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Sample records for ablation predicts outcome

  1. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation of spinal tumors: predictability, safety and outcome.

    PubMed

    Gazis, Angelos N; Beuing, Oliver; Franke, Jörg; Jöllenbeck, Boris; Skalej, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Bone metastases are often the cause of tumor-associated pain and reduction of quality of life. For patients that cannot be treated by surgery, a local minimally invasive therapy such as radiofrequency ablation can be a useful option. In cases in which tumorous masses are adjacent to vulnerable structures, the monopolar radiofrequency can cause severe neuronal damage because of the unpredictability of current flow. The aim of this study is to show that the bipolar radiofrequency ablation provides an opportunity to safely treat such spinal lesions because of precise predictability of the emerging ablation zone. Prospective cohort study of 36 patients undergoing treatment at a single institution. Thirty-six patients in advanced tumor stage with primary or secondary tumor involvement of spine undergoing radiofrequency ablation. Prediction of emerging ablation zone. Clinical outcome of treated patients. X-ray-controlled treatment of 39 lesions by bipolar radiofrequency ablation. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed pre- and postinterventionally. Patients were observed clinically during their postinterventional stay. The extent of the ablation zones was predictable to the millimeter because it did not cross the peri-interventional planned dorsal and ventral boundaries in any case. No complications were observed. Ablation of tumorous masses adjacent to vulnerable structures is feasible and predictable by using the bipolar radiofrequency ablation. Damage of neuronal structures can be avoided through precise prediction of the ablation area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of Treatment Outcomes After Global Endometrial Ablation

    PubMed Central

    El-Nashar, Sherif A.; Hopkins, Matthew R.; Creedon, Douglas J.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Amy L.; McGree, Michaela E.; Cliby, William A.; Famuyide, Abimbola O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To report rates of amenorrhea and treatment failure after global endometrial ablation and to estimate the association between patient factors and these outcomes by developing and validating prediction models. Methods From January 1998 through December 2005, 816 women underwent global endometrial ablation with either a thermal balloon ablation or radiofrequency ablation device; 455 were included in a population-derived cohort (for model development), and 361 were included in a referral-derived cohort (for model validation). Amenorrhea was defined as cessation of bleeding from immediately after ablation through at least 12 months after the procedure. Treatment failure was defined as hysterectomy or re-ablation for patients with bleeding or pain. Logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used in model development and validation of potential predictors of outcomes. Results The amenorrhea rate was 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19%–28%) and the 5-year cumulative failure rate was 16% (95% CI, 10%–20%). Predictors of amenorrhea were age 45 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6–4.3); uterine length less than 9 cm (aOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–3.1); endometrial thickness less than 4 mm (aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2–6.3); and use of radiofrequency ablation instead of thermal balloon ablation (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.7–4.9). Predictors of treatment failure included age younger than 45 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3–5.1); parity of 5 or greater (aHR, 6.0; 95% CI, 2.5–14.8); prior tubal ligation (aHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2–4.0); and history of dysmenorrhea (aHR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6–8.5). After global endometrial ablation, 23 women (5.1%; 95% CI, 3.2%–7.5%) had pelvic pain, 3 (0.7%; 95% CI, 0.1%–1.9%) were pregnant, and none (95% CI, 0%–0.8%) had endometrial cancer. Conclusion Population-derived rates and predictors of treatment outcomes after global endometrial ablation may help physicians offer optimal

  3. The APPLE Score – A Novel Score for the Prediction of Rhythm Outcomes after Repeat Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Kornej, Jelena; Hindricks, Gerhard; Arya, Arash; Sommer, Philipp; Husser, Daniela; Bollmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Background Arrhythmia recurrences after catheter ablation occur in up to 50% within one year but their prediction remains challenging. Recently, we developed a novel score for the prediction of rhythm outcomes after single AF ablation demonstrating superiority to other scores. The current study was performed to 1) prove the predictive value of the APPLE score in patients undergoing repeat AF ablation and 2) compare it with the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. Methods Rhythm outcome between 3–12 months after AF ablation were documented. The APPLE score (one point for Age >65 years, Persistent AF, imPaired eGFR (<60 ml/min/1.73m2), LA diameter ≥43 mm, EF <50%) was calculated in every patient before procedure. Results 379 consecutive patients from The Leipzig Heart Center AF Ablation Registry (60±10 years, 65% male, 70% paroxysmal AF) undergoing repeat AF catheter ablation were included. Arrhythmia recurrences were observed in 133 patients (35%). While the CHADS2 (AUC 0.577, p = 0.037) and CHA2DS2-VASc scores (AUC 0.590, p = 0.015) demonstrated low predictive value, the APPLE score showed better prediction of arrhythmia recurrences (AUC 0.617, p = 0.002) than other scores (both p<0.001). Compared to patients with an APPLE score of 0, the risk (OR) for arrhythmia recurrences was 2.9, 3.0 and 6.0 (all p<0.01) for APPLE scores 1, 2, or ≥3, respectively. Conclusions The novel APPLE score is superior to the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores for prediction of rhythm outcomes after repeat AF catheter ablation. It may be helpful to identify patients with low, intermediate or high risk for recurrences after repeat procedure. PMID:28085921

  4. Planning Irreversible Electroporation in the Porcine Kidney: Are Numerical Simulations Reliable for Predicting Empiric Ablation Outcomes?

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, Thomas Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Gutta, Narendra; Ezell, Paula C.; Monette, Sebastien; Maybody, Majid; Erinjery, Joseph P.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2015-02-15

    PurposeNumerical simulations are used for treatment planning in clinical applications of irreversible electroporation (IRE) to determine ablation size and shape. To assess the reliability of simulations for treatment planning, we compared simulation results with empiric outcomes of renal IRE using computed tomography (CT) and histology in an animal model.MethodsThe ablation size and shape for six different IRE parameter sets (70–90 pulses, 2,000–2,700 V, 70–100 µs) for monopolar and bipolar electrodes was simulated using a numerical model. Employing these treatment parameters, 35 CT-guided IRE ablations were created in both kidneys of six pigs and followed up with CT immediately and after 24 h. Histopathology was analyzed from postablation day 1.ResultsAblation zones on CT measured 81 ± 18 % (day 0, p ≤ 0.05) and 115 ± 18 % (day 1, p ≤ 0.09) of the simulated size for monopolar electrodes, and 190 ± 33 % (day 0, p ≤ 0.001) and 234 ± 12 % (day 1, p ≤ 0.0001) for bipolar electrodes. Histopathology indicated smaller ablation zones than simulated (71 ± 41 %, p ≤ 0.047) and measured on CT (47 ± 16 %, p ≤ 0.005) with complete ablation of kidney parenchyma within the central zone and incomplete ablation in the periphery.ConclusionBoth numerical simulations for planning renal IRE and CT measurements may overestimate the size of ablation compared to histology, and ablation effects may be incomplete in the periphery.

  5. Ethanol ablation of benign thyroid cysts and predominantly cystic thyroid nodules: factors that predict outcome.

    PubMed

    In, Hyun Sin; Kim, Dong Wook; Choo, Hye Jung; Jung, Soo Jin; Kang, Taewoo; Ryu, Ji Hwa

    2014-05-01

    No study has so far investigated the relationship between aspirate color or degree of aspiration on the success of ethanol ablation (EA) of cystic thyroid nodules. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of EA of benign cystic thyroid nodules and assess the relevant factors influencing the outcome. Over a 2-year period, 64 benign cystic thyroid nodules in 62 patients were treated with EA. Several factors related to EA efficacy were evaluated, including the cystic component volume, volume and color of aspirates, degree of aspiration, and volume of injected ethanol. In all cases, we performed ultrasound follow-up for at least 12 months after the last EA session to evaluate the collapsed cystic component. The 64 treated nodules had aspirate colors that were red bloody (n = 3), dark bloody (n = 31), brownish (n = 15), greenish-yellow (n = 13), and colorless (n = 2). The degrees of aspiration were scant (n = 8), mild (n = 3), moderate (n = 8), and complete (n = 45). There was successful collapse of the cystic component after initial EA in 52 cases, but a repeat EA was employed in 12 failed cases. Statistical analysis showed that the degree of aspiration and color of aspirates correlated significantly with the success of EA. The results of this study suggest that complete aspiration of cystic contents was the most important factor in the efficacy of EA of benign cystic thyroid nodules, and greenish-yellow contents were closely related to scant or mild aspiration.

  6. Theoretical model for laser ablation outcome predictions in brain: calibration and validation on clinical MR thermometry images.

    PubMed

    Fahrenholtz, Samuel John; Madankan, Reza; Danish, Shabbar; Hazle, John D; Stafford, R Jason; Fuentes, David

    2017-05-19

    Neurosurgical laser ablation is experiencing a renaissance. Computational tools for ablation planning aim to further improve the intervention. Here, global optimisation and inverse problems are demonstrated to train a model that predicts maximum laser ablation extent. A closed-form steady state model is trained on and then subsequently compared to N = 20 retrospective clinical MR thermometry datasets. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) is calculated to provide a measure of region overlap between the 57 °C isotherms of the thermometry data and the model-predicted ablation regions; 57 °C is a tissue death surrogate at thermal steady state. A global optimisation scheme samples the dominant model parameter sensitivities, blood perfusion (ω) and optical parameter (μeff) values, throughout a parameter space totalling 11 440 value-pairs. This represents a lookup table of μeff-ω pairs with the corresponding DSC value for each patient dataset. The μeff-ω pair with the maximum DSC calibrates the model parameters, maximising predictive value for each patient. Finally, leave-one-out cross-validation with global optimisation information trains the model on the entire clinical dataset, and compares against the model naïvely using literature values for ω and μeff. When using naïve literature values, the model's mean DSC is 0.67 whereas the calibrated model produces 0.82 during cross-validation, an improvement of 0.15 in overlap with the patient data. The 95% confidence interval of the mean difference is 0.083-0.23 (p < 0.001). During cross-validation, the calibrated model is superior to the naïve model as measured by DSC, with +22% mean prediction accuracy. Calibration empowers a relatively simple model to become more predictive.

  7. Feasibility of real-time MR thermal dose mapping for predicting radiofrequency ablation outcome in the myocardium in vivo.

    PubMed

    Toupin, Solenn; Bour, Pierre; Lepetit-Coiffé, Matthieu; Ozenne, Valéry; Denis de Senneville, Baudouin; Schneider, Rainer; Vaussy, Alexis; Chaumeil, Arnaud; Cochet, Hubert; Sacher, Frédéric; Jaïs, Pierre; Quesson, Bruno

    2017-01-25

    Clinical treatment of cardiac arrhythmia by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) currently lacks quantitative and precise visualization of lesion formation in the myocardium during the procedure. This study aims at evaluating thermal dose (TD) imaging obtained from real-time magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry on the heart as a relevant indicator of the thermal lesion extent. MR temperature mapping based on the Proton Resonance Frequency Shift (PRFS) method was performed at 1.5 T on the heart, with 4 to 5 slices acquired per heartbeat. Respiratory motion was compensated using navigator-based slice tracking. Residual in-plane motion and related magnetic susceptibility artifacts were corrected online. The standard deviation of temperature was measured on healthy volunteers (N = 5) in both ventricles. On animals, the MR-compatible catheter was positioned and visualized in the left ventricle (LV) using a bSSFP pulse sequence with active catheter tracking. Twelve MR-guided RFA were performed on three sheep in vivo at various locations in left ventricle (LV). The dimensions of the thermal lesions measured on thermal dose images, on 3D T1-weighted (T1-w) images acquired immediately after the ablation and at gross pathology were correlated. MR thermometry uncertainty was 1.5 °C on average over more than 96% of the pixels covering the left and right ventricles, on each volunteer. On animals, catheter repositioning in the LV with active slice tracking was successfully performed and each ablation could be monitored in real-time by MR thermometry and thermal dosimetry. Thermal lesion dimensions on TD maps were found to be highly correlated with those observed on post-ablation T1-w images (R = 0.87) that also correlated (R = 0.89) with measurements at gross pathology. Quantitative TD mapping from real-time rapid CMR thermometry during catheter-based RFA is feasible. It provides a direct assessment of the lesion extent in the myocardium with precision in the range of one

  8. An E/e' ratio on echocardiography predicts the existence of left atrial low-voltage areas and poor outcomes after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Masaharu; Fujita, Masashi; Iida, Osamu; Okamoto, Shin; Ishihara, Takayuki; Nanto, Kiyonori; Kanda, Takashi; Sunaga, Akihiro; Tsujimura, Takuya; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Takuya; Uematsu, Masaaki

    2017-06-22

    An elevated left atrial pressure has been reported to play an important role in the development of atrial remodelling in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. The study aimed at elucidating the association between the diastolic early transmitral flow velocity/mitral annular velocity (E/e', a non-invasive surrogate of left atrial pressure) and left atrial low-voltage-area existence, and the prognostic impact of the E/e' on procedural outcomes in patients undergoing AF ablation. Total of 215 consecutive patients were divided into 3 groups based on the estimated left atrial pressure: normal (E/e' < 8.0, n = 58), undetermined (E/e' = 8.0-14.0, n = 114), and elevated (E/e' > 14.0, n = 43). Left atrial endocardial voltage mapping was performed following pulmonary vein isolation. Patients with a high E/e' more frequently had low-voltage areas (E/e' < 8.0, 31%, E/e' = 8.0-14.0, 35%; E/e' > 14.0, 67%; P = 0.0001). After adjusting for other correlates, a high E/e' was an independent predictor of low-voltage-area existence (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02-1.21, P = 0.017). During a mean follow-up period of 12 ± 6 months, recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias occurred in 22 (10%) patients after multiple (1.4 ± 0.5) procedures. Patients with an E/e' > 14 had more frequent recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias after multiple ablation procedures than those with an E/e' ≤ 14 (23% vs. 7%, P = 0.001). A high E/e' obtained by pre-ablation echocardiography was associated with a left atrial arrhythmogenic substrate in patients undergoing AF ablation. Furthermore, a high E/e' predicted poor procedural outcomes after pulmonary vein isolation.

  9. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness and Ablation Outcome of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Yun, Chun-Ho; Lai, Yau-Huei; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chang, Hung-Yu; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Yeh, Hung-I; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Epicardial fat was closely related to atrial fibrillation (AF). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has been proposed to be a convenient imaging tool in assessing epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the EAT thickness measured on TTE was a useful parameter in predicting procedural outcomes of AF ablations. Methods and Results A total of 227 paroxysmal AF (PAF) and 56 non-paroxysmal AF (non-PAF) patients receiving catheter ablations from 2008-2010 were enrolled. Echocardiography-derived regional EAT thickness from parasternal long-axis view was quantified for each patient. Free of recurrence was defined as the absence of atrial arrhythmias without using antiarrhythmic agents after ablations. The mean EAT thickness of the study population was 6.1 ± 0.8 mm. Non-PAF patients had a thicker EAT than that of PAF patients (7.0 ± 0.7 mm versus 5.9 ± 0.7 mm, p value <0.001). During the follow-up of 16 ± 9 months, there were 95 patients (33.6%) suffering from recurrences of atrial arrhythmias. Non-PAF, chads2 score, left atrial diameter and EAT thickness were independent predictors of recurrence after catheter ablations. At a cutoff value of 6 mm for PAF and 6.9 mm for non-PAF, the measurement of EAT thickness could help us to identify patients at risk of recurrences. Conclusions EAT thickness may serve as a useful parameter in predicting recurrences after AF ablations. Compared to other imaging modalities, TTE can be an alternative choice with less cost and time in assessing the effects of EAT on ablation outcomes. PMID:24066158

  10. Outcomes of ablative fractional laser scar treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok-Woo; Hwang, Na-Hyun; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Park, Seung-Ha

    2015-04-01

    Ablative fractional laser (AFL) systems are commonly used to treat various scars, and recent reports have indicated that early scar treatment with fractional lasers has good aesthetic results. Some scars respond dramatically to AFL treatment, incurring high levels of patient satisfaction; however, other scars respond poorly or became worse after treatment. This study was designed to clarify prognostic factors that predict AFL scar treatment outcomes. A total of 108 patients were included in this study. The fractional laser treatments were repeated every 4 weeks until the scar site was acceptable and no additional improvement was expected or the patient discontinued the treatment. The scar improvements were defined as changes in the Manchester scar scale (MSS) from before to after laser treatment. A digital camera was used to acquire digital photographs of the scars under the same light source, the same background, exposure, and white balance. This study developed a modification of the MSS for image analysis in which colour assessment was based on L*a*b* colour co-ordinates of the digital images. The mean MSS values prior to and after laser treatments were 11.6 ± 3.6 and 9.5 ± 2.9, respectively (p < 0.01). AFL treatment improved the qualities of each scar, and the improvements were evident in colour and contour. Scar elevation, pigmentation, high vascularity, early onset of treatment, and the number of treatment sessions were directly related to scar improvement after AFL therapy (p < 0.05). AFL treatments were effective methods for scar treatment. Clinicians can use these prognostic factors to determine treatment plans and to estimate scar improvement after AFL treatment.

  11. Pre-treatment double- or triple-positive tumor markers are predictive of a poor outcome for patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Hidetoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Kaida, Takayoshi; Arima, Kota; Higashi, Takaaki; Taki, Katsunobu; Okabe, Hirohisa; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Beppu, Toru; Baba, Hideo

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the therapeutic effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to the number of positive tumor markers. The subjects of this study were 160 patients who underwent percutaneous and surgical RFA for HCC. Patients were divided into negative (n = 51), single- (n = 69), double- (n = 31), and triple-positive (n = 9) tumor marker groups according to the pre-treatment expression of these markers. We looked for any relationships among clinical parameters, outcomes, and tumor markers. The 3-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates of the negative, single-, double-, and triple-positive groups were 30, 19, 16, and 11 % (P = 0.02), and 94, 88, 67, and 37 % (P < 0.001), respectively. The 2-year local recurrence rates were 6.5, 0, 41.2, and 61.9 %, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that a double- or triple-positive pre-treatment tumor marker profile was independently associated with local recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) 5.48, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.44-12.33, P < 0.001] and overall survival (HR 4.21, 95 % CI 1.89-9.37, P < 0.001). RFA may not be suitable for patients with HCC who have pre-treatment expression of ≥two of these tumor markers.

  12. Ablation of Barrett's oesophagus: towards improved outcomes for oesophageal cancer?

    PubMed

    Mayne, George C; Bright, Tim; Hussey, Damian J; Watson, David I

    2012-09-01

    Barrett's oesophagus is the major risk factor for the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The management of Barrett's oesophagus entails treating reflux symptoms with acid-suppressing medication or surgery (fundoplication). However, neither form of anti-reflux therapy produces predictable regression, or prevents cancer development. Patients with Barrett's oesophagus usually undergo endoscopic surveillance, which aims to identify dysplastic changes or cancer at its earliest stage, when treatment outcomes should be better. Alternative endoscopic interventions are now available and are suggested for the treatment of early cancer and prevention of progression of Barrett's oesophagus to cancer. Such treatments could minimize the risks associated with oesophagectomy. The current status of these interventions is reviewed. Various endoscopic interventions have been described, but with long-term outcomes uncertain, they remain somewhat controversial. Radiofrequency ablation of dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus might reduce the risk of cancer progression, although cancer development has been reported after this treatment. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) allows a 1.5-2 cm diameter piece of oesophageal mucosa to be removed. This provides better pathology for diagnosis and staging, and if the lesion is confined to the mucosa and fully excised, EMR can be curative. The combination of EMR and radiofrequency ablation has been used for multifocal lesions, but long-term outcomes are unknown. The new endoscopic interventions for Barrett's oesophagus and early oesophageal cancer have the potential to improve clinical outcomes, although evidence that confirms superiority over oesphagectomy is limited. Longer-term outcome data and data from larger cohorts are required to confirm the appropriateness of these procedures. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Microwave ablation of malignant renal tumours: intermediate-term results and usefulness of RENAL and mRENAL scores for predicting outcomes and complications.

    PubMed

    Ierardi, Anna Maria; Puliti, Alessio; Angileri, Salvatore Alessio; Petrillo, Mario; Duka, Ejona; Floridi, Chiara; Lecchi, Michela; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate intermediate-term results after microwave ablation (MWA) of renal tumours and determine the association of RENAL and modified RENAL (mRENAL) scores with oncological outcomes and complications. In May 2008-September 2014, 58 patients affected by early-stage RCC (renal cell carcinoma; T1a or T1b) were judged unsuitable for surgery and treated with percutaneous MWA. Follow-up was performed with contrast-enhanced computed tomography at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the procedure. Technical success (TS), primary technical effectiveness (PTE), secondary technical effectiveness (STE), the local tumour progression rate (LTPR), the cancer-specific survival rate (CSSR), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and safety were recorded. All lesions were evaluated using RENAL and mRENAL scores, and complications were assessed with RENAL scores. The TS rate was 100%, PTE was 93%, STE was 100%, LTPR was 15.7% at 1 year, CSSR was 96.5%, DFS was 87.9% at 5 years, and OS was 80.6%. Mean follow-up was 25.7 months (range 3-72). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) RENAL and mRENAL scores of all treated tumours were 6.7 ± 2.05 (range 4-11) and 7 ± 2.3 (range 4-12), respectively. Major complications occurred in two (2/58) and minor complications in three patients (3/58). Overall complications correlated significantly with RENAL scores; in particular, E and L represent negative predictors for safety and effectiveness. MWA is a valuable alternative for treating RCCs. The correlation with outcomes and complications of RENAL and mRENAL scores could help to customise MWA indications in RCC patients.

  14. Radiofrequency ablation of atrial tachyarrhythmias in adults with tetralogy of Fallot - predictors of success and outcome.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Vivienne A; Ryan, Matthew J; O'Leary, Justin; Ariti, Cono; Deanfield, John; Pandya, Bejal; Cullen, Shay; Walker, Fiona; Khan, Fakhar; Abrams, Dominic J; Lambiase, Pier D; Lowe, Martin D

    2017-03-01

    Adults with tetralogy of Fallot experience atrial tachyarrhythmias; however, there are a few data on the outcomes of radiofrequency ablation. We examined the characteristics, outcome, and predictors of recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmias after radiofrequency ablation in tetralogy of Fallot patients. Methods/results Retrospective data were collected from 2004 to 2013. In total, 56 ablations were performed on 37 patients. We identified two matched controls per case: patients with tetralogy of Fallot but no radiofrequency ablation and not known to have atrial tachyarrhythmias. Acute success was 98%. Left atrial arrhythmias increased in frequency over time. The mean follow-up was 41 months; 78% were arrhythmia-free. Number of cardiac surgeries, age, and presence of atrial fibrillation were predictors of recurrence. Lone cavo-tricuspid isthmus-dependent flutter reduced the likelihood of atrial fibrillation. Right and left atria in patients with tetralogy of Fallot were larger in ablated cases than controls. NYHA class was worse in cases and improved after ablation; baseline status predicted death. Of matched non-ablated controls, a number of them had atrial fibrillation. These patients were excluded from the case-control study but analysed separately. Most of them had died during follow-up, whereas of the matched ablated cases all were alive and the majority in sinus rhythm. Patients with tetralogy of Fallot and atrial tachyarrhythmias have more dilated atria than those without atrial tachyarrhythmias. Radiofrequency ablation improves functional status. Left atrial ablation is more commonly required with repeat procedures. There is a high prevalence of atrial tachyarrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation, in patients with tetralogy of Fallot; early radiofrequency ablation may have a protective effect against this.

  15. Outcome predictability biases learning.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Oren; Mitchell, Chris J; Bethmont, Anna; Lovibond, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Much of contemporary associative learning research is focused on understanding how and when the associative history of cues affects later learning about those cues. Very little work has investigated the effects of the associative history of outcomes on human learning. Three experiments extended the "learned irrelevance" paradigm from the animal conditioning literature to examine the influence of an outcome's prior predictability on subsequent learning of relationships between cues and that outcome. All 3 experiments found evidence for the idea that learning is biased by the prior predictability of the outcome. Previously predictable outcomes were readily associated with novel predictive cues, whereas previously unpredictable outcomes were more readily associated with novel nonpredictive cues. This finding highlights the importance of considering the associative history of outcomes, as well as cues, when interpreting multistage designs. Associative and cognitive explanations of this certainty matching effect are discussed.

  16. Method for evaluation of predictive models of microwave ablation via post-procedural clinical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Jarrod A.; Brown, Daniel; Kingham, T. Peter; Jarnagin, William R.; Miga, Michael I.; Clements, Logan W.

    2015-03-01

    Development of a clinically accurate predictive model of microwave ablation (MWA) procedures would represent a significant advancement and facilitate an implementation of patient-specific treatment planning to achieve optimal probe placement and ablation outcomes. While studies have been performed to evaluate predictive models of MWA, the ability to quantify the performance of predictive models via clinical data has been limited to comparing geometric measurements of the predicted and actual ablation zones. The accuracy of placement, as determined by the degree of spatial overlap between ablation zones, has not been achieved. In order to overcome this limitation, a method of evaluation is proposed where the actual location of the MWA antenna is tracked and recorded during the procedure via a surgical navigation system. Predictive models of the MWA are then computed using the known position of the antenna within the preoperative image space. Two different predictive MWA models were used for the preliminary evaluation of the proposed method: (1) a geometric model based on the labeling associated with the ablation antenna and (2) a 3-D finite element method based computational model of MWA using COMSOL. Given the follow-up tomographic images that are acquired at approximately 30 days after the procedure, a 3-D surface model of the necrotic zone was generated to represent the true ablation zone. A quantification of the overlap between the predicted ablation zones and the true ablation zone was performed after a rigid registration was computed between the pre- and post-procedural tomograms. While both model show significant overlap with the true ablation zone, these preliminary results suggest a slightly higher degree of overlap with the geometric model.

  17. Kidney function outcomes following thermal ablation of small renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Jay D; Jafri, Syed M; Qi, David

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of small renal masses (SRMs) continues to increase likely attributable to widespread use of axial cross-sectional imaging. Many of these SRMs present in elderly patients with abnormal baseline renal function. Such patients are at risk for further decline following therapeutic intervention. Renal thermal ablation presents one approach for management of SRMs whereby tumors are treated in situ without need for global renal ischemia. These treatment characteristics contribute to favorable renal function outcomes following kidney tumor ablation particularly in patients with an anatomic or functional solitary renal unit. PMID:27152264

  18. Outcomes of microwave ablation for colorectal cancer liver metastases: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Eng, Oliver S; Tsang, Ashley T; Moore, Dirk; Chen, Chunxia; Narayanan, Sumana; Gannon, Christopher J; August, David A; Carpizo, Darren R; Melstrom, Laleh G

    2015-03-15

    Surgical management of colorectal cancer liver metastases continues to evolve to optimize oncologic outcomes while maximizing parenchymal preservation. Long-term data after intraoperative microwave ablation are limited. This study investigates outcomes and patterns of recurrence in patients who underwent intraoperative microwave ablation. A retrospective analysis of 33 patients who underwent intraoperative microwave ablation of colorectal cancer liver metastases from 2009 to 2013 at our institution was performed. Perioperative and long-term data were reviewed to determine outcomes and patterns of recurrence. A total of 49 tumors were treated, ranging 0.5-5.5 cm in size. Median Clavien-Dindo classification was one. Median follow-up was 531 days, with 13 (39.4%) patients presenting with a recurrence. Median time to first recurrence was 364 days. In those patients, 1 (7.8%) presented with an isolated local recurrence in the liver. Only 1 of 7 ablated tumors greater than 3 cm recurred (14.3%). Overall survival was 35.2% at 4 years, with a 19.3% disease-free survival at 3.5 years. No perioperative variables predicted systemic or local recurrence. Intraoperative microwave ablation is a safe and effective modality for use in the treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases in tumors as large as 5.5 cm in size. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Long-term outcomes following microwave ablation for liver malignancies.

    PubMed

    Leung, U; Kuk, D; D'Angelica, M I; Kingham, T P; Allen, P J; DeMatteo, R P; Jarnagin, W R; Fong, Y

    2015-01-01

    Microwave ablation has emerged as a promising treatment for liver malignancies, but there are scant long-term follow-up data. This study evaluated long-term outcomes, with a comparison of 915-MHz and 2.4-GHz ablation systems. This was a retrospective review of patients with malignant liver tumours undergoing operative microwave ablation with or without liver resection between 2008 and 2013. Regional or systemic (neo)adjuvant therapy was given selectively. Local recurrence was analysed using competing-risk methods with clustering, and overall survival was determined from Kaplan-Meier curves. A total of 176 patients with 416 tumours were analysed. Colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) comprised 81.0 per cent of tumours, hepatocellular carcinoma 8.4 per cent, primary biliary cancer 1.7 per cent and non-CRLM 8.9 per cent. Median follow-up was 20.5 months. Local recurrence developed after treatment of 33 tumours (7.9 per cent) in 31 patients (17.6 per cent). Recurrence rates increased with tumour size, and were 1.0, 9.3 and 33 per cent for lesions smaller than 1 cm, 1-3 cm and larger than 3 cm respectively. On univariable analysis, the local recurrence rate was higher after ablation of larger tumours (hazard ratio (HR) 2.05 per cm; P < 0.001), in those with a perivascular (HR 3.71; P = 0.001) or subcapsular (HR 2.71; P = 0.008) location, or biliary or non-CRLM histology (HR 2.47; P = 0.036), and with use of the 2.4-GHz ablation system (HR 3.79; P = 0.001). Tumour size (P < 0.001) and perivascular position (P = 0.045) remained significant independent predictors on multivariable analysis. Regional chemotherapy was associated with decreased local recurrence (HR 0.49; P = 0.049). Overall survival at 4 years was 58.3 per cent for CRLM and 79.4 per cent for other pathology (P = 0.360). Microwave ablation of liver malignancies, either combined or not combined with liver resection, and selective regional and systemic therapy resulted in

  20. Predictive analysis of optical ablation in several dermatological tumoral tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, A.; Salas-García, I.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Optical techniques for treatment and characterization of biological tissues are revolutionizing several branches of medical praxis, for example in ophthalmology or dermatology. The non-invasive, non-contact and non-ionizing character of optical radiation makes it specially suitable for these applications. Optical radiation can be employed in medical ablation applications, either for tissue resection or surgery. Optical ablation may provide a controlled and clean cut on a biological tissue. This is particularly relevant in tumoral tissue resection, where a small amount of cancerous cells could make the tumor appear again. A very important aspect of tissue optical ablation is then the estimation of the affected volume. In this work we propose a complete predictive model of tissue ablation that provides an estimation of the resected volume. The model is based on a Monte Carlo approach for the optical propagation of radiation inside the tissue, and a blow-off model for tissue ablation. This model is applied to several types of dermatological tumoral tissues, specifically squamous cells, basocellular and infiltrative carcinomas. The parameters of the optical source are varied and the estimated resected volume is calculated. The results for the different tumor types are presented and compared. This model can be used for surgical planning, in order to assure the complete resection of the tumoral tissue.

  1. Long-term Outcomes Following Microwave Ablation for Liver Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Leung, U.; Kuk, D.; D’Angelica, M. I.; Kingham, T. P.; Allen, P. J.; DeMatteo, R. P.; Jarnagin, W. R.; Fong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Microwave ablation has emerged as a promising treatment modality for liver malignancies, but there are scant long-term follow-up data. This study evaluates long-term outcomes with a comparison of 915MHz and 2.4GHz ablation systems. Method A retrospective review of patients with malignant liver tumors undergoing operative microwave ablation with or without liver resection between 2008 and 2013 was performed. Regional or systemic (neo)adjuvant therapy was given selectively. Local recurrence was analyzed using competing risk methods with clustering and overall survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results One-hundred-and-seventy-six patients with 416 tumors were analyzed. Colorectal metastases (CRLM) comprised 81.0% of tumors, hepatocellular carcinoma 8.4%, primary biliary cancer 1.7%, and non-colorectal metastases 8.9%. Median follow-up was 20.5 months. Local recurrence occurred in 33 tumors (7.9%) in 31 patients (17.6%). Recurrence rates increased with tumor size, at 1%, 9%, and 33% for tumors <1cm, 1-3cm,and >3cm respectively. On univariable analysis, local recurrence was higher with larger tumors (hazard ratio 2.05 per cm, p<0.001), perivascular (HR 3.71, p=0.001) or subcapsular position (HR 2.71, p=0.008), the 2.4GHz ablation system (HR 3.79, p=0.001), and biliary or non-CRLM histology (HR 2.47, p=0.036). On multivariable analysis, tumor size (p < 0.001) and perivascular position (p=0.045) remained significant independent predictors. Regional chemotherapy was associated with decreased local recurrence (HR 0.49, p=0.049). Overall survival at 4 years was 58% for CRLM and 79% for other pathology (p=0.36). Conclusion Microwave ablation of liver malignancies, either combined or not combined with liver resection, and selective regional and systemic therapy resulted in good long-term survival. Local recurrence rates were low with tumors less than 3cm in diameter, and those remote from vessels. PMID:25296639

  2. Outcome of Endovenous Laser Ablation of Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Rustempasic, Nedzad; Cvorak, Alemko; Agincic, Alija

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: In Bosnia and Herzegovina according to available data, treatment of incompetent superficial lower extremity varicose veins by endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) has been introduced two years ago and so far no paper has been published regarding results of EVLA treatment of patients from our country. We wanted to present our results with EVLA treatment. Aim of study: to evaluate and compare primary posttreatment outcomes of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) with classical surgical method of varicose vein treatment. Patients and methods: The study was clinical and prospective. It was carried out at Clinic for vascular surgery in Sarajevo where fifty-eight (58) patients received surgical treatment for varicose veins and in Aesthetic Surgery Center “Nasa mala klinika” in Sarajevo were sixty-one (61) patients with varicose veins were treated by endovenous laser ablation. Total 119 patients (limbs) with pathologic reflux only in great saphenous vein were evaluated between 1st of January 2013 and 31st of April 2014. Following primary outcome endpoints were evaluated smean day of return to normal everyday activities, patient subjective quantification of pain during first seven days after intervention, incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), incidence of wound bleeding requiring surgical intervention, incidence of peri-saphenous vein hematoma and infection rate. Results: Mean of return to normal activities (expressed in days after intervention); EVLA vs. stripping (surgery) =1.21vs12.24, T test 13,619; p=0, 000, p<0,05. T test was used for comparing Mean value of visual pain analog scale for the first 7 days between groups, for all seven days pain was significantly higher in surgical group of patients as compared to EVLA group; p<0,05. Incidence of hematoma greater than 1% of total body surface area was significantly higher in patients receiving surgical treatment; Pearson Chi Square=23,830, p<0,05; odds ratio:10,453. Incidences of infection, deep

  3. Microwave ablation for hepatic malignancies: a call for standard reporting and outcomes.

    PubMed

    North, Durham A; Groeschl, Ryan T; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A; Bloomston, Mark; Schmidt, Carl; Rilling, William S; Gamblin, Thomas Clark; Martin, Robert C G

    2014-08-01

    Clinical standards of reporting microwave ablation outcomes have not been defined with regard to ablation success, 90-day morbidity, local recurrence after ablation, and nonablation hepatic recurrence. We propose recommendations for microwave ablation reporting and quality standards. Literature review of clinical studies focusing on microwave ablation of primary and metastatic hepatic tumors was reported. Ablation success remains the highest quality reporting standard with variations in nomenclature, but with a universal agreement of complete destruction of the target lesion within 1 month after initial microwave ablation. Local recurrence after ablation remains highly variable, with reports as low as 2.2% to as high as 22%; standards lack a common, clearly defined distance from the initial target ablated lesion and the requirement that the target lesion be defined as an ablation success before it can be called a recurrence. Nonablation hepatic recurrence, nonhepatic recurrence, and 90-day morbidity and mortality remain limited in the current literature. Standardization of hepatic microwave ablation reporting standards are proposed. Current reporting standards in microwave ablation of hepatic malignancies are suboptimal and lack standardization for comparison across institutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting cancer outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Fernandes, M

    2005-03-24

    We read with interest the paper by Michiels et al on the prediction of cancer with microarrays and the commentary by Ioannidis listing the potential as well as the limitations of this approach (February 5, p 488 and 454). Cancer is a disease characterized by complex, heterogeneous mechanisms and studies to define factors that can direct new drug discovery and use should be encouraged. However, this is easier said than done. Casti teaches that a better understanding does not necessarily extrapolate to better prediction, and that useful prediction is possible without complete understanding (1). To attempt both, explanation and prediction, in a single nonmathematical construct, is a tall order (Figure 1).

  5. Repeated Radiofrequency Ablation Combined With Ablated Lesion Elimination and Transarterial Chemoembolization Improves the Outcome of Solitary Huge Hepatocellular Carcinomas 10 cm or Larger

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shan; Gao, Jun; Kong, Jian; Ding, Xue-Mei; Niu, Hai-Gang; Xin, Zong-Hai; Ning, Chun-Min; Guo, Shi-Gang; Li, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Long; Dong, Yong-Hong; Sun, Wen-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the effectiveness of a new strategy, repeated radiofrequency (RF) ablation combined with ablated lesion elimination following transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)/transarterial embolization (TAE), for solitary huge hepatocellular carcinoma (SHHCC) 10 cm or larger. From July 2008 to October 2015, 39 consecutive patients with SHHCC were screened. Of these, 12 were treated with TACE/TAE and repeated RF ablation (TACE/TAE + RF ablation group) and the remaining 27 patients were treated with the aforementioned new strategy (new strategy group). Local tumor progression (LTP)-free survival, intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR)-free survival, and overall survival (OS) rates were obtained using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on several clinicopathological variables to identify factors affecting long-term outcome and intrahepatic recurrence. Correlation analysis was also performed. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year LTP-free survival rates and OS rates were significantly higher in the new strategy group than in the TACE/TAE + RF ablation group (82.9% vs 58.3%, 73.9% vs 29.2%, 18.5% vs 9.7%, P = 0.002; 92.0% vs 75.0%, 84.0% vs 33.3%, 32.7% vs 16.7%, P = 0.025). However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the 1-, 2-, and 3-year IDR-free survival rates (P = 0.108). Using univariate analysis, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP > 200 ng/mL), ablative margin (AM > 1.0 cm), and well-differentiated cells were found to be significant factors for predicting LTP, IDR, and OS. Surgical elimination was found to be a significant factor only for predicting OS. In multivariate analyses, AFP (>200 ng/mL), AM (>1.0 cm), and well-differentiated cells were found to be significant independent factors linked to LTP, IDR, and OS. Correlation analysis indicated that AM > 1.0 cm was strongly associated with surgical elimination (P < 0.001, correlation coefficient = 0.877). For patients

  6. Microwave Ablation of Porcine Kidneys in vivo: Effect of two Different Ablation Modes ('Temperature Control' and 'Power Control') on Procedural Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, C. M.; Arnegger, F.; Koch, V.; Pap, B.; Holzschuh, M.; Bellemann, N.; Gehrig, T.; Senft, J.; Nickel, F.; Mogler, C.; Zelzer, S.; Meinzer, H. P.; Stampfl, U.; Kauczor, H. U.; Radeleff, B. A.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to analyze the effect of two different ablation modes ('temperature control' and 'power control') of a microwave system on procedural outcome in porcine kidneys in vivo. Methods: A commercially available microwave system (Avecure Microwave Generator; MedWaves, San Diego, CA) was used. The system offers the possibility to ablate with two different ablation modes: temperature control and power control. Thirty-two microwave ablations were performed in 16 kidneys of 8 pigs. In each animal, one kidney was ablated twice by applying temperature control (ablation duration set point at 60 s, ablation temperature set point at 96 Degree-Sign C, automatic power set point; group I). The other kidney was ablated twice by applying power control (ablation duration set point at 60 s, ablation temperature set point at 96 Degree-Sign C, ablation power set point at 24 W; group II). Procedural outcome was analyzed: (1) technical success (e.g., system failures, duration of the ablation cycle), and (2) ablation geometry (e.g., long axis diameter, short axis diameter, and circularity). Results: System failures occurred in 0% in group I and 13% in group II. Duration of the ablation cycle was 60 {+-} 0 s in group I and 102 {+-} 21 s in group II. Long axis diameter was 20.3 {+-} 4.6 mm in group I and 19.8 {+-} 3.5 mm in group II (not significant (NS)). Short axis diameter was 10.3 {+-} 2 mm in group I and 10.5 {+-} 2.4 mm in group II (NS). Circularity was 0.5 {+-} 0.1 in group I and 0.5 {+-} 0.1 in group II (NS). Conclusions: Microwave ablations performed with temperature control showed fewer system failures and were finished faster. Both ablation modes demonstrated no significant differences with respect to ablation geometry.

  7. Predicting outcome of status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Leitinger, M; Kalss, G; Rohracher, A; Pilz, G; Novak, H; Höfler, J; Deak, I; Kuchukhidze, G; Dobesberger, J; Wakonig, A; Trinka, E

    2015-08-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a frequent neurological emergency complicated by high mortality and often poor functional outcome in survivors. The aim of this study was to review available clinical scores to predict outcome. Literature review. PubMed Search terms were "score", "outcome", and "status epilepticus" (April 9th 2015). Publications with abstracts available in English, no other language restrictions, or any restrictions concerning investigated patients were included. Two scores were identified: "Status Epilepticus Severity Score--STESS" and "Epidemiology based Mortality score in SE--EMSE". A comprehensive comparison of test parameters concerning performance, options, and limitations was performed. Epidemiology based Mortality score in SE allows detailed individualization of risk factors and is significantly superior to STESS in a retrospective explorative study. In particular, EMSE is very good at detection of good and bad outcome, whereas STESS detecting bad outcome is limited by a ceiling effect and uncertainty of correct cutoff value. Epidemiology based Mortality score in SE can be adapted to different regions in the world and to advances in medicine, as new data emerge. In addition, we designed a reporting standard for status epilepticus to enhance acquisition and communication of outcome relevant data. A data acquisition sheet used from patient admission in emergency room, from the EEG lab to intensive care unit, is provided for optimized data collection. Status Epilepticus Severity Score is easy to perform and predicts bad outcome, but has a low predictive value for good outcomes. Epidemiology based Mortality score in SE is superior to STESS in predicting good or bad outcome but needs marginally more time to perform. Epidemiology based Mortality score in SE may prove very useful for risk stratification in interventional studies and is recommended for individual outcome prediction. Prospective validation in different cohorts is needed for EMSE, whereas

  8. Healthcare utilization and clinical outcomes after catheter ablation of atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Dewland, Thomas A; Glidden, David V; Marcus, Gregory M

    2014-01-01

    Atrial flutter ablation is associated with a high rate of acute procedural success and symptom improvement. The relationship between ablation and other clinical outcomes has been limited to small studies primarily conducted at academic centers. We sought to determine if catheter ablation of atrial flutter is associated with reductions in healthcare utilization, atrial fibrillation, or stroke in a large, real world population. California Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project databases were used to identify patients undergoing atrial flutter ablation between 2005 and 2009. The adjusted association between atrial flutter ablation and healthcare utilization, atrial fibrillation, or stroke was investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 33,004 patients with a diagnosis of atrial flutter observed for a median of 2.1 years, 2,733 (8.2%) underwent catheter ablation. Atrial flutter ablation significantly lowered the adjusted risk of inpatient hospitalization (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.92, p<0.001), emergency department visits (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.54-0.65, p<0.001), and overall hospital-based healthcare utilization (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98, p = 0.001). Atrial flutter ablation was also associated with a statistically significant 11% reduction in the adjusted hazard of atrial fibrillation (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97, p = 0.01). Risk of acute stroke was not significantly reduced after ablation (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.81-1.45, p = 0.57). In a large, real world population, atrial flutter ablation was associated with significant reductions in hospital-based healthcare utilization and a reduced risk of atrial fibrillation. These findings support the early use of catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial flutter.

  9. Healthcare Utilization and Clinical Outcomes after Catheter Ablation of Atrial Flutter

    PubMed Central

    Dewland, Thomas A.; Glidden, David V.; Marcus, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Atrial flutter ablation is associated with a high rate of acute procedural success and symptom improvement. The relationship between ablation and other clinical outcomes has been limited to small studies primarily conducted at academic centers. We sought to determine if catheter ablation of atrial flutter is associated with reductions in healthcare utilization, atrial fibrillation, or stroke in a large, real world population. California Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project databases were used to identify patients undergoing atrial flutter ablation between 2005 and 2009. The adjusted association between atrial flutter ablation and healthcare utilization, atrial fibrillation, or stroke was investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 33,004 patients with a diagnosis of atrial flutter observed for a median of 2.1 years, 2,733 (8.2%) underwent catheter ablation. Atrial flutter ablation significantly lowered the adjusted risk of inpatient hospitalization (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.84–0.92, p<0.001), emergency department visits (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.54–0.65, p<0.001), and overall hospital-based healthcare utilization (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90–0.98, p = 0.001). Atrial flutter ablation was also associated with a statistically significant 11% reduction in the adjusted hazard of atrial fibrillation (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81–0.97, p = 0.01). Risk of acute stroke was not significantly reduced after ablation (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.81–1.45, p = 0.57). In a large, real world population, atrial flutter ablation was associated with significant reductions in hospital-based healthcare utilization and a reduced risk of atrial fibrillation. These findings support the early use of catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial flutter. PMID:24983868

  10. Spontaneous left atrial reentry tachycardias : radiofrequency ablation and outcome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R; Schneider, C; Bänsch, D

    2015-02-01

    Spontaneous left atrial reentry tachycardias (LART) in patients without previous cardiac surgical or catheter ablation are rare. Several therapeutic concepts of catheter ablation have been suggested: linear lesions (LL), circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), and both (LL + PVI). In all, 28 consecutive symptomatic patients with 51 LARTs presented to our institution for catheter ablation. Electroanatomical mapping was performed on 25 patients. Three patients were ablated conventionally during LART; 25 patients (89.3 %) had extensive low-voltage areas in the left atrium (atrial myopathy). One of the following ablation strategies was applied: first, LL (n = 8), second, PVI + LL (n = 11), and third PVI alone (n = 9). Fourteen patients (50 %) had a recurrent arrhythmia during a mean follow-up of 12.2 ± 11.1 months. Six patients presented with a recurrent LART (21.4 %), 4 with LART and atrial fibrillation (Afib) (14.3 %), and 4 with Afib (14.3 %). The recurrence rate of any arrhythmia (LART and Afib) was 37.5 % in the LL group, 44.4 % in the PVI group, and 63.6 % in the PVI + LL group (ns); the recurrence rate of LARTs was 12.5 % in the LL group, 22.2 % in the PVI group, and 63.6 % in the PVI + LL group (p < 0.05). Atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrence after ablation of spontaneous LART in mid-term is considerable. Stable LARTs are effectively treated by LL. PVI alone may be an acceptable alternative, especially in patients with unstable LARTs and Afib. However, the risk of recurrent LARTs after a more extensive strategy with PVI and LL is considerable, probably due to proarrhythmic effects of long linear lesions.

  11. Functional mitral regurgitation: predictor for atrial substrate remodeling and poor ablation outcome in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yu; Wu, Lingmin; Hou, Bingbo; Sun, Wei; Zheng, Lihui; Ding, Ligang; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shu; Yao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is not uncommon in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. We sought to investigate the association between FMR and atrial substrate remodeling as well as the ablation outcome in paroxysmal AF (PAF) patients. We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively enrolled cohort of 132 patients (age 55.1 ± 9.6 years, 75.8% male) with symptomatic PAF who underwent initial ablation in our institute. Functional mitral regurgitation was defined as regurgitation jet area to left atrium (LA) area ratio ≥ 0.1 without any primary valvular disease. Voltage mapping of LA was performed under sinus rhythm. Low voltage zones (LVZs) were semi-quantitatively estimated and presented as low voltage index. Follow-up for AF recurrence ≥ 12 months was performed. In total, 40 patients (29.6%) were detected with FMR, who were older than the non-FMR patients (P = 0.007) and had larger LA diameters (P = 0.02). Left atrium LVZs were observed in 64.9% of patients with FMR versus 22.1% patients without FMR (P < 0.001). Functional mitral regurgitation independently predicted the presence of LVZs (OR 7.286; 95% CI 3.023–17.562; P < 0.001). During a mean follow-up of 22.9 ± 6.5 months, 38 patients (28.8%) experienced AF recurrence. The recurrence rate was 60.0% and 19.5% in FMR and non-FMR cohort, respectively (log rank P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that FMR was an independent predictor for AF recurrence (HR 2.291; 95% CI 1.062–4.942; P = 0.03). Functional mitral regurgitation was strongly associated with atrial substrate remodeling. Furthermore, patients with FMR have substantial risk for AF recurrence post ablation. PMID:27472715

  12. Novel Computational Analysis of Left Atrial Anatomy Improves Prediction of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence after Ablation.

    PubMed

    Varela, Marta; Bisbal, Felipe; Zacur, Ernesto; Berruezo, Antonio; Aslanidi, Oleg V; Mont, Lluis; Lamata, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The left atrium (LA) can change in size and shape due to atrial fibrillation (AF)-induced remodeling. These alterations can be linked to poorer outcomes of AF ablation. In this study, we propose a novel comprehensive computational analysis of LA anatomy to identify what features of LA shape can optimally predict post-ablation AF recurrence. To this end, we construct smooth 3D geometrical models from the segmentation of the LA blood pool captured in pre-procedural MR images. We first apply this methodology to characterize the LA anatomy of 144 AF patients and build a statistical shape model that includes the most salient variations in shape across this cohort. We then perform a discriminant analysis to optimally distinguish between recurrent and non-recurrent patients. From this analysis, we propose a new shape metric called vertical asymmetry, which measures the imbalance of size along the anterior to posterior direction between the superior and inferior left atrial hemispheres. Vertical asymmetry was found, in combination with LA sphericity, to be the best predictor of post-ablation recurrence at both 12 and 24 months (area under the ROC curve: 0.71 and 0.68, respectively) outperforming other shape markers and any of their combinations. We also found that model-derived shape metrics, such as the anterior-posterior radius, were better predictors than equivalent metrics taken directly from MRI or echocardiography, suggesting that the proposed approach leads to a reduction of the impact of data artifacts and noise. This novel methodology contributes to an improved characterization of LA organ remodeling and the reported findings have the potential to improve patient selection and risk stratification for catheter ablations in AF.

  13. Novel Computational Analysis of Left Atrial Anatomy Improves Prediction of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence after Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Marta; Bisbal, Felipe; Zacur, Ernesto; Berruezo, Antonio; Aslanidi, Oleg V.; Mont, Lluis; Lamata, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The left atrium (LA) can change in size and shape due to atrial fibrillation (AF)-induced remodeling. These alterations can be linked to poorer outcomes of AF ablation. In this study, we propose a novel comprehensive computational analysis of LA anatomy to identify what features of LA shape can optimally predict post-ablation AF recurrence. To this end, we construct smooth 3D geometrical models from the segmentation of the LA blood pool captured in pre-procedural MR images. We first apply this methodology to characterize the LA anatomy of 144 AF patients and build a statistical shape model that includes the most salient variations in shape across this cohort. We then perform a discriminant analysis to optimally distinguish between recurrent and non-recurrent patients. From this analysis, we propose a new shape metric called vertical asymmetry, which measures the imbalance of size along the anterior to posterior direction between the superior and inferior left atrial hemispheres. Vertical asymmetry was found, in combination with LA sphericity, to be the best predictor of post-ablation recurrence at both 12 and 24 months (area under the ROC curve: 0.71 and 0.68, respectively) outperforming other shape markers and any of their combinations. We also found that model-derived shape metrics, such as the anterior-posterior radius, were better predictors than equivalent metrics taken directly from MRI or echocardiography, suggesting that the proposed approach leads to a reduction of the impact of data artifacts and noise. This novel methodology contributes to an improved characterization of LA organ remodeling and the reported findings have the potential to improve patient selection and risk stratification for catheter ablations in AF. PMID:28261103

  14. Outcomes of ventricular tachycardia ablation in patients with structural heart disease: The impact of electrical storm

    PubMed Central

    Aldhoon, Bashar; Wichterle, Dan; Peichl, Petr; Čihák, Robert; Kautzner, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate predictors of long-term outcomes after catheter ablation (CA) for ventricular tachycardia (VT) and the impact of electrical storm (ES) prior to index ablation procedures. Methods We studied consecutive patients with structural heart disease and VT (n = 328; age: 63±12 years; 88% males; 72% ischaemic cardiomyopathy; LVEF: 32±12%) who had undergone CA. According to presenting arrhythmia at baseline, they were divided into ES (n = 93, 28%) and non-ES groups. Clinical predictors of all-cause mortality were investigated and a clinically useful risk score (SCORE) was constructed. Results During a median follow-up of 927 days (IQR: 564–1626), 67% vs. 60% of patients (p = 0.05) experienced VT recurrence in the ES vs. the non-ES group, respectively; and 41% vs. 32% patients died (p = 0.02), respectively. Five factors were independently associated with mortality: age >70 years (hazard ratio (HR): 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–2.4, p = 0.01), NYHA class ≥3 (HR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–2.9, p = 0.005), a serum creatinine level >1.3 mg/dL (HR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3, p = 0.02), LVEF ≤25% (HR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.6–3.5, p = 0.00004), and amiodarone therapy (HR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0–2.2, p = 0.03). A risk SCORE ranging from 0–4 (1 point for either high-risk age, NYHA, creatinine, or LVEF) correlated with mortality. ES during index ablation independently predicted mortality only in patients with a SCORE ≤1. Conclusions Advanced LV dysfunction, older age, higher NYHA class, renal dysfunction, and amiodarone therapy, but not ES, were predictors of poor outcomes after CA for VT in the total population. However, ES did predict mortality in a low-risk sub-group of patients. PMID:28187168

  15. The long-term outcomes of endometrial ablation in the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jane P

    2013-08-01

    Long-term data from the studies of various endometrial ablation techniques are beginning to emerge. This review appraises the current literature on endometrial ablation for heavy menstrual bleeding, with particular emphasis on second-generation techniques, and their effectiveness, rates of repeat and further interventions and adverse events occurring 1 year or more after the procedure. Second-generation, nonhysteroscopic techniques are marginally superior to hysteroscopic approaches, in terms of amenorrhoea, refractory menorrhagia and satisfaction rates. Hysterectomy rates are around 20% at 2 years, with a further 3-5% having repeat ablations. Bipolar radiofrequency and microwave ablation give rise to higher amenorrhoea rates than thermal balloon ablation, and are less likely to require repeat or further intervention. Endometrial ablation is a well tolerated and effective procedure for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. Second-generation techniques provide greater benefit than hysteroscopic techniques, with shorter procedural times and the possibility of outpatient treatment. Chronic pelvic pain frequently resolves after ablation, but can also develop de novo. Pregnancy outcomes are poor and continuing contraception is recommended.

  16. Entropy at the right atrium as a predictor of atrial fibrillation recurrence outcome after pulmonary vein ablation.

    PubMed

    Cervigón, Raquel; Moreno, Javier; García-Quintanilla, Jorge; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Castells, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence rates after successful ablation procedures are still high and difficult to predict. This work studies the capability of entropy measured from intracardiac recordings as an indicator for recurrence outcome. Intra-atrial recordings from 31 AF patients were registered previously to an ablation procedure. Four electrodes were located at the right atrium (RA) and four more at the left atrium (LA). Sample entropy measurements were applied to these signals, in order to characterize different non-linear AF dynamics at the RA and LA independently. In a 3 months follow-up, 19 of them remained in sinus rhythm, whereas the other 12 turned back to AF. Entropy values can be associated to a proarrhythmic indicator as they were higher in patients with AF recurrence (1.11±0.15 vs. 0.91±0.13), in persistent patients (1.03±0.19 vs. 0.96±0.15), and at the LA with respect to the RA (1.03±0.23 vs. 0.89±0.15 for paroxysmal AF patients). Furthermore, entropy values at the RA arose as a more reliable predictor for recurrence outcome than at the LA. Results suggest that high entropy values, especially at the RA, are associated with high risk of AF recurrence. These findings show the potential of the proposed method to predict recurrences post-ablation, providing additional insights to the understanding of arrhythmia.

  17. Repeat left atrial catheter ablation: cardiac magnetic resonance prediction of endocardial voltage and gaps in ablation lesion sets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, James L; Sohns, Christian; Linton, Nick W; Karim, Rashed; Williams, Steven E; Rhode, Kawal S; Gill, Jaswinder; Cooklin, Michael; Rinaldi, C Aldo; Wright, Matthew; Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza S; O'Neill, Mark D

    2015-04-01

    Studies have reported an inverse relationship between late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) signal intensity and left atrial (LA) endocardial voltage after LA ablation. However, there is controversy regarding the reproducibility of atrial LGE CMR and its ability to identify gaps in ablation lesions. Using systematic and objective techniques, this study examines the correlation between atrial CMR and endocardial voltage. Twenty patients who had previous ablation for atrial fibrillation and represented with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or atrial tachycardia underwent preablation LGE CMR. During the ablation procedure, high-density point-by-point Carto voltage maps were acquired. Three-dimensional CMR reconstructions were registered with the Carto anatomies to allow comparison of voltage and LGE signal intensity. Signal intensities around the left and right pulmonary vein antra and along the LA roof and mitral lines on the CMR-segmented LA shells were extracted to examine differences between electrically isolated and reconnected lesions. There were a total of 6767 data points across the 20 patients. Only 119 (1.8%) of the points were ≤ 0.05 mV. There was only a weak inverse correlation between either unipolar (r = -0.18) or bipolar (r = -0.17) voltage and LGE CMR signal intensities with low voltage occurring across a large range of signal intensities. Signal intensities were not statistically different for electrically isolated and reconnected lesions. This study demonstrates that there is only a weak point-by-point relationship between LGE CMR and endocardial voltage in patients undergoing repeat LA ablation. Using an objective method of assessing gaps in ablation lesions, LGE CMR is unable to reliably predict sites of electrical conduction. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Phrenic nerve injury after atrial fibrillation catheter ablation: characterization and outcome in a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Frédéric; Monahan, Kristi H; Thomas, Stuart P; Davidson, Neil; Adragao, Pedro; Sanders, Prashanthan; Hocini, Mélèze; Takahashi, Yoshihide; Rotter, Martin; Rostock, Thomas; Hsu, Li-Fern; Clémenty, Jacques; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Ross, David L; Packer, Douglas L; Jaïs, Pierre

    2006-06-20

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the occurrence of phrenic nerve injury (PNI) and its outcome after radiofrequency (RF) ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). It is recognized that extra-myocardial damage may develop owing to penetration of ablative energy. Between 1997 and 2004, 3,755 consecutive patients underwent AF ablation at five centers. Among them, 18 patients (0.48%; 9 male, 54 +/- 10 years) had PNI (16 right, 2 left). The procedure consisted of pulmonary vein (PV) isolation in 15 patients and anatomic circumferential ablation in 3 patients, with additional left atrial lesions (n = 11) and/or superior vena cava (SVC) disconnection (n = 4). Right PNI occurred during ablation of right superior PV (n = 12) or SVC disconnection (n = 3). Left PNI occurred during ablation at the left atrial appendage. Immediate features were dyspnea, cough, hiccup, and/or sudden diaphragmatic elevation in 9, and in the remaining the diagnosis was made after ablation owing to dyspnea (n = 7) or on routine radiographic evaluation (n = 2). Four patients (22%) were asymptomatic. Complete recovery occurred in 12 patients (66%). Recovery occurred within 24 h in the two patients with left PNI and in one patient with right PNI occurring with SVC disconnection. In the other nine patients, right PNI recovery occurred after 4 +/- 5 months (1 to 12 months) with respiratory rehabilitation. After a mean follow-up of 36 +/- 33 months, six patients have persistent PNI (three with partial and three with no recovery). In this multicenter experience, PNI was a rare complication (0.48%) of AF ablation. Ablation of the right superior PV, SVC, and left atrial appendage were associated with PNI. Complete (66%) or partial (17%) recovery was observed in the majority.

  19. Long-term outcomes of catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Goya, Masahiko; Fukunaga, Masato; Hiroshima, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Makihara, Yu; Nagashima, Michio; An, Yoshimori; Ohe, Seiji; Yamashita, Kennosuke; Ando, Kenji; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Katayama, Kouji; Ito, Tomoaki; Niu, Harushi

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is feasible. However, the long-term outcomes for different underlying diseases have not been well defined. Methods Eighty-eight consecutive patients who underwent catheter ablation of VT using a three-dimensional mapping system were analyzed. The primary endpoint was any VT or ventricular fibrillation (VF) recurrence. Secondary endpoints were a composite of death or any VT/VF recurrence. Underlying heart diseases were remote myocardial infarction (remote MI) in 51 patients and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in 37 (arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy [ARVC] in 18 patients, and dilated cardiomyopathy [NIDCM] in 19). Results Acute success was achieved in 82 of 88 (93%) patients. During a follow-up period of 39.2±4.6 months, VT recurred in 26 of 87 (30%), and VT/VF recurrence or death occurred in 39 of 87 (45%) patients. ARVC had better outcomes than NIDCM for the primary (p<0.05) and secondary endpoints (p<0.05). Remote MI-VT revealed a midrange outcome. Conclusions The long-term outcomes after catheter ablation of VT varied according to the underlying heart disease. ARVC-VT ablation was associated with better long-term prognosis than NIDCM. Remote MI-VT demonstrated a midrange outcome. PMID:26336519

  20. Long-term outcomes of catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Goya, Masahiko; Fukunaga, Masato; Hiroshima, Ken-Ichi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Makihara, Yu; Nagashima, Michio; An, Yoshimori; Ohe, Seiji; Yamashita, Kennosuke; Ando, Kenji; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Katayama, Kouji; Ito, Tomoaki; Niu, Harushi

    2015-02-01

    Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is feasible. However, the long-term outcomes for different underlying diseases have not been well defined. Eighty-eight consecutive patients who underwent catheter ablation of VT using a three-dimensional mapping system were analyzed. The primary endpoint was any VT or ventricular fibrillation (VF) recurrence. Secondary endpoints were a composite of death or any VT/VF recurrence. Underlying heart diseases were remote myocardial infarction (remote MI) in 51 patients and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in 37 (arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy [ARVC] in 18 patients, and dilated cardiomyopathy [NIDCM] in 19). Acute success was achieved in 82 of 88 (93%) patients. During a follow-up period of 39.2±4.6 months, VT recurred in 26 of 87 (30%), and VT/VF recurrence or death occurred in 39 of 87 (45%) patients. ARVC had better outcomes than NIDCM for the primary (p<0.05) and secondary endpoints (p<0.05). Remote MI-VT revealed a midrange outcome. The long-term outcomes after catheter ablation of VT varied according to the underlying heart disease. ARVC-VT ablation was associated with better long-term prognosis than NIDCM. Remote MI-VT demonstrated a midrange outcome.

  1. Predictive value of various Doppler-derived parameters of atrial conduction time for successful atrial fibrillation ablation

    PubMed Central

    Valtuille, Lucas; Choy, Jonathan B; Becher, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Various Doppler-derived parameters of left atrial electrical remodeling have been demonstrated to predict recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after AF ablation. The aim of this study was to compare three Doppler-derived measures of atrial conduction time in patients undergoing AF ablation, and to investigate their predictive value for successful procedure. In 32 prospectively enrolled patients undergoing the first AF ablation, atrial conduction time was estimated by measuring the time delay between the onset of P-wave on the surface ECG to the peak of the a′-wave on the pulsed-wave Doppler and color-coded tissue Doppler imaging of the left atrial lateral wall, and to the peak of the A-wave on the pulsed-wave Doppler of the mitral inflow. There was a significant difference in the baseline atrial conduction time measured by different echocardiographic techniques. Most (88%) patients had normal or only mildly dilated left atrium. At 6 months, 12 patients (38%) had recurrent AF/atrial tachycardia. The duration of history of AF was the only predictor of AF/atrial tachycardia recurrence following the first AF ablation (P=0.024; OR 1.023, CI 1.003–1.044). A combination of normal left atrial volume and history of paroxysmal AF of ≤48 months was associated with the best outcome. Predictive value of the Doppler derived parameters of atrial conduction time may be reduced in the early stages of left atrial remodeling. Future studies may determine which echocardiographic parameter correlates best with the extent of left atrial remodeling and is most predictive of successful AF ablation. PMID:26795694

  2. Predictive value of various Doppler-derived parameters of atrial conduction time for successful atrial fibrillation ablation.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Miriam; Valtuille, Lucas; Choy, Jonathan B; Becher, Harald

    2015-12-01

    Various Doppler-derived parameters of left atrial electrical remodeling have been demonstrated to predict recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after AF ablation. The aim of this study was to compare three Doppler-derived measures of atrial conduction time in patients undergoing AF ablation, and to investigate their predictive value for successful procedure. In 32 prospectively enrolled patients undergoing the first AF ablation, atrial conduction time was estimated by measuring the time delay between the onset of P-wave on the surface ECG to the peak of the a'-wave on the pulsed-wave Doppler and color-coded tissue Doppler imaging of the left atrial lateral wall, and to the peak of the A-wave on the pulsed-wave Doppler of the mitral inflow. There was a significant difference in the baseline atrial conduction time measured by different echocardiographic techniques. Most (88%) patients had normal or only mildly dilated left atrium. At 6 months, 12 patients (38%) had recurrent AF/atrial tachycardia. The duration of history of AF was the only predictor of AF/atrial tachycardia recurrence following the first AF ablation (P=0.024; OR 1.023, CI 1.003-1.044). A combination of normal left atrial volume and history of paroxysmal AF of ≤48 months was associated with the best outcome. Predictive value of the Doppler derived parameters of atrial conduction time may be reduced in the early stages of left atrial remodeling. Future studies may determine which echocardiographic parameter correlates best with the extent of left atrial remodeling and is most predictive of successful AF ablation.

  3. Microwave endometrial ablation: development, clinical trials and outcomes at three years.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, D A; Feldberg, I B; Sharp, N; Cronin, N; Evans, M; Hirschowitz, L

    1999-07-01

    To describe the introduction of microwave endometrial ablation to clinical practice, and to report the outcomes three years after endometrial ablation. A clinical trial using prototype microwave endometrial ablation equipment. District general hospital. Forty-three women with completed families and with failed medical management for menorrhagia were treated with microwave endometrial ablation between October 1994 and April 1995. A statement of perceived menstrual loss and satisfaction supported by a menstrual symptom questionnaire score. Dysmenorrhoea was graded as a measure of described severity. Treatment time. Forty-three women had a total of 46 treatments. Mean treatment time: n = 43, was 141 seconds (50-310). Amenorrhoea: n = 16; 37.2%. Very light periods/discharge: n = 11; 25.6%. Improved periods and woman satisfied: n = 9; 20.9%. Improved periods and woman not satisfied: n = 1; 2.3%. Overall satisfaction at three years is 83.7%. Moderate (55.8%) or severe (27.9%) dysmenorrhoea pre-operatively had improved to 11.6% and 6.8% respectively at three years. Three re-treatments and four hysterectomies will be discussed. Microwave endometrial ablation is a new treatment for dysfunctional uterine bleeding using the application of microwave energy to the endometrium. This results in a rapid but restricted depth of intrauterine heating avoiding hysteroscopic fluid, operative haemorrhage and earthing risks. The technique is simple to learn and perform. Women report a high level of satisfaction three years after microwave endometrial ablation.

  4. Laparoscopic Radiofrequency Ablation for Large Subcapsular Hepatic Hemangiomas: Technical and Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xue-Mei; Ke, Shan; Xin, Zong-Hai; Ning, Chun-Min; Guo, Shi-Gang; Li, Xiao-Long; Dong, Yong-Hong; Sun, Wen-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical and clinical outcomes of using laparoscopic radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treating large subcapsular hepatic hemangiomas. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our sequential experience of treating 124 large subcapsular hepatic hemangiomas in 121 patients with laparoscopic RF ablation. Results The mean diameter of the 124 hemangiomas was 9.1 ± 3.2 cm (5.0–16.0 cm). RF ablation was performed successfully in all patients. There were 55 complications related to the ablation in 26 patients, including 5 of 69 (7.3%) patients with hemangioma <10 cm and 21 of 52 (40.4%) patients with hemangiomas ≥10 cm (P < 0.001). No injuries to abdominal viscera occurred in all the 121 patients. According to the Dindo–Clavien classification, all the complications were minor in 26 patients (Grade I). Out of 124 hepatic hemangiomas, 118 (95.2%) were completely ablated, including 70 of 72 (97.2%) lesions < 10 cm and 48 of 52 (92.3%) lesions ≥ 10 cm (P = 0.236). Conclusion Laparoscopic RF ablation therapy is a safe, feasible and effective procedure for large subcapsular hepatic hemangiomas, even in the hepatic hemangiomas ≥ 10 cm. Its use avoids thermal injury to the abdominal viscera. PMID:26901132

  5. Outcomes of pre-emptive and rescue use of percutaneous left ventricular assist device in patients with structural heart disease undergoing catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Mathuria, Nilesh; Wu, Geru; Rojas-Delgado, Francia; Shuraih, Mossaab; Razavi, Mehdi; Civitello, Andrew; Simpson, Leo; Silva, Guilherme; Wang, Suwei; Elayda, MacArthur; Kantharia, Bharat; Singh, Steve; Frazier, O H; Cheng, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Patient selection and timing of percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) insertion for maximal benefit during ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation is not well defined. We aimed to assess the outcomes of pre-emptive and rescue use of pLVAD during VT ablation in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Between January 2009 and October 2011, 93 patients underwent VT ablation. Three groups were compared: (1) Rescue group (n = 12)-patients who required emergent pLVAD insertion due to hemodynamic collapse during VT ablation, (2) Pre-emptive group (n = 24)-patients who had pre-ablation pLVAD insertion, and (3) Non-pLVAD group (n = 57)-patients who did not undergo pLVAD insertion. Procedural outcomes including 30-day mortality were compared. Thirty-day mortality was higher in the Rescue group compared to the Pre-emptive group (58 vs. 4 %, p = 0.003) and non-pLVAD (58 vs. 3 %, p = 0.001) group. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality or long-term freedom of VT between the pre-emptive and non-pLVAD groups. Despite rescue pLVAD insertion, hemodynamic collapse during VT ablation is associated with a persistently high 30-day mortality. Further studies are warranted to predict hemodynamic collapse and to refine the role of pLVAD in this setting.

  6. Procedural outcomes of fluoroless catheter ablation outside the traditional catheterization lab.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Amee M; Smith, Philip C; Timberlake, Dylan T; McNinch, Neil L; Smith, Grace L; Lane, John R; Clark, John M

    2017-08-01

    Non-fluoroscopic catheter ablation is becoming routine. In experienced centres, fluoroscopy is rarely required. The use of a traditional catheterization lab (cath lab) may no longer be necessary. We began performing catheter ablations at a paediatric centre outside the traditional cardiac cath lab in 2013. The purpose of this study was to compare procedural features of paediatric catheter ablation performed outside the cath lab to those performed within a cath lab. We prospectively looked at patients presenting to the paediatric centre with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) undergoing catheter ablation outside the cath lab in a standard operating room (OR group). We compared retrospectively to a control group matched for age, type, and location of arrhythmia who had ablations in a traditional cath lab (CL group). Catheter visualization was exclusively by electro-anatomic mapping. Fifty-nine patients with SVT underwent catheter ablation in the OR from October 2013 to December 2015. Thirty-three patients had accessory pathways, 29 were manifest, and 13 of those were left sided. Twenty-six had atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia. Transseptal puncture with transoesophageal echocardiography guidance was used for 10 left-sided pathways, whereas the other 3 had patent foramen ovales. Procedure time did not differ significantly between groups (OR group mean 131 min, range 57-408; CL group mean 152 min, range 68-376; P = 0.12). Acute success was similar in both groups [OR group: 58/59 (98.3%) and CL group: 57/59 (96.6%)]. There were no major complications in either group. There was no fluoroscopy used in either group. Although performing paediatric catheter ablations outside the traditional cath lab is early in our experience, we produced similar outcomes and results without encountering procedural difficulties of performing ablations in a non-conventional setting. Larger multi-centred trials will be essential to determine the feasibility of this practice.

  7. Better outcome of ablation for sustained outflow-tract ventricular tachycardia when tachycardia is inducible.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eue-Keun; Kumar, Saurabh; Nagashima, Koichi; Lin, Kaity Y; Barbhaiya, Chirag R; Chinitz, Jason S; Enriquez, Alan D; Helmbold, Alan F; Baldinger, Samuel H; Tedrow, Usha B; Koplan, Bruce A; Michaud, Gregory F; John, Roy M; Epstein, Laurence M; Stevenson, William G

    2015-10-01

    In patients presenting with spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) from the outflow-tract region without overt structural heart disease ablation may target premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) when VT is not inducible. We aimed to determine whether inducibility of VT affects ablation outcome. Data from 54 patients (31 men; age, 52 ± 13 years) without overt structural heart disease who underwent catheter ablation for symptomatic sustained VT originating from the right- or left-ventricular outflow region, including the great vessels. A single morphology of sustained VT was inducible in 18 (33%, SM group) patients, and 11 (20%) had multiple VT morphologies (MM group). VT was not inducible in 25 (46%) patients (VTni group). After ablation, VT was inducible in none of the SM group and in two (17%) patients in the MM group. In the VTni group, ablation targeted PVCs and 12 (48%) patients had some remaining PVCs after ablation. During follow-up (21 ± 19 months), VT recurred in 46% of VTni group, 40% of MM inducible group, and 6% of the SM inducible group (P = 0.004). Analysis of PVC morphology in the VTi group further supported the limitations of targeting PVCs in this population. Absence of inducible VT and multiple VT morphologies are not uncommon in patients with documented sustained outflow-tract VT without overt structural heart disease. Inducible VT is associated with better outcomes, suggesting that attempts to induce VT to guide ablation are important in this population. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Outcomes of Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in the Setting of Structural Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Betensky, B P; Marchlinski, F E

    2016-07-01

    Sustained ventricular tachycardias are common in the setting of structural heart disease, either due to prior myocardial infarction or a variety of non-ischemic etiologies, including idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Over the past two decades, percutaneous catheter ablation has evolved dramatically and has become an effective tool for the control of ventricular arrhythmias. Single and multicenter observational studies as well as several prospective randomized trials have begun to investigate long-term outcomes after catheter ablation procedures. These studies encompass a wide range of mapping and ablation techniques, including conventional activation mapping/entrainment criteria, substrate modification guided by pacemapping, late potential and abnormal electrogram ablation, scar de-channeling, and core isolation. While large-scale, multicenter prospective randomized clinical trials are somewhat limited, the published data demonstrate favorable outcomes with respect to a reduction in overall ventricular tachycardia (VT) burden, reduction of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks, and discontinuation of anti-arrhythmic medications across varying disease subtypes and convincingly support the use of catheter ablation as the standard of care for many patients with VT in the setting of structural heart disease.

  9. Outcome after Radiofrequency Ablation of Sarcoma Lung Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Koelblinger, Claus; Strauss, Sandra; Gillams, Alice

    2013-05-14

    PurposeResection is the mainstay of management in patients with sarcoma lung metastases, but there is a limit to how many resections can be performed. Some patients with inoperable disease have small-volume lung metastases that are amenable to thermal ablation. We report our results after radiofrequency ablation (RFA).MethodsThis is a retrospective study of patients treated from 2007 to 2012 in whom the intention was to treat all sites of disease and who had a minimum CT follow-up of 4 months. Treatment was performed under general anesthesia/conscious sedation using cool-tip RFA. Follow-up CT scans were analyzed for local control. Primary tumor type, location, grade, disease-free interval, prior resection/chemotherapy, number and size of lung tumors, uni- or bilateral disease, complications, and overall and progression-free survival were recorded.ResultsTwenty-two patients [15 women; median age 48 (range 10–78) years] with 55 lung metastases were treated in 30 sessions. Mean and median tumor size and initial number were 0.9 cm and 0.7 (range 0.5–2) cm, and 2.5 and 1 (1–7) respectively. Median CT and clinical follow-up were 12 (4–54) and 20 (8–63) months, respectively. Primary local control rate was 52 of 55 (95 %). There were 2 of 30 (6.6 %) Common Terminology Criteria grade 3 complications with no long-term sequelae. Mean (median not reached) and 2- and 3-year overall survival were 51 months, and 94 and 85 %. Median and 1- and 2-year progression-free survival were 12 months, and 53 and 23 %. Prior disease-free interval was the only significant factor to affect overall survival.ConclusionRFA is a safe and effective treatment for patients with small-volume sarcoma metastases.

  10. Noninducibility in postinfarction ventricular tachycardia as an end point for ventricular tachycardia ablation and its effects on outcomes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Hamid; Baser, Kazim; Yokokawa, Miki; Stevenson, William; Della Bella, Paolo; Vergara, Pasquale; Deneke, Thomas; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Kottkamp, Hans; Fei, She; Morady, Fred; Bogun, Frank

    2014-08-01

    Although ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation is a widely used therapy for patients with VT, the ideal end points for this procedure are not well defined. We performed a meta-analysis of the published literature to assess the predictive value of noninducibility of postinfarction VT for long-term outcomes after VT ablation. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE (1950-2013), EMBASE (1988-2013), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Fourth Quarter, 2012), and reports presented at scientific meetings (1994-2013). Randomized controlled trials, case-control, and cohort studies of VT ablation were included. Outcomes reported in eligible studies were freedom from VT/ventricular fibrillation and all-cause mortality. Of the 3895 studies evaluated, we identified 8 cohort studies enrolling 928 patients for the meta-analysis. Noninducibility after VT ablation was associated with a significant increase in arrhythmia-free survival compared with partial success (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.84; P=0.009) or failed ablation procedure (odds ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.18; P<0.001). There was also a significant reduction in all-cause mortality if patients were noninducible after VT ablation compared with patients with partial success (odds ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.98; P=0.04) or failed ablation (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.99; P=0.049). Noninducibility of VT after VT ablation is associated with improved arrhythmia-free survival and all-cause mortality. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Catheter Ablation of Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia: Long-Term Clinical Outcomes and Mechanisms of Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaowu; Fang, Zhen; Yang, Bing; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Cao, Kejiang; Chen, Minglong; Zhang, Fengxiang

    2015-12-01

    Fascicular ventricular tachycardia (FVT) is a common form of sustained idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia with an Asian preponderance. This study aimed to prospectively investigate long-term clinical outcomes of patients undergoing ablation of FVT and identify predictors of arrhythmia recurrence. Consecutive patients undergoing FVT ablation at a single tertiary center were enrolled. Activation mapping was performed to identify the earliest presystolic Purkinje potential during FVT that was targeted by radiofrequency ablation. Follow-up with clinic visits, ECG, and Holter monitoring was performed at least every 6 months. A total of 120 consecutive patients (mean age, 29.3±12.7 years; 82% men; all patients with normal ejection fraction) were enrolled. FVT involved left posterior fascicle and left anterior fascicle in 118 and 2 subjects, respectively. VT was noninducible in 3 patients, and ablation was acutely successful in 117 patients. With a median follow-up of 55.7 months, VT of a similar ECG morphology recurred in 17 patients, and repeat procedure confirmed FVT recurrence involving the same fascicle. Shorter VT cycle length was the only significant predictor of FVT recurrence (P=0.03). Six other patients developed new-onset upper septal FVT that was successfully ablated. Ablation of FVT guided by activation mapping is associated with a single procedural success rate without the use of antiarrhythmic drugs of 80.3%. Arrhythmia recurrences after an initially successful ablation were caused by recurrent FVT involving the same fascicle in two thirds of patients or new onset of upper septal FVT in the remainder. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Long-term Outcomes of Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation in Different Types of Structural Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jackson J; Santangeli, Pasquale; Callans, David J

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia (VT) often occurs in the setting of structural heart disease and can affect patients with ischaemic or nonischaemic cardiomyopathies. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) provide mortality benefit and are therefore indicated for secondary prevention in patients with sustained VT, but they do not reduce arrhythmia burden. ICD shocks are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and antiarrhythmic medications are often used to prevent recurrent episodes. Catheter ablation is an effective treatment option for patients with VT in the setting of structural heart disease and, when successful, can reduce the number of ICD shocks. However, whether VT ablation results in a mortality benefit remains unclear. We aim to review the long-term outcomes in patients with different types of structural heart disease treated with VT ablation. PMID:26835122

  13. Visual Outcomes After LASIK Using Topography-Guided vs Wavefront-Guided Customized Ablation Systems.

    PubMed

    Toda, Ikuko; Ide, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Teruki; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the visual performance of two customized ablation systems (wavefront-guided ablation and topography-guided ablation) in LASIK. In this prospective, randomized clinical study, 68 eyes of 35 patients undergoing LASIK were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to wavefront-guided ablation using the iDesign aberrometer and STAR S4 IR Excimer Laser system (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA) (wavefront-guided group; 32 eyes of 16 patients; age: 29.0 ± 7.3 years) or topography-guided ablation using the OPD-Scan aberrometer and EC-5000 CXII excimer laser system (NIDEK, Tokyo, Japan) (topography-guided group; 36 eyes of 19 patients; age: 36.1 ± 9.6 years). Preoperative manifest refraction was -4.92 ± 1.95 diopters (D) in the wavefront-guided group and -4.44 ± 1.98 D in the topography-guided group. Visual function and subjective symptoms were compared between groups before and 1 and 3 months after LASIK. Of seven subjective symptoms evaluated, four were significantly milder in the wavefront-guided group at 3 months. Contrast sensitivity with glare off at low spatial frequencies (6.3° and 4°) was significantly higher in the wavefront-guided group. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, manifest refraction, and higher order aberrations measured by OPD-Scan and iDesign were not significantly different between the two groups at 1 and 3 months after LASIK. Both customized ablation systems used in LASIK achieved excellent results in predictability and visual function. The wavefront-guided ablation system may have some advantages in the quality of vision. It may be important to select the appropriate system depending on eye conditions such as the pattern of total and corneal higher order aberrations. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(11):727-732.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Comparison of Ablation Predictions for Carbonaceous Materials Using CEA and JANAF-Based Species Thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    In most previous work at NASA Ames Research Center, ablation predictions for carbonaceous materials were obtained using a species thermodynamics database developed by Aerotherm Corporation. This database is derived mostly from the JANAF thermochemical tables. However, the CEA thermodynamics database, also used by NASA, is considered more up to date. In this work, the FIAT code was modified to use CEA-based curve fits for species thermodynamics, then analyses using both the JANAF and CEA thermodynamics were performed for carbon and carbon phenolic materials over a range of test conditions. The ablation predictions are comparable at lower heat fluxes where the dominant mechanism is carbon oxidation. However, the predictions begin to diverge in the sublimation regime, with the CEA model predicting lower recession. The disagreement is more significant for carbon phenolic than for carbon, and this difference is attributed to hydrocarbon species that may contribute to the ablation rate.

  15. Health-related quality of life questionnaires: an important method to evaluate patient outcomes in atrial fibrillation ablation.

    PubMed

    Ha, Andrew C T; Dorian, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Improvement of symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are important treatment goals in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). For patients with symptomatic AF, catheter ablation is a commonly performed therapy for rhythm control. As a result, accurate documentation of the changes in HRQoL for these patients is necessary. This paper will review why HRQoL questionnaires are important in evaluating patient outcomes for AF ablation. First, we discuss how the results of these questionnaires can influence the cost-effectiveness of AF ablation. This may, in turn, affect healthcare resource allocation in favor of this therapy. Also, these questionnaires can provide additional information over traditional quantitative measures of AF burden in assessing post-ablation outcomes. By standardizing the way by which HRQoL is measured and reported, these questionnaires are valuable in evaluating this important patient-reported outcome in AF ablation trials.

  16. [Pregnancy outcomes and symptom improvement of patients with adenomyosis treated with high intensity focused ultrasound ablation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, C Y; Xu, X J; He, J

    2016-11-25

    Objective: To investigate the symptom improvement and pregnancy outcomes of patients with adenomyosis after treatment with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Methods: From October 2010 to October 2015, 68 patients with adenomyosis who wish to get pregnancies were treated with HIFU ablation in Suining Central Hospital. Among these patients, 56 presented with dysmenorrhea, 11 presented with menorrhagia, and 1 patient complained both; 41 of them had histories of abnormal pregnancy. The clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Fifty-four patients got pregnancy at the median of 10 months(range:1 to 31 months) after HIFU ablation, and 21 of them had delivered healthy babies. No uterine rupture occurred during gestation or delivery, and the newborn babies were healthy. Dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia in the patients who had pregnancies after HIFU ablation treatment were significantly relieved. The average menstruation volume score before and 1, 3, 6-month post-HIFU were 2.6±1.7, 1.7±0.8, 1.4±0.6, 1.3±0.6, respectively (P<0.05). The menstruation pain score before and 1, 3, 6-month after HIFU were 1.4±0.9, 0.9±0.7, 0.6±0.5, and 0.9±0.7, respectively (P<0.05). The volume of the adenomyotic lesions before and after HIFU at 1, 3, 6 month were (34±23), (23±15), (20±17), (20±12) cm(3) (P<0.05). Although the spontaneous abortion rate was decreased after HIFU ablation treatment, there was no significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative [43% (23/54) versus 37% (20/54), P>0.05]. However, 20 of the 54 patients had spontaneous abortion, compared with 21 patients who had delivered babies, there were no significant statistical difference in terms of age, duration of disease, lesion size, non-perfused volume ratio, as well as the symptom scores before and after HIFU ablation treatment. Conclusions: HIFU ablation treatment is effective in improving symptoms of patients with adenomyosis. Based on our results, HIFU ablation

  17. Ventricular tachycardia in cardiac sarcoidosis: characterization of ventricular substrate and outcomes of catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurabh; Barbhaiya, Chirag; Nagashima, Koichi; Choi, Eue-Keun; Epstein, Laurence M; John, Roy M; Maytin, Melanie; Albert, Christine M; Miller, Amy L; Koplan, Bruce A; Michaud, Gregory F; Tedrow, Usha B; Stevenson, William G

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac sarcoid-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a rare disorder; the underlying substrate and response to ablation are poorly understood. We sought to examine the ventricular substrate and outcomes of catheter ablation in this population. Of 435 patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy referred for VT ablation, 21 patients (5%) had cardiac sarcoidosis. Multiple inducible VTs were observed with mechanism consistent with scar-mediated re-entry in all VTs. Voltage maps showed widespread and confluent right ventricular scarring. Left ventricular scarring was patchy with a predilection for the basal septum, anterior wall, and perivalvular regions. Epicardial right ventricular scar overlay and exceeded the region of corresponding endocardial scar. After ≥1 procedures, ablation abolished ≥1 inducible VT in 90% and eliminated VT storm in 78% of patients; however, multiple residual VTs remained inducible. Failure to abolish all inducible VTs was because of septal intramural circuits or extensive right ventricular scarring. Multiple procedure VT-free survival was 37% at 1 year, but VT control was achievable in the majority of patients with fewer antiarrhythmic drugs compared with preablation (2.1±0.8 versus 1.1±0.8; P<0.001). Patients with cardiac sarcoidosis and VT exhibit ventricular substrate characterized by confluent right ventricular scarring and patchy left ventricular scarring capable of sustaining a large number of re-entrant circuits. Catheter ablation is effective in terminating VT storm and eliminating ≥1 inducible VT in the majority of patients, but recurrences are common. Ablation in conjunction with antiarrhythmic drugs can help palliate VT in this high-risk population. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Pilot Study to Assess Safety and Clinical Outcomes of Irreversible Electroporation for Partial Gland Ablation in Men with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Katie S.; Ehdaie, Behfar; Musser, John; Mashni, Joseph; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Durack, Jeremy C.; Solomon, Stephen B.; Coleman, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Partial prostate gland ablation is a strategy to manage localized prostate cancer. Irreversible electroporation can ablate localized soft tissues. We sought to describe 30- and 90-day complications and intermediate-term functional outcomes in men undergoing prostate gland ablation using irreversible electroporation. Materials and Methods We reviewed the charts of 25 patients with prostate cancer who underwent prostate gland ablation using irreversible electroporation as a primary procedure and who were followed for at least 6 months. Results Median follow-up was 10.9 months. Grade 3 complications occurred in 2 patients including epididymitis (1) and urinary tract infection (1). Fourteen patients experienced grade ≤ 2 complications, mainly transient urinary symptoms, hematuria, and urinary tract infections. Of 25 patients, 4 (16%) had cancer in the zone of ablation on routine follow-up biopsy at 6 months. Of those with normal urinary function at baseline, 88% and 94% reported normal urinary function at 6 and 12 months after prostate gland ablation, respectively. By 12 months, only 1 patient with normal erectile function at baseline reported new difficulty with potency and only 2 patients (8%) required a pad for urinary incontinence. Conclusions Prostate gland ablation with irreversible electroporation is feasible and safe in selected men with localized prostate cancer. Intermediate-term urinary and erectile function outcomes appear reasonable. Irreversible electroporation is effective in ablation of tumor-bearing prostate tissue, as a majority of men had no evidence of residual cancer on biopsy 6 months after prostate gland ablation. PMID:27113966

  19. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING OUTCOME OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED RADIOFREQUENCY HEAT ABLATION FOR TREATMENT OF PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM IN DOGS.

    PubMed

    Bucy, Daniel; Pollard, Rachel; Nelson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) parathyroid ablation is a noninvasive treatment for hyperparathyroidism in dogs. There are no published data assessing factors associated with RF parathyroid ablation success or failure in order to guide patient selection and improve outcome. The purpose of this retrospective analytical study was to determine whether imaging findings, biochemical data, or concurrent diseases were associated with RF heat ablation treatment failure. For inclusion in the study, dogs must have had a clinical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, undergone cervical ultrasound and RF ablation of abnormal parathyroid tissue, and must have had at least 3 months of follow-up information available following the date of ultrasound-guided parathyroid ablation. Dogs were grouped based on those with recurrent or persistent hypercalcemia and those without recurrent or persistent hypercalcemia following therapy. Parathyroid nodule size, thyroid lobe size, nodule location, and presence of concurrent disease were recorded. Recurrence of hypercalcemia occurred in 9/32 dogs that had ablation of abnormal parathyroid tissue (28%) and one patient had persistent hypercalcemia (3%) following parathyroid ablation. Nodule width (P = 0.036), height (P = 0.028), and largest cross-sectional area (P = 0.023) were larger in dogs that had recurrent or persistent hypercalcemia following ablation. Hypothyroidism was more common in dogs with recurrent disease (P = 0.044). Radiofrequency ablation was successful in 22/32 (69%) dogs. Larger parathyroid nodule size and/or concurrent hypothyroidism were associated with treatment failure in dogs that underwent ultrasound-guided RF parathyroid nodule ablation.

  20. Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia in Patients With Congenital Heart Disease: Outcome After Catheter Ablation.

    PubMed

    Papagiannis, John; Beissel, Daniel Joseph; Krause, Ulrich; Cabrera, Michel; Telishevska, Marta; Seslar, Stephen; Johnsrude, Christopher; Anderson, Charles; Tisma-Dupanovic, Svjetlana; Connelly, Diana; Avramidis, Dimosthenis; Carter, Christopher; Kornyei, Laszlo; Law, Ian; Von Bergen, Nicholas; Janusek, Jan; Silva, Jennifer; Rosenthal, Eric; Willcox, Mark; Kubus, Peter; Hessling, Gabriele; Paul, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The relationship of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia to congenital heart disease (CHD) and the outcome of catheter ablation in this population have not been studied adequately. A multicenter retrospective study was performed on patients with CHD who had atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia and were treated with catheter ablation. There were 109 patients (61 women), aged 22.1±13.4 years. The majority, 86 of 109 (79%), had CHD resulting in right heart pressure or volume overload. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A (n=51) with complex CHD and group B (n=58) with simple CHD. There were no significant differences between groups in patients' growth parameters, use of 3-dimensional imaging, and type of ablation (radiofrequency versus cryoablation). Procedure times (251±117 versus 174±94 minutes; P=0.0006) and fluoroscopy times (median 20.8 versus 16.6 minutes; P=0.037) were longer in group A versus group B. There were significant differences between groups in the acute success of ablation (82% versus 97%; P=0.04), risk of atrioventricular block (14 versus 0%; P=0.004), and need for chronic pacing (10% versus 0%; P=0.008). There was no permanent atrioventricular block in patients who underwent cryoablation. After 3.2±2.7 years of follow-up, long-term success was 86% in group A and 100% in group B (P=0.004). Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia can complicate the course of patients with CHD. This study demonstrates that the outcome of catheter ablation is favorable in patients with simple CHD. Patients with complex CHD have increased risk of procedural failure and atrioventricular block. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Outcomes of Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation Using Percutaneous Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Kusa, Shigeki; Miller, Marc A; Whang, William; Enomoto, Yoshinari; Panizo, Jorge G; Iwasawa, Jin; Choudry, Subbarao; Pinney, Sean; Gomes, Anthony; Langan, Noelle; Koruth, Jacob S; d'Avila, Andre; Reddy, Vivek Y; Dukkipati, Srinivas R

    2017-06-01

    Although percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (pLVADs) facilitate mapping and ablation of hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT), there is limited data whether clinical outcomes are improved. We sought to retrospectively compare the outcomes of patients undergoing scar-related VT ablation with and without pLVAD support. The study population comprised 194 patients (109 pLVAD and 85 non-pLVAD). The pLVAD group more often had dilated cardiomyopathy (33% versus 13%; P=0.001), New York Heart Association heart failure class ≥III (51% versus 25%; P<0.001), lower left ventricular ejection fractions (26±10% versus 39±16%; P<0.001), and electrical storm (49% versus 34%; P=0.04). Procedure times (422±112 versus 330±92 minutes; P<0.001), postablation VT inducibility (20% versus 7%; P=0.02), and length of subsequent hospitalization (median 6 versus 4 days; P=0.001) were all higher in the pLVAD group. During median follow-up of 215 days, the primary end point (recurrent VT, heart transplantation, or death) occurred in 36% of the pLVAD versus 26% of the non-pLVAD groups (P=0.14). After propensity matching for differences between groups, no differences were seen between groups for both acute procedural outcomes and the primary end point. In this large single-center scar-related VT ablation experience, despite the worse clinical status of the patients selected for pLVAD support, clinical outcomes were better than expected and were similar to healthier patients not receiving hemodynamic support. Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy presenting with electrical storm, advanced heart failure, and severe left ventricular dysfunction most frequently received hemodynamic support during VT ablation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Endometrial ablation

    MedlinePlus

    Hysteroscopy-endometrial ablation; Laser thermal ablation; Endometrial ablation-radiofrequency; Endometrial ablation-thermal balloon ablation; Rollerball ablation; Hydrothermal ablation; Novasure ablation

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers have no beneficial effect on ablation outcome in chronic persistent atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bin; Kang, Junping; Tian, Ying; Tang, Ribo; Long, Deyong; Yu, Ronghui; He, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Shi, Lisheng; Tao, Hailong; Liu, Xingpeng; Dong, Jianzeng; Ma, Changsheng

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) could reverse structural and electrical atria remodelling and decrease atrial fibrillation (AF) onset or recurrence. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether ACEIs/ARBs had beneficial effects on ablation outcome of chronic persistent AF. This study included 139 patients with chronic persistent AF who underwent radiofrequency ablation in our centre. Patients were divided into an ACEIs/ARBs group or a non-ACEIs/ARBs group. During follow-up (14.6 +/- 8.9 months) after AF ablation, AF-free survival in the ACEIs/ARBs group was not significantly different from the non-ACEIs/ARBs group (P = 0.339). Univariate analysis showed that predictors for AF-free survival were AF history (HR, 1.064; 95% CI, 1.021-1.108; P = 0.003) and duration of chronic persistent AF (HR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.005-1.019; P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that predictors for AF-free survival were AF history (HR, 1.051; 95% CI, 1.004-1.101; P = 0.035) and duration of chronic persistent AF (HR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.004-1.020; P = 0.004). ACEIs/ARBs therapy was not a predictor for AF-free survival neither in univariate nor multivariate analysis. In this observational study, no effect of ACEIs or ARBs was seen on the AF recurrence after ablation of chronic persistent AF.ACEIs/ARBs did not help to predict a better ablation outcome. Predictors for ablation outcome are AF history and duration of chronic persistent AF.

  4. Long term Outcome of Non-Ablative Booster Bone Marrow Transplantation in Patients with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Teigland, Claire L.; Parrott, Roberta E.; Buckley, Rebecca H.

    2013-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a fatal syndrome caused by mutations in at least 13 different genes. It is characterized by the absence of T-cells. Immune reconstitution can be achieved through non-ablative related donor bone marrow transplantation. However, the first transplant may not provide sufficient immunity. In these cases, booster transplants may be helpful. A prospective/retrospective study was conducted of 49 SCID patients (28.7 percent of 171 SCIDs transplanted over 30 years) who had received booster transplants to define the long term outcome, factors contributing to a need for a booster and factors that predicted success. Of the 49 patients, 31 (63 percent) are alive for up to 28 years. Age at initial transplantation was found to have a significant effect on outcome (mean of 194 days old for patients currently alive, versus a mean of 273 days old for those now deceased, p=0.0401). Persistent viral infection was present in most deceased booster patients. In several patients, the use of two parents as sequential donors resulted in striking T and B cell immune reconstitution. A majority of the patients alive today have normal or adequate T-cell function and are healthy. Non-ablative booster bone marrow transplantation can be life-saving for SCID. PMID:23396406

  5. Influence of large peritumoral vessels on outcome of radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Lu, David S K; Raman, Steven S; Limanond, Piyaporn; Aziz, Donya; Economou, James; Busuttil, Ronald; Sayre, James

    2003-10-01

    The effect of large vessels (>/=3 mm) contiguous to hepatic tumors was evaluated with respect to clinical tumor recurrence rates after radiofrequency (RF) ablation. The first 105 malignant liver tumors treated by RF ablation therapy at our institution with pathologic analysis or a minimum of 6 months of clinical follow-up were reviewed. The original pretreatment imaging studies were reviewed by a radiologist who was blinded to the cases, and, based on lesion contiguity to vessels of at least 3 mm, the lesions were categorized as perivascular or nonperivascular. Treatment outcomes with respect to local tumor recurrence between these two groups were then compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to take into account other variables and to determine whether this categorization was an independent predictor of treatment outcome. There were 74 nonperivascular tumors and 31 perivascular tumors. Mean tumor size was 2.4 cm and mean follow-up was 11.3 months. Residual or locally recurrent tumors were documented in 20 of 105 cases (19%). In the nonperivascular group, five of 74 (7%) had either incompletely treated tumor (manifested within 6 months) or local recurrence beyond 6 months. In the perivascular group, 15 of 31 (48%) had incompletely treated or locally recurrent tumor (P <.001). Subanalysis of lesion size (61 tumors 4 cm), tumor type (40 hepatocellular carcinomas, 48 colorectal metastases, and 17 other metastases), access (53 intraoperative, 52 percutaneous), and RF device (45 Radiotherapeutics electrodes, 18 Rita electrodes, and 42 Radionics electrodes) showed similar results. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that presence or absence of a large peritumoral vessel is an independent, and the dominant, predictor of treatment outcome. The presence of vessels at least 3 mm in size contiguous to hepatic tumors is a strong independent predictor of incomplete tumor destruction by RF ablation. Modified

  6. Novel P Wave Indices to Predict Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence After Radiofrequency Ablation for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoliang; Jiang, Jingzhou; Ma, Yuedong; Tang, Anli

    2016-01-01

    Background Circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI) is a widely used treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Several P wave duration (PWD) parameters have been suggested to predict post-ablation recurrence, but their use remains controversial. This study aimed to identify novel P wave indices that predict post-ablation AF recurrence. Material/Methods We selected 171 consecutive patients undergoing CPVI for paroxysmal AF. Electrocardiography (ECG) recordings were obtained at the beginning and the end of ablation. PWD was measured in all 12 leads. The PWD variation was calculated by subtracting the pre-ablation PWD from the post-ablation PWD. Results PWD was significantly shortened in leads II, III, aVF, and V1 after ablation. During a mean follow-up of 19.96±4.32 months, AF recurrence occurred in 32 (18.7%) patients. No significant differences in baseline characteristics or pre- or post-ablation PWD were observed between the AF recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Patients with AF recurrence exhibited a smaller PWD variation in leads II (1.21(−0.56, 2.40) vs. −5.77(−9.10, −4.06) ms, P<0.001), III (−5.92(−9.87, 3.27) vs. −9.44(−11.89, −5.57) ms, P=0.001) and V1 (−4.43(−6.64, −3.13) vs. −6.33(−8.19,−4.59) ms, P=0.003). Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that smaller PWD variations in lead II and III were independent risk factors for AF recurrence. PWD variation ≥−2.21 ms in lead II displayed the highest combined sensitivity and specificity (85.29% and 83.94%, respectively) for predicting post-ablation AF recurrence. A PWD variation ≥0 ms displayed the best practical value in predicting AF recurrence. Conclusions PWD variation in lead II is an effective predictor of post-ablation AF recurrence. PMID:27450644

  7. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Atrial Fibrillation and the Outcome after Catheter Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Feng; Wang, Hsueh-Hsiao; Yeh, Hung-I; Lee, Kun-Tai; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Li, Cheng-Hung; Chao, Tze-Fan; Chung, Fa-Po; Liao, Jo-Nan; Tang, Paul Wei Hua; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Chiou, Chuen-Wang; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background The association of gene variants with atrial fibrillation (AF) type and the recurrence of AF after catheter ablation in Taiwan is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationships between gene variants, AF type, and the recurrence of AF. Methods In our investigation, we examined 383 consecutive patients with AF (61.9 ± 14.0 years; 63% men); of these 383 patients, 189 underwent catheter ablation for drug-refractory AF. Thereafter, the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2200733, and rs7193343 were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The rs7193343 variant was independently associated with non-paroxysmal AF (non-PAF). In the PAF group, the rs7193343 variant was independently associated with AF recurrence after catheter ablation. However, the rs2200733 variant was not associated with AF recurrence in this group. The combination of the rs7193343 and rs2200733 risk alleles was associated with a better predictive power in the PAF patients. In contrast, in the non-PAF group, the SNPs were not associated with recurrence. The rs7193343 and rs2200733 variants were not associated with different atrial voltage and activation times. Conclusions The rs7193343 variants were associated with AF recurrence after catheter ablation in PAF patients but not in non-PAF patients. The rs7193343 CC variant was independently associated with non-PAF. PMID:27713600

  8. [Newborn outcomes after radiofrequency ablation for selective reduction in the complicated monochorionic pregnancies].

    PubMed

    Panciatici, M; Tosello, B; Blanc, J; Haumonté, J-B; D'Ercole, C; Gire, C

    2017-04-01

    To describe perinatal data and to evaluate the neonatal neurological outcome of monochorionic twin pregnancies with selective termination by radiofrequency ablation. Retrospective data of perinatal data for nine consecutive monochorionic pregnancies eligible for radiofrequency ablation from January 2013 to August 2015 were collected. A prospective observational study of the neurological outcome of nine children was conducted using the Ages & Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), 2nd edition, French version, adapted to the age. The radiofrequency procedures were performed at a mean gestational age (GA) of 21.4 weeks (±7 weeks). The indications for a selective interruption of a pregnancy were: acardiac twin (n=4), brain malformation (n=1), severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with massive cerebral ischemia in the context of twin-twin transfusion syndrome grade III (n=1), severe selective IUGR associated with a polymalformative syndrome (n=1) and severe selective IUGR (n=2). The mean GA at birth was 36.7 weeks GA (±3.8 weeks). No infant showed neurological neonatal morbidity. Any ASQ area explored was pathological (<-2SD) for the nine children (mean age at follow-up [±SD], 14.8 months [±8.8 months]). This work constitutes a preliminary study for developing long-term follow-up and early care programs for those children born subsequent to a radiofrequency ablation for selective reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Concomitant surgical atrial fibrillation ablation and event recorder implantation: better monitoring, better outcome?†

    PubMed Central

    Pecha, Simon; Schäfer, Timm; Hartel, Friederike; Ahmadzade, Teymour; Subbotina, Irina; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Wagner, Florian Matthias

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Concomitant ablation is an established therapy in cardiac surgical patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Post-discharge care seems to be an essential factor for clinical outcome. We analysed the influence of event recorder (ER) implantation and therapy guidance by the results of continuous rhythm monitoring of consecutive postoperative follow-up by our department of electrophysiology. METHODS Between July 2003 and August 2010, 401 cardiac surgical patients underwent concomitant surgical AF ablation therapy. Since August 2009, an ER (REVEAL XT, Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) was implanted in 98 patients intraoperatively. ER interrogation was performed by our department of electrophysiology 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Results and outcomes were compared with a matched cohort of patients with ablation and no ER implantation. In those patients, rhythm follow-up was obtained by 24-h Holter ECG. Primary end-point of the study was sinus rhythm rate after 12 months. RESULTS Mean patient's age was 67.0 ± 9.7 years, and 68.4% were male. No major ablation-related complications occurred. The overall sinus rhythm rate was 65.3% after 1-year follow-up. The sinus rhythm rate off antiarrhythmic drugs was 60.3%. The conversion rate tended to be higher in patients with an implanted ER (69.3 vs 60.1%, respectively; P = 0.098). Also, the sinus rhythm rate of anti-arrhythmic drugs was higher in the ER group (64.3 vs 56.2). Patients with ER were seen more often by a cardiologist in the first postoperative year (3.1 ± 0.8 vs 1.5 ± 0.9; P < 0.05) and received significantly more additional procedures, like electrical cardioversion or additional catheter-based ablation (16.1 vs 4.3%; P < 0.001; 11.2 vs 3.1%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Implantation of an ER with link-up to a cardiology and/or electrophysiology provides optimized anti-arrhythmic drug management and higher rates of consecutive procedures like cardioversion or additional catheter-based ablation. As a

  10. Long-Term Outcomes of Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients With Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Muser, Daniele; Santangeli, Pasquale; Pathak, Rajeev K; Castro, Simon A; Liang, Jackson J; Magnani, Silvia; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Garcia, Fermin C; Hutchinson, Mathew D; Supple, Gregory E; Frankel, David S; Riley, Michael P; Lin, David; Schaller, Robert D; Desjardins, Benoit; Dixit, Sanjay; Callans, David J; Zado, Erica S; Marchlinski, Francis E

    2016-08-01

    Catheter ablation (CA) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis can be challenging because of the complex underlying substrate. We sought to determine the long-term outcome of CA of VT in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. We enrolled 31 patients (age, 55±10 years) with diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis based on Heart Rhythm Society criteria and VT who underwent CA. In 23 (74%) patients, preprocedure cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomographic (PET) evaluation were performed. Preprocedure magnetic resonance imaging was positive for late gadolinium enhancement in 21 of 23 (91%) patients, whereas abnormal 18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was found in 15 of 23 (65%) cases. In 14 of 15 patients with positive PET at baseline, PET was repeated after 6.1±3.7-month follow-up. After a median follow-up of 2.5 (range, 0-10.5) years, 1 (3%) patient died and 4 (13%) underwent heart transplant. Overall VT-free survival was 55% at 2-year follow-up. Among the 16 (52%) patients with VT recurrences, CA resulted in a significant reduction of VT burden, with 8 (50%) having only isolated (1-3) VT episodes and only 1 patient with recurrent VT storm. The presence of late gadolinium enhancement at magnetic resonance imaging, a positive PET at baseline, and lack of PET improvement over follow-up were associated with increased risk of recurrent VT. In patients with cardiac sarcoidosis and VT, CA is effective in achieving long-term freedom from VT or improvement in VT burden in the majority of patients. The presence of late gadolinium enhancement at magnetic resonance imaging, a positive PET scan at baseline, or lack of improvement at repeat PET over follow-up predict worse arrhythmia-free survival. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Clinical outcome of medium-sized hepatocellular carcinoma treated with microwave ablation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ai-Xue; Cheng, Zhi-Li; Wu, Pan-Pan; Sheng, Yue-Hong; Qu, Xiu-Juan; Lu, Wen; Zhao, Cheng-Gong; Qian, Guo-Jun

    2015-03-14

    To evaluate the outcomes of patients with medium-sized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA). We retrospectively reviewed all patients with a single medium-sized HCC who underwent percutaneous MWA from January 2010 to January 2013. Technical success, technical effectiveness and complications were subsequently observed. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to each variable. The relative prognostic significance of the variables for predicting overall survival rate, recurrence-free survival rate and local tumor recurrence(s) was assessed using univariate analysis. All variables with a P value < 0.20 were subjected to multivariate analysis. The study included 182 patients (mean age, 58 years; age range: 22-86 years) with a single HCC (mean size, 3.72 ± 0.54 cm; range: 3.02-5.00 cm). The estimated technical effectiveness rate was 93% in 182 patients. The major complication rate was 2.7% (5/182), including liver abscess in 4 cases, and abdominal bleeding at the puncture site in 1 case. Thirty-day mortality rate was 0.5% (1/182). One patient died due to liver abscess-related septicemia. Cumulative recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 51%, 36%, 27% and 89%, 74%, 60% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Age (P = 0.017) and tumor diameter (P = 0.029) were independent factors associated with local tumor recurrence. None of the factors had a statistically significant impact on recurrence-free survival. Serum albumin level (P = 0.009) and new lesion(s) (P = 0.029) were independently associated with OS. Percutaneous MWA is a relatively safe and effective treatment for patients with medium-sized HCC.

  12. Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy or Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Daniel R.; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Tao, Yebin; Pollom, Erqi L.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Schipper, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Data guiding selection of nonsurgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are lacking. We therefore compared outcomes between stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for HCC. Patients and Methods From 2004 to 2012, 224 patients with inoperable, nonmetastatic HCC underwent RFA (n = 161) to 249 tumors or image-guided SBRT (n = 63) to 83 tumors. We applied inverse probability of treatment weighting to adjust for imbalances in treatment assignment. Freedom from local progression (FFLP) and toxicity were retrospectively analyzed. Results RFA and SBRT groups were similar with respect to number of lesions treated per patient, type of underlying liver disease, and tumor size (median, 1.8 v 2.2 cm in maximum diameter; P = .14). However, the SBRT group had lower pretreatment Child-Pugh scores (P = .003), higher pretreatment alpha-fetoprotein levels (P = .04), and a greater number of prior liver-directed treatments (P < .001). One- and 2-year FFLP for tumors treated with RFA were 83.6% and 80.2% v 97.4% and 83.8% for SBRT. Increasing tumor size predicted for FFLP in patients treated with RFA (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54 per cm; P = .006), but not with SBRT (HR, 1.21 per cm; P = .617). For tumors ≥ 2 cm, there was decreased FFLP for RFA compared with SBRT (HR, 3.35; P = .025). Acute grade 3+ complications occurred after 11% and 5% of RFA and SBRT treatments, respectively (P = .31). Overall survival 1 and 2 years after treatment was 70% and 53% after RFA and 74% and 46% after SBRT. Conclusion Both RFA and SBRT are effective local treatment options for inoperable HCC. Although these data are retrospective, SBRT appears to be a reasonable first-line treatment of inoperable, larger HCC. PMID:26628466

  13. Role of percent peripheral tissue ablated on refractive outcomes following hyperopic LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Fiona; Versace, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis (H-LASIK) on corneal integrity, by investigating relationships between proportionate corneal tissue ablated and refractive outcomes at 3 months. Methods 18 eyes of 18 subjects treated with H-LASIK by Technolas 217c Excimer Laser were included in the study. Orbscan II Topography System was used to determine corneal volume and pachymetry 3mm temporally (3T). The volume of corneal tissue ablated was determined from the laser nomogram. Univariate associations between age, treatment, corneal volume, overall proportion of tissue removed, proportion of tissue removed at 3T, residual bed thickness at 3T and refractive outcomes 3 months post-LASIK were examined and independent factors associated with refractive outcomes determined using linear regression models. Results At 3 months post-LASIK, the mean difference to expected refractive outcome was -0.20 ± 0.64 (Range -2.00 to +1.00). In univariate analysis, difference to expected refractive outcome was associated with proportion of tissue removed at 3T (P<0.01, r = -0.605) and total number of pulses (P< 0.05, r = -0.574). In multivariable analysis, difference to expected refractive outcome was associated with the proportion of tissue removed at 3T only. Conclusion Subjects undergoing H-LASIK, may present as either over or under-corrected at 3 months. The proportion of tissue removed at 3T was the single significant determinant of this outcome, suggesting unexpected biomechanical alterations resulting in corneal steepening. Future hyperopic LASIK procedures could consider proportionate volume of corneal tissue removed at 3T in addition to laser nomograms to achieve improved refractive outcomes. PMID:28151939

  14. Influence of patient factors and ablative technologies on outcomes of radiofrequency ablation of intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Triedman, John K; Alexander, Mark E; Love, Barry A; Collins, Kathryn K; Berul, Charles I; Bevilacqua, Laura M; Walsh, Edward P

    2002-06-05

    The goal of this study was to identify factors associated with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) outcomes of intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia (IART). Radiofrequency catheter ablation of IART is difficult. The influence of patient and procedural factors and novel technologies on outcomes is unknown. Acute and chronic RFCA outcomes were studied in patients with congenital heart disease and IART. Clinical status was measured using a multiaxis severity score. Multivariate analyses identified associations of clinical, procedural and technological factors with outcomes. A total of 177 procedures were performed in 134 patients; 139 procedures (79%) resulted in RFCA of > or =1 IART circuit and 117 (66%) in RFCA of all targeted circuits. Multivariate analysis associated acute success with irrigated ablation and absence of atrial fibrillation. Twenty-two complications were noted, nine related to vascular access. Electroanatomic mapping failed to decrease procedure or fluoroscopy time. Improvement in clinical status occurred in most patients (severity score preablation: 6.2 +/- 1.6, postablation: 3.0 +/- 2.3, p < 0.0001). At mean follow-up of 25 +/- 11 months, 42% of patients had IART recurrence and 28% required cardioversion. Six deaths occurred (1.8%/patient-year), and two patients underwent transplant. Chronic outcomes were associated with higher right atrial saturations, use of electroanatomic mapping, fewer IART circuits encountered and acute procedural success. Improvement of acute RFCA outcomes was contemporaneous with introduction of novel technologies. Intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia recurrence was common, and no effect on mortality was discerned, but most patients had effective palliation of symptoms. Chronic outcome predictors included the underlying disease severity, application of novel technologies and successful ablation of all targeted arrhythmia circuits.

  15. Outcome Prediction in Clinical Treatment Processes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengxing; Dong, Wei; Ji, Lei; Duan, Huilong

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcome prediction, as strong implications for health service delivery of clinical treatment processes (CTPs), is important for both patients and healthcare providers. Prior studies typically use a priori knowledge, such as demographics or patient physical factors, to estimate clinical outcomes at early stages of CTPs (e.g., admission). They lack the ability to deal with temporal evolution of CTPs. In addition, most of the existing studies employ data mining or machine learning methods to generate a prediction model for a specific type of clinical outcome, however, a mathematical model that predicts multiple clinical outcomes simultaneously, has not yet been established. In this study, a hybrid approach is proposed to provide a continuous predictive monitoring service on multiple clinical outcomes. More specifically, a probabilistic topic model is applied to discover underlying treatment patterns of CTPs from electronic medical records. Then, the learned treatment patterns, as low-dimensional features of CTPs, are exploited for clinical outcome prediction across various stages of CTPs based on multi-label classification. The proposal is evaluated to predict three typical classes of clinical outcomes, i.e., length of stay, readmission time, and the type of discharge, using 3492 pieces of patients' medical records of the unstable angina CTP, extracted from a Chinese hospital. The stable model was characterized by 84.9% accuracy and 6.4% hamming-loss with 3 latent treatment patterns discovered from data, which outperforms the benchmark multi-label classification algorithms for clinical outcome prediction. Our study indicates the proposed approach can potentially improve the quality of clinical outcome prediction, and assist physicians to understand the patient conditions, treatment inventions, and clinical outcomes in an integrated view.

  16. Long-Term Outcome With Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients With Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Santangeli, Pasquale; Zado, Erica S; Supple, Gregory E; Haqqani, Haris M; Garcia, Fermin C; Tschabrunn, Cory M; Callans, David J; Lin, David; Dixit, Sanjay; Hutchinson, Mathew D; Riley, Michael P; Marchlinski, Francis E

    2015-12-01

    Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy improves short-term VT-free survival. We sought to determine the long-term outcomes of VT control and need for antiarrhythmic drug therapy after endocardial (ENDO) and adjuvant epicardial (EPI) substrate modification in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. We examined 62 consecutive patients with Task Force criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy referred for VT ablation with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Catheter ablation was guided by activation/entrainment mapping for tolerated VT and pacemapping/targeting of abnormal substrate for unmappable VT. Adjuvant EPI ablation was performed when recurrent VT or persistent inducibility after ENDO-only ablation. Endocardial plus adjuvant EPI ablation was performed in 39 (63%) patients, including 13 who crossed over to ENDO-EPI after VT recurrence during follow-up, after ENDO-only ablation. Before ablation, 54 of 62 patients failed a mean of 2.4 antiarrhythmic drugs, including amiodarone in 29 (47%) patients. During follow-up of 56±44 months after the last ablation, VT-free survival was 71% with only a single VT episode in additional 9 patients (15%). At last follow-up, 39 (64%) patients were only on β-blockers or no treatment, 21 were on class 1 or 3 antiarrhythmic drugs (11 for atrial arrhythmias), and 2 were on amiodarone as a bridge to heart transplantation. The long-term outcome after ENDO and adjuvant EPI substrate ablation of VT in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is good. Most patients have complete VT control without amiodarone therapy and limited need for antiarrhythmic drugs. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Predicting Trans-epithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy Outcomes Using Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Catherine; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong; Gendy, Nehal Samy El; Huang, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To use Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) to predict trans-epithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (TE-PTK) outcomes. Methods Prospective case series. Subjects with anterior stromal corneal opacities underwent excimer laser PTK combined with PRK using the VISX S4 excimer laser (AMO, Inc., Santa Ana, CA). Pre- and postoperative FD-OCT images were used to develop a simulation algorithm to predict treatment outcomes. Main Outcome Measures Pre- and postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). Postoperative corneal thickness and manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) were analyzed using multivariate linear regression. Results Nine eyes of 8 patients were treated. Nominal ablation depth was 75 – 177 μm centrally and 62 –185 μm peripherally. Measured PTK ablation depths were 20% higher centrally and 26% higher peripherally, compared to laser settings. Postoperatively, mean UDVA was 20/41 (range 20/25 – 20/80) compared to 20/103 (range 20/60 – 20/400) preoperatively. Mean CDVA was 20/29 (range 20/15 – 20/60) compared to 20/45 (range 20/30 – 20/80) preoperatively. MRSE was +1.38±2.37 D compared to −2.59±2.83D (mean±SD). Mean astigmatism magnitude was 1.14±0.83D compared to 1.40±1.18D preoperatively. Postoperative MRSE correlated strongly with ablation settings, central and peripheral epithelial thickness (r=0.99, p<0.00001 ). Central island remained difficult to predict and limited visual outcomes in some cases. Conclusion OCT measurements of opacity depth and 3D ablation simulation provide valuable guidance PTK planning. Post-PTK refraction may be predicted with a regression formula which uses OCT epithelial thickness measurements. Laser ablation rates described in this study only apply to the VisX laser. PMID:24452208

  18. Immune Microenvironments of Anal Cancer Precursors Differ by HIV-serostatus, Affecting Ablation Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxin; Gaisa, Michael M; Wang, Xiaofei; Swartz, Talia H; Arens, Yotam; Dresser, Karen A; Sigel, Carlie; Sigel, Keith

    2017-09-02

    Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) are the precursors to anal cancer and frequently persist or recur following electrocautery ablation (EA). Impaired mucosal immunity may facilitate anal carcinogenesis. We characterized the immune microenvironment of anal HSIL in correlation with HIV-serostatus and ablation outcomes. Using immunohistochemistry, mucosa-infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were quantified in HSIL and benign mucosa from 70 HIV+ and 45 HIV- patients. Clinicopathological parameters were compared. Anal HSIL harbored more T lymphocytes than benign mucosa regardless of HIV status (p≤0.03). Total T lymphocyte count and CD8+ subset were significantly higher in HIV+ HSIL vs. HIV- HSIL (median cell count 71 vs. 47; 47 vs. 22/HPF, p<0.001) whereas the CD4+ subset was comparable between groups (median 24 vs. 25, p=0.4). Post EA, HSIL persisted in 41% of HIV+ and 19% of HIV- patients (p=0.04). Unadjusted analysis showed trends towards EA failures associated with HIV seropositivity (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.0; 95% CI 0.8-4.9) and increased CD8+ cells (IRR 2.3; 95% CI 0.9-5.3). HIV is associated with alterations of the immune microenvironment of anal HSIL manifested by increased local lymphocytic infiltrates, predominately CD8+. HIV seropositivity and excess CD8+ cells may be associated with ablation resistance.

  19. Outcomes of Cryoballoon Ablation in High- and Low-Volume Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Centres: A Russian Pilot Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mikhaylov, Evgeny N.; Lebedev, Dmitry S.; Pokushalov, Evgeny A.; Davtyan, Karapet V.; Ivanitskii, Eduard A.; Nechepurenko, Anatoly A.; Kosonogov, Alexey Ya.; Kolunin, Grigory V.; Morozov, Igor A.; Termosesov, Sergey A.; Maykov, Evgeny B.; Khomutinin, Dmitry N.; Eremin, Sergey A.; Mayorov, Igor M.; Romanov, Alexander B.; Shabanov, Vitaliy V.; Shatakhtsyan, Victoria; Tsivkovskii, Viktor; Revishvili, Amiran Sh.; Shlyakhto, Evgeny V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The results of cryoballoon ablation (CBA) procedure have been mainly derived from studies conducted in experienced atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation centres. Here, we report on CBA efficacy and complications resulting from real practice of this procedure at both high- and low-volume centres. Methods. Among 62 Russian centres performing AF ablation, 15 (24%) used CBA technology for pulmonary vein isolation. The centres were asked to provide a detailed description of all CBA procedures performed and complications, if encountered. Results. Thirteen sites completed interviews on all CBAs in their centres (>95% of CBAs in Russia). Six sites were high-volume AF ablation (>100 AF cases/year) centres, and 7 were low-volume AF ablation. There was no statistical difference in arrhythmia-free rates between high- and low-volume centres (64.6 versus 60.8% at 6 months). Major complications developed in 1.5% of patients and were equally distributed between high- and low-volume centres. Minor procedure-related events were encountered in 8% of patients and were more prevalent in high-volume centres. Total event and vascular access site event rates were higher in women than in men. Conclusions. CBA has an acceptable efficacy profile in real practice. In less experienced AF ablation centres, the major complication rate is equal to that in high-volume centres. PMID:26640789

  20. Outcomes after ablation for typical atrial flutter (from the Loire Valley Atrial Fibrillation Project).

    PubMed

    Clementy, Nicolas; Desprets, Laurent; Pierre, Bertrand; Lallemand, Bénédicte; Simeon, Edouard; Brunet-Bernard, Anne; Babuty, Dominique; Fauchier, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Similar predisposing factors are found in most types of atrial arrhythmias. The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) among patients with atrial flutter is high, suggesting similar outcomes in patients with those arrhythmias. We sought to investigate the long-term outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with AF and/or atrial flutter with contemporary management using radiofrequency ablation. In an academic institution, we retrospectively examined the clinical course of 8,962 consecutive patients admitted to our department with a diagnosis of AF and/or atrial flutter. After a median follow-up of 934 ± 1,134 days, 1,155 deaths and 715 stroke and/thromboembolic (TE) events were recorded. Patients with atrial flutter undergoing cavotricuspid isthmus ablation (n = 875, 37% with a history of AF) had a better survival rate than other patients (hazard ratio [HR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25 to 0.49, p <0.0001). Using Cox proportional hazards model and propensity score model, after adjustment for main other confounders, ablation for atrial flutter was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.84, p = 0.006) and stroke and/or TE events (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.92, p = 0.02). After ablation, there was no significant difference in the risk of TE between patients with a history of AF and those with atrial flutter alone (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.67, p = 0.59). In conclusion, in patients with atrial tachyarrhythmias, those with atrial flutter with contemporary management who undergo cavotricuspid isthmus radiofrequency ablation independently have a lower risk of stroke and/or TE events and death of any cause, whether a history of AF is present or not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Electroanatomic substrate and ablation outcome for suspected epicardial ventricular tachycardia in left ventricular nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cano, Oscar; Hutchinson, Mathew; Lin, David; Garcia, Fermin; Zado, Erica; Bala, Rupa; Riley, Michael; Cooper, Joshua; Dixit, Sanjay; Gerstenfeld, Edward; Callans, David; Marchlinski, Francis E

    2009-08-25

    The aim of the study was to define the epicardial substrate and ablation outcome in patients with left ventricular nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) and suspected epicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT). Ventricular tachycardia in NICM often originates from the epicardium. Twenty-two patients with NICM underwent detailed endocardial and epicardial bipolar voltage maps and VT ablation for suspected epicardial VT. Eight patients with normal hearts and idiopathic VT served to define normal epicardial electrograms. Low-voltage regions were also assessed for wide (>80 ms), split, or late electrograms. Normal epicardial bipolar voltage was identified as >1.0 mV on the basis of the reference population. Confluent low-voltage areas were present in 18 epicardial (82%) and 12 endocardial (54%) maps and were typically over basal lateral LV. In the 18 patients with epicardial VT on the basis of activation/pacemapping, the mean epicardial area was greater than the endocardial low-voltage area (55.3 +/- 33.5 cm(2) vs. 22.9 +/- 32.4 cm(2), p < 0.01). Epicardial low-voltage areas showed 49.7% wide (>80 ms), split, and/or late electrograms rarely seen in the reference patients (2.3%). During follow-up of 18 +/- 7 months, ablation resulted in VT elimination in 15 of 21 patients (71%) including 14 of 18 patients (78%) with epicardial VT. In patients with NICM and VT of epicardial origin, the substrate is characterized by areas of basal LV epicardial > endocardial bipolar low voltage. The electrograms in these areas are not only small (<1.0 mV) but wide (>80 ms), split, and/or late, and help identify the substrate targeted for successful ablation. 2009 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation

  2. Program Characteristics that Predict Improved Learner Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Mellard, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies adult education program characteristics that predict improved learner outcomes through statistical analyses of data across four years in a single state. Data indicate that, collectively, several predictors contribute to our understanding of learner outcomes, including (a) learner entry level, (b) size of community, (c) staff qualifications, and (d) learner exposure to high quality services. A surprising finding was the lack of robust outcome predictors that maintain consistency from one year to another. PMID:22348153

  3. Predicting Early Intrahepatic Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Microwave Ablation Using SELDI-TOF Proteomic Signature

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-ling; Liang, Ping; Dong, Bao-wei; Fan, Jin; Li, Meng; Liu, Fang-yi

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Despite great progress in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) over the last-decade, intrahepatic recurrence is still the most frequent serious adverse event after all the treatments including microwave ablation. This study aimed to predict early recurrence of HCC after microwave ablation using serum proteomic signature. Methods After curative microwave ablation of HCC, 86 patients were followed-up for 1 year. Serum samples were collected before microwave ablation. The mass spectra of proteins were generated using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Serum samples from 50 patients were randomly selected as a training set and for biomarkers discovery and model development. The remaining serum samples were categorized for validation of the algorithm. Results According to preablation serum protein profiling obtained from the 50 HCC samples in the training set, nine significant differentially-expressed proteins were detected in the serum samples between recurrent and non-recurrent patients. Decision classification tree combined with three candidate proteins with m/z values of 7787, 6858 and 6646 was produced using Biomarker Patterns Software with sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 88.9% in the training set. When the SELDI marker pattern was tested with the blinded testing set, it yielded a sensitivity of 80.0%, a specificity of 88.5% and a positive predictive value of 86.1%. Conclusions Differentially-expressed protein peaks in preablation serum screened by SELDI are associated with prognosis of HCC. The decision classification tree is a potential tool in predicting early intrahepatic recurrence in HCC patients after microwave ablation. PMID:24349287

  4. Predicting early intrahepatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after microwave ablation using SELDI-TOF proteomic signature.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-lin; Li, Hua; Yu, Xiao-ling; Liang, Ping; Dong, Bao-wei; Fan, Jin; Li, Meng; Liu, Fang-yi

    2013-01-01

    Despite great progress in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) over the last-decade, intrahepatic recurrence is still the most frequent serious adverse event after all the treatments including microwave ablation. This study aimed to predict early recurrence of HCC after microwave ablation using serum proteomic signature. After curative microwave ablation of HCC, 86 patients were followed-up for 1 year. Serum samples were collected before microwave ablation. The mass spectra of proteins were generated using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Serum samples from 50 patients were randomly selected as a training set and for biomarkers discovery and model development. The remaining serum samples were categorized for validation of the algorithm. According to preablation serum protein profiling obtained from the 50 HCC samples in the training set, nine significant differentially-expressed proteins were detected in the serum samples between recurrent and non-recurrent patients. Decision classification tree combined with three candidate proteins with m/z values of 7787, 6858 and 6646 was produced using Biomarker Patterns Software with sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 88.9% in the training set. When the SELDI marker pattern was tested with the blinded testing set, it yielded a sensitivity of 80.0%, a specificity of 88.5% and a positive predictive value of 86.1%. Differentially-expressed protein peaks in preablation serum screened by SELDI are associated with prognosis of HCC. The decision classification tree is a potential tool in predicting early intrahepatic recurrence in HCC patients after microwave ablation.

  5. Predicting the outcome of ankylosing spondylitis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vastesaeger, Nathan; van der Heijde, Désirée; Inman, Robert D; Wang, Yanxin; Deodhar, Atul; Hsu, Benjamin; Rahman, Mahboob U; Dijkmans, Ben; Geusens, Piet; Vander Cruyssen, Bert; Collantes, Eduardo; Sieper, Joachim; Braun, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To create a model that provides a potential basis for candidate selection for anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment by predicting future outcomes relative to the current disease profile of individual patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods ASSERT and GO–RAISE trial data (n=635) were analysed to identify baseline predictors for various disease-state and disease-activity outcome instruments in AS. Univariate, multivariate, receiver operator characteristic and correlation analyses were performed to select final predictors. Their associations with outcomes were explored. Matrix and algorithm-based prediction models were created using logistic and linear regression, and their accuracies were compared. Numbers needed to treat were calculated to compare the effect size of anti-TNF therapy between the AS matrix subpopulations. Data from registry populations were applied to study how a daily practice AS population is distributed over the prediction model. Results Age, Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI) score, enthesitis, therapy, C-reactive protein (CRP) and HLA-B27 genotype were identified as predictors. Their associations with each outcome instrument varied. However, the combination of these factors enabled adequate prediction of each outcome studied. The matrix model predicted outcomes as well as algorithm-based models and enabled direct comparison of the effect size of anti-TNF treatment outcome in various subpopulations. The trial populations reflected the daily practice AS population. Conclusion Age, BASFI, enthesitis, therapy, CRP and HLA-B27 were associated with outcomes in AS. Their combined use enables adequate prediction of outcome resulting from anti-TNF and conventional therapy in various AS subpopulations. This may help guide clinicians in making treatment decisions in daily practice. PMID:21402563

  6. Prediction of Ablation Rates from Solid Surfaces Exposed to High Temperature Gas Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Coote, David

    2013-01-01

    ablation. Two different ablation models are proposed to determine the heat loss from the solid surface due to the ablation of the solid material. Both of them are physics based. Various numerical simulations were carried out using both models to predict the temperature distribution in the solid and in the gas flow, and then predict the ablation rates at a typical NTR motor hydrogen gas temperature and pressure. Solid mass loss rate per foot of a pipe was also calculated from these predictions. The results are presented for fully developed turbulent flow conditions in a sample SS pipe with a 6 inch diameter.

  7. Prediction of Ablation Rates from Solid Surfaces Exposed to High Temperature Gas Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Coote, David

    2013-01-01

    ablation. Two different ablation models are proposed to determine the heat loss from the solid surface due to the ablation of the solid material. Both of them are physics based. Various numerical simulations were carried out using both models to predict the temperature distribution in the solid and in the gas flow, and then predict the ablation rates at a typical NTR motor hydrogen gas temperature and pressure. Solid mass loss rate per foot of a pipe was also calculated from these predictions. The results are presented for fully developed turbulent flow conditions in a sample SS pipe with a 6 inch diameter.

  8. Association of quality of life, anxiety, and depression with left atrial ablation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Efremidis, Michael; Letsas, Konstantinos P; Lioni, Louiza; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Dimopoulos, Nikolaos P; Karlis, Dimitrios; Bouras, Georgios; Sideris, Antonios; Deftereos, Spyridon

    2014-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with significant impairment of quality of life (QoL). Anxiety and depression are common in AF patients and might predispose to AF. We sought to investigate associations of preablative QoL and stress parameters with AF ablation outcomes, as well as possible changes in QoL, anxiety, and depression parameters after ablation. A total of 57 consecutive patients with paroxysmal AF underwent pulmonary vein (PV) antral isolation. The Short-Form Life Survey-36 items (SF-36), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were assessed before and at 6 months after ablation. After a mean follow-up of 8.0 ± 2.5 months, 41 patients (71.9%) remained free from arrhythmia. Baseline mental health summary QoL SF-36 score was significantly lower in patients with AF recurrence (53.2 ± 10.3 vs 69.7 ± 17.9; P = 0.001), while the physical health summary score did not differ significantly between patients with and without recurrence. Patients with recurrence had higher baseline STAI-trait (41.9 ± 1.5 vs 34.7 ± 4.9) and BDI (17.3 ± 9.7 vs 5.4 ± 3.0) scores (P < 0.001 for both). In multivariable analysis, SF-36 mental health summary, STAI-trait, and BDI scores remained significant predictors of recurrence after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, and hypertension. Mental and physical domain SF-36 summary scores were significantly improved 6 months after ablation (P = 0.001) and a significant reduction in symptoms of depression (P = 0.001) and anxiety (P = 0.001) was observed. Baseline QoL, anxiety, and depression metrics were associated with AF recurrence following PV antral isolation. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in QoL, anxiety, and depression after left atrial ablation. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Predictors of outcome after alcohol septal ablation therapy in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su Min; Lakkis, Nasser M; Franklin, Jennifer; Spencer, William H; Nagueh, Sherif F

    2004-02-24

    Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) therapy results in clinical and hemodynamic improvement in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. However, a subset remains symptomatic afterward, requiring additional procedures. We sought to examine the determinants of an unsatisfactory outcome, defined as unchanged symptoms with <50% reduction of baseline left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient. Of 173 consecutive hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy patients who underwent ASA, 39 had an unsatisfactory outcome after the first procedure. Patients with an unsatisfactory outcome had a higher baseline LVOT gradient, fewer septal arteries injected with ethanol, lower peak creatine kinase (CK), smaller septal area opacified by contrast echocardiography, and higher residual gradient in the catheterization laboratory after ASA (all P<0.05). Symptoms, septal thickness, mitral regurgitation severity, and ventricular function were not determinants of outcome. On multiple logistic regression, LVOT gradient reduction after ASA in the catheterization laboratory to > or =25 mm Hg (OR, 5.5; P=0.01) and peak CK <1300 U/L (OR, 2.5; P=0.04) were the independent predictors of an unsatisfactory outcome. The residual LVOT gradient in the catheterization laboratory and peak CK leak after ASA are the independent predictors of ASA outcome.

  10. 3D transient model to predict temperature and ablated areas during laser processing of metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghshine, Babak. B.; Kiani, Amirkianoosh

    2017-02-01

    Laser processing is one of the most popular small-scale patterning methods and has many applications in semiconductor device fabrication and biomedical engineering. Numerical modelling of this process can be used for better understanding of the process, optimization, and predicting the quality of the final product. An accurate 3D model is presented here for short laser pulses that can predict the ablation depth and temperature distribution on any section of the material in a minimal amount of time. In this transient model, variations of thermal properties, plasma shielding, and phase change are considered. Ablation depth was measured using a 3D optical profiler. Calculated depths are in good agreement with measured values on laser treated titanium surfaces. The proposed model can be applied to a wide range of materials and laser systems.

  11. Non-Fourier based thermal-mechanical tissue damage prediction for thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-01-02

    Prediction of tissue damage under thermal loads plays important role for thermal ablation planning. A new methodology is presented in this paper by combing non-Fourier bio-heat transfer, constitutive elastic mechanics as well as non-rigid motion of dynamics to predict and analyze thermal distribution, thermal-induced mechanical deformation and thermal-mechanical damage of soft tissues under thermal loads. Simulations and comparison analysis demonstrate that the proposed methodology based on the non-Fourier bio-heat transfer can account for the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues and predict tissue thermal damage more accurately than classical Fourier bio-heat transfer based model.

  12. Radiofrequency Ablation of T1a Renal Cell Carcinomas within Renal Transplant Allografts: Oncologic Outcomes and Graft Viability.

    PubMed

    Cool, Derek W; Kachura, John R

    2017-09-13

    To evaluate oncologic outcomes and graft viability after percutaneous RF ablation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) developing within renal transplant allografts. A single-institution, retrospective study reviewed all patients treated with RF ablation for RCC between February 2004 and May 2016. Ten patients were identified (age 49.6 y ± 12.6; 9 men, 1 woman) with 12 biopsy-confirmed RCC tumors within the allograft (all T1a, mean diameter 2.0 cm ± 0.7). Mean time from transplant to RCC diagnosis was 13.2 years ± 6.3. RF ablation was performed on an outpatient basis using conscious sedation. Procedural efficacy, complications, oncologic outcomes, and allograft function were evaluated. Statistical analysis with t tests and Pearson correlation compared allograft function before and after RF ablation and impact of proportional ablation size to allograft volume on function after ablation. Technical success rate and primary technique efficacy were 100% (12/12). No local or distant RCC progression was seen at mean follow-up of 54.3 months ± 38.7 (range, 9-136 months). Graft failure requiring hemodialysis or repeat transplantation occurred in 3 patients (26, 354, and 750 d after RF ablation), all of whom had glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) before ablation. For all patients, mean GFR 6 months after RF ablation (35.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ± 17.7) was not significantly different (P = .8) from preprocedure GFR (36.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ± 14.3). Proportional volume of allograft that was ablated did not correlate with immediate or long-term GFR changes. One patient died of unrelated comorbidities 52 months after ablation. No major complications occurred. RF ablation of renal allograft RCC provided effective oncologic control without adverse impact on graft viability. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Atrial conduction delay predicts atrial fibrillation in paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia patients after radiofrequency catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen-Xing; Zhong, Jing-Quan; Zhang, Wei; Yue, Xin; Rong, Bing; Zhu, Qing; Zheng, Zhaotong; Zhang, Yun

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess whether intra- and inter-atrial conduction delay could predict atrial fibrillation (AF) for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) patients after successful treatment by radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Echocardiography examination was performed on 524 consecutive PSVT patients (15 patients were excluded). Left atrial dimension, right atrial diameter and intra- and inter-atrial conduction delay were measured before ablation. Patients were divided into group A (n = 32): occurrence of AF after the ablation and group B (n = 477): remained in sinus rhythm during follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to estimate the predictive value of intra- and inter-atrial conduction delay. Both intra- and inter-atrial conduction delay were higher in group A than in group B (4.79 ± 0.30 msec vs. 4.56 ± 0.32 msec; 21.98 ± 1.32 msec vs. 20.01 ± 1.33; p < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that intra- and inter-atrial conduction were significant influential factors for the occurrence of AF (odds ratio [OR] = 13.577, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.469-48.914; OR = 2.569, 95% CI, 1.909-3.459, p < 0.05). The ROC cure analysis revealed that intra-atrial conduction delay ≥ 4.45 msec and inter-atrial conduction delay ≥ 20.65 were the most optimal cut-off value for predicting AF in PSVT patients after RFCA. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that the intra- and inter-atrial conduction delay could effectively predict AF in post-ablation PSVT patients.

  14. Mobile thrombus on cardiac implantable electronic device leads of patients undergoing cardiac ablation: incidence, management, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sugrue, Alan; DeSimone, Christopher V; Lenz, Charles J; Packer, Douglas L; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2016-08-01

    The rates of cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) implantations and cardiac ablation procedures are increasing worldwide. To date, the management of CIED lead thrombi in the peri-ablation period remains undefined and key clinical management questions remained unanswered. We sought to describe the clinical course and management strategies of patients with a CIED lead thrombus detected in the peri-ablative setting. We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent a cardiac ablation procedure at Mayo Clinic Rochester from 2000 to 2014. Patients were included in our study cohort if they had documented CIED lead thrombus noted on peri-ablation imaging studies. Electronic medical records were reviewed to determine the overall management strategy, outcomes, and embolic complications in these patients. Our overall cohort included 1833 patients, with 27 (1.4 %) having both cardiac ablation procedures as well as CIED lead thrombus detected on imaging. Of these 27 patients, 21 were male (77 %), and the mean age was 59.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 16.5 months (range 3 days-48.3 months). Anticoagulation was an effective therapeutic strategy, with 11/14 (78.6 %) patients experiencing either resolution of the thrombus or reduction in size on re-imaging. For atrial fibrillation ablation, the most common management strategy was a deferment in ablation with initiation/intensification of anticoagulation medication. For ventricular tachycardia ablations, most procedures involved a modified approach with the use of a retrograde aortic approach to access the left ventricle. No patient had any documented embolic complications. The incidence of lead thrombi in patients undergoing an ablation was small in our study cohort (1.4 %). Anticoagulation and deferral of ablation represented successful management strategies for atrial fibrillation ablation. For patients undergoing ventricular tachycardia ablation, a modified approach using

  15. Characteristics and Outcomes of Atrial Tachycardia Originating from the Sinus Venosus during Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yae Min; Kook, Hyungdon; Kim, Woohyeon; Lee, Son Ki; Choi, Jong-Il; Lim, Hong Euy; Park, Sang Weon

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The sinus venosus (SV) is not a well known source of atrial tachycardia (AT), but it can harbor AT during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Subjects and Methods A total of 1223 patients who underwent catheter ablation for AF were reviewed. Electrophysiological and electrocardiographic characteristics and outcomes after catheter ablation of AT originating from the SV were investigated. Results Ten patients (0.82%) demonstrated AT from the SV (7 males, 53.9±16.0 years, 6 persistent) during ablation of AF. The mean cycle length was 281±73 ms. After pulmonary vein isolation and left atrial ablation, AF converted to AT from the SV during right atrial ablation in 2 patients, by rapid atrial pacing after AF termination in 7 patients, and during isoproterenol infusion in 1 patient. Positive P-waves in inferior leads were shown in most patients (90%). The activation sequence of AT was from proximal to distal in the superior vena cava and high to low in the right atrium, which was similar to that of AT from crista terminalis. Fragmented double potentials were recorded during sinus, and a second discrete potential preceded the onset of P wave by 80±37 ms during AT. Using 4.4±2.7 radiofrequency focal applications, ATs were terminated and became no longer inducible in all. After ablation procedure, two patients showed transient right phrenic nerve palsy. After 19.9±14.8 months, all but 1 patient were free of atrial tachyarrhythmia without complications. Conclusion The AT which develops during AF ablation is rarely originated from SV, and its electrophysiologic characteristics may be helpful in guiding effective focal ablation. PMID:23407327

  16. Thermal ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: a large-scale analysis of long-term outcome and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Ding, J; Jing, X; Wang, Y; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Du, Z

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the long-term outcome and prognostic factors when treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with thermal ablation. A total of 846 HCC patients, diagnosed histopathologically and/or radiologically, underwent thermal ablation from October 2001 to May 2013. Thermal ablation included both radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation (MWA), and was performed by percutaneous, open, and laparoscopic approaches. Clinical data, especially focused on disease-free survival, were retrospectively analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 1,185 thermal ablation treatments were performed, corresponding to 1,240 tumours. The complete ablation rate was 97.1%. The 12-, 24-, 36-, and 60-month disease-free survival rates after thermal ablation were 72.3%, 52.7%, 33.5%, and 16.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that the serum alkaline phosphatase levels (ALP) and the number of tumours were independent risk factors affecting disease-free survival. The 12-, 36-, 60-, 84-, and 120-month overall survival rates of all patients were 92.9%, 74.7%, 58.1%, 41.3%, and 15.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that age, ALP, number of tumours, and treatment sessions per case were independent risk factors related to overall survival. Thermal ablation was a relatively safe and effective procedure. Patients with increased serum ALP levels and/or multiple tumours had a higher incidence of recurrence and poorer prognosis, and therefore, should be monitored closely in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MRI-Guided stereotactic laser ablation for epilepsy surgery: Promising preliminary results for cognitive outcome.

    PubMed

    Drane, Daniel L

    2017-09-23

    Cognitive outcome data are reviewed with respect to the use of magnetic-resonance guided stereotactic laser ablation (SLA) as an epilepsy surgical procedure, with comparisons drawn to traditional open resection procedures. Cognitive outcome with stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy (SLAH) appears better than open resection for several functions dependent on extra-mesial temporal lobe (TL) structures, including category-related naming, verbal fluency, and object/familiar person recognition. Preliminary data suggests episodic, declarative verbal memory can decline following SLAH in the language dominant hemisphere, although early findings suggest comparable or even superior outcomes compared with open resection. The hippocampus has long been considered a central structure supporting episodic, declarative memory, with epilepsy surgical teams attempting to spare it whenever possible. However, ample data from animal and human neuroscience research suggests declarative memory deficits are greater following broader mesial TL lesions that include parahippocampal gyrus and lateral TL inputs. Therefore, employing a neurosurgical technique that restricts the surgical lesion zone holds promise for achieving a better cognitive outcome. Focal SLA lesions outside of the amygdalohippocampal complex may impair select cognitive functions, although few data have been published in such patients to date. SLA is being effectively employed with adults and children with TL or lesional epilepsies across several U.S. epilepsy centers, which may simultaneously optimize cognitive outcome while providing a curative treatment for seizures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of tracked radiofrequency ablation in phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chun-Cheng R.; Miga, Michael I.; Galloway, Robert L.

    2007-10-15

    In radiofrequency ablation (RFA), successful therapy requires accurate, image-guided placement of the ablation device in a location selected by a predictive treatment plan. Current planning methods rely on geometric models of ablations that are not sensitive to underlying physical processes in RFA. Implementing plans based on computational models of RFA with image-guided techniques, however, has not been well characterized. To study the use of computational models of RFA in planning needle placement, this work compared ablations performed with an optically tracked RFA device with corresponding models of the ablations. The calibration of the tracked device allowed the positions of distal features of the device, particularly the tips of the needle electrodes, to be determined to within 1.4{+-}0.6 mm of uncertainty. Ablations were then performed using the tracked device in a phantom system based on an agarose-albumin mixture. Images of the sliced phantom obtained from the ablation experiments were then compared with the predictions of a bioheat transfer model of RFA, which used the positional data of the tracked device obtained during ablation. The model was demonstrated to predict 90% of imaged pixels classified as being ablated. The discrepancies between model predictions and observations were analyzed and attributed to needle tracking inaccuracy as well as to uncertainties in model parameters. The results suggest the feasibility of using finite element modeling to plan ablations with predictable outcomes when implemented using tracked RFA.

  19. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  20. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  1. Interatrial Conduction Time Can Predict New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation After Radiofrequency Ablation of Isolated, Typical Atrial Flutter.

    PubMed

    Henmi, Ryuta; Ejima, Koichiro; Shoda, Morio; Yagishita, Daigo; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2016-07-16

    Many patients with successful atrial flutter (AFL) ablation will develop atrial fibrillation (AF) during follow-up. This study aimed to determine whether prolonged interatrial conduction time (IACT) is associated with risk for new-onset AF after ablation of isolated, typical AFL. Participants were 80 consecutive patients who underwent successful radiofrequency ablation of isolated, typical AFL from 2004 to 2012. Patients with any history of AF prior to AFL ablation were excluded. IACT was defined as the interval from the earliest onset of the P-wave on the ECG to the latest activation in the coronary sinus catheter during sinus rhythm measured after AFL ablation. New-onset AF was identified from 12-lead ECGs, 24-hour ambulatory monitoring, and device interrogations. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 ± 2.5 years after successful AFL ablation, 22 patients (27.5%) developed new-onset AF. Cox regression multivariate analysis demonstrated that IACT was the independent predictor of new-onset AF after AFL ablation (hazard ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.06; P = 0.02). IACT was accurate in predicting new-onset AF (AUC = 0.70). The optimal cut-off point of IACT for predicting new-onset AF was 120 milliseconds (sensitivity 47.6%, specificity 89.8%). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that new-onset AF after AFL ablation was significantly higher in patients with IACT ≥120 milliseconds than in patients with IACT< 120 milliseconds (P = 0.0016). Prolonged IACT predicted new-onset AF after ablation of isolated AFL. This finding may contribute to guiding decisions regarding the maintenance of anticoagulation after AFL ablation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Impact of baseline atrial fibrillation cycle length on acute and long-term outcome of persistent atrial fibrillation ablation.

    PubMed

    Ammar, S; Hessling, G; Paulik, M; Reents, T; Dillier, R; Buiatti, A; Semmler, V; Kolb, C; Haller, B; Deisenhofer, I

    2014-12-01

    A short baseline atrial fibrillation (AF) cycle length (CL) has been associated with a worse outcome after catheter ablation for AF, whereas the impact of a long baseline AFCL is unknown. We investigated the influence of AFCL on acute and long-term success in a large series of patients undergoing catheter ablation for persistent AF. Overall, 177 consecutive patients undergoing catheter ablation of persistent AF using a sequential ablation approach were included in the analysis. AFCL was measured in the left atrial appendage (LAA) at baseline and following each ablation step. The primary endpoint was freedom from any atrial arrhythmia off antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD) with a single ablation procedure after 12 months. Mean AFCL was 164 ± 24 ms. A shorter AFCL was associated with longer AF duration, larger LA diameter, and longer procedure duration. Termination to sinus rhythm (SR) was achieved in 57 (32 %) patients. Baseline AFCL was shorter (161 ± 24 ms) in patients without AF termination compared to patients with AF termination (169 ± 23 m, p = 0.03). The primary endpoint was reached less frequently in patients with a short (<155 ms) AFCL (18 vs. 38.5 %, p = 0.006). Patients with an AFCL between 155 and 200 ms had the best outcome compared to patients with AFCL <155 or ≥200 ms (40 vs. 18 %, p = 0.003). Patients with a baseline AFCL between 155 and 200 ms have the best outcome after a single ablation procedure for persistent AF compared to patients with an AFCL of <155 or ≥200 ms.

  3. TECHNIQUES AND OUTCOMES OF MINIMALLY-INVASIVE TRABECULAR ABLATION AND BYPASS SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Kaplowitz, Kevin; Schuman, Joel S.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS) can improve the conventional, pressure dependent outflow by bypassing or ablating the trabecular meshwork or create alternative drainage routes into the suprachoroidal or subconjunctival space. They have a highly favorable risk profile compared to penetrating surgeries and lower intraocular pressure with variable efficacy that may depend on the extent of outflow segments accessed. Since they are highly standardized procedures that use clear corneal incisions, they can elegantly be combined with cataract and refractive procedures to improve vision in the same session. There is a growing need for surgeons to become proficient in MIGS to address the increasing prevalence of glaucoma and cataracts in a well-informed, aging population. Techniques of visualization and instrumentation in an anatomically highly confined space with semi-transparent tissues are fundamentally different from other anterior segment surgeries and present even experienced surgeons with a substantial learning curve. Here, we provide practical tips and review techniques and outcomes of TM bypass and ablation MIGS. PMID:24338085

  4. A novel parameter for predicting arterial fusion and ablation in finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fankell, Douglas; Kramer, Eric; Taylor, Kenneth; Ferguson, Virginia; Rentschler, Mark E.

    2015-03-01

    Tissue fusion devices apply heat and pressure to ligate or ablate blood vessels during surgery. Although this process is widely used, a predictive finite element (FE) model incorporating both structural mechanics and heat transfer has not been developed, limiting improvements to empirical evidence. This work presents the development of a novel damage parameter, which incorporates stress, water content and temperature, and demonstrates its application in a FE model. A FE model, using the Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden strain energy function to represent the structural mechanics and equations developed by Cezo to model water content and heat transfer, was created to simulate the fusion or ablation of a porcine splenic artery. Using state variables, the stresses, temperature and water content are recorded and combined to create a single parameter at each integration point. The parameter is then compared to a critical value (determined through experiments). If the critical value is reached, the element loses all strength. If the value is not reached, no change occurs. Little experimental data exists for validation, but the resulting stresses, temperatures and water content fall within ranges predicted by prior work. Due to the lack of published data, additional experimental studies are being conducted to rigorously validate and accurately determine the critical value. Ultimately, a novel method for demonstrating tissue damage and fusion in a FE model is presented, providing the first step towards in-depth FE models simulating fusion and ablation of arteries.

  5. Feasibility study on energy prediction of microwave ablation upon uterine adenomyosis and leiomyomas by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Xia, M; Zhi-yu, H; Jian-ming, C; Hong-yu, Z; Rui-fang, X; Yu, Y; Yan-li, H; Bao-wei, D

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of energy prediction of percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA) upon uterine leiomyomas and adenomyosis by MRI. Methods: 63 patients (49 patients with 49 uterine leiomyomas and 14 patients with adenomyosis) who underwent ultrasound-guided PMWA treatment were studied during the period from June 2011 to December 2012. Before PMWA, contrast-enhanced MRI (ceMRI) was performed for all of the patients. Based on the signal intensity (SI) of T2 weighted MRI, uterine leiomyomas were classified as hypointense, isointense and hyperintense. During ablation, the output energy of the microwave was set at 50 W, and T11a microwave antennas were used. ceMRI was performed within 7 days after PMWA treatment. Non-perfused volume and energy required per unit volume were analysed statistically. Results: When unit volume of lesions was ablated, uterine adenomyosis needed more energy than did uterine leiomyomas, and hyperintense uterine leiomyomas needed more energy than did hypointense pattern. Conclusions: MRI SI of uterine leiomyomas and uterine adenomyosis can be used to predict PMWA energy. Advances in knowledge: The conclusions indicate that MRI SI can be used to perform pre-treatment planning, which will make the treatment more precise. PMID:24947033

  6. Differences between real and predicted corneal shapes after aspherical corneal ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anera, Rosario G.; Villa, César; Jiménez, José R.; Gutiérrez, Ramón; Jiménez del Barco, Luis

    2005-07-01

    We study the differences between real and expected corneal shapes, using an aspherical ablation algorithm with a known equation and avoiding the limitation imposed by most studies of refractive surgery in which the ablation equations are not known. We have calculated the theoretical corneal shape predicted by this algorithm, comparing this shape with the real corneal topography. The results indicate that the deviations that appear in the corneal shape are significant for visual performance and for the correction of eye aberrations. If we include in this analysis the effect of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the cornea, we can reduce corneal differences, but they will remain significant. These results confirm that it is essential to minimize corneal differences to achieve effective correction in refractive surgery.

  7. Outcomes after cardioversion and atrial fibrillation ablation in patients treated with rivaroxaban and warfarin in the ROCKET AF trial.

    PubMed

    Piccini, Jonathan P; Stevens, Susanna R; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R; Halperin, Jonathan L; Singer, Daniel E; Hankey, Graeme J; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Fox, Keith A A; Califf, Robert M; Breithardt, Günter

    2013-05-14

    This study sought to investigate the outcomes following cardioversion or catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with warfarin or rivaroxaban. There are limited data on outcomes following cardioversion or catheter ablation in AF patients treated with factor Xa inhibitors. We compared the incidence of electrical cardioversion (ECV), pharmacologic cardioversion (PCV), or AF ablation and subsequent outcomes in patients in a post hoc analysis of the ROCKET AF (Efficacy and Safety Study of Rivaroxaban With Warfarin for the Prevention of Stroke and Non-Central Nervous System Systemic Embolism in Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Over a median follow-up of 2.1 years, 143 patients underwent ECV, 142 underwent PCV, and 79 underwent catheter ablation. The overall incidence of ECV, PCV, or AF ablation was 1.45 per 100 patient-years (n = 321; 1.44 [n = 161] in the warfarin arm, 1.46 [n = 160] in the rivaroxaban arm). The crude rates of stroke and death increased in the first 30 days after cardioversion or ablation. After adjustment for baseline differences, the long-term incidence of stroke or systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61 to 3.11), cardiovascular death (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 0.69 to 3.55), and death from all causes (HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 0.90 to 3.42) were not different before and after cardioversion or AF ablation. Hospitalization increased after cardioversion or AF ablation (HR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.51 to 2.68), but there was no evidence of a differential effect by randomized treatment (p value for interaction = 0.58). The incidence of stroke or systemic embolism (1.88% vs. 1.86%) and death (1.88% vs. 3.73%) were similar in the rivaroxaban-treated and warfarin-treated groups. Despite an increase in hospitalization, there were no differences in long-term stroke rates or survival following cardioversion or AF ablation. Outcomes were similar in patients treated with rivaroxaban or warfarin

  8. The impact of left atrial size on long-term outcome of catheter ablation of chronic atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lo, Li-Wei; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Chang, Shih-Lin; Udyavar, Ameya R; Hu, Yu-Feng; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Tsai, Wen-Chin; Tuan, Ta-Chun; Chang, Chien-Jung; Tang, Wei-Hua; Higa, Satoshi; Tai, Ching-Tai; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2009-11-01

    The left atrial (LA) size is an important predictor of atrial fibrillation (AF) procedural termination and the long-term outcome. We sought to evaluate the long-term outcome in regard to the LA size and procedural termination. Eighty-seven consecutive chronic AF patients (72 males, 53 +/- 10 years) underwent 3D mapping (NavX) and ablation. A stepwise approach including circumferential pulmonary vein (PV) isolation, linear ablation, and continuous complex-fractionated electrogram (CFE) ablation (targeting fractionation intervals of < 50 ms). Electrical cardioversion was applied to those without any procedural termination. The freedom from AF was defined as the maintenance of sinus rhythm without the use of any class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs after the blanking period. Among the 87 patients, all received a circumferential PV isolation, 93% a linear ablation, and 59% a continuous CFE ablation. Those with AF procedural termination (n = 30) had a better long-term outcome when compared with those without termination during a follow-up of 21 +/- 12 months. Moreover, a Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that in those with an LA diameter of less than 45 mm (n = 49), the freedom from AF rate was higher when procedural termination was achieved (P = 0.004). On the contrary, the outcome was comparable in those with an LA diameter of >or= 45 mm (n = 38), whether AF procedural termination occurred or not (P = 0.658). AF procedural termination was related to the long-term success during chronic AF ablation, especially in those with an LA diameter of less than 45 mm. The favorable effect of termination decreased when the LA diameter was >or= 45 mm.

  9. Expectations predict chronic pain treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Stéphanie; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Choinière, Manon; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests an association between patient pretreatment expectations and numerous health outcomes. However, it remains unclear if and how expectations relate to outcomes after treatments in multidisciplinary pain programs. The present study aims at investigating the predictive association between expectations and clinical outcomes in a large database of chronic pain patients. In this observational cohort study, participants were 2272 patients treated in one of 3 university-affiliated multidisciplinary pain treatment centers. All patients received personalized care, including medical, psychological, and/or physical interventions. Patient expectations regarding pain relief and improvements in quality of life and functioning were measured before the first visit to the pain centers and served as predictor variables. Changes in pain intensity, depressive symptoms, pain interference, and tendency to catastrophize, as well as satisfaction with pain treatment and global impressions of change at 6-month follow-up, were considered as treatment outcomes. Structural equation modeling analyses showed significant positive relationships between expectations and most clinical outcomes, and this association was largely mediated by patients' global impressions of change. Similar patterns of relationships between variables were also observed in various subgroups of patients based on sex, age, pain duration, and pain classification. Such results emphasize the relevance of patient expectations as a determinant of outcomes in multimodal pain treatment programs. Furthermore, the results suggest that superior clinical outcomes are observed in individuals who expect high positive outcomes as a result of treatment.

  10. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  11. Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation of the Genicular Nerves for Chronic Pain due to Knee Osteoarthritis: Six-Month Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Zachary L; Korn, Marc; Reddy, Rajiv; Marcolina, Austin; Dayanim, David; Mattie, Ryan; Cushman, Daniel; Bhave, Meghan; McCarthy, Robert J; Khan, Dost; Nagpal, Geeta; Walega, David R

    2017-04-19

    Determine outcomes of cooled radiofrequency ablation (C-RFA) of the genicular nerves for treatment of chronic knee pain due to osteoarthritis (OA). Cross-sectional survey.  Academic pain medicine center.  Consecutive patients with knee OA and 50% or greater pain relief following genicular nerve blocks who underwent genicular nerve C-RFA.  Survey administration six or more months after C-RFA. Pain numeric rating scale (NRS), Medication Quantification Scale III (MQSIII), Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) data were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that predicted treatment success.  Thirty-three patients (52 discrete knees) met inclusion criteria. Thirty-five percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 22-48) of procedures resulted in the combined outcome of 50% or greater reduction in NRS score, reduction of 3.4 or more points in MQSIII score, and PGIC score consistent with "very much improved/improved." Nineteen percent (95% CI = 10-33) of procedures resulted in complete pain relief. Greater duration of pain and greater than 80% pain relief from diagnostic blocks were identified as predictors of treatment success. The accuracy of the model was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.78-0.97, P  <   0.001).  Genicular C-RFA demonstrated a success rate of 35% based on a robust combination of outcome measures, and 19% of procedures resulted in complete relief of pain at a minimum of six months of follow-up. Report of 80% or greater relief from diagnostic blocks and duration of pain of less than five years are associated with high accuracy in predicting treatment success. Further prospective study is needed to optimize the patient selection protocol and success rate of this procedure.

  12. Preliminary Outcome of Microwave Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Breaking the 3-cm Barrier?

    PubMed

    Thamtorawat, Somrach; Hicks, Robert M; Yu, Jenifer; Siripongsakun, Surachate; Lin, Wei-Chan; Raman, Steven S; McWilliams, Justin P; Douek, Michael; Bahrami, Simin; Lu, David S K

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate preliminary outcomes after microwave ablation (MWA) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) up to 5 cm and to determine the influence of tumor size. Electronic records were searched for HCC and MWA. Between January 2011 and September 2014, 173 HCCs up to 5 cm were treated by MWA in 129 consecutive patients (89 men, 40 women; mean age, 66.9 y ± 9.5). Tumor characteristics related to local tumor progression and primary and secondary treatment efficacy were evaluated by univariate analysis. Outcomes were compared between tumors ≤ 3 cm and tumors > 3 cm. Technical success, primary efficacy, and secondary efficacy were 96.5%, 99.4%, and 94.2% at a mean follow-up period of 11.8 months ± 9.8 (range, 0.8-40.6 mo). Analysis of tumor characteristics showed no significant risk factor for local tumor progression, including subcapsular location (P = .176), tumor size (P = .402), and perivascular tumor location (P = .323). The 1-year and 2-year secondary or overall treatment efficacy rates for tumors measuring ≤ 3 cm were 91.2% and 82.1% and for tumors 3.1-5 cm were 92.3% and 83.9% (P = .773). The number of sessions to achieve secondary efficacy was higher in the larger tumor group (1.13 vs 1.06, P = .005). There were three major complications in 134 procedures (2.2%). With use of current-generation MWA devices, percutaneous ablation of HCCs up to 5 cm can be achieved with high efficacy. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Procedural and clinical outcomes after catheter ablation of unstable ventricular tachycardia supported by a percutaneous left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Arash; Gearoid O'Neill, P; Gregory, David; Scotti, Dennis; Bailey, Sean; Brunton, Scott; Chang, Michael; d'Avila, André

    2014-07-01

    Hemodynamic support using percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (pLVADs) during catheter mapping and ablation of unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT) can provide effective end-organ perfusion. However, its effect on procedural and clinical outcomes remains unclear. To retrospectively evaluate the procedural and clinical outcomes after the catheter ablation of unstable VT with and without pLVAD support. Sixty-eight consecutive unstable, scar-mediated endocardial and/or epicardial VT ablation procedures performed in 63 patients were evaluated. During VT mapping and ablation, hemodynamic support was provided by intravenous inotropes with a pLVAD (n = 34) or without a pLVAD (control; n = 34). Baseline patient characteristics were similar. VT was sustained longer with a pLVAD (27.4 ± 18.7 minutes) than without a pLVAD (5.3 ± 3.6 minutes) (P < .001). A higher number of VTs were terminated during ablation with a pLVAD (1.2 ± 0.9 per procedure) than without a pLVAD (0.4 ± 0.6 per procedure) (P < .001). Total radiofrequency ablation time was shorter with a pLVAD (53 ± 30 minutes) than without a pLVAD (68 ± 33 minutes) (P = .022), but with similar procedural success rates (71% for both pLVAD and control groups; P = 1.000). Although during 19 ± 12 months of follow-up VT recurrence did not differ between pLVAD (26%) and control (41%) groups (P = .305), the composite end point of 30-day rehospitalization, redo-VT ablation, recurrent implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapies, and 3-month mortality was lower with a pLVAD (12%) than without a pLVAD (35%) (P = .043). In this nonrandomized retrospective study, catheter ablation of unstable VT supported by a pLVAD was associated with shorter ablation times and reduced hospital length of stay. While pLVAD support did not affect VT recurrence, it was associated with a lower composite end point of 30-day rehospitalization, redo-VT ablation, recurrent implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapies, and 3-month

  14. One-year clinical outcome after ablation with a novel multipolar irrigated ablation catheter for treatment of atrial fibrillation: potential implications for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Wakili, Reza; Siebermair, Johannes; Fichtner, Stephanie; Sinner, Moritz F; Klocker, Eva; Olesch, Lucia; Hilberath, Jan N; Sarai, Samira; Clauss, Sebastian; Sattler, Stefan; Kääb, Stefan; Estner, Heidi L

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an established therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, PVI remains a time-consuming procedure. A novel multipolar irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation catheter (nMARQ™) is aiming to improve PVI. We investigated the influence on procedural parameters and assessed clinical outcomes after PVI using this novel catheter. Fifty-eight consecutive patients with paroxysmal AF were equally allocated (n = 29/group) to PVI treatment with (i) the novel multipolar ablation catheter (nMARQ™) and (ii) a standard single-tip ablation catheter (SAC). Study endpoints included procedure time, fluoroscopy time, radiation dose, RF time, number of energy applications, and clinical outcome defined as freedom from AF after a single procedure. Successful PVI was confirmed by a separate circular, multipolar mapping catheter in all patients treated with the nMARQ™. Pulmonary vein isolation was achieved in 100% in the SAC group. In the nMARQ™ group, PVI was suggested in all patients. However, confirmatory mapping revealed persistent pulmonary vein (PV) conduction in 19 out of 29 nMARQ™ patients. These patients underwent further ablation, which still failed to achieve PVI in 5 of the 29 nMARQ™ patients, mainly due to significant temperature rise in the oesophagus and device-related limitations reaching the right inferior PV. Mean fluoroscopy time (31 ± 12 vs. 23 ± 10 min, P < 0.05) and (132 ± 37 vs. 109 ± 30 min, P < 0.05) were longer in nMARQ™ vs. SAC patients. Radiofrequency time was shorter in nMARQ™ vs. SAC group (21 ± 9 vs. 35 ± 12 min, P < 0.001). Radiation dose and the number of energy applications did not differ between both groups. Clinical outcome analysis revealed no significant differences (nMARQ™: 72 vs. SAC: 72%) after a mean follow-up of 373 ± 278 days. The use of the nMARQ™ catheter is associated with important device-related limitations to achieve successful PVI. However, clinical outcomes were equivalent in n

  15. Radical ablative surgery and radial forearm free flap (RFFF) reconstruction for patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer: postoperative outcomes and oncologic and functional results.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Alexandre; Poissonnet, Gilles; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Laout, Claire; Vallicioni, Jacques; Demard, François; Peyrade, Frédéric; Follana, Philippe; Bensadoun, René-Jean; Benezery, Karen; Thariat, Juliette; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Sudaka, Anne; Dassonville, Olivier

    2009-06-01

    Radical ablative surgery and radial forearm free flap (RFFF) reconstruction provide promising oncologic and functional results in patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer. To assess the postoperative outcomes and the oncologic and functional results, with their main predictive factors, after radical ablative surgery and RFFF reconstruction for patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer. Between 2000 and 2006, we prospectively analyzed the postoperative, oncologic and functional outcomes of all previously untreated patients who underwent this type of surgery. A total of 132 patients were enrolled in this study. There were three RFFF failures. The rate of surgical complications was 20%. The 5-year locoregional control and overall survival rates were 68% and 52%, respectively. Advanced age, high comorbidity index, elevated overall stage and tumoral involvement of the inner part of the cheek were correlated with a lower overall survival rate. A good functional result was obtained for oral diet, speech, mouth opening and aesthetic outcome in 87%, 80%, 86% and 88% of the patients, respectively. High comorbidity index, large flap surface, radiotherapy and tumoral involvement of the mobile tongue were significant predictors of poorer functional or aesthetic outcomes.

  16. Muscle Mass Predicts Outcomes Following Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    DiMartini, Andrea; Cruz, Ruy J.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Goodpaster, Bret; Fox, Kristen; Kim, Kevin H.; Fontes, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims For patients with end-stage liver disease commonly used indices of nutritional status (i.e. body weight and BMI) are often inflated due to fluid overload (i.e. ascites, peripheral edema) resulting in an underdiagnosis of malnutrition. As muscle is the largest protein reservoir in the body, an estimate of muscle mass may be a more reliable and valid estimate of nutritional status. Methods Therefore, we used pre-transplant computerized tomography data of 338 liver transplant (LTX) candidates to identify muscle and fat mass based on a specific abdominal transverse section commonly used in body composition analyses and investigated the contribution of this measure to specific post-LTX outcomes. Results We found the majority, 68%, of our patients could be defined as cachetic. For men muscle mass predicted many important post-transplant outcomes including intensive care unit (ICU) and total length of stay and days of intubation. Muscle mass was a significant predictor of survival and also predicted disposition to home vs another facility. For women muscle mass predicted lengths of ICU and total stay and days of intubation but the effect was modest. Muscle mass did not predict survival or disposition for women. Conclusions As pre-transplant muscle mass was associated with many important post-operative outcomes we discuss these findings in the context of possible pre-transplant interventions to either improve or sustain muscle mass before surgery. PMID:23960026

  17. Muscle mass predicts outcomes following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    DiMartini, Andrea; Cruz, Ruy J; Dew, Mary Amanda; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Goodpaster, Bret; Fox, Kristen; Kim, Kevin H; Fontes, Paulo

    2013-11-01

    For patients with end-stage liver disease, commonly used indices of nutritional status (ie, body weight and body mass index) are often inflated because of fluid overload (ie, ascites and peripheral edema), and this results in an underdiagnosis of malnutrition. Because muscle is the largest protein reservoir in the body, an estimate of the muscle mass may be a more reliable and valid estimate of nutritional status. Therefore, we used pretransplant computed tomography data for 338 liver transplantation (LT) candidates to identify muscle and fat mass on the basis of a specific abdominal transverse section commonly used in body composition analyses, and we investigated the contribution of this measure to specific post-LT outcomes. We found that the majority of our patients (68%) could be defined as cachectic. For men, muscle mass predicted many important posttransplant outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) stay, total length of stay (LOS), and days of intubation. Muscle mass was a significant predictor of survival and also predicted disposition to home versus another facility. For women, muscle mass predicted ICU stay, total LOS, and days of intubation, but the effect was modest. Muscle mass did not predict survival or disposition for women. In conclusion, because pretransplant muscle mass is associated with many important postoperative outcomes, we discuss these findings in the context of possible pretransplant interventions for either improving or sustaining muscle mass before surgery. © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Serum Galectin-3 Levels Predict Recurrences after Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Clementy, Nicolas; Benhenda, Nazih; Piver, Eric; Pierre, Bertrand; Bernard, Anne; Fauchier, Laurent; Pages, Jean-Christophe; Babuty, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a biomarker of fibrosis and atrial remodeling, involved in the mechanisms of initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to study the accuracy of galectin-3 level in predicting recurrences of AF after ablation. Serum concentrations of galectin-3 were determined in a consecutive series of patients addressed for AF ablation in our center. After a 3-month blanking period, recurrences of atrial arrhythmias were collected during the first year in all patients, using Holter monitoring at 3, 6 months and 12 months. A total of 160 patients were included, with a mean galectin-3 rate was 14.4 ± 5.6 ng/mL. At 12-month, 55 patients (34%) had reexperienced sustained atrial arrhythmia. Only higher galectin-3 level (HR = 1.07 [1.01–1.12], p = 0.02) and larger left atrial diameter (HR = 1.07 [1.03–1.12], p = 0.001) independently predicted recurrence. Patients with both galectin-3 level <15 ng/mL and left atrial diameter <40 millimeters had a 1-year arrhythmia-free survival rate − after a single procedure without anti-arrhythmic drug − of 91%, as compared with 41% in patients with galectin-3 ≥ 15 and left trial diameter ≥40 (p < 0.0001), whether AF was paroxysmal or persistent. Galectin-3 and left atrial diameters, rather than clinical presentation of AF, predict recurrences after ablation. PMID:27677964

  19. Predictable surface ablation of dielectrics with few-cycle laser pulse even beyond air ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, C. Sentis, M.; Utéza, O.; Sanner, N.

    2016-08-01

    We study surface ablation of dielectrics with single-shot few-cycle optical pulse (∼10 fs) in air, at intensities below and above the onset of air ionization. We perform 3D analysis and careful calibration of the fluence distribution at the laser focus, spanning from linear– to nonlinear– focusing regimes, enabling to thoroughly characterize the severe limitation of the fluence delivered onto the sample surface upon increase of incident pulse energy. Despite significant beam reshaping taking place at high fluence, we demonstrate that it is nevertheless possible to confidently predict the resulting crater profiles on fused silica surface, even in the regime of filamentation.

  20. Comparable Outcomes of Ultrasound versus Computed Tomography in the Guidance of Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lu-Hung; Hwang, Jen-I; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Wu, Chun-Ying; Lee, Shou-Wu; Yang, Sheng-Shun; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Chang, Chi-Sen; Lee, Teng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) in the guidance of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed consecutive treatment-naïve patients who received curative RFA for HCC from January 2008 to July 2013. Patients were divided into the US group or the CT group according to their RFA guidance instruments. Patients who were only suitable for US- or CT-guided RFA were excluded. Cumulative incidences of and hazard ratios for HCC recurrence were analyzed after adjusting for competing mortality risk. Results We recruited a total of 101 patients in the US group and 51 patients in the CT group. The baseline demographic characteristics were not significantly different in both groups. Initial response rates were similar between the two groups (US vs. CT: 89.1% vs. 92.2%, p = 0.54), and complete tumor ablation was finally achieved for all patients. However, more ablations per session were performed in US group (median 2.0 [1.0–3.0] vs. 1.0 [1.0–2.0]; p<0.01). The 1-, 2- and 3-year local tumor recurrence rates (US vs. CT: 13.0%, 20.9%, and 29.2% vs. 11.2%, 29.8% and 29.8%, respectively) and overall mortality rates (US vs. CT: 5.2%, 9.6% and 16.5% vs. 0%, 3.1% and 23.8%, respectively) were not significantly different. In multivariate analysis, tumor characteristics and underlying liver function, but not US or CT guidance, were independent prognostic factors. The complication rates were similar between the two groups (US vs. CT: 10.9% vs. 9.8%; p = 0.71), and there was no procedure-related mortality. Conclusions With comparable major outcomes, either US or CT can be used in the guidance of RFA in experience hands. PMID:28068369

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: 10-Year Outcome and Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Shiina, Shuichiro; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Arano, Toru; Uchino, Koji; Enooku, Kenichiro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Asaoka, Yoshinari; Sato, Takahisa; Masuzaki, Ryota; Kondo, Yuji; Goto, Tadashi; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Omata, Masao; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is widely performed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there has been no report on 10-year outcome of RFA. The objective of this study was to report a 10-year consecutive case series at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: We performed 2,982 RFA treatments on 1,170 primary HCC patients and analyzed a collected database. RESULTS: Final computed tomography images showed complete tumor ablation in 2,964 (99.4%) of 2,982 treatments performed for the 1,170 primary HCC patients. With a median follow-up of 38.2 months, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 60.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 56.7–63.9%) and 27.3% (95% CI: 21.5–34.7%), respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age, antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), Child-Pugh class, tumor size, tumor number, serum des-γ-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP) level, and serum lectin-reactive α-fetoprotein level (AFP-L3) were significantly related to survival. Five- and 10-year local tumor progression rates were both 3.2% (95% CI: 2.1–4.3%). Serum DCP level alone was significantly related to local tumor progression. Five- and 10-year distant recurrence rates were 74.8% (95% CI: 71.8–77.8%) and 80.8% (95% CI: 77.4–84.3%), respectively. Anti-HCV, Child-Pugh class, platelet count, tumor size, tumor number, serum AFP level, and serum DCP level were significantly related to distant recurrence. There were 67 complications (2.2%) and 1 death (0.03%). CONCLUSIONS: RFA could be locally curative for HCC, resulting in survival for as long as 10 years, and was a safe procedure. RFA might be a first-line treatment for selected patients with early-stage HCC. PMID:22158026

  2. Catheter ablation of scar-based ventricular tachycardia: Relationship of procedure duration to outcomes and hospital mortality.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ricky; Ma, Sootkeng; Tung, Roderick; Stevens, Steven; Macias, Carlos; Bradfield, Jason; Buch, Eric; Vaseghi, Marmar; Fujimura, Osama; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Mandapati, Ravi; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Boyle, Noel G

    2015-01-01

    Ablation has become an important option for treatment of ventricular tachycardia (VT). The influence of procedure duration on outcomes remains unexamined. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of procedure duration on outcomes and complications over an 8-year period Patients referred for scar-mediated VT ablation from 2004 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Procedure duration was defined as the time from the insertion of catheters through the femoral vein to the time of their withdrawal. Procedure duration was analyzed in relationship with baseline and intraoperative covariates, acute procedural outcomes, complications, and 6-month clinical outcomes. One hundred forty-eight patients underwent VT ablation with mean procedure duration of 5.7 ± 1.8 hours. VT recurrence and survival at 6 months were 46% and 82%, respectively, and were not associated with procedure duration. Hospital mortality increased with intraoperative intraaortic balloon pump insertion (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 13.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.35-79.94, P = .004) and was improved with successful ablation of the clinical VT as a procedural end-point (adjusted OR 0.13, 95% Cl 0.03-0.54, P = .005). The association between procedure duration and hospital mortality remained after adjusting for significant baseline variables (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.14-2.68, P = .0098) and intraoperative variables (adjusted OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.12-2.29, P = .0104). Hospital mortality was significantly increased by unsuccessful clinical VT ablation as a procedural end-point and intraoperative intraaortic balloon pump insertion. However, after adjusting for significant baseline and intraoperative covariates, procedure duration still was associated with increased hospital mortality. Procedure duration had no impact on VT recurrence and survival at 6 months. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Survival outcome of salvage hepatectomy in patients with local, recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent radiofrequency ablation as their first treatment.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masaki; Nakai, Takuya; Hayashi, Michihiro; Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Nagano, Hiroaki; Wada, Hiroshi; Kaibori, Masaki; Matsui, Kosuke; Tanaka, Shogo; Yamaue, Hiroki; Kubo, Shoji

    2016-09-01

    Local recurrence is a specific problem after radiofrequency ablation of small hepatocellular carcinoma, and additional treatment is an important issue. We aimed to investigate the outcome of salvage hepatectomy in patients who develop local, recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after treatment with radiofrequency ablation. From 2001-2013, we reviewed 58 patients from 6 university hospitals with local, recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent salvage hepatectomy after their initial radiofrequency ablation treatment. Pathologic characteristics and prognostic factors influencing overall survival were analyzed. Noncurative resection, des-gamma carboxy prothrombin levels >40 mAU/mL, and multiple preceding treatments before salvage hepatectomy were negative prognostic factors for overall survival. The 5-year survivals for the prognostic factors were 0%, 24%, and 30%, respectively, after salvage hepatectomy, and 0%, 54%, and 54% after initial radiofrequency ablation treatment, respectively. As for the pathologic finding of local, recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation, vascular invasion was observed frequently in patients with increases in des-gamma carboxy prothrombin levels and with multiple preceding treatments before salvage hepatectomy with a frequency of 59% and 53%, respectively (P < .01 and .05). Noncurative resection, increases in serum des-gamma carboxy prothrombin, and multiple preceding treatments were prognostic factors for subsequent salvage hepatectomy; nevertheless, survival outcomes were still acceptable when a curative salvage hepatectomy was performed. Increases in serum des-gamma carboxy prothrombin and multiple preceding treatments were positive predictors for pathologic vascular invasion. These factors should be taken into consideration when selecting treatment modalities for locally recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma following radiofrequency ablation. Repetition of unsuccessful, loco-regional treatment would appear

  4. Scalp EEG does not predict hemispherectomy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Hansel M.; Park, Yong D.; Holland, Katherine; Horn, Paul S.; Byars, Anna W.; Mangano, Francesco T.; Smith, Joseph R.; Lee, Mark R.; Lee, Ki-Hyeong

    2012-01-01

    Background Functional hemispherectomy is effective in carefully selected patients, resulting in a reduction of seizure burden up to complete resolution, improvement of intellectual development, and developmental benefit despite possible additional neurological deficit. Despite apparent hemispheric pathology on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or other imaging tests, scalp electroencephalography (EEG) could be suggestive of bilateral ictal onset or even ictal onset contralateral to the dominant imaging abnormality. We aimed to investigate the role of scalp EEG lateralization pre-operatively in predicting outcome. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 54 patients who underwent hemispherectomy between 1991 and 2009 at Medical College of Georgia (1991–2006) and Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center (2006–2009) and had at least one year post-operative follow-up. All preoperative EEGs were reviewed, and classified as either lateralizing or nonlateralizing, for both ictal and interictal EEG recordings. Results Of 54 patients, 42 (78%) became seizure free. Twenty-four (44%) of 54 had a nonlateralizing ictal or interictal EEG. Further analysis was based on etiology of epilepsy, including malformation of cortical development (MCD), Rasmussen syndrome (RS), and stroke (CVA). EEG nonlateralization did not predict poor outcome in any of the etiology groups evaluated. Conclusion Scalp EEG abnormalities in contralateral or bilateral hemispheres do not, in isolation, predict a poor outcome from hemispherectomy. Results of other non-invasive and invasive evaluations should be used to determine candidacy. PMID:21813300

  5. From Snow to Flow: Predicting the Timing of Peak Streamflow Using SNOTEL Ablation Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, K. J.; McNamara, J. P.; Abramovich, R.

    2014-12-01

    It is well understood that there exists a relationship between mountainous snowpack and seasonal streamflow. For snow-dominated river basins within the western United States, ~ 80% of streamflow is a result of seasonal snowmelt. In Idaho, where a significant amount of winter precipitation is stored as snowpack, predictions for the timing and magnitude of peak streamflow are essential for many water users, including water resource and irrigation managers. Of particular interest is the relationship between the timing of snowmelt and the timing of peak streamflow. While agencies such as the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) are tasked with the responsibility of providing water supply forecasts, few methods have used a data-driven, empirical modeling approach to investigate relationships between ablation timing monitored by the NRCS SNOTEL program and streamflow monitored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Such analyses could provide predictive tools that allow water users and managers to easily access and interpret information about peak streamflow. Idaho hosts over 80 SNOTEL sites that report hydrometeorological data, and 213 streamflow gauging stations. The goal of this study is to establish relationships between the timing of ablation at SNOTEL stations and peak streamflow within select basins in Idaho, and to synthesize results into user-friendly visualization tools that will provide estimates of the probability that peak streamflow will occur within a certain number of days as ablation progresses from 0 to 100%. In our initial test basin, the Boise River basin, we evaluated melt-out levels in increments of 10% from three SNOTEL sites located in the basin and produced cumulative density function (CDF) curves to illustrate the probability of peak streamflow occurring within a given number of days from the date at which the SNOTEL site reached each melt-out level.

  6. Transport osteogenesis in the maxillofacial skeleton: outcomes of a versatile reconstruction method following tumor ablation.

    PubMed

    González-García, Raúl; Naval-Gías, Luis

    2010-03-01

    To report our clinical experience using bifocal distraction osteogenesis (BDO) with internal devices to treat patients having bony defects of the maxillofacial skeleton following tumor ablation and to focus on outcomes of dental implant placement in patients having maxillomandibular segmental defects. Retrospective case series. Academic research. Patients were selected according to the following inclusion criteria: a bony defect in the maxillofacial skeleton, moderate soft-tissue defect, local or general conditions that preclude more aggressive surgery, and adequate patient compliance. Types of BDO included horizontal mandibular or maxillar alveolar, bilateral alveolar, vertical mandibular or maxillar, ramus and body, mandibular angle, symphysis, the 2-step procedure, temporalis muscle flap reconstruction, vascularized free-fibular flap reconstruction, radial forearm free-flap reconstruction, and pectoralis muscle flap reconstruction. The latency period was 10 days, after which distraction was initiated at a rate of 0.5 mm/d. The distraction period continued until the transport disk reached the distal stump. The consolidation period ranged from 8 to 48 weeks. Seven patients required additional bone grafting to complete union with the residual bone. Twenty-eight patients having bony defects of the maxillofacial skeleton underwent BDO. The mean (SD) bony defect length was 47.0 (20.1) mm. The mean (SD) distracted bone lengthening was 36.5 (20.0) mm, with a mean (SD) consolidation period of 16.4 (8.0) weeks. The bony defect involved the hemimandibular body in 12 patients, with greater involvement of the body and symphysis in 4 patients and of the bilateral mandibular body in 2 patients. Complications after BDO included the following: discomfort in 8 patients, complete intraoral exposure and infection in 3 patients, partial cutaneous exposure in 1 patient, premature consolidation in 1 patient, and temporomandibular joint ankylosis in 1 patient. Overall, BDO for

  7. Outcomes following hysterectomy or endometrial ablation for heavy menstrual bleeding: retrospective analysis of hospital episode statistics in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Cooper, K; Lee, Aj; Chien, P; Raja, Ea; Timmaraju, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2011-09-01

    To determine the risk of further gynaecological surgery and gynaecological cancer following hysterectomy and endometrial ablation in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Population-based retrospective cohort study. Scottish hospitals between 1989 and 2006. Population or sample Scottish women treated with hysterectomy or endometrial ablation for heavy menstrual bleeding between 1989 and 2006. Anonymised data collected by the Scottish Information Services Division were analysed using appropriate methods across the hysterectomy and endometrial ablation groups. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine the survival experience for different surgical outcomes after adjustment for age, year of primary operation and Carstairs quintile. Further gynaecological surgery and gynaecological cancer in women. A total of 37,120 women had a hysterectomy, 11,299 women underwent endometrial ablation without a subsequent hysterectomy and 2779 women underwent endometrial ablation followed by a subsequent hysterectomy. The median (interquartile range) duration of follow-up was 11.6 years (7.9, 14.8) and 6.2 years (2.7, 10.8) in the hysterectomy and endometrial ablation (without hysterectomy) cohorts, respectively. Compared with women who underwent hysterectomy, those who underwent ablation were less likely to need pelvic floor repair [adjusted hazards ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.50, 0.77] or tension-free vaginal tape surgery for stress urinary incontinence (adjusted hazards ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41, 0.74). Abdominal hysterectomy was associated with a lower chance than vaginal hysterectomy of pelvic floor repair surgery (hazards ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.45, 0.64). Overall, the number of women diagnosed with cancer was small, the largest group being breast cancer (n = 584, 1.57% and n = 130, 1.15% in the hysterectomy and endometrial ablation groups respectively; adjusted hazards ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.93-1.39). Hysterectomy is associated with a

  8. Prospective, Tissue-Specific Optimization of Ablation for Multiwavelet Reentry: Predicting the Required Amount, Location, and Configuration of Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Richard T; Benson, Bryce E; Bates, Jason H T; Spector, Peter S

    2016-03-01

    Treatment of multiwavelet reentry (MWR) remains difficult. We previously developed a metric, the fibrillogenicity index, to assess the propensity of homogeneous, 2-dimensional tissues to support MWR. In this study, we demonstrate a method by which fibrillogenicity index can be generalized to heterogeneous tissues and validate an algorithm for prospective, tissue-specific optimization of ablation to reduce MWR burden. We used a computational model to simulate and measure the duration of MWR in tissues with heterogeneously distributed action potential durations and then assessed the relative efficacy of a variety of ablation strategies for reducing tissues' ability to support MWR. We then derived and tested a strategy in which multiple linear lesions partially divided a fibrillogenic tissue into functionally equivalent subsections. The composite action potential duration of heterogeneous tissue was well approximated by an inverse sum of cellular action potential durations (R(2)=0.82). Linear ablation more efficiently reduced MWR duration than branching ablation patterns and optimally reduced disease burden when positioned at a tissue's functional (rather than geometric) center. The duration of MWR after application of prospective, individually optimized ablation sets fell within 4.4% (95% confidence interval, 3-5.8) of the predicted target. We think that this study presents a novel approach for (1) quantifying the extent of a tissue's electric derangement, (2) prospectively determining the amount of ablation required to minimize the burden of MWR, and (3) predicting the most efficient distribution of these ablation lesions in tissue refractory to standard ablation strategies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Predicting outcome in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Willem J; Kowdley, Kris V; van Buuren, Henk R

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a slowly progressive autoimmune liver disease that may ultimately result in liver failure and premature death. Predicting outcome is of key importance in clinical management and an essential requirement for patients counselling and timing of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The following factors are associated with progressive disease and worse outcome: young age at diagnosis, male gender, histological presence of cirrhosis, accelerated marked uctopenia in relation to the amount of fibrosis, high serum bilirubin, low serum albumin levels, high serum alkaline phosphatase levels, esophageal varices, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and lack of biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The prognostic significance of symptoms at diagnosis is uncertain. UDCA therapy and liver transplantation have a significant beneficial effect on the outcome of the disease. The Mayo risk score in PBC can be used for estimating individual prognosis. The Newcastle Varices in PBC Score may be a useful clinical tool to predict the risk for development of esophageal varices. Male gender, cirrhosis and non-response to UDCA therapy in particular, are risk factors for development of HCC.

  10. Predicting outcomes in congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Daodu, Oluwatomilayo; Brindle, Mary E

    2017-06-01

    Identification of CDH infant populations at high risk for mortality postnatally may help to develop targeted care strategies, guide discussions surrounding palliation and contribute to standardizing reporting and benchmarking, so that care strategies at different centers can be compared. Clinical prediction rules are evidence-based tools that combine multiple predictors to estimate the probability that a particular outcome in an individual patient will occur. In CDH, a suitable clinical prediction rule can stratify high- and low-risk populations and provide the ability to tailor management strategies based on severity. The ideal prediction tool for infants born with CDH would be validated in a large population, generalizable, easily applied in a clinical setting and would clearly discriminate patients at the highest and lowest risk of death. To date, 4 postnatal major clinical prediction rules have been published and validated in the North American CDH population. These models contain variables such as birth weight, Apgar score, blood gases, as well as measures of pulmonary hypertension, and associated anomalies. In an era of standardized care plans and population-based strategies, the appropriate selection and application of a generalizable tool to provide an opportunity for benchmarking, policy creation, and centralizing the care of high-risk populations. A well-designed clinical prediction tool remains the most practical and expedient way to achieve these goals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Repeat percutaneous epicardial mapping and ablation of ventricular tachycardia: safety and outcome.

    PubMed

    Tschabrunn, Cory M; Haqqani, Haris M; Zado, Erica S; Marchlinski, Francis E

    2012-07-01

    Epicardial mapping and ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) has been increasingly performed. Occasionally additional ablation is necessary, requiring repeat percutaneous access to the pericardial space. We studied 30 consecutive patients who required a repeat epicardial procedure. We specifically examined the success and safety of repeat percutaneous pericardial access as well as the ability to map and ablate epicardial VT targets. Percutaneous pericardial access at a median of 110 days after the last procedure was successful in all 30 patients. Significant adhesions interfering with catheter mapping were encountered in 7 patients (23%); 6 had received intrapericardial triamcinolone acetate (IPTA) with prior procedures. Using blunt dissection with a deflected ablation catheter and a steerable sheath, adhesions were divided allowing for complete catheter mapping in 5 patients with areas of dense adherence compartmentalizing the pericardium in 1 patient and precluding ablation over previously targeted ablation site in the second. Targeted VT noninducibility was achieved in 27 (90%) patients including 7 patients with adhesions. No direct complications related to pericardial access or adhesions disruption occurred. One periprocedural death occurred from refractory cardiogenic shock in patient with LV ejection fraction of 10%. Another patient developed asymptomatic positive Haemophilus influenzae pericardial fluid cultures identified at second procedure, which was successfully treated. Repeat access can be obtained after prior epicardial ablation. Adhesions from prior procedures may limit mapping, but can usually be disrupted mechanically and allow for ablation of recurrent VT. IPTA may not completely prevent adhesions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Meta-analysis of cryoablation versus microwave ablation for small renal masses: is there a difference in outcome?

    PubMed

    Martin, Jason; Athreya, Sriharsha

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare local and metastatic recurrence of small renal masses primarily treated by cryoablation or microwave ablation. The MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PUBMED databases were searched to review the treatment of small renal masses with cryoablation or microwave ablation. Fifty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-one studies representing 3950 kidney lesions were analyzed. No differences were detected in the mean patient age (P = 0.150) or duration of follow-up (P = 0.070). The mean tumor size was significantly larger in the microwave ablation group compared with the cryoablation group (P = 0.030). There was no difference between microwave ablation and cryoablation groups in terms of primary effectiveness (93.75% vs. 91.27%, respectively; P = 0.400), cancer-specific survival (98.27% vs. 96.8%, respectively; P = 0.470), local tumor progression (4.07% vs. 2.53%, respectively; P = 0.460), or progression to metastatic disease (0.8% vs. 0%, respectively; P = 0.120). Patient age was predictive of overall complications in the multivariate analysis (P = 0.020). Local tumor progression with cryoablation was predicted by the mean follow-up duration using univariate (P = 0.009) and multivariate regression (P = 0.003). Clear cell and angiomyolipoma were more frequent in the microwave ablation group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.03328, respectively), and papillary, chromophobe, and oncocytoma were more frequent in the cryoablation group (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.0004, respectively). Open access was used more often in the microwave ablation group than in the cryoablation group (12.20% vs. 1.04%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and percutaneous access was used more frequently in the cryoablation group than in the microwave ablation group (88.64% vs. 37.20%, respectively; P = 0.0021). There is no difference in local or metastatic recurrence between cryoablation- and microwave ablation-treated small renal masses.

  13. Male factors in ART outcome prediction.

    PubMed

    Brincat, Dale; Catania, Sarah; Wismayer, Pierre Schembri; Calleja-Agius, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Paternal influences on reproduction are significant causing about half of the infertile couples to turn to assisted reproductive techniques. Due to the increasing proportion of infertile couples adopting to conceive by in vitro fertilisation (IVF), predicting outcomes is of ever increasing importance. Since pregnancy rates following IVF are still quite low, prognostic information is very helpful in clinical decisions. Although significant research has been done on the maternal influence, male factor infertility is relatively understudied. To date, potential predictors include: method of fertilisation, age, reactive oxygen species, sperm quality parameters and DNA fragmentation. Predictors under investigation which show promising signs, even though there is no clear cut consensus on the predictive value to date include: folate and homocysteine, anti müllerian hormone measurement, environmental factors, body mass index, smoking, male age, stress, some subsets of antisperm antibodies and epigenetic features.

  14. Pretreatment task persistence predicts smoking cessation outcome.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Thomas H; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Juliano, Laura M; Irvin, Jennifer E; Lazev, Amy B; Simmons, Vani Nath

    2003-08-01

    R. Eisenberger's (1992) learned industriousness theory states that individuals display differing degrees of persistence depending on their history of reinforcement for effortful behavior. These differences may influence the development, maintenance, and cessation of addictive behaviors. In cross-sectional studies, E. P. Quinn, T. H. Brandon, and A. L. Copeland (1996) found that cigarette smokers were less persistent than nonsmokers, and R. A. Brown, C. W. Lejuez, C. W. Kahler, and D. R. Strong (2002) found that smokers who had previously abstained for 3 months were more persistent than those who had never quit. The present study extended these findings by using a prospective design. A pretreatment measure of task persistence (mirror tracing) completed by 144 smokers predicted sustained abstinence throughout 12 months of follow-up. Moreover, persistence predicted outcome independent of other significant predictors: gender, nicotine dependence, negative affect, and self-efficacy.

  15. Midterm Outcome of Mechanochemical Endovenous Ablation for the Treatment of Great Saphenous Vein Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Witte, Marianne E; Holewijn, Suzanne; van Eekeren, Ramon R; de Vries, Jean-Paul; Zeebregts, Clark J; Reijnen, Michel M P J

    2017-02-01

    To report the midterm results of mechanochemical ablation (MOCA) for treating great saphenous vein (GSV) insufficiency. In a 1-year period, 85 consecutive patients (median age 51.4 years; 71 women) undergoing MOCA with polidocanol in 104 limbs were enrolled in a prospective registry. The patients were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up (4 weeks and 1, 2, and 3 years) using duplex ultrasound, the CEAP (clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic) classification, the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), the RAND Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (RAND-SF36), and the Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire (AVVQ). Primary outcome measures were clinical and anatomic success. Secondary outcome measures included general and disease-specific quality of life and reinterventions. Technical success (99%) was achieved in all but 1 patient in whom technical problems with the device led to conversion to another method for treatment of 2 limbs. After a median follow-up of 36 months (interquartile range 12.5, 46.3), recanalization occurred in 15 (15%) of 102 successfully treated vein segments. Anatomic success was 92%, 90%, and 87% after 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. The VCSS improved at all time intervals compared to the preprocedure median. The clinical success at 3 years was 83%. The AVVQ and RAND-SF36 scores showed an improvement at all time intervals compared to baseline values. Between 12 and 36 months, however, a significant deterioration was observed in VCSS, which was accompanied by worsening of disease-specific and general quality of life. In the longest follow-up of MOCA to date, this study shows MOCA to be an effective treatment modality for GSV insufficiency at midterm follow-up, but clinical results seem to drop over time.

  16. Radiofrequency ablation for early oesophageal squamous neoplasia: Outcomes form United Kingdom registry

    PubMed Central

    Haidry, Rehan J; Butt, Mohammed A; Dunn, Jason; Banks, Matthew; Gupta, Abhinav; Smart, Howard; Bhandari, Pradeep; Smith, Lesley Ann; Willert, Robert; Fullarton, Grant; John, Morris; Di Pietro, Massimo; Penman, Ian; Novelli, Marco; Lovat, Laurence B

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To report outcomes on patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for early oesophageal squamous neoplasia from a National Registry. METHODS: A Prospective cohort study from 8 tertiary referral centres in the United Kingdom. Patients with squamous high grade dysplasia (HGD) and early squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) confined to the mucosa were treated. Visible lesions were removed by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) before RFA. Following initial RFA treatment, patients were followed up 3 monthly. Residual flat dysplasia was treated with RFA until complete reversal dysplasia (CR-D) was achieved or progression to invasive Squamous cell cancer defined as infiltration into the submucosa layer or beyond. The main outcome measures were CR-D at 12 mo from start of treatment, long term durability, progression to cancer and adverse events. RESULTS: Twenty patients with squamous HGD/ESCC completed treatment protocol. Five patients (25%) had EMR before starting RFA treatment. CR-D was 50% at 12 mo with a median of 1 RFA treatment, mean 1.5 (range 1-3). Two further patients achieved CR-D with repeat RFA after this time. Eighty per cent with CR-D remain dysplasia free at latest biopsy, with median follow up 24 mo (IQR 17-54). Six of 20 patients (30%) progressed to invasive cancer at 1 year. Four patients (20%) required endoscopic dilatations for symptomatic structuring after treatment. Two of these patients have required serial dilatations thereafter for symptomatic dysphagia with a median of 4 dilatations per patient. The other 2 patients required only a single dilatation to achieve an adequate symptomatic response. One patient developed cancer during follow up after end of treatment protocol. CONCLUSION: The role of RFA in these patients remains unclear. In our series 50% patients responded at 12 mo. These figures are lower than limited published data. PMID:24106401

  17. Long-Term Function, Pain and Medication Use Outcomes of Radiofrequency Ablation for Lumbar Facet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Zachary L.; Marshall, Benjamin; Walker, Jeremy; McCarthy, Robert; Walega, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the medial branch nerves for facet-mediated low back pain demonstrates clinical benefit for 6–12 months and possibly up to 2 years. This study investigated function, pain, and medication use outcomes of RFA for lumbar facet syndrome in a cohort with long-term follow-up. Methods Individuals evaluated in a tertiary academic pain practice between January, 2007–December, 2013, 18–60 years of age, with a clinical and radiologic diagnosis of lumbar facet syndrome, who underwent ≥1set of diagnostic medial branch blocks with resultant >75% pain relief and subsequent RFA were included. Outcomes measured were the proportion of individuals who reported ≥50% improvement in function, ≥50% improvement in pain; change in median NRS pain score, daily morphine equivalent consumption (DME), Medication Quantification Scale III (MSQ III) score and procedure complications. Results Sixty-two consecutive individuals with a median age and 25%–75% interquartile range (IQR) of 34 years (35, 52) met inclusion criteria. Seven individuals were lost to follow-up. Duration of pain was <2 years in 42%, 2–5 years in 40%, >5 years in 18% of individuals. Median duration of follow-up was 39 months (16, 60). Function and pain improved by ≥50% in 58% (CI 45%, 71%) and 53% (CI 40%, 66%) of individuals, respectively. The median reduction in MQS III score was 3.4 points (0, 8.8). No complications occurred in this cohort. Conclusions This study demonstrates a durable treatment effect of RFA for lumbar facet syndrome at long-term follow-up, as measured by improvement in function, pain, and analgesic use. PMID:26005713

  18. Predicting radiotherapy outcomes using statistical learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Naqa, Issam; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Hope, Andrew J.; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2009-09-01

    Radiotherapy outcomes are determined by complex interactions between treatment, anatomical and patient-related variables. A common obstacle to building maximally predictive outcome models for clinical practice is the failure to capture potential complexity of heterogeneous variable interactions and applicability beyond institutional data. We describe a statistical learning methodology that can automatically screen for nonlinear relations among prognostic variables and generalize to unseen data before. In this work, several types of linear and nonlinear kernels to generate interaction terms and approximate the treatment-response function are evaluated. Examples of institutional datasets of esophagitis, pneumonitis and xerostomia endpoints were used. Furthermore, an independent RTOG dataset was used for 'generalizabilty' validation. We formulated the discrimination between risk groups as a supervised learning problem. The distribution of patient groups was initially analyzed using principle components analysis (PCA) to uncover potential nonlinear behavior. The performance of the different methods was evaluated using bivariate correlations and actuarial analysis. Over-fitting was controlled via cross-validation resampling. Our results suggest that a modified support vector machine (SVM) kernel method provided superior performance on leave-one-out testing compared to logistic regression and neural networks in cases where the data exhibited nonlinear behavior on PCA. For instance, in prediction of esophagitis and pneumonitis endpoints, which exhibited nonlinear behavior on PCA, the method provided 21% and 60% improvements, respectively. Furthermore, evaluation on the independent pneumonitis RTOG dataset demonstrated good generalizabilty beyond institutional data in contrast with other models. This indicates that the prediction of treatment response can be improved by utilizing nonlinear kernel methods for discovering important nonlinear interactions among model

  19. Predicting radiotherapy outcomes using statistical learning techniques*

    PubMed Central

    El Naqa, Issam; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Lindsay, Patricia E; Hope, Andrew J; Deasy, Joseph O

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy outcomes are determined by complex interactions between treatment, anatomical and patient-related variables. A common obstacle to building maximally predictive outcome models for clinical practice is the failure to capture potential complexity of heterogeneous variable interactions and applicability beyond institutional data. We describe a statistical learning methodology that can automatically screen for nonlinear relations among prognostic variables and generalize to unseen data before. In this work, several types of linear and nonlinear kernels to generate interaction terms and approximate the treatment-response function are evaluated. Examples of institutional datasets of esophagitis, pneumonitis and xerostomia endpoints were used. Furthermore, an independent RTOG dataset was used for ‘generalizabilty’ validation. We formulated the discrimination between risk groups as a supervised learning problem. The distribution of patient groups was initially analyzed using principle components analysis (PCA) to uncover potential nonlinear behavior. The performance of the different methods was evaluated using bivariate correlations and actuarial analysis. Over-fitting was controlled via cross-validation resampling. Our results suggest that a modified support vector machine (SVM) kernel method provided superior performance on leave-one-out testing compared to logistic regression and neural networks in cases where the data exhibited nonlinear behavior on PCA. For instance, in prediction of esophagitis and pneumonitis endpoints, which exhibited nonlinear behavior on PCA, the method provided 21% and 60% improvements, respectively. Furthermore, evaluation on the independent pneumonitis RTOG dataset demonstrated good generalizabilty beyond institutional data in contrast with other models. This indicates that the prediction of treatment response can be improved by utilizing nonlinear kernel methods for discovering important nonlinear interactions among model

  20. Predicting radiotherapy outcomes using statistical learning techniques.

    PubMed

    El Naqa, Issam; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Lindsay, Patricia E; Hope, Andrew J; Deasy, Joseph O

    2009-09-21

    Radiotherapy outcomes are determined by complex interactions between treatment, anatomical and patient-related variables. A common obstacle to building maximally predictive outcome models for clinical practice is the failure to capture potential complexity of heterogeneous variable interactions and applicability beyond institutional data. We describe a statistical learning methodology that can automatically screen for nonlinear relations among prognostic variables and generalize to unseen data before. In this work, several types of linear and nonlinear kernels to generate interaction terms and approximate the treatment-response function are evaluated. Examples of institutional datasets of esophagitis, pneumonitis and xerostomia endpoints were used. Furthermore, an independent RTOG dataset was used for 'generalizabilty' validation. We formulated the discrimination between risk groups as a supervised learning problem. The distribution of patient groups was initially analyzed using principle components analysis (PCA) to uncover potential nonlinear behavior. The performance of the different methods was evaluated using bivariate correlations and actuarial analysis. Over-fitting was controlled via cross-validation resampling. Our results suggest that a modified support vector machine (SVM) kernel method provided superior performance on leave-one-out testing compared to logistic regression and neural networks in cases where the data exhibited nonlinear behavior on PCA. For instance, in prediction of esophagitis and pneumonitis endpoints, which exhibited nonlinear behavior on PCA, the method provided 21% and 60% improvements, respectively. Furthermore, evaluation on the independent pneumonitis RTOG dataset demonstrated good generalizabilty beyond institutional data in contrast with other models. This indicates that the prediction of treatment response can be improved by utilizing nonlinear kernel methods for discovering important nonlinear interactions among model

  1. Ablative and fractional ablative lasers.

    PubMed

    Brightman, Lori A; Brauer, Jeremy A; Anolik, Robert; Weiss, Elliot; Karen, Julie; Chapas, Anne; Hale, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Leonard; Geronemus, Roy G

    2009-10-01

    The field of nonsurgical laser resurfacing for aesthetic enhancement continues to improve with new research and technological advances. Since its beginnings in the 1980s, the laser-resurfacing industry has produced a multitude of devices employing ablative, nonablative, and fractional ablative technologies. The three approaches largely differ in their method of thermal damage, weighing degrees of efficacy, downtime, and side effect profiles against each other. Nonablative technologies generate some interest, although only for those patient populations seeking mild improvements. Fractional technologies, however, have gained dramatic ground on fully ablative resurfacing. Fractional laser resurfacing, while exhibiting results that fall just short of the ideal outcomes of fully ablative treatments, is an increasingly attractive alternative because of its far more favorable side effect profile, reduced recovery time, and significant clinical outcome.

  2. Outcomes of a single-center experience with classification and treatment of endothermal heat-induced thrombosis after endovenous ablation.

    PubMed

    Korepta, Lindsey M; Watson, Jennifer J; Mansour, M Ashraf; Chambers, Christopher M; Cuff, Robert F; Slaikeu, Jason D; Wong, Peter Y

    2017-05-01

    Endothermal heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) is a known complication of endothermal venous ablation procedures. EHIT can lead to deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, which cause significant disability and, rarely, death. Other studies have evaluated risk factors for EHIT. There is an accepted grading system for EHIT, but there is no consensus on treatment type, duration, or follow-up. We retrospectively evaluated all cases of EHIT after radiofrequency ablation or endovenous laser ablation at our institution during a 7-year period, focusing on classification, treatment, and outcomes of EHIT. The analysis included all patients aged >18 years who underwent radiofrequency ablation or endovenous laser ablation at our institution, Spectrum Health Hospital Vein Solutions (Grand Rapids, Mich), between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014. Electronic medical records were queried retrospectively to identify patients with EHIT during the study interval by International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision code. Demographic data, including age, gender, comorbidities (eg, history of deep venous thrombosis, hypercoagulable state, family history of blood clots, etc), body mass index, Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification, and use of preoperative anticoagulation were collected for each patient in the registry. Each patient had a required postoperative duplex ultrasound (US) examination within 1 to 2 weeks of the procedure. Preoperative and postoperative US imaging data and procedure-specific data were also recorded for each patient. EHIT was graded from 1 to 4 by review of the US studies. Each patient's treatment course was reviewed for type of anticoagulation, duration of treatment, follow-up imaging, and outcome. From 2008 to 2014, 4799 ablations were performed at Spectrum Health Hospital Vein Center, and EHIT was identified in 70 patients. At presentation, 87% of patients were asymptomatic, 10% reported pain, and 2.9% reported swelling

  3. Spectral and spatiotemporal variability ECG parameters linked to catheter ablation outcome in persistent atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Muñoz, Antonio R; Latcu, Decebal G; Meo, Marianna; Meste, Olivier; Popescu, Irina; Saoudi, Nadir; Zarzoso, Vicente

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), there is a strong clinical interest in determining whether a patient suffering from persistent AF will benefit from catheter ablation (CA) therapy at long term. This work presents several regression models based on noninvasive measures automatically computed from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) such as AF dominant frequency (DF), spectral concentration and spatiotemporal variability (STV). Sixty-two AF patients referred to CA were enrolled in this study. Forty-seven of them had no recurrence after CA during an average follow-up of 14 ± 8 months. The ECG features were extracted from an ECG recorded before the CA intervention and they were combined by means of logistic regression. The combination of DF and STV values from different precordial leads reached AUC = 0.939, outperforming the best results by using only one kind of features, such as DF (AUC = 0.801), and yielding a global accuracy of 93.5% for discriminating the best long-term responders to CA. These results point out the need to take into consideration the spatial variation of spectral ECG parameters to build predictive models dealing with AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA): a review of mechanisms, modeling outcomes, and issues for debate.

    PubMed

    Malskat, Wendy S J; Poluektova, Anna A; van der Geld, Cees W M; Neumann, H A Martino; Weiss, Robert A; Bruijninckx, Cornelis M A; van Gemert, Martin J C

    2014-03-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is a commonly used and very effective minimally invasive therapy to manage leg varicosities. Yet, and despite a clinical history of 16 years, no international consensus on a best treatment protocol has been reached so far. Evidence presented in this paper supports the opinion that insufficient knowledge of the underlying physics amongst frequent users could explain this shortcoming. In this review, we will examine the possible modes of action of EVLA, hoping that better understanding of EVLA-related physics stimulates critical appraisal of claims made concerning the efficacy of EVLA devices, and may advance identifying a best possible treatment protocol. Finally, physical arguments are presented to debate on long-standing, but often unfounded, clinical opinions and habits. This includes issues such as (1) the importance of laser power versus the lack of clinical relevance of laser energy (Joule) as used in Joule per centimeter vein length, i.e., in linear endovenous energy density (LEED), and Joule per square centimeter vein wall area, (2) the predicted effectiveness of a higher power and faster pullback velocity, (3) the irrelevance of whether laser light is absorbed by hemoglobin or water, and (4) the effectiveness of reducing the vein diameter during EVLA therapy.

  5. Androgen receptor profiling predicts prostate cancer outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stelloo, Suzan; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; van der Poel, Henk G; de Jong, Jeroen; van Leenders, Geert JLH; Jenster, Guido; Wessels, Lodewyk FA; Bergman, Andries M; Zwart, Wilbert

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy in men. Biomarkers for outcome prediction are urgently needed, so that high-risk patients could be monitored more closely postoperatively. To identify prognostic markers and to determine causal players in prostate cancer progression, we assessed changes in chromatin state during tumor development and progression. Based on this, we assessed genomewide androgen receptor/chromatin binding and identified a distinct androgen receptor/chromatin binding profile between primary prostate cancers and tumors with an acquired resistance to therapy. These differential androgen receptor/chromatin interactions dictated expression of a distinct gene signature with strong prognostic potential. Further refinement of the signature provided us with a concise list of nine genes that hallmark prostate cancer outcome in multiple independent validation series. In this report, we identified a novel gene expression signature for prostate cancer outcome through generation of multilevel genomic data on chromatin accessibility and transcriptional regulation and integration with publically available transcriptomic and clinical datastreams. By combining existing technologies, we propose a novel pipeline for biomarker discovery that is easily implementable in other fields of oncology. PMID:26412853

  6. Predicting outcome in pediatric coin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Amin, M R; Buchinsky, F J; Gaughan, J P; Szeremeta, W

    2001-07-02

    To determine the relationship between coin size, coin location, patient age, and patient weight and likelihood of coin passage through the esophagus following pediatric coin ingestion. A secondary objective is to test the hypothesis that coin denomination can be determined based on radiographic appearance. A retrospective review was performed of all children seen and evaluated for coin ingestion at a single institution over a 25-month period. Outcome measures included the number of coins that were retained in the esophagus, and the number that passed. Various factors were assessed for their predictive value in judging outcome in coin ingestion cases. Nineteen percent of patients (15/79) in the study passed their ingested coins. Coin denomination could be accurately determined on every patient that had a standard AP or lateral X-ray film. These findings were marked when compared with the lack of reliability of history in determining coin denomination. Patients who passed coins were as a group older (4.6 vs. 3.2 year, P=0.04), but did not differ significantly by weight (19.5 vs. 15.4 kg, P=0.07) from those that retained the coins. Coins located at the gastroesophageal junction had a significantly higher passage rate than coins located elsewhere in the esophagus (89 vs. 8.2%, P<0.01). Coin size was not predictive of coin passage (P=0.7 by chi(2)). Radiographic assessment of coin denomination is reliable, but in this study could not be used to predict coin passage. Patient age and coin location at the gastroesophageal junction, however, do correlate with this event.

  7. In vitro fertilization outcomes after ablation of endometriomas using plasma energy: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Motte, I; Roman, H; Clavier, B; Jumeau, F; Chanavaz-Lacheray, I; Letailleur, M; Darwish, B; Rives, N

    2016-10-01

    Ovarian endometrioma ablation using plasma energy appears to be a valuable alternative to cystectomy, because it could spare underlying ovarian parenchyma resulting in high spontaneous and overall pregnancy rates. After initial postoperative decrease, anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) level progressively increases several months after ablation. The aim of our study was to assess the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women managed for ovarian endometriomas by ablation using plasma energy, when compared to those in women free of endometriosis. Retrospective preliminary case-control study, enrolling women undergoing IVF or IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), from July 2009 to December 2014. Cases were infertile women with previous ovarian endometrioma ablation using plasma energy and were matched by age, AMH level and assisted reproductive technique with controls presumed free of endometriosis. IVF/ICSI response (type of protocol, dose of gonadotrophin, number of oocytes, fertilization rate) and outcomes were compared between the two groups. In all, 37 cases were compared to 74 controls. Age (30.9±4.4 years vs. 31.7±4.2 years), AMH level (2.8±2ng/mL vs. 2.8±1.7ng/mL) and ART procedures (ICSI in 24.3% vs. 27%) were comparable between the two groups. Of the 37 cases, previous surgical procedures on right and left ovaries were performed in 27% and 21.6% of patients respectively, 81% of patients were nullipara. AFSr score was 73±41, while deep endometriosis infiltrated the rectum and the sigmoid colon in respectively 40.5% and 27% of patients. Despite a lower number of oocytes retrieved, cases presented better implantation rate, pregnancy and delivery rates per cycle, oocyte retrieval, transfer, and embryo, as well as superior cumulative birth rate per transfer. Ovarian endometrioma ablation using plasma energy is followed by good IVF/ICSI outcomes, suggesting that surgical procedure spares underlying ovarian parenchyma. These results consolidate those

  8. Very long-term outcome following transcatheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Are results maintained after 10 years of follow up?

    PubMed

    Gaita, Fiorenzo; Scaglione, Marco; Battaglia, Alberto; Matta, Mario; Gallo, Cristina; Galatà, Michela; Caponi, Domenico; Di Donna, Paolo; Anselmino, Matteo

    2017-02-28

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) transcatheter ablation is a safe and effective procedure. However, outcome over 10 years of follow-up has never been reported. The aim of this study is to assess outcome, describe predictors of recurrences, and report on quality of life (QoL) the decade after an AF ablation. Patients referred for AF ablation in a single high volume centre from June 2004 to June 2006 were enrolled and followed in a prospective fashion by yearly clinical assessment and Holter monitoring. Among 255 patients (42.7% paroxysmal AF, 77% males, after a follow-up of 125 ± 7 months), 132 (52%) were arrhythmia-free including (58, 32% after a single procedure) while 27 (10%) progressed to permanent AF. At multivariate analysis, a greater left atrium antero-posterior diameter (HR 1.05 95% CI 1.02-1.09, P = 0.02) related to arrhythmic recurrences, while no increase in blood pressure (HR 0.06 95% CI 0.02-0.20, P = 0.01), BMI (HR 0.06 95% CI 0.02-0.09, P < 0.001), and fasting glucose (HR 0.58 95% CI 0.36-0.92, P = 0.02) during follow-up were protective for arrhythmic recurrences. Overall QoL improved significantly, significantly related to the absence of recurrences, arrhythmic burden reduction and blood pressure, and BMI control (P < 0.001). The outcome of AF ablation over more than 10 years is characterized by a low incidence of progression towards permanent AF. Greater LA anteroposterior diameter related to arrhythmic recurrences, while blood pressure, BMI, and fasting blood glucose control emerged as predictors of sinus rhythm maintenance. Eventually, QoL improved significantly over the follow-up.

  9. Prophylactic catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia before cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy: Clinical outcomes after a single endocardial ablation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Takei, Asumi; Fukuzawa, Koji; Kiuchi, Kunihiko; Takami, Kaoru; Itoh, Mitsuaki; Imamura, Kimitake; Fujiwara, Ryudo; Nakanishi, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Soichiro; Matsumoto, Akinori; Shimane, Akira; Okajima, Katsunori; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2015-06-01

    Outcomes related to prophylactic catheter ablation (PCA) for ventricular tachycardia (VT) before implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) are not well characterized. We assessed the efficacy of single endocardial PCA in NICM patients. We retrospectively analyzed 101 consecutive NICM patients with sustained VT. We compared clinical outcomes of patients who underwent PCA (ABL group) with those who did not (No ABL group). Successful PCA was defined as no inducible clinical VT. We also compared the clinical outcomes of patients with successful PCA (PCA success group) with those of the No ABL group. Endpoints were appropriate ICD therapy (shock and anti-tachycardia pacing) and the occurrence of electrical storm (ES). PCA was performed in 42 patients, and it succeeded in 20. The time to ES occurrence was significantly longer in the ABL group than in the No ABL group (p=0.04). The time to first appropriate ICD therapy and ES occurrence were significantly longer in the PCA success group than in the No ABL group (p=0.02 and p<0.01, respectively). Single endocardial PCA can decrease ES occurrence in NICM patients. However, high rates of VT recurrence and low success rates are issues to be resolved; therefore, the efficacy of single endocardial PCA is currently limited.

  10. Prophylactic catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia before cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy: Clinical outcomes after a single endocardial ablation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Takei, Asumi; Fukuzawa, Koji; Kiuchi, Kunihiko; Takami, Kaoru; Itoh, Mitsuaki; Imamura, Kimitake; Fujiwara, Ryudo; Nakanishi, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Soichiro; Matsumoto, Akinori; Shimane, Akira; Okajima, Katsunori; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Outcomes related to prophylactic catheter ablation (PCA) for ventricular tachycardia (VT) before implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) are not well characterized. We assessed the efficacy of single endocardial PCA in NICM patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 101 consecutive NICM patients with sustained VT. We compared clinical outcomes of patients who underwent PCA (ABL group) with those who did not (No ABL group). Successful PCA was defined as no inducible clinical VT. We also compared the clinical outcomes of patients with successful PCA (PCA success group) with those of the No ABL group. Endpoints were appropriate ICD therapy (shock and anti-tachycardia pacing) and the occurrence of electrical storm (ES). Results PCA was performed in 42 patients, and it succeeded in 20. The time to ES occurrence was significantly longer in the ABL group than in the No ABL group (p=0.04). The time to first appropriate ICD therapy and ES occurrence were significantly longer in the PCA success group than in the No ABL group (p=0.02 and p<0.01, respectively). Conclusion Single endocardial PCA can decrease ES occurrence in NICM patients. However, high rates of VT recurrence and low success rates are issues to be resolved; therefore, the efficacy of single endocardial PCA is currently limited. PMID:26336545

  11. The procedure outcome of laparoscopic resection for 'small' hepatocellular carcinoma is comparable to vlaparoscopic radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Casaccia, Marco; Santori, Gregorio; Bottino, Giuliano; Diviacco, Pietro; Negri, Antonella De; Moraglia, Eva; Adorno, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) and laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (LRFA) in the treatment of small nodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We enrolled 50 cirrhotic patients with similar baseline characteristics that underwent LLR (n = 26) or LRFA (n = 24), in both cases with intraoperative ultrasonography. Operative and peri-operative data were retrospectively evaluated. LLR included anatomic resection in eight cases and non-anatomic resection in 18. In LRFA patients, a thermoablation of 62 nodules was achieved. Between LLR and LRFA groups, a significant difference was found both for median diameters of treated HCC nodules (30 vs. 17.1 mm; P < 0.001) and the number of treated nodules/patient (1.29 ± 0.62 vs. 2.65 ± 1.55; P < 0.001). A conversion to laparotomy occurred in two LLR patient (7.7%) for bleeding. No deaths occurred in both groups. Morbidity rates were 26.9% in the LLR group versus 16.6% in the LRFA group (P = 0.501). Hospital stay in the LLR and LRFA group was 8.30 ± 6.52 and 6.52 ± 2.69 days, respectively (P = 0.022). The surgical margin was free of tumour cells in all LLR patients, with a margin <5 mm in only one case. In the LRFA group, a complete response was achieved in 90.3% of thermoablated HCC nodules at the 1-month post-treatment computed tomography evaluation. LLR for small peripheral HCC in patients with chronic liver disease represents a valid alternative to LRFA in terms of patient toleration, surgical outcome of the procedure, and short-term morbidity.

  12. Predicting Dental Caries Outcomes in Children

    PubMed Central

    Divaris, K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, unprecedented gains in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying human health and disease have been made. In the domain of oral health, although much remains to be learned, the complex interactions between different systems in play have begun to unravel: host genome, oral microbiome with its transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and more distal influences, including relevant behaviors and environmental exposures. A reasonable expectation is that this emerging body of knowledge can help improve the oral health and optimize care for individuals and populations. These goals are articulated by the National Institutes of Health as “precision medicine” and the elimination of health disparities. Key processes in these efforts are the discovery of causal factors or mechanistic pathways and the identification of individuals or population segments that are most likely to develop (any or severe forms of) oral disease. This article critically reviews the fundamental concepts of risk assessment and outcome prediction, as they relate to early childhood caries (ECC)—a common complex disease with significant negative impacts on children, their families, and the health system. The article highlights recent work and advances in methods available to estimate caries risk and derive person-level caries propensities. It further discusses the reasons for their limited utility in predicting individual ECC outcomes and informing clinical decision making. Critical issues identified include the misconception of defining dental caries as a tooth or surface-level condition versus a person-level disease; the fallacy of applying population-level parameters to individuals, termed privatization of risk; and the inadequacy of using frequentist versus Bayesian modeling approaches to derive individual disease propensity estimates. The article concludes with the notion that accurate caries risk assessment at the population level and “precision dentistry

  13. Microwave ablation of liver malignancies: comparison of effects and early outcomes of percutaneous and intraoperative approaches with different liver conditions : New advances in interventional oncology: state of the art.

    PubMed

    De Cobelli, Francesco; Marra, Paolo; Ratti, Francesca; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Colombo, Michele; Damascelli, Anna; Sallemi, Claudio; Gusmini, Simone; Salvioni, Marco; Diana, Pietro; Cipriani, Federica; Venturini, Massimo; Aldrighetti, Luca; Del Maschio, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Liver thermal ablation is an alternative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and secondary liver malignancies. Microwave ablation (MWA) produces large ablation zones (AZ) in short time; however, AZ prediction is based on preclinical ex vivo models, rising concerns about reproducibility and safety in humans. We aimed to investigate the effects produced by a new-generation MWA system on human liver in vivo with different approaches (percutaneous or intraoperative) and liver conditions (cirrhosis or previous chemotherapy treatment), in comparison with manufacturer-provided predictions based on ex vivo animal models. Complete tumor ablation (CA) and early clinical outcomes were also assessed. From October 2014, 60 consecutive patients (cirrhotic = 31; non-cirrhotic = 10; chemotherapy-treated = 19) with 81 liver nodules (HCC = 31; mets = 50) underwent MWA procedures (percutaneous = 30; laparotomic = 18; laparoscopic = 12), with a 2450 MHz/100 W generator with Thermosphere™ Technology (Emprint™, Medtronic). A contrast-enhanced CT or MR was performed after one month to assess CA and measure AZ. A linear correlation between AZ volumes and ablation times was observed in vivo, without differences from manufacturer-provided ex vivo predictions in all operative approaches and liver conditions. Other independent variables (sex, age, nodule location) showed no relationship when added to the model. Median (IQR) longitudinal and transverse roundness-indexes of the AZs were, respectively, 0.77(0.13) and 0.93(0.11). CA at 1 month was 93% for percutaneous and 100% for intraoperative procedures (p = 0.175). Thirty-day morbidity and mortality were 3% and 0%. MWA with Thermosphere™ Technology produces predictable AZs on human liver in vivo, according to manufacturer-provided ex vivo predictions. In our experience, this new-generation MWA system is effective and safe to treat liver malignancies in different operative and clinical settings.

  14. Prediction of engine performance and wall erosion due to film cooling for the 'fast track' ablative thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.

    1994-01-01

    Efforts have been made at the Propulsion Laboratory (MSFC) to design and develop new liquid rocket engines for small-class launch vehicles. Emphasis of the efforts is to reduce the engine development time with the use of conventional designs while meeting engine reliability criteria. Consequently, the engine cost should be reduced. A demonstrative ablative thrust chamber, called 'fast-track', has been built. To support the design of the 'fast-track' thrust chamber, predictions of the wall temperature and ablation erosion rate of the 'fast-track' thrust chamber have been performed using the computational fluid dynamics program REFLEQS (Reactive Flow Equation Solver). The analysis is intended to assess the amount of fuel to be used for film cooling so that the erosion rate of the chamber ablation does not exceed its allowable limit. In addition, the thrust chamber performance loss due to an increase of the film cooling is examined.

  15. Intravenous adenosine to predict conduction recurrence in cavotricuspid isthmus early after ablation of typical atrial flutter: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Marchandise, Sébastien; Scavée, Christophe; Badot, Damien; Deceuninck, Olivier; Xhaët, Olivier; Hausman, Pierre; De Meester, Christophe; Le Polain De Waroux, Jean-Benoît

    2012-11-01

    Early recovery of conduction (ER) after cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation for typical atrial flutter (AFl) occurs in approximately 10% of the patients. If not recognized, ER might lead to AFl recurrences. In this study, we hypothesized that intravenous adenosine (iADO) can be used to predict ER in the CTI immediately after RF ablation and distinguish functional block from the complete destruction of the CTI myocardium. We prospectively included 68 consecutive patients (age: 65 ± 14 years; male: 78%) referred in our centers for AFl ablation. Immediately after bidirectional isthmus block validation, a bolus of iADO was given during continuous pacing from the proximal coronary sinus. Patients with functional block revealed under iADO (iADO+) and those without (iADO-) were subsequently observed for a 30-minute waiting period (ER-) or until sustained recovery of the conduction through the CTI (ER+). Seven patients presented a persistent recovery (ER+, 10.3%, mean time to recovery: 14 ± 9 minutes). None of them presented even a transient resumption of conduction under iADO (iADO+: 0). With univariate analysis, we identified a heavy patient weight (>95 kg) as a predictor of ER (sensitivity: 71%). Adenosine does not predict early recovery in the CTI after linear ablation for atrial flutter. We found that a patient weight over 95 kg predicted early recovery of conduction through the CTI with a sensitivity of 71%. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Outcomes of Radiofrequency Ablation for Dysplastic Barrett's Esophagus: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Iabichino, Giuseppe; Arena, Monica; Consolo, Pierluigi; Morace, Carmela; Opocher, Enrico; Mangiavillano, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which the normal squamous lining of the esophagus has been replaced by columnar epithelium containing intestinal metaplasia induced by recurrent mucosal injury related to gastroesophageal reflux disease. Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant condition that can progress through a dysplasia-carcinoma sequence to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Multiple endoscopic ablative techniques have been developed with the goal of eradicating Barrett's esophagus and preventing neoplastic progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. For patients with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal neoplasia, radiofrequency ablation with or without endoscopic resection for visible lesions is currently the most effective and safe treatment available. Recent data demonstrate that, in patients with Barrett's esophagus and low-grade dysplasia confirmed by a second pathologist, ablative therapy results in a statistically significant reduction in progression to high-grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Treatment of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus with radiofrequency ablation results in complete eradication of both dysplasia and of intestinal metaplasia in a high proportion of patients with a low incidence of adverse events. A high proportion of treated patients maintain the neosquamous epithelium after successful treatment without recurrence of intestinal metaplasia. Following successful endoscopic treatment, endoscopic surveillance should be continued to detect any recurrent intestinal metaplasia and/or dysplasia. This paper reviews all relevant publications on the endoscopic management of Barrett's esophagus using radiofrequency ablation. PMID:28070182

  17. Computational simulation of the predicted dosimetric impact of adjuvant yttrium-90 PET/CT-guided percutaneous ablation following radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Pasciak, Alexander S; Lin, Abigail; Georgiades, Christos; Findeiss, Laura K; Kauffman, Shannon; Bradley, Yong C

    2016-12-01

    (90)Y PET/CT post-radioembolization imaging has demonstrated that the distribution of (90)Y in a tumor can be non-uniform. Using computational modeling, we predicted the dosimetric impact of post-treatment (90)Y PET/CT-guided percutaneous ablation of the portions of a tumor receiving the lowest absorbed dose. A cohort of fourteen patients with non-resectable liver cancer previously treated using (90)Y radioembolization were included in this retrospective study. Each patient exhibited potentially under-treated areas of tumor following treatment based on quantitative (90)Y PET/CT. (90)Y PET/CT was used to guide electrode placement for simulated adjuvant radiofrequency ablation in areas of tumor receiving the lowest dose. The finite element method was used to solve Penne's bioheat transport equation, coupled with the Arrhenius thermal cell-death model to determine 3D thermal ablation zones. Tumor and unablated tumor absorbed-dose metrics (average dose, D50, D70, D90, V100) following ablation were compared, where D70 is the minimum dose to 70% of tumor and V100 is the fractional tumor volume receiving more than 100 Gy. Compared to radioembolization alone, (90)Y radioembolization with adjuvant ablation was associated with predicted increases in all tumor dose metrics evaluated. The mean average absorbed dose increased by 11.2 ± 6.9 Gy. Increases in D50, D70, and D90 were 11.0 ± 6.9 Gy, 13.3 ± 10.9 Gy, and 11.8 ± 10.8 Gy, respectively. The mean increase in V100 was 7.2 ± 4.2%. All changes were statistically significant (P < 0.01). A negative correlation between pre-ablation tumor volume and D50, average dose, and V100 was identified (ρ < - 0.5, P < 0.05) suggesting that adjuvant radiofrequency ablation may be less beneficial to patients with large tumor burdens. This study has demonstrated that adjuvant (90)Y PET/CT-guided radiofrequency ablation may improve tumor absorbed-dose metrics. These data may justify a prospective

  18. Impact of metabolic syndrome on left atrial electroanatomical remodeling and outcomes after radiofrequency ablation of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Dinov, Borislav; Kosiuk, Jedrzej; Kircher, Simon; Bollmann, Andreas; Acou, Willem-Jan; Arya, Arash; Hindricks, Gerhard; Rolf, Sascha

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies reported worse outcomes after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, mechanisms of AF recurrence in MetS remain unclear. We performed pulmonary vein isolation and voltage mapping in 236 patients with AF (age 61±9.6 years; persistent AF 64%; MetS 54%). Left atrial (LA) low voltage areas were semiquantitatively estimated and presented as low voltage index. MetS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Follow-up for AF recurrence ≤12 months was performed. LA low voltage areas were observed in 46% of patients with MetS versus 8.2% patients without MetS ; P<0.0001. MetS was an independent predictor of LA low voltage areas: odds ratio, 11.64; 95% confidence interval, 4.381-30.903; P<0.0001. Observed AF recurrence at 12 months was 42.7% in MetS versus 36.1% in the non-MetS group (P=0.303). The presence of LA low voltage areas was a predictor of 12-month AF recurrence: odds ratio, 2.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-6.56; P=0.006. Probability of 12-month AF recurrence increased with 84.5% for every unit of low voltage Index. MetS was not associated with worse outcomes after radiofrequency catheter ablation of AF, but LA low voltage areas were more frequently observed in patients with MetS. The presence and extent of LA low voltage areas may influence the long-term outcomes after catheter ablation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Helping Skills Training for Undergraduates: Outcomes and Prediction of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clara E.; Roffman, Melissa; Stahl, Jessica; Friedman, Suzanne; Hummel, Ann; Wallace, Chrisanthy

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined outcomes and predictors of outcomes for 85 undergraduates in 3 helping skills classes. After training, trainees used more exploration skills in helping sessions with classmates (as assessed by perceptions of helpees and helpers/trainees as well as behavioral counts of skills), were perceived by helpees as more empathic, talked…

  20. History of hyperthyroidism and long-term outcome of catheter ablation of drug-refractory atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Chung, Fa-Po; Chong, Eric; Chao, Tze-Fan; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chang, Yao-Ting; Lin, Chin-Yu; Liao, Jo-Nan; Lin, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yun-Yu; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2015-09-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a known reversible cause of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, some patients remain in AF despite restoration of euthyroid status. The purpose of this study was to compare the electrophysiologic characteristics and long-term ablation outcome in AF patients with and without history of hyperthyroidism. The study enrolled 717 consecutive patients with AF who underwent first AF ablation, which involved pulmonary vein (PV) isolation in paroxysmal AF and additional substrate modification in nonparoxysmal AF patients. Eighty-four patients (12%) with hyperthyroidism history were compared to those without. Euthyroid status was achieved for ≥3 months before ablation in hyperthyroid patients. Patients with hyperthyroid history were associated with older age, more female gender, lower mean right atrial voltage, higher number of PV ectopic foci (1.3 ± 0.4 vs 1.0 ± 0.2, P < .01), and higher prevalence of non-PV foci (42% vs 23%, P < .01). Ectopic foci from ligament of Marshall were demonstrated more often in hyperthyroid patients (7.1% vs 1.6%, P < .01) in whom alcohol ablations were required. After propensity score matching for potential covariates, history of hyperthyroidism was an independent predictor of AF recurrence after single procedure (hazard ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.27-3.38). AF recurrence rates after multiple procedures were not different between patients with and those without hyperthyroid history. Patients with hyperthyroid history had a significantly higher number of PV ectopies and higher prevalence of non-PV ectopic foci compared to euthyroid patients, which resulted in a higher AF recurrence rate after a single procedure. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thyroid remnant ablation success and disease outcome in stage III or IV differentiated thyroid carcinoma: recombinant human thyrotropin versus thyroid hormone withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Vallejo Casas, Juan A; Mena Bares, Luisa M; Gálvez Moreno, Maria A; Moreno Ortega, Estefanía; Marlowe, Robert J; Maza Muret, Francisco R; Albalá González, María D

    2016-06-01

    Most publications to date compare outcomes after post-surgical thyroid remnant ablation stimulated by recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) versus thyroid hormone withholding/withdrawal (THW) in low-recurrence risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients. We sought to perform this comparison in high-risk patients. We retrospectively analyzed ~9-year single-center experience in 70 consecutive adults with initial UICC (Union for International Cancer Control) stage III/IV, M0 DTC undergoing rhTSH-aided (N.=54) or THW-aided (N.=16) high-activity ablation. Endpoints included ablation success and DTC outcome. Assessed ≥1 year post-ablation, ablation success comprised a) no visible scintigraphic thyroid bed uptake or pathological extra-thyroidal uptake; b) undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) without interfering autoantibodies; c) both criteria. DTC outcome, determined at the latest visit, comprised either 1) "no evidence of disease" (NED): undetectable Tg, negative Tg autoantibodies, negative most recent whole-body scan, no suspicious findings clinically, on neck ultrasonography, or on other imaging; 2) persistent disease: failure to attain NED; or 3) recurrence: loss of NED. After the first ablative activity, ablation success by scintigraphic plus biochemical criteria was 64.8% in rhTSH patients, 56.3% in THW patients (P=NS). After 3.5-year versus 6.2-year median follow-up (P<0.05), DTC outcomes were NED, 85.2%, persistent disease, 13.0%, recurrence, 1.9%, in the rhTSH group and NED, 87.5%, persistent or recurrent disease, 6.3% each, in the THW group (P=NS). In patients with initial stage III/IV, M0 DTC, rhTSH-aided and THW-assisted ablation were associated with comparable remnant eradication or DTC cure rates.

  2. Lung Adenocarcinoma: Predictive Value of KRAS Mutation Status in Assessing Local Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Image-guided Ablation.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Etay; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Boas, F Edward; Petre, Elena N; Gao, Song; Shady, Waleed; Sofocleous, Constantinos T; Jones, David R; Rudin, Charles M; Solomon, Stephen B

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To establish the relationship between KRAS mutation status and local recurrence after image-guided ablation of lung adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods This study consisted of a HIPAA-compliant institutional review board-approved retrospective review of 56 primary lung adenocarcinomas in 54 patients (24 men, 30 women; median age, 72 years; range, 54-87 years) treated with percutaneous image-guided ablation and with available genetic mutational analysis. KRAS mutation status and additional clinical and technical variables-Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, smoking history, stage at diagnosis, status (new primary or not), history of radiation, history of surgery, prior systemic treatment, modality of ablation, size of nodule, ablation margin, and presence of ground-glass appearance-were recorded and evaluated in relation to time to local recurrence, which was calculated from the time of ablation to the first radiographic evidence of recurrence. Predictors of outcome were identified by using a proportional hazards model for both univariate and multivariate analysis, with death as a competing risk. Results Technical success was 100%. Of the 56 ablated tumors, 37 (66%) were wild type for KRAS and 19 (34%) were KRAS mutants. The 1-year and 3-year cumulative incidences of recurrence were 20% and 35% for wild-type KRAS compared with 40% and 63% for KRAS mutant tumors. KRAS mutation status was a significant predictor of local recurrence at both univariate (P = .05; subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 2.32) and multivariate (P = .006; sHR, 3.75) analysis. At multivariate analysis, size (P = .026; sHR, 2.54) and ECOG status (P = .012; sHR, 2.23) were also independent significant predictors, whereas minimum margin (P = .066) was not. Conclusion The results of this study show that there is a relationship between KRAS mutation status and local recurrence after image-guided ablation of lung adenocarcinoma. Specifically, KRAS mutation status of the ablated

  3. Outcomes of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Patients With Potentially Operable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Verstegen, Naomi E.; Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A.; Slotman, Ben J.; Paul, Marinus A.; Smit, Egbert F.; Senan, Suresh

    2012-05-01

    Background: Approximately two-thirds of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in The Netherlands currently undergo surgical resection. As an increasing number of fit patients have elected to undergo stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in recent years, we studied outcomes after SABR in patients with potentially operable stage I NSCLC. Methods and Materials: In an institutional prospective database collected since 2003, 25% of lung SABR cases (n = 177 patients) were found to be potentially operable when the following patients were excluded: those with (1) synchronous lung tumors or other malignancy, (2) prior high-dose radiotherapy/pneumonectomy, (3) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a severity score of 3-4 according to the Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease classification. (4) a performance score of {>=}3, and (5) other comorbidity precluding surgery. Study patients included 101 males and 76 females, with a median age of 76 years old, 60% of whom were staged as T1 and 40% of whom were T2. Median Charlson comorbidity score was 2 (range, 0-5). A SABR dose of 60 Gy was delivered using a risk-adapted scheme in 3, 5, or 8 fractions, depending on tumor size and location. Follow-up chest computed tomography scans were obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. Results: Median follow-up was 31.5 months; and median overall survival (OS) was 61.5 months, with 1- and 3-year survival rates of 94.7% and 84.7%, respectively. OS rates at 3 years in patients with (n = 59) and without (n = 118) histological diagnosis did not differ significantly (96% versus 81%, respectively, p = 0.39). Post-SABR 30-day mortality was 0%, while predicted 30-day mortality for a lobectomy, derived using the Thoracoscore predictive model (Falcoz PE et al. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007;133:325-332), would have been 2.6%. Local control rates at 1 and 3 years were 98% and 93%, respectively. Regional and distant failure rates at 3 years were each

  4. Demonstration of the range over which the Langley Research Center digital computer charring ablation program (CHAP) can be used with confidence: Comparisons of CHAP predictions and test data for three ablation materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, C. B.; Green, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Comparisons of ablation calculations with the charring ablation computer code and ablation test data are presented over a wide range of environmental conditions in air for three materials: low-density nylon phenolic, Avcoat 5026-39HC/G, and a filled silicon elastomer. Heat fluxes considered range from over 500 Btu/sq ft-sec to less than 50 Btu/sq ft-sec. Pressures range from 0.5 atm to .004 atm. Enthalpies range from about 2000 Btu/lb to 18000 Btu/lb. Predictions of recession, pyrolysis penetration, and thermocouple responses are considered. Recession predictions for nylon phenolic are good as steady state is approached, but strongly transient cases are underpredicted. Pyrolysis penetrations and thermocouple responses are very well predicted. Recession amounts for Avcoat and silicone elastomer are less well predicted, although high heat flux cases near steady state are fairly satisfactory. Pyrolysis penetrations and thermocouple responses are very well predicted.

  5. Is the 12-lead electrocardiogram during antidromic circus movement tachycardia helpful in predicting the ablation site in atriofascicular pathways?

    PubMed

    Sternick, Eduardo Back; Lokhandwala, Yash; Bohora, Shomu; Timmermans, Carl; Martins, Priscila Reis; Dias, Liana Valadão; Correia, Frederico Soares; Wellens, Hein J J

    2014-11-01

    Unlike in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, there has been no systematic study on the role of the pre-excitation pattern in predicting the ablation site in patients with atriofascicular (AF) pathways. We assessed in a large cohort the value of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) during antidromic tachycardia (ADT) to predict the site of ablation. Forty-five patients were studied, 23 males (51%), mean age of 27 ± 12 years with 46 AF pathways and 48 ADT using the AF pathway for A-V conduction. Inclusion required induction of a sustained ADT and successful ablation. Ablation site was assessed during LAO 45° projection and clockwise classified as hours in posteroseptal, posterolateral, lateral, anterolateral, and anteroseptal tricuspid annulus as follows: 05:00-07:00, >07:00-08:00, >08:00-09:00, >09:00-11:00, and >11:00-13:00 o'clock. The QRS axis was assessed during ADT and classified as normal (>+15°), horizontal (+15° to -30°), and superior (<-30°). During ADT axis was superior (-57° ± 10°) in 15 (31%), horizontal (-11° ± 14°) in 22 (46%), and normal (+45° ± 16°) in 11 (23%) patients. The correct ablation site did not differ between the different groups of QRS axis. QRS width during ADT was narrower in patients with a normal when compared with a horizontal and leftward axis (127 ± 14 vs. 145 ± 12 ms, P < 0.0001), and the V-H interval was shorter (4 ± 3 ms vs. 19 ± 22 ms, P = 0.03). There was no correlation between the AF pathway ablation site and the QRS axis during ADT. The 12-lead ECG during maximal pre-excitation does not predict the proper site of tricuspid annulus ablation in patients with A-V conduction over an AF pathway. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The impact of adjunctive complex fractionated atrial electrogram ablation and linear lesions on outcomes in persistent atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Paul A; Silberbauer, John; Murgatroyd, Francis D

    2016-03-01

    In persistent atrial fibrillation (PsAF), success rates for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) alone are limited and additional substrate modification is often performed. The two most widely used substrate-based strategies are the ablation of complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) and left atrial linear ablation (LALA) at the roof and mitral isthmus. However, it is unclear whether adjunctive CFAE ablation or LALA add significant benefit to PVI alone. We performed a meta-analysis to better gauge the benefit of adjunctive CFAE ablation and LALA in PsAF. Electronic databases were systematically searched. We included studies that examined the impact of CFAE ablation or LALA in addition to a PVI-based strategy on clinical outcomes in PsAF. We included both randomized and non-randomized studies. Totally 10 studies (n = 1821) were included: 6 evaluating CFAE ablation, 3 LALA, and 1 both approaches. In comparison with PVI alone, the addition of CFAE ablation [RR 0.86; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.64, 1.16; P = 0.32] or LALA (RR 0.64; 95% CI 0.37, 1.09; P = 0.10) offered no significant improvement in arrhythmia-free survival. However, adjunctive CFAE ablation was associated with significant increases (P < 0.05) and LALA non-significant increases in procedure and fluoroscopy times. In PsAF, the addition of CFAE ablation or LALA, in comparison with PVI alone, offers no significant improvement in arrhythmia-free survival. Furthermore, they are associated with increases in both procedural and fluoroscopy times. The optimal ablation strategy for PsAF is currently unclear and needs further refinement. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Assessment of atrial fibrillation ablation outcomes with clinic ECG, monthly 24-h Holter ECG, and twice-daily telemonitoring ECG.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takehiro; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Kurata, Naomi; Nakajima, Kazuaki; Kashimura, Shin; Kunitomi, Akira; Nishiyama, Takahiko; Katsumata, Yoshinori; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Fukumoto, Kotaro; Tanimoto, Yoko; Fukuda, Keiichi; Takatsuki, Seiji

    2017-03-01

    Differences in the methodologies for evaluating atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation outcomes should be evaluated. In the present study, we compared the AF ablation outcomes among periodic clinic electrocardiography (ECG), 24-h Holter ECG, and telemonitoring ECG to evaluate the differences among these methods. In addition, we evaluated the AF-free survival rate for each method with different durations of the blanking period. A total of 30 AF patients were followed up for 6 months after initial catheter ablation, with clinic ECG on every clinic visit, monthly 24-h Holter ECG, and telemonitoring ECG twice daily and upon symptoms. AF relapse was defined as AF or atrial tachycardia detected with any of the methods. Two patients dropped out of the study, and 28 patients were followed up for 8.8 ± 2.7 months. Patients underwent 3.6 ± 0.8 clinic ECG, 5.1 ± 0.8 Holter ECG, and 273 ± 68 telemonitoring ECG examinations. During the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth months of follow-up, Holter ECG detected relapses in 11.1, 8.3, 11.5, 15.4, 4.2, and 4.8 % of patients and telemonitoring ECG detected relapses in 32.1, 25.0, 25.0, 17.9, 28.6, and 17.9 % of patients, respectively. When no duration was set for the blanking period, the AF-free survival rate was significantly lower with telemonitoring ECG (46.4 %) than with Holter ECG (78.6 %, P = 0.013) or clinic ECG (85.7 %, P = 0.002). In addition, when the duration of the blanking period was set to 3 months, the AF-free survival rate was significantly lower with telemonitoring ECG than with clinic ECG (92.9 vs. 71.4 %, P = 0.041). The AF ablation outcomes with twice-daily telemonitoring ECG might differ from those with clinic ECG when the duration of the blanking period is 0-3 months. A follow-up based solely on clinic ECG might underestimate AF recurrence.

  8. A history of outcome prediction in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Jack E; Kramer, Andrew A

    2014-10-01

    There are few first-hand accounts that describe the history of outcome prediction in critical care. This review summarizes the authors' personal perspectives about the development and evolution of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation over the past 35 years. We emphasize what we have learned in the past and more recently our perspectives about the current status of outcome prediction, and speculate about the future of outcome prediction. There is increasing evidence that superior accuracy in outcome prediction requires complex modeling with detailed adjustment for diagnosis and physiologic abnormalities. Thus, an automated electronic system is recommended for gathering data and generating predictions. Support, either public or private, is required to assist users and to update and improve models. Current outcome prediction models have increasingly focused on benchmarks for resource use, a trend that seems likely to increase in the future.

  9. Hepatic Microwave Ablation Zone Size: Correlation with Total Energy, Net Energy, and Manufacturer-Provided Chart Predictions.

    PubMed

    Shyn, Paul B; Bird, Jeffery R; Koch, R Marie; Tatli, Servet; Levesque, Vincent M; Catalano, Paul J; Silverman, Stuart G

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether total energy (TE) reaching the microwave (MW) applicator or net energy (NE) exiting the applicator (after correcting for reflectivity) correlates better with hepatic MW ablation zone dimensions than manufacturer-provided chart predictions. Single-applicator, nonoverlapping ablations of 93 liver tumors (0.7-5.9 cm) were performed in 52 adult patients. TE and NE were recorded for each ablation. Long axis diameter (LAD), short axis diameter (SAD), and volume (V) of each ablation zone were measured on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography after the procedure and retrospectively compared with TE; NE; and manufacturer-provided chart predictions of LAD, SAD, and V using correlation and regression analyses. For treated tumors, mean (± SD) TE and NE were 49.8 kJ (± 22.7) and 36.4 kJ (± 19.4). Mean LAD, SAD, and V were 5.8 cm (± 1.3), 3.7 cm (± 0.8), and 44.1 cm(3) (± 25.4). Correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) with LAD, SAD, and V were 0.46 (0.28, 0.61), 0.52 (0.36, 0.66), and 0.52 (0.36, 0.66) for TE; 0.42 (0.24, 0.58), 0.55 (0.39, 0.68), and 0.53 (0.36, 0.66) for NE; and 0.51 (0.34, 0.65), 0.63 (0.49, 0.74), and 0.60 (0.45, 0.73) for chart predictions. Using regression analysis and controlling for TE, SAD was 0.34 cm larger in patients with cirrhosis than in patients without cirrhosis. Correcting for reflectivity did not substantially improve correlation of energy values with MW ablation zone size parameters and did not outperform manufacturer-provided chart predictions. Correlations were moderate and variable using all methods. The results suggest a disproportionate influence of tissue factors on MW ablation results. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrocardiogram features of premature ventricular contractions/ventricular tachycardia originating from the left ventricular outflow tract and the treatment outcome of radiofrequency catheter ablation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) has been used for the ablation of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) or ventricular tachycardia (VT). To date, the mapping and catheter ablation of the arrhythmias originating from the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) has not been specified. This study investigates the electrocardiogram (ECG) feature of PVCs or VT originating from the LVOT. Moreover, the treatment outcome of RFCA is analyzed. Methods Mapping and ablation were performed on the supravalvular or subvalvular aorta in 52 cases with PVCs/VT originating from the LVOT. The data were compared with those from 104 patients with PVCs/VT originating from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). A differential procedure was prepared based on the comparison of the ECG features of PVCs/VT originating from the RVOT, LVOT, and their different parts. Results Among 52 cases with PVCs originating from the LVOT, 47 were successfully treated by RFCA, with a success rate of 90.38%. Several differences among the 12-lead ECG features were observed from the RVOT and LVOT in the left and right coronary sinus groups, as well as under the left coronary sinus group (left fibrous trigone): (1) If the precordial leads transition 0 are considered as the diagnostic parameters of PVCs/VT originating from the LVOT, then the sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values are 94.12%, 93.00%, 87.27%, and 96.88%, respectively; (2) The analysis of different subgroups of the LVOT are as follows: (a) A mainly positive wave of r or m pattern was recorded in the lead I in 72.73% of patients in the right coronary sinus group, versus 12.90% of patients in the left coronary sinus group, and 0% in the under left coronary sinus group. (b) All patients in the right coronary sinus group presented waves of RII>RIII and QSaVR>QSaVL, whereas most patients in the other two groups showed waves of RIII>RII and

  11. A Comparison of AV Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia in Young Children and Adolescents: Electrophysiology, Ablation, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Charitha D; Silka, Michael J; Bar-Cohen, Yaniv

    2015-11-01

    Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) typically occurs in adolescents and adults with limited data regarding AVNRT in young children. All patients with AVNRT who underwent electrophysiology study and ablation between 2005 and 2012 were retrospectively studied. Patients were stratified by age <10 years (young AVNRT) or ≥10 years (older AVNRT). Young AVNRT patients were also compared to age-matched patients with orthodromic reentrant tachycardia (ORT). A total of 275 studies in 272 patients were evaluated including 38 young AVNRT patients (7.7 ± 1.5 years) and 202 older AVNRT patients (14.9 ± 2.1 years). An atrial-His jump ≥50 ms was demonstrated in 56% of young and 64% of older patients. Slow pathway modification was attempted in all but one older patient with acute ablation success achieved in all. RF ablation was the primary ablation modality with cryoablation used in 10 patients (three young and seven older). Recurrences were rare (zero young and three older patients) despite residual AVNRT echo beats postablation in 34% of young and 40% of older patients. One older AVNRT patient (0.5%) required a pacemaker for heart block while no complications occurred in the young patients. Electrophysiologic parameters were comparable to the 35 age-matched young ORT group (7.7 ±1.7 years) in whom supraventricular tachycardia was more inducible. Slow pathway modification for AVNRT in children resulted in high success and low complication rates, regardless of age. Recurrence of tachycardia was infrequent despite persistence of AVNRT echo beats in 34-40% of patients following slow pathway modification. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Clinical Outcomes of an Optimized Prolate Ablation Procedure for Correcting Residual Refractive Errors Following Laser Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chung, Byunghoon; Lee, Hun; Choi, Bong Joon; Seo, Kyung Ryul; Kim, Eung Kwon; Kim, Dae Yune; Kim, Tae-Im

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of an optimized prolate ablation procedure for correcting residual refractive errors following laser surgery. We analyzed 24 eyes of 15 patients who underwent an optimized prolate ablation procedure for the correction of residual refractive errors following laser in situ keratomileusis, laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy, or photorefractive keratectomy surgeries. Preoperative ophthalmic examinations were performed, and uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, manifest refraction values (sphere, cylinder, and spherical equivalent), point spread function, modulation transfer function, corneal asphericity (Q value), ocular aberrations, and corneal haze measurements were obtained postoperatively at 1, 3, and 6 months. Uncorrected distance visual acuity improved and refractive errors decreased significantly at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Total coma aberration increased at 3 and 6 months postoperatively, while changes in all other aberrations were not statistically significant. Similarly, no significant changes in point spread function were detected, but modulation transfer function increased significantly at the postoperative time points measured. The optimized prolate ablation procedure was effective in terms of improving visual acuity and objective visual performance for the correction of persistent refractive errors following laser surgery.

  13. Clinical Outcomes of an Optimized Prolate Ablation Procedure for Correcting Residual Refractive Errors Following Laser Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Byunghoon; Lee, Hun; Choi, Bong Joon; Seo, Kyung Ryul; Kim, Eung Kwon; Kim, Dae Yune

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of an optimized prolate ablation procedure for correcting residual refractive errors following laser surgery. Methods We analyzed 24 eyes of 15 patients who underwent an optimized prolate ablation procedure for the correction of residual refractive errors following laser in situ keratomileusis, laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy, or photorefractive keratectomy surgeries. Preoperative ophthalmic examinations were performed, and uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, manifest refraction values (sphere, cylinder, and spherical equivalent), point spread function, modulation transfer function, corneal asphericity (Q value), ocular aberrations, and corneal haze measurements were obtained postoperatively at 1, 3, and 6 months. Results Uncorrected distance visual acuity improved and refractive errors decreased significantly at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Total coma aberration increased at 3 and 6 months postoperatively, while changes in all other aberrations were not statistically significant. Similarly, no significant changes in point spread function were detected, but modulation transfer function increased significantly at the postoperative time points measured. Conclusions The optimized prolate ablation procedure was effective in terms of improving visual acuity and objective visual performance for the correction of persistent refractive errors following laser surgery. PMID:28243019

  14. Management and Outcome of Periprocedural Cardiac Perforation and Tamponade with Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Single Medium-Volume Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Mujović, Nebojša; Marinković, Milan; Marković, Nebojša; Kocijančić, Aleksandar; Kovačević, Vladan; Simić, Dragan; Ristić, Arsen; Stanković, Goran; Miličić, Biljana; Putnik, Svetozar; Vujisić-Tešić, Bosiljka; Potpara, Tatjana S

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac tamponade (CT) is a life-threatening complication of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The course and outcome of CT in low-to-medium volume electrophysiology centers are underreported. We analyzed the incidence, management and outcomes of CT in 1500 consecutive RFAs performed in our center during 2011-2016. Of 1500 RFAs performed in 1352 patients (age 55 years, interquartile range: 41-63), 569 were left-sided procedures (n = 406 with transseptal access). Conventional RFA or irrigated RFA was performed in 40.9% and 59.1% of procedures, respectively. Ablation was performed mostly for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (25.4%), atrial fibrillation (AF; 18.5%), atrial flutter (18.4%), accessory pathway (16.5%) or idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia (VA; 12.3%), and rarely for structural VA (2.1%). CT occurred in 12 procedures (0.8%): 10 AF ablations, 1 idiopathic VA and 1 typical atrial flutter ablation. Factors significantly associated with CT were older age, pre-procedural oral anticoagulation, left-sided procedures, transseptal access, AF ablation, irrigated RFA and longer fluoroscopy time (on univariate analysis), and AF ablation (on multivariable analysis). The perforation site was located in the left atrium (n = 7), right atrium (n = 3), or in the left ventricle or coronary sinus (n = 1 each). Upon pericardiocentesis, two patients underwent urgent cardiac surgery because of continued bleeding. There was no fatal outcome. During the follow-up of 19 ± 14 months, eight patients were arrhythmia free. Incidence of RFA-related CT in our medium-volume center was low and significantly associated with AF ablation. The outcome of CT was mostly favorable after pericardiocentesis, but readily accessible cardiothoracic surgery back-up should be mandatory in RFA centers.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Partial Gland Ablation and Radical Prostatectomy to Treat Low and Intermediate Risk Prostate Cancer: Oncologic and Functional Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barreras, Silvia; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Sivaraman, Arjun; Barret, Eric; Secin, Fernando; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Linares-Espinós, Estefania; Rozet, François; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2017-08-18

    We analyzed the oncologic and functional outcomes of partial gland ablation compared with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in patients with low and intermediate risk prostate cancer. A total of 1,883 patients underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and 373 underwent partial gland ablation from July 2009 to September 2015. We selected 1,458 of these participants for analysis, including 1,222 and 236 treated with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and partial gland ablation, respectively. Patients had a Gleason score of 3 + 3 or 3 + 4, clinical stage T2b or less, prostate specific antigen 15 ng/dl or less, unilateral disease and life expectancy greater than 10 years. Propensity score matching analysis (1:2) was applied in the overall robot-assisted radical prostatectomy sample, which selected 472 patients for comparison. For partial gland ablation 188 men underwent high intensity focused ultrasound and 48 underwent cryotherapy. Oncologic outcomes were analyzed in terms of the need for salvage treatment. Partial gland ablation failure was defined as any positive control biopsy after treatment. Functional outcomes were assessed by validated questionnaires. Matching was successful across the 2 groups, although men treated with partial gland ablation were older (p <0.001). Mean followup in the partial gland ablation group was 38.44 months. Partial gland ablation failure was observed in 68 men (28.8%), including 53 (28.1%) treated with high intensity focused ultrasound and 15 (31.2%) treated with cryotherapy. Partial gland ablation was associated with a higher risk of salvage treatment (HR 6.06, p <0.001). Complications were comparable between the groups (p = 0.06). Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was associated with less continence recovery and a lower potency rate 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery (p <0.001). In select patients with organ confined prostate cancer partial gland ablation offered good oncologic control with fewer adverse effects that

  16. Low left atrial appendage flow velocity predicts recurrence of atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Takashi; Masuda, Masaharu; Sunaga, Akihiro; Fujita, Masashi; Iida, Osamu; Okamoto, Shin; Ishihara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Sakata, Yasushi; Uematsu, Masaaki

    2015-11-01

    Recurrence after catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) remains an unsolved issue. This study aimed to explore the association between the left atrial appendage peak flow velocity (LAAV) and AF recurrence after ablation in persistent AF patients. Fifty-three consecutive patients who underwent an initial catheter ablation of persistent AF were enrolled [age, 65±10 years; male, 42 (79%)]. The LAAV was obtained by transesophageal echocardiography before ablation. All the patients underwent pulmonary vein isolation and were followed up for 12 months. The LAAV and other clinical factors (AF duration, CHA2DS2VASc score, left atrial diameter, left atrial volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction) were tested using a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis as predictors of AF recurrence during the 1-year follow-up. AF recurrence occurred in 16 (30%) patients. The patients with AF recurrences had lower LAAVs (23.3±7.2cm/s vs. 33.3±15.1cm/s, p=0.002) than those without AF recurrence. In the multivariable analysis, a low LAAV independently predicted AF recurrence (hazard ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-8.79; p=0.040). A Kaplan-Meier analysis also demonstrated a lower survival rate free from AF recurrence in the low LAAV group than in the high LAAV group (p=0.030). A low LAAV was associated with AF recurrence after the initial catheter ablation of persistent AF. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The usefulness of surface 12-lead electrocardiogram to predict intra-atrial conduction block after successful atrial flutter ablation.

    PubMed

    Mairesse, Georges H; Lacroix, Dominique; Klug, Didier; Le Franc, Pierre; Kouakam, Claude; Kacet, Salem

    2003-07-01

    Intraatrial conduction block at the inferior vena cava-tricuspid annulus isthmus was shown to predict successful atrial flutter ablation. However, its demonstration requires the use of several electrode catheters. Thus, a simple approach using surface 12-lead ECG to prove the conduction block would be valuable. Twenty-two patients were prospectively studied during low septal and low lateral atrial pacing before and after successful atrial flutter ablation. Creation of the conduction block was confirmed by comparing the sequence of atrial activation using 3 multipolar catheters during atrial pacing before and after ablation. During low septal pacing, there was no significant difference before and after ablation in P-wave width, axis, or morphology. During low lateral atrial pacing, there was a significant P-wave axis rotation towards the right (from -67 +/- 27 degrees to +13 +/- 35 degrees, P <.001), and P-wave polarity in limb lead II changed from predominantly negative to predominantly positive in 21 of 22 patients. There was also an increase in P-wave width (from 136 +/- 32 to 169 +/- 36 ms, P <.001) and stimulus-to-QRS interval (from 268 +/- 61 ms to 343 +/- 95 ms, P <.001) during low lateral pacing that was not observed during low septal pacing. We conclude that creation of a conduction block in the inferior vena cava-tricuspid annulus isthmus modifies surface 12-lead ECG during low lateral atrial pacing only. We also suggest that P-wave polarity in limb lead II during low lateral pacing could be used as a noninvasive marker of unidirectional counter-clockwise conduction block during atrial flutter ablation.

  18. Long-term outcomes after ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation: an observational study over 6 years

    PubMed Central

    El-Kadri, Moutaz; Haq, Iram; Das, Moloy; Modi, Simon; Snowdon, Richard; Hall, Mark; Waktare, Johan EP; Todd, Derick M; Gupta, Dhiraj

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To address the limited long-term outcome data for catheter ablation (CA) of persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF), we analysed consecutive ablations performed at our centre from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 and followed patients prospectively until January 2014. Methods Both arrhythmia recurrence and symptom relief were assessed. Follow-up data were collected from hospital records, supplemented by data from general practitioners and referring hospitals. At the end of the follow-up period, all patients were contacted by phone to determine their up-to-date clinical condition. Results 188 consecutive patients with PeAF (157 male, mean age 57.3±9.7 years, 20% with long-standing PeAF) underwent a mean of 1.75 procedures (range 1–4). Telephone follow-up was achieved for 77% of surviving patients. Over a mean follow-up of 46±16 months (range 4–72), 139 (75%) patients experienced arrhythmia recurrence after a single procedure and 90 (48%) after their final procedure. Median time to first recurrence was 210 days (range 91–1850). 71% of recurrences were within the first year following ablation and 91% within 2 years. At final follow-up, 82% of patients reported symptomatic improvement. 7 (2.3%) major complications occurred, and there was no procedure-related death or stroke. Conclusions CA for PeAF is safe with a low rate of complications. Over a follow-up period of up to 6 years, a large majority of patients experience significant symptomatic improvement but recurrence after the initial procedure is the norm rather than the exception. 2 years' follow-up is sufficient to observe 90% of AF recurrences, but recurrence can occur even after 5 years' remission. PMID:27547426

  19. Long-term outcomes of minimally invasive surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Saini, Aditya; Hu, Yuhning L; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Han, Frederick T; Khan, Muhammad Z; Wolfe, Luke; Gunda, Sampath; Koneru, Jayanthi N; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2017-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgical atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation (MISAA) delivers radiofrequency energy via a thoracoscopic approach to perform pulmonary vein isolation and left atrial ganglionic plexi ablation. Data on long-term outcomes of MISAA are lacking. We report 5-year follow-up data from a prospective cohort of patients who underwent MISAA at a single center. One hundred nine consecutive patients (60 paroxysmal, 49 persistent; mean age 62.7 ± 9.3 years) underwent MISAA with left atrial appendage exclusion by a single surgeon between 2006 and 2012. Patients were followed with transtelephonic monitoring at 1, 6, and 12 months and annually thereafter for up to 5 years. Recurrence was defined as any atrial tachyarrhythmia lasting ≥30 seconds from 90 days after surgery onward. Mean follow-up duration was 1738.5 ± 661.5 days. Single-procedure success rate was 38% (37 of 98 patients). Atrial arrhythmias occurred in 22%, 42%, 55%, 59%, and 62% of patients by 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. Seventy-eight (79.6%) patients remained AF free with or without additional interventions including catheter ablation, antiarrhythmic drugs, or cardioversion. There was no significant difference in AF-free survival between paroxysmal and persistent AF groups (P = .725). Multivariate analyses showed hypertension to be a significant predictor of AF recurrence (odds ratio 6.6, confidence interval 1.41-30.80; P = .016). Five (5.1%) patients had a stroke or transient ischemic attack during follow-up. AF-free survival was 38% at 5 years after MISAA. A total of 79.6% of patients remained AF free with or without additional intervention. Patients may have an ongoing risk of stroke even in the absence of AF recurrences. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intracoronary electrocardiogram during alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy predicts myocardial injury size.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Qu, Xiaolong; Huang, Haiyun; Zhang, Shanwen; Zhao, Weibo; He, Guoxiang; Song, Zhiyuan; Hu, Houyuan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) has been used widely to treat patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). During the routine ASA procedure, it is difficult to detect the septal injury in real-time. The aim of the present study is to assess myocardial injury during ASA by recording intracoronary electrocardiogram (IC-ECG). From 2012 to 2015, 31 HOCM patients were treated with ASA, and IC-ECG was recorded in 21 patients successfully before and after ethanol injection. The elevation of ST-segment on IC-ECG after ethanol injection was expressed as its ratio to the level before injection or the absolute increasing value. Blood samples were collected before and after ASA for measuring changes in cardiac biomarkers. The ratio value of ST-segment elevation was positively correlated with both the amount of ethanol injected (r = 0.645, P = 0.001) and the myocardial injury size (creatine kinase-MB area under the curve (AUC) of CK-MB) (r = 0.466, P = 0.017). The absolute increment of ST-segment was also positively associated with both the amount of ethanol (r = 0.665, P = 0.001) and AUC of CK-MB (0.685, P = 0.001). However, there was no statistical correlation between the reduction of left ventricular outflow tract gradient and ST-segment elevation. Additionally no severe ASA procedure-related complications were observed in our patients. In conclusion, myocardial injury induced by ethanol injection can be assessed immediately by ST-segment elevation on IC-ECG. This study is the first to show that IC-ECG is a useful method for predicting myocardial injury during ASA in real-time.

  1. Initial outcome following invasive cardiac electrophysiologic studies and radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Uwanuruochi, Kelechukwu; Saravanan, Sabari; Ganasekar, Anita; Solomon, Benjamin S; Murugesan, Ravikumar; Shah, Ruchit A; Krishnamoorthy, Jaishankar; Pandurangi, Ulhas M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have become an established mode of treatment for patients with refractory arrhythmias. These procedures are carried out regularly at the cardiac catheterization laboratory of Madras Medical Mission India. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate our experience with cardiac electrophysiologic studies (EPS) and RFA catheter of atrial fibrillation (AF). Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out in the Cardiac Electrophysiology Department of the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Madras Medical Mission, India. All cases diagnosed to have AF following cardiac EPS between January 2010 and April 2014 was selected for the study. The records, which were obtained from the Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinical Research Office of Madras Medical Mission, were reviewed. Forty-nine cases were chosen for analysis, using SPSS statistical software version 15. Results: There were 49 patients, 23 males and 26 females. The mean age was 57.53 years. Commonly associated diseases were diabetes mellitus 8 (16.3%), hypertension 18 (36.7%), and coronary heart disease 14 (28.5%). The ventricular rate was rapid most cases (91.2%). AF was diagnosed as being paroxysmal in 40 (81.6%), persistent in 5 (10.2%), chronic in 3 (6.1%), and lone in 1 (2.0%). Ablation was carried out in 28 (57.1%), the success rate being 90% for pulmonary vein isolation, and 90.9% for atrioventricular node ablation. Complication rate was 2.04%. Conclusions: Treatment of AF by RFA is highly effective and safe. PMID:27127736

  2. Renal Function Outcomes for Multifocal Renal Neoplasms Managed by Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Pushpender Allen, Brian C. Chen, Michael Y. Childs, David D. Kota, Gopi Zagoria, Ronald J.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate renal function changes related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms. Methods: This is an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study of all patients treated with computed tomography guided RFA for multifocal renal neoplasms at one institution. Fifty-seven subjects, mean age 70 (range 37-88) years, underwent RFA of 169 renal neoplasms (average size 2.0 cm). Subjects had between 2 and 8 (mean 2.96) neoplasms ablated. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured before and after RFA. Complications related to RFA were recorded. Results: eGFR decreased on average of 4.4 % per tumor treated and 6.7 % per ablation session (average 1.76 tumors treated per session). For subjects with the largest neoplasm measuring >3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 14.5 % during the course of their treatment. If the largest neoplasm measured 2-3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 7.7 %, and if the largest neoplasm measured <2 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 3.8 %. Subjects with reduced baseline renal function were more likely to have a greater decline in eGFR after RFA. There was a minor complication rate of 6.3 % (6 of 96 sessions), none of which required treatment, and a major complication rate of 4.2 % (4 of 96 sessions). Conclusion: RFA for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms results in mild decline of renal function.

  3. Does Television Viewership Predict Presidential Election Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Barfar, Arash; Padmanabhan, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The days of surprise about actual election outcomes in the big data world are likely to be fewer in the years ahead, at least to those who may have access to such data. In this paper we highlight the potential for forecasting the Unites States presidential election outcomes at the state and county levels based solely on the data about viewership of television programs. A key consideration for relevance is that given the infrequent nature of elections, such models are useful only if they can be trained using recent data on viewership. However, the target variable (election outcome) is usually not known until the election is over. Related to this, we show here that such models may be trained with the television viewership data in the “safe” states (the ones where the outcome can be assumed even in the days preceding elections) to potentially forecast the outcomes in the swing states. In addition to their potential to forecast, these models could also help campaigns target programs for advertisements. Nearly two billion dollars were spent on television advertising in the 2012 presidential race, suggesting potential for big data–driven optimization of campaign spending. PMID:26487986

  4. Does Television Viewership Predict Presidential Election Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Barfar, Arash; Padmanabhan, Balaji

    2015-09-01

    The days of surprise about actual election outcomes in the big data world are likely to be fewer in the years ahead, at least to those who may have access to such data. In this paper we highlight the potential for forecasting the Unites States presidential election outcomes at the state and county levels based solely on the data about viewership of television programs. A key consideration for relevance is that given the infrequent nature of elections, such models are useful only if they can be trained using recent data on viewership. However, the target variable (election outcome) is usually not known until the election is over. Related to this, we show here that such models may be trained with the television viewership data in the "safe" states (the ones where the outcome can be assumed even in the days preceding elections) to potentially forecast the outcomes in the swing states. In addition to their potential to forecast, these models could also help campaigns target programs for advertisements. Nearly two billion dollars were spent on television advertising in the 2012 presidential race, suggesting potential for big data-driven optimization of campaign spending.

  5. Acoustic signal emission monitoring as a novel method to predict steam pops during radiofrequency ablation: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Chik, William W B; Kosobrodov, Roman; Bhaskaran, Abhishek; Barry, Michael Anthony Tony; Nguyen, Doan Trang; Pouliopoulos, Jim; Byth, Karen; Sivagangabalan, Gopal; Thomas, Stuart P; Ross, David L; McEwan, Alistair; Kovoor, Pramesh; Thiagalingam, Aravinda

    2015-04-01

    Steam pop is an explosive rupture of cardiac tissue caused by tissue overheating above 100 °C, resulting in steam formation, predisposing to serious complications associated with radiofrequency (RF) ablations. However, there are currently no reliable techniques to predict the occurrence of steam pops. We propose the utility of acoustic signals emitted during RF ablation as a novel method to predict steam pop formation and potentially prevent serious complications. Radiofrequency generator parameters (power, impedance, and temperature) were temporally recorded during ablations performed in an in vitro bovine myocardial model. The acoustic system consisted of HTI-96-min hydrophone, microphone preamplifier, and sound card connected to a laptop computer. The hydrophone has the frequency range of 2 Hz to 30 kHz and nominal sensitivity in the range -240 to -165 dB. The sound was sampled at 96 kHz with 24-bit resolution. Output signal from the hydrophone was fed into the camera audio input to synchronize the video stream. An automated system was developed for the detection and analysis of acoustic events. Nine steam pops were observed. Three distinct sounds were identified as warning signals, each indicating rapid steam formation and its release from tissue. These sounds had a broad frequency range up to 6 kHz with several spectral peaks around 2-3 kHz. Subjectively, these warning signals were perceived as separate loud clicks, a quick succession of clicks, or continuous squeaking noise. Characteristic acoustic signals were identified preceding 80% of pops occurrence. Six cardiologists were able to identify 65% of acoustic signals accurately preceding the pop. An automated system identified the characteristic warning signals in 85% of cases. The mean time from the first acoustic signal to pop occurrence was 46 ± 20 seconds. The automated system had 72.7% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for predicting pops. Easily identifiable characteristic acoustic emissions

  6. Efficacy and predictability of soft tissue ablation using a prototype Raman-shifted alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Kozub, John A; Shen, Jin-H; Joos, Karen M; Prasad, Ratna; Hutson, M Shane

    2015-10-01

    Previous research showed that mid-infrared free-electron lasers could reproducibly ablate soft tissue with little collateral damage. The potential for surgical applications motivated searches for alternative tabletop lasers providing thermally confined pulses in the 6- to-7-µm wavelength range with sufficient pulse energy, stability, and reliability. Here, we evaluate a prototype Raman-shifted alexandrite laser. We measure ablation thresholds, etch rates, and collateral damage in gelatin and cornea as a function of laser wavelength (6.09, 6.27, or 6.43 µm), pulse energy (up to 3 mJ/pulse), and spot diameter (100 to 600 µm). We find modest wavelength dependence for ablation thresholds and collateral damage, with the lowest thresholds and least damage for 6.09 µm. We find a strong spot-size dependence for all metrics. When the beam is tightly focused (~100-µm diameter), ablation requires more energy, is highly variable and less efficient, and can yield large zones of mechanical damage (for pulse energies>1 mJ). When the beam is softly focused (~300-µm diameter), ablation proceeded at surgically relevant etch rates, with reasonable reproducibility (5% to 12% within a single sample), and little collateral damage. With improvements in pulse-energy stability, this prototype laser may have significant potential for soft-tissue surgical applications.

  7. Efficacy and predictability of soft tissue ablation using a prototype Raman-shifted alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozub, John A.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Prasad, Ratna; Shane Hutson, M.

    2015-10-01

    Previous research showed that mid-infrared free-electron lasers could reproducibly ablate soft tissue with little collateral damage. The potential for surgical applications motivated searches for alternative tabletop lasers providing thermally confined pulses in the 6- to-7-μm wavelength range with sufficient pulse energy, stability, and reliability. Here, we evaluate a prototype Raman-shifted alexandrite laser. We measure ablation thresholds, etch rates, and collateral damage in gelatin and cornea as a function of laser wavelength (6.09, 6.27, or 6.43 μm), pulse energy (up to 3 mJ/pulse), and spot diameter (100 to 600 μm). We find modest wavelength dependence for ablation thresholds and collateral damage, with the lowest thresholds and least damage for 6.09 μm. We find a strong spot-size dependence for all metrics. When the beam is tightly focused (˜100-μm diameter), ablation requires more energy, is highly variable and less efficient, and can yield large zones of mechanical damage (for pulse energies >1 mJ). When the beam is softly focused (˜300-μm diameter), ablation proceeded at surgically relevant etch rates, with reasonable reproducibility (5% to 12% within a single sample), and little collateral damage. With improvements in pulse-energy stability, this prototype laser may have significant potential for soft-tissue surgical applications.

  8. Efficacy and predictability of soft tissue ablation using a prototype Raman-shifted alexandrite laser

    PubMed Central

    Kozub, John A.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Prasad, Ratna; Shane Hutson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Previous research showed that mid-infrared free-electron lasers could reproducibly ablate soft tissue with little collateral damage. The potential for surgical applications motivated searches for alternative tabletop lasers providing thermally confined pulses in the 6- to-7-μm wavelength range with sufficient pulse energy, stability, and reliability. Here, we evaluate a prototype Raman-shifted alexandrite laser. We measure ablation thresholds, etch rates, and collateral damage in gelatin and cornea as a function of laser wavelength (6.09, 6.27, or 6.43  μm), pulse energy (up to 3  mJ/pulse), and spot diameter (100 to 600  μm). We find modest wavelength dependence for ablation thresholds and collateral damage, with the lowest thresholds and least damage for 6.09  μm. We find a strong spot-size dependence for all metrics. When the beam is tightly focused (∼100-μm diameter), ablation requires more energy, is highly variable and less efficient, and can yield large zones of mechanical damage (for pulse energies >1  mJ). When the beam is softly focused (∼300-μm diameter), ablation proceeded at surgically relevant etch rates, with reasonable reproducibility (5% to 12% within a single sample), and little collateral damage. With improvements in pulse-energy stability, this prototype laser may have significant potential for soft-tissue surgical applications. PMID:26456553

  9. AFRPL Graphite Performance Prediction Program. Improved Capability for the Design and Ablation Performance Prediction of Advanced Air Force Solid Propellant Rocket Nozzles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    characterization test matrix. 3.2.1.1 Rocket Motor Environments Rocket motor environments were based on three advanced MX propellants , namely, * XLDB * HTPB * PEG...107 41 Predicted Nozzle Respoise to HTPB Propellant , 60.0 Seconds .... ............ 108 42 Nozzle Geometry, Rocketdyne Condor Nozzle...species as a function of temperature for an HTPB propellant is shown in Figure 8. This solution represents the kinetically controlled ablation of edge

  10. Long-term outcome of transendoscopic oesophageal mass ablation in dogs with Spirocerca lupi-associated oesophageal sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shipov, A; Kelmer, G; Lavy, E; Milgram, J; Aroch, I; Segev, G

    2015-10-10

    Oesophageal sarcoma is a potential sequel of Spirocerca lupi infection. Oesophageal mass excision can be performed by open chest surgery. The objectives of this observational study were to evaluate the feasibility, short-term morbidity and long-term outcome of transendoscopic oesophageal mass ablation in dogs with spirocercosis-associated oesophageal neoplasia. A 9 mm video-endoscope and laser or electrocauterisation were used to debulk the oesophageal mass. Long-term follow-up was done by telephonic interviews. Fifteen dogs were included. The median tumour size was 5 cm (range 3.5-9). The median procedure time was 75 minutes (range 35-165) and was deemed successful in 12/15 dogs (80 per cent). Recovery was uneventful in all dogs. Immediate complications included oesophageal damage (two dogs) oesophageal perforation (one dog) and a focal thermal damage (one dog). The median hospitalisation time of all dogs was less than one day, with all but two discharged on the procedure day. The median survival time, available in nine dogs that were followed, was 202 days (range 51-691). Four of these dogs (44 per cent) survived more than six months, of which three survived more than one year. In conclusion, transendoscopic oesophageal mass ablation might be considered an alternative, palliative procedure for open-chest oesophageal surgery. It has comparable long-term survival, lower morbidity, short hospitalisation time and relatively low cost. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Cellular and Behavioral Outcomes of Dorsal Striatonigral Neuron Ablation: New Insights into Striatal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Révy, Delphine; Jaouen, Florence; Salin, Pascal; Melon, Christophe; Chabbert, Dorian; Tafi, Elisiana; Concetta, Lena; Langa, Francina; Amalric, Marianne; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Marie, Hélène; Beurrier, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    The striatum is the input structure of the basal ganglia network that contains heterogeneous neuronal populations, including two populations of projecting neurons called the medium spiny neurons (MSNs), and different types of interneurons. We developed a transgenic mouse model enabling inducible ablation of the striatonigral MSNs constituting the direct pathway by expressing the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor under the control of the Slc35d3 gene promoter, a gene enriched in striatonigral MSNs. DT injection into the striatum triggered selective elimination of the majority of striatonigral MSNs. DT-mediated ablation of striatonigral MSNs caused selective loss of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum but not in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), suggesting a region-specific critical role of the direct pathway in striatal cholinergic neuron homeostasis. Mice with DT injection into the dorsal striatum showed altered basal and cocaine-induced locomotion and dramatic reduction of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the parkinsonian condition. In addition, these mice exhibited reduced anxiety, revealing a role of the dorsal striatum in the modulation of behaviors involving an emotional component, behaviors generally associated with limbic structures. Altogether, these results highlight the implication of the direct striatonigral pathway in the regulation of heterogeneous functions from cell survival to regulation of motor and emotion-associated behaviors. PMID:24903652

  12. Cellular and behavioral outcomes of dorsal striatonigral neuron ablation: new insights into striatal functions.

    PubMed

    Révy, Delphine; Jaouen, Florence; Salin, Pascal; Melon, Christophe; Chabbert, Dorian; Tafi, Elisiana; Concetta, Lena; Langa, Francina; Amalric, Marianne; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Marie, Hélène; Beurrier, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    The striatum is the input structure of the basal ganglia network that contains heterogeneous neuronal populations, including two populations of projecting neurons called the medium spiny neurons (MSNs), and different types of interneurons. We developed a transgenic mouse model enabling inducible ablation of the striatonigral MSNs constituting the direct pathway by expressing the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor under the control of the Slc35d3 gene promoter, a gene enriched in striatonigral MSNs. DT injection into the striatum triggered selective elimination of the majority of striatonigral MSNs. DT-mediated ablation of striatonigral MSNs caused selective loss of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum but not in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), suggesting a region-specific critical role of the direct pathway in striatal cholinergic neuron homeostasis. Mice with DT injection into the dorsal striatum showed altered basal and cocaine-induced locomotion and dramatic reduction of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the parkinsonian condition. In addition, these mice exhibited reduced anxiety, revealing a role of the dorsal striatum in the modulation of behaviors involving an emotional component, behaviors generally associated with limbic structures. Altogether, these results highlight the implication of the direct striatonigral pathway in the regulation of heterogeneous functions from cell survival to regulation of motor and emotion-associated behaviors.

  13. Can ventricular tachycardia non-inducibility after ablation predict reduced ventricular tachycardia recurrence and mortality in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy? A meta-analysis of twenty-four observational studies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinzhu; Zeng, Shan; Zhou, Qiongqiong; Zhu, Wengen; Xu, Zhenyan; Yu, Jianhua; Hong, Kui

    2016-11-01

    At present, the role of ventricular tachycardia (VT) non-inducibility after ablation in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of the published literature to assess whether VT non-inducibility after ablation could predict reduced VT recurrence and mortality in patients with NICM. PubMed, ScienceDirect, and the Cochrane library were searched for studies evaluating the effects of VT non-inducibility after catheter ablation on the long-term outcome in NICM patients with sustained VT. Results were analyzed using a fixed-effect model, and the data were pooled using RevMan 5.3 software. Twenty-four observational studies were identified (736 participants, mean follow-up time: 22months). NICM patients with VT inducibility after ablation had a higher risk of VT recurrence (odds ratio [OR]=5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.07-8.37; P<0.00001) and all-cause mortality (OR=3.55, 95% CI 1.62-7.78; P=0.002) compared with VT non-inducibility. Similarly in the subgroup analysis, patients with VT inducibility showed a higher risk of VT recurrence from non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (OR=3.92, 95% CI 2.36-6.50; P<0.00001) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (OR=5.37, 95% CI 2.20-13.10; P=0.0002). Additionally, meta-analysis also showed that combined endo-epicardial ablation significantly reduced the risk of VT recurrence compared with endocardial-only ablation (OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.19-3.44; P=0.009; mean follow-up time: 22months). Recent evidence has shown that VT non-inducibility after ablation is a predictor for reduced VT recurrence and mortality compared with VT inducibility in NICM patients with sustained VT. In addition, endocardial plus adjuvant epicardial ablation provides better long-term arrhythmia-free survival than endocardial ablation alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interpretable Deep Models for ICU Outcome Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Che, Zhengping; Purushotham, Sanjay; Khemani, Robinder; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Exponential surge in health care data, such as longitudinal data from electronic health records (EHR), sensor data from intensive care unit (ICU), etc., is providing new opportunities to discover meaningful data-driven characteristics and patterns ofdiseases. Recently, deep learning models have been employedfor many computational phenotyping and healthcare prediction tasks to achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, deep models lack interpretability which is crucial for wide adoption in medical research and clinical decision-making. In this paper, we introduce a simple yet powerful knowledge-distillation approach called interpretable mimic learning, which uses gradient boosting trees to learn interpretable models and at the same time achieves strong prediction performance as deep learning models. Experiment results on Pediatric ICU dataset for acute lung injury (ALI) show that our proposed method not only outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for morality and ventilator free days prediction tasks but can also provide interpretable models to clinicians. PMID:28269832

  15. Radiofrequency volumetric thermal ablation of fibroids: a prospective, clinical analysis of two years’ outcome from the Halt trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although most myomas are asymptomatic, quality of life is compromised for many women with uterine fibroid disease. Twelve-month outcomes from the Halt Trial have been reported in the literature. Here we analyze the clinical success of radiofrequency volumetric thermal ablation (RFVTA) of symptomatic uterine fibroids at two years of follow up. Methods Prospective, multicenter, outpatient interventional clinical trial of fibroid treatment by RFVTA in 124 premenopausal women (mean age, 42.4 ± 4.4 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids and objectively confirmed heavy menstrual bleeding (≥160 to ≤500 mL). Outcome measures included: subject responses to validated questionnaires, treatment-emergent adverse events, and surgical re-intervention for fibroids at 24 months postprocedure. Continuous and categorical variables were summarized using descriptive statistics and means and percentages. Comparisons between visits were based on t-tests using repeated measures models. P-values < 0.05, adjusted for multiplicity, were statistically significant. Results One hundred twelve subjects were followed through 24 months. Change in symptom severity from baseline was –35.7 (95% CI, –40.1 to –31.4; p<.001). Change in health-related quality of life (HRQL) was 40.9 (95% CI, 36.2 to 45.6; p < .001). HRQL subscores also improved significantly from baseline to 24 months in all categories (concern, activities, energy/mood, control, self-consciousness, and sexual function) [p<.001]. Six patients underwent surgical re-intervention for fibroid-related bleeding between 12 and 24 months providing a re-intervention rate of 4.8% (6/124). Conclusion Radiofrequency volumetric thermal ablation of myomas significantly reduces symptom severity and improves quality of life with low surgical re-intervention through 24 months of follow up. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00874029 PMID:23941588

  16. Can sebum reduction predict acne outcome?

    PubMed

    Janiczek-Dolphin, N; Cook, J; Thiboutot, D; Harness, J; Clucas, A

    2010-10-01

    Sebum excretion has generally been accepted as an important factor in the development of acne vulgaris. However, the relationship of sebum excretion and acne outcome has not yet been clearly demonstrated quantitatively. The objective of this analysis was to explore the correlation of sebum and acne by combining data from studies of various acne treatments that have demonstrated effects on both sebum excretion and acne outcome. Acne measures included total lesion count, inflammatory lesion count and acne severity grade. For each acne measure, data were pooled and analysed at the 3- and 4-month endpoints, when sebum reduction has generally equilibrated and efficacy in acne is approaching the maximum effect for most treatments. A linear model was used to describe the percentage reduction in each acne measure as a function of percentage reduction in sebum excretion. Slope values were similar for the three acne parameters and all were significantly different from zero (P < 0·025), suggesting a significant correlation of sebum and acne. The projected sebum reduction required to achieve 50% reduction in acne measures ranged from 30% to 50%. The results shown here suggest that the collective data across multiple studies may provide a useful generalization of the association of sebum reduction and acne outcome. As the relationship apparently remains consistent regardless of the treatment, it can be inferred that extrapolation to novel exploratory treatments may be valid. © 2010 Pfizer, Inc. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Impact of Systemic Therapy and Recurrence Pattern on Survival Outcome after Radiofrequency Ablation for Colorectal Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Stang, Axel; Donati, Marcello; Weilert, Hauke; Oldhafer, Karl Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of colorectal liver metastasases (CLM) develop disease recurrence, but little is known about the effect of recurrence patterns and/or systemic therapy on outcome. In this study, we examined the recurrence patterns and survival after systemic therapy plus RFA in patients with unresectable CLM without extrahepatic disease. The aims were to analyze the effect of recurrence patterns on survival and to assess the relative benefit contributed by systemic therapy and local ablation to disease control and patient outcome. Methods: From January 2002 to December 2012, 113 patients underwent RFA of liver-limited CLM after systemic therapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses for associations between clinical and/or treatment-related variables, recurrence-free survival (RFS), recurrence patterns, and overall survival (OS) were carried out. Results: Of 113 patients, 105 (92.8%) had disease recurrence (median RFS: 6.1 months). Lower post-recurrence OS was observed after early (≤6 months) than after late recurrence (8.5 versus 24.0 months, p < 0.001). Recurrence sites were RFA-sites only (4.8%), liver-only (57.1%), lung-only (10.5%), or multiple (27.6%); the corresponding post-recurrence OS was 21, 19, 39, and 7 months (p < 0.001), respectively. Response to pre-RFA systemic therapy was the strongest predictor for OS (hazard ratio [HR] 5.28), RFS (HR 3.30), early (odds ratio [OR] 6.34) and multiple-site recurrence (OR 3.83) (p < 0.01), respectively; only responders achieved 5-year OS and RFS (29% and 12% versus 0% and 0% for non-responders, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Survival after RFA for liver-limited CLM is strongly linked to the timing and pattern of non-local disease recurrence. Local ablation efficacy is necessary but not sufficient to obtain long-term disease control. Effective pre-RFA systemic therapy does favourably affect the incidence, timing and patterns of recurrence and long

  18. The indications for and techniques and outcomes of ablative procedures of the distal ulna. The Darrach resection, hemiresection, matched resection, and Sauvé-Kapandji procedure.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, D M; Ganocy, T K; Kim, D C

    1998-05-01

    Several ablative procedures exist for the treatment of distal radio-ulnar joint arthritis. This article describes the indications, techniques, pitfalls, and outcomes for the four most popular procedures: Darrach, hemiresection-interposition, Sauvé-Kapandji, and matched ulnar resection. The authors explain their personal algorithm for treatment selection, emphasizing patient requirements versus the physiologic characteristics of each procedure.

  19. Embryonic origin of primary colon cancer predicts survival in patients undergoing ablation for colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, S; Odisio, B C; Huang, S Y; Kopetz, S E; Ahrar, K; Chun, Y S; Conrad, C; Aloia, T A; Gupta, S; Harmoush, S; Hicks, M E; Vauthey, J-N

    2017-06-01

    In patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC) or unresectable metastatic CRC, midgut embryonic origin is associated with worse prognosis. The impact of embryonic origin on survival after ablation of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) is unclear. We identified 74 patients with CLM who underwent percutaneous ablation during 2004-2015. Survival and recurrence after ablation of CLM from midgut origin (n = 18) and hindgut origin (n = 56) were analyzed. Prognostic value of embryonic origin was evaluated. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after percutaneous ablation were worse in patients from midgut origin (3-year RFS: 5.6% vs. 24%, P = 0.004; 3-year OS: 25% vs. 70%, P 0.001). In multivariable analysis, factors associated with worse OS were midgut origin (hazard ratio [HR] 4.87, 95% CI 2.14-10.9, P 0.001), multiple CLM (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.02-5.39, P = 0.044), and RAS mutation (HR 2.78, 95% CI 1.25-6.36, P = 0.013). At a median follow-up of 25 months, 56 patients (76%) had developed recurrence, 16 (89%) with midgut origin and 40 (71%) with hindgut origin (P = 0.133). Recurrent disease was treated with local therapy in 20 patients (36%), 2 (13%) with midgut origin and 18 (45%) with hindgut origin (P = 0.022). Compared to CLM from hindgut origin tumors, CLM from midgut origin tumors were associated with worse survival after ablation, which was partly attributable to the fact that patients with hindgut origin were more frequently candidates for local therapy at recurrence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol-Outcome Expectancies: Predicting Interest in Violence and Erotica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, William H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    Although research has examined the content of alcohol-outcome expectancies and also the role of alcohol use in aggressive and sexual behaviors, few studies have linked the two lines of inquiry. To examine the efficacy of outcome expectancies for predicting actual behavior, 64 male social drinkers, aged 21 to 25 years, completed questionnaires and,…

  1. Sense of Coherence Predicts Employment Outcomes after Job Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vastamaki, Jaana; Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated sense of coherence (SOC) as a potential predictor of employment outcomes of unemployed job seekers. Ninety-eight unemployed persons were surveyed at 2 measurement points 6 months apart. The findings showed that strong SOC at baseline predicted positive outcomes (reemployment or being a student) 6 months later. SOC evidently…

  2. Alcohol-Outcome Expectancies: Predicting Interest in Violence and Erotica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, William H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    Although research has examined the content of alcohol-outcome expectancies and also the role of alcohol use in aggressive and sexual behaviors, few studies have linked the two lines of inquiry. To examine the efficacy of outcome expectancies for predicting actual behavior, 64 male social drinkers, aged 21 to 25 years, completed questionnaires and,…

  3. Combining clinical variables to optimize prediction of antidepressant treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iniesta, Raquel; Malki, Karim; Maier, Wolfgang; Rietschel, Marcella; Mors, Ole; Hauser, Joanna; Henigsberg, Neven; Dernovsek, Mojca Zvezdana; Souery, Daniel; Stahl, Daniel; Dobson, Richard; Aitchison, Katherine J; Farmer, Anne; Lewis, Cathryn M; McGuffin, Peter; Uher, Rudolf

    2016-07-01

    The outcome of treatment with antidepressants varies markedly across people with the same diagnosis. A clinically significant prediction of outcomes could spare the frustration of trial and error approach and improve the outcomes of major depressive disorder through individualized treatment selection. It is likely that a combination of multiple predictors is needed to achieve such prediction. We used elastic net regularized regression to optimize prediction of symptom improvement and remission during treatment with escitalopram or nortriptyline and to identify contributing predictors from a range of demographic and clinical variables in 793 adults with major depressive disorder. A combination of demographic and clinical variables, with strong contributions from symptoms of depressed mood, reduced interest, decreased activity, indecisiveness, pessimism and anxiety significantly predicted treatment outcomes, explaining 5-10% of variance in symptom improvement with escitalopram. Similar combinations of variables predicted remission with area under the curve 0.72, explaining approximately 15% of variance (pseudo R(2)) in who achieves remission, with strong contributions from body mass index, appetite, interest-activity symptom dimension and anxious-somatizing depression subtype. Escitalopram-specific outcome prediction was more accurate than generic outcome prediction, and reached effect sizes that were near or above a previously established benchmark for clinical significance. Outcome prediction on the nortriptyline arm did not significantly differ from chance. These results suggest that easily obtained demographic and clinical variables can predict therapeutic response to escitalopram with clinically meaningful accuracy, suggesting a potential for individualized prescription of this antidepressant drug. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Visual outcome after correcting the refractive error of large pupil patients with wavefront-guided ablation

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Mounir A; Allam, Waleed A; Shaheen, Mohamed S

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy and predictability of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) treatments using the iris registration (IR) technology for the correction of refractive errors in patients with large pupils. Setting Horus Vision Correction Center, Alexandria, Egypt. Methods Prospective noncomparative study including a total of 52 eyes of 30 consecutive laser refractive correction candidates with large mesopic pupil diameters and myopia or myopic astigmatism. Wavefront-guided LASIK was performed in all cases using the VISX STAR S4 IR excimer laser platform. Visual, refractive, aberrometric and mesopic contrast sensitivity (CS) outcomes were evaluated during a 6-month follow-up. Results Mean mesopic pupil diameter ranged from 8.0 mm to 9.4 mm. A significant improvement in uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA) (P < 0.01) was found postoperatively, which was consistent with a significant refractive correction (P < 0.01). No significant change was detected in corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) (P = 0.11). Efficacy index (the ratio of postoperative UCDVA to preoperative CDVA) and safety index (the ratio of postoperative CDVA to preoperative CDVA) were calculated. Mean efficacy and safety indices were 1.06 ± 0.33 and 1.05 ± 0.18, respectively, and 92.31% of eyes had a postoperative spherical equivalent within ±0.50 diopters (D). Manifest refractive spherical equivalent improved significantly (P < 0.05) from a preoperative level of −3.1 ± 1.6 D (range −6.6 to 0 D) to −0.1 ± 0.2 D (range −1.3 to 0.1 D) at 6 months postoperative. No significant changes were found in mesopic CS (P ≥ 0.08), except CS for three cycles/degree, which improved significantly (P = 0.02). Magnitudes of primary coma and trefoil did not change significantly (P ≥ 0.34), with a small but statistically significant increase in primary spherical aberration. Conclusion Wavefront-guided LASIK provides an effective correction of low to moderate myopia or

  5. Ablate and pace strategy for atrial fibrillation: long-term outcome of AIRCRAFT trial.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kang-Teng; Davis, Michael J E; Powell, Anne; Arnolda, Leonard; Moulden, Kath; Bulsara, Max; Weerasooriya, Rukshen

    2007-07-01

    To determine long-term effects of atrioventricular junction ablation and pacing (AVJAP) on cardiac function and quality of life. Prospective follow-up was performed on consenting patients recruited in two participating centres representing majority of the Australian intervention randomized control of rate in atrial fibrillation trial (AIRCRAFT) cohort after 4-7 years. All patients underwent history, physical examination, 24 h ambulatory ECG monitoring, and transthoracic echocardiogram. Quality of life questionnaires in original AIRCRAFT trial were re-administered including CAST, assessment quality of life, and sickness impact profile. Of the 63 eligible patients, 14 refused participation, and 1 patient was lost to follow-up. The remaining 48 patients (25 males, current mean age 74 +/- 7.5 years), 23 randomized to AVJAP and 25 to pharmacologic therapy (MED) were re-evaluated. In the MED group, LVEF was 62 +/- 11% at baseline, 63 +/- 10% at 6 months, 64 +/- 9% at 12 months, and 59 +/- 12% at 5 years (P < 0.01). In the AVJAP group LVEF was 54 +/- 19% at baseline, 55 +/- 13% at 6 months, 53 +/- 15% at 12 months, and 51 +/- 17% at 5 years (P = 0.02). NYHA functional class was not statistically different between MED and AVJAP patients (1.4 vs. 1.5, P = 0.48). Death occurred in 10 MED and 5 AVJAP patients. Survival analysis incorporating all 63 patients showed no statistical difference between the 2 treatment groups (P = 0.26). The CAST quality of life questionnaire revealed that patients in the AVJAP group had fewer symptoms of irregular heart beat (P < 0.001), chest pain (P = 0.02), and difficulty breathing (P = 0.02). Psychosocial scores and overall life satisfaction were similar (P > 0.05). In this long-term follow-up of the AIRCRAFT cohort, similar decline in LVEF and NYHA class was observed in both treatment groups. AVJAP patients have better quality of life with fewer symptoms. Based on improved quality of life, ablate and pace strategy for permanent atrial

  6. Predicting couple therapy outcomes based on speech acoustic features.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Md; Baucom, Brian Robert; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2017-01-01

    Automated assessment and prediction of marital outcome in couples therapy is a challenging task but promises to be a potentially useful tool for clinical psychologists. Computational approaches for inferring therapy outcomes using observable behavioral information obtained from conversations between spouses offer objective means for understanding relationship dynamics. In this work, we explore whether the acoustics of the spoken interactions of clinically distressed spouses provide information towards assessment of therapy outcomes. The therapy outcome prediction task in this work includes detecting whether there was a relationship improvement or not (posed as a binary classification) as well as discerning varying levels of improvement or decline in the relationship status (posed as a multiclass recognition task). We use each interlocutor's acoustic speech signal characteristics such as vocal intonation and intensity, both independently and in relation to one another, as cues for predicting the therapy outcome. We also compare prediction performance with one obtained via standardized behavioral codes characterizing the relationship dynamics provided by human experts as features for automated classification. Our experiments, using data from a longitudinal clinical study of couples in distressed relations, showed that predictions of relationship outcomes obtained directly from vocal acoustics are comparable or superior to those obtained using human-rated behavioral codes as prediction features. In addition, combining direct signal-derived features with manually coded behavioral features improved the prediction performance in most cases, indicating the complementarity of relevant information captured by humans and machine algorithms. Additionally, considering the vocal properties of the interlocutors in relation to one another, rather than in isolation, showed to be important for improving the automatic prediction. This finding supports the notion that behavioral

  7. Predicting Future Clinical Adjustment from Treatment Outcome and Process Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, G. R.; Forgatch, Marion S.

    1995-01-01

    Issues related to the use of outcome and process data from the treatment of antisocial children to predict future childhood adjustment were examined through a study of 69 children. Data supported the hypothesis that measures of processes thought to produce changes in child behavior would serve to predict future adjustment. (SLD)

  8. Platelet Turnover Predicts Outcome after Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Iliev, Liana; Bruno, Veronika; Rohla, Miklos; Egger, Florian; Weiss, Thomas W.; Hübl, Wolfgang; Willheim, Martin; Wojta, Johann; Huber, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Summary Elevated platelet turnover contributes to high platelet reactivity. High platelet reactivity after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic value of platelet turnover and function with regard to MACE after PCI with stent implantation. In this prospective observational study, 486 consecutive patients after PCI on aspirin and clopidogrel were included to determine platelet turnover (mean platelet volume (MPV), reticulated platelet fraction (RPF)) and platelet function (multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-phosphorylation (VASP-P) assay). At six-months follow-up, MACE occurred in 10.7 % of patients. RPF (odds ratio [OR]=1.173 (95% confidence interval [CI 95 %] 1.040–1.324), p=0.009) and MPV (OR=1.459 (CI 95 % 1.059–2.008), p=0.021) were univariable predictors of MACE, whereas VASP-P (OR=1.016 (CI 95 % 1.000–1.032), p=0.052) and MEA (OR=0.999 (CI 95 % 0.980–1.017), p=0.895) failed to predict MACE. RPF remained the only platelet variable independently associated with MACE. The best model to predict MACE included: troponin I (OR=1.007 (CI 95 % 1.002–1.012), p=0.009), RPF (OR=1.136 (CI 95 % 1.001–1.288), p=0.048), CRP (OR=1.008 (CI 95 % 1.001–1.014), p=0.023) and history of myocardial infarction (OR=2.039 (CI 95 % 1.093–3.806), p=0.025). RPF (OR=1.211 (CI 95 % 1.042–1.406), p=0.012) was also independently associated with in-hospital bleedings. In conclusion, RPF as index of platelet turnover is an independent predictor of MACE and bleeding events in PCI patients on dual antiplatelet therapy. Since RPF can reliably be quantified along with routine haemograms, RPF might easily be applied in the setting of cardiovascular risk prediction. PMID:28229159

  9. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: rationale and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Puneeth; Timmerman, Robert D

    2012-12-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), also known in older reports as stereotactic body radiation therapy, represents an evolving and expanding radiation treatment option for many forms of local malignancy, from primary tumors to metastatic and recurrent disease. It involves the precise delivery of higher doses of external-beam radiation per treatment over a shortened treatment course compared with traditional regimens. SABR has become the standard of care for patients with medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is becoming a more viable option for surgical candidates with early-stage primary NSCLCs who prefer noninvasive modalities of treatment. Although SABR is being used for the treatment of primary and metastatic disease in many sites of the body, such as the central nervous system, liver, pancreas, spine metastases, and isolated nodal disease in the mediastinum and abdomen, this article focuses on treatment of NSCLC in the thorax. Specifically, this review provides the rationale, evidence, and indications for treating early-stage lung cancers with SABR.

  10. Long-term clinical outcome after alcohol septal ablation for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: results from the Euro-ASA registry.

    PubMed

    Veselka, Josef; Jensen, Morten Kvistholm; Liebregts, Max; Januska, Jaroslav; Krejci, Jan; Bartel, Thomas; Dabrowski, Maciej; Hansen, Peter Riis; Almaas, Vibeke Marie; Seggewiss, Hubert; Horstkotte, Dieter; Tomasov, Pavol; Adlova, Radka; Bundgaard, Henning; Steggerda, Robbert; Ten Berg, Jurriën; Faber, Lothar

    2016-05-14

    The first cases of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) were published two decades ago. Although the outcomes of single-centre and national ASA registries have been published, the long-term survival and clinical outcome of the procedure are still debated. We report long-term outcomes from the as yet largest multinational ASA registry (the Euro-ASA registry). A total of 1275 (58 ± 14 years, median follow-up 5.7 years) highly symptomatic patients treated with ASA were included. The 30-day post-ASA mortality was 1%. Overall, 171 (13%) patients died during follow-up, corresponding to a post-ASA all-cause mortality rate of 2.42 deaths per 100 patient-years. Survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years after ASA were 98% (95% CI 96-98%), 89% (95% CI 87-91%), and 77% (95% CI 73-80%), respectively. In multivariable analysis, independent predictors of all-cause mortality were age at ASA (P < 0.01), septum thickness before ASA (P < 0.01), NYHA class before ASA (P = 0.047), and the left ventricular (LV) outflow tract gradient at the last clinical check-up (P = 0.048). Alcohol septal ablation reduced the LV outflow tract gradient from 67 ± 36 to 16 ± 21 mmHg (P < 0.01) and NYHA class from 2.9 ± 0.5 to 1.6 ± 0.7 (P < 0.01). At the last check-up, 89% of patients reported dyspnoea of NYHA class ≤2, which was independently associated with LV outflow tract gradient (P < 0.01). The Euro-ASA registry demonstrated low peri-procedural and long-term mortality after ASA. This intervention provided durable relief of symptoms and a reduction of LV outflow tract obstruction in selected and highly symptomatic patients with obstructive HCM. As the post-procedural obstruction seems to be associated with both worse functional status and prognosis, optimal therapy should be focused on the elimination of LV outflow tract gradient. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency Predicts Prostate Biopsy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Adam B.; Nyame, Yaw; Martin, Iman K.; Catalona, William J.; Hollowell, Courtney M.P.; Nadler, Robert B.; Kozlowski, James M.; Perry, Kent T.; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Kittles, Rick A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The association between vitamin D and prostate biopsy outcomes has not been evaluated. We examine serum vitamin D levels with prostate biopsy results in men with abnormal PSA and/or digital rectal examination. Experimental Design Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) was obtained from 667 men, age 40-79, prospectively enrolled from Chicago urology clinics undergoing first prostate biopsy. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between 25-OH D status and incident prostate cancer (PCa), Gleason score, and tumor stage. Results Among European American (EA) men, there was an association of 25-OH D < 12 ng/ml with higher Gleason score ≥ 4+4 (OR = 3.66 [1.41, 9.50], p = 0.008) and tumor stage (stage ≥ cT2b vs. ≤ cT2a, OR = 2.42 [1.14, 5.10], p = 0.008). In African American (AA) men, we find increased odds of PCa diagnosis on biopsy with 25-OH D < 20 ng/ml (OR = 2.43 [1.20, 4.94], p = 0.01). AA men demonstrated an association between 25-OH D < 12ng/ml and Gleason ≥ 4+4 (OR = 4.89 [1.59, 15.07]; p = 0.006). There was an association with tumor stage ≥ cT2b vs. ≤ cT2a (OR: 4.22, [1.52 – 11.74], p = 0.003). Conclusions In AA men, vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased odds of PCa diagnosis on biopsy. In both EA and AA men, severe deficiency was positively associated with higher Gleason grade and tumor stage. PMID:24789033

  12. Telomerase expression predicts unfavorable outcome in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Robert P; Drissi, Rachid; Billups, Catherine A; Daw, Najat C; Valentine, Marcus B; Dome, Jeffrey S

    2004-09-15

    Osteosarcoma is distinct from most cancers in that the majority of osteosarcomas lack telomerase expression and use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism to maintain telomeres. Laboratory studies suggest that compared with ALT, telomerase expression is associated with increased tumor aggressiveness. We evaluated the clinical significance of telomerase expression in human osteosarcoma. Fifty-six osteosarcomas from 51 patients treated at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1982 and 2003 were evaluated for telomerase enzyme activity, mRNA expression of the catalytic component of telomerase (TERT), and presence of the ALT pathway. Outcome analysis was based on TERT mRNA expression in the primary tumor samples from 44 patients. Fourteen primary tumors expressed TERT mRNA (32%; eight TERT only, six TERT and ALT) and 30 did not express TERT mRNA (68%; 29 ALT, one no ALT). Progression-free survival (PFS) was inferior in the TERT-positive group compared with the TERT-negative group (3-year estimates, 21.4% +/- 9.5% v 63.7% +/- 11.1%; P =.014). Likewise, overall survival was inferior in the TERT-positive group compared with the TERT-negative group (3-year estimates, 42.9% +/- 12.2% v 70.0% +/- 9.9%; P =.031). Among 31 patients with nonmetastatic disease at diagnosis, PFS was lower in the TERT-positive group compared with the TERT-negative group (3-year estimates, 33.3% +/- 13.6% v 72.0% +/- 11.5%; P =.092). Telomerase expression in primary tumor samples is associated with decreased PFS and OS in patients with osteosarcoma. Additional studies are warranted to better define the clinical utility of this molecular marker.

  13. Predictions of Cockpit Simulator Experimental Outcome Using System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1984-01-01

    This study involved predicting the outcome of a cockpit simulator experiment where pilots used cockpit displays of traffic information (CDTI) to establish and maintain in-trail spacing behind a lead aircraft during approach. The experiments were run on the NASA Ames Research Center multicab cockpit simulator facility. Prior to the experiments, a mathematical model of the pilot/aircraft/CDTI flight system was developed which included relative in-trail and vertical dynamics between aircraft in the approach string. This model was used to construct a digital simulation of the string dynamics including response to initial position errors. The model was then used to predict the outcome of the in-trail following cockpit simulator experiments. Outcome included performance and sensitivity to different separation criteria. The experimental results were then used to evaluate the model and its prediction accuracy. Lessons learned in this modeling and prediction study are noted.

  14. Using predictive analytics and big data to optimize pharmaceutical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Inmaculada; Zhang, Yuting

    2017-09-15

    The steps involved, the resources needed, and the challenges associated with applying predictive analytics in healthcare are described, with a review of successful applications of predictive analytics in implementing population health management interventions that target medication-related patient outcomes. In healthcare, the term big data typically refers to large quantities of electronic health record, administrative claims, and clinical trial data as well as data collected from smartphone applications, wearable devices, social media, and personal genomics services; predictive analytics refers to innovative methods of analysis developed to overcome challenges associated with big data, including a variety of statistical techniques ranging from predictive modeling to machine learning to data mining. Predictive analytics using big data have been applied successfully in several areas of medication management, such as in the identification of complex patients or those at highest risk for medication noncompliance or adverse effects. Because predictive analytics can be used in predicting different outcomes, they can provide pharmacists with a better understanding of the risks for specific medication-related problems that each patient faces. This information will enable pharmacists to deliver interventions tailored to patients' needs. In order to take full advantage of these benefits, however, clinicians will have to understand the basics of big data and predictive analytics. Predictive analytics that leverage big data will become an indispensable tool for clinicians in mapping interventions and improving patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol septal ablation for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: outcomes in young, middle-aged, and elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Robert A; Townsend, Jacob C; Patel, Chetan A; Wolf, Bethany J; Todoran, Thomas M; Powers, Eric R; Steinberg, Daniel H; Fernandes, Valerian L; Nielsen, Christopher D

    2013-11-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in young, middle-aged, and elderly patients. Intersociety guidelines suggest based on limited evidence that young patients with medically refractory symptoms of obstructive HCM should undergo surgical myectomy while elderly patients may be more appropriate for ASA. Data for 360 patients undergoing 389 ASAs were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed according to age. Young (<45 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), and elderly (≥65 years) patients comprised 28, 40, and 32% of the study population, respectively. Young patients had thicker left ventricular septal walls at baseline, and elderly patients had more comorbidity and dyspnea. Resting, mean left ventricular outflow tract gradients (LVOTGs) were similar across the age groups at baseline (62, 66, and 68 mm Hg, respectively; P = NS for all comparisons). LVOTGs and dyspnea were significantly and similarly improved in all age groups immediately after ASA and through 12 months of follow-up (P < 0.001 for before and after comparisons; P = NS for intergroup comparisons). Complication rates were similar for young and middle-aged patients but higher for elderly patients (9.1 and 6.3% vs. 20.8%, respectively; P ≤ 0.016 for elderly vs. others). Mortality rates for young and middle-aged patients were lower than for elderly patients, but the differences were not statistically significant. Patients undergoing ASA had significant and similar improvements in LVOTGs and symptoms regardless of age. Procedural complications were increased in elderly patients, who had numerically but not statistically significantly higher mortality rates. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ablation of advanced tongue or base of tongue cancer and reconstruction with free flap: functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chien, C Y; Su, C Y; Hwang, C F; Chuang, H C; Jeng, S F; Chen, Y C

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the functional outcomes of patients who underwent total or nearly total glossectomy for advanced tongue or base of tongue cancer. We used the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), anterior lateral thigh flap (ALTF) or fibular osteocutaneous flap (FOCF) to reconstruct the oral defect after radical resection in 39 patients undergoing total or nearly total glossectomy with laryngeal preservation. Good functional outcomes, measured by independent feeding, speech and swallowing were achieved in 35, 36 and 35 patients, respectively. The cumulative 4-year survival rates were 63.8% for tongue cancer and 42.9% for base of tongue cancer. Reconstruction with free flaps is a feasible method to restore the functional outcomes in speech and deglutition among patients who undergo total or nearly total glossectomy with laryngeal preservation.

  17. Action-outcome learning and prediction shape the window of simultaneity of audiovisual outcomes.

    PubMed

    Desantis, Andrea; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    To form a coherent representation of the objects around us, the brain must group the different sensory features composing these objects. Here, we investigated whether actions contribute in this grouping process. In particular, we assessed whether action-outcome learning and prediction contribute to audiovisual temporal binding. Participants were presented with two audiovisual pairs: one pair was triggered by a left action, and the other by a right action. In a later test phase, the audio and visual components of these pairs were presented at different onset times. Participants judged whether they were simultaneous or not. To assess the role of action-outcome prediction on audiovisual simultaneity, each action triggered either the same audiovisual pair as in the learning phase ('predicted' pair), or the pair that had previously been associated with the other action ('unpredicted' pair). We found the time window within which auditory and visual events appeared simultaneous increased for predicted compared to unpredicted pairs. However, no change in audiovisual simultaneity was observed when audiovisual pairs followed visual cues, rather than voluntary actions. This suggests that only action-outcome learning promotes temporal grouping of audio and visual effects. In a second experiment we observed that changes in audiovisual simultaneity do not only depend on our ability to predict what outcomes our actions generate, but also on learning the delay between the action and the multisensory outcome. When participants learned that the delay between action and audiovisual pair was variable, the window of audiovisual simultaneity for predicted pairs increased, relative to a fixed action-outcome pair delay. This suggests that participants learn action-based predictions of audiovisual outcome, and adapt their temporal perception of outcome events based on such predictions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic Ablation of Extra Domain A of Fibronectin in Hypercholesterolemic Mice Improves Stroke Outcome by Reducing Thrombo-Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dhanesha, Nirav; Ahmad, Ajmal; Prakash, Prem; Doddapattar, Prakash; Lentz, Steven R.; Chauhan, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The fibronectin splicing variant containing extra domain A (Fn-EDA) is present in negligible amounts in the plasma of healthy humans, but markedly elevated in patients with comorbid conditions including diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, which are risk factors for stroke. It remains unknown, however, whether Fn-EDA worsens stroke outcomes in such conditions. We determined the role of Fn-EDA in stroke outcome in a model of hypercholesterolemia, the apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe−/−) mouse. Methods and Results In a transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury model, Apoe−/− mice expressing Fn deficient in EDA (Fn-EDA−/−Apoe−/− mice) exhibited smaller infarcts and improved neurological outcomes at days 1 and 8 (P<0.05 vs. Apoe−/− mice). Concomitantly, intracerebral thrombosis (assessed by fibrin (ogen) deposition) and postischemic inflammation (phospho-NF-κB p65, phospho IKKα/β, IL1-β and TNFα) within lesions of Fn-EDA−/−Apoe−/− mice were markedly decreased (P<0.05 vs. Apoe−/− mice). In a FeCl3 injury-induced carotid artery thrombosis model, thrombus growth rate and the time to occlusion were prolonged in Fn-EDA−/−Apoe−/− mice (P<0.05 vs. Apoe−/− mice). Genetic ablation of TLR4 improved stroke outcome in Apoe−/− mice (P<0.05) but had no effect on stroke outcome in Fn-EDA−/−Apoe−/− mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiments revealed that non-hematopoietic cell-derived Fn-EDA exacerbates stroke through TLR4 expressed on hematopoietic cells. Infusion of a specific inhibitor of Fn-EDA into Apoe−/− mouse 15 minutes after reperfusion significantly improved stroke outcome. Conclusions Hypercholesterolemic mice deficient in Fn-EDA exhibit reduced cerebral thrombosis and less inflammatory response after ischemia/reperfusion injury. These findings suggest that targeting Fn-EDA could be an effective therapeutic strategy in stroke associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26508731

  19. Predictive Modeling for Comfortable Death Outcome Using Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Muhammad Kamran; Ansari, Rashid; Yao, Yingwei; Keenan, Gail M.; Wilkie, Diana J.; Khokhar, Ashfaq A.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) systems are used in healthcare industry to observe the progress of patients. With fast growth of the data, EHR data analysis has become a big data problem. Most EHRs are sparse and multi-dimensional datasets and mining them is a challenging task due to a number of reasons. In this paper, we have used a nursing EHR system to build predictive models to determine what factors impact death anxiety, a significant problem for the dying patients. Different existing modeling techniques have been used to develop coarse-grained as well as fine-grained models to predict patient outcomes. The coarse-grained models help in predicting the outcome at the end of each hospitalization, whereas fine-grained models help in predicting the outcome at the end of each shift, therefore providing a trajectory of predicted outcomes. Based on different modeling techniques, our results show significantly accurate predictions, due to relatively noise-free data. These models can help in determining effective treatments, lowering healthcare costs, and improving the quality of end-of-life (EOL) care. PMID:27500278

  20. Nonequilibrium Ablation of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih K.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, an equilibrium ablation and thermal response model for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was developed. In general, over a wide range of test conditions, model predictions compared well with arcjet data for surface recession, surface temperature, in-depth temperature at multiple thermocouples, and char depth. In this work, additional arcjet tests were conducted at stagnation conditions down to 40 W/sq cm and 1.6 kPa. The new data suggest that nonequilibrium effects become important for ablation predictions at heat flux or pressure below about 80 W/sq cm or 10 kPa, respectively. Modifications to the ablation model to account for nonequilibrium effects are investigated. Predictions of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared with the arcjet data.

  1. An epileptologist's view: Seizure-related outcomes after radiofrequency ablation for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vojtěch, Zdeněk; Stará, Michaela

    2017-09-12

    In this article, we provide an overview of the reasons for the introduction of less invasive treatment modalities in the management of intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). We summarize our published research on stereotactic amygdalohippocampectomy (SAHE) and recalculate our data for the patients' last visit. In our previous work, we found that patients achieved long-term seizure-free outcomes in 70.5%. Re-analysis of results in a subgroup of patient who were diagnosed and followed-up at Epilepsy Center, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, indicate that these outcomes are durable. Re-treatment in treatment failures was successful in all cases. The discussion compares novel treatment options and defines the place of SAHE among them. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. [Hyperlactatemia in surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation and cardiac surgery. Is it a predictive factor of postoperative morbidity?].

    PubMed

    Carmona, P; Mateo, E; Hornero, F; Errando, C L; Vázquez, A; Llagunes, J; De Andrés, J

    2014-01-01

    Increased serum lactate in postoperative cardiac surgery is very common and its pathogenesis is due to multiple factors. The elevation of serum lactate is associated with tissue hypoxia (hyperlactatemia type A) and non-hypoxic (hyperlactatemia type B) metabolic disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the evolution of postoperative lactate in surgical atrial fibrillation ablation during cardiac surgery, and to determine whether lactate levels could be predictors of morbimortality. A case-control study was conducted on 32 patients undergoing surgical atrial fibrillation ablation and cardiac surgery (Maze group) and 32 matched patients (Control group), operated on between 2011 and 2012. An analysis was made of the levels of postoperative lactate, perioperative morbimortality and hospital length of stay. A univariate and multivariate study was performed for a composite endpoint of morbimortality, and prolonged length of stay. Lactate levels were significantly higher at 6, 12 and 24h in the Maze group. The univariate analysis showed that being in the Maze group (OR 3.88; 95% CI 1.3-11.1; P=.01) and an elevated lactate at 12h (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.01-1.7; P=.04) were significant predictors of major complications, mortality, and longer hospital stays. In the multivariate analysis, surgical atrial fibrillation ablation (Maze group) was an independent predictor of major complications (OR 4.13; 95% CI 1.312.9; P=.015) for the morbimortality composite endpoint (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3-11.6; P=.01), and prolonged length of stay in the Intensive Care Unit (OR 5.7; 95% CI 2.01-15.7; P=.01). The atrial fibrillation surgical ablation may be a not-yet-described cause of type B hyperlactatemia, with serum peak values being reached between 4-24h after cardiac surgery. The predictive value of this elevation, its correlation with morbimortality, its sensitivity and specificity to discriminate the significant thresholds needs to be defined. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de

  3. Prediction of antiepileptic drug treatment outcomes using machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colic, Sinisa; Wither, Robert G.; Lang, Min; Zhang, Liang; Eubanks, James H.; Bardakjian, Berj L.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments produce inconsistent outcomes, often necessitating patients to go through several drug trials until a successful treatment can be found. This study proposes the use of machine learning techniques to predict epilepsy treatment outcomes of commonly used AEDs. Approach. Machine learning algorithms were trained and evaluated using features obtained from intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings of the epileptiform discharges observed in Mecp2-deficient mouse model of the Rett Syndrome. Previous work have linked the presence of cross-frequency coupling (I CFC) of the delta (2-5 Hz) rhythm with the fast ripple (400-600 Hz) rhythm in epileptiform discharges. Using the I CFC to label post-treatment outcomes we compared support vector machines (SVMs) and random forest (RF) machine learning classifiers for providing likelihood scores of successful treatment outcomes. Main results. (a) There was heterogeneity in AED treatment outcomes, (b) machine learning techniques could be used to rank the efficacy of AEDs by estimating likelihood scores for successful treatment outcome, (c) I CFC features yielded the most effective a priori identification of appropriate AED treatment, and (d) both classifiers performed comparably. Significance. Machine learning approaches yielded predictions of successful drug treatment outcomes which in turn could reduce the burdens of drug trials and lead to substantial improvements in patient quality of life.

  4. Prediction and prognosis of ventricular tachycardia recurrence after catheter ablation with remote magnetic navigation for electrical storm in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qi; Jacobsen, Peter Karl; Pehrson, Steen; Chen, Xu

    2017-08-17

    Ventricular tachycardia (VT) recurrence after catheter ablation for electrical storm is commonly seen in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). We hypothesized that VT recurrence can be predicted and be related to the all-cause death after VT storm ablation guided by remote magnetic navigation (RMN) in patients with ICM. A total of 54 ICM patients (87% male; mean age, 65 ± 7.1 years) presenting with VT storm undergoing acute ablation using RMN were enrolled. Acute complete ablation success was defined as noninducibility of any sustained monomorphic VT at the end of the procedure. Early VT recurrence was defined as the occurrence of sustained VT within 1 month after the first ablation. After a mean follow-up of 17.1 months, 27 patients (50%) had freedom from VT recurrence. Sustained VT recurred in 12 patients (22%) within 1 month following the first ablation. In univariate analysis, VT recurrence was associated with incomplete procedural success (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-32.47, P = 0.029), lack of amiodarone usage before ablation (HR: 4.71, 95% CI: 1.12-19.7, P = 0.034), and a longer procedural time (HR: 1.023, 95% CI: 1.00-1.05, P = 0.05). The mortality of patients with early VT recurrence was higher than that of patients without recurrence (P < 0.01). Inducibility of any VT at the end of procedure for VT storm guided by RMN is the strongest predictor of VT recurrence. ICM patients who have early recurrences after VT storm ablation are at high risk of all-cause death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Current tools for prediction of arteriovenous fistula outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGrogan, Damian G.; Maxwell, Alexander P.; Khawaja, Aurang Z.; Inston, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    It remains challenging to accurately predict whether an individual arteriovenous fistula (AVF) will mature and be useable for haemodialysis vascular access. Current best practice involves the use of routine clinical assessment and ultrasonography complemented by selective venography and magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this literature review is to describe current practices in relation to pre-operative assessment prior to AVF formation and highlight potential areas for future research to improve the clinical prediction of AVF outcomes. PMID:26034589

  6. Functional outcome after one-stage flap reconstruction of the hypopharynx following tumor ablation.

    PubMed

    van Brederode, Talisa D; Halmos, Gyorgy B; Stenekes, Martin W

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate functional outcome in terms of food passage of the three different reconstruction techniques that are currently most often used for hypopharyngeal reconstruction in our institution. A retrospective observational database research was conducted of all patients that underwent hypopharyngeal reconstruction for carcinoma of the hypopharynx or larynx from 1992 until 2014 in the University Medical Center Groningen. The following techniques were most commonly used and therefore analyzed: the pedicled pectoralis major flap, the radial forearm free flap and the anterolateral thigh free flap. Our primary outcome food passage was measured after 1 year and classified in gastric tube fed, fluids, semisolid or solid. Complications were registered according to the Clavien Dindo classification in five different grades. Comorbidity was scored using the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation Index. 58 patients were included. 51 patients survived one year follow up, 25 % returned to a solid diet, 40 % returned to a semi-solid diet and 20 % remained feeding tube dependent. Overall flap success rate was 88 and 35 % developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula. Multivariable ordinal regression showed that reconstruction with free flaps, a near-circumferential surgical defect, a higher body mass index and no comorbidity showed significantly better functional outcomes in the food passage. For recipient site complications, both free flaps and a shorter surgery time resulted in less severe complications. This study shows that the use of free flaps is superior to the use of the pectoralis major flap, and that it should therefore be reserved as a second choice.

  7. Comparison of Physician-Predicted to Measured Low Vision Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tiffany L.; Goldstein, Judith E.; Massof, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare low vision rehabilitation (LVR) physicians’ predictions of the probability of success of LVR to patients’ self-reported outcomes after provision of usual outpatient LVR services; and to determine if patients’ traits influence physician ratings. Methods The Activity Inventory (AI), a self-report visual function questionnaire, was administered pre and post-LVR to 316 low vision patients served by 28 LVR centers that participated in a collaborative observational study. The physical component of the Short Form-36, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status were also administered pre-LVR to measure physical capability, depression and cognitive status. Following patient evaluation, 38 LVR physicians estimated the probability of outcome success (POS), using their own criteria. The POS ratings and change in functional ability were used to assess the effects of patients’ baseline traits on predicted outcomes. Results A regression analysis with a hierarchical random effects model showed no relationship between LVR physician POS estimates and AI-based outcomes. In another analysis, Kappa statistics were calculated to determine the probability of agreement between POS and AI-based outcomes for different outcome criteria. Across all comparisons, none of the kappa values were significantly different from 0, which indicates the rate of agreement is equivalent to chance. In an exploratory analysis, hierarchical mixed effects regression models show that POS ratings are associated with information about the patient’s cognitive functioning and the combination of visual acuity and functional ability, as opposed to visual acuity or functional ability alone. Conclusions Physicians’ predictions of LVR outcomes appear to be influenced by knowledge of patients’ cognitive functioning and the combination of visual acuity and functional ability - information physicians acquire from the patient’s history and examination. However

  8. Long-Term Outcome of Alcohol Septal Ablation for Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in the Young and the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Liebregts, Max; Steggerda, Robbert C; Vriesendorp, Pieter A; van Velzen, Hannah; Schinkel, Arend F L; Willems, Rik; van Cleemput, Johan; van den Berg, Maarten P; Michels, Michelle; ten Berg, Jurriën M

    2016-03-14

    The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) in young and elderly patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines reserve ASA for elderly patients and patients with serious comorbidities. Information on long-term age-specific outcomes after ASA is scarce. This cohort study included 217 HCM patients (age 54 ± 12 years) who underwent ASA because of symptomatic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Patients were divided into young (age ≤55 years) and elderly (age >55 years) groups and matched by age in a 1:1 fashion to nonobstructive HCM patients. Atrioventricular block following ASA was more common in elderly patients (43% vs. 21%; p = 0.001), resulting in pacemaker implantation in 13% and 5%, respectively (p = 0.06). Residual left ventricular outflow tract gradient, post-procedural New York Heart Association functional class, and necessity for additional septal reduction therapy was comparable between age groups. During a follow-up of 7.6 ± 4.6 years, 54 patients died. The 5- and 10-year survival following ASA was 95% and 90% in patients age ≤55 years and 93% and 82% in patients age >55 years, which was comparable to their control groups. The annual adverse arrhythmic event rate following ASA was 0.7%/year in young patients and 1.4%/year in elderly patients, which was comparable to their control groups. ASA is similarly effective for reduction of symptoms in young and elderly patients; however, younger patients have a lower risk of procedure-related atrioventricular conduction disturbances. The long-term mortality rate and risk of adverse arrhythmic events following ASA are low, both in young and elderly patients, and are comparable to age-matched nonobstructive HCM patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for central lung tumors: Plan quality and long-term clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tekatli, Hilâl; Senan, Suresh; Dahele, Max; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2015-10-01

    Central lung SABR is less established due to toxicity concerns. We describe plan quality and clinical outcomes for patients treated with VMAT SABR using 8×7.5Gy. We studied 80 consecutive patients with primary NSCLC and PTV ⩽2cm from the proximal bronchial tree (PBT), treated between 2008 and 2013. Dosimetric data were compared with institutional guidelines and study protocols, and long-term clinical outcomes were analyzed. PTV V95% was 60Gy in 96% of patients. Dmax was ⩾60Gy in 40% of patients for PBT, 26.3% for aorta, 55% for heart, and 1.3% for trachea. Esophageal maximum Dmax was 58Gy. Mean lung V5Gy/V20Gy was 21/8%. 54 patients (68%) exceeded RTOG0813 Dmax for ⩾1 organ-at-risk (OAR), with 27 exceeding PBT Dmax. 5 of 78 patients (6.4%) with adequate follow-up information had grade 3 toxicity. Grade 4 toxicity was not observed. Treatment-related death was considered possible (n=3) or likely (n=3) in 6 patients (7.5%). With median follow-up of 47months, 3-year survival was 53%, compared with 57% for 252 peripheral tumors treated with 3/5-fractions SABR in the same period (p=0.369). Although a substantial proportion of central SABR patients received ⩾60Gy to OARs, the 3-year survival was no different from peripheral SABR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-year outcome of the Halt trial: a prospective analysis of radiofrequency volumetric thermal ablation of myomas.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jay M; Guido, Richard S; Garza Leal, José Gerardo; Pemueller, Rodolfo Robles; Whaley, Fredrick S; Chudnoff, Scott G

    2014-01-01

    after ablation. The low repeat intervention data through 36 months is a positive outcome for patient well-being. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Radiofrequency ablation of unresectable colorectal liver metastases: trends in management and outcome during a decade at a single center

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Anselm; Drolsum, Anders; Guren, Marianne Grønlie; Kløw, Nils Einar; Bjørnbeth, Bjørn Atle

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is widely used for treatment of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Purpose To evaluate the effect of increased experience in RFA of CRLM on morbidity and survival, and the trends in patient management and outcomes during the last decade. Material and Methods Hospital records of the initial 52 consecutive patients who underwent RFA (56 procedures/70 lesions) were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups according to time period of treatment, period I (2001–2006: n = 26) and period II (2007–2011: n = 26). Results Concomitant liver resection was performed in 15 patients in each period. Operative morbidity decreased from 47% to 19% (P = 0.047). Most complications were found in patients who underwent a concomitant liver resection and not related to the ablation per se. Local recurrence rate decreased from 19.4% to 12.9% (P = 0.526). At least one risk factor for recurrence was found in patients with local recurrence (n = 11): subcapsular localization (n = 4), tumor size >3 cm and subcapsular localization (n = 2), and perivascular localization (portal veins/hepatic veins) (n = 5). Median overall survival was 32 months in period I and 49 months in period II, whereas estimated 5-year survival was 19% and 36%, respectively (P = 0.09). Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to four patients (15.4%) in period I and 13 patients (50%) in period II (P = 0.017). Conclusion RFA alone or in combination with liver resection is a potentially curative treatment to selected patients with CRLM. Over time, the morbidity and survival have improved in RFA of CRLM. Although a possible effect of a learning curve should be taken into consideration in the appraisal of this improvement, it is more likely to be attributable to optimization of indication, development in surgical techniques, and increased use of perioperative chemotherapy. PMID:26346740

  12. MAGNETIC VT study: a prospective, multicenter, post-market randomized controlled trial comparing VT ablation outcomes using remote magnetic navigation-guided substrate mapping and ablation versus manual approach in a low LVEF population.

    PubMed

    Di Biase, Luigi; Tung, Roderick; Szili-Torok, Tamás; Burkhardt, J David; Weiss, Peter; Tavernier, Rene; Berman, Adam E; Wissner, Erik; Spear, William; Chen, Xu; Neužil, Petr; Skoda, Jan; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Schwagten, Bruno; Lock, Ken; Natale, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) are prone to scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT). The success of VT ablation depends on accurate arrhythmogenic substrate localization, followed by optimal delivery of energy provided by constant electrode-tissue contact. Current manual and remote magnetic navigation (RMN)-guided ablation strategies aim to identify a reentry circuit and to target a critical isthmus through activation and entrainment mapping during ongoing tachycardia. The MAGNETIC VT trial will assess if VT ablation using the Niobe™ ES magnetic navigation system results in superior outcomes compared to a manual approach in subjects with ischemic scar VT and low ejection fraction. This is a randomized, single-blind, prospective, multicenter post-market study. A total of 386 subjects (193 per group) will be enrolled and randomized 1:1 between treatment with the Niobe ES system and treatment via a manual procedure at up to 20 sites. The study population will consist of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of ≤35% and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) who have sustained monomorphic VT. The primary study endpoint is freedom from any recurrence of VT through 12 months. The secondary endpoints are acute success; freedom from any VT at 1 year in a large-scar subpopulation; procedure-related major adverse events; and mortality rate through 12-month follow-up. Follow-up will consist of visits at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, all of which will include ICD interrogation. The MAGNETIC VT trial will help determine whether substrate-based ablation of VT with RMN has clinical advantages over manual catheter manipulation. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02637947.

  13. Acute and long-term outcome after catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia in patients after the Mustard or Senning operation for D-transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinjin; Deisenhofer, Isabel; Ammar, Sonja; Fichtner, Stephanie; Reents, Tilko; Zhu, Pinjun; Jilek, Clemens; Kolb, Christof; Hess, John; Hessling, Gabriele

    2013-06-01

    Data about the acute and long-term outcome of catheter ablation in patients with D-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) post-Mustard/Senning operation are scarce. This single-centre retrospective analysis includes 26 patients (mean age 28.7 ± 6.7 years, 8 females) after Mustard (n = 15) or Senning (n = 11) operation who underwent catheter ablation for intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia (IART) or atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT) from January 2004 to May 2011. The electrophysiological studies were performed using a three-dimensional mapping system (CARTO). Remote magnetic navigation (RMN) was available since 2008. Follow-up on an outpatient basis was conducted 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation and yearly thereafter. In the 26 patients, 34 procedures were performed (one procedure n = 19, two n = 6, and three n = 1). Overall, 34 tachycardia forms (IART n = 30; AVNRT n = 4) were ablated manually (n = 25) or by RMN (n = 9). Acute success reached in 29/34 forms (85.3%). Mean fluoroscopy time (FT) was 28.2 ± 20.7 min and mean procedure duration (PD) was 290.9 ± 107.6 min. After a mean follow-up of 34.1 ± 24.5 months, 25/26 (96.2%) patients were free from IART or AVNRT. In the nine RMN ablations (mean follow-up 14.2 ± 5.8 months) acute and long-term success was 100%. Fluoroscopy time and PD were significantly reduced using RMN compared with manual ablation (11.9 ± 6.2 vs. 34.6 ± 20.6 min, 225.7 ± 24.1 vs. 312 ± 118.2 min, P = 0.02). Catheter ablation of IART or AVNRT in patients post-Mustard/Senning operation for d-TGA has a high acute success rate. The recurrence rate for IART is about 30%; however, after a second ablation, long-term results are excellent. Remote magnetic navigation seems to improve single-procedure acute and long-term success and significantly reduces FT and PD.

  14. Brain edema predicts outcome after nonlacunar ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Battey, Thomas W K; Karki, Mahima; Singhal, Aneesh B; Wu, Ona; Sadaghiani, Saloomeh; Campbell, Bruce C V; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Sheth, Kevin N; Kimberly, W Taylor

    2014-12-01

    In malignant infarction, brain edema leads to secondary neurological deterioration and poor outcome. We sought to determine whether swelling is associated with outcome in smaller volume strokes. Two research cohorts of acute stroke subjects with serial brain MRI were analyzed. The categorical presence of swelling and infarct growth was assessed on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) by comparing baseline and follow-up scans. The increase in stroke volume (ΔDWI) was then subdivided into swelling and infarct growth volumes using region-of-interest analysis. The relationship of these imaging markers with outcome was evaluated in univariable and multivariable regression. The presence of swelling independently predicted worse outcome after adjustment for age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, admission glucose, and baseline DWI volume (odds ratio, 4.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-18.9; P<0.02). Volumetric analysis confirmed that ΔDWI was associated with outcome (odds ratio, 4.29; 95% confidence interval, 2.00-11.5; P<0.001). After partitioning ΔDWI into swelling and infarct growth volumetrically, swelling remained an independent predictor of poor outcome (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.17; P<0.005). Larger infarct growth was also associated with poor outcome (odds ratio, 7.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-143; P<0.045), although small infarct growth was not. The severity of cytotoxic injury measured on apparent diffusion coefficient maps was associated with swelling, whereas the perfusion deficit volume was associated with infarct growth. Swelling and infarct growth each contribute to total stroke lesion growth in the days after stroke. Swelling is an independent predictor of poor outcome, with a brain swelling volume of ≥11 mL identified as the threshold with greatest sensitivity and specificity for predicting poor outcome. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Individual Factors Predicting Mental Health Court Diversion Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhaaff, Ashley; Scott, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined which individual factors predict mental health court diversion outcome among a sample of persons with mental illness participating in a postcharge diversion program. Method: The study employed secondary analysis of existing program records for 419 persons with mental illness in a court diversion program. Results:…

  16. Individual Factors Predicting Mental Health Court Diversion Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhaaff, Ashley; Scott, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined which individual factors predict mental health court diversion outcome among a sample of persons with mental illness participating in a postcharge diversion program. Method: The study employed secondary analysis of existing program records for 419 persons with mental illness in a court diversion program. Results:…

  17. Learning Approaches, Demographic Factors to Predict Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to predict academic outcome in math and math-related subjects using learning approaches and demographic factors. Design/Methodology/Approach: ASSIST was used as the instrumentation to measure learning approaches. The study was conducted in the International University of Vietnam with 616 participants. An…

  18. Learning Approaches, Demographic Factors to Predict Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to predict academic outcome in math and math-related subjects using learning approaches and demographic factors. Design/Methodology/Approach: ASSIST was used as the instrumentation to measure learning approaches. The study was conducted in the International University of Vietnam with 616 participants. An…

  19. Looking for Students' Personal Characteristics Predicting Study Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bragt, Cyrille A. C.; Bakx, Anouke W. E. A.; Bergen, Theo C. M.; Croon, Marcel A.

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study is to clarify to what degree former education and students' personal characteristics (the "Big Five personality characteristics", personal orientations on learning and students' study approach) may predict study outcome (required credits and study continuance). Analysis of the data gathered through questionnaires of…

  20. Looking for Students' Personal Characteristics Predicting Study Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bragt, Cyrille A. C.; Bakx, Anouke W. E. A.; Bergen, Theo C. M.; Croon, Marcel A.

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study is to clarify to what degree former education and students' personal characteristics (the "Big Five personality characteristics", personal orientations on learning and students' study approach) may predict study outcome (required credits and study continuance). Analysis of the data gathered through questionnaires of…

  1. Clinical and Statistical Issues Related to Predicting Therapeutic Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghiselli, William B.

    1983-01-01

    Studied predictability of therapeutic outcome of an alcoholism treatment program. Data analyzed by a mathematically oriented linear regression approach and by a clinically oriented retrospective parametric approach showed different predictors. Suggested that the parametric clinical approach be used to explain why therapy succeeded or failed.…

  2. An analysis of early nonmortality outcome prediction in esophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Abdullah; Lo, Andrea; Baird, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Advances in care for neonates with esophageal atresia (EA) has improved overall survival rates. Disease-specific prognostic scores for EA assess mortality risk without assessing patient morbidity. We undertook an analysis of these and generic scoring systems evaluating their ability to predict early nonmortality outcomes. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with EA at our tertiary care children's hospital. Disease-specific (Spitz, Waterston, and Montreal) and generic prognostic scores (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology II and Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-Perinatal Extension) were calculated. Outcomes investigated included mortality and early nonmortality outcomes (leak, stricture, and recurrent fistula). These were assessed individually and as a composite "poor outcome" score. Correlations were sought, and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated. Fifty patients were included for analysis, with 5 deaths (10%) in our series. Eight patients developed a postoperative leak, 18 developed stenosis requiring dilatation, and 2 developed refistulization. Overall, 51% of survivors had a poor composite outcome. Although no prognostic score achieved statistical significance, the generic scores outperformed the disease-specific scores in predicting early nonmortality outcomes. Postoperative morbidity remains common in patients with EA. Disease-specific, preexisting prognostic scoring systems do not delineate surviving patients at risk for early complications and appears to underperform when compared with generic prognostic scores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of brain network ictogenicity predicts outcome from epilepsy surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, M.; Rummel, C.; Abela, E.; Richardson, M. P.; Schindler, K.; Terry, J. R.

    2016-07-01

    Surgery is a valuable option for pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. However, significant post-operative improvements are not always attained. This is due in part to our incomplete understanding of the seizure generating (ictogenic) capabilities of brain networks. Here we introduce an in silico, model-based framework to study the effects of surgery within ictogenic brain networks. We find that factors conventionally determining the region of tissue to resect, such as the location of focal brain lesions or the presence of epileptiform rhythms, do not necessarily predict the best resection strategy. We validate our framework by analysing electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings from patients who have undergone epilepsy surgery. We find that when post-operative outcome is good, model predictions for optimal strategies align better with the actual surgery undertaken than when post-operative outcome is poor. Crucially, this allows the prediction of optimal surgical strategies and the provision of quantitative prognoses for patients undergoing epilepsy surgery.

  4. Relative size predicts competitive outcome through 2 million years.

    PubMed

    Liow, Lee Hsiang; Di Martino, Emanuela; Krzeminska, Malgorzata; Ramsfjell, Mali; Rust, Seabourne; Taylor, Paul D; Voje, Kjetil L

    2017-08-01

    Competition is an important biotic interaction that influences survival and reproduction. While competition on ecological timescales has received great attention, little is known about competition on evolutionary timescales. Do competitive abilities change over hundreds of thousands to millions of years? Can we predict competitive outcomes using phenotypic traits? How much do traits that confer competitive advantage and competitive outcomes change? Here we show, using communities of encrusting marine bryozoans spanning more than 2 million years, that size is a significant determinant of overgrowth outcomes: colonies with larger zooids tend to overgrow colonies with smaller zooids. We also detected temporally coordinated changes in average zooid sizes, suggesting that different species responded to a common external driver. Although species-specific average zooid sizes change over evolutionary timescales, species-specific competitive abilities seem relatively stable, suggesting that traits other than zooid size also control overgrowth outcomes and/or that evolutionary constraints are involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Clinician judgment vs formal scales for predicting intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, David Y; Dell, Cameron A; Sparks, Mary J; Watson, Tiffany D; Langefeld, Carl D; Comeau, Mary E; Rosand, Jonathan; Battey, Thomas W K; Koch, Sebastian; Perez, Mario L; James, Michael L; McFarlin, Jessica; Osborne, Jennifer L; Woo, Daniel; Kittner, Steven J; Sheth, Kevin N

    2016-01-12

    To compare the performance of formal prognostic instruments vs subjective clinical judgment with regards to predicting functional outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This prospective observational study enrolled 121 ICH patients hospitalized at 5 US tertiary care centers. Within 24 hours of each patient's admission to the hospital, one physician and one nurse on each patient's clinical team were each asked to predict the patient's modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months and to indicate whether he or she would recommend comfort measures. The admission ICH score and FUNC score, 2 prognostic scales selected for their common use in neurologic practice, were calculated for each patient. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) with respect to patients' actual 3-month mRS for the physician and nursing predictions were compared against the same correlation coefficients for the ICH score and FUNC score. The absolute value of the correlation coefficient for physician predictions with respect to actual outcome (0.75) was higher than that of either the ICH score (0.62, p = 0.057) or the FUNC score (0.56, p = 0.01). The nursing predictions of outcome (r = 0.72) also trended towards an accuracy advantage over the ICH score (p = 0.09) and FUNC score (p = 0.03). In an analysis that excluded patients for whom comfort care was recommended, the 65 available attending physician predictions retained greater accuracy (r = 0.73) than either the ICH score (r = 0.50, p = 0.02) or the FUNC score (r = 0.42, p = 0.004). Early subjective clinical judgment of physicians correlates more closely with 3-month outcome after ICH than prognostic scales. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Clinician judgment vs formal scales for predicting intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Cameron A.; Sparks, Mary J.; Watson, Tiffany D.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Comeau, Mary E.; Rosand, Jonathan; Battey, Thomas W.K.; Koch, Sebastian; Perez, Mario L.; James, Michael L.; McFarlin, Jessica; Osborne, Jennifer L.; Woo, Daniel; Kittner, Steven J.; Sheth, Kevin N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the performance of formal prognostic instruments vs subjective clinical judgment with regards to predicting functional outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: This prospective observational study enrolled 121 ICH patients hospitalized at 5 US tertiary care centers. Within 24 hours of each patient's admission to the hospital, one physician and one nurse on each patient's clinical team were each asked to predict the patient's modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months and to indicate whether he or she would recommend comfort measures. The admission ICH score and FUNC score, 2 prognostic scales selected for their common use in neurologic practice, were calculated for each patient. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) with respect to patients' actual 3-month mRS for the physician and nursing predictions were compared against the same correlation coefficients for the ICH score and FUNC score. Results: The absolute value of the correlation coefficient for physician predictions with respect to actual outcome (0.75) was higher than that of either the ICH score (0.62, p = 0.057) or the FUNC score (0.56, p = 0.01). The nursing predictions of outcome (r = 0.72) also trended towards an accuracy advantage over the ICH score (p = 0.09) and FUNC score (p = 0.03). In an analysis that excluded patients for whom comfort care was recommended, the 65 available attending physician predictions retained greater accuracy (r = 0.73) than either the ICH score (r = 0.50, p = 0.02) or the FUNC score (r = 0.42, p = 0.004). Conclusions: Early subjective clinical judgment of physicians correlates more closely with 3-month outcome after ICH than prognostic scales. PMID:26674335

  7. Machine Learning and Neurosurgical Outcome Prediction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Senders, Joeky T; Staples, Patrick C; Karhade, Aditya V; Zaki, Mark M; Gormley, William B; Broekman, Marike L D; Smith, Timothy R; Arnaout, Omar

    2017-10-03

    Accurate measurement of surgical outcomes is highly desirable to optimize surgical decision-making. An important element of surgical decision making is identification of the patient cohort that will benefit from surgery prior to the intervention. Machine learning (ML) enables computers to learn from previous data to make accurate predictions on new data. In this systematic review, we evaluate the potential of ML for neurosurgical outcome prediction. A systematic search in the Pubmed and Embase databases was performed to identify all potential relevant studies up to January 1, 2017. Thirty studies were identified that evaluated ML algorithms used as prediction models for survival, recurrence, symptom improvement, and adverse events in patients undergoing surgery for epilepsy, brain tumor, spinal lesions, neurovascular disease, movement disorders, traumatic brain injury, and hydrocephalus. Depending on the specific prediction task evaluated and the type of input features included, ML models predicted outcomes after neurosurgery with a median accuracy and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of 94.5% and 0.83, respectively. Compared to logistic regression, ML models performed significantly better and showed a median absolute improvement in accuracy and AUC of 15% and 0.06, respectively. Some studies also demonstrated a better performance in ML models compared to established prognostic indices and clinical experts. In the research setting, ML has been studied extensively demonstrating an excellent performance in outcome prediction for a wide range of neurosurgical conditions. However, future studies should investigate how ML can be implemented as a practical tool supporting neurosurgical care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting dire outcomes of patients with community acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gregory F; Abraham, Vijoy; Aliferis, Constantin F; Aronis, John M; Buchanan, Bruce G; Caruana, Richard; Fine, Michael J; Janosky, Janine E; Livingston, Gary; Mitchell, Tom; Monti, Stefano; Spirtes, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important clinical condition with regard to patient mortality, patient morbidity, and healthcare resource utilization. The assessment of the likely clinical course of a CAP patient can significantly influence decision making about whether to treat the patient as an inpatient or as an outpatient. That decision can in turn influence resource utilization, as well as patient well being. Predicting dire outcomes, such as mortality or severe clinical complications, is a particularly important component in assessing the clinical course of patients. We used a training set of 1601 CAP patient cases to construct 11 statistical and machine-learning models that predict dire outcomes. We evaluated the resulting models on 686 additional CAP-patient cases. The primary goal was not to compare these learning algorithms as a study end point; rather, it was to develop the best model possible to predict dire outcomes. A special version of an artificial neural network (NN) model predicted dire outcomes the best. Using the 686 test cases, we estimated the expected healthcare quality and cost impact of applying the NN model in practice. The particular, quantitative results of this analysis are based on a number of assumptions that we make explicit; they will require further study and validation. Nonetheless, the general implication of the analysis seems robust, namely, that even small improvements in predictive performance for prevalent and costly diseases, such as CAP, are likely to result in significant improvements in the quality and efficiency of healthcare delivery. Therefore, seeking models with the highest possible level of predictive performance is important. Consequently, seeking ever better machine-learning and statistical modeling methods is of great practical significance.

  9. Predicting the course and outcome of bipolar disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Treuer, T; Tohen, M

    2010-10-01

    Despite of advances in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, bipolar disorder often entails multiple relapses and impaired psychological functioning. The extent to which modern treatments have influenced the natural course of a mental disorder is uncertain. Prediction of the course and outcome of bipolar disorders continues to be challenging, despite the multiple research efforts worldwide. Due to a lack of laboratory diagnostic tests and biomarkers, psychiatric interview and examination provide the basis for outcome prediction. While considered to have more favorable prognosis than schizophrenia, it is not uncommon for bipolar disorder to include persisting alterations of psychosocial functioning. Although long-term symptomatic remission does not guarantee functional recovery, it may have a favorable impact on long-term overall prognosis. The high degree of treatment resistance in patients with bipolar disorder highlights the need to develop better identification of outcome predictors, prognosis and treatment intervention, designed to reverse or prevent this illness burden. This review summarizes the main factors involved in predicting the course and outcome of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Blend sign predicts poor outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yang, Wen-Song; Wang, Xing-Chen; Cao, Du; Zhu, Dan; Lv, Fa-Jin; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Liang; Zhang, Gang; Xiong, Xin; Li, Rui; Hu, Yun-Xin; Qin, Xin-Yue; Xie, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Blend sign has been recently described as a novel imaging marker that predicts hematoma expansion. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prognostic value of CT blend sign in patients with ICH. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent baseline CT scan within 6 hours were included. The presence of blend sign on admission nonenhanced CT was independently assessed by two readers. The functional outcome was assessed by using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days. Blend sign was identified in 40 of 238 (16.8%) patients on admission CT scan. The proportion of patients with a poor functional outcome was significantly higher in patients with blend sign than those without blend sign (75.0% versus 47.5%, P = 0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age, intraventricular hemorrhage, admission GCS score, baseline hematoma volume and presence of blend sign on baseline CT independently predict poor functional outcome at 90 days. The CT blend sign independently predicts poor outcome in patients with ICH (odds ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval [1.47-8.89];p = 0.005). Early identification of blend sign is useful in prognostic stratification and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for prospective interventional studies.

  11. Scoring Systems for Outcome Prediction of Patients with Perforation Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peritonitis continues to be one of the major infectious problems confronting a surgeon. Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), Physiological and Operative Severity Score for en Umeration of Mortality (POSSUM) and Morbidity and sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute have been devised for risk assessment and for prediction of postoperative outcome. Aim The aim of this study was to find the accuracy of these scores in predicting outcome in terms of mortality in patients undergoing exploratory laprotomy for perforation peritonitis. Materials and Methods The prospective study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of perforation at our centre in a single unit over a period of 21 months from December 2012 to August 2014. Study was conducted on all cases of peritonitis albeit primary, tertiary, iatrogenic and those with age less than 12 years were excluded from the study. All the relevant data were collected and three scores were computed from one set of data from the patient. The main outcome measure was survival of the patient. The Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves were obtained for the three scores. Area Under the Curves (AUC) was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at a cut off point obtained from the ROC curves. Results POSSUM had an AUC of 0.99, sepsis score had an AUC of 0.98 and MPI had an AUC of 0.95. The cut off point score of 51 for POSSUM had an accuracy of 93.8 and positive predictive value of 70.5, the score of 29 for MPI had an accuracy of 82.8 and positive predictive value of 46 and the score of 22 for sepsis score had an accuracy of 95.9 and positive predictive value of 86.67. Conclusion POSSUM score was found to be superior in prediction of mortality as compared to sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute and MPI. POSSUM and MPI over predicted mortality in some cases. None of these scores are strictly preoperative. PMID:27134924

  12. Brain natriuretic peptide predicts functional outcome in ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Natalia S; Biffi, Alessandro; Cloonan, Lisa; Chorba, John; Kelly, Peter; Greer, David; Ellinor, Patrick; Furie, Karen L

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have been associated with cardioembolic (CE) stroke and increased post-stroke mortality. We sought to determine whether BNP levels were associated with functional outcome after ischemic stroke. Methods We measured BNP in consecutive patients aged ≥18 years admitted to our Stroke Unit between 2002–2005. BNP quintiles were used for analysis. Stroke subtypes were assigned using TOAST criteria. Outcomes were measured as 6-month modified Rankin Scale score (“good outcome” = 0–2 vs. “poor”) as well as mortality. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess association between the quintiles of BNP and outcomes. Predictive performance of BNP as compared to clinical model alone was assessed by comparing ROC curves. Results Of 569 ischemic stroke patients, 46% were female; mean age was 67.9 ± 15 years. In age- and gender-adjusted analysis, elevated BNP was associated with lower ejection fraction (p<0.0001) and left atrial dilatation (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, elevated BNP decreased the odds of good functional outcome (OR 0.64, 95%CI 0.41–0.98) and increased the odds of death (OR 1.75, 95%CI 1.36–2.24) in these patients. Addition of BNP to multivariate models increased their predictive performance for functional outcome (p=0.013) and mortality (p<0.03) after CE stroke. Conclusions Serum BNP levels are strongly associated with CE stroke and functional outcome at 6 months after ischemic stroke. Inclusion of BNP improved prediction of mortality in patients with CE stroke. PMID:22116811

  13. Refractive and topographic errors in topography-guided ablation produced by epithelial compensation predicted by 3D Artemis VHF digital ultrasound stromal and epithelial thickness mapping.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine

    2012-09-01

    To describe and quantify the errors inherent to topography-guided ablation of irregular corneas due to natural epithelial thickness compensatory remodeling. Artemis very high-frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound scanning (ArcScan Inc) was performed on a cornea that had undergone radial keratotomy with inferior and superior trapezoidal keratotomies, resulting 27 years later in high irregular astigmatism (+6.50 -8.00 × 101) and severe loss of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) to 20/50. The epithelial thickness profile was highly irregular, masking a significant proportion of the true stromal irregularity from front corneal surface topography, which would have resulted in significant inaccuracies had a topography-guided ablation been performed. The stromal ablation pattern of a transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) ablation was modeled, which appeared logically to reduce the areas of abnormal stromal surface elevation and resembled a hyperopic astigmatic ablation of approximately 3.50 diopters of cylinder. Artemis-assisted transepithelial PTK was performed to target the stromal irregularity masked by epithelium. Artemis-assisted transepithelial PTK induced a refractive change similar to that predicted (+2.24 -3.97 × 120), demonstrating the refractive shift produced by the epithelium. The epithelial thickness profile became relatively regular and CDVA returned to 20/20⁻². Two topography wavefront-guided ablations were performed to correct the remaining topographic irregularity and refractive error, resulting in a near plano refraction, significantly lower higher order aberrations, and CDVA of 20/20⁺². A knowledge of stromal surface shape and power shift produced by epithelial thickness profile alterations after corneal surgery has the potential of improving the efficacy and safety of custom corneal ablation. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Predicting long-term outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    PubMed

    Rassovsky, Yuri; Levi, Yifat; Agranov, Eugenia; Sela-Kaufman, Michal; Sverdlik, Anna; Vakil, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of brain damage, resulting in long-term disability. The ever increasing life expectancies among TBI patients necessitate a critical examination of the factors that influence long-term outcome. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of premorbid factors (which were identified in our previous work) and acute injury indices to long-term functioning following TBI. Eighty-nine participants with moderate-to-severe TBI were evaluated at an average of 14.2 years postinjury (range: 1-53 years) with neuropsychological battery, medical examination, clinical interviews, and questionnaires. TBI severity predicted cognitive, social, and daily functioning outcomes. After controlling for injury severity, preinjury intellectual functioning predicted cognitive status, as well as occupational, social, emotional, and daily functioning. Preinjury leisure activity also predicted cognitive, emotional, and daily functioning, whereas socioeconomic status failed to predict any of these variables. Findings offer further support for the cognitive reserve construct in explaining significant variance in TBI outcome, over and above the variance explained by injury severity.

  15. Left septal atrial tachycardia after open-heart surgery: relevance to surgical approach, anatomical and electrophysiological characteristics associated with catheter ablation, and procedural outcomes.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Toru; Yoshida, Kentaro; Takeyasu, Noriyuki; Masuda, Keita; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Sato, Akira; Tada, Hiroshi; Nogami, Akihiko; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2015-02-01

    Septal atrial tachycardia (AT) can occur in patients without structural heart disease and in patients with previous catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. We aimed to assess septal AT that occurs after open-heart surgery. This study comprised 20 consecutive patients undergoing catheter ablation of macroreentrant AT after open-heart surgery. Relevance to surgical approach, mechanisms, anatomic and electrophysiological characteristics, and outcomes were assessed. Septal AT was identified in 7 patients who had all undergone mitral valve surgery. All septal ATs were localized in the left atrial septum, whereas 10 of 13 nonseptal ATs originated from the right atrium. Patients with left septal AT had a thicker fossa ovalis (median, 4.0; 25th-75th percentile, 3.6-4.2 versus 2.3; 1.6-2.6 mm; P=0.006) and broader area of low voltage (<0.3 mV) in the septum than patients with nonseptal AT (82; 76-89 versus 31; 28%-36%; P=0.02). Repeated gradual prolongations of the tachycardia cycle length without change of the septal circuit were observed in all patients with septal AT (70; 63-100 versus 15; 10-40 ms; P=0.0008). Although ablation terminated all ATs, recurrence of targeted ATs was more frequent in patients with left septal AT during 30-month follow-up (71 versus 0%; P=0.001). Left septal AT after open-heart surgery was characterized by a thicker septum, more scar burden in the septum, and repeated prolongations of the tachycardia cycle length during ablation. Such an arrhythmogenic substrate may interfere with transmural lesion formation by ablation and may account for higher likelihood of recurrence of left septal AT. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Impact of a chronic total occlusion in an infarct-related artery on the long-term outcome of ventricular tachycardia ablation.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Andrea; Paglino, Gabriele; Oloriz, Teresa; Maccabelli, Giuseppe; Baratto, Francesca; Vergara, Pasquale; Bisceglia, Caterina; Anguera, Ignasi; Sala, Simone; Sora, Nicoleta; Dallaglio, Paolo; Marzi, Alessandra; Trevisi, Nicola; Mazzone, Patrizio; Della Bella, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    In patients with a prior myocardial infarction (MI), angiographic predictors of ventricular tachycardia (VT) recurrence after ablation are lacking. Recently, a proarrhythmic effect of a chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a coronary artery has been suggested. A total of 191 patients with prior MI were referred to our Hospital between 2010 and June 2013 for a first ablation of VT. Of these, 84 patients (44%) with stable coronary artery disease that underwent a coronary angiography during the index hospitalization were included in this study. A CTO in an infarct-related artery (IRA-CTO) was present in 47 patients (56%). Patients with and without IRA-CTO did not differ in terms of comorbidities, severity of heart failure, presentation of VT or acute outcome of ablation, that was completely successful in 93% of cases. At electroanatomic mapping, IRA-CTO was associated with greater scar and especially with greater area of border zone (34 cm(2) vs. 19 cm(2) , P = 0.001). Median follow-up was 19 months (IQR 18). At follow-up, patients with IRA-CTO had a significantly higher rate of VT recurrence (47% vs. 16%, P = 0.003). At multivariate analysis, IRA-CTO resulted to be an independent predictor of VT recurrence after ablation (HR 4.05, P = 0.004). IRA-CTO is an independent predictor of VT recurrence after ablation and identifies a subgroup of patients with high recurrence rate despite a successful procedure. IRA-CTO is associated with greater scars and border zone area; however, this association does not completely justify its proarrhythmic effect. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The procedure outcome of laparoscopic resection for ‘small’ hepatocellular carcinoma is comparable to vlaparoscopic radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Casaccia, Marco; Santori, Gregorio; Bottino, Giuliano; Diviacco, Pietro; Negri, Antonella De; Moraglia, Eva; Adorno, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) and laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (LRFA) in the treatment of small nodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 50 cirrhotic patients with similar baseline characteristics that underwent LLR (n = 26) or LRFA (n = 24), in both cases with intraoperative ultrasonography. Operative and peri-operative data were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: LLR included anatomic resection in eight cases and non-anatomic resection in 18. In LRFA patients, a thermoablation of 62 nodules was achieved. Between LLR and LRFA groups, a significant difference was found both for median diameters of treated HCC nodules (30 vs. 17.1 mm; P < 0.001) and the number of treated nodules/patient (1.29 ± 0.62 vs. 2.65 ± 1.55; P < 0.001). A conversion to laparotomy occurred in two LLR patient (7.7%) for bleeding. No deaths occurred in both groups. Morbidity rates were 26.9% in the LLR group versus 16.6% in the LRFA group (P = 0.501). Hospital stay in the LLR and LRFA group was 8.30 ± 6.52 and 6.52 ± 2.69 days, respectively (P = 0.022). The surgical margin was free of tumour cells in all LLR patients, with a margin <5 mm in only one case. In the LRFA group, a complete response was achieved in 90.3% of thermoablated HCC nodules at the 1-month post-treatment computed tomography evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: LLR for small peripheral HCC in patients with chronic liver disease represents a valid alternative to LRFA in terms of patient toleration, surgical outcome of the procedure, and short-term morbidity. PMID:26622111

  18. Improved therapeutic outcomes of thermal ablation on rat orthotopic liver allograft sarcoma models by radioiodinated hypericin induced necrosis targeted radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Long; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Tengchuang; Yao, Nan; Gao, Meng; Shan, Xin; Ni, Yicheng; Shao, Haibo; Xu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Residual tumor resulting in tumor recurrence after various anticancer therapies is an unmet challenge in current clinical oncology. This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that radioiodinated hypericin (131I-Hyp) may inhibit residual tumor recurrence after microwave ablation (MWA) on rat orthotopic liver allograft sarcoma models. Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with hepatic tumors were divided into three groups: Group A received laparotomy MWA and sequential intravenous injection (i.v.) of 131I labelled hypericin (131I-Hyp) in a time interval of 24 h; Group B received only laparotomy MWA; Group C was a blank control. Tumor inhibitory effects were monitored with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and these findings were compared to histopathology data before (baseline, day 0) and 1, 4, and 8 days after MWA. In addition, biodistribution of 131I-Hyp was assessed with in vivo single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) imaging, in vitro autoradiography, fluorescent microscopy, and gamma counting. A fast clearance of 131I-Hyp and increasing deposit in necrotic tumors appeared over time, with a significantly higher radioactivity than other organs (0.9169 ± 1.1138 % ID/g, P < 0.01) on day 9. Tumor growth was significantly slowed down in group A compared to group B and C according to MRI images and corresponding tumor doubling time (12.13 ± 1.99, 4.09 ± 0.97, 3.36 ± 0.72 days respectively). The crescent tagerability of 131I-Hyp to necrosis was visualized consistently by autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, 131I-Hyp induced necrosis targeted radiotherapy improved therapeutic outcomes of MWA on rat orthotopic liver allograft sarcoma models. PMID:27285983

  19. Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of benign thyroid nodules: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fen; Tian, Guo; Kong, Dexing; Zhong, Liyun; Jiang, Tian'an

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid nodules (TNs) usually appearing in the general population have the potential possibility of malignant transformation and common problems of jugular oppression such as dyspnea and hoarseness. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficiency of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of benign TNs in accord with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statements. Published literatures were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus up to January 27, 2016. Pooled standard mean difference with 95% confidence interval was estimated by fixed- or random-effects model depending on heterogeneity, which was calculated using the Cochran Q, τ, and I statistics. The quality of the articles was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analysis of data from 1090 patients with 1406 benign TNs in 20 articles showed that with the subgroup stratified by nodule volume, they were significantly decreased at 1, 3, 6, 12, and the last follow-up months, when comparing post-RFA with the initial nodule volume. In addition, the volume also notably declined by cold and hot nodules. By subgrouping into the largest diameter, symptom score, cosmetic score, thyrotropin, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine level, and vascularity, the pooled data indicated that there was a decrease in largest diameter, symptom score, cosmetic score, triiodothyronine level, and vascular scale, an unchanged free thyroxine, and an increased thyrotropin level after RFA. The publication bias for this particular study is presented in the following groups: nodule volume reduction at 6 months and last follow-up month after RFA and symptom score. In summary, by pooling of these studies we recommended that RFA indeed has the advantages in improving outcomes and providing better prognosis for patients with benign TNs.

  20. Robust feature selection to predict tumor treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hongmei; Petitjean, Caroline; Dubray, Bernard; Vera, Pierre; Ruan, Su

    2015-07-01

    Recurrence of cancer after treatment increases the risk of death. The ability to predict the treatment outcome can help to design the treatment planning and can thus be beneficial to the patient. We aim to select predictive features from clinical and PET (positron emission tomography) based features, in order to provide doctors with informative factors so as to anticipate the outcome of the patient treatment. In order to overcome the small sample size problem of datasets usually met in the medical domain, we propose a novel wrapper feature selection algorithm, named HFS (hierarchical forward selection), which searches forward in a hierarchical feature subset space. Feature subsets are iteratively evaluated with the prediction performance using SVM (support vector machine). All feature subsets performing better than those at the preceding iteration are retained. Moreover, as SUV (standardized uptake value) based features have been recognized as significant predictive factors for a patient outcome, we propose to incorporate this prior knowledge into the selection procedure to improve its robustness and reduce its computational cost. Two real-world datasets from cancer patients are included in the evaluation. We extract dozens of clinical and PET-based features to characterize the patient's state, including SUV parameters and texture features. We use leave-one-out cross-validation to evaluate the prediction performance, in terms of prediction accuracy and robustness. Using SVM as the classifier, our HFS method produces accuracy values of 100% and 94% on the two datasets, respectively, and robustness values of 89% and 96%. Without accuracy loss, the prior-based version (pHFS) improves the robustness up to 100% and 98% on the two datasets, respectively. Compared with other feature selection methods, the proposed HFS and pHFS provide the most promising results. For our HFS method, we have empirically shown that the addition of prior knowledge improves the robustness and

  1. CT-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of T1a Renal Cell Carcinoma in Korea: Mid-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Jin; Park, Jung Jae; Kim, Chan Kyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mid-term outcomes of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment in patients with small (< 4 cm) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in Korea. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2015, 51 patients (40 men and 11 women; median age, 57 years) with biopsyproven 51 RCC were treated using CT-guided RFA. All patients were clinically staged T1aN0M0 prior to RFA. The median tumor size and follow-up period were 2.1 cm (range, 1.0–3.9 cm) and 26 months (4–60 months), respectively. Local tumor progression, distant metastasis, primary and secondary effectiveness rates, and major complication rates were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) between pre-RFA and last follow-up were compared using paired t tests. The 2-year recurrence-free survival rate was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results Of the 51 patients, 2 (3.9%) experienced local tumor progression, and 1 (2.0%) had lymph node metastasis after the first RFA session. Primary and secondary effectiveness rates were 96.1% (49/51) and 100% (1/1), respectively. Only 1 patient experienced a major complication (uretero-pelvic stricture) after the second RFA session for treating a local tumor progression, and the major complication rate was 1.9% (1/52). The median pre-RFA and last follow-up GFRs were 87.1 mL/ min/1.73 m2 (14.2–142.7 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 72.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 (7.2–112.6 mL/min/1.73 m2), respectively (p < 0.0001). The 2-year recurrence-free survival rate was 96.0%. Conclusion CT-guided RFA is a safe and effective treatment in Korean patients with T1a RCC because of excellent mid-term outcomes. PMID:27587966

  2. Clinical significance and predictive factors of early massive recurrence after radiofrequency ablation in patients with a single small hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Gil Sun; Sohn, Won; Ahn, Jemma; Sinn, Dong-Hyun; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong-Han; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is one of the most frequently applied curative treatments in patients with a single small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the clinical significance of and risk factors for early massive recurrence after RFA—a dreadful event limiting further curative treatment—have not been fully evaluated. Methods In total, 438 patients with a single HCC of size ≤3 cm who underwent percutaneous RFA as an initial treatment between 2006 and 2009 were included. Baseline patient characteristics, overall survival, predictive factors, and recurrence after RFA were evaluated. In addition, the incidence, impact on survival, and predictive factors of early massive recurrence, and initial recurrence beyond the Milan criteria within 2 years were also investigated. Results During the median follow-up of 68.4 months, recurrent HCC was confirmed in 302 (68.9%) patients, with early massive recurrence in 27 patients (6.2%). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 95.4%, 84.7%, and 81.8%, respectively, in patients with no recurrence, 99.6%, 86.4%, and 70.1% in patients with recurrence within the Milan criteria or late recurrence, and 92.6%, 46.5%, and 0.05% in patients with early massive recurrence. Multivariable analysis identified older age, Child-Pugh score B or C, and early massive recurrence as predictive of poor overall survival. A tumor size of ≥2 cm and tumor location adjacent to the colon were independent risk factors predictive of early massive recurrence. Conclusion Early massive recurrence is independently predictive of poor overall survival after RFA in patients with a single small HCC. Tumors sized ≥2 cm and located adjacent to the colon appear to be independent risk factors for early massive recurrence. PMID:28081587

  3. How the behavioral approach system predicts everyday life outcomes.

    PubMed

    Izadikhah, Zahra; Jackson, Chris J

    2010-01-01

    This study tested crucial components of Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory that have generally been overlooked in the literature. We tested whether the perceived amount of reward moderates the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the importance of reward mediates BAS in the prediction of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Results from 514 participants employed in part-time and full-time jobs provided support for our model, such that the indirect effect of BAS through the importance of reward was strongest when reward was provided. This model advances our understanding of reinforcement sensitivity theory and offers a solid foundation for predicting outcomes in everyday life.

  4. Image-guided radiofrequency ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome: outcomes after mean follow-up of 33 months.

    PubMed

    Arima, Kiminobu; Yamakado, Kouichirou; Suzuki, Ryuichi; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kan; Sugimura, Yoshiki

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and therapeutic effects of image-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation used for the treatment of adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome. From February 2003 to May 2005, 4 consecutive patients with adrenocortical adenoma and Cushing syndrome received percutaneous RF ablation. All tumors were in the left adrenal gland, with a mean tumor size of 2.7 +/- 0.6 cm (range 2.0 to 3.5). The RF ablation was performed under real-time computed tomography fluoroscopic guidance. Technical success was defined as disappearance of tumor enhancement on contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging acquired within 1 week after RF ablation. Clinical success was defined as improvement in serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone values and symptoms at the end of follow-up. Tumor enhancement disappeared after initial RF ablation in 3 of 4 patients (technical success rate 75%). The fourth patient underwent a repeat RF ablation session 3 years later, resulting in eradication of tumor enhancement. Both the serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels returned to normal and the symptoms related to Cushing syndrome had disappeared at the end of follow-up (range 20 to 46 months, mean 33) for a clinical success rate of 100%. All tumors showed involution (2.2 +/- 0.3 cm) at the end of the study. No major complications occurred related to the procedures except for pneumothorax requiring chest tube placement for 3 days. Using RF ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome is a feasible, safe, and promising treatment method in selected patients.

  5. Effect of left atrial appendage excision on procedure outcome in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation undergoing surgical ablation.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Alexander; Pokushalov, Evgeny; Elesin, Dmitry; Bogachev-Prokophiev, Alexander; Ponomarev, Dmitry; Losik, Denis; Bayramova, Sevda; Strelnikov, Artem; Shabanov, Vitaliy; Pidanov, Oleg; Kropotkin, Evgeny; Ivanickii, Eduard; Karaskov, Alexander; Steinberg, Jonathan S

    2016-09-01

    Catheter ablation is less successful for treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation (PersAF) than for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Some studies suggest that left atrial appendage (LAA) isolation in addition to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is required to maximize the benefits for PersAF after ablation. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 surgical ablation approaches for PersAF via video-assisted thoracoscopy: PVI + box lesion and PVI + box lesion + LAA excision. We randomly assigned 176 patients with PersAF to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical ablation with PVI + box lesion (88 patients) or PVI + box lesion + LAA excision (88 patients). The primary endpoint was freedom from any documented atrial arrhythmia lasting >30 seconds after a single ablation procedure without antiarrhythmic drug (AAD). After 18 months of follow-up, 61 of 86 patients (70.9%) assigned to PVI + box lesion were free from recurrent atrial fibrillation compared to 64 of 87 patients (73.6%) assigned to PVI + box lesion + LAA excision after a single ablation procedure without AAD (P = .73). Freedom from any atrial arrhythmia after a single procedure with or without AAD was also nonsignificant (70.9% vs 74.7%, respectively). There were no significant differences between groups with regard to adverse events, including death, transient ischemic attack, stroke, pneumothorax, and hydrothorax. Among patients with PersAF, no reduction in the rate of recurrent atrial fibrillation was found when LAA excision was performed in addition to PVI and box lesion during surgical ablation. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Repression predicts outcome following multidisciplinary treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Burns, J W

    2000-01-01

    This study examined whether repression predicts outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain and whether links between anxiety and outcome are obscured by repressors. Ninety-three chronic pain patients completed a 4-week pain program. Lifting capacity, walking endurance, depression, pain severity, and activity were measured at pre- and posttreatment. Low-anxious, repressor, high-anxious, and defensive/high-anxious groups were formed from median splits of Anxiety Content (ACS) and Lie scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989). Significant ACS x Lie interactions were found for lifting capacity, depression, and pain severity changes. Planned comparisons showed that both repressors and high-anxious patients performed poorly on lifting capacity; repressors alone recovered poorly on depression and pain severity. Results imply that repression may interfere with the process and outcome of pain programs.

  7. Perceived Masculinity Predicts U.S. Supreme Court Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel; Halberstam, Yosh; Yu, Alan C L

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest a significant role of language in the court room, yet none has identified a definitive correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes. This paper demonstrates that voice-based snap judgments based solely on the introductory sentence of lawyers arguing in front of the Supreme Court of the United States predict outcomes in the Court. In this study, participants rated the opening statement of male advocates arguing before the Supreme Court between 1998 and 2012 in terms of masculinity, attractiveness, confidence, intelligence, trustworthiness, and aggressiveness. We found significant correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes and the correlation is specific to perceived masculinity even when judgment of masculinity is based only on less than three seconds of exposure to a lawyer's speech sample. Specifically, male advocates are more likely to win when they are perceived as less masculine. No other personality dimension predicts court outcomes. While this study does not aim to establish any causal connections, our findings suggest that vocal characteristics may be relevant in even as solemn a setting as the Supreme Court of the United States.

  8. Perceived Masculinity Predicts U.S. Supreme Court Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest a significant role of language in the court room, yet none has identified a definitive correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes. This paper demonstrates that voice-based snap judgments based solely on the introductory sentence of lawyers arguing in front of the Supreme Court of the United States predict outcomes in the Court. In this study, participants rated the opening statement of male advocates arguing before the Supreme Court between 1998 and 2012 in terms of masculinity, attractiveness, confidence, intelligence, trustworthiness, and aggressiveness. We found significant correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes and the correlation is specific to perceived masculinity even when judgment of masculinity is based only on less than three seconds of exposure to a lawyer’s speech sample. Specifically, male advocates are more likely to win when they are perceived as less masculine. No other personality dimension predicts court outcomes. While this study does not aim to establish any causal connections, our findings suggest that vocal characteristics may be relevant in even as solemn a setting as the Supreme Court of the United States. PMID:27737008

  9. Predicting cochlear implant outcome from brain organisation in the deaf.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Anne-Lise; Lee, Hyo-Jeong

    2007-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is an effective technique for restoring hearing in the profoundly deaf. Although cochlear implants are a therapeutical success, huge performance variability in speech comprehension is observed after implantation. The reason for this remains incompletely understood after 20 years of clinical practice and basic research. Which patients are going to respond well and why is an unresolved question. The duration of auditory deprivation plays an important role, and currently is the main predictor of implantation success in children; basically, the earlier the better. However, among patients with identical duration of deafness, performance remains highly variable, suggesting there are other more fundamental factors that determine clinical outcome. To delineate the cognitive factors that could influence the clinical outcome of cochlear implantation, we correlated resting metabolism PET images acquired before implantation in congenitally deaf children with speech perception behavioural scores measured three years after implantation. Using this paradigm, we showed distinct brain organisation patterns in the deaf brain, which predict good and bad speech perception outcome after cochlear implantation. These data show that brain organisation assessed immediately before cochlear implantation can efficiently predict subsequent speech outcome.

  10. Recombinant human TSH stimulated thyroglobulin levels at remnant ablation predict structural incomplete response to treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jeonghoon; Kim, Min Hee; Jo, Kwanhoon; Lim, Yejee; Bae, Ja Seong; Lee, Sohee; Kang, Moo Il; Cha, Bong Yun; Lim, Dong Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels after thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) at remnant ablation (RA) and at 6 to 12 months are known to have good prognostic value. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic impacts and best cutoff values of sTg levels under recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) treatment at RA and at follow-up. A total of 151 patients were enrolled, of whom 77 were followed up with rhTSH-stimulated Tg (rhTSH-sTg) and 74 with THW-stimulated Tg (THW-sTg) at 6 to 12 months after rhTSH-aided RA. Risk stratification, response to treatment (excellent, indeterminate, biochemical incomplete, and structural incomplete response [SIR]), and clinical outcome were accessed by revised American Thyroid Association (ATA) guideline criteria. Seven out of 151 (4.6%) patients were confirmed to have SIR during the median follow-up of 79.0 months; 3 in the rhTSH group and 4 in the THW group. One hundred thirty-two out of 151 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have excellent response; 68 (51.5%) in the rhTSH group and 64 (48.5%) in the THW group. The cutoff values of sTg for predicting SIR to treatment at rhTSH-aided RA, THW-sTg, and rhTSH-sTg were 4.64 ng/mL (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 76.4%, negative predictive value [NPV] 99.2%), 2.41 ng/mL (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94.3%, NPV 100%), and 1.02 ng/mL (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 94.6%, NPV 98.6%), respectively. sTg levels using rhTSH at both RA and follow-up has a high NPV and are as effective as using THW for predicting SIR. The risk classification according to the revised ATA guidelines can be used effectively to supplement rhTSH-aided sTg levels to predict better clinical outcomes. PMID:28723762

  11. Establishment of a scoring system for predicting the difficulty level of high-intensity focussed ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongqiong; Gong, Chunmei; Liu, Yunchang; Zhang, Lian

    2017-05-19

    To establish a scoring system that predicts the difficulty level of high-intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids. Four hundred and twenty-two patients with fibroids were enrolled. The energy efficiency factor (EEF) and sonication time were set as dependent variables, with factors possibly affecting EEF and sonication time including age, body mass index (BMI), the volume of fibroids, the location of the uterus, the type of fibroids, the signal intensity on the T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), the enhancement type, the thickness of the rectus abdominis and the subcutaneous fat layer, the distance from the anterior/posterior surface of the fibroid to the skin, and the abdominal wall scars were set as predictors for building optimal scaling regression models. The volume of the fibroids, the location of the uterus, the signal intensity on T2WI, enhancement type, rectus abdominis thickness, subcutaneous fat thickness, and distance from the anterior surface of fibroid to the skin were related to EEF. Signal intensity on T2WI, the volume of fibroids, distance from the posterior surface of fibroid to the skin, and enhancement type were related to sonication time. Models that can predict the difficulty level of HIFU for fibroids have been established: for EEF, y ' = 0.338X '1 - 0.231X '2+0.156X '3+0.167X '4 ; for sonication time, y = 0.227X1+0.321X2+0.157X3+0.194X4. A scoring system for predicting the difficulty level of HIFU treatment for uterine fibroids has been established and it can be used to help select patients and to predict the sonication time for a given fibroid.

  12. Predicting outcome in a postacute stroke rehabilitation programme.

    PubMed

    van Bragt, Peter J; van Ginneken, Berbke T; Westendorp, Tessa; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Wijffels, Markus P; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate and predict outcome as part of routine quality assessment of an inpatient stroke rehabilitation programme. By relating functional outcome to patient characteristics, including variables from the quality of life domain, we aim to find a set of variables that can be useful for prognosis, stratification and programme improvement. Data were collected, before and after rehabilitation, from a prospective quality registration database. Included were 250 patients in inpatient stroke rehabilitation after sustaining a first or recurrent ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Functional status was measured with the Barthel Index and the Academic Medical Centre Linear Disability Score. Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) was measured with the COOP/WONCA and the Nottingham Health Profile. Significant improvements were found on all outcome measures. A lower functional admission score, older age, more severe stroke, more pain and more negative emotional reactions on admission were found to be independent predictors of a lower outcome score, explaining 39.5% of its variance. Subjective (HrQoL) factors such as negative emotion and pain have an adverse effect on outcome of stroke rehabilitation, in addition to stroke severity, age and functional status at admission. These factors need to be taken into account in screening, clinical decision making and treatment design.

  13. Does obesity predict functional outcome in the dysvascular amputee?

    PubMed

    Kalbaugh, Corey A; Taylor, Spence M; Kalbaugh, Brooke A; Halliday, Matthew; Daniel, Grace; Cass, Anna L; Blackhurst, Dawn W; Cull, David L; Langan, Eugene M; Carsten, Christopher G; York, John W; Snyder, Bruce A; Youkey, Jerry R

    2006-08-01

    Limited information is available concerning the effects of obesity on the functional outcomes of patients requiring major lower limb amputation because of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive ability of body mass index (BMI) to determine functional outcome in the dysvascular amputee. To do this, 434 consecutive patients (mean age, 65.8 +/- 13.3, 59% male, 71.4% diabetic) undergoing major limb amputation (225 below-knee amputation, 27 through-knee amputation, 132 above-knee amputation, and 50 bilateral) as a complication of PAD from January 1998 through May 2004 were analyzed according to preoperative BMI. BMI was classified according to the four-group Center for Disease Control system: underweight, 0 to 18.4 kg/m2; normal, 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2; overweight, 25 to 29.9 kg/m2; and obese, > or = 30 kg/m2. Outcome parameters measured included prosthetic usage, maintenance of ambulation, survival, and maintenance of independent living status. The chi2 test for association was used to examine prosthesis wear. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to assess maintenance of ambulation, survival, and maintenance of independent living status. Multivariate analysis using the multiple logistic regression model and a Cox proportional hazards model were used to predict variables independently associated with prosthetic use and ambulation, survival, and independence, respectively. Overall prosthetic usage and 36-month ambulation, survival, and independent living status for the entire cohort was 48.6 per cent, 42.8 per cent, 48.1 per cent, 72.3 per cent, and for patients with normal BMI was 41.5 per cent, 37.4 per cent, 45.6 per cent, and 69.5 per cent, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in outcomes for overweight patients (59.2%, 50.7%, 52.5%, and 75%) or obese patients (51.8%, 46.2%, 49.7%, and 75%) when compared with normal patients. Although there were significantly poorer outcomes for underweight

  14. Predicting Social Anxiety Treatment Outcome Based on Therapeutic Email Conversations.

    PubMed

    Hoogendoorn, Mark; Berger, Thomas; Schulz, Ava; Stolz, Timo; Szolovits, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Predicting therapeutic outcome in the mental health domain is of utmost importance to enable therapists to provide the most effective treatment to a patient. Using information from the writings of a patient can potentially be a valuable source of information, especially now that more and more treatments involve computer-based exercises or electronic conversations between patient and therapist. In this paper, we study predictive modeling using writings of patients under treatment for a social anxiety disorder. We extract a wealth of information from the text written by patients including their usage of words, the topics they talk about, the sentiment of the messages, and the style of writing. In addition, we study trends over time with respect to those measures. We then apply machine learning algorithms to generate the predictive models. Based on a dataset of 69 patients, we are able to show that we can predict therapy outcome with an area under the curve of 0.83 halfway through the therapy and with a precision of 0.78 when using the full data (i.e., the entire treatment period). Due to the limited number of participants, it is hard to generalize the results, but they do show great potential in this type of information.

  15. Neuroimaging of intraparenchymal lesions predicts outcome in shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bonnier, Christine; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Saint-Martin, Christine; Mesples, Bettina; Kadhim, Hazim; Sébire, Guillaume

    2003-10-01

    Studies of long-term outcome on nonaccidental head injury (NAHI) in young children have shown severe neurodevelopmental sequelae in most cases. For improving the knowledge of outcome and for identifying prognostic factors, additional clinical and cerebral imaging data are needed. The aim of this study was to describe clinical and imaging features over time and to consider their value for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. A retrospective medical record review was conducted of 23 children with confirmed NAHI, for whom an extended follow-up of 2.5 to 13 years (mean: 6 years) was contemplated. Glasgow Coma Scale scores, severity of retinal hemorrhages, presence of skull fractures, cranial growth deceleration, and sequential neuroimaging data (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging) were compared with patterns of clinical evolution assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Clinical outcome showed that 14 (61%) children had severe disabilities, 8 (35%) had moderate disabilities, and 1 (4%) was normal. A low initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, severe retinal hemorrhages, presence of skull fracture, and cranial growth deceleration were significantly associated with poor developmental outcome. Eighteen of the 23 patients had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging scans. This examination disclosed atrophy when performed beyond 15 days of injury. Atrophy seemingly resulted from various brain lesions, namely, contusions, infarcts, and other lesions within the white matter. Presence of intraparenchymal brain lesions within the first 3 months was significantly associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. Severity of motor and cognitive dysfunctions was related to the extent of intraparenchymal lesions. Early clinical and radiologic findings in NAHI are of prognostic value for neurodevelopmental outcome.

  16. Neural systems predicting long-term outcome in dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Hoeft, Fumiko; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Black, Jessica M.; Gantman, Alexander; Zakerani, Nahal; Hulme, Charles; Lyytinen, Heikki; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia vary in their ability to improve reading skills, but the brain basis for improvement remains largely unknown. We performed a prospective, longitudinal study over 2.5 y in children with dyslexia (n = 25) or without dyslexia (n = 20) to discover whether initial behavioral or brain measures, including functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), can predict future long-term reading gains in dyslexia. No behavioral measure, including widely used and standardized reading and language tests, reliably predicted future reading gains in dyslexia. Greater right prefrontal activation during a reading task that demanded phonological awareness and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (including arcuate fasciculus) white-matter organization significantly predicted future reading gains in dyslexia. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of these two brain measures, using linear support vector machine (SVM) and cross-validation, predicted significantly above chance (72% accuracy) which particular child would or would not improve reading skills (behavioral measures were at chance). MVPA of whole-brain activation pattern during phonological processing predicted which children with dyslexia would improve reading skills 2.5 y later with >90% accuracy. These findings identify right prefrontal brain mechanisms that may be critical for reading improvement in dyslexia and that may differ from typical reading development. Brain measures that predict future behavioral outcomes (neuroprognosis) may be more accurate, in some cases, than available behavioral measures. PMID:21173250

  17. Neural systems predicting long-term outcome in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Fumiko; McCandliss, Bruce D; Black, Jessica M; Gantman, Alexander; Zakerani, Nahal; Hulme, Charles; Lyytinen, Heikki; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H; Reiss, Allan L; Gabrieli, John D E

    2011-01-04

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia vary in their ability to improve reading skills, but the brain basis for improvement remains largely unknown. We performed a prospective, longitudinal study over 2.5 y in children with dyslexia (n = 25) or without dyslexia (n = 20) to discover whether initial behavioral or brain measures, including functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), can predict future long-term reading gains in dyslexia. No behavioral measure, including widely used and standardized reading and language tests, reliably predicted future reading gains in dyslexia. Greater right prefrontal activation during a reading task that demanded phonological awareness and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (including arcuate fasciculus) white-matter organization significantly predicted future reading gains in dyslexia. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of these two brain measures, using linear support vector machine (SVM) and cross-validation, predicted significantly above chance (72% accuracy) which particular child would or would not improve reading skills (behavioral measures were at chance). MVPA of whole-brain activation pattern during phonological processing predicted which children with dyslexia would improve reading skills 2.5 y later with >90% accuracy. These findings identify right prefrontal brain mechanisms that may be critical for reading improvement in dyslexia and that may differ from typical reading development. Brain measures that predict future behavioral outcomes (neuroprognosis) may be more accurate, in some cases, than available behavioral measures.

  18. Risk Prediction for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in a Medicaid Population

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; Greenberg, James M.; Kelly, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Despite prior efforts to develop pregnancy risk prediction models, there remains a lack of evidence to guide implementation in clinical practice. The current aim was to develop and validate a risk tool grounded in social determinants theory for use among at-risk Medicaid patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 409 women across 17 Cincinnati health centers between September 2013 and April 2014. The primary outcomes included preterm birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal demise, and neonatal death. After random allocation into derivation and validation samples, a multivariable model was developed, and a risk scoring system was assessed and validated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values. Results: The derived multivariable model (n=263) included: prior preterm birth, interpregnancy interval, late prenatal care, comorbid conditions, history of childhood abuse, substance use, tobacco use, body mass index, race, twin gestation, and short cervical length. Using a weighted risk score, each additional point was associated with an odds ratio of 1.57 for adverse outcomes, p<0.001, AUROC=0.79. In the validation sample (n=146), each additional point conferred an odds ratio of 1.20, p=0.03, AUROC=0.63. Using a cutoff of 20% probability for the outcome, sensitivity was 29%, with specificity 82%. Positive and negative predictive values were 22% and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: Risk scoring based on social determinants can discriminate pregnancy risk within a Medicaid population; however, performance is modest and consistent with prior prediction models. Future research is needed to evaluate whether implementation of risk scoring in Medicaid prenatal care programs improves clinical outcomes. PMID:26102375

  19. Long-term outcomes after surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation in patients with continuous heart rhythm monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Charitos, Efstratios I; Ziegler, Paul D; Stierle, Ulrich; Graf, Bernhard; Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Hanke, Thorsten

    2015-12-01

    Surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is an established therapy for the treatment of concomitant AF in cardiac surgery patients. We aim to present our prospective experience with 99 continuously monitored patients and investigate whether enhanced monitoring can identify patterns and factors influencing AF recurrence after surgical AF ablation. Ninety-nine patients (73 males; age: 68.0 ± 9.2 years) with documented preoperative AF (paroxysmal: 29; persistent: 18; long-lasting persistent: 52, mean preoperative duration: 46 ± 53 months) underwent concomitant biatrial surgical ablation (Cox Maze III: 29), full set left atrial cryoablation (n = 22), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) box lesion (n = 46) or right-sided ablation (n = 2). Postoperative rhythm disclosure was provided via an implantable device. Scheduled follow-up was performed quarterly (mean ± standard deviation: 1.75 ± 1.16 years, 173.7 patient-years). The mean postoperative AF burden during the follow-up was 7 ± 19% (median: 0.2%). Seventy-one and 82 patients had AF burden <1% and <5%, respectively. The preoperative AF duration, preoperative ejection fraction, mitral valve surgery and HIFU in patients with more persistent AF were associated with statistically significant higher postoperative AF burdens. The pattern of AF recurrence during the 3-month blanking period was associated with the amount of later AF recurrence. Continuous rhythm disclosure reveals that very small amounts of AF burden after surgical ablation are common. The preoperative duration of AF and the use of a box lesion only in patients with longer AF persistence history were independently associated with higher postoperative AF burden recurrence. The temporal AF pattern during the blanking period after ablation should be considered for further patient management and might serve as a prognostic factor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio

  20. Comparison of outcomes between SBRT, yttrium-90 radioembolization, transarterial chemoembolization, and radiofrequency ablation as bridge to transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mostafa; Katz, Alan W; Tejani, Mohamedtaki A; Sharma, Ashwani K; Kashyap, Randeep; Noel, Marcus S; Qiu, Haoming; Hezel, Aram F; Ramaraju, Gopal A; Dokus, M Katherine; Orloff, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate and compare outcome of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), yttrium-90 radioembolization, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as bridge to liver transplant (LT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed patients treated at our institution with SBRT, TACE, RFA, or yttrium-90 as bridge to LT between 2006 and 2013. We analyzed radiologic and pathologic response and rate of failure after bridge therapy. Toxicities were reported using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, 4.0. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival after LT. Sixty patients with a median age 57.5 years (range, 44-70) met inclusion criteria. Thirty-one patients (50.7%) had hepatitis C cirrhosis, 14 (23%) alcoholic cirrhosis, and 8 (13%) nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis. Patients received a total of 79 bridge therapies: SBRT (n = 24), TACE (n = 37), RFA (n = 9), and Y90 (n = 9). Complete response (CR) was 25% for TACE, 8.6% for SBRT, 22% for RFA, and 33% for Y90. Grade 3 or 4 acute toxicity occurred following TACE (n = 4) and RFA (n = 2). Transplant occurred at a median of 7.4 months after bridge therapy. Pathological response among 57 patients was 100% necrosis (n = 23, 40%), >50% necrosis (n = 20, 35%), <50% necrosis (n = 9, 16%), and no necrosis (n = 5, 9%). Pathologic complete response was as follows: SBRT (28.5%), TACE (41%), RFA (60%), Y90 (75%), and multiple modalities (33%). At a median follow-up of 35 months, 7 patients had recurrence after LT. DFS was 85.8% and overall survival was 79% at 5 years. All bridge therapies demonstrated good pathological response and DFS after LT. SBRT and Y90 demonstrated significantly less grade ≥3 acute toxicity. Choice of optimal modality depends on tumor size, pretreatment bilirubin level, Child-Pugh status, and patient preference. Such a decision is best made at a multidisciplinary tumor board as is done at our

  1. Effect of alcohol dosage on long-term outcomes after alcohol septal ablation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Liebregts, Max; Vriesendorp, Pieter A; Steggerda, Robbert C; Schinkel, Arend F L; Balt, Jippe C; Ten Cate, Folkert J; Michels, Michelle; Ten Berg, Jurriën M

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the long-term effects of alcohol dosage in alcohol septal ablation (ASA) on mortality and adverse arrhythmic events (AAE). ASA can be performed to reduce left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, the effect of alcohol dosage on long-term outcomes is unknown. This retrospective cohort study includes 296 HCM patients (age 60 ± 22 years, 58% male) who underwent ASA because of symptomatic LVOT obstruction. Twenty-nine patients (9.8%) were excluded because the alcohol dosage could not be retrieved. Primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and AAE. During 6.3 ± 3.7 years of follow-up, all-cause mortality and AAE rates were similar in patients who received ≤2.0 mL (n = 142) and >2.0 mL (n = 121) alcohol during ASA. Age was the only independent predictor of mortality (HR 1.1 95% CI 1.0-1.1, P < 0.001). Predictors of AAE were maximum CK-MB >240 U/L (HR 3.3 95% CI 1.5-7.2, P = 0.003), and sudden cardiac death survivor (HR 5.9 95% CI 1.7-20.3, P = 0.004). There was a mild to moderate correlation between CK-MB levels and amount of alcohol (Spearman's ρ 0.39, P < 0.001), cross-sectional area of the target septal branch ostium/ostia (Spearman's ρ 0.19, P = 0.003), and maximum ventricular wall thickness (Spearman's ρ 0.17, P = 0.006). Alcohol dosage appears not to have a long-term effect on mortality and AAE. A larger infarct size created by ASA increases the risk of AAE, and extended monitoring of these patients is advised. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. VeClose trial 12-month outcomes of cyanoacrylate closure versus radiofrequency ablation for incompetent great saphenous veins.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Nick; Gibson, Kathleen; Vasquez, Michael; Weiss, Robert; Cher, Daniel; Madsen, Monte; Jones, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Endovenous cyanoacrylate closure (CAC) is a new U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for treatment of clinically symptomatic venous reflux in saphenous veins. The device is indicated for the permanent closure of lower extremity superficial truncal veins, such as the great saphenous vein (GSV). Early results from a randomized trial of CAC have been reported previously. Herein we report 1-year outcomes. There were 222 subjects with symptomatic GSV incompetence randomly assigned to receive either CAC (n = 108) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA; n = 114). After the month 3 visit, subjects could receive adjunctive therapies aimed at treating visible varicosities and incompetent tributaries. Vein closure was assessed at day 3 and months 1, 3, 6, and 12 using duplex ultrasound. Additional study visit assessments included the Venous Clinical Severity Score; Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology classification; EuroQol-5 Dimension; and Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire. Both time to closure and time to first reopening of the target vein were evaluated using survival curve analysis. Adverse events were evaluated at each visit. Of 222 enrolled and randomized subjects, a 12-month follow-up was obtained for 192 (95 CAC and 97 RFA; total follow-up rate, 192/222 [86.5%]). By month 1, 100% of CAC subjects and 87% of RFA subjects demonstrated complete occlusion of the target vein. By month 12, the complete occlusion rate was nearly identical in both groups (97.2% in the CAC group and 97.0% in the RFA group). Twelve-month freedom from recanalization was similar in the CAC and RFA groups, although there was a trend toward greater freedom from recanalization in the CAC group (P = .08). Symptoms and quality of life improved equally in both groups. Most adverse events were mild to moderate and not related to the device or procedure. In patients with incompetent GSVs, treatment with both CAC and RFA results in high occlusion rates. Time to complete occlusion

  3. Sonographic monitoring of midline shift predicts outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kiphuth, Ines C; Huttner, Hagen B; Breuer, Lorenz; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and the evolution of subsequent perihemorrhagic edema lead to midline shift (MLS), which can be assessed by transcranial duplex sonography (TDS). In this observational study, we monitored MLS with TDS in patients with supratentorial ICH up to day 14 after the ictus, and then correlated MLS with the outcome 6 months after hospital discharge. Sixty-eight patients with spontaneous ICH (volume >20 cm(3)) were admitted during a 1-year period between April 2009 and April 2010. Sixty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were eligible for analysis. TDS to measure MLS was performed upon admission and then subsequently, using serial examinations in 24-hour intervals up to day 14. Statistical tests were used to determine cut-off values for functional outcome and mortality after 6 months. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score upon admission was 21 and the mean hematoma volume was 52 cm(3). NIHSS score, functional outcome, hematoma volume and MLS were correlated in the examined patient cohort. ICH score upon admission, hematoma volume and the extent of MLS on days 1-14 were predictive of functional outcome and death. Values of MLS showed two peaks, the first between day 2 and day 5 and the second between day 12 and day 14, indicating that edema progresses not only during the acute but also during the subacute phase. Depending on the time point, an MLS of 4.5-7.5 mm or greater indicated an impending failure of conservative therapy. An MLS of 12 mm or greater at any time indicated mortality with a sensitivity of 69%, a specificity of 100% and positive and negative predictive values of 100 and 74%, respectively. MLS seems to be a crucial factor for outcome after ICH. Apart from the hematoma volume itself, edema adds to the intracranial pressure. To monitor MLS in early patient management after ICH, TDS is a useful noninvasive bedside alternative, avoiding increased radiation exposure and repeated

  4. Beyond the Storm: Comparison of Clinical Factors, Arrhythmogenic Substrate, and Catheter Ablation Outcomes in Structural Heart Disease Patients With versus Those Without a History of Ventricular Tachycardia Storm.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurabh; Fujii, Akira; Kapur, Sunil; Romero, Jorge; Mehta, Nishaki K; Tanigawa, Shinichi; Epstein, Laurence M; Koplan, Bruce A; Michaud, Gregory F; John, Roy M; Stevenson, William G; Tedrow, Usha B

    2017-01-01

    Catheter ablation can be lifesaving in ventricular tachycardia (VT) storm, but the underlying substrate in patients with storm is not well characterized. We sought to compare the clinical factors, substrate, and outcomes differences in patients with sustained monomorphic VT who present for catheter ablation with VT storm versus those with a nonstorm presentation. Consecutive ischemic (ICM; n = 554) or nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients (NICM; n = 369) with a storm versus nonstorm presentation were studied (ICM storm 186; NICM storm 101). In ICM, storm compared with nonstorm patients had significantly lower left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), greater number of antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) failures, slower VTs, greater number of scarred LV segments, higher incidence of anterior, septal, and apical endocardial LV scar (all P < 0.05). However, outcomes in follow-up were similar (12-month ventricular arrhythmia [VA]-free survival: 51% vs. 52%, P = 0.6; survival free of death/transplant 75% vs. 87%, P = 0.7). In addition to the above differences, NICM storm patients were also older; however, the extent and distribution of scar was similar except for a higher incidence of lateral endocardial scar in storm patients (P = 0.05). VA-free survival (36% vs. 47%, P = 0.004) and survival free of death/transplant, however, were worse in NICM storm than nonstorm patients (72% vs. 88%, P = 0.001). NICM storm patients had worse VA-free survival than ICM storm patients. There are differences in clinical factors and scar patterns in patients undergoing VT ablation who present with VT storm versus those with a nonstorm presentation. Clinical outcomes are worse in NICM storm patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Writing abilities longitudinally predict academic outcomes of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Stephen J; Langberg, Joshua M; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Evans, Steven W

    2016-09-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (Grades 6-8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student grade point average (GPA) and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Cluster analysis as a prediction tool for pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Banjari, Ines; Kenjerić, Daniela; Šolić, Krešimir; Mandić, Milena L

    2015-03-01

    Considering specific physiology changes during gestation and thinking of pregnancy as a "critical window", classification of pregnant women at early pregnancy can be considered as crucial. The paper demonstrates the use of a method based on an approach from intelligent data mining, cluster analysis. Cluster analysis method is a statistical method which makes possible to group individuals based on sets of identifying variables. The method was chosen in order to determine possibility for classification of pregnant women at early pregnancy to analyze unknown correlations between different variables so that the certain outcomes could be predicted. 222 pregnant women from two general obstetric offices' were recruited. The main orient was set on characteristics of these pregnant women: their age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin value. Cluster analysis gained a 94.1% classification accuracy rate with three branch- es or groups of pregnant women showing statistically significant correlations with pregnancy outcomes. The results are showing that pregnant women both of older age and higher pre-pregnancy BMI have a significantly higher incidence of delivering baby of higher birth weight but they gain significantly less weight during pregnancy. Their babies are also longer, and these women have significantly higher probability for complications during pregnancy (gestosis) and higher probability of induced or caesarean delivery. We can conclude that the cluster analysis method can appropriately classify pregnant women at early pregnancy to predict certain outcomes.

  7. Spinal meningiomas: clinicoradiological factors predicting recurrence and functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Tanmoy K; Bir, Shyamal C; Patra, Devi Prasad; Kalakoti, Piyush; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Spinal meningiomas are benign tumors with a wide spectrum of clinical and radiological features at presentation. The authors analyzed multiple clinicoradiological factors to predict recurrence and functional outcome in a cohort with a mean follow-up of more than 4 years. The authors also discuss the results of clinical studies regarding spinal meningiomas in the last 15 years. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological details of patients who underwent surgery for spinal tumors between 2001 and 2015 that were histopathologically confirmed as meningiomas. Demographic parameters, such as age, sex, race, and association with neurofibromatosis Type 2, were considered. Radiological parameters, such as tumor size, signal changes of spinal cord, spinal level, number of levels, location of tumor attachment, shape of tumor, and presence of dural tail/calcification, were noted. These factors were analyzed to predict recurrence and functional outcome. Furthermore, a pooled analysis was performed from 13 reports of spinal meningiomas in the last 15 years. RESULTS A total of 38 patients were included in this study. Male sex and tumors with radiological evidence of a dural tail were associated with an increased risk of recurrence at a mean follow-up of 51.2 months. Ventral or ventrolateral location, large tumors, T2 cord signal changes, and poor preoperative functional status were associated with poor functional outcome at 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Spine surgeons must be aware of the natural history and risk factors of spinal meningiomas to establish a prognosis for their patients.

  8. Writing Abilities Longitudinally Predict Academic Outcomes of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshuah M.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Students with ADHD often experience a host of negative academic outcomes and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (grades 6–8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student GPA and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and ODD symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. PMID:26783650

  9. Prediction of very late arrhythmia recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: The MB-LATER clinical score.

    PubMed

    Mujović, Nebojša; Marinković, Milan; Marković, Nebojša; Shantsila, Alena; Lip, Gregory Y H; Potpara, Tatjana S

    2017-01-20

    Reliable prediction of very late recurrence of atrial fibrillation (VLRAF) occuring >12 months after catheter ablation (CA) in apparently "cured" patients could optimize long-term follow-up and modify decision-making regarding the discontinuation of oral anticoagulant therapy. In a single-centre cohort of consecutive patients post radiofrequency AFCA, we retrospectively derived a novel score for VLRAF prediction. Of 133 consecutive post AFCA patients (mean age 56.9 ± 11.8 years, 63.9% male, 69.2% with paroxysmal AF) who were arrhythmia-free at 12 months (excluding 3-month "blanking period"), 20 patients expirienced a VLRAF during a 29.1 ± 10.1-month follow-up, with a 3-year cumulative VLRAF rate of 31.1%. The MB-LATER score (Male, Bundle brunch block, Left atrium ≥47 mm, Type of AF [paroxysmal, persistent or long-standing persistent], and ER-AF = early recurrent AF), had better predictive ability for VLRAF (AUC 0.782) than the APPLE, ALARMc, BASE-AF2, CHADS2, CHA2DS2VASc or HATCH score (AUC 0.716, 0.671, 0.648, 0.552, 0.519 and 0.583, respectively), resulted in an improved net reclassification index (NRI) of 48.6-95.1% and better identified patients with subsequent VLRAF using decision-curve analysis (DCA). The MB-LATER score provides a readily available VLRAF risk assessment, and performs better than other scores. Validation of the MB-LATER score in other cohorts is underway.

  10. Prediction of very late arrhythmia recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: The MB-LATER clinical score

    PubMed Central

    Mujović, Nebojša; Marinković, Milan; Marković, Nebojša; Shantsila, Alena; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Potpara, Tatjana S.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable prediction of very late recurrence of atrial fibrillation (VLRAF) occuring >12 months after catheter ablation (CA) in apparently “cured” patients could optimize long-term follow-up and modify decision-making regarding the discontinuation of oral anticoagulant therapy. In a single-centre cohort of consecutive patients post radiofrequency AFCA, we retrospectively derived a novel score for VLRAF prediction. Of 133 consecutive post AFCA patients (mean age 56.9 ± 11.8 years, 63.9% male, 69.2% with paroxysmal AF) who were arrhythmia-free at 12 months (excluding 3-month “blanking period”), 20 patients expirienced a VLRAF during a 29.1 ± 10.1-month follow-up, with a 3-year cumulative VLRAF rate of 31.1%. The MB-LATER score (Male, Bundle brunch block, Left atrium ≥47 mm, Type of AF [paroxysmal, persistent or long-standing persistent], and ER-AF = early recurrent AF), had better predictive ability for VLRAF (AUC 0.782) than the APPLE, ALARMc, BASE-AF2, CHADS2, CHA2DS2VASc or HATCH score (AUC 0.716, 0.671, 0.648, 0.552, 0.519 and 0.583, respectively), resulted in an improved net reclassification index (NRI) of 48.6–95.1% and better identified patients with subsequent VLRAF using decision-curve analysis (DCA). The MB-LATER score provides a readily available VLRAF risk assessment, and performs better than other scores. Validation of the MB-LATER score in other cohorts is underway. PMID:28106147

  11. Prediction of Poor Outcome After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Afilalo, Jonathan; Spertus, John A; Tang, Yuanyuan; Baron, Suzanne J; Jones, Philip G; Reardon, Michael J; Yakubov, Steven J; Adams, David H; Cohen, David J

    2016-10-25

    individualizing outcome predictions in high-risk patients undergoing TAVR. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Very long-term outcome of catheter ablation of post-incisional atrial tachycardia: Role of incisional and non-incisional scar.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gong-Bu; Hu, Ji-Qiang; Guo, Xiao-Gang; Liu, Xu; Yang, Jian-du; Sun, Qi; Ma, Jian; Ouyang, Fei-Fan; Zhang, Shu

    2016-02-15

    The arrhythmogenicity of right atrial (RA) incisional scar after cardiac surgery could result in atrial tachycardia (AT). Radiofrequency catheter ablation is effective in the treatment of such tachycardia. However, data regarding long-term outcomes are limited. A total of 105 patients with prior RA incision who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation of AT were included. In the first procedure, electroanatomic mapping (EAM) revealed a total of 139 ATs in 105 patients, including 88 cavotricuspid isthmus dependent atrial flutters (IDAFs), 5 mitral annulus reentrant tachycardias (MARTs), 44 intra-atrial reentrant tachycardias (IARTs) and 2 focal ATs (FATs). AT was successfully eliminated in 101 (96.1%) patients. During a mean follow-up period of 90 ± 36 months, recurrent AT was observed in 23 patients and 21 underwent a second ablation. A total of 23 ATs were identified in redo procedures including 4 IDAFs, 2 MARTs, 12 IARTs and 5 FATs. The time to recurrence was significantly different among various AT types. Acute success was achieved in 20 of 23 redo procedures. Taking a total of 21 patients presenting atrial fibrillation during follow-up into account, 85 patients (81.9%) were in sinus rhythm. No complications except for a case of RA compartmentation occurred. RA incisional scar played an essential role in promoting both IDAF and IART, while non-incisional scar contributed to a substantial rate of late recurrent AT in forms of both macroreentry and small reentry. Catheter ablation using EAM system resulted in a high success rate during long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mortality determinants and prediction of outcome in high risk newborns.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, R; Dalvi, B V; Birewar, N; Chari, G; Fernandez, A R

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine independent patient-related predictors of mortality in high risk newborns admitted at our centre. The study population comprised 100 consecutive newborns each, from the premature unit (PU) and sick baby care unit (SBCU), respectively. Thirteen high risk factors (variables) for each of the two units, were entered into a multivariate regression analysis. Variables with independent predictive value for poor outcome (i.e., death) in PU were, weight less than 1 kg, hyaline membrane disease, neurologic problems, and intravenous therapy. High risk factors in SBCU included, blood gas abnormality, bleeding phenomena, recurrent convulsions, apnea, and congenital anomalies. Identification of these factors guided us in defining priority areas for improvement in our system of neonatal care. Also, based on these variables a simple predictive score for outcome was constructed. The prediction equation and the score were cross-validated by applying them to a 'test-set' of 100 newborns each for PU and SBCU. Results showed a comparable sensitivity, specificity and error rate.

  14. Ultrasound cervical length measurement in prediction of labor induction outcome.

    PubMed

    Kehila, M; Abouda, H S; Sahbi, K; Cheour, H; Chanoufi, M Badis

    2016-05-17

    Induction of labor is one of the most common procedures in modern obstetrics, with an incidence of approximately 20% of all deliveries. Not all of these inductions result in vaginal delivery; some lead to cesarean sections, either for emergency reasons or for failed induction. That's why, It seems necessary to outline strategies for the improvement of the success rate of induced deliveries. Traditionally, the identification of women in whom labor induction is more likely to be successful is based on the Bishop score. However, several studies have shown it to be subjective, with high variation and a poor predictor of the outcome of labor induction. Transvaginal sonography for cervical measurement can be a more objective criterion in assessing the success of labor induction. Many studies have been done recently to compare cervical measurement and Bishop Score in labor induction.This paper reviewed the literature that evaluated sonographic cervical length measurement to predict induction of labor outcome.

  15. Incidence and Factors Predicting Skin Burns at the Site of Indifferent Electrode during Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Hussain; Finta, Bohuslav; Rind, Jubran

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) has become a mainstay for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Skin burns at the site of an indifferent electrode patch have been a rare, serious, and likely an underreported complication of RFA. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin burns in cardiac RFA procedures performed at one institution. Also, we wanted to determine the factors predicting skin burns after cardiac RFA procedures at the indifferent electrode skin pad site. Methods. A retrospective case control study was performed to compare the characteristics in patients who developed skin burns in a 2-year period. Results. Incidence of significant skin burns after RFA was 0.28% (6/2167). Four of the six patients were female and all were Caucasians. Four controls for every case were age and sex matched. Burn patients had significantly higher BMI, procedure time, and postprocedure pain, relative to control subjects (p < 0.05, one-tailed testing). No one in either group had evidence of dispersive pad malattachment. Conclusions. Our results indicate that burn patients had higher BMI and longer procedure times compared to control subjects. These findings warrant further larger studies on this topic. PMID:27213077

  16. Predicting stroke outcome using DCE-CT measured blood velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterbroek, Jaap; Bennink, Edwin; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Horsch, Alexander D.; Viergever, Max A.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.

    2015-03-01

    CT plays an important role in the diagnosis of acute stroke patients. Dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) can estimate local tissue perfusion and extent of ischemia. However, hemodynamic information of the large intracranial vessels may also be obtained from DCE-CT data and may contain valuable diagnostic information. We describe a novel method to estimate intravascular blood velocity (IBV) in large cerebral vessels using DCE-CT data, which may be useful to help predict stroke outcome. DCE-CT scans from 34 patients with isolated M1 occlusions were included from a large prospective multi-center cohort study of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Gaussians fitted to the intravascular data yielded the time-to-peak (TTP) and cerebral-blood-volume (CBV). IBV was computed by taking the inverse of the TTP gradient magnitude. Voxels with a CBV of at least 10% of the CBV found in the arterial input function were considered part of a vessel. Mid-sagittal planes were drawn manually and averages of the IBV over all vessel-voxels (arterial and venous) were computed for each hemisphere. Mean-hemisphere IBV differences, mean-hemisphere TTP differences, and hemisphere vessel volume differences were used to differentiate between patients with good and bad outcome (modified Rankin Scale score <3 versus ≥3 at 90 days) using ROC analysis. AUCs from the ROC for IBV, TTP, and vessel volume were 0.80, 0.67 and 0.62 respectively. In conclusion, IBV was found to be a better predictor of patient outcome than the parameters used to compute it and may be a promising new parameter for stroke outcome prediction.

  17. Prediction and Outcome of Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Paresis.

    PubMed

    Peñuelas, Oscar; Muriel, Alfonso; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Fan, Eddy; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Rios, Fernando; Nin, Nicolás; Thille, Arnaud W; González, Marco; Villagomez, Asisclo J; Davies, Andrew R; Du, Bin; Maggiore, Salvatore M; Matamis, Dimitrios; Abroug, Fekri; Moreno, Rui P; Kuiper, Michael A; Anzueto, Antonio; Ferguson, Niall D; Esteban, Andrés

    2016-04-13

    Intensive care unit-acquired paresis (ICUAP) is associated with poor outcomes. Our objective was to evaluate predictors for ICUAP and the short-term outcomes associated with this condition. A secondary analysis of a prospective study including 4157 mechanically ventilated adults in 494 intensive care units from 39 countries. After sedative interruption, patients were screened for ICUAP daily, which was defined as the presence of symmetric and flaccid quadriparesis associated with decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes. A multinomial logistic regression was used to create a predictive model for ICUAP. Propensity score matching was used to estimate the relationship between ICUAP and short-term outcomes (ie, weaning failure and intensive care unit [ICU] mortality). Overall, 114 (3%) patients had ICUAP. Variables associated with ICUAP were duration of mechanical ventilation (relative risk ratio [RRR] per day, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.12), steroid therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8), insulin therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.7), sepsis (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.9), acute renal failure (RRR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-3.3), and hematological failure (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9). Coefficients were used to generate a weighted scoring system to predict ICUAP. ICUAP was significantly associated with both weaning failure (paired rate difference of 22.1%; 95% CI 9.8-31.6%) and ICU mortality (paired rate difference 10.5%; 95% CI 0.1-24.0%). Intensive care unit-acquired paresis is relatively uncommon but is significantly associated with weaning failure and ICU mortality. We constructed a weighted scoring system, with good discrimination, to predict ICUAP in mechanically ventilated patients at the time of awakening. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Somatosensory evoked potentials predict neurolysis outcome in meralgia paraesthetica.

    PubMed

    Siu, Timothy L T; Chandran, K Nadana

    2004-01-01

    The role of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) in predicting the outcome of nerve entrapment syndrome following surgical release has not been fully verified. All patients included in our study had preoperative SEP recordings and had undergone neurolysis for treatment of meralgia paraesthetica by our senior author (KNC) between 1996 and 2000. The outcome of surgery was assessed 6 weeks after the procedure; follow up was continued at 3 month intervals if symptoms persisted. Telephone interviews were conducted to assess long-term results. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to establish the predictive value of side-to-side N1 and P1 latency differences in obtaining complete relief of symptoms following surgery. Twenty-four patients who had preoperative SEP recordings and had undergone neurolysis for meralgia paraesthetica were followed for 4.0 +/- 1.5 (SD) years. A prolonged side-to-side N1 latency difference (DeltaN1) was found to be significantly associated with complete relief of symptoms at about 6 weeks postoperatively, after adjustment for age, sex and duration of symptoms (OR, 1.75; CI, 1.03-2.96). Logistic regression identified a critical cut-off value of 8 ms (OR, 27.2; CI, 1.4-547.0). This association disappeared with longer follow up. Somatosensory evoked potentials provide significant data for prediction of good surgical outcome for meralgia paraesthetica. Re-evaluation of the diagnosis, adequate trial of conservative treatments and special attention to anomalous branches are recommended for patients with low preoperative DeltaN1 values.

  19. Pediatric brain injury: Can DTI scalars predict functional outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Duan; Mukherjee, Pratik; Barkovich, A James

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion imaging has made significant inroads into the clinical diagnosis of a variety of diseases by inferring changes in microstructure, namely cell membranes, myelin sheath and other structures that inhibit water diffusion. This review discusses recent progress in the use of diffusion parameters in predicting functional outcome. Studies in the literature using only scalar parameters from diffusion measurements, such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), are summarized. Other more complex mathematical models and post-processing uses are also discussed briefly. PMID:23288477

  20. Predicting the outcome of eating disorders using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Fichter, Manfred M; Quadflieg, Norbert; Rehm, Jürgen

    2003-11-01

    There is a need for models that predict accurately the course of mental disorders. Eating-disordered female inpatients were assessed longitudinally at the beginning of treatment (t1), at the end of treatment (t2), at 2 or 3-year follow-up (t3), and at 6-year follow-up (t4). The sample consisted of 196 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) purging type, 103 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), and 68 women with binge eating disorder (BED; N=367). Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were used to predict the women's status at 6-year follow-up. The results for BN and BED show that the specific eating disorder pathology was influenced mainly by specific eating disorder pathology at earlier time points and not by non-eating-specific (general) psychopathology. Similarly, general psychopathology was influenced mainly by general psychopathology at earlier time points. For AN patients, both categories of psychopathology (eating specific and general) were relevant for the 6-year outcome. The potential impact of 14 factors on the level of pathology was estimated (a) at baseline (at the beginning of treatment), (b) during the course of illness (baseline controlled), and (c) on the 6-year outcome of eating disorders (baseline and course controlled). Although there were many correlations between potential factors and baseline pathology, there was only a limited number of significant correlations with the 6-year outcome. This effect was mediated largely by the level of general psychopathology. The models for outcome prediction based on structural equation modeling techniques were very similar for BN and BED. For both BN and BED, there were almost entirely separate predictions for the specific eating disorder on the one hand and non-eating-related (general) psychopathology on the other hand. This was true to a lesser degree for AN. The use of refined path analytic methods in follow-up studies on larger general populations will be helpful to increase our understanding of the

  1. Predictive macrosomia birthweight thresholds for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Shulian; Wu, Xueqin; Wang, Xiaoli; Lv, Qin; Gan, Dongmei; Liu, Ling; Li, Wen; Zhou, Qin; Lu, Jiarong; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Xin, Hua; Li, Zhankui; Chen, Chao

    2016-12-01

    We examined the predictive macrosomia birthweight thresholds for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study conducted in China. We selected 178 709 singletons weighing ≥2500 g with gestational age 37-44 weeks. We categorized macrosomia with two gradations (4000-4499 g and ≥4500 g) and compared them with a normosomic reference group of infants with birthweight 2500-3999 g. The risks of obstetric and neonatal complications increased when infants had a birthweight of ≥4000 g. The rates of infant mortality, Apgar score ≤3 at 5 min, respiratory and neurological disorders rose significantly among neonates weighing ≥4500 g. A definition of macrosomia as birthweight ≥4000 g could be beneficial as an indicator of obstetric and newborn complications, and birthweight ≥4500 g might be predictive of severe infant morbidity and mortality risk.

  2. Monitoring the Immune Competence of Cancer Patients to Predict Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Serena; Kohrt, Holbrook; Maecker, Holden T.

    2014-01-01

    A new era of cancer immunotherapy has brought not only successful cancer vaccines but also immunomodulators, such as those that target checkpoint blockade in order to induce endogenous host immune responses. However, the immune system of cancer patients can be compromised through multiple means, including immune suppression by the tumor and by prior therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation. Therefore, a comprehensive means of assessing patient immunocompetence would seem helpful for determining whether patients are ready to benefit from immunotherapy, and perhaps even which immunotherapy might be most appropriate for them. Unfortunately, there are no standardized tests for immune competence, nor is there agreement on what to measure and what will be predictive of outcome. In this review, we will discuss the technologies and assays that might be most useful for this purpose. We argue for a comprehensive approach that should maximize the chances of developing predictive biomarkers for eventual clinical use. PMID:24487923

  3. Pre-treatment non-target lung FDG-PET uptake predicts symptomatic radiation pneumonitis following Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR).

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Aadel A; Binkley, Michael S; Rigdon, Joseph; Carter, Justin N; Aggarwal, Sonya; Dudley, Sara A; Qian, Yushen; Kumar, Kiran A; Hara, Wendy Y; Gensheimer, Michael; Nair, Viswam S; Maxim, Peter G; Shultz, David B; Bush, Karl; Trakul, Nicholas; Le, Quynh-Thu; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W; Guo, Haiwei Henry

    2016-06-01

    To determine if pre-treatment non-target lung FDG-PET uptake predicts for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) following lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). We reviewed a 258 patient database from our institution to identify 28 patients who experienced symptomatic (grade ⩾ 2) RP after SABR, and compared them to 57 controls who did not develop symptomatic RP. We compared clinical, dosimetric and functional imaging characteristics between the 2 cohorts including pre-treatment non-target lung FDG-PET uptake. Median follow-up time was 26.9 months. Patients who experienced symptomatic RP had significantly higher non-target lung FDG-PET uptake as measured by mean SUV (p < 0.0001) than controls. ROC analysis for symptomatic RP revealed area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74, with sensitivity 82.1% and specificity 57.9% with cutoff mean non-target lung SUV > 0.56. Predictive value increased (AUC of 0.82) when mean non-target lung SUV was combined with mean lung dose (MLD). We developed a 0-2 point model using these 2 variables, 1 point each for SUV > 0.56 or MLD > 5.88 Gy equivalent dose in 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2), predictive for symptomatic RP in our cohort with hazard ratio 10.01 for score 2 versus 0 (p < 0.001). Patients with elevated pre-SABR non-target lung FDG-PET uptake are at increased risk of symptomatic RP after lung SABR. Our predictive model suggests patients with mean non-target lung SUV > 0.56 and MLD > 5.88 Gy EQD2 are at highest risk. Our predictive model should be validated in an external cohort before clinical implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Executive function processes predict mobility outcomes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, David; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Mullen, Sean P; Voss, Michelle; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2014-02-01

    To examine the relationship between performance on executive function measures and subsequent mobility outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 179; mean age 66.4). A 12-month exercise trial with two arms: an aerobic exercise group and a stretching and strengthening group. Established cognitive tests of executive function (flanker task, task switching, and a dual-task paradigm) and the Wisconsin card sort test. Mobility was assessed using the timed 8-foot up and go test and times to climb up and down a flight of stairs. Participants completed the cognitive tests at baseline and the mobility measures at baseline and after 12 months of the intervention. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether baseline executive function predicted postintervention functional performance after controlling for age, sex, education, cardiorespiratory fitness, and baseline mobility levels. Selective baseline executive function measurements, particularly performance on the flanker task (β = 0.15-0.17) and the Wisconsin card sort test (β = 0.11-0.16) consistently predicted mobility outcomes at 12 months. The estimates were in the expected direction, such that better baseline performance on the executive function measures predicted better performance on the timed mobility tests independent of intervention. Executive functions of inhibitory control, mental set shifting, and attentional flexibility were predictive of functional mobility. Given the literature associating mobility limitations with disability, morbidity, and mortality, these results are important for understanding the antecedents to poor mobility function that well-designed interventions to improve cognitive performance can attenuate. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Commentary on "Radiofrequency ablation of incidental benign small renal mass: outcomes and follow-up protocol." Tan YK, Best SL, Olweny E, Park S, Trimmer C, Cadeddu JA, Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas, TX.

    PubMed

    Meng, Maxwell V

    2013-01-01

    To review our 10-year experience with radiofrequency ablation, focusing on the outcomes for the incidental benign renal tumor. Tumor ablation is an alternative, minimally invasive approach for the treatment of small renal masses (SRMs), with published series appropriately emphasizing the outcomes for the renal cell carcinoma subset of treated tumors. However, similar to partial nephrectomy, approximately 20% of the SRMs are benign. The intermediate to long-term outcome of the incidentally ablated benign tumor and its appropriate follow-up protocol are unknown. All SRMs treated with temperature-based radiofrequency ablation from 2001 to 2011 were reviewed. Of a total of 280 enhancing SRMs biopsied at radiofrequency ablation, 47 were confirmed as benign tumors. Ablation success was defined as the lack of enhancement on the initial postablation axial imaging. Recurrence was defined as tumor growth and enhancement on follow-up axial imaging. Of the 47 benign tumors, 32 were treated percutaneously and 15 laparoscopically. The histologic biopsy finding was angiomyolipoma in 10 and oncocytoma in 37. The median tumor size was 2cm (range 1-3.6), and the mean follow-up was 45 months. No recurrences developed, and all lesions required only 1 treatment session. The median preoperative and postoperative glomerular filtration rate was 77ml/min/1.73m(2) (range 39-137) and 68ml/min/1.73m(2) (range 36-137). The present study was limited by its retrospective nature and small sample population. Radiofrequency ablation of SRMs<3.5cm, found to be benign on concurrent biopsy, can be efficaciously treated with a single treatment session. Long-term follow-up imaging might not be required if successful ablation is determined at the initial post-treatment cross-sectional imaging study. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Module-based outcome prediction using breast cancer compendia.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Martin H; Klijn, Christiaan N; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2007-10-17

    The availability of large collections of microarray datasets (compendia), or knowledge about grouping of genes into pathways (gene sets), is typically not exploited when training predictors of disease outcome. These can be useful since a compendium increases the number of samples, while gene sets reduce the size of the feature space. This should be favorable from a machine learning perspective and result in more robust predictors. We extracted modules of regulated genes from gene sets, and compendia. Through supervised analysis, we constructed predictors which employ modules predictive of breast cancer outcome. To validate these predictors we applied them to independent data, from the same institution (intra-dataset), and other institutions (inter-dataset). We show that modules derived from single breast cancer datasets achieve better performance on the validation data compared to gene-based predictors. We also show that there is a trend in compendium specificity and predictive performance: modules derived from a single breast cancer dataset, and a breast cancer specific compendium perform better compared to those derived from a human cancer compendium. Additionally, the module-based predictor provides a much richer insight into the underlying biology. Frequently selected gene sets are associated with processes such as cell cycle, E2F regulation, DNA damage response, proteasome and glycolysis. We analyzed two modules related to cell cycle, and the OCT1 transcription factor, respectively. On an individual basis, these modules provide a significant separation in survival subgroups on the training and independent validation data.

  7. Pediatric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Predicting successful outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Sean; Shukla, Aseem R.

    2010-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is currently a first-line procedure of most upper urinary tract stones <2 cm of size because of established success rates, its minimal invasiveness and long-term safety with minimal complications. Given that alternative surgical and endourological options exist for the management of stone disease and that ESWL failure often results in the need for repeat ESWL or secondary procedures, it is highly desirable to identify variables predicting successful outcomes of ESWL in the pediatric population. Despite numerous reports and growing experience, few prospective studies and guidelines for pediatric ESWL have been completed. Variation in the methods by which study parameters are measured and reported can make it difficult to compare individual studies or make definitive recommendations. There is ongoing work and a need for continuing improvement of imaging protocols in children with renal colic, with a current focus on minimizing exposure to ionizing radiation, perhaps utilizing advancements in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. This report provides a review of the current literature evaluating the patient attributes and stone factors that may be predictive of successful ESWL outcomes along with reviewing the role of pre-operative imaging and considerations for patient safety. PMID:21369388

  8. Relatively random: context effects on perceived randomness and predicted outcomes.

    PubMed

    Matthews, William J

    2013-09-01

    This article concerns the effect of context on people's judgments about sequences of chance outcomes. In Experiment 1, participants judged whether sequences were produced by random, mechanical processes (such as a roulette wheel) or skilled human action (such as basketball shots). Sequences with lower alternation rates were judged more likely to result from human action. However, this effect was highly context-dependent: A moderate alternation rate was judged more likely to indicate a random physical process when encountered among sequences with lower alternation rates than when embedded among sequences with higher alternation rates. Experiment 2 found the same effect for predictions of the next outcome following a streak: A streak of 3 at the end of the sequence was judged less likely to continue by participants who had encountered shorter terminal streaks in previous trials than by those who had encountered longer ones. These contrast effects (a) help to explain variability in the types of sequences that are judged to be random and that elicit the gambler's fallacy, and urge caution about attempts to establish universal parameterizations of these effects; (b) are congruent with theories of sequence judgment that emphasize the importance of people's actual experiences with sequences of different kinds; (c) provide a link between models of sequence judgment and broader accounts of psychophysical/economic judgment; and (d) may offer new insight into individual differences in randomness judgments and sequence predictions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Approaches to Predicting Outcomes in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Saly, Danielle; Yang, Alina; Triebwasser, Corey; Oh, Janice; Sun, Qisi; Testani, Jeffrey; Parikh, Chirag R.; Bia, Joshua; Biswas, Aditya; Stetson, Chess; Chaisanguanthum, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Despite recognition that Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) leads to substantial increases in morbidity, mortality, and length of stay, accurate prognostication of these clinical events remains difficult. It remains unclear which approaches to variable selection and model building are most robust. We used data from a randomized trial of AKI alerting to develop time-updated prognostic models using stepwise regression compared to more advanced variable selection techniques. We randomly split data into training and validation cohorts. Outcomes of interest were death within 7 days, dialysis within 7 days, and length of stay. Data elements eligible for model-building included lab values, medications and dosages, procedures, and demographics. We assessed model discrimination using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve and r-squared values. 2241 individuals were available for analysis. Both modeling techniques created viable models with very good discrimination ability, with AUCs exceeding 0.85 for dialysis and 0.8 for death prediction. Model performance was similar across model building strategies, though the strategy employing more advanced variable selection was more parsimonious. Very good to excellent prediction of outcome events is feasible in patients with AKI. More advanced techniques may lead to more parsimonious models, which may facilitate adoption in other settings. PMID:28122032

  10. Pediatric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Predicting successful outcomes.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Sean; Shukla, Aseem R

    2010-10-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is currently a first-line procedure of most upper urinary tract stones <2 cm of size because of established success rates, its minimal invasiveness and long-term safety with minimal complications. Given that alternative surgical and endourological options exist for the management of stone disease and that ESWL failure often results in the need for repeat ESWL or secondary procedures, it is highly desirable to identify variables predicting successful outcomes of ESWL in the pediatric population. Despite numerous reports and growing experience, few prospective studies and guidelines for pediatric ESWL have been completed. Variation in the methods by which study parameters are measured and reported can make it difficult to compare individual studies or make definitive recommendations. There is ongoing work and a need for continuing improvement of imaging protocols in children with renal colic, with a current focus on minimizing exposure to ionizing radiation, perhaps utilizing advancements in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. This report provides a review of the current literature evaluating the patient attributes and stone factors that may be predictive of successful ESWL outcomes along with reviewing the role of pre-operative imaging and considerations for patient safety.

  11. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects.

  12. Predicting academic outcomes in an Australian graduate entry medical programme

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predictive validity studies for selection criteria into graduate entry courses in Australia have been inconsistent in their outcomes. One of the reasons for this inconsistency may have been failure to have adequately considered background disciplines of the graduates as well as other potential confounding socio-demographic variables that may influence academic performance. Methods Graduate entrants into the MBBS at The University of Western Australia between 2005 and 2012 were studied (N = 421). They undertook a 6-month bridging course, before joining the undergraduate-entry students for Years 3 through 6 of the medical course. Students were selected using their undergraduate Grade Point Average (GPA), Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test scores (GAMSAT) and a score from a standardised interview. Students could apply from any background discipline and could also be selected through an alternative rural entry pathway again utilising these 3 entry scores. Entry scores, together with age, gender, discipline background, rural entry status and a socioeconomic indicator were entered into linear regression models to determine the relative influence of each predictor on subsequent academic performance in the course. Results Background discipline, age, gender and selection through the rural pathway were variously related to each of the 3 entry criteria. Their subsequent inclusion in linear regression models identified GPA at entry, being from a health/allied health background and total GAMSAT score as consistent independent predictors of stronger academic performance as measured by the weighted average mark for the core units completed throughout the course. The Interview score only weakly predicted performance later in the course and mainly in clinically-based units. The association of total GAMSAT score with academic performance was predominantly dictated by the score in GAMSAT Section 3 (Reasoning in the biological and physical sciences) with

  13. Predicting academic outcomes in an Australian graduate entry medical programme.

    PubMed

    Puddey, Ian B; Mercer, Annette

    2014-02-15

    Predictive validity studies for selection criteria into graduate entry courses in Australia have been inconsistent in their outcomes. One of the reasons for this inconsistency may have been failure to have adequately considered background disciplines of the graduates as well as other potential confounding socio-demographic variables that may influence academic performance. Graduate entrants into the MBBS at The University of Western Australia between 2005 and 2012 were studied (N = 421). They undertook a 6-month bridging course, before joining the undergraduate-entry students for Years 3 through 6 of the medical course. Students were selected using their undergraduate Grade Point Average (GPA), Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test scores (GAMSAT) and a score from a standardised interview. Students could apply from any background discipline and could also be selected through an alternative rural entry pathway again utilising these 3 entry scores. Entry scores, together with age, gender, discipline background, rural entry status and a socioeconomic indicator were entered into linear regression models to determine the relative influence of each predictor on subsequent academic performance in the course. Background discipline, age, gender and selection through the rural pathway were variously related to each of the 3 entry criteria. Their subsequent inclusion in linear regression models identified GPA at entry, being from a health/allied health background and total GAMSAT score as consistent independent predictors of stronger academic performance as measured by the weighted average mark for the core units completed throughout the course. The Interview score only weakly predicted performance later in the course and mainly in clinically-based units. The association of total GAMSAT score with academic performance was predominantly dictated by the score in GAMSAT Section 3 (Reasoning in the biological and physical sciences) with Section 1 (Reasoning in the

  14. Predicting the Probable Outcome of Treatment in HCV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Kemmer, Nyingi

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease infecting more than 170 million people worldwide. HCV produces a wide gamut of manifestations varying from mild self-limiting disease to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A variety of viral, environmental and host genetic factors contribute to the clinical spectrum of patients infected with HCV and influence response to interferon (IFN) therapy. Predicting the probable outcome of treatment in patients with HCV infection has always been a challenging task. Treatment of HCV by pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) plus ribavirin eradicates the virus in approximately 60% of patients — HCV genotype 1 (42—51% response rates) and genotypes 2 and 3 (76—84% response rates); however, a significant number of patients do not respond to therapy or relapse following discontinuation of treatment or have significant side effects that preclude further treatment. Accurately predicting the patients who will respond to therapy is becoming increasingly important, both from the point of patient care and also with respect to the healthcare cost as clinicians need to continue treatment in patients who will respond and stop treatment in patients who are unlikely to respond. Viral RNA measurements and genotyping are used to optimize treatment as a low viral load and nongenotype 1 is more likely to be associated with sustained virological response (SVR). Rapid virological response (RVR) defined by undetectable HCV RNA at 4 weeks of treatment is increasingly being recognized as a powerful tool for predicting treatment response. A variety of host factors including single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) of IFN response genes, insulin resistance, obesity, ethnicity, human leukocyte antigens and difference in T-cell immune response has been found to modulate the response to antiviral treatment. The presence of severe fibrosis/cirrhosis on pretreatment liver biopsy predicts a poor response to treatment. Recent studies on gene

  15. Prediction of functional rehabilitation outcomes in clients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Man, David Wai-Kwong; Tam, Sing Fai; Hui-Chan, Christina

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the validity of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE or Cognistat) and to determine its effects in order to estimate the functional outcomes of survivors with stroke. The present study first studied the factor structure NCSE in 148 Chinese survivors with stroke (aged 45-91 years). They were admitted to hospital consecutively and recruited prospectively. The relationship of NCSE with Functional Independence Measures (FIM), a set of measures commonly adopted as an indicator of the outcome of rehabilitation, was studied. One hundred and forty-eight patients with stroke (49.3% male, 50.7% female), with a mean age of 70.38 and an average number of years of education of 3.50 years joined the study. A two-factor NCSE structure was obtained, namely verbal-spatial and integrated cognition, accounting for 62.77% of the variance. A significant relationship between NCSE factors and the functional status of clients with stroke on admission and upon discharge, as well as age, years of education and length of hospital stay were indicated. This study supports a systematic relationship between cognitive factors and functional outcome in Chinese patients with stroke. Similarities and differences in the NCSE factor structure between the population with stroke and general neurological populations were discussed and the utility of NCSE in stroke rehabilitation, such as its predictive validity in functional independence is suggested.

  16. Early prediction of tumor recurrence based on CT texture changes after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mattonen, Sarah A; Palma, David A; Haasbeek, Cornelis J A; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D

    2014-03-01

    Benign computed tomography (CT) changes due to radiation induced lung injury (RILI) are common following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and can be difficult to differentiate from tumor recurrence. The authors measured the ability of CT image texture analysis, compared to more traditional measures of response, to predict eventual cancer recurrence based on CT images acquired within 5 months of treatment. A total of 24 lesions from 22 patients treated with SABR were selected for this study: 13 with moderate to severe benign RILI, and 11 with recurrence. Three-dimensional (3D) consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) changes were manually delineated on all follow-up CT scans. Two size measures of the consolidation regions (longest axial diameter and 3D volume) and nine appearance features of the GGO were calculated: 2 first-order features [mean density and standard deviation of density (first-order texture)], and 7 second-order texture features [energy, entropy, correlation, inverse difference moment (IDM), inertia, cluster shade, and cluster prominence]. For comparison, the corresponding response evaluation criteria in solid tumors measures were also taken for the consolidation regions. Prediction accuracy was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and two-fold cross validation (CV). For this analysis, 46 diagnostic CT scans scheduled for approximately 3 and 6 months post-treatment were binned based on their recorded scan dates into 2-5 month and 5-8 month follow-up time ranges. At 2-5 months post-treatment, first-order texture, energy, and entropy provided AUCs of 0.79-0.81 using a linear classifier. On two-fold CV, first-order texture yielded 73% accuracy versus 76%-77% with the second-order features. The size measures of the consolidative region, longest axial diameter and 3D volume, gave two-fold CV accuracies of 60% and 57%, and AUCs of 0.72 and 0.65, respectively. Texture measures of the GGO appearance

  17. Predicting neurosurgical outcomes in focal epilepsy patients using computational modelling

    PubMed Central

    Dauwels, Justin; Kaiser, Marcus; Cash, Sydney S.; Brandon Westover, M.; Wang, Yujiang

    2017-01-01

    See Eissa and Schevon (doi:10.1093/aww332) for a scientific commentary on this article. Surgery can be a last resort for patients with intractable, medically refractory epilepsy. For many of these patients, however, there is substantial risk that the surgery will be ineffective. The prediction of who is likely to benefit from a surgical approach is crucial for being able to inform patients better, conduct principled prospective clinical trials, and ultimately tailor therapeutic approaches to these patients more effectively. Dynamical computational models, informed with patient data, can be used to make predictions and give mechanistic insight. In this study, we develop patient-specific dynamical network models of epileptogenic cortex. We infer the network connectivity matrix from non-seizure electrographic recordings of patients and use these connectivity matrices as the network structure in our model. The model simulates the dynamics of a bi-stable switch at every node in this network, meaning that every node starts in a background state, but has the ability to transit to a co-existing seizure state. Whether a transition happens in a node is partly determined by the stochastic nature of the input to the node, but also by the input the node receives from other connected nodes in the network. By conducting simulations with such a model, we can detect the average transition time for nodes in a given network, and therefore define nodes with a short transition time as highly epileptogenic. In a retrospective study, we found that in some patients the regions with high epileptogenicity in the model overlap with those identified clinically as the seizure onset zone. Moreover, it was found that the resection of these regions in the model reduces the overall likelihood of a seizure. Following removal of these regions in the model, we predicted surgical outcomes and compared these to actual patient outcomes. Our predictions were found to be 81.3% accurate on a dataset of 16

  18. Predicting neurosurgical outcomes in focal epilepsy patients using computational modelling.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Nishant; Dauwels, Justin; Kaiser, Marcus; Cash, Sydney S; Brandon Westover, M; Wang, Yujiang; Taylor, Peter N

    2017-02-01

    SEE EISSA AND SCHEVON DOI101093/AWW332 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Surgery can be a last resort for patients with intractable, medically refractory epilepsy. For many of these patients, however, there is substantial risk that the surgery will be ineffective. The prediction of who is likely to benefit from a surgical approach is crucial for being able to inform patients better, conduct principled prospective clinical trials, and ultimately tailor therapeutic approaches to these patients more effectively. Dynamical computational models, informed with patient data, can be used to make predictions and give mechanistic insight. In this study, we develop patient-specific dynamical network models of epileptogenic cortex. We infer the network connectivity matrix from non-seizure electrographic recordings of patients and use these connectivity matrices as the network structure in our model. The model simulates the dynamics of a bi-stable switch at every node in this network, meaning that every node starts in a background state, but has the ability to transit to a co-existing seizure state. Whether a transition happens in a node is partly determined by the stochastic nature of the input to the node, but also by the input the node receives from other connected nodes in the network. By conducting simulations with such a model, we can detect the average transition time for nodes in a given network, and therefore define nodes with a short transition time as highly epileptogenic. In a retrospective study, we found that in some patients the regions with high epileptogenicity in the model overlap with those identified clinically as the seizure onset zone. Moreover, it was found that the resection of these regions in the model reduces the overall likelihood of a seizure. Following removal of these regions in the model, we predicted surgical outcomes and compared these to actual patient outcomes. Our predictions were found to be 81.3% accurate on a dataset of 16

  19. Outcome of radiofrequency ablation over partial nephrectomy for small renal mass (<4 cm): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Chen, Shouzhen; Chen, Fan; Zhu, Kejia; Deng, Qiming; Luo, Li; Shi, Benkang

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was undertaken to provide evidence-based clinical trials comparing radiofrequency ablation with partial nephrectomy for small renal mass. We searched through the major medical databases such as Pub Med, EMBASE, Medline, Science Citation Index, Web of Science and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database) and Wangfang (Database of Chinese Ministry of Science & Technology) for all published studies without any limit on language from May 2007 until May 2015. The following search terms wereused: partial nephrectomy, radiofrequency ablation, renal cell carcinoma, small renal tumor or mass. Furthermore, additional related studies were manually searched in the reference lists of all published reviews and retrieved articles. We found there were no statistical differences between groups in 5y-DFS, recurrence rates, complications, but a less percentage decease rate of GFR than PN, and RFA may be a better application for SRM (<4 cm).

  20. Gender identity outcome in female-raised 46,XY persons with penile agenesis, cloacal exstrophy of the bladder, or penile ablation.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L

    2005-08-01

    This review addresses the long-term gender outcome of gender assignment of persons with intersexuality and related conditions. The gender assignment to female of 46,XY newborns with severe genital abnormalities despite a presumably normal-male prenatal sex-hormone milieu is highly controversial because of variations in assumptions about the role of biological factors in gender identity formation. This article presents a literature review of gender outcome in three pertinent conditions (penile agenesis, cloacal exstrophy of the bladder, and penile ablation) in infancy or early childhood. The findings clearly indicate an increased risk of later patient-initiated gender re-assignment to male after female assignment in infancy or early childhood, but are nevertheless incompatible with the notion of a full determination of core gender identity by prenatal androgens.

  1. Predicting outcomes in partial nephrectomy: is the renal score useful?

    PubMed Central

    Matos, André Costa; Dall´Oglio, Marcos F.; Colombo, José Roberto; Crippa, Alexandre; Juveniz, João A. Q.; Argolo, Felipe Coelho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction and Objective The R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry system (RNS) has been validated in multiple open, laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy series. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry system in predicting perioperative outcomes in surgical treatment of kidney tumors <7.0cm in a prospective model. Materials and Methods Seventy-one patients were selected and included in this prospective study. We evaluate the accuracy of RNS in predicting perioperative outcomes (WIT, OT, EBL, LOS, conversion, complications and surgical margins) in partial nephrectomy using ROC curves, univariate and multivariate analyses. R.E.N.A.L. was divided in 3 groups: low complexity (LC), medium complexity (MC) and high complexity (HC). Results No patients in LC group had WIT >20 min, versus 41.4% and 64.3% MC and HC groups respectively (p=0.03); AUC=0.643 (p=0.07). RNS was associated with convertion rate (LC:28.6% ; MC:47.6%; HC:77.3%, p=0.02). Patients with RNS <8 were most often subjected to partial nephrectomy (93% x 72%, p=0.03) and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (56.8% x 28%, p=0.02), AUC=0.715 (p=0.002). The RNS was also associated with operative time. Patients with a score >8 had 6.06 times greater chance of having a surgery duration >180 min. (p=0.017), AUC=0.63 (p=0.059). R.E.N.A.L. score did not correlate with EBL, complications (Clavien >3), LOS or positive surgical margin. Conclusion R.E.N.A.L. score was a good method in predicting surgical access route and type of nephrectomy. Also was associated with OT and WIT, but with weak accuracy. Although, RNS was not associated with Clavien >3, EBL, LOS or positive surgical margin. PMID:28266814

  2. Predicting outcomes in partial nephrectomy: is the renal score useful?

    PubMed

    Matos, André Costa; Dall'Oglio, Marcos F; Colombo, José Roberto; Crippa, Alexandre; Juveniz, João A Q; Argolo, Felipe Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry system (RNS) has been validated in multiple open, laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy series. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry system in predicting perioperative outcomes in surgical treatment of kidney tumors <7.0cm in a prospective model. Seventy-one patients were selected and included in this prospective study. We evaluate the accuracy of RNS in predicting perioperative outcomes (WIT, OT, EBL, LOS, conversion, complications and surgical margins) in partial nephrectomy using ROC curves, univariate and multivariate analyses. R.E.N.A.L. was divided in 3 groups: low complexity (LC), medium complexity (MC) and high complexity (HC). No patients in LC group had WIT >20 min, versus 41.4% and 64.3% MC and HC groups respectively (p=0.03); AUC=0.643 (p=0.07). RNS was associated with convertion rate (LC:28.6% ; MC:47.6%; HC:77.3%, p=0.02). Patients with RNS <8 were most often subjected to partial nephrectomy (93% x 72%, p=0.03) and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (56.8% x 28%, p=0.02), AUC=0.715 (p=0.002). The RNS was also associated with operative time. Patients with a score >8 had 6.06 times greater chance of having a surgery duration >180 min. (p=0.017), AUC=0.63 (p=0.059). R.E.N.A.L. score did not correlate with EBL, complications (Clavien >3), LOS or positive surgical margin. R.E.N.A.L. score was a good method in predicting surgical access route and type of nephrectomy. Also was associated with OT and WIT, but with weak accuracy. Although, RNS was not associated with Clavien >3, EBL, LOS or positive surgical margin. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  3. Predicting outcome of procedures to slow intestinal transit.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J S; Sudan, D A; Gilroy, R

    2006-01-01

    Procedures designed to slow intestinal transit in patients with the short-bowel syndrome (SBS) have unpredictable outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome and predictive factors for this complication in SBS patients. Ten patients (37-61 years) underwent reversed segment (n = 9) or nipple valve creation (n = 1). All patients had remnant lengths over 90 cm and rapid intestinal transit times. All subjects had benign diseases, including Crohn's (n = 3). Six patients had a colon remnant. SBS had been present for 8 to 150 months. Nine (90%) required parental nutrition (PN) preoperatively. A procedure was performed either alone (n = 5) or concurrently with an ostomy closure (n = 3), an ostomy revision (n = 1), or a fundoplication (n = 1). There was one postoperative complication (urinary tract infection) and no deaths. Two patients developed bacterial overgrowth. One required repair of an ileocolonic stricture. One reversed segment was taken down 12 months later. Five (50%) patients improved (off PN), five remained on PN or had persistent diarrhea. Patients with a successful outcome were more likely to have had ostomy takedown (60% vs 0%). The duration of SBS; presence of Crohn's disease, a colon remnant, or type 1 anatomy; and the transit times were similar in both groups. Adjusted remnant length (small intestine +30 cm for type 2 anatomy and +60 cm for type 3) was similar (136 +/- 20 vs 154 +/- 25 cm). Procedures may benefit half of selected SBS patients with adequate remnant length and rapid transit. Successful patients are more likely to have an ostomy takedown, but the outcome is less determined by transit time or intestinal length if over 90 cm.

  4. Outcome of unintended pregnancy after ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Qin, Juan; Chen, Jin-Yun; Zhao, Wen-Peng; Hu, Liang; Chen, Wen-Zhi; Wang, Zhi-Biao

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the safety of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids among women with unintentional pregnancy within 1 year of therapy. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 435 women who underwent USgHIFU therapy at Chongqing Medical University, China, between October 1, 2006, and October 1, 2009. Unplanned pregnancy was reported by 24 women within 1 year of USgHIFU ablation; 8 of these women had desired pregnancy before undergoing treatment. A total of 27 fibroids were detected, 24 of which were treated (mean volume 65.9±58.8 cm(3)). Pregnancy was continued by 7 women without any complications. One pregnant woman who had desired pregnancy before therapy underwent an induced abortion owing to concerns about the effects of USgHIFU on the fetus. Fourteen women without pregnancy intention before USgHIFU therapy chose to undergo induced abortion; 2 women experienced spontaneous abortion. No adhesion occurred after USgHIFU therapy. Furthermore, USgHIFU, labor, and abortion had no effect on subsequent menstruation or sexual activities. Pregnancy within 1 year after USgHIFU ablation of uterine fibroids appears safe; however, large scale studies are required to confirm these data. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of preprocedural monocyte-to-high-density lipoprotein ratio in prediction of atrial fibrillation recurrence after cryoballoon-based catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Canpolat, Uğur; Aytemir, Kudret; Yorgun, Hikmet; Şahiner, Levent; Kaya, Ergün Barış; Çay, Serkan; Topaloğlu, Serkan; Aras, Dursun; Oto, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies evidenced that increased monocyte count or activity and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were associated with more prevalent atrial fibrillation (AF) which attributed to pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant effects. Monocyte-to-HDL ratio (M/H ratio) is a recently emerged indicator of inflammation and oxidative stress which have been only studied in patients with chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of M/H ratio on AF recurrence after cryoballoon-based catheter ablation. A total of 402 patients (43.5% female, age 53.5 ± 10.9 years, and 80.8% paroxysmal AF) with symptomatic AF underwent initial cryoablation procedure. Patients were categorized into quartiles on the basis of their pre-procedural M/H ratio. Post-ablation blanking period was observed for 3 months. At a mean follow-up of 20.6 ± 6.0 months, 95 patients (23.6%) had developed AF recurrence. Atrial fibrillation recurrence rates from the lowest to the highest M/H ratio quartiles were 7.4, 7.4, 16.8, and 68.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the preablation M/H ratio (HR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.15-1.25, P < 0.001), left atrial diameter, duration of AF history, and early AF recurrence were independent predictors of AF recurrence. Using a cut-off level of 11.48, the pre-ablation M/H ratio predicted AF recurrence during follow-up with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 74%. Elevated pre-ablation M/H ratio was associated with an increased recurrence of AF after cryoballoon-based catheter ablation. Our results support the role of pre-ablation pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant environment in AF recurrence after ablation therapy but suggest that other factors are also important. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Long-Term Outcomes of Salvage Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Isolated Lung Recurrence of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase II Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Brooks, Eric D; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Jeter, Melenda; McAleer, Mary; Balter, Peter A; Welsh, James D; O'Reilly, Michael; Gomez, Daniel; Hahn, Stephen M; Sepesi, Boris; Rice, David C; Heymach, John V; Chang, Joe Y

    2017-06-01

    Our goal was to evaluate stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) as a salvage option for isolated recurrence of NSCLC in the lung parenchyma after definitive treatment of stage I to III disease. Patients who had histologically confirmed, positron emission tomography-staged, isolated NSCLC recurring locally or metastasis in the lung parenchyma (≤3 cm, suitable for SABR) after previous definitive treatment were prospectively enrolled in this trial and treated with volumetric, image-guided SABR to 50 Gy in four fractions. Patients were then followed with computed tomography or positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Primary end points included the pattern of failure after salvage SABR, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-nine patients with recurrent disease were treated with salvage SABR. The median age was 70 years (range 45-86 years), and the median follow-up time after salvage SABR was 58.3 months. Re-recurrence after salvage SABR developed in 19 patients (32%). Measuring from the date of salvage SABR, the estimated 5-year rates of local, regional, and distant failure were 5.2%, 10.3%, and 22.4%, respectively; the estimated PFS was 46.2% at 3 years and 41.1% at 5 years; and the OS rates were 63.5% at 3 years and 56.5% at 5 years. A high post-SABR neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was found to predict poor survival. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events developed in three patients (5%). No patient had a grade 4 or 5 event. Our study showed that salvage SABR provides excellent 5-year OS, local control, and PFS rates with minimal toxicity for patients with isolated NSCLC recurrence in the lung parenchyma. These results are striking and comparable to historically reported outcomes of patients with primary early-stage NSCLC treated with definitive SABR. SABR appears to be a very effective and safe salvage option for patients with isolated lung parenchyma recurrent disease after definitive treatment and should be considered

  7. Predicting Presidential Election Outcomes from What People Watch.

    PubMed

    Barfar, Arash; Padmanabhan, Balaji

    2017-03-01

    In a recent article by Barfar and Padmanabhan (2015), we demonstrated how television viewership data could predict presidential election outcomes in the United States. In this article, we examine predictive models using a snapshot of Nielsen's national data on television viewership. The study is conducted with high-dimensional low sample size (HDLSS) data, whereby we conduct a comparative analysis with and without feature reduction on the data from the 2012 elections. We find that simple "single-show models" often provided more insights and predictive accuracies than models from feature reduction. Second, beyond the state and county levels of analysis, we show that the results continue to hold at the designated market area (DMA) level, crucial for television broadcasting because programs are often targeted at the DMA level. Finally, we examine the performance of the single-show models in the 2016 election season by applying them to the viewership information during the U.S. presidential primaries. We discuss implications of our findings for research and practice.

  8. Machine learning landscapes and predictions for patient outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ritankar; Wales, David J.

    2017-07-01

    The theory and computational tools developed to interpret and explore energy landscapes in molecular science are applied to the landscapes defined by local minima for neural networks. These machine learning landscapes correspond to fits of training data, where the inputs are vital signs and laboratory measurements for a database of patients, and the objective is to predict a clinical outcome. In this contribution, we test the predictions obtained by fitting to single measurements, and then to combinations of between 2 and 10 different patient medical data items. The effect of including measurements over different time intervals from the 48 h period in question is analysed, and the most recent values are found to be the most important. We also compare results obtained for neural networks as a function of the number of hidden nodes, and for different values of a regularization parameter. The predictions are compared with an alternative convex fitting function, and a strong correlation is observed. The dependence of these results on the patients randomly selected for training and testing decreases systematically with the size of the database available. The machine learning landscapes defined by neural network fits in this investigation have single-funnel character, which probably explains why it is relatively straightforward to obtain the global minimum solution, or a fit that behaves similarly to this optimal parameterization.

  9. Machine learning landscapes and predictions for patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Das, Ritankar; Wales, David J

    2017-07-01

    The theory and computational tools developed to interpret and explore energy landscapes in molecular science are applied to the landscapes defined by local minima for neural networks. These machine learning landscapes correspond to fits of training data, where the inputs are vital signs and laboratory measurements for a database of patients, and the objective is to predict a clinical outcome. In this contribution, we test the predictions obtained by fitting to single measurements, and then to combinations of between 2 and 10 different patient medical data items. The effect of including measurements over different time intervals from the 48 h period in question is analysed, and the most recent values are found to be the most important. We also compare results obtained for neural networks as a function of the number of hidden nodes, and for different values of a regularization parameter. The predictions are compared with an alternative convex fitting function, and a strong correlation is observed. The dependence of these results on the patients randomly selected for training and testing decreases systematically with the size of the database available. The machine learning landscapes defined by neural network fits in this investigation have single-funnel character, which probably explains why it is relatively straightforward to obtain the global minimum solution, or a fit that behaves similarly to this optimal parameterization.

  10. Anaemia to predict outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ennezat, Pierre Vladimir; Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Pinçon, Claire; Finzi, Jonathan; Barrailler, Stéphanie; Bouabdallaoui, Nadia; Van Belle, Eric; Montalescot, Gilles; Collet, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the heterogeneous population of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), risk stratification with tools such as the GRACE risk score is recommended to guide therapeutic management and improve outcome. To evaluate whether anaemia refines the value of the GRACE risk model to predict midterm outcome after an ACS. A prospective registry of 1064 ACS patients (63 ± 14 years; 73% men; 57% ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [MI]) was studied. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin less than 13 mg/dL in men or less than 12 mg/dL in women. The primary endpoint was 6-month death or rehospitalization for MI. The primary endpoint was reached in 132 patients, including 68 deaths. Anaemia was associated with adverse clinical outcomes (hazard ratio 3.008, 95% confidence interval 2.137-4.234; P<0.0001) in univariate analysis and remained independently associated with outcome after adjustment for the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score (hazard ratio 2.870, 95% confidence interval 1.815-4.538; P<0.0001). Anaemia provided additional prognostic information to the GRACE score as demonstrated by a systematic improvement in global model fit and discrimination (c-statistic increasing from 0.633 [0.571;0.696] to 0.697 [0.638;0.755]). Subsequently, adding anaemia to the GRACE score led to reclassification of 595 patients into different risk categories; 16.5% patients at low risk (≤ 5% risk of death or rehospitalization for MI) were upgraded to intermediate (>5-10%) or high risk (>10%); 79.5% patients at intermediate risk were reclassified as low (55%) or high risk (24%); and 45.5% patients at high risk were downgraded to intermediate risk. Overall, 174 patients were reclassified into a higher risk category (17.3%) and 421 into a lower risk category (41.9%). Anaemia provides independent additional prognostic information to the GRACE score. Combining anaemia with the GRACE score refines its predictive value, which often overestimates the risk

  11. The role of prediction and outcomes in adaptive cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Waszak, Florian; Yeung, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Humans adaptively perform actions to achieve their goals. This flexible behaviour requires two core abilities: the ability to anticipate the outcomes of candidate actions and the ability to select and implement actions in a goal-directed manner. The ability to predict outcomes has been extensively researched in reinforcement learning paradigms, but this work has often focused on simple actions that are not embedded in hierarchical and sequential structures that are characteristic of goal-directed human behaviour. On the other hand, the ability to select actions in accordance with high-level task goals, particularly in the presence of alternative responses and salient distractors, has been widely researched in cognitive control paradigms. Cognitive control research, however, has often paid less attention to the role of action outcomes. The present review attempts to bridge these accounts by proposing an outcome-guided mechanism for selection of extended actions. Our proposal builds on constructs from the hierarchical reinforcement learning literature, which emphasises the concept of reaching and evaluating informative states, i.e., states that constitute subgoals in complex actions. We develop an account of the neural mechanisms that allow outcome-guided action selection to be achieved in a network that relies on projections from cortical areas to the basal ganglia and back-projections from the basal ganglia to the cortex. These cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical 'loops' allow convergence - and thus integration - of information from non-adjacent cortical areas (for example between sensory and motor representations). This integration is essential in action sequences, for which achieving an anticipated sensory state signals the successful completion of an action. We further describe how projection pathways within the basal ganglia allow selection between representations, which may pertain to movements, actions, or extended action plans. The model lastly envisages

  12. Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Erin C; Wormington, Stephanie V; Oleson, Kathryn C; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2017-03-01

    Productive procrastination replaces one adaptive behavior with another adaptive-albeit less important-behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). We identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in 1106 college undergraduates. Cluster analysis identified five academic procrastination styles-non-procrastinators, academic productive procrastinators, non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators, and classic procrastinators. Procrastination style differentially predicted alcohol-related problems, cravings, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps < .01). Non-procrastination and academic productive procrastination were most adaptive overall; non-academic productive procrastination, non-academic procrastination, and classic procrastination were least adaptive. Productive procrastination differed from other procrastination strategies, and maladaptive procrastination styles may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts.

  13. Factors predicting applicant outcomes in occupational therapy education.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Rosemary; Donnelly, Catherine; Villeneuve, Michelle

    2009-02-01

    Student selection for health science programs is a complex process designed to identify individuals who are most likely to succeed academically and professionally. There is limited evidence supporting specific admission criteria beyond the pre-admission GPA, and no strong evidence substantiating the need for specific academic prerequisites. This study examined the predictive value of selected pre-admissions criteria relative to student outcomes in a master of occupational therapy program. The study involved analysis of data for 129 students admitted to a new master in occupational therapy program. Results show strong support for the pre-admission academic average as a selection criterion and limited support for referee ratings. No evidence was found linking pre-admission coursework to subsequent performance in courses of similar content. Results provide evidence upon which to ground admissions decisions, and point to the need for further examination of the value of extensive pre-admission course requirements.

  14. Catheter Ablation for Ventricular Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Nof, Eyal; Stevenson, William G; John, Roy M

    2013-01-01

    Catheter ablation has emerged as an important and effective treatment option for many recurrent ventricular arrhythmias. The approach to ablation and the risks and outcomes are largely determined by the nature of the severity and type of underlying heart disease. In patients with structural heart disease, catheter ablation can effectively reduce ventricular tachycardia (VT) episodes and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks. For VT and symptomatic premature ventricular beats that occur in the absence of structural heart disease, catheter ablation is often effective as the sole therapy. Advances in catheter technology, imaging and mapping techniques have improved success rates for ablation. This review discusses current approaches to mapping and ablation for ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:26835040

  15. Post-surgical thyroid ablation with low or high radioiodine activities results in similar outcomes in intermediate risk differentiated thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Maria Grazia; Cevenini, Gabriele; Theodoropoulou, Alexandra; Maino, Fabio; Memmo, Silvia; Claudia, Cipri; Belardini, Valentina; Brianzoni, Ernesto; Pacini, Furio

    2013-07-01

    In differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients at intermediate risk of recurrences, no evidences are provided regarding the optimal radioactive iodine (RAI) activity to be administered for post-surgical thyroid ablation. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of RAI activities on the outcome of 225 DTC patients classified as intermediate risk, treated with low (1110-1850  MBq) or high RAI activities (≥3700  MBq). Six to 18 months after ablation, remission was observed in 60.0% of patients treated with low and in 60.0% of those treated with high RAI activities, biochemical disease was found in 18.8% of patients treated with low and in 14.3% of patients treated with high RAI activities, metastatic disease was found in 21.2% of patients treated with low and in 25.7% of patients treated with high RAI activities (P=0.56). At the last follow-up (low activities, median 4.2 years; high activities, median 6.9 years), remission was observed in 76.5% of patients treated with low and in 72.1% of patients treated with high RAI activities, persistent disease was observed in 18.8% of patients treated with low and in 23.5% of patients treated with high RAI activities, recurrent disease was 2.4% in patients treated with low and 2.1% in patients treated with high RAI activities, deaths occurred in 2.4% of patients treated with low and in 2.1% of patients treated with high RAI activities (P=0.87). Our study provides the first evidence that in DTC patients at intermediate risk, high RAI activities at ablation have no major advantage over low activities.

  16. A Computerized Prediction Model of Hazardous Inflammatory Platelet Transfusion Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim Anh; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Sebban, Marc; Fromont, Elisa; Chavarin, Patricia; Absi, Lena; Pozzetto, Bruno; Cognasse, Fabrice; Garraud, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet component (PC) transfusion leads occasionally to inflammatory hazards. Certain BRMs that are secreted by the platelets themselves during storage may have some responsibility. Methodology/Principal Findings First, we identified non-stochastic arrangements of platelet-secreted BRMs in platelet components that led to acute transfusion reactions (ATRs). These data provide formal clinical evidence that platelets generate secretion profiles under both sterile activation and pathological conditions. We next aimed to predict the risk of hazardous outcomes by establishing statistical models based on the associations of BRMs within the incriminated platelet components and using decision trees. We investigated a large (n = 65) series of ATRs after platelet component transfusions reported through a very homogenous system at one university hospital. Herein, we used a combination of clinical observations, ex vivo and in vitro investigations, and mathematical modeling systems. We calculated the statistical association of a large variety (n = 17) of cytokines, chemokines, and physiologically likely factors with acute inflammatory potential in patients presenting with severe hazards. We then generated an accident prediction model that proved to be dependent on the level (amount) of a given cytokine-like platelet product within the indicated component, e.g., soluble CD40-ligand (>289.5 pg/109 platelets), or the presence of another secreted factor (IL-13, >0). We further modeled the risk of the patient presenting either a febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction or an atypical allergic transfusion reaction, depending on the amount of the chemokine MIP-1α (<20.4 or >20.4 pg/109 platelets, respectively). Conclusions/Significance This allows the modeling of a policy of risk prevention for severe inflammatory outcomes in PC transfusion. PMID:24830754

  17. Prediction of Class III treatment outcomes through orthodontic data mining.

    PubMed

    Auconi, Pietro; Scazzocchio, Marco; Cozza, Paola; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether it is possible to predict Class III treatment outcomes on the basis of a model derived from a combination of computational analyses derived from complexity science, such as fuzzy clustering repartition and network analysis. Cephalometric data of 54 Class III patients (32 females, 22 males) taken before (T1, mean age 8.2 ± 1.6 years) and after (T2, mean age 14.6 ± 1.8 years) early rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy followed by fixed appliances were analysed. Patients were classified at T1 on the basis of high membership grade into three main dentoskeletal fuzzy cluster phenotypes: hyperdivergent (HD), hypermandibular (HM), and balanced (Bal) phenotypes. The prevalence rate of successful and unsuccessful cases at T2 was calculated for the three clusters and compared by means of Fisher's exact test corrected for multiple testing (Holm-Bonferroni method). Unsuccessful cases were 9 out of 54 patients (16.7%). Once patients were framed into their cluster membership, the individualized pre-treatment prediction of unsuccessful cases was largely differentiated: HD and HM patients showed a significantly greater prevalence rate of unsuccessful cases than Bal patients (0% in Bal cluster, 28.6% in HM cluster, and 33.3% in HD cluster). Network analysis captured some noticeable interdependencies of Class III patients, showing a more connected interactive structure of cephalometric data sets in HM and HD patients compared with Bal patients. The results were confirmed after minimizing the geometrical connections between cephalometric variables in the model. Fuzzy clustering repartition can be usefully used to estimate an individualized risk of unsuccessful treatment outcome in Class III patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Neurobehavioral Assessment Predicts Motor Outcome in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Bonnie E; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavior Scales (NNNS) at 44 weeks predict motor outcome at 2 years in preterm infants from the Maternal Lifestyles Study (MLS). Study design Data were collected on all preterm infants (<36 weeks) in the MLS who had an NNNS at 44 weeks (n=395) and neurologic exam at 12–36 months or Bayley Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) at 24 months (n=270). Logistic regression analyzed NNNS summary scores associated with Cerebral Palsy (CP) or PDI <70, while controlling for birth weight 1250g. Results Eighteen of 395 infants (5%) had CP; 24 of 270 infants (9%) had PDI <70. CP was associated with low quality of movement (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.24–3.06, p=0.004) and high lethargy (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.01–2.76, p=0.045). The model contributed 19% of the variance in CP diagnosis at 12–36 months (R2=0.19, p<0.001). Low PDI was associated with low handling (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.12–2.99, p=0.017), low quality of movement (OR 2.16; 95%CI 1.38–3.38, p=0.001), and hypotonia (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.14–2.32, p=0.007). The model contributed 26% of the variance in PDI <70 at 24 months (R2=0.26, p<0.001). Conclusions The neurobehavioral profile of underarousal in 44 week preterm infants may predict poor motor outcome. PMID:19880137

  19. Predicting Dental Caries Outcomes in Children: A "Risky" Concept.

    PubMed

    Divaris, K

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, unprecedented gains in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying human health and disease have been made. In the domain of oral health, although much remains to be learned, the complex interactions between different systems in play have begun to unravel: host genome, oral microbiome with its transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and more distal influences, including relevant behaviors and environmental exposures. A reasonable expectation is that this emerging body of knowledge can help improve the oral health and optimize care for individuals and populations. These goals are articulated by the National Institutes of Health as "precision medicine" and the elimination of health disparities. Key processes in these efforts are the discovery of causal factors or mechanistic pathways and the identification of individuals or population segments that are most likely to develop (any or severe forms of) oral disease. This article critically reviews the fundamental concepts of risk assessment and outcome prediction, as they relate to early childhood caries (ECC)-a common complex disease with significant negative impacts on children, their families, and the health system. The article highlights recent work and advances in methods available to estimate caries risk and derive person-level caries propensities. It further discusses the reasons for their limited utility in predicting individual ECC outcomes and informing clinical decision making. Critical issues identified include the misconception of defining dental caries as a tooth or surface-level condition versus a person-level disease; the fallacy of applying population-level parameters to individuals, termed privatization of risk; and the inadequacy of using frequentist versus Bayesian modeling approaches to derive individual disease propensity estimates. The article concludes with the notion that accurate caries risk assessment at the population level and "precision dentistry" at the

  20. Daily Affective Experiences Predict Objective Sleep Outcomes among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Royette; Choo, Sungsub B; Grant, Kathryn; Adam, Emma K

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adolescence is a sensitive period for changes in both sleep and affect. Although past research has assessed the association between affect and sleep among adolescents, few studies have examined both trait (typical) and day-to-day changes in affect, and fewer still have specifically examined negative social evaluative emotions (NSEE; e.g., embarrassment) in relation to sleep. We examined both between- and within-person variations in daily affect in relation to four objectively-measured sleep outcomes (sleep hours, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, and length of wake bouts) among adolescents. Participants (N = 77 high school students, 42.9% female; M = 14.37 years) wore an actiwatch and completed daily diaries for 3 days. Results of hierarchical linear models (controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, parental employment status, income, puberty, and caffeine) indicated that NSEE and high arousal affective experiences generally predicted poor sleep outcomes, whereas low arousal affective experiences were associated with good sleep outcomes. Specifically, at the person level, adolescents reporting higher NSEE had shorter average sleep hours, and those experiencing higher anxiety-nervousness had longer wake bouts. In addition, individuals experiencing more dysphoria (sad, depressed, lonely) had longer average sleep hours and shorter wake bouts, while those experiencing more calmness had shorter sleep latencies. At the within person level, individuals had longer sleep latencies following days that they had experienced high arousal positive affect (e.g., excitement) and had longer wake bouts following days they had experienced more NSEE. Results highlight the detrimental effects of NSEE and high arousal affective states for adolescent sleep. PMID:26365539

  1. Rate of Perihematomal Edema Expansion Predicts Outcome After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Urday, Sebastian; Beslow, Lauren A; Dai, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Battey, Thomas W K; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Ayres, Alison M; Leasure, Audrey C; Selim, Magdy H; Simard, J Marc; Rosand, Jonathan; Kimberly, W Taylor; Sheth, Kevin N

    2016-04-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is a devastating disorder with no current treatment. Whether perihematomal edema is an independent predictor of neurologic outcome is controversial. We sought to determine whether perihematomal edema expansion rate predicts outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary medical center. One hundred thirty-nine consecutive supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage patients 18 years or older admitted between 2000 and 2013. None. Intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and perihematomal edema volumes were measured from CT scans obtained at presentation, 24-hours, and 72-hours postintracerebral hemorrhage. Perihematomal edema expansion rate was the difference between initial and follow-up perihematomal edema volumes divided by the time interval. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between 1) perihematomal edema expansion rate at 24 hours and 90-day mortality and 2) perihematomal edema expansion rate at 24 hours and 90-day modified Rankin Scale score. Perihematomal edema expansion rate between admission and 24-hours postintracerebral hemorrhage was a significant predictor of 90-day mortality (odds ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.48-5.99; p = 0.002). This association persisted after adjusting for all components of the intracerebral hemorrhage score (odds ratio, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.05-4.64; p = 0.04). Similarly, higher 24-hour perihematomal edema expansion rate was associated with poorer modified Rankin Scale score in an ordinal shift analysis (odds ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.37-4.21; p = 0.002). The association persisted after adjustment for all intracerebral hemorrhage score components (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.12-3.83; p = 0.02). Faster perihematomal edema expansion rate 24-hours postintracerebral hemorrhage is associated with worse outcome. Perihematomal edema may represent an attractive translational target for secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage.

  2. Daily affective experiences predict objective sleep outcomes among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Choo, Sungsub B; Grant, Kathryn; Adam, Emma K

    2016-02-01

    Adolescence is a sensitive period for changes in both sleep and affect. Although past research has assessed the association between affect and sleep among adolescents, few studies have examined both trait (typical) and day-to-day changes in affect, and fewer still have specifically examined negative social evaluative emotions (e.g. embarrassment) in relation to sleep. Both between- and within-person variations in daily affect were examined in relation to four objectively-measured sleep outcomes (sleep hours; sleep latency; sleep efficiency; and length of wake bouts) among adolescents. Participants (N = 77 high-school students; 42.9% female; M = 14.37 years) wore an actiwatch and completed daily-diaries for 3 days. The results of hierarchical linear models (controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, parental employment status, income, puberty and caffeine) indicated that negative social evaluative emotions and high-arousal affective experiences generally predicted poor sleep outcomes, whereas low-arousal affective experiences were associated with good sleep outcomes. Specifically, at the person level, adolescents reporting higher negative social evaluative emotions had shorter average sleep hours, and those experiencing higher anxiety–nervousness had longer wake bouts. In addition, individuals experiencing more dysphoria (sad, depressed, lonely) had longer average sleep hours and shorter wake bouts, while those experiencing more calmness had shorter sleep latencies. At the within-person level, individuals had longer sleep latencies following days that they had experienced high-arousal positive affect (e.g. excitement), and had longer wake bouts following days they had experienced more negative social evaluative emotions. The results highlight the detrimental effects of negative social evaluative emotions and high-arousal affective states for adolescent sleep.

  3. Advanced analytics for outcome prediction in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Ali; Bender, Dieter; Rehman, Mohamed; Nadkanri, Vinay; Nataraj, C

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we present a new expert knowledge based clinical decision support system for prediction of intensive care units outcome based on the physiological measurements collected during the first 48 hours of the patient's admission to the ICU. The developed CDSS algorithm is composed of several stages. First, we categorize the collected data based on the physiological organ that they represent. We then extract clinically relevant features from each data category and then rank these features based on their mutual information with the outcome. Then, we design an artificial neural network to serve as a classifier to detect patients at high risk of critical deterioration. We use the eight-fold cross validation method to test the developed CDSS classifier. The results from the classification show that the newly designed CDSS outperforms the widely used acuity scoring systems, SOFA and SAPS-III. The F-score classification result of our developed algorithms is 42% while the F-score results for SOFA and SAPS-III are 26% and 29% respectively.

  4. Delay Discounting Predicts Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D.; Jones, Bryan A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Budney, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (M =15.8; SD = 1.3) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task at treatment onset for $100 and $1,000 of hypothetical money and marijuana. Overall, smaller magnitude rewards were discounted more than larger magnitude rewards. Delay discounting rates were concurrently related to demographic variables (SES, race). Delay discounting of $1,000 of money predicted during treatment abstinence outcomes among adolescent marijuana abusers, over and above the effects of type of treatment received. Teens who show higher levels of discounting of the future may be an important subgroup to identify at treatment onset. Youth with a greater tendency to discount the future may require different intervention strategies that address their impulsivity (e.g., targeting executive function or inhibitory control) and/or different schedules of reinforcement to address their degree of preference for immediate rewards. PMID:22182419

  5. Prediction of Organic Reaction Outcomes Using Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Coley, Connor W; Barzilay, Regina; Jaakkola, Tommi S; Green, William H; Jensen, Klavs F

    2017-05-24

    Computer assistance in synthesis design has existed for over 40 years, yet retrosynthesis planning software has struggled to achieve widespread adoption. One critical challenge in developing high-quality pathway suggestions is that proposed reaction steps often fail when attempted in the laboratory, despite initially seeming viable. The true measure of success for any synthesis program is whether the predicted outcome matches what is observed experimentally. We report a model framework for anticipating reaction outcomes that combines the traditional use of reaction templates with the flexibility in pattern recognition afforded by neural networks. Using 15 000 experimental reaction records from granted United States patents, a model is trained to select the major (recorded) product by ranking a self-generated list of candidates where one candidate is known to be the major product. Candidate reactions are represented using a unique edit-based representation that emphasizes the fundamental transformation from reactants to products, rather than the constituent molecules' overall structures. In a 5-fold cross-validation, the trained model assigns the major product rank 1 in 71.8% of cases, rank ≤3 in 86.7% of cases, and rank ≤5 in 90.8% of cases.

  6. The Neural Basis of Predicting the Outcomes of Imagined Actions

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Andrew; Nee, Derek Evan; Brown, Joshua W.

    2011-01-01

    A key feature of human intelligence is the ability to predict the outcomes of one’s own actions prior to executing them. Action values are thought to be represented in part in the dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), yet current studies have focused on the value of executed actions rather than the anticipated value of a planned action. Thus, little is known about the neural basis of how individuals think (or fail to think) about their actions and the potential consequences before they act. We scanned individuals with fMRI while they thought about performing actions that they knew would likely be rewarded or unrewarded. Here we show that merely imagining an unrewarded action, as opposed to imagining a rewarded action, increases activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, independently of subsequent actions. This activity overlaps with regions that respond to actual unrewarded actions. The findings show a distinct network that signals the prospective outcomes of one’s possible actions. A number of clinical disorders such as schizophrenia and drug abuse involve a failure to take the potential consequences of an action into account prior to acting. Our results thus suggest how dysfunctions of the mPFC may contribute to such failures. PMID:22131965

  7. Prediction of Organic Reaction Outcomes Using Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Computer assistance in synthesis design has existed for over 40 years, yet retrosynthesis planning software has struggled to achieve widespread adoption. One critical challenge in developing high-quality pathway suggestions is that proposed reaction steps often fail when attempted in the laboratory, despite initially seeming viable. The true measure of success for any synthesis program is whether the predicted outcome matches what is observed experimentally. We report a model framework for anticipating reaction outcomes that combines the traditional use of reaction templates with the flexibility in pattern recognition afforded by neural networks. Using 15 000 experimental reaction records from granted United States patents, a model is trained to select the major (recorded) product by ranking a self-generated list of candidates where one candidate is known to be the major product. Candidate reactions are represented using a unique edit-based representation that emphasizes the fundamental transformation from reactants to products, rather than the constituent molecules’ overall structures. In a 5-fold cross-validation, the trained model assigns the major product rank 1 in 71.8% of cases, rank ≤3 in 86.7% of cases, and rank ≤5 in 90.8% of cases. PMID:28573205

  8. Predicting postoperative pulmonary complications: implications for outcomes and costs.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Sergi; Mazo, Valentín; Canet, Jaume

    2014-04-01

    This review of progress toward reliable prediction of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) discusses risk assessment against the background of patient management strategies, clinical outcomes, and cost of healthcare. Among the variety of conditions grouped as PPCs are pneumonia, aspiration pneumonitis, respiratory failure, reintubation within 48 h, weaning failure, pleural effusion, atelectasis, bronchospasm, and pneumothorax. PPC incidence rates range from 2 to 40% depending on context. These events increase mortality, postoperative length of stay, ICU admissions, hospital readmissions, and costs. PPC-associated mortality varies, but can reach as high as 48% in some contexts. ICU admission rates are between 9.5 and 91% higher in patients with PPCs. The mean increase in PPC-related postoperative length of stay is approximately 8 days. The cost of surgery can be two-fold to 12-fold higher when PPCs develop. Strategies proposed to reduce the impact of modifiable risk factors include alcohol and smoking abstinence before surgery, shortening the duration of surgery, and physiotherapy and incentive spirometry techniques; however, little scientific evidence supports them at this time. PPCs are associated with a higher incidence of life-threatening events and higher costs. Reliable PPC risk-stratification tools are essential for guiding clinical decision-making in the perioperative period. The care team can act on modifiable factors and optimize vigilance over nonmodifiable ones. It would be useful to focus resources on determining whether low-cost preemptive interventions improve outcomes satisfactorily or new strategies need to be developed.

  9. How useful is imaging in predicting outcomes in stroke rehabilitation?

    PubMed

    Stinear, Cathy M; Ward, Nick S

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging plays an important role in acute stroke diagnosis and management, but it is not routinely used in rehabilitation settings. Incorporating imaging information in rehabilitation planning may eventually translate to better outcomes after stroke. Here we review the prediction of outcomes after stroke using magnetic resonance imaging. There are clear and specific relationships between the anatomy of the stroke lesion and impairments at the time of scanning, and at later time points in recovery. However, most studies demonstrate these relationships in groups of patients at the chronic stage. In order to be useful for rehabilitation, neuroimaging needs to provide prognostic information for individual patients at a much earlier stage. Recent studies have used diffusion tensor imaging and functional neuroimaging to address this, with promising results. Combining neuroimaging with clinical and neurophysiological assessments may also be useful. Future work in this area may support the tailoring of rehabilitation for individual patients based on their capacity for neural reorganization and recovery. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  10. Catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M; Shenasa, M

    1991-02-01

    Catheter ablation is gaining increasing interest for the therapy of symptomatic, sustained arrhythmias of various origins. The scope of this review is to give an overview of the biophysical aspects and major characteristics of some of the most widely used energy sources in catheter ablation, e.g., the discharge of conventional defibrillators, modified defibrillators, laser light, and radiofrequency current application. Results from animal studies are considered to explain the basic mechanisms of catheter ablation. The recent achievements with the use of radiofrequency current to modify or ablate cardiac conduction properties are outlined in more detail.

  11. Long-Term Outcomes of Radio-Frequency Catheter Ablation on Ventricular Tachycardias Due to Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yumei; Fang, Xianhong; Huang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Deng, Hai; Liang, Yuanhong; Liao, Zili; Liu, Fangzhou; Lin, Weidong; Zhan, Xianzhang; Wu, Shulin

    2017-01-01

    Aims To summarize our experience of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for recurrent drug-refractory ventricular tachycardias (VTs) due to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) in our center over the past 11 years and its related factors. Methods and Results We reviewed 48 adults (mean age 39.9 ± 12.9 years, range: 14 to 65) who met the present ARVC diagnostic criteria and accepted RFCA for VTs from December 2004 to April 2016. The patients received a total of 70 procedures using two ablation approaches, the endocardial approach in 52 RFCAs, and the combined epicardial and endocardial approach (the combined approach) in 18 RFCAs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the combined approach achieved better acute procedural success (p = 0.003) and better long-term outcomes (p = 0.028) than the endocardial approach. Patients who obtained acute procedural success with non-inducibility had better long-term outcomes (p < 0.001). COX regression of multivariate analysis showed that procedural success was the only factor that benefited long-term outcome, irrespective of the endocardial or the combined approach (p = 0.001). The rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients without procedural success was significantly higher than that in patients with procedural success (p = 0.005). All patients without implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation who had successful final RFCA survived. Conclusions The combined approach resulted in better procedural success and long-term VT-free survival compared with the endocardial approach in ARVC patients with recurrent VTs. Acute procedural success with non-inducibility was strongly related to better long-term VT-free survival and reduced SCD, irrespective of whether this was achieved by the endocardial approach or the combined approach. PMID:28122031

  12. Outcomes and ventricular tachycardia recurrence characteristics after epicardial ablation of ventricular tachycardia in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Philips, Binu; te Riele, Anneline S J M; Sawant, Abhishek; Kareddy, Vishnupriya; James, Cynthia A; Murray, Brittney; Tichnell, Crystal; Kassamali, Bina; Nazarian, Saman; Judge, Daniel P; Calkins, Hugh; Tandri, Harikrishna

    2015-04-01

    Variable success rates have been reported after epicardial radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C). The details of the electroanatomic substrate are limited to a few studies, and the characteristics of the recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT) in ARVD/C remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to report procedural strategy, safety, and efficacy of epicardial RFA at a tertiary single center with a focus on the characteristics of the substrate and recurrent VT. We included 30 ARVD/C patients (mean age 33.1 ± 11.1 years, 53% male) who underwent endocardial/epicardial mapping and epicardial catheter ablation of VT at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator interrogations were evaluated for VT recurrence. The majority of critical VT circuits (69%) were on the epicardial surface, mostly in the subtricuspid region. Eight patients (27%) experienced VT recurrence after epicardial RFA, and the VT-free survival was 83%, 76%, and 70% at 6,12, and 24, months respectively. A significant reduction of VT burden was observed (P <.001), even among those with VT recurrence. No complications occurred except for acute pericarditis in 1 patient. The majority of VT recurrences occurred during the first year after RFA, during exercise, had fast cycle lengths, and required implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock for termination. The vast majority of critical VT circuits were epicardial, mostly in the subtricuspid region. Epicardial RFA of VT appears to be both safe and effective in achieving arrhythmia control in ARVD/C. The features of the recurrent VT suggest a possible catecholamine-mediated mechanism with an origin in a region not targeted for ablation. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictive Models of Cognitive Outcomes of Developmental Insults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yupo; Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Chowdhury, Parimal; Leszczynska, Danuta; Patterson, Tucker A.; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Representatives of Arkansas medical, research and educational institutions have gathered over the past four years to discuss the relationship between functional developmental perturbations and their neurological consequences. We wish to track the effect on the nervous system by developmental perturbations over time and across species. Except for perturbations, the sequence of events that occur during neural development was found to be remarkably conserved across mammalian species. The tracking includes consequences on anatomical regions and behavioral changes. The ultimate goal is to develop a predictive model of long-term genotypic and phenotypic outcomes that includes developmental insults. Such a model can subsequently be fostered into an educated intervention for therapeutic purposes. Several datasets were identified to test plausible hypotheses, ranging from evoked potential datasets to sleep-disorder datasets. An initial model may be mathematical and conceptual. However, we expect to see rapid progress as large-scale gene expression studies in the mammalian brain permit genome-wide searches to discover genes that are uniquely expressed in brain circuits and regions. These genes ultimately control behavior. By using a validated model we endeavor to make useful predictions.

  14. Preprocedural ventricular rate predicts subsequent sick sinus syndrome after ablation for long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Masaharu; Inoue, Koichi; Iwakura, Katsuomi; Okamura, Atsunori; Koyama, Yasushi; Kimura, Ryusuke; Toyoshima, Yuko; Doi, Atsushi; Sotomi, Yohei; Komuro, Issei; Fujii, Kenshi

    2012-09-01

    Concealed sick sinus syndrome may become manifest after restoration of sinus rhythm by ablation in patients with long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the preprocedural ventricular rate during AF and sinus node function in patients with long-standing persistent AF. Consecutive patients (n = 102) who underwent ablation for long-standing persistent AF were enrolled. We measured the ventricular rate during AF before ablation in the absence of antiarrhythmic drugs. Sinus node function was assessed by electrophysiological study and serial Holter recordings after ablation. Patients in the lowest quartile of ventricular rate during AF had longer corrected sinus node recovery time (1.06 ± 1.39 seconds) than those in the other quartiles (0.54 ± 0.31 seconds; P = 0.006) and lower mean heart rate on 24-hour Holter recording 3 months after ablation (68 ± 9 beats/min vs 75 ± 10 beats/min, P = 0.01). During a mean follow-up of 23 ± 10 months, sick sinus syndrome necessitating permanent pacemaker implantation developed in five (5%) patients, and multivariate analysis revealed that a low ventricular rate during AF rate was an independent risk factor for sick sinus syndrome (odds ratio = 0.90 for a 1 beat/min increase in AF rate, P = 0.04). A low preprocedural ventricular rate during AF indicates the existence of sinus node dysfunction after restoration of sinus rhythm by ablation in patients with long-standing persistent AF. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Pulmonary outcome prediction (POP) tools for cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    VanDevanter, Donald R; Wagener, Jeffrey S; Pasta, David J; Elkin, Eric; Jacobs, Joan R; Morgan, Wayne J; Konstan, Michael W

    2010-12-01

    Loss of lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with increased mortality and varies between individuals and over time. Predicting this decline could improve patient management. To develop simple pulmonary outcome prediction (POP) tools to estimate lung function at age 6 in patients aged 2-5 years (POP(2-5)) and lung function change over a 4-year period in patients aged 6-17 years (POP(6-17)). Analyses were conducted using patients from the Epidemiologic Study of CF (ESCF). To be included in any analysis, patients had to have 1 year of clinical history recorded in ESCF prior to a clinically stable routine Index Clinic Visit (ICV). In addition to this criterion, for the POP(2-5) tool patients had to be between 2 and 5 years old at ICV and have a second clinically stable visit with spirometric measures at age 6. For the POP(6-17) tool, patients had to be between the ages of 6 and 17 years old at an ICV that included spirometric measures and had to have a second clinically stable visit with spirometric measures from 3 to 5 years after ICV. All patients enrolled in ESCF who met these inclusion criteria were studied. POP(2-5) and POP(6-17) populations were further divided into development groups (with ICV before January 1, 1998) and validation groups (with ICV after that date). Development groups were used to model forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV(1)) percent predicted at age 6 years (for POP(2-5)) and annualized FEV(1) % predicted change from ICV to the second visit (for POP(6-17)) by multivariable linear regression using age, sex, weight-for-age percentile, cough, sputum production, clubbing, crackles, wheeze, sinusitis, number of exacerbations requiring intravenous antibiotics in the past year, elevated liver enzymes, pancreatic enzyme use, and respiratory tract culture status, plus height-for-age percentile (POP(2-5)) and index FEV(1) (POP(6-17)). Integer-based POP(2-5) and POP(6-17) tools created from selected variables were

  16. Hippocampal Mismatch Signals Are Modulated by the Strength of Neural Predictions and Their Similarity to Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hongmi

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is thought to compare predicted events with current perceptual input, generating a mismatch signal when predictions are violated. However, most prior studies have only inferred when predictions occur without measuring them directly. Moreover, an important but unresolved question is whether hippocampal mismatch signals are modulated by the degree to which predictions differ from outcomes. Here, we conducted a human fMRI study in which subjects repeatedly studied various word–picture pairs, learning to predict particular pictures (outcomes) from the words (cues). After initial learning, a subset of cues was paired with a novel, unexpected outcome, whereas other cues continued to predict the same outcome. Critically, when outcomes changed, the new outcome was either “near” to the predicted outcome (same visual category as the predicted picture) or “far” from the predicted outcome (different visual category). Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we indexed cue-evoked reactivation (prediction) within neocortical areas and related these trial-by-trial measures of prediction strength to univariate hippocampal responses to the outcomes. We found that prediction strength positively modulated hippocampal responses to unexpected outcomes, particularly when unexpected outcomes were close, but not identical, to the prediction. Hippocampal responses to unexpected outcomes were also associated with a tradeoff in performance during a subsequent memory test: relatively faster retrieval of new (updated) associations, but relatively slower retrieval of the original (older) associations. Together, these results indicate that hippocampal mismatch signals reflect a comparison between active predictions and current outcomes and that these signals are most robust when predictions are similar, but not identical, to outcomes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although the hippocampus is widely thought to signal “mismatches” between memory-based predictions and outcomes

  17. Hippocampal Mismatch Signals Are Modulated by the Strength of Neural Predictions and Their Similarity to Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Long, Nicole M; Lee, Hongmi; Kuhl, Brice A

    2016-12-14

    The hippocampus is thought to compare predicted events with current perceptual input, generating a mismatch signal when predictions are violated. However, most prior studies have only inferred when predictions occur without measuring them directly. Moreover, an important but unresolved question is whether hippocampal mismatch signals are modulated by the degree to which predictions differ from outcomes. Here, we conducted a human fMRI study in which subjects repeatedly studied various word-picture pairs, learning to predict particular pictures (outcomes) from the words (cues). After initial learning, a subset of cues was paired with a novel, unexpected outcome, whereas other cues continued to predict the same outcome. Critically, when outcomes changed, the new outcome was either "near" to the predicted outcome (same visual category as the predicted picture) or "far" from the predicted outcome (different visual category). Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we indexed cue-evoked reactivation (prediction) within neocortical areas and related these trial-by-trial measures of prediction strength to univariate hippocampal responses to the outcomes. We found that prediction strength positively modulated hippocampal responses to unexpected outcomes, particularly when unexpected outcomes were close, but not identical, to the prediction. Hippocampal responses to unexpected outcomes were also associated with a tradeoff in performance during a subsequent memory test: relatively faster retrieval of new (updated) associations, but relatively slower retrieval of the original (older) associations. Together, these results indicate that hippocampal mismatch signals reflect a comparison between active predictions and current outcomes and that these signals are most robust when predictions are similar, but not identical, to outcomes. Although the hippocampus is widely thought to signal "mismatches" between memory-based predictions and outcomes, previous research has not linked

  18. Albuminuria and posttransplant chronic kidney disease stage predict transplant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ngan N; Tonelli, Marcello; Lentine, Krista L; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Ye, Feng; Wen, Kevin; Klarenbach, Scott

    2017-03-30

    In 2012, the KDIGO guidelines updated the classification system for chronic kidney disease to include albuminuria. Whether this classification system predicts adverse clinical outcomes among kidney transplant recipients is unclear. To evaluate this, we conducted a retrospective study using linked databases in Alberta, Canada to follow kidney transplant recipients from 2002-2011. We examined the association between an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of 60 or more, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and albuminuria (normal, mild, heavy) at one year post-transplant and subsequent mortality and graft loss. There were 900 recipients with a functioning graft and at least one outpatient serum creatinine and urine protein measurement at one year post-transplant. The median age was 51.2 years, 38.7% were female, and 52% had an eGFR of 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or more. The risk of all-cause mortality and death-censored graft loss was increased in recipients with reduced eGFR or heavier albuminuria. The adjusted incidence rate per 1000 person-years of all-cause mortality for recipients with an eGFR of 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and heavy albuminuria vs. an eGFR 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or more and normal protein excretion was 117 (95% confidence interval 38-371) vs. 15 (9-23) (rate ratio 8). Corresponding rates for death-censored graft loss were 273 (88-1203) vs. 6 (3-9) (rate ratio 49). Reduced eGFR and heavier albuminuria in kidney transplant recipients are associated with an increased risk of mortality and graft loss. Thus, eGFR and albuminuria may be used together to identify, evaluate, and manage transplant recipients who are at higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes.

  19. Tumor Endothelial Inflammation Predicts Clinical Outcome in Diverse Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Filippo, Matthew; Labay, Edwardine; Beckett, Michael A.; Mauceri, Helena J.; Liang, Hua; Darga, Thomas E.; Perakis, Samantha; Khan, Sajid A.; Sutton, Harold G.; Zhang, Wei; Khodarev, Nikolai N.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial cells contribute to the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases by actively regulating the stromal inflammatory response; however, little is known regarding the role of endothelial inflammation in the growth of human tumors and its influence on the prognosis of human cancers. Methods Using an experimental model of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-mediated inflammation, we characterized inflammatory gene expression in immunopurified tumor-associated endothelial cells. These genes formed the basis of a multivariate molecular predictor of overall survival that was trained and validated in four types of human cancer. Results We report that expression of experimentally derived tumor endothelial genes distinguished pathologic tissue specimens from normal controls in several human diseases associated with chronic inflammation. We trained these genes in human cancer datasets and defined a six-gene inflammatory signature that predicted significantly reduced overall survival in breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, and glioma. This endothelial-derived signature predicted outcome independently of, but cooperatively with, standard clinical and pathological prognostic factors. Consistent with these findings, conditioned culture media from human endothelial cells stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerated the growth of human colon and breast tumors in immunodeficient mice as compared with conditioned media from untreated endothelial cells. Conclusions This study provides the first prognostic cancer gene signature derived from an experimental model of tumor-associated endothelial inflammation. These findings support the notion that activation of inflammatory pathways in non-malignant tumor-infiltrating endothelial cells contributes to tumor growth and progression in multiple human cancers. Importantly, these results identify endothelial-derived factors that could serve as potential targets for therapy in diverse human cancers

  20. Renal Cell Carcinoma: Comparison of RENAL Nephrometry and PADUA Scores with Maximum Tumor Diameter for Prediction of Local Recurrence after Thermal Ablation.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Aaron W P; Baird, Grayson L; Iannuccilli, Jason D; Mayo-Smith, William W; Dupuy, Damian E

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To evaluate the performance of the radius, exophytic or endophytic, nearness to collecting system or sinus, anterior or posterior, and location relative to polar lines (RENAL) nephrometry and preoperative aspects and dimensions used for anatomic classification (PADUA) scoring systems and other tumor biometrics for prediction of local tumor recurrence in patients with renal cell carcinoma after thermal ablation. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study was performed with a waiver of informed consent after institutional review board approval was obtained. A retrospective evaluation of 207 consecutive patients (131 men, 76 women; mean age, 71.9 years ± 10.9) with 217 biopsy-proven renal cell carcinoma tumors treated with thermal ablation was conducted. Serial postablation computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate for local tumor recurrence. For each tumor, RENAL nephrometry and PADUA scores were calculated by using imaging-derived tumor morphologic data. Several additional tumor biometrics and combinations thereof were also measured, including maximum tumor diameter. The Harrell C index and hazard regression techniques were used to quantify associations with local tumor recurrence. Results The RENAL (hazard ratio, 1.43; P = .003) and PADUA (hazard ratio, 1.80; P < .0001) scores were found to be significantly associated with recurrence when regression techniques were used but demonstrated only poor to fair discrimination according to Harrell C index results (C, 0.68 and 0.75, respectively). Maximum tumor diameter showed the highest discriminatory strength of any individual variable evaluated (C, 0.81) and was also significantly predictive when regression techniques were used (hazard ratio, 2.98; P < .0001). For every 1-cm increase in diameter, the estimated rate of recurrence risk increased by 198%. Conclusion Maximum tumor diameter demonstrates superior performance relative to existing tumor scoring systems and

  1. Outcome of patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation and septal myectomy surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; Lever, H. M.; Kapadia, S. R.; Sitges, M.; Rubin, D. N.; Bauer, F.; Greenberg, N. L.; Agler, D. A.; Drinko, J. K.; Martin, M.; Tuzcu, E. M.; Smedira, N. G.; Lytle, B.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate follow-up results in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) who underwent either percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) or septal myectomy. BACKGROUND: Controversy exists with regard to these two forms of treatment for patients with HOCM. METHODS: Of 51 patients with HOCM treated, 25 were treated by PTSMA and 26 patients via myectomy. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed before both procedures, immediately afterwards and at a three-month follow-up. The New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was obtained before the procedures and at follow-up. RESULTS: Interventricular septal thickness was significantly reduced at follow-up in both groups (2.3 +/- 0.4 cm vs. 1.9 +/- 0.4 cm for septal ablation and 2.4 +/- 0.6 cm vs. 1.7 +/- 0.2 cm for myectomy, both p < 0.001). Estimated by continuous-wave Doppler, the resting pressure gradient (PG) across the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) significantly decreased immediately after the procedures in both groups (64 +/- 39 mm Hg vs. 28 +/- 29 mm Hg for PTSMA, 62 +/- 43 mm Hg vs. 7 +/- 7 mm Hg for myectomy, both p < 0.0001). At three-month follow-up, the resting PG remained lower in the PTSMA and myectomy groups (24 +/- 19 mm Hg and 11 +/- 6 mm Hg, respectively, vs. those before procedures, both p < 0.0001). The NYHA functional class was also significantly improved in both groups (3.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7 for PTSMA, 3.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.7 for myectomy, both p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Both myectomy and PTSMA reduce LVOT obstruction and significantly improve NYHA functional class in patients with HOCM. However, there are benefits and drawbacks for each therapeutic method that must be counterbalanced when deciding on treatment for LVOT obstruction.

  2. Histologic evaluation and treatment outcome after sequential radiofrequency ablation and hepatic resection for primary and metastatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Allen L; Wu, Sandy S; Obaid, Amal K; French, Samuel W; Lois, Juan; McMonigle, Michael; Ramos, Hector C; Sher, Linda S; Lopez, Richard R

    2002-12-01

    Operative manipulation during hepatic resection (HR) causes tumor cell shedding which is a factor in disease recurrence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) causes coagulative necrosis and was used to destroy the tumor before HR. We evaluated tumor necrosis and recurrence of hepatic malignancies treated by sequential RFA/HR. A retrospective review of patients treated with sequential RFA/HR from April 1999 to January 2002 was performed. A Radionics 500-kW RF generator was used to ablate lesions via H2O-cooled electrodes under ultrasound guidance. Segmental HR was performed after RFA. Resected specimens were reviewed with hematoxylin and eosin staining and for apoptosis. Patient follow-up ranged from 10 to 33 months with evaluation of salient clinical, radiologic, and laboratory parameters. Seven patients (four male and three female) ages 62.1 +/- 10.3 years had sequential RFA/HR. Four patients had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and three had colorectal metastases (CRm). The tumors were unifocal right-lobe lesions measuring 4.1 +/- 0.9 cm with a resection margin of 0.4 to 2.5 cm. Extensive necrosis was noted but intact nests of tumor cells occurred in all specimens with minimal apoptosis. Three of seven patients (two HCC and one CRm) developed pulmonary metastases at 3 to 20 months with one HCC patient developing concurrent liver metastases. Two deaths occurred in the HCC group. Sequential RFA/HR may minimize local recurrence; however, the high incidence of pulmonary metastases raises concern of transvenous migration. The histologic findings demonstrate foci of intact tumor cells after RFA. Controlled study of additional patients with long-term follow-up is necessary to better understand these findings.

  3. Remote robotic navigation and electroanatomical mapping for ablation of atrial fibrillation: considerations for navigation and impact on procedural outcome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Boris; Tilz, Roland R; Neven, Kars; Julian Chun, K R; Fürnkranz, Alexander; Ouyang, Feifan

    2009-04-01

    Radiofrequency current ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) requires high technical skills to achieve optimal catheter stability and is associated with an individually high x-ray exposure to both the patient and the operator. To facilitate catheter navigation and to reduce the operator's x-ray burden, remote navigation (RN) systems have been developed. Considerations for navigation of a novel remote robotic navigation system in pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) procedures are reported. In 65 patients with drug-refractory AF (43 paroxysmal, 22 persistent), complete circumferential PVI was performed using RN in conjunction with different electroanatomic mapping systems. Acute complete PVI using exclusively RN was achieved in 95%. The procedure time was 195+/-40 minutes. The operator's x-ray exposure time was reduced by 6+/-4 minutes (35%) using RN. In 7 of 14 patients with persistent AF, conversion to sinus rhythm was achieved by radiofrequency current ablation. During a median follow-up period of 239 days (range, 184 to 314 days), 47 of 65 patients (73%) remained free of any documented atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrences after a single procedure. The relative proportion of patients remaining free of AF was 76% and 68% for paroxysmal and persistent AF, respectively. PVI using the novel RN system can be performed safely and effectively. One third of the operator's fluoroscopy exposure time might be saved using RN. However, the questions of whether the overall fluoroscopy exposure is reduced by RN and whether RN improves PVI procedures needs to be assessed during a comparative trial between man and machine.

  4. Outcome of patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation and septal myectomy surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; Lever, H. M.; Kapadia, S. R.; Sitges, M.; Rubin, D. N.; Bauer, F.; Greenberg, N. L.; Agler, D. A.; Drinko, J. K.; hide

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate follow-up results in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) who underwent either percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) or septal myectomy. BACKGROUND: Controversy exists with regard to these two forms of treatment for patients with HOCM. METHODS: Of 51 patients with HOCM treated, 25 were treated by PTSMA and 26 patients via myectomy. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed before both procedures, immediately afterwards and at a three-month follow-up. The New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was obtained before the procedures and at follow-up. RESULTS: Interventricular septal thickness was significantly reduced at follow-up in both groups (2.3 +/- 0.4 cm vs. 1.9 +/- 0.4 cm for septal ablation and 2.4 +/- 0.6 cm vs. 1.7 +/- 0.2 cm for myectomy, both p < 0.001). Estimated by continuous-wave Doppler, the resting pressure gradient (PG) across the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) significantly decreased immediately after the procedures in both groups (64 +/- 39 mm Hg vs. 28 +/- 29 mm Hg for PTSMA, 62 +/- 43 mm Hg vs. 7 +/- 7 mm Hg for myectomy, both p < 0.0001). At three-month follow-up, the resting PG remained lower in the PTSMA and myectomy groups (24 +/- 19 mm Hg and 11 +/- 6 mm Hg, respectively, vs. those before procedures, both p < 0.0001). The NYHA functional class was also significantly improved in both groups (3.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7 for PTSMA, 3.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.7 for myectomy, both p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Both myectomy and PTSMA reduce LVOT obstruction and significantly improve NYHA functional class in patients with HOCM. However, there are benefits and drawbacks for each therapeutic method that must be counterbalanced when deciding on treatment for LVOT obstruction.

  5. Thyroglobulin levels measured at the time of remnant ablation to predict response to treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH.

    PubMed

    Pitoia, Fabian; Abelleira, Erika; Cross, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of stimulated thyroglobulin levels at the moment of remnant ablation for predicting an initial excellent or a structural incomplete response to treatment according to the risk of recurrence in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients were divided into two groups according to the preparation mode for remnant ablation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH). We included 219 patients followed-up for at least for 24 months after remnant ablation. The primary endpoint was the best response to initial therapy assessed in the first 9-18 months of follow-up. An excellent response was observed in 45.1 % of patients prepared after recombinant human TSH compared to 44.6 % of patients prepared after thyroid hormone withdrawal (P = NS). The cutoff value of thyroglobulin level after recombinant human TSH for predicting an excellent response was 8 ng/ml (n = 51), with a sensitivity of 73.9 %, and a positive predictive value of 61 %. It was similar for patients with low vs. intermediate to high risk of recurrence. This cutoff value for thyroglobulin level after thyroid hormone withdrawal was 22 ng/ml (n = 168), with a sensitivity of 94.7 % and a positive predictive value of 61.7 %. In the thyroid hormone withdrawal group the thyroglobulin cutoff level was 12 ng/ml for low-risk patients compared to 16 ng/ml for those with intermediate to high risk of recurrence (P = 0.003). The cutoff value of the thyroglobulin level for predicting a structural incomplete response to initial treatment was 20 ng/ml after rhTSH, with a negative predictive value of 91.4 %. This level was higher in thyroid hormone withdrawal group, and it was established at 25 ng/ml, with a negative predictive value of 97.7 %. The stimulated Tg level seems to be different depending on the preparation mode (rhTSH or THW) for RA. It has a high NPV to predict the absence of a structural

  6. Facial Trustworthiness Predicts Extreme Criminal-Sentencing Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John Paul; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-08-01

    Untrustworthy faces incur negative judgments across numerous domains. Existing work in this area has focused on situations in which the target's trustworthiness is relevant to the judgment (e.g., criminal verdicts and economic games). Yet in the present studies, we found that people also overgeneralized trustworthiness in criminal-sentencing decisions when trustworthiness should not be judicially relevant, and they did so even for the most extreme sentencing decision: condemning someone to death. In Study 1, we found that perceptions of untrustworthiness predicted death sentences (vs. life sentences) for convicted murderers in Florida (N = 742). Moreover, in Study 2, we found that the link between trustworthiness and the death sentence occurred even when participants viewed innocent people who had been exonerated after originally being sentenced to death. These results highlight the power of facial appearance to prejudice perceivers and affect life outcomes even to the point of execution, which suggests an alarming bias in the criminal-justice system. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Patient assessment: preparing for a predictable aesthetic outcome.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Shamir B; Banerji, Subir; Aulakh, Raman

    2015-01-01

    The flux of patients seeking to make changes to the appearance of their smile zone appears to be on a pathway of continual increase. This is possibly due to an increase in awareness towards oral health, and perhaps social, peer and media pressures, respectively. Cohorts of dental practitioners have thus responded to the latter demands by attending a plethora of educational courses, often focusing on either restorative techniques or other disciplines, notably orthodontics and clear aligners in particular. Consequently, treatment planning and thus treatment provision may carry the risk of being biased or indeed 'outcome driven' whereby the skills and knowledge of any clinician towards a particular faculty may significantly influence the ultimate treatment plan, with the unfortunate tendency sometimes to overlook the role of the interdisciplinary approach of concomitant restorative and contemporary techniques. The role of orthodontics to facilitate the provision of such treatment, along with predictable enamel bonding, has the distinct advantage of providing an acceptable aesthetic result with minimal biological intervention. However, to achieve an optimal result in such cases requires meticulous treatment planning and patient selection to avoid pitfalls with regards to long-term stability and function. This article suggests a standardized approach to patient assessment, with an interdisciplinary perspective in mind. Clinical Relevance: With the growth of patient demand for improving the appearance of the smile, a meticulous assessment protocol is required along with effective interdisciplinary communication. This enables a comprehensive treatment plan to be developed with the correct priorities.

  8. Predicting treatment outcome in classical Hodgkin lymphoma: genomic advances

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma is considered a highly curable disease; however, 20% of patients cannot be cured with standard first-line chemotherapy and have a dismal outcome. Current clinical parameters do not allow accurate risk stratification, and personalized therapies are lacking. In fact, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is often over- or undertreated because of this lack of accurate risk stratification. In recent years, the early detection of chemoresistance by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography has become the most important prognostic tool in the management of HL. However, to date, no prognostic scores or molecular markers are available for the early identification of patients at very high risk of failure of induction therapy. In the last decade, many important advances have been made in understanding the biology of HL. In particular, the development of new molecular profiling technologies, such as SNP arrays, comparative genomic hybridization, and gene-expression profiling, have allowed the identification of new prognostic factors that may be useful for risk stratification and predicting response to chemotherapy. In this review, we focus on the prognostic tools and biomarkers that are available for newly diagnosed HL, and we highlight recent advances in the genomic characterization of classical HL and potential targets for therapy. PMID:21542892

  9. Safety, long-term outcomes and predictors of recurrence after first-line combined endoepicardial ventricular tachycardia substrate ablation in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Impact of arrhythmic substrate distribution pattern. A prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Berruezo, Antonio; Acosta, Juan; Fernández-Armenta, Juan; Pedrote, Alonso; Barrera, Alberto; Arana-Rueda, Eduardo; Bodegas, Andrés Ignacio; Anguera, Ignasi; Tercedor, Luis; Penela, Diego; Andreu, David; Perea, Rosario Jesus; Prat-González, Susana; Mont, Lluis

    2017-04-01

    First-line endoepicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation has been proposed for patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC). This study reports procedural safety, outcomes, and predictors of recurrence. Forty-one consecutive patients [12 with left ventricle (LV) involvement, 7 left-dominant] underwent first-line endoepicardial VT substrate ablation. Standard bipolar and unipolar thresholds were used to define low-voltage areas (LVA). Arrhythmogenic substrate area (ASA) was defined as the area containing electrograms with delayed components. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator interrogations were evaluated for VT recurrence. Epicardial LVA was larger in all cases (102.5 ± 78.6 vs. 19.3 ± 24.4 cm2; P< 0.001). Consistent with an epicardium-to-endocardium arrhythmogenic substrate progression pattern, epicardial ASA (epi-ASA) was negatively correlated with bipolar endocardial LVA (r = -0.368; P= 0.035) and with endocardial bipolar/unipolar-LVA (Bi/Uni-LVA) ratio (r= -0.38; P= 0.037). A Bi/Uni-LVA ratio >0.23 predicted an epi-ASA ≤10 cm2 (100% sensitivity, 84% specificity). Patients showing an epi-ASA < 10 cm2 required less epicardial (8.4 ± 5.8 vs. 25.3 ± 16; P= 0.045) and more endocardial (16.5 ± 8.6 vs. 7.5 ± 8.2; P= 0.047) radiofrequency applications. One patient with epi-ASA < 10 cm2 died of cardiac tamponade after epicardial puncture. Acute success (no VT inducibility after procedure) was achieved in 36 patients (90%). After 32.2 ± 21.8 months, 11 (26.8%) patients had VT recurrences. Left-dominant AC was associated with an increased risk of recurrence (HR = 3.41 [1.1-11.2], P= 0.044; log-rank P= 0.021). First-line endoepicardial VT substrate ablation achieves good long-term results in AC. Left-dominant AC is associated with an increased risk of recurrence. The Bi/Uni-LVA ratio identifies patients with limited epicardial arrhythmogenic substrate in whom the indication of epicardial approach should be more cautiously assessed.

  10. Prediction of en-route complications during interfacility transport by outcome predictive scores in ED.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y K; Lui, C T; Li, K K; Wong, C Y; Lee, M M; Tong, W L; Ong, K L; Tang, S Y H

    2016-05-01

    The objective was to determine the accuracy of the outcome predictive scores (Modified Early Warning Score [MEWS]; Hypotension, Low Oxygen Saturation, Low Temperature, Abnormal ECG, Loss of Independence [HOTEL] score; and Simple Clinical Score [SCS]) in predicting en-route complications during interfacility transport (IFT) in emergency department. This was a retrospective cohort study. All IFT cases by ambulances with either nurse-led or physician-led escort, occurring between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012, were included. Obstetric and pediatric cases (age < 18 years) were excluded. The condition of patients was quantified by using the predictive scores (MEWS, HOTEL, and SCS) at triage station and on ambulance departure. The accuracy of predictive scores was compared by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. A total of 659 cases were included. Seventeen cases had en-route complications (2.6%). The complication rate in physician-escorted transport (2.2%) was similar to that in nurse-escorted transport (2.6%). None of the 57 intubated cases had en-route complications. The area under the ROC curve for MEWS was 0.662 (triage) and 0.479 (departure). The accuracy of MEWS at triage was better than that at departure (P = .049). The area under the ROC curve for HOTEL was 0.613 (triage) and 0.597 (departure), and that for SCS was 0.6 (triage) and 0.568 (departure). In general, the predictive scores at triage were better than those on departure. None of the scores had good accuracy in prediction of en-route complications during IFT. MEWS at triage was among the best one already but was not ideal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimizing electrode placement using finite-element models in radiofrequency ablation treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Cheng R; Miga, Michael I; Galloway, Robert L

    2009-02-01

    Conventional radiofrequency ablation (RFA) planning methods for identifying suitable electrode placements typically use geometric shapes to model ablation outcomes. A method is presented for searching electrode placements that couples finite-element models (FEMs) of RFA together with a novel optimization strategy. The method was designed to reduce the need for model solutions per local search step. The optimization strategy was tested against scenarios requiring single and multiple ablations. In particular, for a scenario requiring multiple ablations, a domain decomposition strategy was described to minimize the complexity of simultaneously searching multiple electrode placements. The effects of nearby vasculature on optimal electrode placement were also studied. Compared with geometric planning approaches, FEMs could potentially deliver electrode placement plans that provide more physically meaningful predictions of therapeutic outcomes.

  12. Improved ischemic stroke outcome prediction using model estimation of outcome probability: the THRIVE-c calculation.

    PubMed

    Flint, Alexander C; Rao, Vivek A; Chan, Sheila L; Cullen, Sean P; Faigeles, Bonnie S; Smith, Wade S; Bath, Philip M; Wahlgren, Nils; Ahmed, Niaz; Donnan, Geoff A; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2015-08-01

    The Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events (THRIVE) score is a previously validated ischemic stroke outcome prediction tool. Although simplified scoring systems like the THRIVE score facilitate ease-of-use, when computers or devices are available at the point of care, a more accurate and patient-specific estimation of outcome probability should be possible by computing the logistic equation with patient-specific continuous variables. We used data from 12 207 subjects from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive and the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke - Monitoring Study to develop and validate the performance of a model-derived estimation of outcome probability, the THRIVE-c calculation. Models were built with logistic regression using the underlying predictors from the THRIVE score: age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and the Chronic Disease Scale (presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or atrial fibrillation). Receiver operator characteristics analysis was used to assess model performance and compare the THRIVE-c model to the traditional THRIVE score, using a two-tailed Chi-squared test. The THRIVE-c model performed similarly in the randomly chosen development cohort (n = 6194, area under the curve = 0·786, 95% confidence interval 0·774-0·798) and validation cohort (n = 6013, area under the curve = 0·784, 95% confidence interval 0·772-0·796) (P = 0·79). Similar performance was also seen in two separate external validation cohorts. The THRIVE-c model (area under the curve = 0·785, 95% confidence interval 0·777-0·793) had superior performance when compared with the traditional THRIVE score (area under the curve = 0·746, 95% confidence interval 0·737-0·755) (P < 0·001). By computing the logistic equation with patient-specific continuous variables in the THRIVE-c calculation, outcomes at the individual patient level are more accurately estimated. Given the widespread

  13. Novel contact force sensor incorporated in irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter predicts lesion size and incidence of steam pop and thrombus.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Katsuaki; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Shah, Dipen C; Lambert, Hendrik; Leo, Giovanni; Aeby, Nicolas; Ikeda, Atsushi; Pitha, Jan V; Sharma, Tushar; Lazzara, Ralph; Jackman, Warren M

    2008-12-01

    An open-irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation catheter was developed to measure contact force (CF). Three optical fibers measure microdeformation of the catheter tip. The purpose of this study was to (1) validate the accuracy of CF sensor (CFS) (bench test); and (2) determine the relationship between CF and tissue temperatures, lesion size, steam pop, and thrombus during RF ablation using a canine thigh muscle preparation. CFS measurements (total 1409) from 2 catheters in 3 angles (perpendicular, parallel, and 45 degrees ) were compared with a certified balance (range, 0 to 50 g). CFS measurements correlated highly (R(2) > or =0.988; mean error, < or =1.0 g). In 10 anesthetized dogs, a skin cradle over the thigh muscle was superfused with heparinized blood at 37 degrees C. A 7F catheter with 3.5-mm saline-irrigated electrode and CFS (Endosense) was held perpendicular to the muscle at CF of 2, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g. RF was delivered (n=100) for 60 seconds at 30 or 50 W (irrigation 17 or 30 mL/min). Tissue temperature (3 and 7 mm depths), lesion size, thrombus, and steam pop increased significantly with increasing CF at each RF power. Lesion size was greater with applications of lower power (30 W) and greater CF (30 to 40 g) than at high power (50 W) with lower CF (2 to 10 g). This novel ablation catheter, which accurately measures CF, confirmed CF is a major determinant of RF lesion size. Steam pop and thrombus incidence also increases with CF. CFS in an open-irrigated ablation catheter that may optimize the selection of RF power and application time to maximize lesion formation and reduce the risk of steam pop and thrombus.

  14. Predicting postoperative visual outcomes in cataract patients with maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Macky, Tamer A; Mohamed, Abdel Moniem Hasaballah; Emarah, Ahmed M; Osman, Amr Abdellatif; Gado, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of the potential acuity meter (PAM) in predicting postcataract surgery visual acuity outcome in patients with healed inactive maculopathies. Study Design: Prospective interventional clinical trial. Patients and Methods: Patients scheduled for phacoemulsification had preoperative and 1 month postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), PAM test, fluorescein angiography, and macular optical coherence tomography. Patients were grouped to following preoperative BCVA: PRE1: 0.29 and better, PRE2: 0.25–0.13, and PRE3: 0.1 or worse; age: G1 <60, G2 = 60–70, and G3 >70 years. PAM accuracy was divided into: Grade 1: Postoperative BCVA ≤1 or less line error of the PAM score, Grade 2: Between 1 and 2 lines error, and Grade 3: ≥3 lines or more error. Results: This study enrolled 57 patients with a mean age of 71.05 ± 6.78 years where 34 were females. There were 21 (36.84%) patients with diabetic maculopathy and 36 (63.16%) with age-related macular degeneration. The mean preoperative BCVA was 0.198 ± 0.12 (0.1–0.5). The mean PAM score was 0.442 ± 0.24 (0.1–1.3). The mean postoperative BCVA was 0.4352 ± 0.19 (0.17–1.00). The PAM score was in Grade 1, 2, and 3 in 46 (80.7%), 54 (94.7%), and 56 (98.2), respectively. There was a highly significant correlation between the PAM score and the postoperative BCVA (P < 0.001, Chi-square test). There was no correlation between the PAM test accuracy and age, gender, diagnosis, and preoperative BCVA (P = 0.661, 0.667, 0. 0.991, 0.833, Chi-square test; respectively). Conclusion: The PAM is an accurate method of predicting postoperative visual acuity for eyes with nuclear cataracts Grade I and II and inactive maculopathies. PMID:26655002

  15. Genomic Contributors to Rhythm Outcome of Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation – Pathway Enrichment Analysis of GWAS Data

    PubMed Central

    Ueberham, Laura; Dinov, Borislav; Sommer, Philipp; Arya, Arash; Hindricks, Gerhard; Bollmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Left atrial enlargement and persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) are well-known predictors for arrhythmia recurrence after AF catheter ablation (LRAF). In this study, by using pathway enrichment analysis of GWAS data, we tested the hypothesis that genetic pathways associated with these phenotypes are also associated with LRAF. Methods Samples from 660 patients with paroxysmal (n = 370) or persistent AF (n = 290) undergoing de-novo AF catheter ablation were genotyped for ~1,000,000 SNPs. SNPs found to be significantly associated with left atrial diameter (LAD) or AF type were used for gene-based association tests in a systematic biological Knowledge-based mining system for Genome-wide Genetic studies (KGG). Associated genes were tested for pathway enrichment using WEB-based Gene SeT AnaLysis Toolkit (WebGestalt), the Gene Annotation Tool to Help Explain Relationships (GATHER) and the databases provided by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). In a second step, the association of consistently enriched pathways and LRAF was tested. Results By using sequential 7-day Holter ECGs, LRAF between 3 and 12 months was observed in 48% and was associated with LAD (B = 1.801, 95% CI 0.760–2.841, p = 1.0E-3) and persistent AF (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.567–2.931, p = 2.0E-6). WebGestalt (adj. p = 2.7E-22) and GATHER (adj. p = 5.2E-3) identified the calcium signaling pathway (hsa04020) as the only consistently enriched pathway for LAD, while the extracellular matrix (ECM) -receptor interaction pathway (hsa04512) was the only consistently enriched pathway for AF type (adj. p = 2.1E-15 in WebGestalt; adj. p = 9.3E-4 in GATHER). Both calcium signaling (adj. p = 2.2E-17 in WebGestalt; adj. p = 2.9E-2 in GATHER) and ECM-receptor interaction (adj. p = 1.2E-10 in WebGestalt; adj. p = 2.9E-2 in GATHER) were significantly associated with LRAF. Conclusions Calcium signaling and ECM-receptor interaction pathways are associated with LAD and AF type and, in turn, with LRAF

  16. Catheter Ablation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you during the procedure. Machines will measure your heart’s activity. All types of ablation require cardiac catheterization to place flexible tubes, or catheters, inside your heart to make the scars. Your doctor will clean ...

  17. Intracranial EEG in predicting surgical outcome in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Martin; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    Surgery in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) has a worse prognosis regarding seizure freedom than anterior lobectomy in temporal lobe epilepsy. The current study aimed to assess whether intracranial interictal and ictal EEG findings in addition to clinical and scalp EEG data help to predict outcome in a series of patients who needed invasive recording for FLE surgery. Patients with FLE who had resective surgery after chronic intracranial EEG recording were included. Outcome predictors were compared in patients with seizure freedom (group 1) and those with recurrent seizures (group 2) at 19-24 months after surgery. Twenty-five patients (16 female) were included in this study. Mean age of patients at epilepsy surgery was 32.3 ± 15.6 years (range 12-70); mean duration of epilepsy was 16.9 ± 13.4 years (range 1-48). In each outcome group, magnetic resonance imaging revealed frontal lobe lesions in three patients. Fifteen patients (60%) were seizure-free (Engel class 1), 10 patients (40%) continued to have seizures (two were class II, three were class III, and five were class IV). Lack of seizure freedom was seen more often in patients with epilepsy surgery on the left frontal lobe (group 1, 13%; group 2, 70%; p = 0.009) and on the dominant (27%; 70%; p = 0.049) hemisphere as well as in patients without aura (29%; 80%; p = 0.036), whereas sex, age at surgery, duration of epilepsy, and presence of an MRI lesion in the frontal lobe or extrafrontal structures were not different between groups. Electroencephalographic characteristics associated with lack of seizure freedom included presence of interictal epileptiform discharges in scalp recordings (31%; 90%; p = 0.01). Detailed analysis of intracranial EEG revealed widespread (>2 cm) (13%; 70%; p = 0.01) in contrast to focal seizure onset as well as shorter latency to onset of seizure spread (5.8 ± 6.1 s; 1.5 ± 2.3 s; p = 0.016) and to ictal involvement of brain structures beyond the frontal lobe (23.5 ± 22.4 s; 5.8 ± 5.4 s

  18. Developing demographic toxicity data: optimizing effort for predicting population outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Stark, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that population endpoints in risk assessment are far more accurate than static assessments. Complete demographic toxicity data based on full life tables are eminently useful in predicting population outcomes in many applications because they capture both lethal and sublethal effects; however, developing these life tables is extremely costly. In this study we investigated the efficiency of partial life cycle tests as a substitute for full life cycles in parameterizing population models. Life table data were developed for three species of Daphniids, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and D. pulex, weekly throughout the life span of these species. Population growth rates (λ) and a series of other demographic parameters generated from the complete life cycle were compared to those calculated from cumulative weeks of the life cycle in order to determine the minimum number of weeks needed to generate an accurate population projection. Results showed that for C. dubia and D. pulex, λ values developed at >4 weeks (44.4% of the life cycle) were not significantly different from λ developed for the full life cycle (9 weeks) of each species. For D. magna, λ values developed at >7 weeks (70% of the life cycle) were not significantly different from λ developed for the full life cycle (10 weeks). Furthermore, these cutoff points for λ were not the same for other demographic parameters, with no clear pattern emerging. Our results indicate that for C. dubia, D. magna, and D. pulex, partial life tables can be used to generate population growth rates in lieu of full life tables. However, the implications of differences in cutoff points for different demographic parameters need to be investigated further. PMID:27257546

  19. Predictive analysis of factors associated with percutaneous stone surgery outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fentes, Daniel A; Gude, Francisco; Blanco, Miguel; Novoa, Rosa; Freire, Camilo García

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify surgical, patient- and stone-related factors predictive of clinical success and complications after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We prospectively studied 100 consecutive PCNL procedures. Univariate and multiple regression models were used in order to identify which variables could act as independent predictors of PCNL outcomes. Success was defined as complete absence of fragments in a non-contrast CT. The Clavien-modified grading system was used to classify the complications. Univariate analysis showed that patients rendered stone-free had a significantly lower stone burden, shorter operating times, single stones and non-struvite composed calculi. Patient age, nephrostomy tract dilation with high pressure balloon and a stone composition different to struvite behaved as significant protective factors for complications. Logistic regression models revealed that the main independent prognostic factor for success was stone surface (OR = 0.997 per mm2, p = 0.000), followed by multiple stones (OR = 0.203, p = 0.050). On the other hand, struvite composition (OR = 5.911, p = 0.028) was an independent predictor for the development of complications, whilst age (OR = 0.936, p = 0.012) and high pressure balloon dilation (OR = 0.041, p = 0.007) were rendered independent protective variables. Stone burden and multiple calculi in the kidney affect the immediate stone-free rate, whilst Amplatz dilation, struvite stones and young patients lead to a higher incidence of postoperative complications. This information can be very useful for patient counseling, regarding percutaneous kidney stone management.

  20. Volumetric MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation with a one-layer strategy to treat large uterine fibroids: initial clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo Keun; Keserci, Bilgin; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate initial clinical outcomes of volumetric magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation by using a one-layer strategy to treat large (>10 cm in diameter) uterine fibroids, with investigation of the correlation between effectiveness of the one-layer strategy and dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) MR parameters. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Twenty-seven women (mean age, 44.5 years) with 27 large uterine fibroids (mean diameter, 11.3 cm ± 1.4 [standard deviation] [range, 10.1-16.0 cm]; fibroid volume, 502.5 mL ± 214.3 [range, 253.8-1184.0 mL]) underwent volumetric MR-guided HIFU ablation with a one-layer strategy. (All treatment cells were placed in one coronal plane at a depth of half to anterior two-thirds of the anteroposterior dimension of fibroids.) Treatment time, immediate nonperfused volume (NPV), and effectiveness of a one-layer strategy (ratio of immediate NPV to total volume of treatment cells planned) correlating with baseline DCE MR parameters (volume transfer constant [K(trans)], fractional extravascular extracellular space, and fractional blood plasma volume [Pearson correlation test]), complications, 3-month follow-up volumes, and symptom severity score (SSS) changes (paired t test) were assessed retrospectively. All treatments showed technical success in one session (mean treatment time, 166.2 minutes ± 38.9). NPV was 301.3 mL ± 119.1, which was 64.2% ± 19.9 (<50%, n = 4; ≥ 50%, n = 23) of fibroid volume. Ratio of immediate NPV to total volume of treatment cells (1.79 ± 0.61) negatively correlated with DCE MR imaging K(trans) values (r = -0.426, P = .017). Minor complications occurred in five patients (18.5% [thermal injury of abdominal wall, n = 3; 30-day leg numbness, n = 1; cystitis, n = 1]). At 3-month follow-up (n = 18), mean SSS had decreased from 37.4 at baseline to 24.0 (P < .001), and volume reduction ratio was 0.64 ± 0.15 (P < .001

  1. Percutaneous Ablation in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Bradford J.; Gervais, Debra A.

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous ablation in the kidney is now performed as a standard therapeutic nephron-sparing option in patients who are poor candidates for resection. Its increasing use has been largely prompted by the rising incidental detection of renal cell carcinomas with cross-sectional imaging and the need to preserve renal function in patients with comorbid conditions, multiple renal cell carcinomas, and/or heritable renal cancer syndromes. Clinical studies to date indicate that radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation are effective therapies with acceptable short- to intermediate-term outcomes and with a low risk in the appropriate setting, with attention to pre-, peri-, and postprocedural detail. The results following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma are reviewed in this article, including those of several larger scale studies of ablation of T1a tumors. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the kidney are presented, and potential complications are discussed. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:22012904

  2. Predicting facial nerve invasion by parotid gland carcinoma and outcome of facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Preis, M; Soudry, E; Bachar, G; Shufel, H; Feinmesser, R; Shpitzer, T

    2010-01-01

    We sought to define risk factors for facial nerve involvement in parotid gland carcinoma and assess the outcome of facial nerve reanimation. Medical records were reviewed of 66 patients who underwent surgery for parotid carcinoma in 2000–2007 at a tertiary hospital. Patient and tumor characteristics were compared between patients with and without facial nerve involvement and were analyzed on their influence on functional outcome following reanimation. Facial nerve involvement was verified intraoperatively in 24 patients, of whom 16 underwent reanimation during ablative surgery. Deep lobe invasion was significantly associated with intraoperative finding of facial nerve involvement. Tumors larger than 4 cm and salivary duct carcinoma had an obvious trend for facial nerve involvement. House-Brackmann score at 12 months was 3-4 in most patients. Deep lobe involvement and large tumor size may identify patients at risk of facial nerve involvement. Reanimation is associated with good functional outcome regardless of patient's age.

  3. Combining radiofrequency ablation and ethanol injection may achieve comparable long-term outcomes in larger hepatocellular carcinoma (3.1-4 cm) and in high-risk locations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji-Wei; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Shi-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is more effective for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) < 3 cm. Combining percutaneous ethanol injection and RFA for HCC can increase ablation; however, the long-term outcome remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare long-term outcomes between patients with HCC of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4 cm and in high-risk versus non-high-risk locations after combination therapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival and the secondary endpoint was local tumor progression (LTP). Fifty-four consecutive patients with 72 tumors were enrolled. Twenty-two (30.6%) tumors and 60 (83.3%) tumors were of 3.1-4 cm and in high-risk locations, respectively. Primary technique effectiveness was comparable between HCC of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4 cm (98% vs. 95.5%, p = 0.521), and HCC in non-high risk and high-risk locations (100% vs. 96.7%, p = 1.000). The cumulative survival rates at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 90.3%, 78.9%, and 60.3%, respectively, in patients with HCC of 2-3 cm; 95.0%, 84.4%, and 69.3% in HCC of 3.1-4.0 cm (p = 0.397); 90.0%, 71.1%, and 71.1% in patients with HCC in non-high-risk locations; and 92.7%, 81.6%, and 65.4% in high-risk locations (p = 0.979). The cumulative LTP rates at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 10.2%, 32.6%, and 32.6%, respectively, in all HCCs; 12.6%, 33.9%, and 33.9% in HCC of 2-3 cm; 4.8%, 29.5%, and 29.5% in HCC of 3.1-4 cm (p = 0.616); 16.7%, 50.0%, and 50.0% in patients with HCC in non-high-risk locations; and 8.8%, 29.9%, and 29.9% in patients with HCC in high-risk locations (p = 0.283). The cumulative survival and LTP rates were not significantly different among the various subgroups. Combining RFA and percutaneous ethanol injection achieved comparable long-term outcomes in HCCs of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4.0 cm and in high-risk versus non-high-risk locations. A randomized controlled or cohort studies with larger sample size are warranted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Comparison of 12-w versus 14-w endovenous laser ablation in the treatment of great saphenous varicose veins: 5-year outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Nehemiah; Wallace, Tom; Carradice, Daniel; Mazari, Fayyaz A K; Chetter, Ian C

    2013-07-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for lower limb varicose veins in the short and midterm results. This study reports the 5-year outcomes of EVLA technique at different power settings. Patients with primary symptomatic, unilateral varicose veins secondary to saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) incompetence and great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux were recruited and randomized to either 12W (intermittent laser withdrawal) or 14W (continuous laser withdrawal). They were assessed at baseline, 1, 6, 12, 52, 104 weeks, and 5 years. Outcome measures included: Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), pain scores, time taken to return to normal functions, complications, recurrence, quality of life (QoL), and duplex ultrasound findings. 76 consecutive patients, M: F 30:46, median age 54(IQR: 37.3-59) years were randomized. Intragroup analysis: Significant improvement was seen in both groups in VCSS, pain scores, Aberdeen varicose vein questionnaire (AVVQ) scores, Shortform-36 (SF-36) and Euroqol (EQ-5D) domains over the follow-up period (P < 0.05). Intergroup analysis: Over 5 years, clinically recurrent varicosities and duplex detected SFJ incompetence was less frequent and patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcome significantly higher in the 14W group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in duration of procedure, postoperative pain scores, return to normal functioning, complications, VCSS, disease specific (AVVQ) and generic (SF36, EQ-5D) QoL measures (P > 0.05). Late outcomes following EVLA were superior for the 14W continuous power settings achieving better long term venous occlusion and lowered recurrence rates without increasing post-operative morbidity. Hence 14W continuous setting should be the energy delivery mode of choice.

  5. Comparison of clinical outcome parameters, the Patient Benefit Index (PBI-k) and patient satisfaction after ablative fractional laser treatment of peri-orbital rhytides.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Syrus; Raulin, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Laser treatment of facial rhytides has evolved as a major modality of aesthetic surgery. Published results, while generally encouraging, feature highly diverse evaluation methods, which makes an evidence-based assessment of treatment efficacy and safety all but impossible. To compare the results of different instruments of measurement. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled and completed the entire study. They received a single ablative fractional treatment of the peri-orbital region. The evaluation included the Fitzpatrick wrinkle score, the profilometric measurement of wrinkle depth and the Patient Benefit Index (both before and 3 months after treatment) as well as the assessment of patient satisfaction (1, 3, 6 days and 3 months after treatment). All assessment instruments showed a significant, albeit moderate, improvement. The agreement between assessment methods was poor. Despite claiming to assess basically the same parameter, the Fitzpatrick wrinkle score and profilometry differed significantly, and neither assessment instrument showed any appreciable correlation with any other. The outcome assessment of rhytide therapy-regardless of the method used-shows substantial room for improvement. Strict methodological precautions ought to be applied for 'objective' evaluation methods like photographic scoring and profilometry. Subjective methods of assessment are essential and might serve as a main outcome parameter. Finally, critical reappraisal of published treatment results seems warranted to review the quality of their methodology.

  6. Short-Term Outcomes and Safety of Computed Tomography-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Solitary Adrenal Metastasis from Lung Cancer: A Multi-Center Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Men, Min; Ye, Xin; Fan, Weijun; Zhang, Kaixian; Bi, Jingwang; Yang, Xia; Zheng, Aimin; Huang, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the short-term outcomes and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) of solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer. From May 2010 to April 2014, 31 patients with unilateral adrenal metastasis from lung cancer who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous MWA were enrolled. This study was conducted with approval from local Institutional Review Board. Clinical outcomes and complications of MWA were assessed. Their tumors ranged from 1.5 to 5.4 cm in diameter. After a median follow-up period of 11.1 months, primary efficacy rate was 90.3% (28/31). Local tumor progression was detected in 7 (22.6%) of 31 cases. Their median overall survival time was 12 months. The 1-year overall survival rate was 44.3%. Median local tumor progression-free survival time was 9 months. Local tumor progression-free survival rate was 77.4%. Of 36 MWA sessions, two (5.6%) had major complications (hypertensive crisis). CT-guided percutaneous MWA may be fairly safe and effective for treating solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer.

  7. Short-Term Outcomes and Safety of Computed Tomography-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Solitary Adrenal Metastasis from Lung Cancer: A Multi-Center Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Men, Min; Fan, Weijun; Zhang, Kaixian; Bi, Jingwang; Yang, Xia; Zheng, Aimin; Huang, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the short-term outcomes and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) of solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer. Materials and Methods From May 2010 to April 2014, 31 patients with unilateral adrenal metastasis from lung cancer who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous MWA were enrolled. This study was conducted with approval from local Institutional Review Board. Clinical outcomes and complications of MWA were assessed. Results Their tumors ranged from 1.5 to 5.4 cm in diameter. After a median follow-up period of 11.1 months, primary efficacy rate was 90.3% (28/31). Local tumor progression was detected in 7 (22.6%) of 31 cases. Their median overall survival time was 12 months. The 1-year overall survival rate was 44.3%. Median local tumor progression-free survival time was 9 months. Local tumor progression-free survival rate was 77.4%. Of 36 MWA sessions, two (5.6%) had major complications (hypertensive crisis). Conclusion CT-guided percutaneous MWA may be fairly safe and effective for treating solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer. PMID:27833402

  8. Theoretical Modeling for Hepatic Microwave Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Punit

    2010-01-01

    Thermal tissue ablation is an interventional procedure increasingly being used for treatment of diverse medical conditions. Microwave ablation is emerging as an attractive modality for thermal therapy of large soft tissue targets in short periods of time, making it particularly suitable for ablation of hepatic and other tumors. Theoretical models of the ablation process are a powerful tool for predicting the temperature profile in tissue and resultant tissue damage created by ablation devices. These models play an important role in the design and optimization of devices for microwave tissue ablation. Furthermore, they are a useful tool for exploring and planning treatment delivery strategies. This review describes the status of theoretical models developed for microwave tissue ablation. It also reviews current challenges, research trends and progress towards development of accurate models for high temperature microwave tissue ablation. PMID:20309393

  9. New insights into typical atrial flutter ablation: extra-isthmus activation time on the flutter wave is predictive of extra-isthmus conduction time after isthmus block.

    PubMed

    Latcu, Decebal Gabriel; Bun, Sok-Sithikun; Arnoult, Mathieu; Ricard, Philippe; Rinaldi, Jean-Paul; Saoudi, Nadir

    2013-01-01

    Catheter ablation of typical atrial flutter (AFl) is succesful if double electrograms on the ablation line are widely separated. Nevertheless, a small interval may also be compatible with complete isthmus block. Predicting such a situation may avoid useless additionnal radiofrequency (RF) applications. We postulated that measuring the extra-isthmus activation time (EIAT) on the counterclockwise (CCW) flutter wave is correlated with the extra-isthmus conduction time after a proven block. Files of 76 patients (71 males, 71 ± 12 years) ablated for typical CCW AFl were reviewed. Ten had 2/1 conduction prohibiting reliable measurement. Three patients with proven crista terminalis shunt were also excluded. In the remaining 63 patients, EIAT was measured on the surface ECG before the first RF pulse from the beginning of the negative deflection of the F wave in lead III to the end of the positive deflection (or beginning of the plateau). After successful ablation and completion of block, right atrial (RA) CCW (during low septal pacing), and clockwise (CW) (during low lateral pacing) activation times were measured. Flutter cycle length was 247 ± 34 ms and EIAT was 142 ± 25 ms. A bidirectionnal isthmus block was obtained in all patients after an RF delivery time of 623 ± 546 s. At a pacing cycle length of 681 ± 71 ms, RA CCW and CW activation times were 147 ± 23 and 139 ± 26 ms, respectively. There was a good correlation between EIA, RA CCW (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001), and CW (r = 0.69, p = 0.0002) activation times. EIAT on the flutter wave is an easy and feasible measure. It is correlated with extra-isthmus RA conduction time after block completion. EIAT can be used as a measure to predict the post cavo-tricuspid isthmus block RA activation time.

  10. Tumour ablation: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Gerlig; Bodner, Gerd; Bale, Reto

    2009-10-02

    Image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive, relatively low-risk procedure for tumour treatment. Local recurrence and survival rates depend on the rate of complete ablation of the entire tumour including a sufficient margin of surrounding healthy tissue. Currently a variety of different RFA devices are available. The interventionalist must be able to predict the configuration and extent of the resulting ablation necrosis. Accurate planning and execution of RFA according to the size and geometry of the tumour is essential. In order to minimize complications, individualized treatment strategies may be necessary for tumours close to vital structures. This review examines the state-of-the art of different device technologies, approaches, and treatment strategies for percutaneous RFA of liver tumours.

  11. Usefulness of microvolt T-wave alternans for predicting outcome in patients with Chagas disease with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marco Paulo Tomaz; da Costa Rocha, Manoel Otávio; Neto, Elson Santos; Brandão, Fernando Vieira; Lombardi, Federico; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2016-11-01

    Chagas disease (ChD) may lead to life-threatening heart disease, including malignant ventricular arrhythmias. The use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has become the main therapeutic strategy for secondary prevention of SCD in Chagas disease (ChD). Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) is a direct measure of ventricular repolarization instability and has emerged as a potentially useful way of determining arrhythmia vulnerability. However, this methodology has not been evaluated in patients with ChD. To evaluate the predictive value of MTWA testing for appropriate therapy or death in ChD patients with ICDs. This prospective study included consecutive patients who received ICD implantations in a Brazilian tertiary referral center. Seventy-two patients were followed for a median time of 422 (range 294-642) days. Thirty-three patients had ChD. The MTWA was non-negative (positive or indeterminate) in 27 (81.8%) of ChD patients. The combined primary outcome (appropriate ICD therapy or death) occurred in 29 patients (40.3%); 17 out 33 ChD patients presented the primary outcome. There was a statistically significant difference in event-free survival between ChD patients with negative and non-negative MTWA results (p=0.02). Non-negative MTWA tests nearly triple the risk of appropriate ICD therapy or death (HR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.7-4.4, p=0.01) in patients with ChD and was the only variable associated with outcomes. The sensitivity and the negative predictive value was 100% in ChD patients. MTWA may be useful in recognizing high-risk ICD patients who may require adjunctive therapies with antiarrhythmic drugs or catheter ablation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathways and Their Application to Predictive Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    A quantitative adverse outcome pathway (qAOP) consists of one or more biologically based, computational models describing key event relationships linking a molecular initiating event (MIE) to an adverse outcome. A qAOP provides quantitative, dose–response, and time-course p...

  13. The Russian Diaspora in Latvia and Estonia: Predicting Language Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanov, Artemi

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the language situation in the Russian diaspora in Latvia and Estonia and analyzes these factors that are critical in determining language outcomes for a language community within one country that speaks a majority language of another. Examines the possibility of three outcomes: language maintenance, bilingualism, and language shift in a…

  14. Hazards of Hospitalization: Residence Prior to Admission Predicts Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan M.; Mendelson, Daniel A.; Bingham, Karilee W.; McCann, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies investigating adverse outcomes of hospitalized elders have focused on community-dwelling patients. Given the rapid growth of populations living in other settings, such as assisted living facilities, it is important to understand whether these patients are at higher risk of experiencing specific adverse outcomes during…

  15. Hazards of Hospitalization: Residence Prior to Admission Predicts Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan M.; Mendelson, Daniel A.; Bingham, Karilee W.; McCann, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies investigating adverse outcomes of hospitalized elders have focused on community-dwelling patients. Given the rapid growth of populations living in other settings, such as assisted living facilities, it is important to understand whether these patients are at higher risk of experiencing specific adverse outcomes during…

  16. Radiofrequency Ablation: A Nursing Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Locklin, Julia K.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2008-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has emerged as a safe and predictable technology for treating certain patients with cancer who otherwise have few treatment options. Nurses need to be familiar with all phases of the RFA procedure to create an optimal environment for patients. This article offers a brief review of the RFA procedure and nurses' responsibilities in caring for these patients. Before RFA, nurses should focus on patient education and aggressive hydration. During the procedure, nurses can prevent injury by placing grounding pads appropriately, monitoring vital signs, and medicating patients as needed. After RFA, nurses should assess the skin puncture site, provide adequate pain relief, and, again, hydrate patients. Nurses who care appropriately for RFA recipients may help to improve patient outcomes and make an otherwise frightening procedure more comfortable. PMID:15973845

  17. Ablation of hepatic malignant tumors with irreversible electroporation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Guo; Zhao, Qiyu; Chen, Fen; Jiang, Tian’an; Wang, Weilin

    2017-01-01

    Background Irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation is a new technique that is used to eliminate malignant tumors through nonthermal approaches. Objective The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficiency of IRE for hepatic malignant tumors. Methods A systematic search was performed from PubMed, Embase, Web of science, Scopus and other potential literatures from references in relevant articles July 26th, 2016. Overall estimates of pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for the changes of the pre- and post-IRE longest diameter, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum total bilirubin levels. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias and were performed after the pooled analysis, and the quality of the included literatures was appraised using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Results We finally included 300 patients (mean age: 51 to 66.6 years; male: 182; female: 118) from 9 studies of hepatic malignant tumors. The meta-analysis showed that comparing with the initial values, the longest diameter of the tumors was significantly decreased at the last follow-up months after IRE. Furthermore, the ALP, AST and total bilirubin levels were increased at 1 day after IRE while returned to baseline at the last follow-up month. No risk of publication bias was found, and all literatures were assessed good quality according to NOS. Conclusions The pooled data indicated that IRE could be a minimal invasive and effective approach for patients who had preoperative poor liver function or those whose masses were in refractory locations where surgical resection was unsuitable. PMID:28009979

  18. Predicting Community College Outcomes: Does High School CTE Participation Have a Significant Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Cecile; Lichtenberger, Eric; Kamalludeen, Rosemaliza

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relative importance of participation in high school career and technical education (CTE) programs in predicting community college outcomes. A hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) was used to predict community college outcome attainment among a random sample of direct community college entrants. Results show that…

  19. Role of Subdural Electrocorticography in Prediction of Long-Term Seizure Outcome in Epilepsy Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano, Eishi; Juhasz, Csaba; Shah, Aashit; Sood, Sandeep; Chugani, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    Since prediction of long-term seizure outcome using preoperative diagnostic modalities remains suboptimal in epilepsy surgery, we evaluated whether interictal spike frequency measures obtained from extraoperative subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) recording could predict long-term seizure outcome. This study included 61 young patients (age…

  20. Role of Subdural Electrocorticography in Prediction of Long-Term Seizure Outcome in Epilepsy Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano, Eishi; Juhasz, Csaba; Shah, Aashit; Sood, Sandeep; Chugani, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    Since prediction of long-term seizure outcome using preoperative diagnostic modalities remains suboptimal in epilepsy surgery, we evaluated whether interictal spike frequency measures obtained from extraoperative subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) recording could predict long-term seizure outcome. This study included 61 young patients (age…

  1. Longitudinal Prediction of Child Outcomes from Differing Measures of Parenting in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha J.; Weinfield, Nancy S.; Gallagher, Megan; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Ogawa, John R.; Egeland, Byron; Tabors, Patton O.; De Temple, Jeanne M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined predictions from preschool parenting measures to middle childhood cognitive and socioemotional child outcomes to explore whether parenting assessment methodologies that require more time, training, and expense yield better predictions of child outcomes than less intensive methodologies. Mother-child dyads (N=278) in low-income…

  2. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome with the Personal Experience Inventory (PEI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the clinical utility of the Personal Experience Inventory (PEI) Psychosocial scales to predict adolescent drug abuse treatment outcome. The role of psychosocial risk factors in predicting treatment outcome also has theoretical interest given that such factors have been associated with the development of…

  3. Longitudinal Prediction of Child Outcomes from Differing Measures of Parenting in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha J.; Weinfield, Nancy S.; Gallagher, Megan; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Ogawa, John R.; Egeland, Byron; Tabors, Patton O.; De Temple, Jeanne M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined predictions from preschool parenting measures to middle childhood cognitive and socioemotional child outcomes to explore whether parenting assessment methodologies that require more time, training, and expense yield better predictions of child outcomes than less intensive methodologies. Mother-child dyads (N=278) in low-income…

  4. Predictability of outcome of caustic ingestion by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Abdulkerim; Oguzkurt, Pelin; Ezer, Semire Serin; Ince, Emine; Hicsonmez, Akgun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the necessity of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) to predict the outcome of caustic ingestion in children. METHODS: The study included 206 children who underwent EGD because of ingestion of caustic substances between January 2005 and August 2010. Retrospective analysis of data of the patients was performed. RESULTS: The male/female ratio was 1.6 and mean age was 38.1 ± 28.8 mo. The caustic substances were acidic in 72 (34.9%) cases, alkaline in 56 (27.2%), liquid household bleach in 62 (30.1%), and unknown in 16 (7.8%). Fifty-seven (27.7%) patients were symptom-free. Significant clinical findings were observed in 149 (72.3%) patients. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings of esophageal injury were grade 0 in 86 (41.7%) patients, grade 1 in 49 (23.8%), grade 2a in 42 (20.4%), grade 2b in 28 (13.6%), and grade 3a in 1 (0.5%) patient. 35 patients with grade 2a, 2b, and 3a injuries underwent esophageal dilation at second week of ingestion. Esophageal stricture, which necessitated a regular dilation program developed in 13 of the aforementioned 35 patients. There is no statistically significant difference in the rate of development of esophageal stricture between the patients who ingested acidic (15.3%) and alkaline (8.9%) substances (P = 0.32). Severe gastric injury was detected in 38 (18.5%) patients. The rate of development of gastric injury was significantly higher in the acidic group (14%) than in the alkaline group (2.9%) (P = 0.001). Out of 149 patients with clinical findings, 49 (32.9%) patients had no esophageal injury and 117 (78.5%) patients had no gastric lesion. Esophageal and severe gastric injuries were detected in 20 (35.1%) and 8 (14%) of patients with no clinical findings respectively. Pyloric stenosis developed in 6 patients. Pyloric obstruction improved with balloon dilation in 2 patients. Mean hospitalization time were 1.2 ± 0.5 d for grade 0 and 2.3 ± 5 d for grade 1 and 6.3 ± 6.2 d for grade 2a and 15.8 ± 18.6 d for grade 2

  5. Diffuse ventricular fibrosis measured by T₁ mapping on cardiac MRI predicts success of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Alex J A; Ling, Liang-han; Azzopardi, Sonia; Ellims, Andris H; Iles, Leah M; Sellenger, Michael A; Morton, Joseph B; Kalman, Jonathan M; Taylor, Andrew J; Kistler, Peter M

    2014-10-01

    There is a complex interplay between the atria and ventricles in atrial fibrillation (AF). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging provides detailed tissue characterization, identifying focal ventricular fibrosis with late gadolinium enhancement (ventricular late gadolinium enhancement) and diffuse fibrosis with postcontrast-enhanced T1 mapping. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between postcontrast ventricular T1 relaxation time on CMR and freedom from AF after pulmonary vein isolation. One hundred three patients undergoing catheter ablation for symptomatic AF (66% paroxysmal AF; age, 58±10 years; left atrial area, 27±7 cm(2)) underwent preprocedure CMR to determine postcontrast ventricular T1 time. Follow-up included clinical review and 7-day Holter monitors at 6 monthly intervals. All patients underwent successful pulmonary vein isolation. At a mean follow-up of 15±7 months, the single procedure success was 74%. Postcontrast ventricular T1 time was significantly shorter in patients with recurrent AF (366±73 ms) versus patients without AF recurrence (428±90 ms; P=0.002). Univariate predictors of AF recurrence included postcontrast ventricular T1 time, AF type (paroxysmal versus persistent), AF duration, and body mass index. After multivariate analysis, ventricular T1 time (P=0.03) and AF duration (P=0.03) were the only independent predictors. Freedom from AF was present in 84% of patients with a postcontrast ventricular T1 time >380 ms versus 56% in patients with a postcontrast ventricular T1 time <380 ms (P=0.002). A shorter postcontrast ventricular T1 relaxation time on CMR is associated with reduced freedom from AF after catheter ablation. Diffuse ventricular fibrosis as demonstrated by CMR may, in part, explain recurrent AF after AF ablation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Predictive factors of long-term colorectal cancer survival after ultrasound-controlled ablation of hepatic metastases.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Socorro, Carmen Rosa; Saavedra, Pedro; Ramírez Felipe, José; Bohn Sarmiento, Uriel; Ruiz-Santana, Sergio

    2017-04-21

    The risk factors associated to long-term survival were assessed in patients with liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma undergoing ablative therapies. Single-centre cohort study, retrospectively analysed and prospectively collected consecutive patients with unresectable metastatic liver disease of colorectal carcinoma treated with ablative therapies between 1996 and 2013. Factors associated with survival time were identified using Cox's proportional hazard model with time-dependent covariates. A forward variable selection based on Akaike information criterion was performed. Relative risk and 95% confidence intervals for each factor were calculated. Statistical significance was set as P<.05. Seventy-five patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer, with a mean age of 65.6 (10.3) underwent 106 treatments. Variables selected were good quality of life (RR 0.308, 95% CI 0.150-0.632) and tumour extension (RR 3.070, 95% CI 1.776-5.308). The median overall survival was 18.5 months (95% CI 17.4-24.4). The survival prognosis in median was 13.5 vs. 23.4 months for patients with and without tumour extension, and 23.0 vs. 12.8 months for patients with good and fair or poor quality of life, respectively. Good quality of life and tumour extension were the only statistically significant predictors of long-term survival in patients of colorectal carcinoma with liver metastatic disease undergoing ablative treatment with ultrasound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Periprocedural complications and long-term outcome after alcohol septal ablation versus surgical myectomy in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Steggerda, Robbert C; Damman, Kevin; Balt, Jippe C; Liebregts, Max; ten Berg, Jurriën M; van den Berg, Maarten P

    2014-11-01

    This study compared alcohol septal ablation (ASA) and surgical myectomy for periprocedural complications and long-term clinical outcome in patients with symptomatic hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Debate remains whether ASA is equally effective and safe compared with myectomy. All procedures performed between 1981 and 2010 were evaluated for periprocedural complications and long-term clinical outcome. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality; secondary endpoints consisted of annual cardiac mortality, New York Heart Association functional class, rehospitalization for heart failure, reintervention, cerebrovascular accident, and myocardial infarction. A total of 161 patients after ASA and 102 patients after myectomy were compared during a maximal follow-up period of 11 years. The periprocedural (30-day) complication frequency after ASA was lower compared with myectomy (14% vs. 27%, p = 0.006), and median duration of in-hospital stay was shorter (5 days [interquartle range (IQR): 4 to 6 days] vs. 9 days [IQR: 6 to 12 days], p < 0.001). After ASA, provoked gradients were higher compared with myectomy (19 [IQR: 10 to 42] vs. 10 [IQR: 7 to 13], p < 0.001). After multivariate analysis, age (per 5 years) (hazard ratio: 1.34 [95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.65], p = 0.007) was the only independent predictor for all-cause mortality. Annual cardiac mortality after ASA and myectomy was comparable (0.7% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.15). During follow-up, no significant differences were found in symptomatic status, rehospitalization for heart failure, reintervention, cerebrovascular accident, or myocardial infarction between both groups. Survival and clinical outcome were good and comparable after ASA and myectomy. More periprocedural complications and longer duration of hospital stay after myectomy were offset by higher gradients after ASA. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Overview of data-synthesis in systematic reviews of studies on outcome prediction models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many prognostic models have been developed. Different types of models, i.e. prognostic factor and outcome prediction studies, serve different purposes, which should be reflected in how the results are summarized in reviews. Therefore we set out to investigate how authors of reviews synthesize and report the results of primary outcome prediction studies. Methods Outcome prediction reviews published in MEDLINE between October 2005 and March 2011 were eligible and 127 Systematic reviews with the aim to summarize outcome prediction studies written in English were identified for inclusion. Characteristics of the reviews and the primary studies that were included were independently assessed by 2 review authors, using standardized forms. Results After consensus meetings a total of 50 systematic reviews that met the inclusion criteria were included. The type of primary studies included (prognostic factor or outcome prediction) was unclear in two-thirds of the reviews. A minority of the reviews reported univariable or multivariable point estimates and measures of dispersion from the primary studies. Moreover, the variables considered for outcome prediction model development were often not reported, or were unclear. In most reviews there was no information about model performance. Quantitative analysis was performed in 10 reviews, and 49 reviews assessed the primary studies qualitatively. In both analyses types a range of different methods was used to present the results of the outcome prediction studies. Conclusions Different methods are applied to synthesize primary study results but quantitative analysis is rarely performed. The description of its objectives and of the primary studies is suboptimal and performance parameters of the outcome prediction models are rarely mentioned. The poor reporting and the wide variety of data synthesis strategies are prone to influence the conclusions of outcome prediction reviews. Therefore, there is much room for improvement

  9. Factors predicting rehabilitation outcomes of elderly patients with hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Chin, Raymond P H; Ng, Bobby H P; Cheung, Lydia P C

    2008-06-01

    To identify predictors of rehabilitation outcomes for the development of a case-mix system to rehabilitate patients suffering from hip fractures. Prospective cohort study. Two hospitals in Hong Kong. A cohort of hip fracture patients in 2005 (n=303) with a mean age of 82 years was studied. Rehabilitation outcomes were defined as: mortality, length of stay, placement, ambulation status, activity of daily living at the time of discharge and at 6-month follow-up. A comparison between groups and multivariate analysis was conducted to validate the best predictors. Potential predictors and rehabilitation outcomes. Two predictors, the Abbreviated Mental Test score of lower than 6 (odds ratio=0.19, P<0.05) and the Functional Independence Measures score of lower than 75 (odds ratio=38.0, P<0.05), at the time of admission to the rehabilitation setting were found to be related to outcomes. Our findings provided further support for a case-mix system based on these two factors, as they could correctly assign patients into three groups with different baseline characteristics and outcomes. A review of the possible limitations of the existing service with respect to each case-mix group was also conducted. A case-mix system utilising the cognition and activity of daily living function is recommended. Revisions of respective care plans are advocated with more realistic outcome expectations and specific actions for the respective case-mix groups. An evaluation study on the usefulness of this case-mix classification could then follow.

  10. Distinct regions of anterior cingulate cortex signal prediction and outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Andrew; Nee, Derek Evan; Alexander, William H; Brown, Joshua W

    2014-07-15

    A number of theories have been proposed to account for the role of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the broader medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in cognition. The recent Prediction of Response Outcome (PRO) computational model casts the mPFC in part as performing two theoretically distinct functions: learning to predict the various possible outcomes of actions, and then evaluating those predictions against the actual outcomes. Simulations have shown that this new model can account for an unprecedented range of known mPFC effects, but the central theory of distinct prediction and evaluation mechanisms within ACC remains untested. Using combined computational neural modeling and fMRI, we show here that prediction and evaluation signals are indeed each represented in the ACC, and furthermore, they are represented in distinct regions within ACC. Our task independently manipulated both the number of predicted outcomes and the degree to which outcomes violated expectancies, the former providing assessment of regions sensitive to prediction and the latter providing assessment of regions sensitive to evaluation. Using quantitative regressors derived from the PRO computational model, we show that prediction-based model signals load on a network including the posterior and perigenual ACC, but outcome evaluation model signals load on the mid-dorsal ACC. These findings are consistent with distinct prediction and evaluation signals as posited by the PRO model and provide new perspective on a large set of known effects within ACC.

  11. What could possibly go wrong? - A heuristic for predicting population health outcomes of interventions.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Alex

    2011-10-01

    Austin Bradford Hill offers a general heuristic for causal inference in epidemiology, but no general heuristic for prediction is available. This paper seeks to identify a heuristic for predicting the outcome of interventions on population health, informed by the moral context of such interventions. It is suggested that, where available, robust predictions should be preferred, where a robust prediction is one which, according to the best knowledge we are currently able to obtain, could not easily be wrong. To assess whether a prediction is robust, it is suggested that we ask why the predicted outcome will occur, rather than any other outcome. Firstly, if, according to our current knowledge, we cannot identify the likeliest ways that the other outcomes could occur, then the prediction is not robust. And secondly, if, according to our current knowledge, we can identify the likeliest other outcomes but we are unable to say why our predicted outcome will occur rather than these, then, again, our prediction is not robust. Otherwise, it is robust. The inaccurate but memorable short version of the heuristic is, "What could possibly go wrong?"

  12. [Current treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and ventricular tachycardia: surgical ablation versus catheter ablation?].

    PubMed

    Misaki, T; Watanabe, G; Iwa, T; Watanabe, Y

    1992-09-01

    From November 1973, 454 patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome underwent surgical ablation of accessory pathways. Overall curative rate was 94% in our series including 65 cases of simultaneous surgical repair for combined heart diseases. In recent months, radiofrequency catheter ablation was applied in 7 cases. There has been 2 failures, which have taken more than 2 hours of radiation exposure and have required surgery. There has been 47 patients who underwent surgical ablation for non-ischemic ventricular tachycardia. Forty cases (85%) had a successful outcome of surgical ablation and another 2 cases required DC catheter ablation postoperatively to eliminate ventricular tachycardias. In conclusion, radiofrequency ablation of WPW syndrome in patients without combined heart disease or multiple accessory pathways is feasible. Surgical ablation is effective and safe technique compared with catheter ablation in patients with ventricular tachycardia.

  13. Microwave Ablation Compared to Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatic Lesions: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ya Ruth; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of microwave (MW) ablation compared with radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatic lesions by using meta-analytic techniques. Overall, 16 studies involving 2,062 patients were included. MW ablation was found to have significantly better 6-year overall survival than RF ablation (odds ratio, 1.64, 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.35), but this was based on a few articles (n = 3 of 16). MW ablation and RF ablation had similar 1-5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, local recurrence rate, and adverse events. Based on similar safety and efficacy outcomes, either MW ablation or RF ablation may be used for effective local hepatic therapy. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting outcomes for youth transferred to adult court.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carol A; Mulvey, Edward P; Loughran, Thomas A; Fagan, Jeffrey; Chassin, Laurie A; Piquero, Alex R; Losoya, Sandra H; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    Extant research regarding juvenile transfer has focused primarily on the negative effects of current policies, with little consistent and rigorous work on the variation among the adolescents transferred to adult court and their later adjustment in the community. Using a sample of 193 transferred youth from Arizona, we consider how certain individual characteristics are related to four post-release outcomes (antisocial activity, re-arrest, re-institutionalization, and gainful activity). We find considerable variability in outcomes, with adjustment significantly and consistently related to certain legal and risk-need factors. These results indicate that some transferred youth may experience negative outcomes, and that refinements to transfer policy may benefit from consideration of these factors in determining which serious adolescent offenders are most appropriate for transfer.