deflated housing can be easily spotted for replacement, even from a distance. Replacement is then accomplished by simply pulling a deflated housing off the structure and installing a new housing.

  9. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Renal Angiomyolipomas.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Mircea; Abel, E Jason; Wells, Shane; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J; Hedican, Sean P; Lubner, Megan G; Hinshaw, J Louis; Brace, Christopher L; Lee, Fred T

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of US-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation in the treatment of renal angiomyolipoma (AML). From January 2011 to April 2014, seven patients (5 females and 2 males; mean age 51.4) with 11 renal AMLs (9 sporadic type and 2 tuberous sclerosis associated) with a mean size of 3.4 ± 0.7 cm (range 2.4-4.9 cm) were treated with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation under US guidance. Tumoral diameter, volume, and CT/MR enhancement were measured on pre-treatment, immediate post-ablation, and delayed post-ablation imaging. Clinical symptoms and creatinine were assessed on follow-up visits. All ablations were technically successful and no major complications were encountered. Mean ablation parameters were ablation power of 65 W (range 60-70 W), using 456 mL of hydrodissection fluid per patient, over 4.7 min (range 3-8 min). Immediate post-ablation imaging demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 1.8% (3.4-3.3 cm) and 1.7% (27.5-26.3 cm(3)), respectively. Delayed imaging follow-up obtained at a mean interval of 23.1 months (median 17.6; range 9-47) demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 29% (3.4-2.4 cm) and 47% (27.5-12.1 cm(3)), respectively. Tumoral enhancement decreased on immediate post-procedure and delayed imaging by CT/MR parameters, indicating decreased tumor vascularity. No patients required additional intervention and no patients experienced spontaneous bleeding post-ablation. Our early experience with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation demonstrates it to be a safe and effective modality to devascularize and decrease the size of renal AMLs.

  10. Recolonization of laser-ablated bacterial biofilm.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Kanavillil; Obika, Hideki; Utsumi, Akihiro; Toshihiko, Ooie; Yano, Tetsuo

    2004-01-20

    The recolonization of laser-ablated bacterial monoculture biofilm was studied in the laboratory by using a flow-cytometer system. The marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora was used to develop biofilms on titanium coupons. Upon exposure to a low-power pulsed irradiation from an Nd:YAG laser, the coupons with biofilm were significantly reduced both in terms of total viable count (TVC) and area cover. The energy density used for a pulse of 5 ns was 0.1 J/cm(2) and the durations of irradiation exposure were 5 and 10 min. When placed in a flow of dilute ZoBell marine broth medium (10%) the laser-destructed bacterial film in a flow-cytometer showed significant recovery over a period of time. The flow of medium was regulated at 3.2 ml/min. The increase in area cover and TVC, however, was significantly less than that observed for nonirradiated control (t-test, P< 0.05). The coupons were observed for biofilm area cover and TVC at different intervals (3, 6, and 9 h) after irradiation. While the biofilm in the control coupon at the end of 9 h of exposure showed 95.6 +/- 4.1% cover, the 5- and 10-min irradiated samples after 9 h showed 60.3 +/- 6.5 and 37.4 +/- 12.1% area cover, respectively. The reduced rate of recolonization compared to control was thought be due to the lethal and sublethal impacts of laser irradiation on bacteria. This observation thus provided data on the online recolonization speed of biofilm, which is important when considering pulsed laser irradiation as an ablating technique of biofilm formation and removal in natural systems. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of Almond- and Olive Oil-Based Docosahexaenoic- and Vitamin E-Enriched Beverage Dietary Supplementation on Inflammation Associated to Exercise and Age

    PubMed Central

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Riera, Joan; Drobnic, Franchek; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation. Blood samples were taken immediately before and 1 h after each test. Plasma, erythrocytes and PBMCs were isolated. Beverage supplementation increased plasmatic Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) levels depending on age and exercise. Exercise increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), soluble Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (sICAM3) and soluble L-selectin (sL-Selectin), and this increase was attenuated by the supplementation. Exercise increased PGE2 plasma levels in supplemented young and in senior placebo athletes. Exercise increased NFkβ-activated levels in PBMCs, which are primed to a pro-inflammatory response increasing pro-inflammatory genes expression after the exercise mainly in the young group after the supplementation. The functional beverage supplementation to young athletes enhances a pro-inflammatory circulating environment in response to the exercise that was less evident in the senior group. PMID:27735833

  12. Effects of Almond- and Olive Oil-Based Docosahexaenoic- and Vitamin E-Enriched Beverage Dietary Supplementation on Inflammation Associated to Exercise and Age.

    PubMed

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Riera, Joan; Drobnic, Franchek; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2016-10-09

    n -3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation. Blood samples were taken immediately before and 1 h after each test. Plasma, erythrocytes and PBMCs were isolated. Beverage supplementation increased plasmatic Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) levels depending on age and exercise. Exercise increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), soluble Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (sICAM3) and soluble L-selectin (sL-Selectin), and this increase was attenuated by the supplementation. Exercise increased PGE2 plasma levels in supplemented young and in senior placebo athletes. Exercise increased NFkβ-activated levels in PBMCs, which are primed to a pro-inflammatory response increasing pro-inflammatory genes expression after the exercise mainly in the young group after the supplementation. The functional beverage supplementation to young athletes enhances a pro-inflammatory circulating environment in response to the exercise that was less evident in the senior group.

  13. Visualization of Capsule Reentry Vehicle Heat Shield Ablation Using Naphthalene PLIF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combs, Christopher S.; Clemens, Noel T.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will use an ablative heat shield and improved understanding of the ablation process would be beneficial for design purposes. Given that ablation is a multi-physics process involving heat and mass transfer, codes aiming to predict heat shield ablation are in need of experimental data pertaining to the turbulent transport of ablation products for validation. At The University of Texas at Austin, a technique is being developed that uses planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a low-temperature sublimating ablator (naphthalene) to visualize the transport of ablation products in a supersonic flow. Since ablation at reentry temperatures can be difficult to recreate in a laboratory setting it is desirable to create a limited physics problem and simulate the ablation process at relatively low temperature conditions using naphthalene. A scaled Orion MPCV model with a solid naphthalene heat shield has been tested in a Mach 5 wind tunnel at various angles of attack in the current work. PLIF imaging reveals the distribution of the ablation products as they are transported into the heat-shield boundary layer and over the capsule shoulders into the separated shear layer and backshell recirculation region. Visualizations of the capsule shear layer using both naphthalene PLIF and Schlieren imaging compared favorably. High concentrations of naphthalene in the capsule separated flow region, intermittent turbulent structures on the heat shield surface, and interesting details of the capsule shear layer structure were observed using the naphthalene PLIF technique. The capsule shear layer was also shown to generally appear to be more turbulent at lower angles of attack. Furthermore, the PLIF signal increased steadily over the course of a run indicating that during a wind tunnel run the model heated up and the rate of naphthalene ablation increased. The shear layer showed increasing signs of turbulence over the course of a wind tunnel run

  14. Low pressure laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliegel, Daniel; Günther, Detlef

    2006-07-01

    The particle size distribution in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is known to be a critical parameter for complete vaporization of particles. Any strategy to reduce the particle size distribution of laser generated aerosols has the potential to increase the ion signal intensity and to reduce fractionation effects. Due to the fact that vapor generation, nucleation, condensation, and agglomeration take place within an extremely short period of time, ablation under atmospheric pressure might not allow influencing these processes while under reduced pressure condition the cooling of the aerosol and therefore the condensation is expected to be slower. In this study, a low pressure laser ablation cell for the generation of laser aerosols was coupled to an ICP-MS. In contrast to the previously developed trapped ablation mode, the newly designed cell allows the adjustment of the pressure in the ablation cell between 20 and 1400 mbar prior to the ablation. Ablation experiments carried out using this configuration showed a dependence of the aerosol properties (size distribution and particle structure) on the ablation cell pressure. The intensity ratio U/Th measured as a figure of merit for complete vaporization within the ICP indicated a change in the aerosol structure at approximately 500 mbar toward smaller particle size. A significant difference between low pressure and at ambient pressure ablated aerosol was observed. The intensity ratios (U/Th) of the ablated sample moves closer to the bulk composition at lower pressures at the expense of sensitivity. Therefore the decrease in the ICP-MS signal intensity in the low pressure cell can be attributed to vapor deposition within the ablation cell walls. Moreover, scanning electron microscope images of aerosols collected on filters after the low pressure ablation cell suggest the possibility of a slower cooling velocity of the aerosol, which was observed in the condensed material on the surface of

  15. The Effect of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Techniques on P Wave Duration and P Wave Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Furniss, Guy O; Panagopoulos, Dimitrios; Kanoun, Sadeek; Davies, Edward J; Tomlinson, David R; Haywood, Guy A

    2018-02-14

    A reduction in surface electrocardiogram (ECG) P wave duration and dispersion is associated with improved outcomes in atrial fibrillation ablation. We investigated the effects of different ablation strategies on P wave duration and dispersion, hypothesising that extensive left atrial (LA) ablation with left atrial posterior wall isolation would give a greater reduction in P wave duration than more limited ablation techniques. A retrospective analysis of ECGs from patients who have undergone atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation was performed and pre-procedural sinus rhythm ECGs were compared with the post procedure ECGs. Maximal P wave duration was measured in leads I or II, minimum P wave duration in any lead and values were calculated for P wave duration and dispersion. Left atrial dimensions and medications at the time of ECG were documented. Ablation strategies compared were; pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and the persistent AF (PsAF) ablation strategies of pulmonary vein isolation plus additional linear lesions (Lines), left atrial posterior wall isolation via catheter (PWI) and left atrial posterior wall isolation via staged surgical and catheter ablation (Hybrid). Sixty-nine patients' ECGs were analysed: 19 PVI, 21 Lines, 14 PWI, 15 Hybrid. Little correlation was seen between pre-procedure left atrial size and P wave duration (r=0.24) but LA size and P wave duration was larger in PsAF patients. A significant difference was seen in P wave reduction driven by Hybrid AF ablation (p<0.005) and Lines (<0.02). There was no difference amongst P wave dispersion between groups but the largest reduction was seen in the Hybrid ablation group. P wave duration increased with duration of continuous atrial fibrillation. Hybrid AF ablation significantly reduced P wave duration and dispersion compared to other ablation strategies including posterior wall isolation via catheter despite this being the same lesion set. Copyright © 2018

  16. Atrial fibrillation ablation using very short duration 50 W ablations and contact force sensing catheters.

    PubMed

    Winkle, Roger A; Moskovitz, Ryan; Hardwin Mead, R; Engel, Gregory; Kong, Melissa H; Fleming, William; Salcedo, Jonathan; Patrawala, Rob A; Tranter, John H; Shai, Isaac

    2018-06-01

    The optimal radiofrequency (RF) power and lesion duration using contact force (CF) sensing catheters for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation are unknown. We evaluate 50 W RF power for very short durations using CF sensing catheters during AF ablation. We evaluated 51 patients with paroxysmal (n = 20) or persistent (n = 31) AF undergoing initial RF ablation. A total of 3961 50 W RF lesions were given (average 77.6 ± 19.1/patient) for an average duration of only 11.2 ± 3.7 s. As CF increased from < 10 to > 40 g, the RF application duration decreased from 13.7 ± 4.4 to 8.6 ± 2.5 s (p < 0.0005). Impedance drops occurred in all ablations, and for patients in sinus rhythm, there was loss of pacing capture during RF delivery suggesting lesion creation. Only 3% of the ablation lesions were at < 5 g and 1% at > 40 g of force. As CF increased, the force time integral (FTI) increased from 47 ± 24 to 376 ± 102 gs (p < 0.0005) and the lesion index (LSI) increased from 4.10 ± 0.51 to 7.63 ± 0.50 (p < 0.0005). Both procedure time (101 ± 19.7 min) and total RF energy time (895 ± 258 s) were very short. For paroxysmal AF, the single procedure freedom from AF was 86% at 1 and 2 years. For persistent AF, it was 83% at 1 year and 72% at 2 years. There were no complications. Short duration 50 W ablations using CF sensing catheters are safe and result in excellent long-term freedom from AF for both paroxysmal and persistent AF with short procedure times and small amounts of total RF energy delivery.

  17. mTOR Hyperactivation by Ablation of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 in the Mouse Heart Induces Cardiac Dysfunction with the Increased Number of Small Mitochondria Mediated through the Down-Regulation of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Taneike, Manabu; Nishida, Kazuhiko; Omiya, Shigemiki; Zarrinpashneh, Elham; Misaka, Tomofumi; Kitazume-Taneike, Rika; Austin, Ruth; Takaoka, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Gambello, Michael J.; Shah, Ajay M.; Otsu, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key regulator of cell growth, proliferation and metabolism. mTORC1 regulates protein synthesis positively and autophagy negatively. Autophagy is a major system to manage bulk degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components and organelles. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 and 2 form a heterodimeric complex and inactivate Ras homolog enriched in brain, resulting in inhibition of mTORC1. Here, we investigated the effects of hyperactivation of mTORC1 on cardiac function and structure using cardiac-specific TSC2-deficient (TSC2-/-) mice. TSC2-/- mice were born normally at the expected Mendelian ratio. However, the median life span of TSC2-/- mice was approximately 10 months and significantly shorter than that of control mice. TSC2-/- mice showed cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without considerable fibrosis, cell infiltration or apoptotic cardiomyocyte death. Ultrastructural analysis of TSC2-/- hearts revealed misalignment, aggregation and a decrease in the size and an increase in the number of mitochondria, but the mitochondrial function was maintained. Autophagic flux was inhibited, while the phosphorylation level of S6 or eukaryotic initiation factor 4E -binding protein 1, downstream of mTORC1, was increased. The upregulation of autophagic flux by trehalose treatment attenuated the cardiac phenotypes such as cardiac dysfunction and structural abnormalities of mitochondria in TSC2-/- hearts. The results suggest that autophagy via the TSC2-mTORC1 signaling pathway plays an important role in maintenance of cardiac function and mitochondrial quantity and size in the heart and could be a therapeutic target to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in failing hearts. PMID:27023784

  18. Ablation as targeted perturbation to rewire communication network of persistent atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Susumu; Way, Samuel F.; Garland, Joshua; Chrispin, Jonathan; Ciuffo, Luisa A.; Balouch, Muhammad A.; Nazarian, Saman; Spragg, David D.; Marine, Joseph E.; Berger, Ronald D.; Calkins, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) can be viewed as disintegrated patterns of information transmission by action potential across the communication network consisting of nodes linked by functional connectivity. To test the hypothesis that ablation of persistent AF is associated with improvement in both local and global connectivity within the communication networks, we analyzed multi-electrode basket catheter electrograms of 22 consecutive patients (63.5 ± 9.7 years, 78% male) during persistent AF before and after the focal impulse and rotor modulation-guided ablation. Eight patients (36%) developed recurrence within 6 months after ablation. We defined communication networks of AF by nodes (cardiac tissue adjacent to each electrode) and edges (mutual information between pairs of nodes). To evaluate patient-specific parameters of communication, thresholds of mutual information were applied to preserve 10% to 30% of the strongest edges. There was no significant difference in network parameters between both atria at baseline. Ablation effectively rewired the communication network of persistent AF to improve the overall connectivity. In addition, successful ablation improved local connectivity by increasing the average clustering coefficient, and also improved global connectivity by decreasing the characteristic path length. As a result, successful ablation improved the efficiency and robustness of the communication network by increasing the small-world index. These changes were not observed in patients with AF recurrence. Furthermore, a significant increase in the small-world index after ablation was associated with synchronization of the rhythm by acute AF termination. In conclusion, successful ablation rewires communication networks during persistent AF, making it more robust, efficient, and easier to synchronize. Quantitative analysis of communication networks provides not only a mechanistic insight that AF may be sustained by spatially localized sources and

  19. Experimental application of thermosensitive paramagnetic liposomes for monitoring magnetic resonance imaging guided thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Frich, Lars; Bjørnerud, Atle; Fossheim, Sigrid; Tillung, Terje; Gladhaug, Ivar

    2004-12-01

    The use of a liposomal paramagnetic agent with a T(1)-relaxivity that increases markedly at temperatures above the phase transition temperature (T(m)) of the liposomal membrane was evaluated during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided hyperthermia ablation. A neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser unit and a radiofrequency ablation system were used for tissue ablation in eight rabbit livers in vivo. One ablation was made in each animal prior to administration of the liposomal agent. Liposomes with a T(m) of 57 degrees C containing gadodiamide (GdDTPA-BMA) were injected iv, and two additional ablations were performed. T(1)-weighted scans were performed in heated tissue, after tissue temperature had normalized, and 15-20 min after normalization of tissue temperature. Increase in signal intensity (DeltaSI) for ablations prior to injection of the agent was 13.0% (SD = 5.7) for the laser group and 9.1% (SD = 7.9) for the radiofrequency group. Signal intensity after administration of the agent unrelated to heating was not statistically significant (DeltaSI = 1.4%, P = 0.35). For ablations made after injection of the agent, a significant increase was found in the laser (DeltaSI = 34.5%, SD = 11.9) and radiofrequency group (DeltaSI = 21.6%, SD = 22.7). The persistent signal enhancement found in areas exposed to a temperature above the threshold temperature above T(m) allows thermal monitoring of MRI guided thermal ablation. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Benign thyroid nodule unresponsive to radiofrequency ablation treated with laser ablation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Silvia; Balestra, Margherita; Vera, Lara; Giusti, Massimo

    2018-05-11

    Radiofrequency ablation and laser ablation are safe and effective techniques for reducing thyroid nodule volume, neck symptoms, and cosmetic complaints. Therapeutic success is defined as a nodule reduction > 50% between 6 and 12 months after the procedure, but a percentage of nodules inexplicably do not respond to thermal ablation. We describe the case of a young Caucasian woman with a solid benign thyroid nodule who refused surgery and who had undergone radiofrequency ablation in 2013. The nodule did not respond in terms of either volume reduction or improvement in neck symptoms. After 2 years, given the patient's continued refusal of thyroidectomy, we proposed laser ablation. The nodule displayed a significant volume reduction (- 50% from radiofrequency ablation baseline volume, - 57% from laser ablation baseline), and the patient reported a significant improvement in neck symptoms (from 6/10 to 1/10 on a visual analogue scale). We conjecture that some benign thyroid nodules may be intrinsically resistant to necrosis when one specific ablation technique is used, but may respond to another technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the effect of performing a different percutaneous ablation technique in a nodule that does not respond to radiofrequency ablation.

  1. Robotically assisted ablation produces more rapid and greater signal attenuation than manual ablation.

    PubMed

    Koa-Wing, Michael; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Malcolme-Lawes, Louisa C; Salukhe, Tushar V; Linton, Nick W F; Grogan, Aaron P; Bergman, Dale; Lim, Phang Boon; Whinnett, Zachary I; McCarthy, Karen; Ho, Siew Yen; O'Neill, Mark D; Peters, Nicholas S; Davies, D Wyn; Kanagaratnam, Prapa

    2009-12-01

    Robotic remote catheter ablation potentially provides improved catheter-tip stability, which should improve the efficiency of radiofrequency energy delivery. Percentage reduction in electrogram peak-to-peak voltage has been used as a measure of effectiveness of ablation. We tested the hypothesis that improved catheter-tip stability of robotic ablation can diminish signals to a greater degree than manual ablation. In vivo NavX maps of 7 pig atria were constructed. Separate lines of ablation were performed robotically and manually, recording pre- and postablation peak-to-peak voltages at 10, 20, 30, and 60 seconds and calculating signal amplitude reduction. Catheter ablation settings were constant (25W, 50 degrees , 17 mL/min, 20-30 g catheter tip pressure). The pigs were sacrificed and ablation lesions correlated with NavX maps. Robotic ablation reduced signal amplitude to a greater degree than manual ablation (49 +/- 2.6% vs 29 +/- 4.5% signal reduction after 1 minute [P = 0.0002]). The mean energy delivered (223 +/- 184 J vs 231 +/- 190 J, P = 0.42), power (19 +/- 3.5 W vs 19 +/- 4 W, P = 0.84), and duration of ablation (15 +/- 9 seconds vs 15 +/- 9 seconds, P = 0.89) was the same for manual and robotic. The mean peak catheter-tip temperature was higher for robotic (45 +/- 5 degrees C vs 42 +/- 3 degrees C [P < 0.0001]). The incidence of >50% signal reduction was greater for robotic (37%) than manual (21%) ablation (P = 0.0001). Robotically assisted ablation appears to be more effective than manual ablation at signal amplitude reduction, therefore may be expected to produce improved clinical outcomes.

  2. Neural Resilience to Traumatic Brain Injury: Identification of Bioactive Metabolites of Docosahexaenoic Acids Involved in Neuroprotection and Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    and phosphatidic acid .18,19 Akt activation is known to be dependent on the PIP3 generation. However, interaction between Akt and membrane PS is also...binding domains for phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid . Phosphatidic acid regulates the translocation of Raf-1 in 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-2-0074 TITLE: Neural Resilience to Traumatic Brain Injury: identification of Bioactive Metabolites of Docosahexaenoic Acids

  3. Determining Distributed Ablation over Dirty Ice Areas of Debris-covered Glaciers Using a UAV-SfM Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodget, A.; Fyffe, C. L.; Kirkbride, M. P.; Deline, P.; Westoby, M.; Brock, B. W.

    2017-12-01

    Dirty ice areas (where debris cover is discontinuous) are often found on debris-covered glaciers above the limit of continuous debris and are important because they are areas of high melt and have been recognized as the locus of the identified upglacier increase in debris cover. The modelling of glacial ablation in areas of dirty ice is in its infancy and is currently restricted to theoretical studies. Glacial ablation is traditionally determined at point locations using stakes drilled into the ice. However, in areas of dirty ice, ablation is highly spatially variable, since debris a few centimetres thick is near the threshold between enhancing and reducing ablation. As a result, it is very difficult to ascertain if point ablation measurements are representative of ablation of the area surrounding the stake - making these measurements unsuitable for the validation of models of dirty ice ablation. This paper aims to quantify distributed ablation and its relationship to essential dirty ice characteristics with a view to informing the construction of dirty ice melt models. A novel approach to determine distributed ablation is presented which uses repeat aerial imagery acquired from a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), processed using SfM (Structure from Motion) techniques, on an area of dirty ice on Miage Glacier, Italian Alps. A spatially continuous ablation map is presented, along with a correlation to the local debris characteristics. Furthermore, methods are developed which link ground truth data on the percentage debris cover, albedo and clast depth to the UAV imagery, allowing these characteristics to be determined for the entire study area, and used as model inputs. For example, debris thickness is determined through a field relationship with clast size, which is then correlated with image texture and point cloud roughness metrics derived from the UAV imagery. Finally, we evaluate the potential of our novel approach to lead to improved modelling of dirty ice

  4. Thermal Testing of Ablators in the NASA Johnson Space Center Radiant Heat Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Papa, Steven; Milhoan, Jim; Remark, Brian; Suess, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    A spacecraft's thermal protection system (TPS) is required to survive the harsh environment experienced during reentry. Accurate thermal modeling of the TPS is required to since uncertainties in the thermal response result in higher design margins and an increase in mass. The Radiant Heat Test Facility (RHTF) located at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) replicates the reentry temperatures and pressures on system level full scale TPS test models for the validation of thermal math models. Reusable TPS, i.e. tile or reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC), have been the primary materials tested in the past. However, current capsule designs for MPCV and commercial programs have required the use of an ablator TPS. The RHTF has successfully completed a pathfinder program on avcoat ablator material to demonstrate the feasibility of ablator testing. The test results and corresponding ablation analysis results are presented in this paper.

  5. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have different effects on peripheral phospholipase A2 gene expressions in acute depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Shih, Yin-Hua; Guu, Ta-Wei; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthil; Gałecki, Piotr; Walczewska, Anna; Pariante, Carmine M

    2018-01-03

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proven critical in the development and management of major depressive disorder (MDD) by a number of epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic action are yet to be understood. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seems to be the active component of omega-3 PUFAs' antidepressant effects, the biological research about the difference of specific genetic regulations between EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two main components of omega-3 PUFAs, is still lacking in human subjects. We conducted a 12-week randomized-controlled trial comparing the effects of EPA and DHA on gene expressions of phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), serotonin transporter (5HTT), and Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH-2) in 27 MDD patients. In addition, the erythrocyte PUFA compositions and the candidate gene expressions were also compared between these 27 MDD patients and 22 healthy controls. EPA was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-D scores (CI: -13 to -21, p<0.001) and significant increases in erythrocyte levels of EPA (CI: +1.0% to +2.9%, p=0.001) and DHA (CI: +2.9% to +5.6%, p=0.007). DHA treatment was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-D scores (CI: -6 to -14, p<0.001) and a significant increase in DHA levels (CI: +0.2% to +2.3%, p=0.047), but not of EPA levels. The cPLA2 gene expression levels were significantly increased in patients received EPA (1.9 folds, p=0.038), but not DHA (1.08 folds, p=0.92). There was a tendency for both EPA and DHA groups to decrease COX-2 gene expressions. The gene expressions of COX-2, cPLA2, TPH-2 and 5-HTT did not differ between MDD cases and healthy controls. EPA differentiates from DHA in clinical antidepressant efficacy and in upregulating cPLA2 gene regulations, which supports the clinical observation showing the superiority of EPA's antidepressant effects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  6. Associations of dietary intake and plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid with prenatal depressive symptoms in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Mie; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Yatsuki, Yuko; Murayama, Ryoko; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Haruna, Megumi

    2015-06-01

    The association between depression and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, continues to gain focus. In this study, we examined whether dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Healthy Japanese women with singleton pregnancies were recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo between 2010 and 2012. The depressive-symptom group included participants with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores greater than eight. Of the 329 participants, 19 (5.8%) had depressive symptoms. Lower plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration was significantly associated with prenatal depressive symptoms. Women with depressive symptoms had a higher rate of pregnancy-associated nausea than those with non-depressive symptoms (52.6% vs 28.7%, respectively). Although we adjusted for the presence of pregnancy-associated nausea, dietary fatty acid intake was not associated with depressive symptoms in the multiple logistic regression analyses. Further large studies would be required to examine any preventive effect of dietary fatty acid intake on depressive symptoms among pregnant women. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Emerging needle ablation technology in urology.

    PubMed

    Leveillee, Raymond J; Pease, Karli; Salas, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Thermal ablation of urologic tumors in the form of freezing (cryoablation) and heating (radiofrequency ablation) have been utilized successfully to treat and ablate soft tissue tumors for over 15 years. Multiple studies have demonstrated efficacy nearing that of extirpative surgery for certain urologic conditions. There are technical limitations to their speed and safety profile because of the physical limits of thermal diffusion. Recently, there has been a desire to investigate other forms of energy in an effort to circumvent the limitations of cryoblation and radiofrequency ablation. This review will focus on three relatively new energy applications as they pertain to tissue ablation: microwave, irreversible electroporation, and water vapor. High-intensity-focused ultrasound nor interstitial lasers are discussed, as there have been no recently published updates. Needle and probe-based ablative treatments will continue to play an important role. As three-dimensional imaging workstations move from the advanced radiologic interventional suite to the operating room, surgeons will likely still play a pivotal role in the +-application of these probe ablative devices. It is essential that the surgeon understands the fundamentals of these devices in order to optimize their application.

  8. Intrahepatic radiofrequency ablation versus electrochemical treatment in vivo.

    PubMed

    Czymek, Ralf; Nassrallah, Jan; Gebhard, Maximilian; Schmidt, Andreas; Limmer, Stefan; Kleemann, Markus; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Hildebrand, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and electrochemical treatment (ECT) are two methods of local liver tumour ablation. The objective of this study was to compare these methods when applied in proximity to vessels in vivo. In a total of ten laparotomised pigs, we used ECT (Group A, four animals) and RFA (Group B, four animals) to create four areas of ablation per animal under ultrasound guidance within 10 mm of a vessel. Group C consisted of two control animals. Chemical laboratory tests were performed immediately before and after each procedure and on days 1, 3 and 7 after surgery. Following the last tests, the livers were harvested for morphological evaluation. The mean duration of surgery was 5 h 40 min in Group A (ECT), 2 h 47 min in Group B (RFA), and 2 h 30 min in Group C (control animals). After ECT, the harvested livers showed a mean volume of necrosis of 1.84 cm(3) ± 0.88 at the anode and 2.59 cm(3) ± 1.06 at the cathode. The presence of vessels did not influence the formation of necrotic zones. Ablation time was 67 min when a charge of 200 coulombs was delivered. We measured pH values of 1.2 (range: 0.9-1.7) at the anode and 11.7 (range: 11.0-12.1) at the cathode. In one of the 16 RFA ablations (6%), the target temperature was not reached and the procedure was discontinued. After 14 of 16 RFA procedures (88%), morphological analysis showed incomplete ablation in perivascular sites. Both ECT and RFA were associated with a reversible increase in monocyte, C-reactive protein (CRP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. There was no significant increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6. In the majority of cases, intrahepatic RFA in vivo leads to incomplete necrosis in proximity to vessels and the presence of histologically intact perivascular cells. Without a reduction in liver perfusion, the central application of RFA should be considered problematic. ECT is a safe alternative. It is not associated

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Uninterrupted Apixaban Therapy Versus Warfarin During Atrial Fibrillation Ablation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ruchit R; Pillai, Ajay; Schafer, Pascha; Meggo, David; McElderry, Tom; Plumb, Vance; Yamada, Takumi; Kumar, Vineet; Doppalapudi, Harish; Gunter, Alicia; Pentecost, Emily; Maddox, William R

    2017-08-01

    Thromboembolic cerebrovascular accident remains a rare but potentially devastating complication of catheter-based atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. Uninterrupted oral anticoagulant therapy with warfarin has become the standard of care when performing catheter-based AF ablation. Compared with warfarin, apixaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, has been shown to reduce the risk of stroke and major bleeding in nonvalvular AF. With an increase in apixaban use for stroke prophylaxis in patients with AF, there is an increased interest in the safety and efficacy of uninterrupted apixaban therapy during AF ablation. We compared the safety and efficacy of uninterrupted OA therapy with either warfarin or apixaban in all patients who underwent catheter-based AF ablation at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and at Augusta University Medical Center from January 7, 2013, to February 25, 2016. All patients underwent a transesophageal echocardiogram on the day of their ablation to assess for the presence of intracardiac thrombi. All complications were identified and classified as bleeding, thromboembolic events, or other. A total of 627 patients were analyzed as described earlier. There were 310 patients in the warfarin group and 317 patients in the apixaban group. There were 8 complications in the warfarin group and 5 complications in the apixaban group (p = 0.38). There were no thromboembolic complications in either group. In conclusion, the use of apixaban is as safe and effective as warfarin for uninterrupted OA therapy during catheter-based ablation of AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical predictors of challenging atrioventricular node ablation procedure for rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Polin, Baptiste; Behar, Nathalie; Galand, Vincent; Auffret, Vincent; Behaghel, Albin; Pavin, Dominique; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Mabo, Philippe; Leclercq, Christophe; Martins, Raphael P

    2017-10-15

    Atrioventricular node (AVN) ablation is usually a simple procedure but may sometimes be challenging. We aimed at identifying pre-procedural clinical predictors of challenging AVN ablation. Patients referred for AVN ablation from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively included. Baseline clinical data, procedural variables and outcomes of AVN ablation were collected. A "challenging procedure" was defined 1) total radiofrequency delivery to get persistent AVN block≥400s, 2) need for left-sided arterial approach or 3) failure to obtain AVN ablation. 200 patients were included (71±10years). A total of 37 (18.5%) patients had "challenging" procedures (including 9 failures, 4.5%), while 163 (81.5%) had "non-challenging" ablations. In multivariable analysis, male sex (Odds ratio (OR)=4.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.74-12.46), body mass index (BMI, OR=1.08 per 1kg/m 2 , 95%CI 1.01-1.16), operator experience (OR=0.40, 95%CI 0.17-0.94), and moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR, OR=3.65, 95%CI 1.63-8.15) were significant predictors of "challenging" ablations. The proportion as a function of number of predictors was analyzed (from 0 to 4, including male sex, operator inexperience, a BMI>23.5kg/m 2 and moderate-to-severe TR). There was a gradual increase in the risk of "challenging" procedure with the number of predictors by patient (No predictor: 0%; 1 predictor: 6.3%; 2 predictors: 16.5%; 3 predictors: 32.5%; 4 predictors: 77.8%). Operator experience, male sex, higher BMI and the degree of TR were independent predictors of "challenging" AVN ablation procedure. The risk increases with the number of predictors by patient. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Remodeling of sinus node function after catheter ablation of right atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Emile G; Weiss, Raul; Augostini, Ralph S; Kalbfleisch, Steven J; Schroeder, Jason; Polsinelli, Georgia; Hummel, John D

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ablation of right atrial flutter upon sinus node function in humans. This study enrolled 35 patients. Twenty-four patients (16 men and 8 women; age 68 +/- 11 years) were referred for ablation of persistent atrial flutter (duration 8 +/- 11 months). After ablation, there was abnormal sinus node function defined as a corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT) > or = 550 msec. The control group consisted of 11 patients who were undergoing pacemaker implantation for sinus node disease but did not have a history of atrial dysrhythmias or ablation. Within 24 hours of ablation or pacemaker implantation, baseline maximal CSNRT was measured through a permanent pacemaker by AAI pacing at six cycle lengths: 600, 550, 500, 450, 400, and 350 msec. CSNRT then was measured in the same manner at 48 hours, 14 days, and 3 months after ablation/pacemaker implantation. P wave amplitude and duration, and percent atrial sensing also were assessed at the same intervals. For patients undergoing atrial flutter ablation, there was progressive temporal recovery of CSNRT (1,204 +/- 671 msec at baseline vs 834 +/- 380 msec at 3 months; P < 0.001) and a significant increase in the percent atrial sensing and P wave amplitude at 3 months compared with baseline (P < 0.001). In control subjects, there was no change in the CSNRT, percent atrial pacing, or P wave amplitude. After ablation of persistent atrial flutter, there is temporal recovery of CSNRT and increase in spontaneous atrial activity. These findings suggest that atrial flutter induces reversible changes in sinus node function.

  12. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of myocardium in vivo and instantaneous biological response.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minjuan; Shentu, Weihui; Chen, Dingzhang; Sahn, David J; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the instantaneous biological response of canine myocardium in vivo to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation, and thereby determine the feasibility of this method. Left ventricle myocardium HIFU ablation was performed on six dogs at four levels of HIFU energy (acoustic intensity was 3000 W/cm2 ; ablation durations were 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, and 4.8 sec, respectively). Gross lesion volumes were confirmed and assessed by tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and electron microscopy. Global cardiac function and focal wall motion were evaluated by echocardiography. Blood enzymes and cardiac troponin T (CTnT) were tested after ablation. HIFU ablation was repeated on another set of six fresh canine hearts in vitro at the same four energy levels. Focal maximum temperatures were detected both in vivo and in vitro. Different sizes of ablation via HIFU can be created in beating hearts using controlled energy emission. Focal maximum temperatures varied from 62 ± 4.8 °C to 81 ± 12.9 °C. The lesion sizes were significantly smaller in vivo than in vitro, as verified by TTC and HE staining. Focal wall motion immediately decreased after ablation (P < 0.05), although the ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were unchanged (P > 0.05). Enzymes and CTnT immediately increased. HIFU can be used for the controllable ablation of myocardial tissue, with instantly increased serum markers, decreased regional wall motion, and unaffected left ventricular global function. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Characteristics of laparoscopic microwave ablation with renal tissue: Experimental in vivo study using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Hong, Baoan; Du, Xin; Zhao, Yuan; Chen, Guowei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Ning; Yang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A model of in vivo porcine kidneys is used to clarify the characteristics of laparoscopic microwave ablation (MWA) of renal tissue. Six pigs were utilised for the experiment using 18G water circulating-cooling microwave needles. The operating frequency was 2450 MHz, and the independent variables were power (50-60 W) and time (300-600 s). The kidneys were dissociated laparoscopically and ablated with a single or double needle at different power/time combinations and depths of puncture. Changes in the kidneys were carefully observed. Specimens of the ablated lesions were stained with haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) to evaluate the pathological features. Thirty-four thermoablations were applied. The effective ablation shape was similar to a chestnut. The ablated lesions could be divided into three zones: carbonization zone, coagulation zone, and inflammatory reaction zone. The ablation zone enlarged with increasing power and time. When combined with two needles, the maximum diameter of the ablated lesions significantly increased. Pathological results indicated that renal tissues of the carbonisation zone were thoroughly necrotic. Coagulative necrosis was observed in the coagulation zone. No 'skipped' areas were noted in any ablation zone. The structure of the inflammatory reaction zone was integrated, and interstitial small blood vessels were highly expanded and congested with infiltrated inflammatory cells. MWA achieved excellent effects in this porcine model. It can be safely and effectively used in renal tissue. For patients with poor physical condition or small renal masses (<4 cm), we can refer to these data and select the appropriate combinations to obtain satisfactory therapeutic efficacy.

  14. Contact force monitoring during catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Krause, Ulrich; Backhoff, David; Klehs, Sophia; Schneider, Heike E; Paul, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring of catheter contact force during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has been shown to increase efficacy and safety. However, almost no data exists on the use of this technology in catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of contact force monitoring during catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in those patients. Catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia using monitoring of catheter contact force was performed in 28 patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Thirty-two patients matched according to gender, age, and body weight with congenital heart disease undergoing catheter ablation without contact force monitoring served as control group. Parameters reflecting acute procedural success, long-term efficacy, and safety were compared. Acute procedural success was statistically not different in both groups (contact force 93 % vs. control 84 %, p = 0.3). Likewise the recurrence rate 1 year after ablation as shown by Kaplan-Meier analysis did not differ (contact force 28 % vs. control 37 %, p = 0.63). Major complications were restricted to groin vessel injuries and occurred in 3 out of 60 patients (contact force n = 1; control n = 2). Complications related to excessive catheter contact force were not observed. The present study did not show superiority of catheter contact force monitoring during ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with CHD in terms of efficacy and safety. Higher contact force compared to pulmonary vein isolation might therefore be required to increase the efficacy of catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.

  15. Thermal protection system ablation sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

  16. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins. Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on August 26th, 2010 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability, and cost-effectiveness of RFA for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition Varicose veins (VV) are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad

  17. Direct His bundle pacing post AVN ablation.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanadoss, Umashankar; Aggarwal, Ashim; Huang, David T; Daubert, James P; Shah, Abrar

    2009-08-01

    Atrioventricular nodal (AVN) ablation with concomitant pacemaker implantation is one of the strategies that reduce symptoms in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the long-term adverse effects of right ventricular (RV) apical pacing have led to the search for alternating sites of pacing. Biventricular pacing produces a significant improvement in functional capacity over RV pacing in patients undergoing AVN ablation. Another alternative site for pacing is direct His bundle to reduce the adverse outcome of RV pacing. Here, we present a case of direct His bundle pacing using steerable lead delivery system in a patient with symptomatic paroxysmal AF with concurrent AVN ablation.

  18. Caring for women undergoing cardiac ablation.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Beryl

    2008-09-01

    Radiofrequency cardiac ablation (RFCA) has become the treatment of choice for many cardiac arrhythmias that have not responded to medication. Complications of cardiac ablation include bleeding, thrombosis, pericardial tamponade, and stroke. Many complications are procedure specific, and several complications can be avoided with appropriate nursing care. Quality patient outcomes begin with competent nursing care. Therefore it is vital for a patient undergoing a percutaneous cardiac ablation procedure to receive supportive care and pre- and post-interventional patient education. This article discusses the nursing care of women undergoing RFCA.

  19. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Myogenesis and Mitochondrial Biosynthesis during Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Tun-Yun; Baum, Jamie I; Huang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to confluency and then treated with differentiation medium that contained fatty acids (50-µM EPA and DHA). After 72 h of myogenic differentiation, mRNA was collected, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Microscopy was used to examine cell morphology following treatment with fatty acids. The effect of EPA and DHA on cellular oxygen consumption was measured using a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Cells treated with fatty acids had fewer myotubes formed ( P ≤ 0.05) compared with control cells. The expression of the genes related to myogenesis was significantly lower ( P ≤ 0.05) in cells treated with fatty acids, compared with control cells. Genes associated with adipogenesis had higher ( P ≤ 0.05) expression after treatment with fatty acids. Also, the mitochondrial biogenesis decreased with lower ( P ≤ 0.05) gene expression and lower ( P ≤ 0.05) mtDNA/nDNA ratio in cells treated with fatty acids compared with control cells. However, the expression of genes related to peroxisome biosynthesis was higher ( P ≤ 0.05) in cells treated with fatty acids. Moreover, fatty-acid treatment reduced ( P ≤ 0.05) oxygen consumption rate under oligomycin-inhibited (reflecting proton leak) and uncoupled conditions. Our data imply that fatty acids might reduce myogenesis and increase adipogenesis in myotube formation. Fatty acids

  20. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Myogenesis and Mitochondrial Biosynthesis during Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Tun-Yun; Baum, Jamie I.; Huang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to confluency and then treated with differentiation medium that contained fatty acids (50-µM EPA and DHA). After 72 h of myogenic differentiation, mRNA was collected, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Microscopy was used to examine cell morphology following treatment with fatty acids. The effect of EPA and DHA on cellular oxygen consumption was measured using a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Cells treated with fatty acids had fewer myotubes formed (P ≤ 0.05) compared with control cells. The expression of the genes related to myogenesis was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) in cells treated with fatty acids, compared with control cells. Genes associated with adipogenesis had higher (P ≤ 0.05) expression after treatment with fatty acids. Also, the mitochondrial biogenesis decreased with lower (P ≤ 0.05) gene expression and lower (P ≤ 0.05) mtDNA/nDNA ratio in cells treated with fatty acids compared with control cells. However, the expression of genes related to peroxisome biosynthesis was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in cells treated with fatty acids. Moreover, fatty-acid treatment reduced (P ≤ 0.05) oxygen consumption rate under oligomycin-inhibited (reflecting proton leak) and uncoupled conditions. Our data imply that fatty acids might reduce myogenesis and increase adipogenesis in myotube formation. Fatty acids may also

  1. Evaluation of a Novel Thermal Accelerant for Augmentation of Microwave Energy during Image-guided Tumor Ablation.

    PubMed

    Park, William Keun Chan; Maxwell, Aaron Wilhelm Palmer; Frank, Victoria Elizabeth; Primmer, Michael Patrick; Collins, Scott Andrew; Baird, Grayson Luderman; Dupuy, Damian Edward

    2017-01-01

    The primary challenge in thermal ablation of liver tumors (e.g. hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic colorectal cancer) is the relatively high recurrence rate (~30%) for which incomplete ablation at the periphery of the tumor is the most common reason. In an attempt to overcome this, we have developed a novel thermal accelerant (TA) agent capable of augmenting microwave energy from a distance normally unattainable by a single microwave ablation antenna. This cesium-based block co-polymer compound transforms from a liquid to a gel at body temperature and is intrinsically visible by computed tomography. Using an agarose phantom model, herein we demonstrate that both the rate and magnitude of temperature increase during microwave ablation were significantly greater in the presence of TA when compared with controls. These results suggest robust augmentation of microwave energy, and may translate into larger ablation zone volumes within biologic tissues. Further work using in vivo techniques is necessary to confirm these findings.

  2. A Single Bolus of Docosahexaenoic Acid Promotes Neuroplastic Changes in the Innervation of Spinal Cord Interneurons and Motor Neurons and Improves Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuo-Hao; Yip, Ping K; Adams, Louise; Davies, Meirion; Lee, Jae Won; Michael, Gregory J; Priestley, John V; Michael-Titus, Adina T

    2015-09-16

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is essential in brain development and has structural and signaling roles. Acute DHA administration is neuroprotective and promotes functional recovery in animal models of adult spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the mechanisms underlying this recovery have not been fully characterized. Here we investigated the effects of an acute intravenous bolus of DHA delivered after SCI and characterized DHA-induced neuroplasticity within the adult injured spinal cord. We found robust sprouting of uninjured corticospinal and serotonergic fibers in a rat cervical hemisection SCI model. A mouse pyramidotomy model was used to confirm that this robust sprouting was not species or injury model specific. Furthermore, we demonstrated that corticospinal fibers sprouting to the denervated side of the cord following pyramidotomy contact V2a interneurons. We also demonstrated increased serotonin fibers and synaptophysin in direct contact with motor neurons. DHA also increased synaptophysin in rat cortical cell cultures. A reduction in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) has been shown to be involved in axonal regeneration and synaptic plasticity. We showed that DHA significantly upregulates miR-21 and downregulates PTEN in corticospinal neurons. Downregulation of PTEN and upregulation of phosphorylated AKT by DHA were also seen in primary cortical neuron cultures and were accompanied by increased neurite outgrowth. In summary, acute DHA induces anatomical and synaptic plasticity in adult injured spinal cord. This study shows that DHA has therapeutic potential in cervical SCI and provides evidence that DHA could exert its beneficial effects in SCI via enhancement of neuroplasticity. In this study, we show that an acute intravenous injection of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 30 min after spinal cord injury induces neuroplasticity. We found robust sprouting of uninjured corticospinal and serotonergic fibers in a rat

  3. Feasibility of Real-Time Intraprocedural Temperature Control during Bone Metastasis Thermal Microwave Ablation: A Bicentric Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kastler, Adrian; Krainik, Alexandre; Sakhri, Linda; Mousseau, Mireille; Kastler, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate feasibility of using a thermocouple for temperature monitoring during microwave (MW) ablation of metastatic bone disease. This retrospective study comprised 16 patients (8 men with mean age 63 y and 8 women with mean age 59 y) with 18 bone metastases treated with MW ablation using a thermocouple between March 2012 and October 2015. The mean maximum tumor size was 29.5 mm. MW ablation power was set between 15 W and 40 W and applied for 1-6 minutes. Thermocouple placements were as follows: epidural space (n = 7 cases), nerve roots (n = 9 cases), pleura (n = 1), and pericardium (n = 1). The procedure was considered technically successful when the MW and the thermocouple probes were accurately placed and thermoablation was initiated. Clinical success was defined as a 50% visual analog scale score decrease at 1 month as assessed by the operators. Mean MW ablation time was 4.3 minutes with a mean energy of 30 W. Procedural success was 100%. In 16 cases with neural structure monitoring, temperature did not increase > 43°C. In 8 cases, MW ablation had to be discontinued because of temperature reaching 42°C. Efficacy of the procedure in regard to pain was achieved in 17 of 18 ablation sessions at 1 month. Use of a thermocouple during bone MW ablation is a feasible technique and may be a potentially useful tool to help avoid nontarget ablation surrounding tumors. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid connecting phospholipids on the lipid peroxidation of the brain in mice.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Seiichi; Ishihara, Kenji; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Wada, Shun; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2008-12-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) with two lipid types on lipid peroxidation of the brain was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Each group of female Balb/c mice was fed a diet containing DHA-connecting phospholipids (DHA-PL) or DHA-connecting triacylglycerols (DHA-TG) for 5 wk. Safflower oil was fed as the control. The lipid peroxide level of the brain was significantly lower in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet when compared to those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets, while the alpha-tocopherol level was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets. The DHA level of phosphatidylethanolamine in the brain was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil diet. The dimethylacetal levels were significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil and DHA-TG diets. These results suggest that the dietary DHA-connecting phospholipids have an antioxidant activity on the brain lipids in mice, and the effect may be related to the brain plasmalogen.

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension via attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Zhong, Wei; Shao, Chen; Liu, Peijing; Wang, Cuiping; Wang, Zhongqun; Jiang, Meiping; Lu, Yi; Yan, Jinchuan

    2018-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation contribute to pulmonary hypertension (PH) pathogenesis. Previously, we confirmed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could improve hypoxia-induced PH. However, little is known about the link between DHA and monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH. Our aims were, therefore, to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanisms of DHA on MCT-induced PH in rats. Rat PH was induced by MCT. Rats were treated with DHA daily in the prevention group (following MCT injection) and the reversal group (after MCT injection for 2 wk) by gavage. After 4 wk, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy index, and morphological and immunohistochemical analyses were evaluated. Rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were used to investigate the effects of DHA on cell proliferation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. DHA decreased mPAP and attenuated pulmonary vascular remodeling and RV hypertrophy, which were associated with suppressed ER stress. DHA blocked the mitogenic effect of PDGF-BB on PASMCs and arrested the cell cycle via inhibiting nuclear factor of activated T cells-1 (NFATc1) expression and activation and regulating cell cycle-related proteins. Moreover, DHA ameliorated inflammation in lung and suppressed macrophage and T lymphocyte accumulation in lung and adventitia of resistance pulmonary arteries. These findings suggest that DHA could protect against MCT-induced PH by reducing ER stress, suppressing cell proliferation and inflammation.

  6. A lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Aurantiochytrium sp. mutant strain for docosahexaenoic acid production.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Zhang, Mingliang; Chen, Youwei; Jiang, Xianzhang; Lin, Jinxin; Cao, Xiao; Huang, Jianzhong

    2017-03-01

    To utilize lignocellulosic hydrolysate for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production, a novel mutant Aurantiochytrium sp. FN21 with strong tolerance against inhibitory lignocellulosic hydrolysate was obtained through continuous domestication processes from the parent strain Aurantiochytrium sp. FJU-512. Aurantiochytrium sp. FN21 can accumulate 21.3% and 30.7% more DHA compared to its parent strain cultured in fermentation medium and a medium with 50% (v/v) sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SBH), respectively. After optimization with different nitrogen sources, the highest lipid (11.84g/L) and DHA (3.15g/L) production were achieved in SBH. The results demonstrated that Aurantiochytrium sp. FN21 has the commercial applications for DHA production using lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In order to elucidate the tolerance mechanism, transcriptomic profiling of the two strains was studied. The highly up-regulated genes and corresponding cellular pathways (TCA cycle, amino acid biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism and degradation of aromatic compounds) are considered to be associated with the hydrolysate-tolerance of Aurantiochytrium sp. FN21. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response surface optimization of culture medium for enhanced docosahexaenoic acid production by a Malaysian thraustochytrid.

    PubMed

    Manikan, Vidyah; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-02-27

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) plays a vital role in the enhancement of human health, particularly for cognitive, neurological, and visual functions. Marine microalgae, such as members of the genus Aurantiochytrium, are rich in DHA and represent a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, levels of glucose, yeast extract, sodium glutamate and sea salt were optimized for enhanced lipid and DHA production by a Malaysian isolate of thraustochytrid, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1, using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized medium contained 60 g/L glucose, 2 g/L yeast extract, 24 g/L sodium glutamate and 6 g/L sea salt. This combination produced 17.8 g/L biomass containing 53.9% lipid (9.6 g/L) which contained 44.07% DHA (4.23 g/L). The optimized medium was used in a scale-up run, where a 5 L bench-top bioreactor was employed to verify the applicability of the medium at larger scale. This produced 24.46 g/L biomass containing 38.43% lipid (9.4 g/L), of which 47.87% was DHA (4.5 g/L). The total amount of DHA produced was 25% higher than that produced in the original medium prior to optimization. This result suggests that Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 could be developed for industrial application as a commercial DHA-producing microorganism.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from n-3 fatty acid precursors in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kaduce, Terry L; Chen, Yucui; Hell, Johannes W; Spector, Arthur A

    2008-05-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain, has important functions in the hippocampus. To better understand essential fatty acid homeostasis in this region of the brain, we investigated the contributions of n-3 fatty acid precursors in supplying hippocampal neurons with DHA. Primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons incorporated radiolabeled 18-, 20-, 22-, and 24-carbon n-3 fatty acid and converted some of the uptake to DHA, but the amounts produced from either [1-14C]alpha-linolenic or [1-14C]eicosapentaenoic acid were considerably less than the amounts incorporated when the cultures were incubated with [1-14C]22:6n-3. Most of the [1-14C]22:6n-3 uptake was incorporated into phospholipids, primarily ethanolamine phosphoglycerides. Additional studies demonstrated that the neurons converted [1-14C]linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, the main n-6 fatty acid in the brain. These findings differ from previous results indicating that cerebral and cerebellar neurons cannot convert polyunsaturated fatty acid precursors to DHA or arachidonic acid. Fatty acid compositional analysis demonstrated that the hippocampal neurons contained only 1.1-2.5 mol% DHA under the usual low-DHA culture conditions. The relatively low-DHA content suggests that some responses obtained with these cultures may not be representative of neuronal function in the brain.

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A comprehensive review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Renata; Pereira, Ana Colaço; Vicente, Filipa; Pereira, Paula

    2018-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered the most common behavioural disorder in school-age children. ADHD is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterised by a variety of symptoms, including concentration problems, excessive motor activity and impulsivity which interferes with execution of simple school tasks. Diagnosis has been essentially subjective, since no specific laboratory tests are available. However, ADHD remains overdiagnosed, probably due to social pressures for children to be successful in school from an early age, which leads parents to seek medical support. Although therapeutic approaches for ADHD have been essentially pharmacologic, in recent years several studies were performed to investigate the role of nutrition, especially omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega 3-PUFA), in the development and treatment of this disorder. In this review, the authors gathered the most relevant evidence regarding omega 3-PUFA, mainly docosahexaenoic acid, as coadjutant or as a single therapy, in the management of ADHD symptoms. The authors also reviewed this disorder's current medical and therapeutic features. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inverse association between docosahexaenoic acid and mortality in patients on hemodialysis during over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Terashima, Yoshihiro; Hamazaki, Kei; Itomura, Miho; Tomita, Shin; Kuroda, Masahiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Inadera, Hidekuni

    2014-07-01

    We have previously conducted a cohort study to investigate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in red blood cells (RBCs) and risk of all-cause mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients over 5 years and found that n-3 PUFAs, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), might be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. In the present study, we extended the study for another 5 years to determine whether DHA levels in RBCs still predict the mortality of HD patients during a 10-year study period. The study cohort consisted of 176 patients (64.1 ± 12.0 [mean ± standard deviation] years of age, 96 men and 80 women) under HD treatment. The fatty acid composition of patients' RBCs was analyzed by gas chromatography. During the study period of 10 years, 97 deaths occurred. After adjustment for 10 confounding factors, the hazard ratio of all-cause mortality of the HD patients in the highest DHA tertile (>8.1%) was 0.52 (95% confidence interval 0.30-0.91) compared with those in the lowest DHA tertile (<7.2%). However, other n-3 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid (n-3) did not reveal any significant correlations. The level of DHA in RBCs could be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in HD patients even during a long period of follow-up. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, Kei; Terashima, Yoshihiro; Itomura, Miho; Sawazaki, Shigeki; Inagaki, Hitoshi; Kuroda, Masahiro; Tomita, Shin; Hirata, Hitoshi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2011-01-01

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid have been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality. Patients on hemodialysis (HD) have a very high mortality from cardiovascular disease. Fish consumption reduces all-cause mortality in patients on HD. Moreover, n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA levels in red blood cells (RBCs), are associated with arteriosclerosis in patients on HD. The aim of this study was to determine whether DHA levels in RBCs predict the mortality of patients on HD in a prospective cohort study. A cohort of 176 patients (64.1 ± 12.0 (mean ± SD) years of age, 96 men and 80 women) under HD treatment was studied. The fatty acid composition of their RBCs was analyzed by gas chromatography. During the study period of 5 years, 54 deaths occurred. After adjustment for 10 confounding factors, the Cox hazard ratio of all-cause mortality of the patients on HD in the highest DHA tertile (>8.1%, 15 deaths) was 0.43 (95% CI 0.21-0.88) compared with those patients in the lowest DHA tertile (<7.2%, 21 deaths). The findings suggest that the level of DHA in RBCs could be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients on HD. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuratko, Connye N.; Barrett, Erin Cernkovich; Nelson, Edward B.; Norman, Salem

    2013-01-01

    Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance. PMID:23877090

  13. A Critical Review on the Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Cancer Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Newell, Marnie; Baker, Kristi; Postovit, Lynne M; Field, Catherine J

    2017-08-17

    Globally, there were 14.1 million new cancer diagnoses and 8.2 million cancer deaths in 2012. For many cancers, conventional therapies are limited in their successes and an improved understanding of disease progression is needed in conjunction with exploration of alternative therapies. The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been shown to enhance many cellular responses that reduce cancer cell viability and decrease proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. A small number of studies suggest that DHA improves chemotherapy outcomes in cancer patients. It is readily incorporated into cancer cell membranes and, as a result there has been considerable research regarding cell membrane initiated events. For example, DHA has been shown to mediate the induction of apoptosis/reduction of proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, there is limited research into the effect of DHA on cell cycle regulation in cancer cells and the mechanism(s) by which DHA acts are not fully understood. The purpose of the current review is to provide a critical examination of the literature investigating the ability of DHA to stall progression during different cell cycle phases in cancer cells, as well as the consequences that these changes may have on tumour growth, independently and in conjunction with chemotherapy.

  14. Plasma non-esterified docosahexaenoic acid is the major pool supplying the brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuck T.; Kitson, Alex P.; Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lin, Lauren E.; Ermini, Leonardo; Post, Martin; Thies, Frank; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite being critical for normal brain function, the pools that supply docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the brain are not agreed upon. Using multiple kinetic models in free-living adult rats, we first demonstrate that DHA uptake from the plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) pool predicts brain uptake of DHA upon oral administration, which enters the plasma NEFA pool as well as multiple plasma esterified pools. The rate of DHA loss by the brain is similar to the uptake from the plasma NEFA pool. Furthermore, upon acute iv administration, although more radiolabeled lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-DHA enters the brain than NEFA-DHA, this is due to the longer plasma half-life and exposure to the brain. Direct comparison of the uptake rate of LPC-DHA and NEFA-DHA demonstrates that uptake of NEFA-DHA into the brain is 10-fold greater than LPC-DHA. In conclusion, plasma NEFA-DHA is the major plasma pool supplying the brain. PMID:26511533

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a fundamental fatty acid for the brain: New dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Francisca; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, María; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2017-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6n-3, DHA) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid of marine origin fundamental for the formation and function of the nervous system, particularly the brain and the retina of humans. It has been proposed a remarkable role of DHA during human evolution, mainly on the growth and development of the brain. Currently, DHA is considered a critical nutrient during pregnancy and breastfeeding due their active participation in the development of the nervous system in early life. DHA and specifically one of its derivatives known as neuroprotectin D-1 (NPD-1), has neuroprotective properties against brain aging, neurodegenerative diseases and injury caused after brain ischemia-reperfusion episodes. This paper discusses the importance of DHA in the human brain given its relevance in the development of the tissue and as neuroprotective agent. It is also included a critical view about the ways to supply this noble fatty acid to the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of human milk fat analogue containing docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids.

    PubMed

    Turan, Dilek; Sahin Yeşilçubuk, Neşe; Akoh, Casimir C

    2012-05-02

    Human milk fat (HMF) analogue containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) at sn-1,3 positions and palmitic acid (PA) at sn-2 position was produced. Novozym 435 lipase was used to produce palmitic acid-enriched hazelnut oil (EHO). EHO was then used to produce the final structured lipid (SL) through interesterification reactions using Lipozyme RM IM. Reaction variables for 3 h reactions were temperature, substrate mole ratio, and ARASCO/DHASCO (A:D) ratio. After statistical analysis of DHA, ARA, total PA, and PA content at sn-2 position, a large-scale production was performed at 60 °C, 3:2 A:D ratio, and 1:0.1 substrate mole ratio. For the SL, those results were determined as 57.3 ± 0.4%, 2.7 ± 0.0%, 2.4 ± 0.1%, and 66.1 ± 2.2%, respectively. Tocopherol contents were 84, 19, 85, and 23 μg/g oil for α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol. Melting range of SL was narrower than that of EHO. Oxidative stability index (OSI) value of SL (0.80 h) was similar to that of EHO (0.88 h). This SL can be used in infant formulas to provide the benefits of ARA and DHA.

  17. Nutritional armor in evolution: docosahexaenoic acid as a determinant of neural, evolution and hominid brain development.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Michael A; Broadhurst, C Leigh; Cunnane, Stephen; Marsh, David E; Schmidt, Walter F; Brand, Annette; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to draw attention to the special significance of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain, the potential relevance of its abundance to the evolution of the brain in past history, and now the relevance of paucity in the food supply to the rise in mental ill-health. Membrane lipids of photoreceptors, synapses, and neurons over the last 600 million years contained consistent and similarly high levels of DHA despite wide genomic change. The consistency is despite the DHA precursor differing only by 2 protons. This striking conservation is an example of Darwin's "Conditions of Existence," which he described as the higher force in evolution. A purpose of this article is to suggest that the present paradigm of food production currently based on protein requirements, should change to serve the specific lipid needs of the brain to address the rise in mental ill-health.(1.) Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid suppresses breast cancer cell metastasis by targeting matrix-metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun-Jin; Song, Kyung-Sub; Shin, Soyeon; Kim, Soyeon; Heo, Jun-Young; Kweon, Gi-Ryang; Wu, Tong; Park, Jong-Il; Lim, Kyu

    2016-08-02

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women, and nearly half of breast cancer patients develop distant metastatic disease after therapy. Despite the significant advances that have been achieved in understanding breast cancer metastasis in the past decades, metastatic cancer is still hard to cure. Here, we demonstrated an anti-cancer mechanism of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that suppressed lung metastasis in breast cancer. DHA could inhibit proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro, and this was mainly through blocking Cox-2-PGE2-NF-κB-MMPs cascades. DHA treatment significantly decreased Cox-2 and NF-κB expression as well as nuclear translocation of NF-κB in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, DHA also reduced NF-κB binding to DNA which may lead to inactivation of MMPs. Moreover, in vivo studies using Fat-1 transgenic mice showed remarkable decrease of tumor growth and metastasis to EO771 cells to lung in DHA-rich environment. In conclusion, DHA attenuated breast cancer progression and lung metastasis in part through suppressing MMPs, and these findings suggest chemoprevention and potential therapeutic strategy to overcome malignant breast cancer.

  19. IMAGING BRAIN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND METABOLISM VIA ARACHIDONIC AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2012-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), important second messengers in brain, are released from membrane phospholipid following receptor-mediated activation of specific phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. We developed an in vivo method in rodents using quantitative autoradiography to image PUFA incorporation into brain from plasma, and showed that their incorporation rates equal their rates of metabolic consumption by brain. Thus, quantitative imaging of unesterified plasma AA or DHA incorporation into brain can be used as a biomarker of brain PUFA metabolism and neurotransmission. We have employed our method to image and quantify effects of mood stabilizers on brain AA/DHA incorporation during neurotransmission by muscarinic M1,3,5, serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C, dopaminergic D2-like (D2, D3, D4) or glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, and effects of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, of selective serotonin and dopamine reuptake transporter inhibitors, of neuroinflammation (HIV-1 and lipopolysaccharide) and excitotoxicity, and in genetically modified rodents. The method has been extended for the use with positron emission tomography (PET), and can be employed to determine how human brain AA/DHA signaling and consumption are influenced by diet, aging, disease and genetics. PMID:22178644

  20. Anti-cancer Mechanism of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis: A Mini-review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mirae; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignant tumor of the digestive system and radical resection, which is available to very few patients, might be the only possibility for cure. Since therapeutic choices are limited at the advanced stage, prevention is more important for reducing incidence in high-risk individuals with family history of pancreatic cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the risk of pancreatic cancers. Dietary fish oil supplementation has shown to suppress pancreatic cancer development in animal models. Previous experimental studies revealed that several hallmarks of cancer involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, such as the resistance to apoptosis, hyper-proliferation with abnormal Wnt/β-catenin signaling, expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, and invasion. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acid and rich in cold oceanic fish oil. DHA shows anti-cancer activity by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis, inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and decreasing extracellular matrix degradation and expression of pro-angiogenic factors in pancreatic cancer cells. This review will summarize anti-cancer mechanism of DHA in pancreatic carcinogenesis based on the recent studies. PMID:28382280

  1. Should there be a target level of docosahexaenoic acid in breast milk?

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kristina Harris; Harris, William S

    2016-03-01

    This article examines the evidence for and against establishing a target level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in breast milk. Two target levels for milk DHA have been recently proposed. One (∼0.3% of milk fatty acids) was based on milk DHA levels achieved in women consuming the amount of DHA recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for pregnant and lactating women (at least 200 mg DHA/day). Another (∼1.0%) was based on biomarker studies of populations with differing lifelong intakes of fish. Populations or research cohorts with milk DHA levels of 1.0% are associated with intakes that allow both the mother and infant to maintain relatively high DHA levels throughout lactation. Lower milk DHA levels may signal suboptimal maternal stores and possibly suboptimal infant intakes. Based on the current data, a reasonable milk DHA target appears to be approximately 0.3%, which is about the worldwide average. Although this may not be the 'optimal' level (which remains to be defined), it is clearly an improvement over the currently low milk DHA levels (∼0.2%) seen in many Western populations.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): from the maternal-foetal dyad to the complementary feeding period.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo

    2010-07-01

    The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) status of infants at birth and maternal DHA intake during pregnancy are interconnected and associated with infants' developmental performance. High-dosage supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs; particularly DHA) in mothers, started at mid-pregnancy, has been associated with long-term positive effects on intelligence quotient scores of neurodevelopment. Poor maternal and infant DHA status could partly contribute to the observed association between certain conditions and impaired developmental outcome. The dietary DHA enrichment of human milk seems to be functionally effective in breastfed infants only when lactating mothers start supplementation during pregnancy. Results from trials in artificially fed infants are dissimilar and could be related in part to uninvestigated covariates such as infant DHA status at birth and the individual genetic background. Nevertheless, DHA supplementation during the complementary feeding period seems to be effective in improving neurofunctional and visual performance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Breast milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) correlates with DHA status of malnourished infants.

    PubMed

    Smit, E N; Oelen, E A; Seerat, E; Muskiet, F A; Boersma, E R

    2000-06-01

    To investigate whether low docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3; DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed infants is a result of low omega3 fatty acid intake via breast milk. Fatty acid composition of breast milk of eight Pakistani mothers, and of the erythrocytes of their malnourished children was analysed. The milk of the Pakistani mothers contained low percentages of all omega3 and most omega6 fatty acids, compared with milk of Dutch mothers. Breast milk DHA was positively correlated with infant erythrocyte DHA and arachidonic acid (20:4omega6). DHA status of these malnourished children is strongly dependent on the omega3 fatty acid intake from breast milk. Augmentation of the infants' omega3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status, or the omega3 and omega6 fatty acid status in general, by supplementation is indicated in deprived circumstances where access to fresh fish is difficult. However, in terms of prevention, maternal supplementation of these long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, preferably from early pregnancy onwards, may be a better option.

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid for the treatment of fatty liver: randomised controlled trial in children.

    PubMed

    Nobili, V; Alisi, A; Della Corte, C; Risé, P; Galli, C; Agostoni, C; Bedogni, G

    2013-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in children. We tested whether dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can decrease liver fat content in children with NAFLD. We performed a randomized controlled trial of DHA supplementation (250 mg/day and 500 mg/day) vs. placebo in 60 children with NAFLD (20 children per group). The main outcome was the change in liver fat as detected by ultrasonography after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in triglycerides, alanine transaminase (ALT), body mass index (BMI) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA). The odds of more severe versus less severe liver steatosis decreased to the same degree at 6 months in children treated with DHA 250 mg/day and DHA 500 mg/day vs. placebo and persisted virtually unmodified for 24 months (OR ≤ 0.02, p ≤ 0.05 for all time points). Triglycerides were lower in the DHA groups than in the placebo group at any time point and ALT was lower in these groups from month 12 onwards. HOMA was lower in the DHA 250 mg group vs. placebo at months 6 and 12. DHA supplementation improves liver steatosis in children with NAFLD. Doses of 250 mg/day and 500 mg/day of DHA appear to be equally effective in reducing liver fat content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid: brain accretion and roles in neuroprotection after brain hypoxia and ischemia.

    PubMed

    Mayurasakorn, Korapat; Williams, Jill J; Ten, Vadim S; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2011-03-01

    With important effects on neuronal lipid composition, neurochemical signaling and cerebrovascular pathobiology, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, may emerge as a neuroprotective agent against cerebrovascular disease. This paper examines pathways for DHA accretion in brain and evidence for possible roles of DHA in prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for cerebrovascular disease. DHA is a major n-3 fatty acid in the mammalian central nervous system and enhances synaptic activities in neuronal cells. DHA can be obtained through diet or to a limited extent via conversion from its precursor, α-linolenic acid (α-LNA). DHA attenuates brain necrosis after hypoxic ischemic injury, principally by modulating membrane biophysical properties and maintaining integrity in functions between presynaptic and postsynaptic areas, resulting in better stabilizing intracellular ion balance in hypoxic-ischemic insult. Additionally, DHA alleviates brain apoptosis, by inducing antiapoptotic activities such as decreasing responses to reactive oxygen species, upregulating antiapoptotic protein expression, downregulating apoptotic protein expression, and maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function. DHA in brain relates to a number of efficient delivery and accretion pathways. In animal models DHA renders neuroprotection after hypoxic-ischemic injury by regulating multiple molecular pathways and gene expression.

  6. Enteral Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces Analgesic Administration in Neonates Undergoing Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bernabe-Garcia, Mariela; López-Alarcon, Mardia; Salgado-Sosa, Alfredo; Villegas-Silva, Raul; Maldonado-Hernandez, Jorge; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Chavez-Sanchez, Luis; Blanco-Favela, Francisco A; Mancilla-Ramirez, Javier; Gordillo-Alvarez, Virginia; Madrigal-Muñiz, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Neonates undergoing surgery require analgesic medication to ameliorate acute pain. These medications produce negative side effects. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has an antinociceptive effect in animals, but this has not been evaluated in human neonates. We evaluated the DHA effect on cumulative dose and duration of analgesics administered to neonates undergoing cardiovascular surgery. A secondary analysis was performed with data from a clinical trial, in which enteral DHA was administered perioperatively compared with sunflower oil (SO). Present study assessed the antinociceptive effect of DHA by measuring the cumulative dose and duration of analgesics administered during postoperative stay in a neonatal intensive care unit. Multivariate linear regression models were performed. Seventeen neonates received DHA and 18 received SO in the control group. Compared with the control group, the DHA group received lower cumulative dose (14.6 ± 2.2 vs. 25.2 ± 4.8 μg/kg, p = 0.029) and shorter duration of buprenorphine (2 days (1-8) vs. 4.5 days (1-12); p = 0.053). After adjusting for confounders, the DHA group received significantly lesser buprenorphine (β = -27 μg/kg, p = 0.028; R2 model = 0.90) for shorter duration (β = -9 days, p = 0.003; R2 model = 0.94). No differences in fentanyl or ketorolac were detected. Buprenorphine administration was reduced in neonates who received DHA, suggesting that DHA likely has analgesic effects. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid: brain accretion and roles in neuroprotection after brain hypoxia and ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Mayurasakorn, Korapat; Williams, Jill J.; Ten, Vadim S.; Deckelbaum, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review With important effects on neuronal lipid composition, neurochemical signaling and cerebrovascular pathobiology, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, may emerge as a neuroprotective agent against cerebrovascular disease. This paper examines pathways for DHA accretion in brain and evidence for possible roles of DHA in prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for cerebrovascular disease. Recent findings DHA is a major n-3 fatty acid in the mammalian central nervous system and enhances synaptic activities in neuronal cells. DHA can be obtained through diet or to a limited extent via conversion from its precursor, α-linolenic acid (α-LNA). DHA attenuates brain necrosis after hypoxic ischemic injury, principally by modulating membrane biophysical properties and maintaining integrity in functions between pre-and post-synaptic areas, resulting in better stabilizing intracellular ion balance in hypoxic-ischemic insult. Additionally, DHA alleviates brain apoptosis, by inducing anti-apoptotic activities such as decreasing responses to reactive oxygen species, up-regulating anti-apoptotic protein expression, down-regulating apoptotic protein expression, and maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function. Summary DHA in brain relates to a number of efficient delivery and accretion pathways. In animal models DHA renders neuroprotection after hypoxic-ischemic injury by regulating multiple molecular pathways and gene expression. PMID:21178607

  8. Eicosapentaenoic acid but not docosahexaenoic acid restores skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity in old mice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew L; Lalia, Antigoni Z; Dasari, Surendra; Pallauf, Maximilian; Fitch, Mark; Hellerstein, Marc K; Lanza, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is often observed in aging skeletal muscle and is implicated in age-related declines in physical function. Early evidence suggests that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) improve mitochondrial function. Here, we show that 10 weeks of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation partially attenuated the age-related decline in mitochondrial function in mice, but this effect was not observed with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The improvement in mitochondrial function with EPA occurred in the absence of any changes in mitochondrial abundance or biogenesis, which was evaluated from RNA sequencing, large-scale proteomics, and direct measurements of muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis rates. We find that EPA improves muscle protein quality, specifically by decreasing mitochondrial protein carbamylation, a post-translational modification that is driven by inflammation. These results demonstrate that EPA attenuated the age-related loss of mitochondrial function and improved mitochondrial protein quality through a mechanism that is likely linked with anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 PUFAs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EPA and DHA exert some common biological effects (anticoagulation, anti-inflammatory, reduced FXR/RXR activation), but also exhibit many distinct biological effects, a finding that underscores the importance of evaluating the therapeutic potential of individual n-3 PUFAs. PMID:26010060

  9. Implications for eicosapentaenoic acid- and docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvins as therapeutics for arthritis.