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Sample records for ablation system coupled

  1. Comparison of laser ablation and dried solution aerosol as sampling systems in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coedo, A G; Padilla, I; Dorado, M T

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a study designed to determine the possibility of using a dried aerosol solution for calibration in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The relative sensitivities of tested materials mobilized by laser ablation and by aqueous nebulization were established, and the experimentally determined relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were used in conjunction with aqueous calibration for the analysis of solid steel samples. To such a purpose a set of CRM carbon steel samples (SS-451/1 to SS-460/1) were sampled into an ICP-MS instrument by solution nebulization using a microconcentric nebulizer with membrane desolvating (D-MCN) and by laser ablation (LA). Both systems were applied with the same ICP-MS operating parameters and the analyte signals were compared. The RSF (desolvated aerosol response/ablated solid response) values were close to 1 for the analytes Cr, Ni, Co, V, and W, about 1.3 for Mo, and 1.7 for As, P, and Mn. Complementary tests were carried out using CRM SS-455/1 as a solid standard for one-point calibration, applying LAMTRACE software for data reduction and quantification. The analytical results are in good agreement with the certified values in all cases, showing that the applicability of dried aerosol solutions is a good alternative calibration system for laser ablation sampling.

  2. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  3. Solution-based calibration strategy for laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using desolvating nebulizer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoxia; Li, Qing; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Zheng

    2018-07-01

    An additional quantification strategy using a desolvating nebulizer system (DNS) for solution-based calibration was developed. For quantitative analysis, laser ablation (LA) and DNS-generated aerosols were coupled using a "Y" connector and introduced into the inductively coupled plasma (ICP). These aerosols were also observed by scanning electron microscopy following collection on a silicon chip. Internal standards (108Ag, 64Cu, 89Y) were used to correct for the different aerosol transport efficiencies between the DNS and LA. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves for all elements ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9999. Standard reference materials (NIST 610-616 and GBW08407-08411) were used to demonstrate the accuracy and precision of the method. The results were in good agreement with certified values, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of most elements was <3%. The limits of detection (LODs) for 50Cr, 55Mn, 59Co, 60Ni, 66Zn, 89Y, 110Cd, 139La, 140Ce, 146Nd, 147Sm, 157Gd, 163Dy, 166Er, and 208Pb were 23, 3, 3, 19, 31, 4, 12, 0.4, 0.9, 0.1, 0.2, 2, 0.3, 0.4, and 21 ng/g, respectively, which were significantly better than those obtained by other methods. Further, this approach was applied for the analysis of multiple elements in biological tissues, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained using solution-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  4. Ablation and radiation coupled viscous hypersonic shock layers, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    The results for a stagnation-line analysis of the radiative heating of a phenolic-nylon ablator are presented. The analysis includes flow field coupling with the ablator surface, equilibrium chemistry, a step-function diffusion model and a coupled line and continuum radiation calculation. This report serves as the documentation, i e. users manual and operating instructions for the computer programs listed in the report.

  5. Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation of the fundamentals of ablative TPS materials for a short course at TFAWS 2017. It gives an overall description of what an ablator is, the equations that define it, and how to model it.

  6. Automated ablation of dental composite using an IR pulsed laser coupled to a plume emission spectral feedback system.

    PubMed

    Jang, Andrew T; Chan, Kenneth H; Fried, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assemble a laser system for the selective removal of dental composite from tooth surfaces, that is feasible for clinical use incorporating a spectral feedback system, a scanning system, articulating arm and a clinical hand-piece, and evaluate the performance of that system on extracted teeth. Ten extracted teeth were collected and small fillings were placed on the occlusal surface of each tooth. A clinical system featuring a CO 2 laser operating at 50 Hz and spectral optical feedback was used to remove the composite. Removal was confirmed using a cross polarized optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) system designed for clinical use. The system was capable of rapidly removing composite from small preparations on tooth occlusal surfaces with a mean loss of enamel of less than 20 μm. We have demonstrated that spectral feedback can be successfully employed in an automated system for composite removal by incorporating dual photodiodes and a galvanometer controlled CO 2 laser. Additionally, the use of registered OCT images presents as a viable method for volumetric benchmarking. Overall, this study represents the first implementation of spectral feedback into a clinical hand-piece and serves as a benchmark for a future clinical study. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:658-665, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Automated ablation of dental composite using an IR pulsed laser coupled to a plume emission spectral feedback system.

    PubMed

    Jang, Andrew T; Chan, Kenneth H; Fried, Daniel

    2017-01-28

    Dental composites are used as restorative materials for filling cavities, shaping, and covering teeth for esthetic purposes, and as adhesives. Dentists spend more time replacing existing restorations that fail than they do placing new restorations. Tooth colored restorations are difficult to differentiate from the surrounding tooth structure making them challenging to remove without damaging healthy tooth structure. Previous studies have demonstrated that CO 2 lasers in conjunction with spectral feedback can be used to selectively remove composite from tooth surfaces. The purpose of this study is to assemble a system that is feasible for clinical use incorporating a spectral feedback system, a scanning system, articulating arm and a clinical handpiece and then evaluate the performance of that system on extracted teeth. In addition, the selectivity of composite removal was analyzed using a high-speed optical coherence tomography system that is suitable for clinical use. The system was capable of rapidly removing composite from small preparations on tooth occlusal surfaces with a mean loss of enamel of less than 20-μm.

  8. Automated ablation of dental composite using an IR pulsed laser coupled to a plume emission spectral feedback system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Andrew T.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Dental composites are used as restorative materials for filling cavities, shaping, and covering teeth for esthetic purposes, and as adhesives. Dentists spend more time replacing existing restorations that fail than they do placing new restorations. Tooth colored restorations are difficult to differentiate from the surrounding tooth structure making them challenging to remove without damaging healthy tooth structure. Previous studies have demonstrated that CO2 lasers in conjunction with spectral feedback can be used to selectively remove composite from tooth surfaces. The purpose of this study is to assemble a system that is feasible for clinical use incorporating a spectral feedback system, a scanning system, articulating arm and a clinical handpiece and then evaluate the performance of that system on extracted teeth. In addition, the selectivity of composite removal was analyzed using a high-speed optical coherence tomography system that is suitable for clinical use. The system was capable of rapidly removing composite from small preparations on tooth occlusal surfaces with a mean loss of enamel of less than 20-μm.

  9. Implicit Coupling Approach for Simulation of Charring Carbon Ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Gokcen, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates that coupling of a material thermal response code and a flow solver with nonequilibrium gas/surface interaction for simulation of charring carbon ablators can be performed using an implicit approach. The material thermal response code used in this study is the three-dimensional version of Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal response program, which predicts charring material thermal response and shape change on hypersonic space vehicles. The flow code solves the reacting Navier-Stokes equations using Data Parallel Line Relaxation method. Coupling between the material response and flow codes is performed by solving the surface mass balance in flow solver and the surface energy balance in material response code. Thus, the material surface recession is predicted in flow code, and the surface temperature and pyrolysis gas injection rate are computed in material response code. It is demonstrated that the time-lagged explicit approach is sufficient for simulations at low surface heating conditions, in which the surface ablation rate is not a strong function of the surface temperature. At elevated surface heating conditions, the implicit approach has to be taken, because the carbon ablation rate becomes a stiff function of the surface temperature, and thus the explicit approach appears to be inappropriate resulting in severe numerical oscillations of predicted surface temperature. Implicit coupling for simulation of arc-jet models is performed, and the predictions are compared with measured data. Implicit coupling for trajectory based simulation of Stardust fore-body heat shield is also conducted. The predicted stagnation point total recession is compared with that predicted using the chemical equilibrium surface assumption

  10. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  11. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  12. Laser ablation system, and method of decontaminating surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Russell L.; Edelson, Martin C.; Pang, Ho-ming

    1998-07-14

    A laser ablation system comprising a laser head providing a laser output; a flexible fiber optic cable optically coupled to the laser output and transmitting laser light; an output optics assembly including a nozzle through which laser light passes; an exhaust tube in communication with the nozzle; and a blower generating a vacuum on the exhaust tube. A method of decontaminating a surface comprising the following steps: providing an acousto-optic, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light ablation system having a fiber optically coupled output optics assembly; and operating the laser light ablation system to produce an irradiance greater than 1.times.10.sup.7 W/cm.sup.2, and a pulse width between 80 and 170 ns.

  13. Planning for Coupling Effects in Bitoric Mixed Astigmatism Ablative Treatments.

    PubMed

    Alpins, Noel; Ong, James K Y; Stamatelatos, George

    2017-08-01

    To demonstrate how to determine the historical coupling adjustments of bitoric mixed astigmatism ablative treatments and how to use these historical coupling adjustments to adjust future bitoric treatments. The individual coupling adjustments of the myopic and hyperopic cylindrical components of a bitoric treatment were derived empirically from a retrospective study where the theoretical combined treatment effect on spherical equivalent was compared to the actual change in refractive spherical equivalent. The coupling adjustments that provided the best fit in both mean and standard deviation were determined to be the historical coupling adjustments. Theoretical treatments that incorporated the historical coupling adjustments were then calculated. The actual distribution of postoperative spherical equivalent errors was compared to the theoretically adjusted distribution. The study group comprised 242 eyes and included 118 virgin right eyes and 124 virgin left eyes of 155 individuals. For the laser used, the myopic coupling adjustment was -0.02 and the hyperopic coupling adjustment was 0.30, as derived by global nonlinear optimization. This implies that almost no adjustment of the myopic component of the bitoric treatment is necessary, but that the hyperopic component of the bitoric treatment generates a large amount of unintended spherical shift. The theoretically adjusted treatments targeted zero mean spherical equivalent error, as intended, and the distribution of the theoretical spherical equivalent errors had the same spread as the distribution of actual postoperative spherical equivalent errors. Bitoric mixed astigmatism ablative treatments may display non-trivial coupling effects. Historical coupling adjustments should be taken into consideration when planning mixed astigmatism treatments to improve surgical outcomes. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):545-551.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Thermal protection system ablation sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

  15. Low pressure laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliegel, Daniel; Günther, Detlef

    2006-07-01

    The particle size distribution in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is known to be a critical parameter for complete vaporization of particles. Any strategy to reduce the particle size distribution of laser generated aerosols has the potential to increase the ion signal intensity and to reduce fractionation effects. Due to the fact that vapor generation, nucleation, condensation, and agglomeration take place within an extremely short period of time, ablation under atmospheric pressure might not allow influencing these processes while under reduced pressure condition the cooling of the aerosol and therefore the condensation is expected to be slower. In this study, a low pressure laser ablation cell for the generation of laser aerosols was coupled to an ICP-MS. In contrast to the previously developed trapped ablation mode, the newly designed cell allows the adjustment of the pressure in the ablation cell between 20 and 1400 mbar prior to the ablation. Ablation experiments carried out using this configuration showed a dependence of the aerosol properties (size distribution and particle structure) on the ablation cell pressure. The intensity ratio U/Th measured as a figure of merit for complete vaporization within the ICP indicated a change in the aerosol structure at approximately 500 mbar toward smaller particle size. A significant difference between low pressure and at ambient pressure ablated aerosol was observed. The intensity ratios (U/Th) of the ablated sample moves closer to the bulk composition at lower pressures at the expense of sensitivity. Therefore the decrease in the ICP-MS signal intensity in the low pressure cell can be attributed to vapor deposition within the ablation cell walls. Moreover, scanning electron microscope images of aerosols collected on filters after the low pressure ablation cell suggest the possibility of a slower cooling velocity of the aerosol, which was observed in the condensed material on the surface of

  16. Corneal coupling of astigmatism applied to incisional and ablative surgery.

    PubMed

    Alpins, Noel; Ong, James K Y; Stamatelatos, George

    2014-11-01

    To redefine measures of corneal coupling for use with incisional and ablation procedures for astigmatism. Private clinics, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Retrospective nonrandomized study. The measures known as the coupling ratio (CR) and coupling constant (CC) were redefined to ensure validity in most cases of incisional procedures and laser vision correction procedures. In addition, a new measure--the coupling adjustment (CAdj)--was developed to quantify the amount of spherical adjustment that must be applied to compensate for coupling that occurs as a result of astigmatism treatment. These quantitative measures of coupling were applied to retrospective data to show their applicability. Pure myopic, compound myopic, and compound hyperopic astigmatism excimer laser treatments showed a CR close to zero, a CC close to 0.5, and a CAdj close to zero. Incision LRIs showed a CR close to 1.0 and a CC close to zero. In all cases, the coupling measures were consistent for treatments with a larger astigmatic component (>1.0 diopter) but variable when the astigmatic component of the treatment was smaller. The revised definitions of CR and CC can be used with incisional and ablative surgery. Incorporating the CAdj into the planning of spherocylindrical treatments allows one to factor in the effect of the astigmatic treatment on the spherical component and thus to more accurately target the desired spherical equivalent. Dr. Alpins and Mr. Stamatelatos have a financial interest in the Assort software program. Dr. Ong is an employee of Assort. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2014-10-14

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  18. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  19. Influence of Coupled Radiation and Ablation on the Aerothermodynamic Environment of Planetary Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Mazaheri, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    A review of recently published coupled radiation and ablation capabilities involving the simulation of hypersonic flowfields relevant to Earth, Mars, or Venus entry is presented. The three fundamental mechanisms of radiation coupling are identified as radiative cooling, precursor photochemistry, and ablation-radiation interaction. The impact of these mechanisms are shown to be significant for a 3 m radius sphere entering Earth at hypothetical Mars return conditions (approximately 15 km/s). To estimate the influence precursor absorption on the radiative flux for a wide range of conditions, a simplified approach is developed that requires only the non-precursor solution. Details of a developed coupled ablation approach, which is capable of treating both massively ablating flowfields in the sublimation regime and weakly ablating diffusion Climited oxidation cases, are presented. A review of the two primary uncoupled ablation approximations, identified as the blowing correction and film coefficient approximations, is made and their impact for Earth and Mars entries is shown to be significant for recession and convective heating predictions. Fully coupled ablation and radiation simulations are presented for the Mars return sphere throughout its entire trajectory. Applying to the Mars return sphere the Pioneer- Venus heritage carbon phenolic heatshield, which has properties available in the open literature, the differences between steady state ablation and coupling to a material response code are shown to be significant.

  20. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  1. Impact of Coupled Radiation and Ablation on the Aerothermodynamics of Meteor Entries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.; Stern, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    A high-fidelity approach for simulating the aerothermodynamic environments of meteor entries is developed. Two primary components of this model are coupled radiation and coupled ablation. Coupled radiation accounts for the impact of radiation on the flow field energy equations, while coupled ablation explicitly models the injection of ablation products within the flow field and radiation simulations. For a meteoroid with a velocity of 20 km/s, coupled radiation reduces the stagnation point radiative heating by over 60%. For altitudes below 40 km, the impact of coupled radiation on the flow field structure is shown to be fundamentally different, as a result of the large optical thicknesses, than that seen for reentry vehicles, which do not reach such altitudes at velocities greater than 10 km/s. The impact of coupled ablation (with coupled radiation) is shown to provide at least a 70% reduction in the radiative heating relative to the coupled-radiation-only cases. This large reduction is partially the result of the low ionization energies, relative to air species, of ablation products. The low ionization energies of ablation products, such as Mg and Ca, provide strong photoionization and atomic line absorption in regions of the spectrum that air species do not. MgO and CaO are also shown to provide significant absorption. Turbulence is shown to impact the distribution of ablation products through the shock- layer, which results in up to a 100% increase in the radiative heating downstream of the stagnation point. To create a database of heat transfer coefficients the developed model was applied to a range of cases. This database considered velocities ranging from 14 to 20 km/s, altitudes ranging from 20 to 50 km, and nose radii ranging from 1 to 100 m. The heat transfer coefficients from these simulations are below 0.045 for the range of cases (with turbulence), which is significantly lower than the canonical value of 0.1.

  2. Implementation of Radiation, Ablation, and Free Energy Minimization Modules for Coupled Simulations of Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Thompson, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    A description of models and boundary conditions required for coupling radiation and ablation physics to a hypersonic flow simulation is provided. Chemical equilibrium routines for varying elemental mass fraction are required in the flow solver to integrate with the equilibrium chemistry assumption employed in the ablation models. The capability also enables an equilibrium catalytic wall boundary condition in the non-ablating case. The paper focuses on numerical implementation issues using FIRE II, Mars return, and Apollo 4 applications to provide context for discussion. Variable relaxation factors applied to the Jacobian elements of partial equilibrium relations required for convergence are defined. Challenges of strong radiation coupling in a shock capturing algorithm are addressed. Results are presented to show how the current suite of models responds to a wide variety of conditions involving coupled radiation and ablation.

  3. Profiling of patterned metal layers by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Melody; Ruiz, Antonio M.; Gornushkin, Igor; Smith, Ben W.; Winefordner, James D.

    2000-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for profiling patterned thin metal layers on a polymer/silicon substrate. The parameters of the laser and ICP-MS operating conditions have been studied and optimized for this purpose. A new laser ablation chamber was designed and built to achieve the best spatial resolution. The results of the profiling by LA-ICP-MS were compared to those obtained from a laser ablation optical emission spectrometry (LA-OES) instrument, which measured the emission of the plasma at the sample surface, and thus, eliminated the time delay caused by the sample transport into the ICP-MS system. Emission spectra gave better spatial resolution than mass spectra. However, LA-ICP-MS provided much better sensitivity and was able to profile thin metal layers (on the order of a few nanometers) on the silicon surface. A lateral spatial resolution of 45 μm was achieved.

  4. A Boundary Condition Relaxation Algorithm for Strongly Coupled, Ablating Flows Including Shape Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2011-01-01

    Implementations of a model for equilibrium, steady-state ablation boundary conditions are tested for the purpose of providing strong coupling with a hypersonic flow solver. The objective is to remove correction factors or film cooling approximations that are usually applied in coupled implementations of the flow solver and the ablation response. Three test cases are considered - the IRV-2, the Galileo probe, and a notional slender, blunted cone launched at 10 km/s from the Earth's surface. A successive substitution is employed and the order of succession is varied as a function of surface temperature to obtain converged solutions. The implementation is tested on a specified trajectory for the IRV-2 to compute shape change under the approximation of steady-state ablation. Issues associated with stability of the shape change algorithm caused by explicit time step limits are also discussed.

  5. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.P.; Jaselskis, E.J.

    1999-03-30

    A system is described for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remotely from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer. 10 figs.

  6. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur P.; Jaselskis, Edward J.

    1999-03-30

    A system for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remote from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer.

  7. Alternative High Performance Polymers for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghozian, Tane; Stackpoole, Mairead; Gonzales, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Ablative thermal protection systems are commonly used as protection from the intense heat during re-entry of a space vehicle and have been used successfully on many missions including Stardust and Mars Science Laboratory both of which used PICA - a phenolic based ablator. Historically, phenolic resin has served as the ablative polymer for many TPS systems. However, it has limitations in both processing and properties such as char yield, glass transition temperature and char stability. Therefore alternative high performance polymers are being considered including cyanate ester resin, polyimide, and polybenzoxazine. Thermal and mechanical properties of these resin systems were characterized and compared with phenolic resin.

  8. An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

  9. An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

  10. Family System of Advanced Charring Ablators for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, William M.; Curry, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Ablators Program Objectives: 1) Flight-ready(TRL-6) ablative heat shields for deep-space missions; 2) Diversity of selection from family-system approach; 3) Minimum weight systems with high reliability; 4) Optimized formulations and processing; 5) Fully characterized properties; and 6) Low-cost manufacturing. Definition and integration of candidate lightweight structures. Test and analysis database to support flight-vehicle engineering. Results from production scale-up studies and production-cost analyses.

  11. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  12. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  13. Comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Havrilla, George Joseph; McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher; Judge, Elizabeth

    2016-10-20

    Feasibility tests were conducted using femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for rapid uranium isotopic measurements. The samples used in this study consisted of a range of pg quantities of known 235/238 U solutions as dried spot residues of 300 pL drops on silicon substrates. The samples spanned the following enrichments of 235U: 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, and 15.1%. In this direct comparison using these particular samples both pulse durations demonstrated near equivalent data can be produced on either system with respect to accuracy and precision. There is no question that either LA-ICP-MS method offers themore » potential for rapid, accurate and precise isotopic measurements of U10Mo materials whether DU, LEU or HEU. The LA-ICP-MS equipment used for this work is commercially available. The program is in the process of validating this work for large samples using center samples strips from Y-12 MP-1 LEU-Mo Casting #1.« less

  14. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of isotope ratios in depleted uranium contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    Laser ablation of pressed soil pellets was examined as a means of direct sample introduction to enable inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) screening of soils for residual depleted uranium (DU) contamination. Differentiation between depleted uranium, an anthropogenic contaminant, and naturally occurring uranium was accomplished on the basis of measured 235U/238U isotope ratios. The amount of sample preparation required for laser ablation is considerably less than that typically required for aqueous sample introduction. The amount of hazardous laboratory waste generated is diminished accordingly. During the present investigation, 235U/238U isotope ratios measured for field samples were in good agreement with those derived from gamma spectrometry measurements. However, substantial compensation was required to mitigate the effects of impaired pulse counting attributed to sample inhomogeneity and sporadic introduction of uranium analyte into the plasma.

  15. Focused US system for MR imaging-guided tumor ablation.

    PubMed

    Cline, H E; Hynynen, K; Watkins, R D; Adams, W J; Schenck, J F; Ettinger, R H; Freund, W R; Vetro, J P; Jolesz, F A

    1995-03-01

    To measure the performance characteristics of a focused ultrasound (US) system for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided tumor ablation. The authors constructed a focused US system for MR imaging-guided tumor ablation. The location of the heated region and thermal dose were monitored with temperature-sensitive MR images obtained in phantoms and rabbit skeletal muscle after application of each sonic pulse. The region heated by the focused ultrasound beam was within 1 mm of that observed on temperature-sensitive fast gradient-echo MR images of in vivo rabbit skeletal muscle. Analysis of heat flow and the rate of coagulation necrosis provided an estimate of the size of the ablated region that was in agreement with experimental findings. MR imaging provides target definition and control for thermal therapy in regions of variable perfusion or in tissues that are not well characterized.

  16. [Thoracoscopic, epicardial ablation of atrial fibrillation using the COBRA Fusion system as the first part of hybrid ablation].

    PubMed

    Budera, P; Osmančík, P; Talavera, D; Fojt, R; Kraupnerová, A; Žďárská, J; Vaněk, T; Straka, Z

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of persistent and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation is not successfully managed by methods of catheter ablation or pharmacotherapy. Hybrid ablation (i.e. combination of minimally invasive surgical ablation, followed by electrophysiological assessment and subsequent endocardial catheter ablation to complete the entire intended procedure) presents an ever more used and very promising treatment method. Patients underwent thoracoscopic ablation of pulmonary veins and posterior wall of the left atrium (the box-lesion) with use of the COBRA Fusion catheter; thoracoscopic occlusion of the left atrial appendage using the AtriClip system was also done in later patients. After 23 months, electrophysiological assessment and catheter ablation followed. In this article we summarize a strategy of the surgical part of the hybrid procedure performed in our centre. We describe the surgery itself (including possible periprocedural complications) and we also present our short-term results, especially with respect to subsequent electrophysiological findings. Data of the first 51 patients were analyzed. The first 25 patients underwent unilateral ablation; the mean time of surgery was 102 min. Subsequent 26 patients underwent the bilateral procedure with the mean surgery time of 160 min. Serious complications included 1 stroke, 1 phrenic nerve palsy and 2 surgical re-explorations for bleeding. After 1 month, 65% of patients showed sinus rhythm. The box-lesion was found complete during electrophysiological assessment in 38% of patients and after catheter ablation, 96% of patients were discharged in sinus rhythm. The surgical part of the hybrid procedure with use of the minimally invasive approach and the COBRA Fusion catheter is a well-feasible method with a low number of periprocedural complications. For electrophysiologists, it provides a very good basis for successful completion of the hybrid ablation.Key words: atrial fibrillation hybrid ablation - thoracoscopy

  17. Ablative Laser Propulsion Using Multi-Layered Material Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nehls, Mary; Edwards, David; Gray, Perry; Schneider, T.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations are ongoing to study the force imparted to materials when subjected to laser ablation. When a laser pulse of sufficient energy density impacts a material, a small amount of the material is ablated. A torsion balance is used to measure the momentum produced by the ablation process. The balance consists of a thin metal wire with a rotating pendulum suspended in the middle. The wire is fixed at both ends. Recently, multi-layered material systems were investigated. These multi-layered materials were composed of a transparent front surface and opaque sub surface. The laser pulse penetrates the transparent outer surface with minimum photon loss and vaporizes the underlying opaque layer.

  18. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for direct isotope ratio measurements on solid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickhardt, Carola; Dietze, Hans-Joachim; Becker, J. Sabine

    2005-04-01

    Isotope ratio measurements have been increasingly used in quite different application fields, e.g., for the investigation of isotope variation in nature, in geoscience (geochemistry and geochronology), in cosmochemistry and planetary science, in environmental science, e.g., in environmental monitoring, or by the application of the isotope dilution technique for quantification purposes using stable or radioactive high-enriched isotope tracers. Due to its high sensitivity, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is today a challenging mass spectrometric technique for the direct determination of precise and accurate isotope ratios in solid samples. In comparison to laser ablation quadrupole ICP-MS (LA-ICP-QMS), laser ablation coupled to a double-focusing sector field ICP-MS (LA-ICP-SFMS) with single ion detection offers a significant improvement of sensitivity at low mass resolution, whereby isotope ratios can be measured with a precision to 0.1% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.). In LA-ICP-SFMS, many disturbing isobaric interferences of analyte and molecular ions can be separated at the required mass resolution (e.g., 40Ar16O+ and 56Fe+ for iron isotope ratio measurements). The precision on isotope ratio measurements was improved by one order of magnitude via the simultaneous detection of mass-separated ion currents of isotopes using multiple ion collectors in LA-ICP-MS (LA-MC-ICP-MS). The paper discusses the state of the art, the challenges and limits in isotope ratio measurements by LA-ICP-MS using different instrumentations at the trace and ultratrace level in different fields of application as in environmental and biological research, geochemistry and geochronology with respect to their precision and accuracy.

  19. Microwave Ablation: Comparison of Simultaneous and Sequential Activation of Multiple Antennas in Liver Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Harari, Colin M; Magagna, Michelle; Bedoya, Mariajose; Lee, Fred T; Lubner, Meghan G; Hinshaw, J Louis; Ziemlewicz, Timothy; Brace, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    To compare microwave ablation zones created by using sequential or simultaneous power delivery in ex vivo and in vivo liver tissue. All procedures were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Microwave ablations were performed in both ex vivo and in vivo liver models with a 2.45-GHz system capable of powering up to three antennas simultaneously. Two- and three-antenna arrays were evaluated in each model. Sequential and simultaneous ablations were created by delivering power (50 W ex vivo, 65 W in vivo) for 5 minutes per antenna (10 and 15 minutes total ablation time for sequential ablations, 5 minutes for simultaneous ablations). Thirty-two ablations were performed in ex vivo bovine livers (eight per group) and 28 in the livers of eight swine in vivo (seven per group). Ablation zone size and circularity metrics were determined from ablations excised postmortem. Mixed effects modeling was used to evaluate the influence of power delivery, number of antennas, and tissue type. On average, ablations created by using the simultaneous power delivery technique were larger than those with the sequential technique (P < .05). Simultaneous ablations were also more circular than sequential ablations (P = .0001). Larger and more circular ablations were achieved with three antennas compared with two antennas (P < .05). Ablations were generally smaller in vivo compared with ex vivo. The use of multiple antennas and simultaneous power delivery creates larger, more confluent ablations with greater temperatures than those created with sequential power delivery. © RSNA, 2015.

  20. 2D elemental mapping of sections of human kidney stones using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Possibilities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vašinová Galiová, Michaela; Čopjaková, Renata; Škoda, Radek; Štěpánková, Kateřina; Vaňková, Michaela; Kuta, Jan; Prokeš, Lubomír; Kynický, Jindřich; Kanický, Viktor

    2014-10-01

    A 213 nm Nd:YAG-based laser ablation (LA) system coupled to quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and an ArF* excimer-based LA-system coupled to a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer were employed to study the spatial distribution of various elements in kidney stones (uroliths). Sections of the surfaces of uroliths were ablated according to line patterns to investigate the elemental profiles for the different urolith growth zones. This exploratory study was mainly focused on the distinguishing of the main constituents of urinary calculus fragments by means of LA-ICP-mass spectrometry. Changes in the ablation rate for oxalate and phosphate phases related to matrix density and hardness are discussed. Elemental association was investigated on the basis of 2D mapping. The possibility of using NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal as an external standard for calibration was tested. It is shown that LA-ICP-MS is helpful for determination of the mineralogical composition and size of all phases within the analyzed surface area, for tracing down elemental associations and for documenting the elemental content of urinary stones. LA-ICP-MS results (elemental contents and maps) are compared to those obtained with electron microprobe analysis and solution analysis ICP-MS.

  1. Coupled Ablation, Heat Conduction, Pyrolysis, Shape Change and Spallation of the Galileo Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Y.-K.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Galileo probe enters the atmosphere of Jupiter in December 1995. This paper presents numerical methodology and detailed results of our final pre-impact calculations for the heat shield response. The calculations are performed using a highly modified version of a viscous shock layer code with massive radiation coupled with a surface thermochemical ablation and spallation model and with the transient in-depth thermal response of the charring and ablating heat shield. The flowfield is quasi-steady along the trajectory, but the heat shield thermal response is dynamic. Each surface node of the VSL grid is coupled with a one-dimensional thermal response calculation. The thermal solver includes heat conduction, pyrolysis, and grid movement owing to surface recession. Initial conditions for the heat shield temperature and density were obtained from the high altitude rarefied-flow calculations of Haas and Milos. Galileo probe surface temperature, shape, mass flux, and element flux are all determined as functions of time along the trajectory with spallation varied parametrically. The calculations also estimate the in-depth density and temperature profiles for the heat shield. All this information is required to determine the time-dependent vehicle mass and drag coefficient which are necessary inputs for the atmospheric reconstruction experiment on board the probe.

  2. Minimally-invasive Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis of model ancient copper alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walaszek, Damian; Senn, Marianne; Wichser, Adrian; Faller, Markus; Wagner, Barbara; Bulska, Ewa; Ulrich, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    This work describes an evaluation of a strategy for multi-elemental analysis of typical ancient bronzes (copper, lead bronze and tin bronze) by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS).The samples originating from archeological experiments on ancient metal smelting processes using direct reduction in a ‘bloomery’ furnace as well as historical casting techniques were investigated with the use of the previously proposed analytical procedure, including metallurgical observation and preliminary visual estimation of the homogeneity of the samples. The results of LA-ICPMS analysis were compared to the results of bulk composition obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) after acid digestion. These results were coherent for most of the elements confirming the usefulness of the proposed analytical procedure, however the reliability of the quantitative information about the content of the most heterogeneously distributed elements was also discussed in more detail.

  3. Viscous-shock-layer solutions with coupled radiation and ablation injection for earth entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Lee, Kam-Pui; Moos, James N.; Sutton, Kenneth

    1990-01-01

    Results are obtained for the forebody of a planetary exploration vehicle entering the earth's atmosphere. A viscous-shock-layer analysis is used assuming the flow to be laminar and in chemical equilibrium. Presented results include coupled radiation and ablation injection. This study further includes the effect of different transport and thermodynamic properties and radiation models. A Lewis number of 1.4 appears adequate for the radiation-dominated flows. Five velocities corresponding to different possible trajectory points at an altitude of 70 km have been further analyzed in detail. Sublimation and radiative equilibrium wall temperatures are employed for cases with and without coupled injection, respectively. For the cases analyzed here, the mass injection rates are small. However, the rates could become large if a lower altitude is used for aerobraking and/or the body size is increased. A comparison of the equilibrium results with finite-rate chemistry calculation shows the flowfield to be in chemical equilibrium.

  4. Trace element analysis of synthetic mono- and poly-crystalline CaF 2 by ultraviolet laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at 266 and 193 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J.; Feldmann, I.; Hattendorf, B.; Günther, D.; Engel, U.; Jakubowski, N.; Bolshov, M.; Niemax, K.; Hergenröder, R.

    2002-06-01

    The analytical figures of merit for ultraviolet laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (UV-LA-ICP-MS) at 266 nm with respect to the trace element analysis of high-purity, UV-transmitting alkaline earth halides are investigated and discussed. Ablation threshold energy density values and ablation rates for mono- and poly-crystalline CaF 2 samples were determined. Furthermore, Pb-, Rb-, Sr-, Ba- and Yb-specific analysis was performed. For these purposes, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operated at the fourth harmonic of the fundamental wavelength (λ=266 nm) and a double-focusing sector field ICP-MS detector were employed. Depending on the background noise and isotope-specific sensitivity, the detection limits typically varied from 0.7 ng/g for Sr to 7 ng/g in the case of Pb. The concentrations were determined using a glass standard reference material (SRM NIST612). In order to demonstrate the sensitivity of the arrangement described, comparative measurements by means of a commercial ablation system consisting of an ArF excimer laser (λ=193 nm) and a quadrupole-type ICP-MS (ICP-QMS) instrument were carried out. The accuracy of both analyses was in good agreement, whereas ablation at 266 nm and detection using sector-field ICP-MS led to a sensitivity that was one order of magnitude above that obtained at 193 nm with ICP-QMS.

  5. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Guided by a Novel Nonfluoroscopic Navigation System.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Gabriel; Ramos, Pablo; Neglia, Renzo; Menéndez, Diego; García-Bolao, Ignacio

    2017-09-01

    Rhythmia is a new nonfluoroscopic navigation system that is able to create high-density electroanatomic maps. The aim of this study was to describe the acute outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation guided by this system, to analyze the volume provided by its electroanatomic map, and to describe its ability to locate pulmonary vein (PV) reconnection gaps in redo procedures. This observational study included 62 patients who underwent AF ablation with Rhythmia compared with a retrospective cohort who underwent AF ablation with a conventional nonfluoroscopic navigation system (Ensite Velocity). The number of surface electrograms per map was significantly higher in Rhythmia procedures (12 125 ± 2826 vs 133 ± 21 with Velocity; P < .001), with no significant differences in the total procedure time. The Orion catheter was placed for mapping in 99.5% of PV (95.61% in the control group with a conventional circular mapping catheter; P = .04). There were no significant differences in the percentage of PV isolation between the 2 groups. In redo procedures, an ablation gap could be identified on the activation map in 67% of the reconnected PV (40% in the control group; P = .042). The measured left atrial volume was lower than that calculated by computed tomography (109.3 v 15.2 and 129.9 ± 13.2 mL, respectively; P < .001). There were no significant differences in the number of complications. The Rhythmia system is effective for AF ablation procedures, with procedure times and safety profiles similar to conventional nonfluoroscopic navigation systems. In redo procedures, it appears to be more effective in identifying reconnected PV conduction gaps. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Spark ablation-inductively coupled plasma spectrometry for analysis of geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golightly, D.W.; Montaser, A.; Smith, B.L.; Dorrzapf, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    Spark ablation-inductively coupled plasma (SA-ICP) spectrometry is applied to the measurement of hafnium-zirconium ratios in zircons and to the determination of cerium, cobalt, iron, lead, nickel and phosphorus in ferromanganese nodules. Six operating parameters used for the high-voltage spark and argon-ICP combination are established by sequential simplex optimization of both signal-to-background ratio and signal-to-noise ratio. The time-dependences of the atomic emission signals of analytes and matrix elements ablated from a finely pulverized sample embedded in a pressed disk of copper demonstrate selective sampling by the spark. Concentration ratios of hafnium to zirconium in zircons are measured with a precision of 4% (relative standard deviation, RSD). For ferromanganese nodules, spectral measurements based on intensity ratios of analyte line to the Mn(II) 257.610 nm line provide precisions of analysis in the range from 7 to 14% RSD. The accuracy of analysis depends on use of standard additions of the reference material USGS Nod P-1, and an independent measurement of the Mn concentration. ?? 1989.

  7. Determination of elemental content off rocks by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichte, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of analysis for rocks and soils is presented using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It is based on a lithium borate fusion and the free-running mode of a Nd/YAG laser. An Ar/N2 sample gas improves sensitivity 7 ?? for most elements. Sixty-three elements are characterized for the fusion, and 49 elements can be quantified. Internal standards and isotopic spikes ensure accurate results. Limits of detection are 0.01 ??g/g for many trace elements. Accuracy approaches 5% for all elements. A new quality assurance procedure is presented that uses fundamental parameters to test relative response factors for the calibration.

  8. Lightning Strike Ablation Damage Influence Factors Analysis of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Based on Coupled Electrical-Thermal Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J. J.; Chang, F.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, J. R.; Xiao, Y.

    2017-10-01

    According to the mathematical analysis model constructed on the basis of energy-balance relationship in lightning strike, and accompany with the simplified calculation strategy of composite resin pyrolysis degree dependent electrical conductivity, an effective three dimensional thermal-electrical coupling analysis finite element model of composite laminate suffered from lightning current was established based on ABAQUS, to elucidate the effects of lighting current waveform parameters and thermal/electrical properties of composite laminate on the extent of ablation damage. Simulated predictions agree well with the composite lightning strike directed effect experimental data, illustrating the potential accuracy of the constructed model. The analytical results revealed that extent of composite lightning strike ablation damage can be characterized by action integral validly, there exist remarkable power function relationships between action integral and visual damage area, projected damage area, maximum damage depth and damage volume of ablation damage, and enhancing the electrical conductivity and specific heat of composite, ablation damage will be descended obviously, power function relationships also exist between electrical conductivity, specific heat and ablation damage, however, the impact of thermal conductivity on the extent of ablation damage is not notable. The conclusions obtained provide some guidance for composite anti-lightning strike structure-function integration design.

  9. The Laser ablation of a metal foam: The role of electron-phonon coupling and electronic heat diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosandi, Yudi; Grossi, Joás; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of energetic laser pulses on a metal foam may lead to foam ablation. The processes occurring in the foam may differ strongly from those in a bulk metal: The absorption of laser light, energy transfer to the atomic system, heat conduction, and finally, the atomistic processes—such as melting or evaporation—may be different. In addition, novel phenomena take place, such as a reorganization of the ligament network in the foam. We study all these processes in an Au foam of average porosity 79% and an average ligament diameter of 2.5 nm, using molecular dynamics simulation. The coupling of the electronic system to the atomic system is modeled by using the electron-phonon coupling, g, and the electronic heat diffusivity, κe, as model parameters, since their actual values for foams are unknown. We show that the foam coarsens under laser irradiation. While κe governs the homogeneity of the processes, g mainly determines their time scale. The final porosity reached is independent of the value of g.

  10. A novel integration of spectral-domain optical-coherence-tomography and laser-ablation system for precision treatment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yingwei; Zhang, Boyu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Xinran; Liao, Hongen

    2018-03-01

    Complete resection of diseased lesions reduces the recurrence of cancer, making it critical for surgical treatment. However, precisely resecting residual tumors is a challenge during operation. A novel integrated spectral-domain optical-coherence-tomography (SD-OCT) and laser-ablation therapy system for soft-biological-tissue resection is proposed. This is a prototype optical integrated diagnosis and therapeutic system as well as an optical theranostics system. We develop an optical theranostics system, which integrates SD-OCT, a laser-ablation unit, and an automatic scanning platform. The SD-OCT image of biological tissue provides an intuitive and clear view for intraoperative diagnosis and monitoring in real time. The effect of laser ablation is analyzed using a quantitative mathematical model. The automatic endoscopic scanning platform combines an endoscopic probe and an SD-OCT sample arm to provide optical theranostic scanning motion. An optical fiber and a charge-coupled device camera are integrated into the endoscopic probe, allowing detection and coupling of the OCT-aiming beam and laser spots. The integrated diagnostic and therapeutic system combines SD-OCT imaging and laser-ablation modules with an automatic scanning platform. OCT imaging, laser-ablation treatment, and the integration and control of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were evaluated by performing phantom experiments. Furthermore, SD-OCT-guided laser ablation provided precision laser ablation and resection for the malignant lesions in soft-biological-tissue-lesion surgery. The results demonstrated that the appropriate laser-radiation power and duration time were 10 W and 10 s, respectively. In the laser-ablation evaluation experiment, the error reached approximately 0.1 mm. Another validation experiment was performed to obtain OCT images of the pre- and post-ablated craters of ex vivo porcine brainstem. We propose an optical integrated diagnosis and therapeutic system. The primary

  11. Dual beam optical system for pulsed laser ablation film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-09-24

    A laser ablation apparatus having a laser source outputting a laser ablation beam includes an ablation chamber having a sidewall, a beam divider for dividing the laser ablation beam into two substantially equal halves, and a pair of mirrors for converging the two halves on a surface of the target from complementary angles relative to the target surface normal, thereby generating a plume of ablated material emanating from the target. 3 figs.

  12. Dual beam optical system for pulsed laser ablation film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus having a laser source outputting a laser ablation beam includes an ablation chamber having a sidewall, a beam divider for dividing the laser ablation beam into two substantially equal halves, and a pair of mirrors for converging the two halves on a surface of the target from complementary angles relative to the target surface normal, thereby generating a plume of ablated material emanating from the target.

  13. The effect of ultrafast laser wavelength on ablation properties and implications on sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    LaHaye, N. L.; Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A.; Kulkarni, P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of femtosecond (fs) laser wavelength on laser ablation (LA) and its relation to laser generated aerosol counts and particle distribution, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) signal intensity, detection limits, and elemental fractionation. Four different NIST standard reference materials (610, 613, 615, and 616) were ablated using 400 nm and 800 nm fs laser pulses to study the effect of wavelength on laser ablation rate, accuracy, precision, and fractionation. Our results show that the detection limits are lower for 400 nm laser excitation than 800 nm laser excitation at lower laser energies but approximately equal at higher energies. Ablation threshold was also found to be lower for 400 nm than 800 nm laser excitation. Particle size distributions are very similar for 400 nm and 800 nm wavelengths; however, they differ significantly in counts at similar laser fluence levels. This study concludes that 400 nm LA is more beneficial for sample introduction in ICP-MS, particularly when lower laser energies are to be used for ablation. PMID:26640294

  14. Microwave Ablation: Comparison of Simultaneous and Sequential Activation of Multiple Antennas in Liver Model Systems

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Colin M.; Magagna, Michelle; Bedoya, Mariajose; Lee, Fred T.; Lubner, Meghan G.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Ziemlewicz, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare microwave ablation zones created by using sequential or simultaneous power delivery in ex vivo and in vivo liver tissue. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Microwave ablations were performed in both ex vivo and in vivo liver models with a 2.45-GHz system capable of powering up to three antennas simultaneously. Two- and three-antenna arrays were evaluated in each model. Sequential and simultaneous ablations were created by delivering power (50 W ex vivo, 65 W in vivo) for 5 minutes per antenna (10 and 15 minutes total ablation time for sequential ablations, 5 minutes for simultaneous ablations). Thirty-two ablations were performed in ex vivo bovine livers (eight per group) and 28 in the livers of eight swine in vivo (seven per group). Ablation zone size and circularity metrics were determined from ablations excised postmortem. Mixed effects modeling was used to evaluate the influence of power delivery, number of antennas, and tissue type. Results On average, ablations created by using the simultaneous power delivery technique were larger than those with the sequential technique (P < .05). Simultaneous ablations were also more circular than sequential ablations (P = .0001). Larger and more circular ablations were achieved with three antennas compared with two antennas (P < .05). Ablations were generally smaller in vivo compared with ex vivo. Conclusion The use of multiple antennas and simultaneous power delivery creates larger, more confluent ablations with greater temperatures than those created with sequential power delivery. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26133361

  15. An advanced optical system for laser ablation propulsion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstue, Grant; Fork, Richard; Reardon, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel space-based ablation driven propulsion engine concept utilizing transmitted energy in the form of a series of ultra-short optical pulses. Key differences are generating the pulses at the transmitting spacecraft and the safe delivery of that energy to the receiving spacecraft for propulsion. By expanding the beam diameter during transmission in space, the energy can propagate at relatively low intensity and then be refocused and redistributed to create an array of ablation sites at the receiver. The ablation array strategy allows greater control over flight dynamics and eases thermal management. Research efforts for this transmission and reception of ultra-short optical pulses include: (1) optical system design; (2) electrical system requirements; (3) thermal management; (4) structured energy transmission safety. Research has also been focused on developing an optical switch concept for the multiplexing of the ultra-short pulses. This optical switch strategy implements multiple reflectors polished into a rotating momentum wheel device to combine the pulses from different laser sources. The optical system design must minimize the thermal load on any one optical element. Initial specifications and modeling for the optical system are being produced using geometrical ray-tracing software to give a better understanding of the optical requirements. In regards to safety, we have advanced the retro-reflective beam locking strategy to include look-ahead capabilities for long propagation distances. Additional applications and missions utilizing multiplexed pulse transmission are also presented. Because the research is in early development, it provides an opportunity for new and valuable advances in the area of transmitted energy for propulsion as well as encourages joint international efforts. Researchers from different countries can cooperate in order to find constructive and safe uses of ordered pulse transmission for propulsion in future space

  16. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging of metals in experimental and clinical Wilson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Boaru, Sorina Georgiana; Merle, Uta; Uerlings, Ricarda; Zimmermann, Astrid; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Willheim, Claudia; Eder, Elisabeth; Ferenci, Peter; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the liver does not properly release copper into bile, resulting in prominent copper accumulation in various tissues. Affected patients suffer from hepatic disorders and severe neurological defects. Experimental studies in mutant mice in which the copper-transporting ATPase gene (Atp7b) is disrupted revealed a drastic, time-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper that is accompanied by formation of regenerative nodes resembling cirrhosis. Therefore, these mice represent an excellent exploratory model for Wilson's disease. However, the precise time course in hepatic copper accumulation and its impact on other trace metals within the liver is yet poorly understood. We have recently established novel laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry protocols allowing quantitative metal imaging in human and murine liver tissue with high sensitivity, spatial resolution, specificity and quantification ability. By use of these techniques, we here aimed to comparatively analyse hepatic metal content in wild-type and Atp7b deficient mice during ageing. We demonstrate that the age-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper is strictly associated with a simultaneous increase in iron and zinc, while the intrahepatic concentration and distribution of other metals or metalloids is not affected. The same findings were obtained in well-defined human liver samples that were obtained from patients suffering from Wilson's disease. We conclude that in Wilson's disease the imbalances of hepatic copper during ageing are closely correlated with alterations in intrahepatic iron and zinc content. PMID:25704483

  17. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with laser ablation metal ions release detection in the human mouth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Prochazkova, J.

    2002-06-01

    Presence of more dental alloys in oral cavity often causes pathological symptoms. Due to various and multi-faced symptomatology, they tend to be a source of significant problems not only for the patient but also for the dentist. Metal ions released from alloys can cause subjective and objective symptoms in mouth. The aim of this study was detection of metal elements presence in saliva. There were 4 groups of examined persons: with intact teeth (15 individuals) with metallic restorations, pathological currents 5-30 (mu) A, multi-faced subjective symptomatology and uncharacteristic objective diagnosis (32 patients), with metallic restorations and no subjective symptoms (14 persons) and with metallic restorations, without pathological currents and with problems related to galvanism (13 patients). Presence of 14 metal elements was checked by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with laser ablation. Nd:YAG laser detector was used. There were significant differences in content of silver, gold and mercury between persons with intact teeth and other three groups. There were no differences found between subjects with and without galvanic currents, and presence of subjective and objective symptoms.

  18. Imaging Metals in Brain Tissue by Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Dominic J.; Kysenius, Kai; Paul, Bence; Knauer, Beate; Hutchinson, Robert W.; O'Connor, Ciaran; Fryer, Fred; Hennessey, Tom P.; Bush, Ashley I.; Crouch, Peter J.; Doble, Philip A.

    2017-01-01

    Metals are found ubiquitously throughout an organism, with their biological role dictated by both their chemical reactivity and abundance within a specific anatomical region. Within the brain, metals have a highly compartmentalized distribution, depending on the primary function they play within the central nervous system. Imaging the spatial distribution of metals has provided unique insight into the biochemical architecture of the brain, allowing direct correlation between neuroanatomical regions and their known function with regard to metal-dependent processes. In addition, several age-related neurological disorders feature disrupted metal homeostasis, which is often confined to small regions of the brain that are otherwise difficult to analyze. Here, we describe a comprehensive method for quantitatively imaging metals in the mouse brain, using laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and specially designed image processing software. Focusing on iron, copper and zinc, which are three of the most abundant and disease-relevant metals within the brain, we describe the essential steps in sample preparation, analysis, quantitative measurements and image processing to produce maps of metal distribution within the low micrometer resolution range. This technique, applicable to any cut tissue section, is capable of demonstrating the highly variable distribution of metals within an organ or system, and can be used to identify changes in metal homeostasis and absolute levels within fine anatomical structures. PMID:28190025

  19. Imaging of Selenium by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in 2-D Electrophoresis Gels and Biological Tissues.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Elisa Castañeda Santa; Susanne Becker, J; Sabine Becker, J; Sussulini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Selenium and selenoproteins are important components of living organisms that play a role in different biological processes. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that has been employed to obtain distribution maps of selenium in biological tissues in a direct manner, as well as in selenoproteins, previously separated by their molecular masses and isoelectric points using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). In this chapter, we present the protocols to perform LA-ICP-MS imaging experiments, allowing the distribution visualization and determination of selenium and/or selenoproteins in biological systems.

  20. Ablation of a resistant right atrial appendage tachycardia using a magnetic navigation system.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohsin K; Elmouchi, Darryl

    2013-01-01

    The right atrial appendage is an uncommon site of origin for ectopic atrial tachycardia. Right atrial appendage tachycardia (RAAT) has been noted to be prevalent in young males and responds well to radiofrequency ablation. We report a case of RAAT resistant to multiple attempts of ablation that responded to ablation using Stereotaxis Niobe™ Magnetic Navigation System (RMN, Stereotaxis, St. Louis, MO, USA). ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Simultaneous measurement of sulfur and lead isotopes in sulfides using nanosecond laser ablation coupled with two multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Honglin; Liu, Xu; Chen, Lu; Bao, Zhian; Chen, Kaiyun; Zong, Chunlei; Li, Xiao-Chun; Qiu, Johnson Wenhong

    2018-04-01

    We herein report the coupling of a nanosecond laser ablation system with a large-scale multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Nu1700 MC-ICPMS, NP-1700) and a conventional Nu Plasma II MC-ICPMS (NP-II) for the simultaneous laser ablation and determination of in situ S and Pb isotopic compositions of sulfide minerals. We found that the required aerosol distribution between the two spectrometers depended on the Pb content of the sample. For example, for a sulfide containing 100-3000 ppm Pb, the aerosol was distributed between the NP-1700 and the NP-II spectrometers in a 1:1 ratio, while for lead contents >3000 and <100 ppm, these ratios were 5:1 and 1:3, respectively. In addition, S isotopic analysis showed a pronounced matrix effect, so a matrix-matched external standard was used for standard-sample bracketing correction. The NIST NBS 977 (NBS, National Bureau of Standards; NIST, National Institute of Standards & Technology) Tl (thallium) dry aerosol internal standard and the NIST SRM 610 (SRM, standard reference material) external standard were employed to obtain accurate results for the analysis of Pb isotopes. In tandem experiments where airflow conditions were similar to those employed during stand-alone analyses, small changes in the aerosol carrier gas flow did not significantly influence the accurate determination of S and Pb isotope ratios. In addition, careful optimization of the flow ratio of the aerosol carrier (He) and makeup (Ar) gases to match stand-alone analytical conditions allowed comparable S and Pb isotope ratios to be obtained within an error of 2 s analytical uncertainties. Furthermore, the results of tandem analyses obtained using our method were consistent with those of previously reported stand-alone techniques for the S and Pb isotopes of chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena, and sphalerite, thus indicating that this method is suitable for the simultaneous analysis of S and Pb isotopes of natural sulfide minerals, and provides

  2. Setup for functional cell ablation with lasers: coupling of a laser to a microscope.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sean T; Hidalgo, Alicia; de Belle, J Steven; Keshishian, Haig

    2012-06-01

    The selective removal of cells by ablation is a powerful tool in the study of eukaryotic developmental biology, providing much information about their origin, fate, or function in the developing organism. In Drosophila, three main methods have been used to ablate cells: chemical, genetic, and laser ablation. Each method has its own applicability with regard to developmental stage and the cells to be ablated, and its own limitations. The primary advantage of laser-based ablation is the flexibility provided by the method: The operations can be performed in any cell pattern and at any time in development. Laser-based techniques permit manipulation of structures within cells, even to the molecular level. They can also be used for gene activation. However, laser ablation can be expensive, labor-intensive, and time-consuming. Although live cells can be difficult to image in Drosophila embryos, the use of vital fluorescent imaging methods has made laser-mediated cell manipulation methods more appealing; the methods are relatively straightforward. This article provides the information necessary for setting up and using a laser microscope for lasesr ablation studies.

  3. Characterization of a 50kW Inductively Coupled Plasma Torch for Testing of Ablative Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Benton R.; Clemens, Noel T.; Varghese, Philip L.; Bouslog, Stanley A.; Del Papa, Steven V.

    2017-01-01

    With the development of new manned spaceflight capabilities including NASA's Orion capsule and the Space-X Dragon capsule, there is a renewed importance of understanding the dynamics of ablative thermal protection systems. To this end, a new inductively coupled plasma torch facility is being developed at UT-Austin. The torch operates on argon and/or air at plasma powers up to 50 kW. In the present configuration the flow issues from a low-speed subsonic nozzle and the hot plume is characterized using slug calorimetry and emission spectroscopy. Preliminary measurements using emission spectroscopy have indicated that the torch is capable of producing an air plasma with a temperature between 6,000 K and 8,000 K depending on the power and flow settings and an argon plasma with a temperature of approximately 12,000 K. The operation envelope was measured, and heat flux measured for every point within the envelope using both a slug calorimeter and a Gardon gauge heat flux sensor. The torch was found to induce a stagnation point heat flux of between 90 and 225 W/sq cm.

  4. Quantitative analysis of gold nanoparticles in single cells by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Ling-Na; Wang, Bing; Chen, Han-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Reid, Helen J; Sharp, Barry L; Feng, Wei-Yue

    2014-10-21

    Single cell analysis has become an important field of research in recent years reflecting the heterogeneity of cellular responses in biological systems. Here, we demonstrate a new method, based on laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), which can quantify in situ gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in single cells. Dried residues of picoliter droplets ejected by a commercial inkjet printer were used to simulate matrix-matched calibration standards. The gold mass in single cells exposed to 100 nM NIST Au NPs (Reference material 8012, 30 nm) for 4 h showed a log-normal distribution, ranging from 1.7 to 72 fg Au per cell, which approximately corresponds to 9 to 370 Au NPs per cell. The average result from 70 single cells (15 ± 13 fg Au per cell) was in good agreement with the result from an aqua regia digest solution of 1.2 × 10(6) cells (18 ± 1 fg Au per cell). The limit of quantification was 1.7 fg Au. This paper demonstrates the great potential of LA-ICPMS for single cell analysis and the beneficial study of biological responses to metal drugs or NPs at the single cell level.

  5. Development and Verification of the Charring, Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Calvert, Nathan; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2011-01-01

    The development and verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver (CATPISS) is presented. This work concentrates on the derivation and verification of the stationary grid terms in the equations that govern three-dimensional heat and mass transfer for charring thermal protection systems including pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer. The governing equations are discretized according to the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) with first and second order fully implicit time integrators. The governing equations are fully coupled and are solved in parallel via Newton s method, while the linear system is solved via the Generalized Minimum Residual method (GMRES). Verification results from exact solutions and Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) are presented to show spatial and temporal orders of accuracy as well as nonlinear convergence rates.

  6. Development and Verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Calvert, Nathan D.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-01

    The development and verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver is presented. This work concentrates on the derivation and verification of the stationary grid terms in the equations that govern three-dimensional heat and mass transfer for charring thermal protection systems including pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer. The governing equations are discretized according to the Galerkin finite element method with first and second order implicit time integrators. The governing equations are fully coupled and are solved in parallel via Newton's method, while the fully implicit linear system is solved with the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Verification results from exact solutions and the Method of Manufactured Solutions are presented to show spatial and temporal orders of accuracy as well as nonlinear convergence rates.

  7. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2015-09-22

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  8. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  9. Applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine

    2002-12-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) have been applied as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric techniques having multielemental capability for the characterization of solid samples in materials science. ICP-MS is used for the sensitive determination of trace and ultratrace elements in digested solutions of solid samples or of process chemicals (ultrapure water, acids and organic solutions) for the semiconductor industry with detection limits down to sub-picogram per liter levels. Whereas ICP-MS on solid samples (e.g. high-purity ceramics) sometimes requires time-consuming sample preparation for its application in materials science, and the risk of contamination is a serious drawback, a fast, direct determination of trace elements in solid materials without any sample preparation by LA-ICP-MS is possible. The detection limits for the direct analysis of solid samples by LA-ICP-MS have been determined for many elements down to the nanogram per gram range. A deterioration of detection limits was observed for elements where interferences with polyatomic ions occur. The inherent interference problem can often be solved by applying a double-focusing sector field mass spectrometer at higher mass resolution or by collision-induced reactions of polyatomic ions with a collision gas using an ICP-MS fitted with collision cell. The main problem of LA-ICP-MS is quantification if no suitable standard reference materials with a similar matrix composition are available. The calibration problem in LA-ICP-MS can be solved using on-line solution-based calibration, and different procedures, such as external calibration and standard addition, have been discussed with respect to their application in materials science. The application of isotope dilution in solution-based calibration for trace metal determination in small amounts of noble metals has been developed as a new calibration strategy. This review discusses new

  10. Considerations on data acquisition in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with low-dispersion interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Malderen, Stijn J. M.; van Elteren, Johannes T.; Šelih, Vid S.; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2018-02-01

    This work describes the aliasing effects induced by undersampling the high-frequency signal patterns generated by a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer equipped with a low-dispersion ablation cell and sequential mass analyzer. By characterizing the width of the signal peak generated from a single shot on the sample, critical experimental parameters, such as the laser repetition rate and detector cycle timings for the individual nuclides can be matched so as to avoid these imaging artifacts (spectral skew) induced by an insufficient sampling rate. By increasing the laser repetition rate by a factor 2-3, masses at the end of the mass scan can be sampled at higher sensitivity. Furthermore, the dwell times can be redistributed over the nuclides of interest based on the signal-to-noise ratio to increase the image contrast.

  11. Experimental Observation of Nonlinear Mode Coupling In the Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, David

    2015-11-01

    We investigate on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the transition from linear to highly nonlinear regimes. This work is part of the Discovery Science Program on NIF and of particular importance to indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) where careful attention to the form of the rise to final peak drive is calculated to prevent the RT instability from shredding the ablator in-flight and leading to ablator mixing into the cold fuel. The growth of the ablative RT instability was investigated using a planar plastic foil with pre-imposed two-dimensional broadband modulations and diagnosed using x-ray radiography. The foil was accelerated for 12ns by the x-ray drive created in a gas-filled Au radiation cavity with a radiative temperature plateau at 175 eV. The dependence on initial conditions was investigated by systematically changing the modulation amplitude, ablator material and the modulation pattern. For each of these cases bubble mergers were observed and the nonlinear evolution of the RT instability showed insensitivity to the initial conditions. This experiment provides critical data needed to validate current theories on the ablative RT instability for indirect drive that relies on the ablative stabilization of short-scale modulations for ICF ignition. This paper will compare the experimental data to the current nonlinear theories. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.

  12. Laser dissection sampling modes for direct mass spectral analysis [using a hybrid optical microscopy/laser ablation liquid vortex capture/electrospray ionization system

    DOE PAGES

    Cahill, John F.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-01

    Here, laser microdissection coupled directly with mass spectrometry provides the capability of on-line analysis of substrates with high spatial resolution, high collection efficiency, and freedom on shape and size of the sampling area. Establishing the merits and capabilities of the different sampling modes that the system provides is necessary in order to select the best sampling mode for characterizing analytically challenging samples. The capabilities of laser ablation spot sampling, laser ablation raster sampling, and laser 'cut and drop' sampling modes of a hybrid optical microscopy/laser ablation liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization mass spectrometry system were compared for the analysis ofmore » single cells and tissue. Single Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells were monitored for their monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and diacylglyceryltrimethylhomo-Ser (DGTS) lipid content using the laser spot sampling mode, which was capable of ablating individual cells (4-15 m) even when agglomerated together. Turbid Allium Cepa cells (150 m) having unique shapes difficult to precisely measure using the other sampling modes could be ablated in their entirety using laser raster sampling. Intact microdissections of specific regions of a cocaine-dosed mouse brain tissue were compared using laser 'cut and drop' sampling. Since in laser 'cut and drop' sampling whole and otherwise unmodified sections are captured into the probe, 100% collection efficiencies were achieved. Laser ablation spot sampling has the highest spatial resolution of any sampling mode, while laser ablation raster sampling has the highest sampling area adaptability of the sampling modes. In conclusion, laser ablation spot sampling has the highest spatial resolution of any sampling mode, useful in this case for the analysis of single cells. Laser ablation raster sampling was best for sampling regions with unique shapes that are difficult to measure using other sampling modes. Laser 'cut and drop

  13. Laser dissection sampling modes for direct mass spectral analysis [using a hybrid optical microscopy/laser ablation liquid vortex capture/electrospray ionization system

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, John F.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    Here, laser microdissection coupled directly with mass spectrometry provides the capability of on-line analysis of substrates with high spatial resolution, high collection efficiency, and freedom on shape and size of the sampling area. Establishing the merits and capabilities of the different sampling modes that the system provides is necessary in order to select the best sampling mode for characterizing analytically challenging samples. The capabilities of laser ablation spot sampling, laser ablation raster sampling, and laser 'cut and drop' sampling modes of a hybrid optical microscopy/laser ablation liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization mass spectrometry system were compared for the analysis ofmore » single cells and tissue. Single Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells were monitored for their monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and diacylglyceryltrimethylhomo-Ser (DGTS) lipid content using the laser spot sampling mode, which was capable of ablating individual cells (4-15 m) even when agglomerated together. Turbid Allium Cepa cells (150 m) having unique shapes difficult to precisely measure using the other sampling modes could be ablated in their entirety using laser raster sampling. Intact microdissections of specific regions of a cocaine-dosed mouse brain tissue were compared using laser 'cut and drop' sampling. Since in laser 'cut and drop' sampling whole and otherwise unmodified sections are captured into the probe, 100% collection efficiencies were achieved. Laser ablation spot sampling has the highest spatial resolution of any sampling mode, while laser ablation raster sampling has the highest sampling area adaptability of the sampling modes. In conclusion, laser ablation spot sampling has the highest spatial resolution of any sampling mode, useful in this case for the analysis of single cells. Laser ablation raster sampling was best for sampling regions with unique shapes that are difficult to measure using other sampling modes. Laser 'cut and drop

  14. Multiobjective synchronization of coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yang; Wang, Zidong; Wong, W. K.; Kurths, Jürgen; Fang, Jian-an

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, multiobjective synchronization of chaotic systems is investigated by especially simultaneously minimizing optimization of control cost and convergence speed. The coupling form and coupling strength are optimized by an improved multiobjective evolutionary approach that includes a hybrid chromosome representation. The hybrid encoding scheme combines binary representation with real number representation. The constraints on the coupling form are also considered by converting the multiobjective synchronization into a multiobjective constraint problem. In addition, the performances of the adaptive learning method and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II as well as the effectiveness and contributions of the proposed approach are analyzed and validated through the Rössler system in a chaotic or hyperchaotic regime and delayed chaotic neural networks.

  15. Feedback coupling in dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimper, Steffen; Zabrocki, Knud

    2003-05-01

    Different evolution models are considered with feedback-couplings. In particular, we study the Lotka-Volterra system under the influence of a cumulative term, the Ginzburg-Landau model with a convolution memory term and chemical rate equations with time delay. The memory leads to a modified dynamical behavior. In case of a positive coupling the generalized Lotka-Volterra system exhibits a maximum gain achieved after a finite time, but the population will die out in the long time limit. In the opposite case, the time evolution is terminated in a crash. Due to the nonlinear feedback coupling the two branches of a bistable model are controlled by the the strength and the sign of the memory. For a negative coupling the system is able to switch over between both branches of the stationary solution. The dynamics of the system is further controlled by the initial condition. The diffusion-limited reaction is likewise studied in case the reacting entities are not available simultaneously. Whereas for an external feedback the dynamics is altered, but the stationary solution remain unchanged, a self-organized internal feedback leads to a time persistent solution.

  16. Preclinical Assessment of a 980-nm Diode Laser Ablation System in a Large Animal Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Ahrar, Kamran; Gowda, Ashok; Javadi, Sanaz; Borne, Agatha; Fox, Matthew; McNichols, Roger; Ahrar, Judy U.; Stephens, Clifton; Stafford, R. Jason

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the performance of a 980-nm diode laser ablation system in an in vivo tumor model. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. The ablation system consisted of a 15-W, 980-nm diode laser, flexible diffusing tipped fiber optic, and 17-gauge internally cooled catheter. Ten immunosuppressed dogs were inoculated subcutaneously with canine transmissible venereal tumor fragments in eight dorsal locations. Laser ablations were performed at 79 sites where inoculations were successful (99%) using powers of 10 W, 12.5 W, and 15 W, with exposure times between 60 and 180 seconds. In 20 cases, multiple overlapping ablations were performed. After the dogs were euthanized, the tumors were harvested, sectioned along the applicator track, measured and photographed. Measurements of ablation zone were performed on gross specimen. Histopathology and viability staining was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) staining. Results Gross pathology confirmed well-circumscribed ablation zone with sharp boundaries between thermally ablated tumor in the center surrounded by viable tumor tissue. When a single applicator was used, the greatest ablation diameters ranged from 12 mm at the lowest dose (10 W, 60 sec) to 26 mm at the highest dose (15 W, 180 sec). Multiple applicators created ablation zones of up to 42 mm in greatest diameter (with the lasers operating at 15 W for 120 sec). Conclusions The new 980-nm diode laser and internally cooled applicator effectively creates large ellipsoid thermal ablations in less than 3 minutes. PMID:20346883

  17. Systemic couple therapy for dysthymia.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Adrián; Feixas, Guillem; Muñoz, Dámaris; Compañ, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    We examined the effect of Systemic Couple Therapy on a patient diagnosed with dysthymic disorder and her partner. Marge and Peter, a middle-aged married couple, showed significant and meaningful changes in their pattern of interaction over the course of the therapy and, by the end of it, Marge no longer met the diagnostic criteria for dysthymic disorder. Her scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II) were in the clinical range before treatment and in the nonclinical one at the end of therapy. Although scores on Dyadic Adjustment Scale showed different patterns, both members reported significant improvement. The analysis of change in the alliance-related behaviors throughout the process concurred with change in couple's pattern of interaction. Treatment effects were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Highlights in the therapy process showed the importance of relational mechanisms of change, such as broadening the therapeutic focus into the couple's pattern of interaction, reducing expressed emotion and resentment, as well as increasing positive exchanges. The results of this evidence-based case study should prompt further investigation of couple therapy for dysthymia disorder. Randomized clinical trial design is needed to reach an evidence-based treatment status. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Using the Model Coupling Toolkit to couple earth system models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.C.; Perlin, N.; Skyllingstad, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Continued advances in computational resources are providing the opportunity to operate more sophisticated numerical models. Additionally, there is an increasing demand for multidisciplinary studies that include interactions between different physical processes. Therefore there is a strong desire to develop coupled modeling systems that utilize existing models and allow efficient data exchange and model control. The basic system would entail model "1" running on "M" processors and model "2" running on "N" processors, with efficient exchange of model fields at predetermined synchronization intervals. Here we demonstrate two coupled systems: the coupling of the ocean circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to the surface wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of ROMS to the atmospheric model Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS). Both coupled systems use the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT) as a mechanism for operation control and inter-model distributed memory transfer of model variables. In this paper we describe requirements and other options for model coupling, explain the MCT library, ROMS, SWAN and COAMPS models, methods for grid decomposition and sparse matrix interpolation, and provide an example from each coupled system. Methods presented in this paper are clearly applicable for coupling of other types of models. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  20. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    active, and cloud- nucleating aerosols into NAVGEM for use in long-term simulations and forecasts and for use in the full coupled system. APPROACH...cloud- nucleating aerosols into NAVGEM for use in long-term simulations and forecasts for ESPC applications. We are relying on approaches, findings...function. For sea salt we follow NAAPS and use a source that depends on ocean surface winds and relative humidity . In lieu of the relevant

  1. Characterization of a Hybrid Optical Microscopy/Laser Ablation Liquid Vortex Capture/Electrospray Ionization System for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, John F.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    Herein, a commercial optical microscope, laser microdissection instrument was coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer via a low profile liquid vortex capture probe to yield a hybrid optical microscopy/mass spectrometry imaging system. The instrument has bright-field and fluorescence microscopy capabilities in addition to a highly focused UV laser beam that is utilized for laser ablation of samples. With this system, material laser ablated from a sample using the microscope was caught by a liquid vortex capture probe and transported in solution for analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Both lane scanning and spot sampling mass spectral imaging modes weremore » used. The smallest area the system was able to ablate was ~0.544 μm × ~0.544 μm, achieved by oversampling of the smallest laser ablation spot size that could be obtained (~1.9 μm). With use of a model photoresist surface, known features as small as ~1.5 μm were resolved. The capabilities of the system with real world samples were demonstrated first with a blended polymer thin film containing poly(2-vinylpyridine) and poly(N-vinylcarbazole). Using spot sampling imaging, sub-micrometer sized features (0.62, 0.86, and 0.98 μm) visible by optical microscopy were clearly distinguished in the mass spectral images. A second real world example showed the imaging of trace amounts of cocaine in mouse brain thin tissue sections. Lastly, with use of a lane scanning mode with ~6 μm × ~6 μm data pixels, features in the tissue as small as 15 μm in size could be distinguished in both the mass spectral and optical images.« less

  2. Characterization of a Hybrid Optical Microscopy/Laser Ablation Liquid Vortex Capture/Electrospray Ionization System for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Cahill, John F.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-22

    Herein, a commercial optical microscope, laser microdissection instrument was coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer via a low profile liquid vortex capture probe to yield a hybrid optical microscopy/mass spectrometry imaging system. The instrument has bright-field and fluorescence microscopy capabilities in addition to a highly focused UV laser beam that is utilized for laser ablation of samples. With this system, material laser ablated from a sample using the microscope was caught by a liquid vortex capture probe and transported in solution for analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Both lane scanning and spot sampling mass spectral imaging modes weremore » used. The smallest area the system was able to ablate was ~0.544 μm × ~0.544 μm, achieved by oversampling of the smallest laser ablation spot size that could be obtained (~1.9 μm). With use of a model photoresist surface, known features as small as ~1.5 μm were resolved. The capabilities of the system with real world samples were demonstrated first with a blended polymer thin film containing poly(2-vinylpyridine) and poly(N-vinylcarbazole). Using spot sampling imaging, sub-micrometer sized features (0.62, 0.86, and 0.98 μm) visible by optical microscopy were clearly distinguished in the mass spectral images. A second real world example showed the imaging of trace amounts of cocaine in mouse brain thin tissue sections. Lastly, with use of a lane scanning mode with ~6 μm × ~6 μm data pixels, features in the tissue as small as 15 μm in size could be distinguished in both the mass spectral and optical images.« less

  3. Elemental analysis of glass by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-OES).

    PubMed

    Schenk, Emily R; Almirall, José R

    2012-04-10

    The elemental analysis of glass evidence has been established as a powerful discrimination tool for forensic analysts. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-OES) has been compared to laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and energy dispersive micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μXRF/EDS) as competing instrumentation for the elemental analysis of glass. The development of a method for the forensic analysis of glass coupling laser ablation to ICP-OES is presented for the first time. LA-ICP-OES has demonstrated comparable analytical performance to LA-ICP-MS based on the use of the element menu, Al (Al I 396.15 nm), Ba (Ba II 455.40 nm), Ca (Ca II 315.88 nm), Fe (Fe II 238.20 nm), Li (Li I 670.78 nm), Mg (Mg I 285.21 nm), Sr (Sr II 407.77 nm), Ti (Ti II 368.51 nm), and Zr (Zr II 343.82 nm). The relevant figures of merit, such as precision, accuracy and sensitivity, are presented and compared to LA-ICP-MS. A set of 41 glass samples was used to assess the discrimination power of the LA-ICP-OES method in comparison to other elemental analysis techniques. This sample set consisted of several vehicle glass samples that originated from the same source (inside and outside windshield panes) and several glass samples that originated from different vehicles. Different match criteria were used and compared to determine the potential for Type I and Type II errors. It was determined that broader match criteria is more applicable to the forensic comparison of glass analysis because it can reduce the affect that micro-heterogeneity inherent in the glass fragments and a less than ideal sampling strategy can have on the interpretation of the results. Based on the test set reported here, a plus or minus four standard deviation (± 4s) match criterion yielded the lowest possibility of Type I and Type II errors. The developed LA-ICP-OES method has been shown to perform similarly to LA-ICP-MS in the

  4. Green and Fast Laser Fusion Technique for Bulk Silicate Rock Analysis by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenxi; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yongsheng; Zong, Keqing; Li, Ming; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-10-18

    Sample preparation of whole-rock powders is the major limitation for their accurate and precise elemental analysis by laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). In this study, a green, efficient, and simplified fusion technique using a high energy infrared laser was developed for major and trace elemental analysis. Fusion takes only tens of milliseconds for each sample. Compared to the pressed pellet sample preparation, the analytical precision of the developed laser fusion technique is higher by an order of magnitude for most elements in granodiorite GSP-2. Analytical results obtained for five USGS reference materials (ranging from mafic to intermediate to felsic) using the laser fusion technique generally agree with recommended values with discrepancies of less than 10% for most elements. However, high losses (20-70%) of highly volatile elements (Zn and Pb) and the transition metal Cu are observed. The achieved precision is within 5% for major elements and within 15% for most trace elements. Direct laser fusion of rock powders is a green and notably simple method to obtain homogeneous samples, which will significantly accelerate the application of laser ablation ICPMS for whole-rock sample analysis.

  5. Determination of tin isotope ratios in cassiterite by femtosecond laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Marie; Ziegerick, Marco; Horn, Ingo; Weyer, Stefan; Vogt, Carla

    2017-04-01

    In comparison to isotope analysis of dissolved samples femtosecond laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (fs-LA-MC-ICP-MS) enables precise isotope ratio analyses consuming much less sample material and with a minimum effort in sample preparation. This is especially important for the investigation of valuable historical objects for which visual traces of sampling are unwanted. The present study provides a basis for tin isotope ratio measurements using LA-MC-ICP-MS technique. For this, in house isotope standards had to be defined. Investigations on interferences and matrix effects illustrate that beside Sb only high Te contents (with values above those to be expected in cassiterite) result in a significant shift of the measured tin isotope ratios. This effect can partly be corrected for using natural isotope abundances. However, a natural isotope fractionation of Te cannot be excluded. Tin beads reduced from cassiterite were analysed by laser ablation and after dissolution. It was shown that tin isotope ratios can be determined accurately by using fs-LA-MC-ICP-MS. Furthermore the homogeneity of tin isotope ratios in cassiterite was proven.

  6. Unambiguous characterization of gunshot residue particles using scanning laser ablation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abrego, Zuriñe; Ugarte, Ana; Unceta, Nora; Fernández-Isla, Alberto; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2012-03-06

    A new method based on scanning laser ablation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) for the detection and identification of gunshot residue (GSR) particles from firearms discharges has been developed. Tape lifts were used to collect inorganic residues from skin surfaces. The laser ablation pattern and ICPMS conditions were optimized for the detection of metals present in GSR, such as (121)Sb, (137)Ba, and (208)Pb. Other isotopes ((27)Al, (29)Si, (31)P, (33)S, (35)Cl, (39)K, (44)Ca, (57)Fe, (60)Ni, (63)Cu, (66)Zn, and (118)Sn) were monitored during the ICPMS analyses to obtain additional information to possibly classify the GSR particles as either characteristic of GSR or consistent with GSR. In experiments with real samples, different firearms, calibers, and ammunitions were used. The performed method evaluation confirms that the developed methodology can be used as an alternative to the standard scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) technique, with the significant advantage of drastically reducing the analysis time to less than 66 min.

  7. Multielemental analysis of prehistoric animal teeth by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Galiova, Michaela; Kaiser, Jozef; Fortes, Francisco J.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) were utilized for microspatial analyses of a prehistoric bear (Ursus arctos) tooth dentine. The distribution of selected trace elements (Sr, Ba, Fe) was measured on a 26 mmx15 mm large and 3 mm thick transverse cross section of a canine tooth. The Na and Mg content together with the distribution of matrix elements (Ca, P) was also monitored within this area. The depth of the LIBS craters was measured with an optical profilometer. As shown, both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS can be successfully used for themore » fast, spatially resolved analysis of prehistoric teeth samples. In addition to microchemical analysis, the sample hardness was calculated using LIBS plasma ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios of Mg (or Ca). To validate the sample hardness calculations, the hardness was also measured with a Vickers microhardness tester.« less

  8. Visual Outcomes After LASIK Using Topography-Guided vs Wavefront-Guided Customized Ablation Systems.

    PubMed

    Toda, Ikuko; Ide, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Teruki; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the visual performance of two customized ablation systems (wavefront-guided ablation and topography-guided ablation) in LASIK. In this prospective, randomized clinical study, 68 eyes of 35 patients undergoing LASIK were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to wavefront-guided ablation using the iDesign aberrometer and STAR S4 IR Excimer Laser system (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA) (wavefront-guided group; 32 eyes of 16 patients; age: 29.0 ± 7.3 years) or topography-guided ablation using the OPD-Scan aberrometer and EC-5000 CXII excimer laser system (NIDEK, Tokyo, Japan) (topography-guided group; 36 eyes of 19 patients; age: 36.1 ± 9.6 years). Preoperative manifest refraction was -4.92 ± 1.95 diopters (D) in the wavefront-guided group and -4.44 ± 1.98 D in the topography-guided group. Visual function and subjective symptoms were compared between groups before and 1 and 3 months after LASIK. Of seven subjective symptoms evaluated, four were significantly milder in the wavefront-guided group at 3 months. Contrast sensitivity with glare off at low spatial frequencies (6.3° and 4°) was significantly higher in the wavefront-guided group. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, manifest refraction, and higher order aberrations measured by OPD-Scan and iDesign were not significantly different between the two groups at 1 and 3 months after LASIK. Both customized ablation systems used in LASIK achieved excellent results in predictability and visual function. The wavefront-guided ablation system may have some advantages in the quality of vision. It may be important to select the appropriate system depending on eye conditions such as the pattern of total and corneal higher order aberrations. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(11):727-732.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortov, Vladimir E.; Golden, Kenneth I.; Norman, Genri E.

    2006-04-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS) which was held during the week of 20 24 June 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The Moscow conference was the tenth in a series of conferences. The previous conferences were organized as follows. 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (organized by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (organized by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, NY, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) After 1995 the name of the series was changed from `Strongly Coupled Plasmas' to the present name in order to extend the topics of the conferences. The planned frequency for the future is once every three years. The purpose of these conferences is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of research accomplishments and ideas relating to a variety of plasma liquid and condensed matter systems, dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems encompass diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphasis as new discoveries and new methods appear. This year, sessions were organized for invited presentations and posters on dense plasmas and warm matter, astrophysics and dense hydrogen, non-neutral and ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, condensed matter 2D and layered charged-particle systems, Coulomb liquids, and statistical theory of SCCS. Within

  10. Quasi ?non-destructive? laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry fingerprinting of sapphires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillong, M.; Günther, D.

    2001-07-01

    A homogenized 193 nm excimer laser with a flat-top beam profile was used to study the capabilities of LA-ICP-MS for 'quasi' non-destructive fingerprinting and sourcing of sapphires from different locations. Sapphires contain 97-99% of Al 2O 3 (corundum), with the remainder composed of several trace elements, which can be used to distinguish the origin of these gemstones. The ablation behavior of sapphires, as well as the minimum quantity of sample removal that is required to determine these trace elements, was investigated. The optimum ablation conditions were a fluency of 6 J cm -2, a crater diameter of 120 μm, and a laser repetition rate of 10 Hz. The optimum time for the ablation was determined to be 2 s, equivalent to 20 laser pulses. The mean sample removal was 60 nm per pulse (approx. 3 ng per pulse). This allowed satisfactory trace element determination, and was found to cause the minimum amount of damage, while allowing for the fingerprinting of sapphires. More than 40 isotopes were measured using different spatial resolutions (20-120 μm) and eight elements were reproducibly detected in 25 sapphire samples from five different locations. The reproducibility of the trace element distribution is limited by the heterogeneity of the sample. The mean of five or more replicate analyses per sample was used. Calibration was carried out using NIST 612 glass reference material as external standard. The linear dynamic range of the ICP-MS (nine orders of magnitude) allowed the use of Al, the major element in sapphire, as an internal standard. The limits of detection for most of the light elements were in the μg g -1 range and were better for heavier elements (mass >85), being in the 0.1 μg g -1 range. The accuracy of the determinations was demonstrated by comparison with XRF analyses of the same set of samples. Using the quantitative analyses obtained using LA-ICP-MS, natural sapphires from five different origins were statistically classified using ternary plots and

  11. Preclinical evaluation of an MR-compatible microwave ablation system and comparison with a standard microwave ablation system in an ex vivo bovine liver model.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Rüdiger; Kessler, David-Emanuel; Weiss, Jakob; Clasen, Stephan; Pereira, Philippe L; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Rempp, Hansjörg

    2017-09-01

    Evaluation of a newly developed MR-compatible microwave ablation system with focus on ablation performance and comparison with a corresponding standard microwave ablation system. A total of 52 ablations were performed with a non-cooled microwave ablation system in an ex vivo bovine liver model using the following settings: [A] 16G-standard antenna, 2 cm active tip, 2.4 m cable; [B] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 2 cm active tip, 2.4 m cable; [C] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 2 cm active tip, extended 6 m cable; and [D] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 4 cm active tip, extended 6 m cable. Ablation durations were 3, 5 and 10 min, and additionally 15 min for [D]. Ablations zones were measured for short-axis diameter (SA) and long-axis diameter (LA). Settings [A]-[C] were compared regarding SA, volume (V) and generator energy output (E) with analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. Ablation performance of the MR-compatible settings [C] and [D] were compared regarding SA, V, E and sphericity index (SA/LA) with unpaired t-test. p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. No significant differences were found between [A], [B] and [C] regarding SA and V (10 min; SA[A] = 25.8 ± 2.4 mm, SA[B] = 25.3 ± 1.9 mm, SA[C] = 25.0 ± 2.0 mm, p = 0.88; V[A] = 17.8 ± 4.4 cm³, V[B] = 16.6 ± 3.0 cm³, V[C] = 17.8 ± 2.7 cm³, p = 0.85); however, the highest energy output was measured for setting [C] (10 min; [A]: 9.9 ± 0.5 kJ, [B]: 10.1 ± 0.5 kJ, [C]: 13.1 ± 0.3 kJ, p < 0.001). SA, V and E were significantly larger with setting [D] than [C] with 10 min ablations (SA[C] = 25.0 ± 2.0 mm, SA[D] = 34.0 ± 2.9 mm, p = 0.003; V[C] = 17.8 ± 2.7 cm³, V[D] = 39.4 ± 7.5 cm³, p = 0.007; E[C] = 13.1 ± 0.3 kJ, E[D] = 16.7 ± 0.8 kJ, p = 0.002) without significant difference in sphericity

  12. Determinations of rare earth element abundance and U-Pb age of zircons using multispot laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Takaomi D; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kon, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a new calibration technique for multielement determination and U-Pb dating of zircon samples using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with galvanometric optics. With the galvanometric optics, laser ablation of two or more sample materials could be achieved in very short time intervals (~10 ms). The resulting sample aerosols released from different ablation pits or different solid samples were mixed and homogenized within the sample cell and then transported into the ICP ion source. Multiple spot laser ablation enables spiking of analytes or internal standard elements directly into the solid samples, and therefore the standard addition calibration method can be applied for the determination of trace elements in solid samples. In this study, we have measured the rare earth element (REE) abundances of two zircon samples (Nancy 91500 and Prešovice) based on the standard addition technique, using a direct spiking of analytes through a multispot laser ablation of the glass standard material (NIST SRM612). The resulting REE abundance data show good agreement with previously reported values within analytical uncertainties achieved in this study (10% for most elements). Our experiments demonstrated that nonspectroscopic interferences on 14 REEs could be significantly reduced by the standard addition technique employed here. Another advantage of galvanometric devices is the accumulation of sample aerosol released from multiple spots. In this study we have measured the U-Pb age of a zircon sample (LMR) using an accumulation of sample aerosols released from 10 separate ablation pits of low diameters (~8 μm). The resulting (238)U-(206)Pb age data for the LMR zircons was 369 ± 64 Ma, which is in good agreement with previously reported age data (367.6 ± 1.5 Ma). (1) The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the multiple spot laser ablation-ICPMS technique can become a powerful approach for elemental and isotopic

  13. Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, J.; Galiová, M.; Novotný, K.; Červenka, R.; Reale, L.; Novotný, J.; Liška, M.; Samek, O.; Kanický, V.; Hrdlička, A.; Stejskal, K.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized for mapping the accumulation of Pb, Mg and Cu with a resolution up to 200 μm in a up to cm × cm area of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. The results obtained by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS are compared with the outcomes from Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC). It is shown that laser-ablation based analytical methods can substitute or supplement these techniques mainly in the cases when a fast multi-elemental mapping of a large sample area is needed.

  14. Tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and/or Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-OES) for the analysis of samples of geological interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oropeza, D.

    2016-12-01

    A highly innovative laser ablation sampling instrument (J200 Tandem LA - LIBS) that combines the capabilities and analytical benefits of LIBS, LA-ICP-MS and LA-ICP-OES was used for micrometer-scale, spatially-resolved, elemental analysis of a wide variety of samples of geological interest. Data collected using ablation systems consisted of nanosecond (Nd:YAG operated 266nm) and femtosecond lasers (1030 and 343nm). An ICCD LIBS detector and Quadrupole based mass spectrometer were selected for LIBS and ICP-MS detection, respectively. This tandem instrument allows simultaneous determination of major and minor elements (for example, Si, Ca, Na, and Al, and trace elements such as Li, Ce, Cr, Sr, Y, Zn, Zr among others). The research also focused on elemental mapping and calibration strategies, specifically the use of emission and mass spectra for multivariate data analysis. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) is shown to minimize and compensate for matrix effects in the emission and mass spectra improving quantitative analysis by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS, respectively. The study provides a benchmark to evaluate analytical results for more complex geological sample matrices.

  15. Role of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in cultural heritage research: a review.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Barbara; Monticelli, Damiano; Rampazzi, Laura

    2009-03-02

    Cultural heritage represents a bridge between the contemporary society and the past populations, and a strong collaboration between archaeologists, art historians and analysts may lead to the decryption of the information hidden in an ancient object. Quantitative elemental compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship of ancient cultures with the environment. Nevertheless, the scientific investigation of an artifact should be carried out complying with some important constraints: above all the analyses should be as little destructive as possible and performed directly on the object to preserve its integrity. Laser ablation sampling coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) fulfils these requirements exhibiting comparably strong analytical performance in trace element determination. This review intends to show through the applications found in the literature how valuable is the contribution of LA-ICP-MS in the investigation of ancient materials such as obsidian, glass, pottery, human remains, written heritage, metal objects and miscellaneous stone materials. The main issues related to cultural heritage investigation are introduced, followed by a brief description of the features of this technique. An overview of the exploitation of LA-ICP-MS is then presented. Finally, advantages and drawbacks of this technique are critically discussed: the fit for purpose and prospects of the use of LA-ICP-MS are presented.

  16. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a twin quadrupole instrument using laser ablation sample introduction and monodisperse dried microparticulate injection

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Lloyd A.

    1996-10-17

    The focus of this dissertation is the use of a twin quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the simultaneous detection of two m/z values. The twin quadrupole ICP-MS is used with laser ablation sample introduction in both the steady state (10 Hz) and single pulse modes. Steady state signals are highly correlated and the majority of flicker noise cancels when the ratio is calculated. Using a copper sample, the isotope ratio 63Cu +/ 65Cu + is measured with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.26%. Transient signals for single laser pulses are also obtained. Copper isotope ratio measurementsmore » for several laser pulses are measured with an RSD of 0.85%. Laser ablation (LA) is used with steel samples to assess the ability of the twin quadrupole ICP-MS to eliminate flicker noise of minor components of steel samples. Isotopic and internal standard ratios are measured in the first part of this work. The isotope ratio 52Cr +/ 53Cr + (Cr present at 1.31 %) can be measured with an RSD of 0.06 % to 0.1 %. For internal standard elements, RSDs improve from 1.9 % in the Cr + signal to 0.12% for the ratio of 51V + to 52Cr +. In the second part of this work, one mass spectrometer is scanned while the second channel measures an individual m/z value. When the ratio of these two signals is calculated, the peak shapes in the mass spectrum are improved significantly. Pulses of analyte and matrix ions from individual drops are measured simultaneously using the twin quadrupole ICP-MS with monodisperse dried microparticulate injection (MDMI). At modest Pb concentrations (500 ppm), a shoulder on the leading edge of the Li + signal becomes apparent. Space charge effects are consistent with the disturbances seen.« less

  17. Determination of refractive and volatile elements in sediment using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Allen, Charlotte; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2015-10-22

    Wet-milling protocol was employed to produce pressed powder tablets with excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation (LA) analysis of volatile and refractive elements in sediment. The influence of sample preparation on analytical performance was also investigated, including sample homogeneity, accuracy and limit of detection. Milling in volatile solvent for 40 min ensured sample is well mixed and could reasonably recover both volatile (Hg) and refractive (Zr) elements. With the exception of Cr (-52%) and Nb (+26%) major, minor and trace elements in STSD-1 and MESS-3 could be analysed within ±20% of the certified values. Comparison of the method with total digestion method using HF was tested by analysing 10 different sediment samples. The laser method recovers significantly higher amounts of analytes such as Ag, Cd, Sn and Sn than the total digestion method making it a more robust method for elements across the periodic table. LA-ICP-MS also eliminates the interferences from chemical reagents as well as the health and safety risks associated with digestion processes. Therefore, it can be considered as an enhanced method for the analysis of heterogeneous matrices such as river sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Final Report for High Precision Short-Pulse Laser Ablation System for Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.M.; Feit, M.; Rubenchik, A.

    2000-03-04

    During the three year LDRD funding period, we studied the ablation characteristics of biological tissues using ultrashort pulse lasers (USPL) with pulse widths varying from 100 femtoseconds to tens of picoseconds. During the first year, we performed extensive theoretical studies to develop an improved understanding of the USPL ablation process. Two optical signals were tested for feasibility of use in real-time feedback systems during high repetition rate ablation. In the second year, we devised a real-time, feedback-controlled USPL ablation system, based on luminescence, which may be useful for sensitive micro-spinal surgeries. Effective laser parameters were identified to reduce collateral damage.more » The final year of the project focused on quantification of the pressure pulse induced by USPL ablation of water surfaces representing biological tissues. Results of these studies were presented in invited talks at domestic and international conferences and numerous journal articles were published (see bibliography). This effort has increased our scientific understanding of physical processes important for the therapeutic biomedical application of ultrashort pulse lasers, and has taken the first steps toward practical realization of such applications.« less

  19. Ablation Modeling of Ares-I Upper State Thermal Protection System Using Thermal Desktop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, John R.; Page, Arthur T.

    2007-01-01

    The thermal protection system (TPS) for the Ares-I Upper Stage will be based on Space Transportation System External Tank (ET) and Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) heritage materials. These TPS materials were qualified via hot gas testing that simulated ascent and re-entry aerothermodynamic convective heating environments. From this data, the recession rates due to ablation were characterized and used in thermal modeling for sizing the thickness required to maintain structural substrate temperatures. At Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the in-house code ABL is currently used to predict TPS ablation and substrate temperatures as a FORTRAN application integrated within SINDA/G. This paper describes a comparison of the new ablation utility in Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT with the heritage ABL code and empirical test data which serves as the validation of the Thermal Desktop software for use on the design of the Ares-I Upper Stage project.

  20. Visualizing fossilization using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry maps of trace elements in Late Cretaceous bones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koenig, A.E.; Rogers, R.R.; Trueman, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental maps generated by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provide a previously unavailable high-resolution visualization of the complex physicochemical conditions operating within individual bones during the early stages of diagenesis and fossilization. A selection of LA-ICP-MS maps of bones collected from the Late Cretaceous of Montana (United States) and Madagascar graphically illustrate diverse paths to recrystallization, and reveal unique insights into geochemical aspects of taphonomic history. Some bones show distinct gradients in concentrations of rare earth elements and uranium, with highest concentrations at external bone margins. Others exhibit more intricate patterns of trace element uptake related to bone histology and its control on the flow paths of pore waters. Patterns of element uptake as revealed by LA-ICP-MS maps can be used to guide sampling strategies, and call into question previous studies that hinge upon localized bulk samples of fossilized bone tissue. LA-ICP-MS maps also allow for comparison of recrystallization rates among fossil bones, and afford a novel approach to identifying bones or regions of bones potentially suitable for extracting intact biogeochemical signals. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  1. On-line double isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of solid materials.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Beatriz; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio; Malherbe, Julien; García-Fonseca, Sergio; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-12-03

    We report on the determination of trace elements in solid samples by the combination of on-line double isotope dilution and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The proposed method requires the sequential analysis of the sample and a certified natural abundance standard by on-line IDMS using the same isotopically-enriched spike solution. In this way, the mass fraction of the analyte in the sample can be directly referred to the certified standard so the previous characterization of the spike solution is not required. To validate the procedure, Sr, Rb and Pb were determined in certified reference materials with different matrices, including silicate glasses (SRM 610, 612 and 614) and powdered samples (PACS-2, SRM 2710a, SRM 1944, SRM 2702 and SRM 2780). The analysis of powdered samples was carried out both by the preparation of pressed pellets and by lithium borate fusion. Experimental results for the analysis of powdered samples were in agreement with the certified values for all materials. Relative standard deviations in the range of 6-21% for pressed pellets and 3-21% for fused solids were obtained from n=3 independent measurements. Minimal sample preparation, data treatment and consumption of the isotopically-enriched isotopes are the main advantages of the method over previously reported approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioimaging of metals in brain tissue by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and metallomics.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Matusch, Andreas; Palm, Christoph; Salber, Dagmar; Morton, Kathryn A; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been developed and established as an emerging technique in the generation of quantitative images of metal distributions in thin tissue sections of brain samples (such as human, rat and mouse brain), with applications in research related to neurodegenerative disorders. A new analytical protocol is described which includes sample preparation by cryo-cutting of thin tissue sections and matrix-matched laboratory standards, mass spectrometric measurements, data acquisition, and quantitative analysis. Specific examples of the bioimaging of metal distributions in normal rodent brains are provided. Differences to the normal were assessed in a Parkinson's disease and a stroke brain model. Furthermore, changes during normal aging were studied. Powerful analytical techniques are also required for the determination and characterization of metal-containing proteins within a large pool of proteins, e.g., after denaturing or non-denaturing electrophoretic separation of proteins in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels. LA-ICP-MS can be employed to detect metalloproteins in protein bands or spots separated after gel electrophoresis. MALDI-MS can then be used to identify specific metal-containing proteins in these bands or spots. The combination of these techniques is described in the second section.

  3. Development of a fine thermocouple-needle system for real-time feedback of thermal tumour ablation margin

    PubMed Central

    Ishizaka, H; Shiraishi, A; Awata, S; Shimizu, A; Hirasawa, S

    2011-01-01

    Thermal tumour ablation techniques such as radiofrequency (RF) ablation are applied for radical removal of local tumours as an easier, less invasive alternative to surgical resection. A serious drawback of thermal ablation, however, is that the ablation area cannot be accurately assessed during the procedure. To achieve real-time feedback and exact and safe ablation, a superfine thermocouple-needle system (TNS) comprising a 0.25-mm diameter thermocouple embedded in a 22-G, 15-cm-long needle was devised and efficacy was tested in vitro using porcine livers (n = 15) and in vivo using rabbit back muscles (n = 2) and livers (n = 3). A 17-gauge RF electrode with a 2 cm active tip was used for ablation. The TNS was inserted 1 cm from the active tip of the RF electrode and liver temperature around the electrode was measured concurrently. The RF current was cut off when the temperature reached 60°C or after 5 min at ≥50°C. Porcine livers and rabbit back muscles were then cut along a plane passing through the axes of the electrode and the TNS. In rabbit livers, contrast-enhanced CT was performed to evaluate ablation areas. Ablation areas in cut surfaces of porcine livers exhibited well-defined discoloured regions and the TNS tip precisely pinpointed the margin of the ablation area. Contrast-enhanced CT of rabbit livers showed the TNS tip accurately located at the margin of areas without contrast enhancement. These results indicate that the TNS can accurately show ablation margins and that placing the TNS tip at the intended ablation margin permits exact thermal ablation. PMID:21937618

  4. Short communication. Development of a fine thermocouple-needle system for real-time feedback of thermal tumour ablation margin.

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, H; Shiraishi, A; Awata, S; Shimizu, A; Hirasawa, S

    2011-12-01

    Thermal tumour ablation techniques such as radiofrequency (RF) ablation are applied for radical removal of local tumours as an easier, less invasive alternative to surgical resection. A serious drawback of thermal ablation, however, is that the ablation area cannot be accurately assessed during the procedure. To achieve real-time feedback and exact and safe ablation, a superfine thermocouple-needle system (TNS) comprising a 0.25-mm diameter thermocouple embedded in a 22-G, 15-cm-long needle was devised and efficacy was tested in vitro using porcine livers (n = 15) and in vivo using rabbit back muscles (n = 2) and livers (n = 3). A 17-gauge RF electrode with a 2 cm active tip was used for ablation. The TNS was inserted 1 cm from the active tip of the RF electrode and liver temperature around the electrode was measured concurrently. The RF current was cut off when the temperature reached 60°C or after 5 min at ≥50°C. Porcine livers and rabbit back muscles were then cut along a plane passing through the axes of the electrode and the TNS. In rabbit livers, contrast-enhanced CT was performed to evaluate ablation areas. Ablation areas in cut surfaces of porcine livers exhibited well-defined discoloured regions and the TNS tip precisely pinpointed the margin of the ablation area. Contrast-enhanced CT of rabbit livers showed the TNS tip accurately located at the margin of areas without contrast enhancement. These results indicate that the TNS can accurately show ablation margins and that placing the TNS tip at the intended ablation margin permits exact thermal ablation.

  5. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: an emerging technology for detecting rare cells in tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Managh, Amy J; Hutchinson, Robert W; Riquelme, Paloma; Broichhausen, Christiane; Wege, Anja K; Ritter, Uwe; Ahrens, Norbert; Koehl, Gudrun E; Walter, Lisa; Florian, Christian; Schlitt, Hans J; Reid, Helen J; Geissler, Edward K; Sharp, Barry L; Hutchinson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Administering immunoregulatory cells to patients as medicinal agents is a potentially revolutionary approach to the treatment of immunologically mediated diseases. Presently, there are no satisfactory, clinically applicable methods of tracking human cells in patients with adequate spatial resolution and target cell specificity over a sufficient period of time. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) represents a potential solution to the problem of detecting very rare cells in tissues. In this article, this exquisitely sensitive technique is applied to the tracking of gold-labeled human regulatory macrophages (Mregs) in immunodeficient mice. Optimal conditions for labeling Mregs with 50-nm gold particles were investigated by exposing Mregs in culture to variable concentrations of label: Mregs incubated with 3.5 × 10(9) particles/ml for 1 h incorporated an average of 3.39 × 10(8) Au atoms/cell without loss of cell viability. Analysis of single, gold-labeled Mregs by LA-ICP-MS registered an average of 1.9 × 10(5) counts/cell. Under these conditions, 100% labeling efficiency was achieved, and label was retained by Mregs for ≥36 h. Gold-labeled Mregs adhered to glass surfaces; after 24 h of culture, it was possible to colabel these cells with human-specific (154)Sm-tagged anti-HLA-DR or (174)Yb-tagged anti-CD45 mAbs. Following injection into immunodeficient mice, signals from gold-labeled human Mregs could be detected in mouse lung, liver, and spleen for at least 7 d by solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and LA-ICP-MS. These promising results indicate that LA-ICP-MS tissue imaging has great potential as an analytical technique in immunology. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Microwave ablation of pulmonary malignancies using a novel high-energy antenna system.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark W; Chung, Daniel; Boardman, Philip; Gleeson, Fergus V; Anderson, Ewan M

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the technical success, safety, and imaging follow-up of malignant pulmonary nodules treated with a novel high-energy percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) system. Between July 2010 and September 2011, a total of 23 patients, 12 men, mean age 68 (range 30-87) years with 29 pulmonary malignancies of median diameter 19 (range 8-57) mm, underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided MWA with a 16G microwave needle antenna enabling power up to 180 W. Technical success was defined as needle placement in the intended lesion without death or serious injury. Adequacy of ablation was assessed at 24 h on contrast-enhanced CT. Circumferential solid or ground glass opacification >5 mm was used to define an ideal ablation. Local tumor recurrence was assessed at 1, 3, and 6 months after ablation on contrast-enhanced CT. MWA was technically successful in 93 % (n = 27). Mean ablation duration was 3.6 (range 1-9) min. Ten patients (43 %) developed a pneumothorax as a result of the MWA; only 3 (13 %) required placement of a chest drain. Thirty-day mortality rate was 0 %. The mean hospital stay was 1.5 (range 1-7) days. A total of 22 lesions (75 %) were surrounded by ≥5 mm ground glass or solid opacification after the procedure. At a median follow-up of 6 months, local recurrence was identified in 3 out of 26 lesions, giving a local control rate of 88 %. MWA using a high-power antenna of pulmonary malignancies is safe, technically achievable, and enables fast ablation times.

  7. The magnetic navigation system allows safety and high efficacy for ablation of arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Bauernfeind, Tamas; Akca, Ferdi; Schwagten, Bruno; de Groot, Natasja; Van Belle, Yves; Valk, Suzanne; Ujvari, Barbara; Jordaens, Luc; Szili-Torok, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    Aims We aimed to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of the magnetic navigation system (MNS) in a large number of patients. The MNS has the potential for improving safety and efficacy based on atraumatic catheter design and superior navigation capabilities. Methods and results In this study, 610 consecutive patients underwent ablation. Patients were divided into two age- and sex-matched groups. Ablations were performed either using MNS (group MNS, 292) or conventional manual ablation [group manual navigation (MAN), 318]. The following parameters were analysed: acute success rate, fluoroscopy time, procedure time, complications [major: pericardial tamponade, permanent atrioventricular (AV) block, major bleeding, and death; minor: minor bleeding and temporary AV block]. Recurrence rate was assessed during follow-up (15 ± 9.5 months). Subgroup analysis was performed for the following groups: atrial fibrillation, isthmus dependent and atypical atrial flutter, atrial tachycardia, AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia, circus movement tachycardia, and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Magnetic navigation system was associated with less major complications (0.34 vs. 3.2%, P = 0.01). The total numbers of complications were lower in group MNS (4.5 vs. 10%, P = 0.005). Magnetic navigation system was equally effective as MAN in acute success rate for overall groups (92 vs. 94%, P = ns). Magnetic navigation system was more successful for VTs (93 vs. 72%, P < 0.05). Less fluoroscopy was used in group MNS (30 ± 20 vs. 35 ± 25 min, P < 0.01). There were no differences in procedure times and recurrence rates for the overall groups (168 ± 67 vs. 159 ± 75 min, P = ns; 14 vs. 11%, P = ns; respectively). Conclusions Our data suggest that the use of MNS improves safety without compromising efficiency of ablations. Magnetic navigation system is more effective than manual ablation for VTs. PMID:21508006

  8. The magnetic navigation system allows safety and high efficacy for ablation of arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Bauernfeind, Tamas; Akca, Ferdi; Schwagten, Bruno; de Groot, Natasja; Van Belle, Yves; Valk, Suzanne; Ujvari, Barbara; Jordaens, Luc; Szili-Torok, Tamas

    2011-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of the magnetic navigation system (MNS) in a large number of patients. The MNS has the potential for improving safety and efficacy based on atraumatic catheter design and superior navigation capabilities. In this study, 610 consecutive patients underwent ablation. Patients were divided into two age- and sex-matched groups. Ablations were performed either using MNS (group MNS, 292) or conventional manual ablation [group manual navigation (MAN), 318]. The following parameters were analysed: acute success rate, fluoroscopy time, procedure time, complications [major: pericardial tamponade, permanent atrioventricular (AV) block, major bleeding, and death; minor: minor bleeding and temporary AV block]. Recurrence rate was assessed during follow-up (15±9.5 months). Subgroup analysis was performed for the following groups: atrial fibrillation, isthmus dependent and atypical atrial flutter, atrial tachycardia, AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia, circus movement tachycardia, and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Magnetic navigation system was associated with less major complications (0.34 vs. 3.2%, P=0.01). The total numbers of complications were lower in group MNS (4.5 vs. 10%, P=0.005). Magnetic navigation system was equally effective as MAN in acute success rate for overall groups (92 vs. 94%, P=ns). Magnetic navigation system was more successful for VTs (93 vs. 72%, P<0.05). Less fluoroscopy was used in group MNS (30±20 vs. 35±25 min, P<0.01). There were no differences in procedure times and recurrence rates for the overall groups (168±67 vs. 159±75 min, P=ns; 14 vs. 11%, P=ns; respectively). Our data suggest that the use of MNS improves safety without compromising efficiency of ablations. Magnetic navigation system is more effective than manual ablation for VTs.

  9. An MRI guided system for prostate laser ablation with treatment planning and multi-planar temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Agarwal, Harsh; Bernardo, Marcelino; Seifabadi, Reza; Turkbey, Baris; Partanen, Ari; Negussie, Ayele; Glossop, Neil; Choyke, Peter; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is often over treated with standard treatment options which impact the patients' quality of life. Laser ablation has emerged as a new approach to treat prostate cancer while sparing the healthy tissue around the tumor. Since laser ablation has a small treatment zone with high temperature, it is necessary to use accurate image guidance and treatment planning to enable full ablation of the tumor. Intraoperative temperature monitoring is also desirable to protect critical structures from being damaged in laser ablation. In response to these problems, we developed a navigation platform and integrated it with a clinical MRI scanner and a side firing laser ablation device. The system allows imaging, image guidance, treatment planning and temperature monitoring to be carried out on the same platform. Temperature sensing phantoms were developed to demonstrate the concept of iterative treatment planning and intraoperative temperature monitoring. Retrospective patient studies were also conducted to show the clinical feasibility of the system.

  10. The benefit of tissue contact monitoring with an electrical coupling index during ablation of typical atrial flutter--a prospective randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael A; Webster, David; Wong, Kelvin C K; Hayes, Christopher; Qureshi, Norman; Rajappan, Kim; Bashir, Yaver; Betts, Timothy R

    2014-12-01

    We sought to investigate the use of tissue contact monitoring by means of the electrical coupling index (ECI) in a prospective randomised control trial of patients undergoing cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation for atrial flutter. Patients with ECG-documented typical flutter undergoing their first CTI ablation were randomised to ECI™-guided or non-ECI™-guided ablation. An irrigated-tip ablation catheter was used in all cases. Consecutive 50-W, 60-s radiofrequency lesions were applied to the CTI, from the tricuspid valve to inferior vena cava, with no catheter movement permitted during radiofrequency (RF) delivery. The ablation endpoint was durable CTI block at 20 min post-ablation. Patients underwent routine clinic follow-up post-operatively. A total of 101 patients (79 male), mean age 66 (+/-11), 50 ECI-guided and 51 control cases were enrolled in the study. CTI block was achieved in all. There were no acute complications. All patients were alive at follow-up. CTI block was achieved in a single pass in 36 ECI-guided and 30 control cases (p = 0.16), and at 20 min post-ablation, re-conduction was seen in 5 and 12 cases, respectively (p = 0.07). There was no significant difference in total procedure time (62.7 ± 33 vs. 62.3 ± 33 min, p = 0.92), RF requirement (580 ± 312 vs. 574 ± 287 s, p = 0.11) or fluoroscopy time (718 ± 577 vs. 721 ± 583 s, p = 0.78). After 6 ± 4 months, recurrence of flutter had occurred in 1 (2 %) ECI vs. 8 (16 %) control cases (OR 0.13, 95 % CI 0.01-1.08, p = 0.06). ECI-guided CTI ablation demonstrated a non-statistically significant reduction in late recurrence of atrial flutter, at no cost to procedural time, radiation exposure or RF requirement.

  11. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of tooth enamel: a comparison of solution and laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Sandi R; Sponheimer, Matt; le Roux, Petrus J; Grimes, Vaughan; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Richards, Michael P

    2008-10-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in tooth enamel provide a means to investigate migration and landscape use in humans and other animals. Established methods for measuring (87)Sr/(86)Sr in teeth use bulk sampling (5-20 mg) and labor-intensive elemental purification procedures before analysis by either thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) or multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Another method for measuring 87Sr/86Sr is laser ablation MC-ICP-MS, but concerns have been expressed about its accuracy for measuring tooth enamel. In this study we test the precision and accuracy of the technique by analyzing 30 modern rodent teeth from the Sterkfontein Valley, South Africa by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS and solution MC-ICP-MS. The results show a mean difference in 87Sr/86Sr measured by laser ablation and by solution of 0.0003 +/- 0.0002. This degree of precision is well within the margin necessary for investigating the potential geographic origins of humans or animals in many areas of the world. Because laser ablation is faster, less expensive, and less destructive than bulk sampling solution methods, it opens the possibility for conducting 87Sr/86Sr analyses of intra-tooth samples and small and/or rare specimens such as micromammal and fossil teeth.

  12. Global ablation techniques.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah; Taylor, Betsy

    2013-12-01

    Global endometrial ablation techniques are a relatively new surgical technology for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding that can now be used even in an outpatient clinic setting. A comparison of global ablation versus earlier ablation technologies notes no significant differences in success rates and some improvement in patient satisfaction. The advantages of the newer global endometrial ablation systems include less operative time, improved recovery time, and decreased anesthetic risk. Ablation procedures performed in an outpatient surgical or clinic setting provide advantages both of potential cost savings for patients and the health care system and improved patient convenience. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Impact of a Novel Catheter Tracking System on Radiation Exposure during the Procedural Phases of Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter Ablation.

    PubMed

    Malliet, Nicolas; Andrade, Jason G; Khairy, Paul; Thanh, Hien Kiem Nguyen; Venier, Sandrine; Dubuc, Marc; Dyrda, Katia; Guerra, Peter; Mondésert, Blandine; Rivard, Léna; Tadros, Rafik; Talajic, Mario; Thibault, Bernard; Roy, Denis; Macle, Laurent

    2015-07-01

    Fluoroscopic guidance is used to position catheters during cardiac ablation. We evaluated the impact of a novel nonfluoroscopic sensor-guided electromagnetic navigation system (MG) on radiation exposure during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL). A total of 134 consecutive patients referred for ablation of AF (n = 44) or AFL (n = 90) ablation were prospectively enrolled. In one group the MG system was used for nonfluoroscopic catheter positioning, whereas in the conventional group standard fluoroscopy was utilized. Fluoroscopy times were assessed for each stage of procedure and total radiation exposure was quantified. Patient characteristics were similar between the groups. The procedural end point was achieved in all. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) fluoroscopy times were 12.5 minutes (7.6, 17.4) MG group versus 21.5 minutes (15.3, 23.0) conventional group (P < 0.0001) for AF ablation, and 0.8 minutes (0.4, 2.5) MG group versus 9.9 minutes (5.1, 22.5) conventional group (P < 0.0001) for AFL ablation. Median (IQR) total radiation exposure (μGy·m(2)) was 1,107 (906, 2,033) MG group versus 2,835 (1,688, 3,855) conventional group (P = 0.0001) for AF ablation, and 161 (65, 537) MG group versus 1,651 (796, 4,569) conventional group (P < 0.0001) for AFL ablation. No difference in total procedural time was seen. The use of a novel nonfluoroscopic catheter tracking system is associated with a significant reduction in radiation exposure during AF and AFL ablation (61% and 90% reduction, respectively). In the era of heightened awareness of the importance of radiation reduction, this system represents a safe and efficient tool to decrease radiation exposure during electrophysiological ablation procedures. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Coupled dynamics analysis of wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative description of all key elements of a complete wind energy system computer analysis code is presented. The analysis system addresses the coupled dynamics characteristics of wind energy systems, including the interactions of the rotor, tower, nacelle, power train, control system, and electrical network. The coupled dynamics are analyzed in both the frequency and time domain to provide the basic motions and loads data required for design, performance verification and operations analysis activities. Elements of the coupled analysis code were used to design and analyze candidate rotor articulation concepts. Fundamental results and conclusions derived from these studies are presented.

  15. Discrimination of side-window glass of Korean autos by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin-Woo; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Min, Ji-Sook; Choi, Man-Yong; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Shin, Woo-Jin

    2016-07-15

    Fragments of glass from cars are often found at crime scenes and can be crucial evidence for solving the crime. The glass fragments are important as trace evidence at crime scenes related to car accidents and burgled homes. By identifying the origin of glass fragments, it is possible to infer the identity of a suspect. Our results represent a promising approach to a thorough forensic investigation of car glass. Thirty-five samples from the side windows of cars produced and used in South Korea were collected from the official agencies of five car manufacturers and from two glassmakers. In addition, 120 samples from side mirrors were collected from the same suppliers as well as from small businesses. Their chemical compositions (including Pb isotopes) were analyzed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was performed. The percentages of major elements (Si, Ca, and Fe) in side-window glass varied within narrow ranges (30.0 ± 2.36%, 5.93 ± 0.52%, and 0.33 ± 0.05%, respectively), while the differences among Pb isotope ratios were not significant. In contrast, light rare earth elements (LREEs) were different from each glassmaker. From the LDA, the types of side-window glass were successfully discriminated according to car manufacturer, glassmaker, and even glass thickness. However, glass from side mirrors cannot be used for good forensic identifiers. Discrimination techniques for side-window glass, although not for side mirrors, using chemical compositions combined with multivariate statistical analyses provide evidence for forensic investigations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the characterization of pigments in prehistoric rock art.

    PubMed

    Resano, Martin; García-Ruiz, Esperanza; Alloza, Ramiro; Marzo, Maria P; Vandenabeele, Peter; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2007-12-01

    In this work, several red-colored paintings of post-Paleolithic schematic style found in 10 different shelters in the vicinity of the Vero River (Huesca) were sampled and subjected to analysis by means of scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy, and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The goal of this research was to obtain meaningful information on the samples composition, in order to establish differences or similarities among them. The combined use of these techniques proved beneficial, as Raman data permitted structural information on the compounds present (hematite was identified as the main pigment, whereas calcite and gypsum are the main components of the substrate layer, as well as of the accretions that covered the pigments) to be obtained, while the quantitative values obtained by SEM were suitable for the use of Ca as internal reference during LA-ICPMS analysis. However, it was this latter technique that provided the most relevant data for fingerprinting purposes. The potential of this technique for obtaining spatially resolved information allowed the multielement quantitative analysis of the pigment layer, in spite of the presence of superficial accretions. The sensitivity of the technique permitted the determination of more than 40 elements present in a wide concentration range (from microgram per gram to 10% level) with minimum sample consumption (approximately 900 ng for each sample, corresponding to five replicates). Finally, in order to establish significant differences, only those elements showing a high correlation with Fe (As, Co, Mo, Sb, Tl, and Zr, in this case) were selected, as it is expected that these were truly present in the original pigment, while others could have migrated into the pigment layer throughout time. By using this information, it seems feasible to discriminate between various paint pots, as demonstrated for the samples under

  17. Visualizing trace element distribution in quartz using cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe, and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rusk, Brian; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Cathodoluminescent (CL) textures in quartz reveal successive histories of the physical and chemical fluctuations that accompany crystal growth. Such CL textures reflect trace element concentration variations that can be mapped by electron microprobe or laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Trace element maps in hydrothermal quartz from four different ore deposit types (Carlin-type Au, epithermal Ag, porphyry-Cu, and MVT Pb-Zn) reveal correlations among trace elements and between trace element concentrations and CL textures. The distributions of trace elements reflect variations in the physical and chemical conditions of quartz precipitation. These maps show that Al is the most abundant trace element in hydrothermal quartz. In crystals grown at temperatures below 300 °C, Al concentrations may vary by up to two orders of magnitude between adjacent growth zones, with no evidence for diffusion. The monovalent cations Li, Na, and K, where detectable, always correlate with Al, with Li being the most abundant of the three. In most samples, Al is more abundant than the combined total of the monovalent cations; however, in the MVT sample, molar Al/Li ratios are ~0.8. Antimony is present in concentrations up to ~120 ppm in epithermal quartz (~200–300 °C), but is not detectable in MVT, Carlin, or porphyry-Cu quartz. Concentrations of Sb do not correlate consistently with those of other trace elements or with CL textures. Titanium is only abundant enough to be mapped in quartz from porphyry-type ore deposits that precipitate at temperatures above ~400 °C. In such quartz, Ti concentration correlates positively with CL intensity, suggesting a causative relationship. In contrast, in quartz from other deposit types, there is no consistent correlation between concentrations of any trace element and CL intensity fluctuations.

  18. Linear dynamic coupling in geared rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, J. W.; Mitchell, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of high frequency oscillations caused by the gear mesh, on components of a geared system that can be modeled as rigid discs are analyzed using linear dynamic coupling terms. The coupled, nonlinear equations of motion for a disc attached to a rotating shaft are presented. The results of a trial problem analysis show that the inclusion of the linear dynamic coupling terms can produce significant changes in the predicted response of geared rotor systems, and that the produced sideband responses are greater than the unbalanced response. The method is useful in designing gear drives for heavy-lift helicopters, industrial speed reducers, naval propulsion systems, and heavy off-road equipment.

  19. Direct solid analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hardmetal precursors by laser-induced argon spark ablation with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Holá, Markéta; Kanický, Viktor; Mermet, Jean-Michel; Otruba, Vítezslav

    2003-12-01

    The potential of the laser-induced argon spark atomizer (LINA-Spark atomizer) coupled with ICP-AES as a convenient device for direct analysis of WC/Co powdered precursors of sintered hardmetals was studied. The samples were presented for the ablation as pressed pellets prepared by mixing with powdered silver binder containing GeO2 as internal standard. The pellets were ablated with the aid of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) focused 16 mm behind the target surface with a resulting estimated power density of 5 GW cm(-2). Laser ablation ICP-AES signals were studied as a function of ablation time, and the duration of time prior to measurement (pre-ablation time) which was necessary to obtain reliable results was about 40 s. Linear calibration plots were obtained up to 10% (m/m) Ti, 9% Ta and 3.5% Nb both without internal standardization and by using germanium as an added internal standard or tungsten as a contained internal standard. The relative uncertainty at the centroid of the calibration line was in the range from +/- 6% to +/- 11% for Nb, Ta and Ti both with and without internal standardisation by Ge. A higher spread of points about the regression was observed for cobalt for which the relative uncertainty at the centroid was in the range from +/- 9% to +/- 14%. Repeatability of results was improved by the use of both Ge and W internal standards. The lowest determinable quantities calculated for calibration plots were 0.060% Co, 0.010% Nb, 0.16% Ta and 0.030% Ti with internal standardization by Ge. The LA-ICP-AES analyses of real samples led to good agreement with the results obtained by solution-based ICP determination with a relative bias not exceeding 10%. The elimination of the dissolution procedure of powdered tungsten (Nb, Ta, Ti) carbide is the principal advantage of the developed LA-ICP-AES method.

  20. Development of routines for simultaneous in situ chemical composition and stable Si isotope ratio analysis by femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Frick, Daniel A; Schuessler, Jan A; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2016-09-28

    Stable metal (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo) and metalloid (B, Si, Ge) isotope ratio systems have emerged as geochemical tracers to fingerprint distinct physicochemical reactions. These systems are relevant to many Earth Science questions. The benefit of in situ microscale analysis using laser ablation (LA) over bulk sample analysis is to use the spatial context of different phases in the solid sample to disclose the processes that govern their chemical and isotopic compositions. However, there is a lack of in situ analytical routines to obtain a samples' stable isotope ratio together with its chemical composition. Here, we evaluate two novel analytical routines for the simultaneous determination of the chemical and Si stable isotope composition (δ(30)Si) on the micrometre scale in geological samples. In both routines, multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) is combined with femtosecond-LA, where stable isotope ratios are corrected for mass bias using standard-sample-bracketing with matrix-independent calibration. The first method is based on laser ablation split stream (LASS), where the laser aerosol is split and introduced simultaneously into both the MC-ICP-MS and a quadrupole ICP-MS. The second method is based on optical emission spectroscopy using direct observation of the MC-ICP-MS plasma (LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES). Both methods are evaluated using international geological reference materials. Accurate and precise Si isotope ratios were obtained with an uncertainty typically better than 0.23‰, 2SD, δ(30)Si. With both methods major element concentrations (e.g., Na, Al, Si, Mg, Ca) can be simultaneously determined. However, LASS-ICP-MS is superior over LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES, which is limited by its lower sensitivity. Moreover, LASS-ICP-MS offers trace element analysis down to the μg g(-1)-range for more than 28 elements due to lower limits of detection, and with typical uncertainties better than 15%. For in situ simultaneous

  1. Lightweight Ablative and Ceramic Thermal Protection System Materials for NASA Exploration Systems Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

    2006-01-01

    As a collaborative effort among NASA Centers, the "Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology" Project was set up to assist mission/vehicle design trade studies, to support risk reduction in thermal protection system (TPS) material selections, to facilitate vehicle mass optimization, and to aid development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on advanced heatshields that allow reductions in spacecraft mass by minimizing propellant requirements. Information will be presented on candidate materials for such reentry approaches and on screening tests conducted (material property and space environmental effects tests) to evaluate viable candidates. Seventeen materials, in three classes (ablatives, tiles, and ceramic matrix composites), were studied. In additional to physical, mechanical, and thermal property tests, high heat flux laser tests and simulated-reentry oxidation tests were performed. Space environmental effects testing, which included exposures to electrons, atomic oxygen, and hypervelocity impacts, was also conducted.

  2. Vehicle systems: coupled and interactive dynamics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantsevich, Vladimir V.

    2014-11-01

    This article formulates a new direction in vehicle dynamics, described as coupled and interactive vehicle system dynamics. Formalised procedures and analysis of case studies are presented. An analytical consideration, which explains the physics of coupled system dynamics and its consequences for dynamics of a vehicle, is given for several sets of systems including: (i) driveline and suspension of a 6×6 truck, (ii) a brake mechanism and a limited slip differential of a drive axle and (iii) a 4×4 vehicle steering system and driveline system. The article introduces a formal procedure to turn coupled system dynamics into interactive dynamics of systems. A new research direction in interactive dynamics of an active steering and a hybrid-electric power transmitting unit is presented and analysed to control power distribution between the drive axles of a 4×4 vehicle. A control strategy integrates energy efficiency and lateral dynamics by decoupling dynamics of the two systems thus forming their interactive dynamics.

  3. Laparoscopic microwave ablation of human liver tumours using a novel three-dimensional magnetic guidance system

    PubMed Central

    Sindram, David; Simo, Kerri A; Swan, Ryan Z; Razzaque, Sharif; Niemeyer, David J; Seshadri, Ramanathan M; Hanna, Erin; McKillop, Iain H; Iannitti, David A; Martinie, John B

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate antenna placement is essential for effective microwave ablation (MWA) of lesions. Laparoscopic targeting is made particularly challenging in liver tumours by the needle's trajectory as it passes through the abdominal wall into the liver. Previous optical three-dimensional guidance systems employing infrared technology have been limited by interference with the line of sight during procedures. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate a newly developed magnetic guidance system for laparoscopic MWA of liver tumours in a pilot study. Methods Thirteen patients undergoing laparoscopic MWA of liver tumours gave consent to their participation in the study and were enrolled. Lesion targeting was performed using the InnerOptic AIM™ 3-D guidance system to track the real-time position and orientation of the antenna and ultrasound probe. Results A total of 45 ablations were performed on 34 lesions. The median number of lesions per patient was two. The mean ± standard deviation lesion diameter was 18.0 ± 9.2 mm and the mean time to target acquisition was 3.5 min. The first-attempt success rate was 93%. There were no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications. Over an average follow-up of 7.8 months, one patient was noted to have had an incomplete ablation, seven suffered regional recurrences, and five patients remained disease-free. Conclusions The AIM™ guidance system is an effective adjunct for laparoscopic ablation. It facilitates a high degree of accuracy and a good first-attempt success rate, and avoids the line of site interference associated with infrared systems. PMID:25231167

  4. A Fluorescence-Guided Laser Ablation System for Removal of Residual Cancer in a Mouse Model of Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Lazarides, Alexander L; Whitley, Melodi J; Strasfeld, David B; Cardona, Diana M; Ferrer, Jorge M; Mueller, Jenna L; Fu, Henry L; Bartholf DeWitt, Suzanne; Brigman, Brian E; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Kirsch, David G; Eward, William C

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) generally involves tumor excision with a wide margin. Although advances in fluorescence imaging make real-time detection of cancer possible, removal is limited by the precision of the human eye and hand. Here, we describe a novel pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation system that, when used in conjunction with a previously described molecular imaging system, can identify and ablate cancer in vivo. Mice with primary STS were injected with the protease-activatable probe LUM015 to label tumors. Resected tissues from the mice were then imaged and treated with the laser using the paired fluorescence-imaging/ laser ablation device, generating ablation clefts with sub-millimeter precision and minimal underlying tissue damage. Laser ablation was guided by fluorescence to target tumor tissues, avoiding normal structures. The selective ablation of tumor implants in vivo improved recurrence-free survival after tumor resection in a cohort of 14 mice compared to 12 mice that received no ablative therapy. This prototype system has the potential to be modified so that it can be used during surgery to improve recurrence-free survival in patients with cancer.

  5. Heat generation caused by ablation of dental hard tissues with an ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) system.

    PubMed

    Braun, Andreas; Krillke, Raphael Franz; Frentzen, Matthias; Bourauel, Christoph; Stark, Helmut; Schelle, Florian

    2015-02-01

    Heat generation during the removal of dental hard tissues may lead to a temperature increase and cause painful sensations or damage dental tissues. The aim of this study was to assess heat generation in dental hard tissues following laser ablation using an ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) system. A total of 85 specimens of dental hard tissues were used, comprising 45 specimens of human dentine evaluating a thickness of 1, 2, and 3 mm (15 samples each) and 40 specimens of human enamel with a thickness of 1 and 2 mm (20 samples each). Ablation was performed with an Nd:YVO4 laser at 1,064 nm, a pulse duration of 9 ps, and a repetition rate of 500 kHz with an average output power of 6 W. Specimens were irradiated for 0.8 s. Employing a scanner system, rectangular cavities of 1-mm edge length were generated. A temperature sensor was placed at the back of the specimens, recording the temperature during the ablation process. All measurements were made employing a heat-conductive paste without any additional cooling or spray. Heat generation during laser ablation depended on the dental hard tissue (enamel or dentine) and the thickness of the respective tissue (p < 0.05). Highest temperature increase could be observed in the 1-mm thickness group for enamel. Evaluating the 1-mm group for dentine, a significantly lower temperature increase could be measured (p < 0.05) with lowest values in the 3-mm group (p < 0.05). A time delay for temperature increase during the ablation process depending on the material thickness was observed for both hard tissues (p < 0.05). Employing the USPL system to remove dental hard tissues, heat generation has to be considered. Especially during laser ablation next to pulpal tissues, painful sensations and potential thermal injury of pulp tissue might occur.

  6. Physics of Coupled CME and Flare Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0162 TR-2016-0162 PHYSICS OF COUPLED CME AND FLARE SYSTEMS K. S. Balasubramaniam, et al. 21 December 2016 Final...30 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Physics of Coupled CME and Flare Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F...objectives for this task were: (i) derive measureable physical properties and discernible structural circumstances in solar active regions that

  7. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A general thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in the ablation simulation of the meteoroid and the glassy ablator for spacecraft Thermal Protection Systems. Time-dependent axisymmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. The predicted mass loss rates will be compared with available data for model validation, and parametric studies will also be performed for meteoroid earth entry conditions.

  8. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry - A review

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei; Liu, Haichen

    Laser ablation is becoming a dominant technology for direct solid sampling in analytical chemistry. Laser ablation refers to the process in which an intense burst of energy delivered by a short laser pulse is used to sample (remove a portion of) a material. The advantages of laser ablation chemical analysis include direct characterization of solids, no chemical procedures for dissolution, reduced risk of contamination or sample loss, analysis of very small samples not separable for solution analysis, and determination of spatial distributions of elemental composition. This review describes recent research to understand and utilize laser ablation for direct solid sampling,more » with emphasis on sample introduction to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Current research related to contemporary experimental systems, calibration and optimization, and fractionation is discussed, with a summary of applications in several areas.« less

  9. Ultrasound-directed robotic system for thermal ablation of liver tumors: a preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jian; Tian, Jie; Dai, Yakang; Zhang, Xing; Dong, Di; Xu, Min

    2010-03-01

    Thermal ablation has been proved safe and effective as the treatment for liver tumors that are not suitable for resection. Currently, manually performed thermal ablation is greatly dependent on the surgeon's acupuncture manipulation against hand tremor. Besides that, inaccurate or inappropriate placement of the applicator will also directly decrease the final treatment effect. In order to reduce the influence of hand tremor, and provide an accurate and appropriate guidance for a better treatment, we develop an ultrasound-directed robotic system for thermal ablation of liver tumors. In this paper, we will give a brief preliminary report of our system. Especially, three innovative techniques are proposed to solve the critical problems in our system: accurate ultrasound calibration when met with artifacts, realtime reconstruction with visualization using Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) acceleration and 2D-3D ultrasound image registration. To reduce the error of point extraction with artifacts, we propose a novel point extraction method by minimizing an error function which is defined based on the geometric property of our N-fiducial phantom. Then realtime reconstruction with visualization using GPU acceleration is provided for fast 3D ultrasound volume acquisition with dynamic display of reconstruction progress. After that, coarse 2D-3D ultrasound image registration is performed based on landmark points correspondences, followed by accurate 2D-3D ultrasound image registration based on Euclidean distance transform (EDT). The effectiveness of our proposed techniques is demonstrated in phantom experiments.

  10. A probabilistic sizing tool and Monte Carlo analysis for entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzaracchio, Antonio; Marchetti, Mario

    2010-03-01

    Implicit ablation and thermal response software was developed to analyse and size charring ablative thermal protection systems for entry vehicles. A statistical monitor integrated into the tool, which uses the Monte Carlo technique, allows a simulation to run over stochastic series. This performs an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, which estimates the probability of maintaining the temperature of the underlying material within specified requirements. This approach and the associated software are primarily helpful during the preliminary design phases of spacecraft thermal protection systems. They are proposed as an alternative to traditional approaches, such as the Root-Sum-Square method. The developed tool was verified by comparing the results with those from previous work on thermal protection system probabilistic sizing methodologies, which are based on an industry standard high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program. New case studies were analysed to establish thickness margins on sizing heat shields that are currently proposed for vehicles using rigid aeroshells for future aerocapture missions at Neptune, and identifying the major sources of uncertainty in the material response.

  11. Initial clinical experience with a remote magnetic catheter navigation system for ablation of cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent right atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Arya, Arash; Kottkamp, Hans; Piorkowski, Christopher; Bollmann, Andreas; Gerdes-Li, Jin-Hong; Riahi, Sam; Esato, Masahiro; Hindricks, Gerhard

    2008-05-01

    A remote magnetic navigation system (MNS) is available and has been used with a 4-mm-tip magnetic catheter for radiofrequency (RF) ablation of some supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias; however, it has not been evaluated for the ablation of cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent right atrial flutter (AFL). The present study evaluates the feasibility and efficiency of this system and the newly available 8-mm-tip magnetic catheter to perform RF ablation in patients with AFL. Twenty-six consecutive patients (23 men, mean age 64.6 +/- 9.6 years) underwent RF ablation using a remote MNS. RF ablation was performed with an 8-mm-tip magnetic catheter (70 degrees C, maximum power 70 W, 90 seconds). The endpoint of ablation was complete bidirectional isthmus block. To assess a possible learning curve, procedural data were compared between the first 14 (group 1) and the rest (group 2) of the patients. The initial rhythm during ablation was AFL in 20 (19 counterclockwise and 1 clockwise) and sinus rhythm in six patients. Due to technical issues, the ablation in the 18th patient could not be done with the MNS, and so we switched to conventional ablation. The remote magnetic navigation and ablation procedure was successful in 24 of the 25 (96%) remaining patients with AFL. In one patient (patient 2), conventional catheter was used to complete the isthmus block after termination of AFL. The procedure, preparation, ablation, and fluoroscopy times (median [range]) were 53 (30-130) minutes, 28 (10-65) minutes, 25 (12-78) minutes, and 7.5 (3.2-20.8) minutes, respectively. Patients in group 2 had shorter procedure (45 [30-70] min vs 80 [57-130] min, P = 0.0001), preparation (25 [10-30] min vs 42 [30-65] min, P = 0.0001), ablation (20 [12-40] min vs 31 [20-78] min, P = 0.002), and fluoroscopy (7.2 [3.2-12.2] min vs 11.0 [5.4-20.8] min, P = 0.014) times. No complication occurred during the procedure. Using a remote MNS and an 8-mm-tip magnetic catheter, ablation of AFL is feasible

  12. Initial clinical experience of remote magnetic navigation system for catheter mapping and ablation of supraventricular tachycardias.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongjie; Yang, Bin; Shan, Qijun; Zou, Jiangang; Chen, Minglong; Chen, Chun; Hou, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengxiang; Li, Wen-Qi; Cao, Kejiang; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2009-09-01

    A remote magnetic navigation system (MNS) has been developed for mapping and catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias. The present study evaluates the safety and feasibility of this system to perform radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with supraventricular tachycardias (SVT). A total of 32 patients (22 female; mean age 44 +/- 16 years) with documented SVT underwent mapping and ablation using Helios II (a 4-mm-tip magnetic catheter), under the guidance of the MNS (Niobe II, Stereotaxis, Inc.). Catheter ablation procedure with MNS was successful in 30/32 (94%) patients including all patients (27/27, 100%) with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and three of five patients (60%) with atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) without any complication. The procedural successful rate in patients with AVNRT was significantly higher than those in patients with AVRT (P < 0.001). Overall, the medium number of RF application using the MNS was 2 (mean 2.7 +/- 1.6, range 1 to 7), and the medium numbers of RF for AVNRT and AVRT were 2 and 3, respectively. There was no significant difference in the mean procedural time between patients with AVNRT and AVRT (126.3 +/- 38.6 vs. 138.0 +/- 40.3 min, P = 0.54). However, the mean fluoroscopy time was significantly shorter in patients with AVNRT than those with AVRT (5.7 +/- 3.0 vs. 16.5 +/- 2.5 min, P < 0.001). Among those patients with AVNRT, the mean procedural time (139.3 +/- 45.0 vs. 112.3 +/- 24.9 min, P = 0.07) and fluoroscopic time (3.2 +/- 1.0 vs. 8.0 +/- 2.2 min, P < 0.001) were shorter for the later 13 patients than the first 14 patients, suggesting a learning curve in using the MNS for RF ablation. The Niobe MNS is a new technique that can allow safe and effective remote-controlled navigation and minimize the need for fluoroscopic guidance for ablation catheter of AVNRT. However, further improvement is required to achieve a higher successful rate for treatment of AVRT.

  13. Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided system for thermal ablation of liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshat, Hamid R. S.; Cool, Derek W.; Barker, Kevin; Gardi, Lori; Kakani, Nirmal; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-03-01

    Two-dimensional ultrasound (2D US) imaging is commonly used for diagnostic and intraoperative guidance of interventional abdominal procedures including percutaneous thermal ablation of focal liver tumors with radiofrequency (RF) or microwave (MW) induced energy. However, in many situations 2D US may not provide enough anatomical detail and guidance information. Therefore, intra-procedural CT or MR imaging are used in many centers for guidance purposes. These modalities are costly and are mainly utilized to confirm tool placement rather than guiding the insertion. Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) has been introduced to address these issues. In this paper, we present our integrated solution to provide 3D US images using a newly developed mechanical transducer with a large field-ofview and without the need for external tracking devices to combine diagnostic and planning information of different modalities for intraoperative guidance. The system provides tools to segment the target(s), plan the treatment, and detect the ablation applicators during the procedure for guiding purposes. We present experimental results used to ensure that our system generates accurate measurements and our early clinical evaluation results. The results suggest that 3D US used for focal liver ablation can provide a more reliable planning and guidance tool compared to 2D US only, and in many cases offers comparable measurements to other alternatives at significantly lower cost, faster time and with no harmful radiation.

  14. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry for the multi-element analysis of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resano, M.; García-Ruiz, E.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2005-11-01

    In this work, the potential of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the fast analysis of polymers has been explored. Different real-life samples (polyethylene shopping bags, an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene material and various plastic bricks) as well as several reference materials (VDA 001 to 004, Cd in polyethylene) have been selected for the study. Two polyethylene reference materials (ERM-EC 680 and 681), for which a reference or indicative value for the most relevant metals is available, have proved their suitability as standards for calibration. Special attention has been paid to the difficulties expected for the determination of Cr at the μg g - 1 level in this kind of materials, due to the interference of ArC + ions on the most abundant isotopes of Cr. The use of ammonia as a reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell is shown to alleviate this problem, resulting in a limit of detection of 0.15 μg g - 1 for this element, while limiting only modestly the possibilities of the technique for simultaneous multi-element analysis. In this regard, As is the analyte most seriously affected by the use of ammonia, and its determination has to be carried out in vented mode, at the expense of measuring time. In all cases studied, accurate results could be obtained for elements ranging in content from the sub-μg g - 1 level to tens of thousands of μg g - 1 . However, the use of an element of known concentration as internal standard may be needed for materials with a matrix significantly different from that of the standard (polyethylene in this work). Precision ranged between 5% and 10% RSD for elements found at the 10 μg g - 1 level or higher, while this value could deteriorate to 20% for analytes found at the sub-μg g - 1 level. Overall, the technique evaluated presents many advantages for the fast and accurate multi-element analysis of these materials, avoiding laborious digestion procedures and minimizing the risk of analyte losses due

  15. MRI-guided prostate focal laser ablation therapy using a mechatronic needle guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepek, Jeremy; Lindner, Uri; Ghai, Sangeet; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Trachtenberg, John; Fenster, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Focal therapy of localized prostate cancer is receiving increased attention due to its potential for providing effective cancer control in select patients with minimal treatment-related side effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focal laser ablation (FLA) therapy is an attractive modality for such an approach. In FLA therapy, accurate placement of laser fibers is critical to ensuring that the full target volume is ablated. In practice, error in needle placement is invariably present due to pre- to intra-procedure image registration error, needle deflection, prostate motion, and variability in interventionalist skill. In addition, some of these sources of error are difficult to control, since the available workspace and patient positions are restricted within a clinical MRI bore. In an attempt to take full advantage of the utility of intraprocedure MRI, while minimizing error in needle placement, we developed an MRI-compatible mechatronic system for guiding needles to the prostate for FLA therapy. The system has been used to place interstitial catheters for MRI-guided FLA therapy in eight subjects in an ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial. Data from these cases has provided quantification of the level of uncertainty in needle placement error. To relate needle placement error to clinical outcome, we developed a model for predicting the probability of achieving complete focal target ablation for a family of parameterized treatment plans. Results from this work have enabled the specification of evidence-based selection criteria for the maximum target size that can be confidently ablated using this technique, and quantify the benefit that may be gained with improvements in needle placement accuracy.

  16. Analysis of atmospheric pollutant metals by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a radial line-scan dried-droplet approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoxing; Qian, Yuan; Guo, Yanchuan; Wei, Nannan; Li, Yulan; Yao, Jian; Wang, Guanghua; Ma, Jifei; Liu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    A novel method has been improved for analyzing atmospheric pollutant metals (Be, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Cd, and Pb) by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In this method, solid standards are prepared by depositing droplets of aqueous standard solutions on the surface of a membrane filter, which is the same type as used for collecting atmospheric pollutant metals. Laser parameters were optimized, and ablation behaviors of the filter discs were studied. The mode of radial line scans across the filter disc was a representative ablation strategy and can avoid error from the inhomogeneous filter standards and marginal effect of the filter disc. Pt, as the internal standard, greatly improved the correlation coefficient of the calibration curve. The developed method provides low detection limits, from 0.01 ng m- 3 for Be and Co to 1.92 ng m- 3 for Fe. It was successfully applied for the determination of atmospheric pollutant metals collected in Lhasa, China. The analytical results showed good agreement with those obtained by conventional liquid analysis. In contrast to the conventional acid digestion procedure, the novel method not only greatly reduces sample preparation and shortens the analysis time but also provides a possible means for studying the spatial distribution of atmospheric filter samples.

  17. Characteristics of Coupled Nongray Radiating Gas Flows with Ablation Product Effects About Blunt Bodies During Planetary Entries. Ph.D. Thesis - North Carolina State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, K.

    1973-01-01

    A computational method was developed for the fully-coupled solution of nongray, radiating gas flows with ablation product effects about blunt bodies during planetary entries. The treatment of radiation accounts for molecular band, continuum, and atomic line transitions with a detailed frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient. The ablation of the entry body was solved as part of the solution for a steady-state ablation process. The method was applied by results at typical conditions during entry to Venus. The radiative heating rates along the downstream region of the body can exceed the stagnation point value. The radiative heating to the body is attenuated in the boundary layer at the downstream region of the body and at the stagnation point of the body. A study of the radiation, inviscid flow about spherically capped, conical bodies during planetary entries shows that the nondimensional, radiative heating distributions are nonsimilar with entry conditions. Caution should be exercised in attempting to extrapolate results from known distributions to other entry conditions for which solutions have not yet been obtained.

  18. A novel in situ permeation system and its utility in cancer tissue ablation

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, MASAMI

    2015-01-01

    Focal ablation therapy is an emerging treatment modality for localized cancer lesions. It is an attractive strategy for inhibiting tumor progression and preventing morbidity associated with open surgery. As for intratissue drug delivery systems for use in local therapy, the convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of liquid drugs has been utilized, particularly for the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Although the conventional CED system is useful for providing drug/vehicle-based local therapy, there are several reported disadvantages in terms of the ability to control the extent of drug diffusion. We herein developed and validated a novel in situ permeation (ISP)-MW-1 system for achieving intratissue drug diffusion. The ISP system includes a perfusion catheter connected to an injector and aspirator, which enables intratissue perfusion of the solute diluted in the vehicle in the tip-inserted cavity. We subsequently evaluated the utility of the ISP-MW-1 system for in situ permeation in a subcutaneous tumor model in hamsters. Dehydrated ethanol, saline and 50% acetic acid were evaluated as the vehicle, and methylene blue was used as a dissolved substance for evaluating the diffusion of the agent. As a result, almost all of the tumor tissue within the capsule (tumor size: ~3 cm) was permeated with the dehydrated ethanol and 50% acetic acid and partially with the saline. We further demonstrated that ISP treatment with 50% acetic acid completely ablated the subcutaneous tumors in all of the treated hamsters (n=3). Therefore, the ISP-MW-1 system is a promising approach for controlling the intratissue diffusion of therapeutic agents and for providing local ablation therapy for cancer lesions. We believe that this system may be applicable to a broad range of medicinal and industrial fields, such as regenerative medicine, drug delivery systems, biochemistry and material technologies as well as cancer therapy. PMID:26134633

  19. 3D ultrasound image guidance system used in RF uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding ablation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mingyue; Luo, Xiaoan; Cai, Chao; Zhou, Chengping; Fenster, Aaron

    2006-03-01

    Uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding are the two most prevalent diseases in Chinese women. Many women lose their fertility from these diseases. Currently, a minimally invasive ablation system using an RF button electrode is being used in Chinese hospitals to destroy tumor cells or stop bleeding. In this paper, we report on a 3D US guidance system developed to avoid accidents or death of the patient by inaccurate localization of the tumor position during treatment. A 3D US imaging system using a rotational scanning approach of an abdominal probe was built. In order to reduce the distortion produced when the rotational axis is not collinear with the central beam of the probe, a new 3D reconstruction algorithm is used. Then, a fast 3D needle segmentation algorithm is used to find the electrode. Finally, the tip of electrode is determined along the segmented 3D needle and the whole electrode is displayed. Experiments with a water phantom demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.

  20. Improved perfusion system for bipolar radiofrequency ablation of liver: preliminary findings from a computer modeling study.

    PubMed

    Berjano, Enrique J; Burdío, Fernando; Navarro, Ana C; Burdío, José M; Güemes, Antonio; Aldana, Oscar; Ros, Paloma; Sousa, Ramón; Lozano, Ricardo; Tejero, Eloy; de Gregorio, Miguel A

    2006-10-01

    Current systems for radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors are unable to consistently treat tumors larger than 3 cm in diameter with a single electrode in a single application. One of the strategies for enlarging coagulation zone dimensions is to infuse saline solutions into the tissue through the active electrodes. Nevertheless, the uncontrolled and undirected diffusion of boiling saline into the tissue has been associated with irregular coagulation zones and severe complications, mainly due to reflux of saline along the electrode path. In order to improve the perfusion bipolar ablation method, we hypothesized that the creation of small monopolar coagulation zones adjacent to the bipolar electrodes and previous to the saline infusion would create preferential paths for the saline to concentrate on the targeted coagulation zone. Firstly, we conducted ex vivo experiments in order to characterize the monopolar coagulation zones. We observed that they are practically impermeable to the infused saline. On the basis of this finding, we built theoretical models and conducted computer simulations to assess the feasibility of our hypothesis. Temperature distributions during bipolar ablations with and without previous monopolar coagulation zones were obtained. The results showed that in the case of monopolar coagulation zones the temperature of the tissue took longer to reach 100 degrees C. Since this temperature value is related to rise of impedance, and the time necessary for this process is directly related to the volume of the coagulation zone, our results suggest that monopolar sealing would allow larger coagulation zones to be created. Future experimental studies should confirm this benefit.

  1. Forensic analysis of printing inks using tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Kiran; Trejos, Tatiana; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or LIBS, can be used for the chemical characterization of materials of forensic interest to discriminate between source materials originating from different sources and also for the association of materials known to originate from the same source. In this study, a tandem LIBS/LA-ICP-MS system that combines the benefits of both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS was evaluated for the characterization of samples of printing inks (toners, inkjets, intaglio and offset.). The performance of both laser sampling methods is presented. A subset of 9 black laser toners, 10 colored (CMYK) inkjet samples, 12 colored (CMYK) offset samples and 12 intaglio inks originating from different manufacturing sources were analyzed to evaluate the discrimination capability of the tandem method. These samples were selected because they presented a very similar elemental profile by LA-ICP-MS. Although typical discrimination between different ink sources is found to be > 99% for a variety of inks when only LA-ICP-MS was used for the analysis, additional discrimination was achieved by combining the elemental results from the LIBS analysis to the LA-ICP-MS analysis in the tandem technique, enhancing the overall discrimination capability of the individual laser ablation methods. The LIBS measurements of the Ca, Fe, K and Si signals, in particular, improved the discrimination for this specific set of different ink samples previously shown to exhibit very similar LA-ICP-MS elemental profiles. The combination of these two techniques in a single setup resulted in better discrimination of the printing inks with two distinct fingerprint spectra, providing information from atomic/ionic emissions and isotopic composition (m/z) for each ink sample.

  2. Novel Bioimaging Techniques of Metals by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Diagnosis Of Fibrotic and Cirrhotic Liver Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gassler, Nikolaus; Bosserhoff, Anja K.; Becker, J. Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Hereditary disorders associated with metal overload or unwanted toxic accumulation of heavy metals can lead to morbidity and mortality. Patients with hereditary hemochromatosis or Wilson disease for example may develop severe hepatic pathology including fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. While relevant disease genes are identified and genetic testing is applicable, liver biopsy in combination with metal detecting techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) is still applied for accurate diagnosis of metals. Vice versa, several metals are needed in trace amounts for carrying out vital functions and their deficiency due to rapid growth, pregnancy, excessive blood loss, and insufficient nutritional or digestive uptake results in organic and systemic shortcomings. Established in situ techniques, such as EDX-ray spectroscopy, are not sensitive enough to analyze trace metal distribution and the quantification of metal images is difficult. Methods In this study, we developed a quantitative biometal imaging technique of human liver tissue by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in order to compare the distribution of selected metals in cryo-sections of healthy and fibrotic/cirrhotic livers. Results Most of the metals are homogeneous distributed within the normal tissue, while they are redirected within fibrotic livers resulting in significant metal deposits. Moreover, total iron and copper concentrations in diseased liver were found about 3-5 times higher than in normal liver samples. Conclusions Biometal imaging via LA-ICP-MS is a sensitive innovative diagnostic tool that will impact clinical practice in identification and evaluation of hepatic metal disorders and to detect subtle metal variations during ongoing hepatic fibrogenesis. PMID:23505552

  3. CT-Guided Microwave Ablation of 45 Renal Tumors: Analysis of Procedure Complexity Utilizing a Percutaneous Renal Ablation Complexity Scoring System.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Alberto V; Bivins, Eugene E; Contreras, Francisco; Hernandez, Manuel A; Kohler, Nathan; Pepe, Julie W

    2017-02-01

    To develop a scoring system that stratifies complexity of percutaneous ablation of renal tumors. Analysis was performed of 36 consecutive patients (mean age, 64 y; range, 30-89 y) who underwent CT-guided microwave (MW) ablation of 45 renal tumors (mean tumor diameter, 2.4 cm; range, 1.2-4.0 cm). Technical success and effectiveness were determined based on intraprocedural and follow-up imaging studies. The RENAL score and the proposed percutaneous renal ablation complexity (P-RAC) score were calculated for each tumor. Technical success was 93.3% (n = 42). Biopsy of 38 of 45 renal tumors revealed 23 renal cell carcinomas. Median follow-up period was 9.7 months (range, 2.9-46.8 months). There were no tumor recurrences. One major complication, ureteropelvic junction stricture, occurred (2.6%). The P-RAC score was found to differ statistically from the RENAL score (t = 3.754, df = 44, P = .001). A positive correlation was found between the P-RAC score and number of antenna insertions (r = .378, n = 45, P = .011) and procedure duration (r = .328, n = 45, P = .028). No correlation was found between the RENAL score and number of MW antenna insertions (r = .110, n = 45, P = .472) or procedure duration (r = .263, n = 45, P = .081). Hydrodissection was significantly more common in the P-RAC high-complexity category than in low-complexity category (χ 2 = 12.073, df = 2, P = .002). The P-RAC score may be useful in stratifying percutaneous renal ablation complexity. Further studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to validate the P-RAC score and to determine if it can predict risk of complications. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coherence protection in coupled quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammack, H. M.; Kirton, P.; Stace, T. M.; Eastham, P. R.; Keeling, J.; Lovett, B. W.

    2018-02-01

    The interaction of a quantum system with its environment causes decoherence, setting a fundamental limit on its suitability for quantum information processing. However, we show that if the system consists of coupled parts with different internal energy scales then the interaction of one part with a thermal bath need not lead to loss of coherence from the other. Remarkably, we find that the protected part can remain coherent for longer when the coupling to the bath becomes stronger or the temperature is raised. Our theory will enable the design of decoherence-resistant hybrid quantum computers.

  5. Matrix and energy effects during in-situ determination of Cu isotope ratios by ultraviolet-femtosecond laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarov, Marina; Horn, Ingo

    2015-09-01

    Copper isotope compositions in Cu-bearing metals and minerals have been measured by deep (194 nm) ultraviolet femtosecond laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (UV-fsLA-MC-ICP-MS). Pure Cu-metal, brass, and several Cu-rich minerals (chalcopyrite, enargite, covellite, malachite and cuprite) have been investigated. A long-term reproducibility of better than 0.08‰ at the 95% confidence limit on the NIST SRM 976 (National Institute of Standards and Technology) Cu-metal standard has been achieved with this technique. The δ65Cu values for all samples have been calculated by standard-sample-standard bracketing with NIST SRM 976. All analyses have been carried out using Ni as a mass discrimination monitor added by nebulization prior to entering the plasma torch. For further verification samples have been analysed by conventional solution nebulization MC-ICP-MS and the results obtained have been compared with those from UV-fsLA-MC-ICP-MS. Several potential matrix-induced molecular interferences on the mineral copper isotope ratio, such as (32S33S)+ and (32S-16O17O)+ do not affect the Cu isotope measurements on sulfides, while hydrides, such as Zn-H or doubly-charged Sn2 + that interfere Ni isotopes can be either neglected or stripped by calculation. Matrix independent Cu-isotope measurements are sensitive to the energy density (fluence) applied onto the sample and can produce artificial shifts in the obtained δ65Cu values which are on the order of 3‰ for Cu-metal, 0.5‰ for brass and 0.3‰ for malachite when using energy density of up to 2 J/cm2 for ablation. A positive correlation between applied energy density and the magnitude of the isotope ratio shift has been found in the energy density range from 0.2 to 1.3 J/cm2 which is below the ablation threshold for ns-laser ablation. The results demonstrate that by using appropriate low fluence it is possible to measure Cu isotopic ratios in native copper and Cu-bearing sulfides

  6. Quantum transport in coupled Majorana box systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gau, Matthias; Plugge, Stephan; Egger, Reinhold

    2018-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of low-energy quantum transport in coupled Majorana box devices. A single Majorana box represents a Coulomb-blockaded mesoscopic superconductor proximitizing two or more long topological nanowires. The box thus harbors at least four Majorana zero modes (MZMs). Setups with several Majorana boxes, where MZMs on different boxes are tunnel coupled via short nanowire segments, are key ingredients to recent Majorana qubit and code network proposals. We construct and study the low-energy theory for multiterminal junctions with normal leads connected to the coupled box device by lead-MZM tunnel contacts. Transport experiments in such setups can test the nonlocality of Majorana-based systems and the integrity of the underlying Majorana qubits. For a single box, we recover the previously described topological Kondo effect which can be captured by a purely bosonic theory. For several coupled boxes, however, nonconserved local fermion parities require the inclusion of additional local sets of Pauli operators. We present a renormalization group analysis and develop a nonperturbative strong-coupling approach to quantum transport in such systems. Our findings are illustrated for several examples, including a loop qubit device and different two-box setups.

  7. Science to practice: Can we expand focal interventional oncologic ablation treatments into an effective systemic therapy?

    PubMed

    Goldberg, S Nahum

    2013-05-01

    Hamamoto et al (1) were able to demonstrate that combination therapy of a lung tumor by using radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with local injection of an immunostimulant, OK-432, resulted in improved survival when compared with other therapies tested in a VX2 rabbit model. In addition, not only was greater tumor regression seen in a second distant ear tumor implanted prior to the therapy, but also reduced tumor growth was seen when a second tumor implantation (ie, rechallenge) was attempted. These factors strongly suggest the successful activation of systemic antitumor immunity using this approach in this specific tumor model.

  8. Development of laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for boron isotopic measurement in marine biocarbonates: new improvements and application to a modern Porites coral.

    PubMed

    Thil, François; Blamart, Dominique; Assailly, Caroline; Lazareth, Claire E; Leblanc, Thierry; Butsher, John; Douville, Eric

    2016-02-15

    Laser Ablation coupled to Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) is a powerful tool for the high-precision measurement of the isotopic ratios of many elements in geological samples, with the isotope ratio ((11) B/(10) B) of boron being used as an indicator of the pH of oceanic waters. Most geological samples or standards are polished and ablation occurs on flat surfaces. However, the shape and the irregularities of marine biocarbonates (e.g., corals, foraminifera) can make precise isotopic measurements of boron difficult. Even after polishing, the porosity properties and the presence of holes or micro-fractures affect the signal and the isotopic ratio when ablating the material, especially in raster mode. The effect of porosity and of the crater itself on the (11) B signal and the isotopic ratio acquired by LA-MC-ICPMS in both raster and spot mode was studied. Characterization of the craters was then performed with an optical profilometer to determine their shapes and depths. Surface state effects were examined by analyzing the isotopic fractionation of boron in silicate (NIST-SRM 612 and 610 standards) and in carbonate (corals). Surface irregularities led to a considerable loss of signal when the crater depth exceeded 20 µm. The stability and precision were degraded when ablation occurred in a deep cavity. The effect of laser focusing and of blank correction was also highlighted and our observations indicate that the accuracy of the boron isotopic ratio does not depend on the shape of the surface. After validation of the analytical protocol for boron isotopes, a raster application on a Porites coral, which grew for 18 months in an aquarium after field sampling, was carried out. This original LA-MC-ICPMS study revealed a well-marked boron isotope ratio temporal variability, probably related to growth rate and density changes, irrespective of the pH of the surrounding seawater. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright

  9. Coupling system to a microsphere cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor); Yao, Steve (Inventor); Wu, Chi (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system of coupling optical energy in a waveguide mode, into a resonator that operates in a whispering gallery mode. A first part of the operation uses a fiber in its waveguide mode to couple information into a resonator e.g. a microsphere. The fiber is cleaved at an angle .PHI. which causes total internal reflection within the fiber. The energy in the fiber then forms an evanescent field and a microsphere is placed in the area of the evanescent field. If the microsphere resonance is resonant with energy in the fiber, then the information in the fiber is effectively transferred to the microsphere.

  10. CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteoma using a multi-tined expandable electrode system.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Alessandro; Sandri, Andrea; Regis, Dario; Trivellin, Giacomo; Pierantoni, Silvia; Samaila, Elena; Magnan, Bruno

    2017-10-18

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is the gold standard for the treatment of symptomatic osteoid osteoma (OO) as RFA yields both a high success and low complication rate. It has been widely utilized over the years, but recurrences of OO after this treatment have been documented. These recurrences may be the result of various factors, including incomplete tumor ablation, and are significantly higher in lesions greater than 10 mm. Thus, the need to induce thermal ablation in a wider area led us to use a Multi-Tined Expandable Electrode System (MTEES). In this study we examined the efficacy and safety of RFA using a MTEES in symptomatic OO. Between January 2005 and June 2007, 16 patients with symptomatic OO were treated by CT-guided percutaneous RFA using a MTEES. The diameter of OO ranged from 6 to 15 mm (mean 10±2.6 mm). Patients were evaluated for clinical outcomes, complications and recurrence. Pain evaluation was assessed preoperatively, 2 weeks postoperatively and at last follow-up. Clinical follow-up was available for all patients at a mean of 84.3 months (range 73-96 months). Mean preoperative VAS score was 7.4 (range 5-9), two weeks after the procedure mean VAS score was 0.3 (range 0-1) with a mean change of -7.06 points (p<0.0001). At the last follow-up a complete relief from pain has been observed in all patients. No major and minor complications were observed nor recurrences. RFA using a MTEES has been effective, safe and reliable for the treatment of OOs. This system, by increasing the size of the necrosis, could be a viable alternative to the single needle electrode in lesions larger than 10 mm, reducing the risk of recurrence.

  11. Sustained currents in coupled diffusive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larralde, Hernán; Sanders, David P.

    2014-08-01

    Coupling two diffusive systems may give rise to a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS) with a non-trivial persistent, circulating current. We study a simple example that is exactly soluble, consisting of random walkers with different biases towards a reflecting boundary, modelling, for example, Brownian particles with different charge states in an electric field. We obtain analytical expressions for the concentrations and currents in the NESS for this model, and exhibit the main features of the system by numerical simulation.

  12. Percutaneous microwave ablation of renal cell carcinoma using a high power microwave system: focus upon safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Filippiadis, D K; Gkizas, C; Chrysofos, M; Siatelis, A; Velonakis, G; Alexopoulou, E; Kelekis, A; Brountzos, E; Kelekis, N

    2017-12-04

    Percutaneous ablation is an expanding, minimally invasive approach for small- to medium-sized renal masses. The purpose of this study is to review safety, and mid-term efficacy of percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) treatment using a high power microwave system. Institutional database research identified 50 consecutive patients with a single lesion resembling renal cell carcinoma in CT and MRI who underwent percutaneous microwave ablation using a high power microwave system. All patients underwent biopsy on the same session with ablation using an 18G semi-automatic soft tissue biopsy needle. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was used for post-ablation follow-up. Patient and tumour characteristics, microwave technique, complications and pattern of recurrence were evaluated. Mean patient age was 74 years (male-female: 31-19). Average lesion size was 3.1 cm (range 2.0-4.3 cm). Biopsy results report RCC (n = 48), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (n = 1), and non-diagnostic sample (n = 1). The 3-year overall survival was 95.8% (46/48). Two patients died during the 3-year follow-up period due to causes unrelated to the MW ablation and to the RCC. Minor complications including haematomas requiring nothing but observation occurred at 4% (2/50) of the cases. Local recurrence of 6.25% (3/48) was observed with 2/3 cases being re-treated achieving a total clinical success of 97.9% (47/48 lesions). Percutaneous microwave ablation of RCC using a high power microwave system is a safe and efficacious technique for the treatment of small- to medium-sized renal masses.

  13. Radiofrequency ablation of chondroblastoma using a multi-tined expandable electrode system: initial results.

    PubMed

    Tins, Bernhard; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor; McCall, Iain; Cool, Paul; Williams, David; Mangham, David

    2006-04-01

    The standard treatment for chondroblastoma is surgery, which can be difficult and disabling due to its apo- or epiphyseal location. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation potentially offers a minimally invasive alternative. The often large size of chondroblastomas can make treatment with plain electrode systems difficult or impossible. This article describes the preliminary experience of RF treatment of chondroblastomas with a multi-tined expandable RF electrode system. Four cases of CT guided RF treatment are described. The tumour was successfully treated in all cases. In two cases, complications occurred; infraction of a subarticular chondroblastoma in one case and cartilage and bone damage in the unaffected compartment of a knee joint in the other. Radiofrequency treatment near a joint surface threatens the integrity of cartilage and therefore long-term joint function. In weight-bearing areas, the lack of bone replacement in successfully treated lesions contributes to the risk of mechanical failure. Multi-tined expandable electrode systems allow the treatment of large chondroblastomas. In weight-bearing joints and lesions near to the articular cartilage, there is a risk of cartilage damage and mechanical weakening of the bone. In lesions without these caveats, RF ablation appears promising. The potential risks and benefits need to be evaluated for each case individually.

  14. [The application of Atricure bipolar radiofrequency system in ablation of different parts and different times of pig heart atrium and the analysis of transmural lesions].

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-sheng; Chen, Xin; Liu, Ming

    2010-12-15

    To analyze the transmural lesions of different parts of the pig heart atrium received different times of ablation applied with Atricure bipolar radiofrequency system. Six fresh (ex vivo time<20 min) pig hearts with atrium preserved intact were used as the experimental objects and experimental groups were divided according to the ablation position. The Atricure bipolar radiofrequency system was applied in the ablation of the parts of the atrium, such as posterior wall of left atrium, anterior wall of left atrium, anterior wall of right atrium and posterior wall of left atrium close to mitral posterior ring. Ablate the position of the atrium lengthened about 2.0 cm with the same thickness with an interval of 0.5 cm for 4 times respectively, also recording the time of every ablation. For each part and each time of ablation, the ablated atrial tissue was preserved with 4% formaldehyde and 5% glutaraldehyde, and was sent for observation under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. The ablation time and lesion were analyzed statistically. In the same position of the atrium, ablation time decreased with the times of the ablation, in different position of the atrium with same time of ablation, time showed a positive proportion with the thickness of the atrium. Atricure bipolar radiofrequency system is very safe and efficient, also convenient for manipulation. With regard to the relatively thinner part of the atrium, such as posterior wall and anterior wall of left atrium, at least two times of ablation can ensure transmural lesion of the atrial tissue, but to the position of the atrium such as anterior wall of right atrium and posterior wall of left atrium close to mitral posterior ring, 3 to 4 times of ablation can ensure transmural lesion of the atrial tissue.

  15. Integrated HIFU Drive System on a Chip for CMUT-Based Catheter Ablation System.

    PubMed

    Farhanieh, Omid; Sahafi, Ali; Bardhan Roy, Rupak; Ergun, Arif Sanli; Bozkurt, Ayhan

    2017-06-01

    Conventional High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is a therapeutic modality which is extracorporeally administered. In applications where a relatively small HIFU lesion is required, an intravascular HIFU probe can be deployed to the ablation site. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and implementation a fully integrated HIFU drive system on a chip to be placed on a 6 Fr catheter probe. An 8-element capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) ring array of 2 mm diameter has been used as the ultrasound source. The driver chip is fabricated in 0.35 μm AMS high-voltage CMOS technology and comprises eight continuous-wave (CW) high-voltage CMUT drivers (10.9 ns and 9.4 ns rise and fall times at 20 V pp output into a 15 pF), an eight-channel digital beamformer (8-12 MHz output frequency with 11.25 ° phase accuracy) and a phase locked loop with an integrated VCO as a tunable clock source (128-192 MHz). The chip occupies 1.85 × 1.8 mm 2 area including input and output (I/O) pads. When the transducer array is immersed in sunflower oil and driven by the IC with eight 20 V pp CW pulses at 10 MHz, real-time thermal images of the HIFU beam indicate that the focal temperature rises by 16.8  ° C in 11 seconds. Each HV driver consumes around 67 mW of power when driving the CMUT array at 10 MHz, which adds up to 560 mW for the whole chip. FEM based analysis reveals that the outer surface temperature of the catheter is expected to remain below the 42  ° C tissue damage limit during therapy.

  16. Endometrial Ablation

    MedlinePlus

    ... or lighter levels. If ablation does not control heavy bleeding, further treatment or surgery may be needed. ... ablation is used to treat many causes of heavy bleeding. In most cases, women with heavy bleeding ...

  17. Analysis of rare earth elements in coal fly ash using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert L.; Bank, Tracy; Montross, Scott; Roth, Elliot; Howard, Bret; Verba, Circe; Granite, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Reference standard NIST SRM 1633b and FA 345, a fly ash sample from an eastern U.S. coal power plant, were analyzed to determine and quantify the mineralogical association of rare earth elements (REE). These analyses were completed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and a scanning electron microscope, equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Internal standardization was avoided by quantifying elemental concentrations by normalizing to 100% oxides. Mineral grains containing elevated REE concentrations were found in diverse chemical environments, but were most commonly found in regions where Al and Si were predominant. Dividing the spot analyses into time segments yielded plots that showed the REE content changing over time as individual mineral grains were being ablated. SEM-EDS images of FA 345 confirmed the trends that were found in the LA-ICP-MS results. Small grains of apatite, monazite, or zircon were frequently observed as free mineral grains or embedded in amorphous aluminosilicate glass and were not associated with ferrous particles. This finding is consistent with previous reports that magnetic enrichment may be an effective way of concentrating non-magnetic REE phases. Furthermore, aggressive mechanical and chemical-based separation schemes will be required to separate and recover REE from aluminosilicate glass.

  18. Multivariate classification of edible salts: Simultaneous Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yonghoon; Nam, Sang-Ho; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Gonzalez, Jhanis; Oropeza, Dayana; Quarles, Derrick; Yoo, Jonghyun; Russo, Richard E.

    2016-04-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), both based on laser ablation sampling, can be employed simultaneously to obtain different chemical fingerprints from a sample. We demonstrated that this analysis approach can provide complementary information for improved classification of edible salts. LIBS could detect several of the minor metallic elements along with Na and Cl, while LA-ICP-MS spectra were used to measure non-metallic and trace heavy metal elements. Principal component analysis using LIBS and LA-ICP-MS spectra showed that their major spectral variations classified the sample salts in different ways. Three classification models were developed by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis based on the LIBS, LA-ICP-MS, and their fused data. From the cross-validation performances and confusion matrices of these models, the minor metallic elements (Mg, Ca, and K) detected by LIBS and the non-metallic (I) and trace heavy metal (Ba, W, and Pb) elements detected by LA-ICP-MS provided complementary chemical information to distinguish particular salt samples.

  19. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS for isotope analysis of long-lived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. Sabine

    2005-04-01

    For a few years now inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been increasingly used for precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived radionuclides at the trace and ultratrace level due to its excellent sensitivity, good precision and accuracy. At present, ICP-MS and also laser ablation ICP-MS are applied as powerful analytical techniques in different fields such as the characterization of nuclear materials, recycled and by-products (e.g., spent nuclear fuel or depleted uranium ammunitions), radioactive waste control, in environmental monitoring and in bioassay measurements, in health control, in geochemistry and geochronology. Especially double-focusing sector field ICP mass spectrometers with single ion detector or with multiple ion collector device have been used for the precise determination of long-lived radionuclides isotope ratios at very low concentration levels. Progress has been achieved by the combination of ultrasensitive mass spectrometric techniques with effective separation and enrichment procedures in order to improve detection limits or by the introduction of the collision cell in ICP-MS for reducing disturbing interfering ions (e.g., of 129Xe+ for the determination of 129I). This review describes the state of the art and the progress of ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS for isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in different sample types, especially in the main application fields of characterization of nuclear and radioactive waste material, environmental research and health controls.

  20. Caries selective ablation: the handpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Thomas; Rechmann, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    1995-05-01

    Caries selective ablation is fixed to a window of fluences predicted by the ablation thresholds of carious and healthy dentin, respectively. The aim of the study was to develop a dental handpiece which guarantees homogeneous fluence at the irradiated tooth surface. Furthermore the point of treatment should be cooled down without energy losses due to the cooling system. We suggest the direct coupling of the laser radiation into a laminar stream of liquid, which acts in turn as a lengthened beam guide. The impacts of the laser radiation and of the cooling medium fall exactly into the same point. Hot ablation debris is removed out of the crater by the flush of the water jet. Fluences are constant if the handpiece is used in contact mode or at a distance. Normally the surface of a bare fiber working in contact mode is destroyed after a few shots. Coupling the laser radiation into a stream of liquid prevents this destruction. Putting together the benefits of this special handpiece short overall treatment times seem to be possible. High average power can be applied to the tooth without the threat of thermal damage. Furthermore no time consuming cutting of the fiber prolongs the treatment time.

  1. Study of ablation and implosion stages in wire arrays using coupled ultraviolet and X-ray probing diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A. A.; Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.

    2015-11-15

    Star and cylindrical wire arrays were studied using laser probing and X-ray radiography at the 1-MA Zebra pulse power generator at the University of Nevada, Reno. The Leopard laser provided backlighting, producing a laser plasma from a Si target which emitted an X-ray probing pulse at the wavelength of 6.65 Å. A spherically bent quartz crystal imaged the backlit wires onto X-ray film. Laser probing diagnostics at the wavelength of 266 nm included a 3-channel polarimeter for Faraday rotation diagnostic and two-frame laser interferometry with two shearing interferometers to study the evolution of the plasma electron density at the ablation and implosionmore » stages. Dynamics of the plasma density profile in Al wire arrays at the ablation stage were directly studied with interferometry, and expansion of wire cores was measured with X-ray radiography. The magnetic field in the imploding plasma was measured with the Faraday rotation diagnostic, and current was reconstructed.« less

  2. Investigation of heavy-metal accumulation in selected plant samples using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiová, M.; Kaiser, J.; Novotný, K.; Novotný, J.; Vaculovič, T.; Liška, M.; Malina, R.; Stejskal, K.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R.

    2008-12-01

    Single-pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were applied for mapping the silver and copper distribution in Helianthus Annuus L. samples treated with contaminant in controlled conditions. For Ag and Cu detection the 328.07 nm Ag(I) and 324.75 nm Cu(I) lines were used, respectively. The LIBS experimental conditions (mainly the laser energy and the observation window) were optimized in order to avoid self-absorption effect in the measured spectra. In the LA-ICP-MS analysis the Ag 107 and Cu 63 isotopes were detected. The capability of these two analytical techniques for high-resolution mapping of selected trace chemical elements was demonstrated.

  3. Robotic navigation and ablation.

    PubMed

    Malcolme-Lawes, L; Kanagaratnam, P

    2010-12-01

    Robotic technologies have been developed to allow optimal catheter stability and reproducible catheter movements with the aim of achieving contiguous and transmural lesion delivery. Two systems for remote navigation of catheters within the heart have been developed; the first is based on a magnetic navigation system (MNS) Niobe, Stereotaxis, Saint-Louis, Missouri, USA, the second is based on a steerable sheath system (Sensei, Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA, USA). Both robotic and magnetic navigation systems have proven to be feasible for performing ablation of both simple and complex arrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation. Studies to date have shown similar success rates for AF ablation compared to that of manual ablation, with many groups finding a reduction in fluoroscopy times. However, the early learning curve of cases demonstrated longer procedure times, mainly due to additional setup times. With centres performing increasing numbers of robotic ablations and the introduction of a pressure monitoring system, lower power settings and instinctive driving software, complication rates are reducing, and fluoroscopy times have been lower than manual ablation in many studies. As the demand for catheter ablation for arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation increases and the number of centres performing these ablations increases, the demand for systems which reduce the hand skill requirement and improve the comfort of the operator will also increase.

  4. Ablation, Thermal Response, and Chemistry Program for Analysis of Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2010-01-01

    In previous work, the authors documented the Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (MAT) and Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal response (FIAT) programs. In this work, key features from MAT and FIAT were combined to create the new Fully Implicit Ablation, Thermal response, and Chemistry (FIATC) program. FIATC is fully compatible with FIAT (version 2.5) but has expanded capabilities to compute the multispecies surface chemistry and ablation rate as part of the surface energy balance. This new methodology eliminates B' tables, provides blown species fractions as a function of time, and enables calculations that would otherwise be impractical (e.g. 4+ dimensional tables) such as pyrolysis and ablation with kinetic rates or unequal diffusion coefficients. Equations and solution procedures are presented, then representative calculations of equilibrium and finite-rate ablation in flight and ground-test environments are discussed.

  5. Ablative heat shield design for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiferth, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Ablator heat shield configuration optimization studies were conducted for the orbiter. Ablator and reusable surface insulation (RSI) trajectories for design studies were shaped to take advantage of the low conductance of ceramic RSI and high temperature capability of ablators. Comparative weights were established for the RSI system and for direct bond and mechanically attached ablator systems. Ablator system costs were determined for fabrication, installation and refurbishment. Cost penalties were assigned for payload weight penalties, if any. The direct bond ablator is lowest in weight and cost. A mechanically attached ablator using a magnesium subpanel is highly competitive for both weight and cost.

  6. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in ablation simulations of the meteoroid or glassy Thermal Protection Systems for spacecraft. Time-dependent axi-symmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. For model validation, the surface recession of fused amorphous quartz rod is computed, and the recession predictions reasonably agree with available data. The present parametric studies for two groups of meteoroid earth entry conditions indicate that the mass loss through moving molten layer is negligibly small for heat-flux conditions at around 1 MW/cm(exp. 2).

  7. First clinical experience with a dedicated MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound system for breast cancer ablation.

    PubMed

    Merckel, Laura G; Knuttel, Floor M; Deckers, Roel; van Dalen, Thijs; Schubert, Gerald; Peters, Nicky H G M; Weits, Teun; van Diest, Paul J; Mali, Willem P Th M; Vaessen, Paul H H B; van Gorp, Joost M H H; Moonen, Chrit T W; Bartels, Lambertus W; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J

    2016-11-01

    To assess the safety and feasibility of MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation in breast cancer patients using a dedicated breast platform. Patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer underwent partial tumour ablation prior to surgical resection. MR-HIFU ablation was performed using proton resonance frequency shift MR thermometry and an MR-HIFU system specifically designed for breast tumour ablation. The presence and extent of tumour necrosis was assessed by histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationship between sonication parameters, temperature increase and size of tumour necrosis at histopathology. Ten female patients underwent MR-HIFU treatment. No skin redness or burns were observed in any of the patients. No correlation was found between the applied energy and the temperature increase. In six patients, tumour necrosis was observed with a maximum diameter of 3-11 mm. In these patients, the number of targeted locations was equal to the number of areas with tumour necrosis. A good correlation was found between the applied energy and the size of tumour necrosis at histopathology (Pearson = 0.76, p = 0.002). Our results show that MR-HIFU ablation with the dedicated breast system is safe and results in histopathologically proven tumour necrosis. • MR-HIFU ablation with the dedicated breast system is safe and feasible • In none of the patients was skin redness or burns observed • No correlation was found between the applied energy and the temperature increase • The correlation between applied energy and size of tumour necrosis was good.

  8. The pilot experience upon surgical ablation of large liver tumor by microwave system with tissue permittivity feedback control mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liang, Po-Chin; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Wu, Chih-Horng; Huang, Kai-Wen

    2014-10-22

    Microwave ablation (MWA) is used to treat patients with unresectable liver cancer. Our institution applied a novel microwave generator capable of automatically adjusting energy levels based on feedback related to tissue permittivity. This approach is meant to facilitate ablations over larger areas and provide results of greater predictablility. This paper reports on the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of this new system in the treatment of patients with large liver tumors. Between July 2012 and December 2012, a total of 23 patients with malignant liver tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter underwent surgical MWA using a 902-928 MHz generator. The proposed system used a 14-gauge antenna without internal-cooling. Follow up on tumor recurrence was performed using contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging at 1 month and then at 3 month intervals for a period of at least 12 months following ablation. Among the cancers treated, 10 were primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and 13 were metastatic lesions from primary colorectal cancer (CRLM). The mean tumor size was 5.40 cm (range of 4.0-7.0 cm). A total of 18 patients underwent MWA via open surgery, and 5 received laparoscopic MWA. The mean ablation time was 1982 seconds, with a range of 900-3600 seconds, and the median number of ablation sessions was 2.0 (range of 1-4 sessions). The rate of complete ablation, as defined by a total loss of contrast-enhancement one month post-treatment, was 82.6% (19 of 23 patients), and the rate of local recurrence was 26.3% (5 of 19 patients). For tumors with a diameter of 4.0-7.0 cm, the technical success rate of MWA was higher for HCC patients (70%) than for metastatic liver cancer (53.8%) patients; however, the difference was not statistically significant. All patients survived throughout the observation period, and the morbidity rate was 8.6%. MWA treatment using the proposed system with tissue permittivity feedback control resulted in a high rate of

  9. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Ablative Thermal Response and Thermostructural Design of Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    A finite element ablation and thermal response program is presented for simulation of three-dimensional transient thermostructural analysis. The three-dimensional governing differential equations and finite element formulation are summarized. A novel probabilistic design methodology for thermal protection systems is presented. The design methodology is an eight step process beginning with a parameter sensitivity study and is followed by a deterministic analysis whereby an optimum design can determined. The design process concludes with a Monte Carlo simulation where the probabilities of exceeding design specifications are estimated. The design methodology is demonstrated by applying the methodology to the carbon phenolic compression pads of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. The maximum allowed values of bondline temperature and tensile stress are used as the design specifications in this study.

  10. System for automatically switching transformer coupled lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is presented for automatically controlling transformer coupled alternating current electric lines. The secondary winding of each transformer is provided with a center tap. A switching circuit is connected to the center taps of a pair of secondary windings and includes a switch controller. An impedance is connected between the center taps of the opposite pair of secondary windings. The switching circuit has continuity when the AC lines are continuous and discontinuity with any disconnect of the AC lines. Normally open switching means are provided in at least one AC line. The switch controller automatically opens the switching means when the AC lines become separated.

  11. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Julie M.; Field, Karen E.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2016-01-01

    Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of CoCl2 in future

  12. Ablative and transport fractionation of trace elements during laser sampling of glass and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outridge, P. M.; Doherty, W.; Gregoire, D. C.

    1997-12-01

    The fractionation of trace elements due to ablation and transport processes was quantified during Q-switched infrared laser sampling of glass and copper reference materials. Filter-trapping of the ablated product at different points in the sample introduction system showed ablation and transport sometimes caused opposing fractionation effects, leading to a confounded measure of overall (ablative + transport) fractionation. An unexpected result was the greater ablative fractionation of some elements (Au, Ag, Bi, Te in glass and Au, Be, Bi, Ni, Te in copper) at a higher laser fluence of 1.35 × 10 4W cm -2 than at 0.62 × 10 4W cm -2, which contradicted predictions from modelling studies of ablation processes. With glass, there was an inverse logarithmic relationship between the extent of ablative and overall fractionation and element oxide melting point (OMPs), with elements with OMPs < 1000° C exhibiting overall concentration increases of 20-1340%. Fractionation during transport was quantitatively important for most certified elements in copper, and for the most volatile elements (Au, Ag, Bi, Te) in glass. Elements common to both matrices showed 50-100% higher ablative fractionation in copper, possibly because of greater heat conductance away from the ablation site causing increased element volatilisation or zone refinement. These differences between matrices indicate that non-matrix-matched standardisation is likely to provide inaccurate calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses of at least some elements.

  13. A three-dimensional visualization preoperative treatment planning system for microwave ablation in liver cancer: a simulated experimental study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangyi; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, Mingan; Liang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the application value of three-dimensional (3D) visualization preoperative treatment planning system (VPTPS) for microwave ablation (MWA) in liver cancer. The study was a simulated experimental study using the CT imaging data of patients in DICOM format in a model. Three students (who learn to interventional ultrasound for less than 1 year) and three experts (who have more than 5 years of experience in ablation techniques) in MWA performed the preoperative planning for 39 lesions (mean diameter 3.75 ± 1.73 cm) of 32 patients using two-dimensional (2D) image planning method and 3D VPTPS, respectively. The number of planning insertions, planning ablation rate, and damage rate to surrounding structures were compared between2D image planning group and 3D VPTPS group. There were fewer planning insertions, lower ablation rate and higher damage rate to surrounding structures in 2D image planning group than 3D VPTPS group for both students and experts. When using the 2D ultrasound planning method, students could carry out fewer planning insertions and had a lower ablation rate than the experts (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in planning insertions, the ablation rate, and the incidence of damage to the surrounding structures between students and experts using 3D VPTPS. 3DVPTPS enables inexperienced physicians to have similar preoperative planning results to experts, and enhances students' preoperative planning capacity, which may improve the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the complication of MWA.

  14. Pulsed and CW adjustable 1942 nm single-mode all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser system for surgical laser soft tissue ablation applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yize; Jivraj, Jamil; Zhou, Jiaqi; Ramjist, Joel; Wong, Ronnie; Gu, Xijia; Yang, Victor X D

    2016-07-25

    A surgical laser soft tissue ablation system based on an adjustable 1942 nm single-mode all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser operating in pulsed or CW mode with nitrogen assistance is demonstrated. Ex vivo ablation on soft tissue targets such as muscle (chicken breast) and spinal cord (porcine) with intact dura are performed at different ablation conditions to examine the relationship between the system parameters and ablation outcomes. The maximum laser average power is 14.4 W, and its maximum peak power is 133.1 W with 21.3 μJ pulse energy. The maximum CW power density is 2.33 × 106 W/cm2 and the maximum pulsed peak power density is 2.16 × 107 W/cm2. The system parameters examined include the average laser power in CW or pulsed operation mode, gain-switching frequency, total ablation exposure time, and the input gas flow rate. The ablation effects were measured by microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the ablation depth, superficial heat-affected zone diameter (HAZD) and charring diameter (CD). Our results conclude that the system parameters can be tailored to meet different clinical requirements such as ablation for soft tissue cutting or thermal coagulation for future applications of hemostasis.

  15. Global microwave endometrial ablation for menorrhagia treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahi, Hojjatollah; Å ebek, Jan; Frattura, Eric; Schenck, Jessica; Prakash, Punit

    2017-02-01

    Thermal ablation is a dominant therapeutic option for minimally invasive treatment of menorrhagia. Compared to other energy modalities for ablation, microwaves offer the advantages of conformal energy delivery to tissue within short times. The objective of endometrial ablation is to destroy the endometrial lining of the uterine cavity, with the clinical goal of achieving reduction in bleeding. Previous efforts have demonstrated clinical use of microwaves for endometrial ablation. A considerable shortcoming of most systems is that they achieve ablation of the target by translating the applicator in a point-to-point fashion. Consequently, treatment outcome may be highly dependent on physician skill. Global endometrial ablation (GEA) not only eliminates this operator dependence and simplifies the procedure but also facilitates shorter and more reliable treatments. The objective of our study was to investigate antenna structures and microwave energy delivery parameters to achieve GEA. Another objective was to investigate a method for automatic and reliable determination of treatment end-point. A 3D-coupled FEM electromagnetic and heat transfer model with temperature and frequency dependent material properties was implemented to characterize microwave GEA. The unique triangular geometry of the uterus where lateral narrow walls extend from the cervix to the fundus forming a wide base and access afforded through an endocervical approach limit the overall diameter of the final device. We investigated microwave antenna designs in a deployed state inside the uterus. The impact of ablation duration on treatment outcome was investigated. Prototype applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in ex vivo tissue to verify the simulation results and demonstrate proof-of-concept.

  16. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpole, M.; Wercinski, R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Fan, W.; Thornton, J; Szalai, C.

    2012-01-01

    interest. The entry environment is not always guaranteed with a direct entry, and improving the entry systems robustness to a variety of environmental conditions could aid in reaching more varied landing sites. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: 1) Mass to Surface, 2) Surface Access, 3) Precision Landing, 4) Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, 5) Safety and Mission Assurance, and 6) Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems is manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (3/8 cell) by hand and within a limited amount of time once the ablative compound is mixed, all of the cells have to be filled and the entire heat-shield has to be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the mechanical strength characteristic and the manufacturing limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS> A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials.

  17. Initial experience of a novel mapping system combined with remote magnetic navigation in the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changjian; Pehrson, Steen; Jacobsen, Peter Karl; Chen, Xu

    2017-12-01

    There have been advancements of sophisticated mapping systems used for ablation procedures over the last decade. Utilization of these novel mapping systems in combination with remote magnetic navigation (RMN) needs to be established. We investigated the new EnSite Precision mapping system (St. Jude Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA), which collects magnetic data for checking navigation field stability and is built on an open platform, allowing physicians to choose diagnostic and ablation catheters. We address its compatibility with RMN. To assess the clinical utility of a novel 3D mapping system (EnSite Precision mapping system) combined with RMN (Niobe ES, Stereotaxis, Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. In this prospective nonrandomized study, two groups of patients were treated in our center for drug refractory AF. Patients were consecutively enrolled in each group. Group A (n = 35, 14 persistent AF [PsAF]) was treated using the novel 3D mapping system combined with RMN. Group B (n = 38, 16 PsAF) was treated using Carto ® 3 (Biosense Webster, Inc., Diamond Bar, CA, USA) combined with RMN. In Group A, the left atrium (LA) was mapped with a circular magnetic catheter manually and was then replaced by a RMN ablation catheter. At the end of the procedures in Group A, the circular catheter was used for confirming field stability. In Group B, an ablation catheter was controlled by RMN to perform both LA mapping and ablation. All patients underwent pulmonary vein antrum isolation. Additional complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAEs) ablation was performed for PsAF. Procedural, ablation, and fluoroscopy times were recorded and complications were assessed. Electrophysiological end points were achieved in all patients. Using the novel mapping system, LA mapping time was fast (308 ± 60 seconds) with detailed anatomy points (178,831 ± 70,897) collected and magnetic points throughout LA. At the end of the procedures in Group A, the

  18. Analysis and comparison of glass fragments by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Trejos, Tatiana; Montero, Shirly; Almirall, José R

    2003-08-01

    The discrimination potential of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is compared with previously reported solution ICP-MS methods using external calibration (EC) with internal standardization and a newly reported solution isotope dilution (ID) method for the analysis of two different glass populations. A total of 91 different glass samples were used for the comparison study; refractive index and elemental composition were measured by the techniques mentioned above. One set consisted of 45 headlamps taken from a variety of automobiles that represents a range of 20 years of manufacturing dates. A second set consisted of 46 automotive glasses (side windows, rear windows, and windshields) representing casework glass from different vehicle manufacturers over several years. The element menu for the LA-ICP-MS and EC-ICP-MS methods include Mg, Al, Ca, Mn, Ce, Ti, Zr, Sb, Ga, Ba, Rb, Sm, Sr, Hf, La, and Pb. The ID method was limited to the analysis of two isotopes each of Mg, Sr, Zr, Sb, Ba, Sm, Hf, and Pb. Laser ablation analyses were performed with a Q switched Nd:YAG, 266 nm, 6 mJ output energy laser. The laser was used in depth profile mode while sampling using a 50 microm spot size for 50 sec at 10 Hz (500 shots). The typical bias for the analysis of NIST 612 by LA-ICP-MS was less than 5% in all cases and typically better than 5% for most isotopes. The precision for the vast majority of the element menu was determined generally less than 10% for all the methods when NIST 612 was measured (40 microg x g(-1)). Method detection limits (MDL) for the EC and LA-ICP-MS methods were similar and generally reported as less than 1 microg x g(-1) for the analysis of NIST 612. While the solution sample introduction methods using EC and ID presented excellent sensitivity and precision, these methods have the disadvantages of destroying the sample, and also involve complex sample preparation. The laser ablation method was simpler, faster, and

  19. In situ location and U-Pb dating of small zircon grains in igneous rocks using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Patrick J.; Berry, Ron F.; Meffre, Sebastien; Falloon, Trevor J.; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Friedman, Richard M.

    2011-05-01

    A new U-Pb zircon dating protocol for small (10-50 μm) zircons has been developed using an automated searching method to locate zircon grains in a polished rock mount. The scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X ray spectrum-based automated searching method can routinely find in situ zircon grains larger than 5 μm across. A selection of these grains was ablated using a 10 μm laser spot and analyzed in an inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS). The technique has lower precision (˜6% uncertainty at 95% confidence on individual spot analyses) than typical laser ablation ICP-MS (˜2%), secondary ion mass spectrometry (<1%), and isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (˜0.4%) methods. However, it is accurate and has been used successfully on fine-grained lithologies, including mafic rocks from island arcs, ocean basins, and ophiolites, which have traditionally been considered devoid of dateable zircons. This technique is particularly well suited for medium- to fine-grained mafic volcanic rocks where zircon separation is challenging and can also be used to date rocks where only small amounts of sample are available (clasts, xenoliths, dredge rocks). The most significant problem with dating small in situ zircon grains is Pb loss. In our study, many of the small zircons analyzed have high U contents, and the isotopic compositions of these grains are consistent with Pb loss resulting from internal α radiation damage. This problem is not significant in very young rocks and can be minimized in older rocks by avoiding high-U zircon grains.

  20. Non-fluoroscopic navigation systems for radiofrequency catheter ablation for supraventricular tachycardia reduce ionising radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    See, Jason; Amora, Jonah L; Lee, Sheldon; Lim, Paul; Teo, Wee Siong; Tan, Boon Yew; Ho, Kah Leng; Lee, Chee Wan; Ching, Chi-Keong

    2016-07-01

    The use of non-fluoroscopic systems (NFS) to guide radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is associated with lower radiation exposure. This study aimed to determine if NFS reduces fluoroscopy time, radiation dose and procedure time. We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing RFCA for SVT. NFS included EnSiteTM NavXTM or CARTO® mapping. We compared procedure and fluoroscopy times, and radiation exposure between NFS and conventional fluoroscopy (CF) cohorts. Procedural success, complications and one-year success rates were reported. A total of 200 patients over 27 months were included and RFCA was guided by NFS for 79 patients; those with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), left-sided atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) and right-sided AVRT were included (n = 101, 63 and 36, respectively). Fluoroscopy times were significantly lower with NFS than with CF (10.8 ± 11.1 minutes vs. 32.0 ± 27.5 minutes; p < 0.001). The mean fluoroscopic dose area product was also significantly reduced with NFS (NSF: 5,382 ± 5,768 mGy*cm2 vs. CF: 21,070 ± 23,311 mGy*cm2; p < 0.001); for all SVT subtypes. There was no significant reduction in procedure time, except for left-sided AVRT ablation (NFS: 79.2 minutes vs. CF: 116.4 minutes; p = 0.001). Procedural success rates were comparable (NFS: 97.5% vs. CF: 98.3%) and at one-year follow-up, there was no significant difference in the recurrence rates (NFS: 5.2% vs. CF: 4.2%). No clinically significant complications were observed in both groups. The use of NFS for RFCA for SVT is safe, with significantly reduced radiation dose and fluoroscopy time. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.

  1. TPS Ablator Technologies for Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Ablator technologies and the preparation for use in interplanetary spacecraft. NASA does not have adequate TPS ablatives and sufficient selection for planned missions. It includes a comparison of shuttle and interplanetary TPS requirements, the status of mainline TPS charring ablator materials, a summary of JSC SBIR accomplishments in developing advanced charring ablators and the benefits of SBIR Ablator/fabrication technology.

  2. Dynamics of coupled human-landscape systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, B. T.; McNamara, D. E.

    2007-11-01

    A preliminary dynamical analysis of landscapes and humans as hierarchical complex systems suggests that strong coupling between the two that spreads to become regionally or globally pervasive should be focused at multi-year to decadal time scales. At these scales, landscape dynamics is dominated by water, sediment and biological routing mediated by fluvial, oceanic, atmospheric processes and human dynamics is dominated by simplifying, profit-maximizing market forces and political action based on projection of economic effect. Also at these scales, landscapes impact humans through patterns of natural disasters and trends such as sea level rise; humans impact landscapes by the effect of economic activity and changes meant to mitigate natural disasters and longer term trends. Based on this analysis, human-landscape coupled systems can be modeled using heterogeneous agents employing prediction models to determine actions to represent the nonlinear behavior of economic and political systems and rule-based routing algorithms to represent landscape processes. A cellular model for the development of New Orleans illustrates this approach, with routing algorithms for river and hurricane-storm surge determining flood extent, five markets (home, labor, hotel, tourism and port services) connecting seven types of economic agents (home buyers/laborers, home developers, hotel owners/ employers, hotel developers, tourists, port services developer and port services owners/employers), building of levees or a river spillway by political agents and damage to homes, hotels or port services within cells determined by the passage or depth of flood waters. The model reproduces historical aspects of New Orleans economic development and levee construction and the filtering of frequent small-scale floods at the expense of large disasters.

  3. The UKC2 regional coupled prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Juan; Lewis, Huw; Graham, Jennifer; Saulter, Andrew; Arnold, Alex; Fallmann, Joachim; Martinez de la Torre, Alberto; Blyth, Eleanor; Bricheno, Lucy

    2017-04-01

    It is hypothesized that more accurate prediction and warning of natural hazards, such as of the impacts of severe weather through the environment, requires a more integrated approach to forecasting. This approach also delivers research benefits through providing tools with which to explore the known interactions and feedbacks between different physical and biogeochemical components of the environment across sky, sea and land. This hypothesis is being tested in a UK regional context at km-scale through the UK Environmental Prediction Project. This presentation will provide an introduction to the UKC2 UK Environmental Prediction research system. This incorporates models of the atmosphere (Met Office Unified Model), land surface (JULES), shelf-sea ocean (NEMO) and ocean waves (WAVEWATCH III). These components are coupled (via OASIS3-MCT libraries) at unprecedentedly high resolution across the UK and the wider north-west European regional domain. A research framework has been established to explore the representation of feedback processes in coupled and uncoupled modes, providing a unique new research tool for UK environmental science. The presentation will highlight work undertaken to review and improve the computational cost of running these systems for efficient research application. Research will be presented highlighting case study evaluation on the sensitivity of the ocean and surface waves to the representation of feedbacks to the atmosphere, and on the sensitivity of weather systems and boundary layer cloud development to the exchange of heat and momentum at the ocean surface modified through sea surface temperature and wave-induced roughness. The presentation will discuss plans for future development through UKC3 and beyond.

  4. Gold nanorods coupled with upconverting nanophosphors for targeted thermal ablation and imaging of bladder cancer cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Suehyun K.; Su, Lih-Jen; Flaig, Thomas W.; Park, Wounjhang

    2016-09-01

    NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ upconverting nanophosphors (UCNPs) are robust and stable nanoparticles that absorb near-infrared (NIR) photons and emit green and red visible photons through energy transfer upconversion. This mechanism provides UCNPs several advantages as a bioimaging agent over traditional fluorescence imaging agent in that NIR excitation allows high-contrast imaging without autofluorescence and that they can be used for deep-tissue imaging. However, additional surface modification of UCNPs is necessary for them to be biocompatible. We use an amphiphilic polymer (poly(maleic anhydride-alt-octadecene) (PMAO) and a hetero-functional polyethylene glycol with amine and thiol ends (NH2-PEG-SH)) to make the UCNPs water-soluble. This reaction yields a carboxylic group that allows functionalization with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (aEGFR), which provides specific binding of UCNPs to EGFR-expressing bladder cancer cells. Additionally, the thiol ends of the PEGylated UCNPs are able to bind with gold nanorods (AuNRs) to create UCNP-AuNR complexes. The localized surface plasmon of the AuNR then allow localized heating of HTB9 bladder cancer cells, enabling in situ cell killing upon detection by UCNP fluorescence. Here, we report a successful synthesis, surface modification and conjugation of aEGFR functionalized UCNP-AuNR complexes and in vitro imaging and thermal ablation studies using them. Synthesis and surface modification of UCNP-AuNR complexes are confirmed by electron microscopy. Then, a combination of brightfield, NIR confocal fluorescence, and darkfield microscopy on the UCNP-AuNR treated bladder cancer cells revealed successful cancer targeting and imaging capabilities of the complex. Finally, cell viability assay showed that NIR irradiation of UCNP-AuNR conjugated cells resulted highly selective cell killing.

  5. Application of laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the measurement of calcium and lead isotope ratios in packaging for discriminatory purposes.

    PubMed

    Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca; Wolff, Jean-Claude

    2010-07-30

    The potential of high-precision calcium and lead isotope ratio measurements using laser ablation coupled to multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) to aid distinction between four genuine and five counterfeit pharmaceutical packaging samples and further classification of counterfeit packaging samples has been evaluated. We highlight the lack of reference materials for LA-MC-ICP-MS isotope ratio measurements in solids. In this case the problem is minimised by using National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST SRM) 915a calcium carbonate (as solid pellets) and NIST SRM610 glass disc for sample bracketing external standardisation. In addition, a new reference material, NIST SRM915b calcium carbonate, has been characterised in-house for Ca isotope ratios and is used as a reference sample. Significant differences have been found between genuine and counterfeit samples; the method allows detection of counterfeits and aids further classification of packaging samples. Typical expanded uncertainties for measured-corrected Ca isotope ratio values ((43)Ca/(44)Ca and (42)Ca/(44)Ca) were found to be below 0.06% (k = 2, 95% confidence) and below 0.2% for measured-corrected Pb isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb). This is the first time that Ca isotope ratios have been measured in packaging materials using LA coupled to a multicollector (MC)-ICP-MS instrument. The use of LA-MC-ICP-MS for direct measurement of Ca and Pb isotopic variations in cardboard/ink in packaging has definitive potential to aid counterfeit detection and classification. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Parallel solution of closely coupled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, S.; Salama, M.

    1986-01-01

    The odd-even permutation and associated unitary transformations for reordering the matrix coefficient A are employed as means of breaking the strong seriality which is characteristic of closely coupled systems. The nested dissection technique is also reviewed, and the equivalence between reordering A and dissecting its network is established. The effect of transforming A with odd-even permutation on its topology and the topology of its Cholesky factors is discussed. This leads to the construction of directed graphs showing the computational steps required for factoring A, their precedence relationships and their sequential and concurrent assignment to the available processors. Expressions for the speed-up and efficiency of using N processors in parallel relative to the sequential use of a single processor are derived from the directed graph. Similar expressions are also derived when the number of available processors is fewer than required.

  7. Dynamic optical coupled system employing Dammann gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Caihui; Zhou, Changhe; Ru, Huayi

    2004-10-01

    With the increasing of the number of users in optical fiber communications, fiber-to-home project has a larger market value. Then the need of dynamic optical couplers, especially of N broad-band couplers, becomes greater. Though some advanced fiber fusion techniques have been developed, they still have many shortcomings. In this paper we propose a dynamic optical coupled system employing even-numbered Dammann gratings, which have the characteristic that the phase distribution in the first half-period accurately equals to that in the second-period with π phase inversion. In our experiment, we divide a conventional even-numbered Dammann grating into two identical gratings. The system can achieve the beam splitter and combiner as the switch between them according to the relative shift between two complementary gratings. When there is no shift between the gratings, the demonstrated 1×8 dynamic optical coupler achieves good uniformity of 0.06 and insertion loss of around 10.8 dB for each channel as a splitter. When the two gratings have an accurate shift of a half-period between them, our system has a low insertion loss of 0.46 dB as a combiner at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  8. Influence of spatial and temporal spot distribution on the ocular surface quality and maximum ablation depth after photoablation with a 1050 Hz excimer laser system.

    PubMed

    Mrochen, Michael; Schelling, Urs; Wuellner, Christian; Donitzky, Christof

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of temporal and spatial distributions of laser spots (scan sequences) on the corneal surface quality after ablation and the maximum ablation of a given refractive correction after photoablation with a high-repetition-rate scanning-spot laser. IROC AG, Zurich, Switzerland, and WaveLight AG, Erlangen, Germany. Bovine corneas and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated using a 1050 Hz excimer laser prototype for corneal laser surgery. Four temporal and spatial spot distributions (scan sequences) with different temporal overlapping factors were created for 3 myopic, 3 hyperopic, and 3 phototherapeutic keratectomy ablation profiles. Surface quality and maximum ablation depth were measured using a surface profiling system. The surface quality factor increased (rough surfaces) as the amount of temporal overlapping in the scan sequence and the amount of correction increased. The rise in surface quality factor was less for bovine corneas than for PMMA. The scan sequence might cause systematic substructures at the surface of the ablated material depending on the overlapping factor. The maximum ablation varied within the scan sequence. The temporal and spatial distribution of the laser spots (scan sequence) during a corneal laser procedure affected the surface quality and maximum ablation depth of the ablation profile. Corneal laser surgery could theoretically benefit from smaller spot sizes and higher repetition rates. The temporal and spatial spot distributions are relevant to achieving these aims.

  9. Percutaneous microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma with a gas-cooled system: initial clinical results with 107 tumors.

    PubMed

    Ziemlewicz, Timothy J; Hinshaw, J Louis; Lubner, Meghan G; Brace, Christopher L; Alexander, Marci L; Agarwal, Parul; Lee, Fred T

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively review the results of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment with a high-power, gas-cooled, multiantenna-capable microwave device. A total of 107 HCCs in 75 patients (65 men) with a mean age of 61 years (range, 44-82 y) were treated via percutaneous approach. Combination microwave ablation and transarterial chemoembolization was performed for 22 tumors in 19 patients with tumors larger than 4 cm (n = 10), tumors larger than 3 cm with ill-defined margins (n = 7), or lesions not identified with ultrasonography (n = 5). Mean tumor size was 2.1 cm (range, 0.5-4.2 cm), with median follow-up of 14 months, for ablation alone; compared with 3.7 cm (range, 1.0-7.0 cm) and 12 months, respectively, for combination therapy. All procedures were performed with a single microwave system (Certus 140) with one to three 17-gauge antennas. Mean ablation time was 5.3 minutes (range, 1-11.5 min). All treatments were considered technically successful in a single session. Primary technique effectiveness rates were 91.6% (98 of 107) overall, 93.7% (89 of 95) for tumors 4 cm or smaller, and 75.0% (nine of 12) for tumors larger than 4 cm; and 91.8% (78 of 85) for ablation alone and 90.9% (20 of 22) for combination therapy. There was no major complication or procedure-related mortality. The overall survival rate was 76.0% at a median 14-month clinical follow-up, with most deaths related to end-stage liver disease (n = 11) or multifocal HCC (n = 5). Treating HCC with a gas-cooled, multiantenna-capable microwave ablation device is safe, with promising treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Renal Sympathetic Denervation System via Intraluminal Ultrasonic Ablation: Therapeutic Intravascular Ultrasound Design and Preclinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chernin, Gil; Szwarcfiter, Iris; Bausback, Yvonne; Jonas, Michael

    2017-05-01

    To assess the safety and performance of a nonfocused and nonballooned ultrasonic (US) catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) system in normotensive swine. RDN with the therapeutic intravascular US catheter was evaluated in 3 experiments: (i) therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs a control group of untreated animals with follow-up of 30, 45, and 90 days (n = 6; n = 12 renal arteries for each group); (ii) therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs radiofrequency (RF) RDN in the contralateral artery in the same animal (n = 2; n = 4 renal arteries); and (iii) therapeutic intravascular US RDN in a recently stent-implanted renal artery (n = 2; n = 4 renal arteries). In the first experiment, therapeutic intravascular US RDN was safe, without angiographic evidence of dissection or renal artery stenosis. Neuronal tissue vacuolization, nuclei pyknosis, and perineuronal inflammation were evident after RDN, without renal artery wall damage. Norepinephrine levels were significantly lower after therapeutic intravascular US RDN after 30, 45, and 90 days compared with the control group (200.17 pg/mg ± 63.35, 184.75 pg/mg ± 44.51, and 203.43 pg/mg ± 58.54, respectively, vs 342.42 pg/mg ± 79.97). In the second experiment, deeper neuronal ablation penetrance was found with therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs RF RDN (maximal penetrance from endothelium of 7.0 mm vs 3.5 mm, respectively). There was less damage to the artery wall after therapeutic intravascular US RDN than with RF RDN, after which edema and injured endothelium were seen. In the third experiment, denervation inside the stent-implanted segments was feasible without damage to the renal artery wall or stent. The therapeutic intravascular US system performed safely and reduced norepinephrine levels. Deeper penetrance and better preservation of vessel wall were observed with therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs RF RDN. Neuronal ablations were observed in stent-implanted renal arteries. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published

  11. In Vivo Arthroscopic Temperatures: A Comparison Between 2 Types of Radiofrequency Ablation Systems in Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Brent; Wilkinson, Matthew; McEwen, Peter; Hazratwala, Kaushik; Doma, Kenji; Manoharan, Varaguna; Bahho, Zaid; McEwen, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    To compare a plasma ablation device with a standard ablation device in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to determine which system is superior in terms of intra-articular heat generation and diathermy efficiency. This was a prospective, randomized controlled trial. The inclusion criteria were adult patients undergoing primary ACL reconstruction. Patients were randomized preoperatively to the standard ablation group or the plasma ablation group. A thermometer was inserted into the inferior suprapatellar pouch, and the temperature, time, and duration of radiofrequency ablation were measured continually. No significant differences were found between the standard ablation system and the plasma ablation system for maximum temperature (29.77°C and 29.34°C, respectively; P = .95), mean temperature (26.16°C and 26.99°C, respectively; P = .44), minimum temperature (22.66°C and 23.94°C, respectively; P = .54), and baseline temperature (26.80°C and 27.93°C, respectively; P = .35). Similarly, no significant differences were found for operative time (82.90 minutes and 80.50 minutes, respectively; P = .72) and mean diathermy activation times (2.6 minutes for both systems; P = .90). The between-system coefficient of variation for the measured parameters ranged from 0.12% to 3.69%. No intra-articular readings above the temperature likely to damage chondrocytes were recorded. The mean irrigation fluid temperature had a significant correlation with the maximum temperature reached during the procedure (Spearman rank correlation, r = 0.87; P < .01). No difference in temperature was observed between the standard ablation and plasma ablation probes during ACL reconstruction. Temperatures did not exceed critical temperatures associated with chondrocyte death. Level I, randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a multi-variate calibration approach for quantitative analysis of oxidation resistant Mo-Si-B coatings using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakara, Anja; Bonta, Maximilian; Riedl, Helmut; Mayrhofer, Paul H.; Limbeck, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, for the production of oxidation protection coatings in ultrahigh temperature environments, alloys of Mo-Si-B are employed. The properties of the material, mainly the oxidation resistance, are strongly influenced by the Si to B ratio; thus reliable analytical methods are needed to assure exact determination of the material composition for the respective applications. For analysis of such coatings, laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been reported as a versatile method with no specific requirements on the nature of the sample. However, matrix effects represent the main limitation of laser-based solid sampling techniques and usually the use of matrix-matched standards for quantitative analysis is required. In this work, LA-ICP-MS analysis of samples with known composition and varying Mo, Si and B content was carried out. Between known analyte concentrations and derived LA-ICP-MS signal intensities no linear correlation could be found. In order to allow quantitative analysis independent of matrix effects, a multiple linear regression model was developed. Besides the three target analytes also the signals of possible argides (40Ar36Ar and 98Mo40Ar) as well as detected impurities of the Mo-Si-B coatings (108Pd) were considered. Applicability of the model to unknown samples was confirmed using external validation. Relative deviations from the values determined using conventional liquid analysis after sample digestion between 5 and 10% for the main components Mo and Si were observed.

  13. Determination of Os by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with the combination of laser ablation to introduce chemically separated geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yali; Ren, Minghao; Xia, Xiaoping; Li, Congying; Sun, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    A method was developed for the determination of trace Os in geological samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) with the combination of chemical separation and preconcentration. Samples are digested using aqua regia in Carius tubes, and the Os analyte is converted into volatile OsO4, which is distilled and absorbed with HBr. The HBr solution is concentrated for further Os purification using the microdistillation technique. The purified Os is dissolved in 10 μl of 0.02% sucrose-0.005% H3PO4 solution and then evaporated on pieces of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) film, resulting in the formation of a tiny object (< 3 × 104 μm2 superficial area). Using LA-ICP-MS measurements, the object can give Os signals at least 100 times higher than those provided by routine solution-ICP-MS while successfully avoiding the memory effect. The procedural blank and detection limit in the developed technique are 3.0 pg and 1.8 pg for Os, respectively when 1 g of samples is taken. Reference materials (RM) are analyzed, and their Os concentrations obtained by isotope dilution are comparable to reference or literature values. Based on the individual RM results, the precision is estimated within the range of 0.6 to 9.4% relative standard deviation (RSD), revealing that this method is applicable to the determination of trace Os in geological samples.

  14. Ablation of intervertebral discs in dogs using a MicroJet-assisted dye-enhanced injection device coupled with the diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.; Henry, George A.; Dickey, D. Thomas; Stair, Ernest L.; Powell, Ronald; Schafer, Steven A.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Frederickson, Christopher J.; Hayes, Donald J.; Wallace, David B.

    1998-07-01

    Use of holmium laser energy for vaporization/coagulation of the nucleus pulposus in canine intervertebral discs has been previously reported and is currently being applied clinically in veterinary medicine. The procedure was originally developed in the canine model and intended for potential human use. Since the pulsed (15 Hz) holmium laser energy exerts photomechanical and photothermal effects, the potential for extrusion of additional disc material to the detriment of the patient is possible using the procedure developed for the dog. To reduce this potential complication, use of diode laser (805 nm - CW mode) energy, coupled with indocyanine green (ICG) as a selective laser energy absorber, was formulated as a possible alternative. Delivery of the ICG and diode laser energy was through a MicroJet device that could dispense dye interactively between individual laser 'shots.' Results have shown that it is possible to selectively ablate nucleus pulposus in the canine model using the device described. Acute observations (gross and histopathologic) illustrate that accurate placement of the spinal needle before introduction of the MicroJet device is critically dependent on the expertise of the interventional radiologist. In addition, the success of the overall technique depends on consistent delivery of both ICG and diode laser energy. Minimizing tissue carbonization on the tip of the MicroJet device is also of crucial importance for effective application of the technique in clinical veterinary medicine.

  15. Analytical procedure for characterization of medieval wall-paintings by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syta, Olga; Rozum, Karol; Choińska, Marta; Zielińska, Dobrochna; Żukowska, Grażyna Zofia; Kijowska, Agnieszka; Wagner, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    Analytical procedure for the comprehensive chemical characterization of samples from medieval Nubian wall-paintings by means of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) was proposed in this work. The procedure was used for elemental and molecular investigations of samples from archeological excavations in Nubia (modern southern Egypt and northern Sudan). Numerous remains of churches with painted decorations dated back to the 7th-14th century were excavated in the region of medieval kingdoms of Nubia but many aspects of this art and its technology are still unknown. Samples from the selected archeological sites (Faras, Old Dongola and Banganarti) were analyzed in the form of transfers (n = 26), small fragments collected during the excavations (n = 35) and cross sections (n = 15). XRF was used to collect data about elemental composition, LA-ICPMS allowed mapping of selected elements, while RS was used to get the molecular information about the samples. The preliminary results indicated the usefulness of the proposed analytical procedure for distinguishing the substances, from both the surface and sub-surface domains of the wall-paintings. The possibility to identify raw materials from the wall-paintings will be used in the further systematic, archeometric studies devoted to the detailed comparison of various historic Nubian centers.

  16. Validation of the determination of the B isotopic composition in Roman glasses with laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devulder, Veerle; Gerdes, Axel; Vanhaecke, Frank; Degryse, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    The applicability of laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) for the determination of the B isotopic composition in Roman glasses was investigated. The δ11B values thus obtained provide information on the natron flux used during the glass-making process. The glass samples used for this purpose were previously characterized using pneumatic nebulization (PN) MC-ICP-MS. Unfortunately, this method is time-consuming and labor-intensive and consumes some 100 mg of sample, which is a rather high amount for ancient materials. Therefore, the use of the less invasive and faster LA-MC-ICP-MS approach was explored. In this work, the results for 29 Roman glasses and 4 home-made glasses obtained using both techniques were compared to assess the suitability of LA-MC-ICP-MS in this context. The results are in excellent agreement within experimental uncertainty. No difference in overall mass discrimination was observed between the Roman glasses, NIST SRM 610 reference glass and B6 obsidian. The expanded uncertainty of the LA-MC-ICP-MS approach was estimated to be < 2‰, which is similar to that obtained upon sample digestion and PN-MC-ICP-MS measurement.

  17. Direct trace-elemental analysis of urine samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after sample deposition on clinical filter papers.

    PubMed

    Aramendía, Maite; Rello, Luis; Vanhaecke, Frank; Resano, Martín

    2012-10-16

    Collection of biological fluids on clinical filter papers shows important advantages from a logistic point of view, although analysis of these specimens is far from straightforward. Concerning urine analysis, and particularly when direct trace elemental analysis by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) is aimed at, several problems arise, such as lack of sensitivity or different distribution of the analytes on the filter paper, rendering obtaining reliable quantitative results quite difficult. In this paper, a novel approach for urine collection is proposed, which circumvents many of these problems. This methodology consists on the use of precut filter paper discs where large amounts of sample can be retained upon a single deposition. This provides higher amounts of the target analytes and, thus, sufficient sensitivity, and allows addition of an adequate internal standard at the clinical lab prior to analysis, therefore making it suitable for a strategy based on unsupervised sample collection and ulterior analysis at referral centers. On the basis of this sampling methodology, an analytical method was developed for the direct determination of several elements in urine (Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb, Sn, Tl, Pb, and V) at the low μg L(-1) level by means of LA-ICPMS. The method developed provides good results in terms of accuracy and LODs (≤1 μg L(-1) for most of the analytes tested), with a precision in the range of 15%, fit-for-purpose for clinical control analysis.

  18. Determination of changes in the concentration and distribution of elements within olive drupes (cv. Leccino) from Se biofortified plants, using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Roberto; Petrelli, Maurizio; Proietti, Primo; Onofri, Andrea; Regni, Luca; Perugini, Diego; Businelli, Daniela

    2018-03-25

    Biofortification of food crops has been used to increase the intake of Se in the human diet, even though this may change the concentration of other elements and modify the nutritional properties of the enriched food. Selenium biofortification programs should include routine assessment of the overall mineral composition of enriched plants. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) was used for the assessment of mineral composition of table olives. Olive trees were fertilized with sodium selenate before flowering. At harvest, the edible parts of drupes proved to be significantly enriched in Se, delivering 6.1 μg g -1 (39% of the RDA for five olives). Such enrichment was followed by significant changes in the concentrations of B, Mg, K, Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu in edible parts, which are discussed for their impact on food quality. The biofortification of olive plants has allowed the enrichment of fruits with selenium. Enrichment with selenium has caused an increase in the concentration of other elements, which can change the nutritional quality of the drupes. The analytical technique used well as a valuable tool for routinely determining the chemical composition of all fruit parts. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Demonstration of femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements in U-10Mo nuclear fuel foils

    SciTech Connect

    Havrilla, George Joseph; Gonzalez, Jhanis

    2015-06-10

    The use of femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the isotopic ratio of uranium directly in U-10Mo fuel foils. The measurements were done on both the flat surface and cross sections of bare and Zr clad U-10Mo fuel foil samples. The results for the depleted uranium content measurements were less than 10% of the accepted U235/238 ratio of 0.0020. Sampling was demonstrated for line scans and elemental mapping over large areas. In addition to the U isotopic ratio measurement, the Zr thickness could be measured as well as trace elementalmore » composition if required. A number of interesting features were observed during the feasibility measurements which could provide the basis for further investigation using this methodology. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using fs-LA-ICP-MS for measuring the U isotopic ratio in U-10Mo fuel foils.« less

  20. Study on quantitative analysis of Ti, Al and V in clinical soft tissues after placing the dental implants by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajnóg, Adam; Hanć, Anetta; Makuch, Krzysztof; Koczorowski, Ryszard; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-11-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for in-situ quantitative analysis of oral mucosa of patients before and after implantation with titanium implants and a closing screw based on Ti6Al4V alloy. Two calibration strategies were applied, both were based on matrix matched solid standards with analytes addition. A novel approach was the application of powdered egg white proteins as a matrix material which have a similar composition to the examined tissue. In the another approach, certified reference material Bovine Muscle ERM-BB184 was used. The isotope 34S was found to be the most appropriate as an internal standard since it is homogenously distributed in the examined tissues and resulted in lower relative standard deviation values of signal of analytes of interest. Other isotopes (13C, 26Mg, 43Ca) were also evaluated as potential internal standards. The analytical performance parameters and microwave digestion of solid standards followed by solution nebulization ICP-MS analysis proved that both calibration methods are fit for their intended purpose. The LA-ICP-MS analysis on the surface of tissues after the implantation process revealed an elevated content of elements in comparison to the control group. Analytes are distributed inhomogeneously and display local maximal content of Ti up to ca. 900 μg g- 1, Al up to ca. 760 μg g- 1 and for V up to 160 μg g- 1.

  1. Rare earth elements profile in a cultivated and non-cultivated soil determined by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Neves, Vinicius M; Heidrich, Graciela M; Hanzel, Flavia B; Muller, Edson I; Dressler, Valderi L

    2018-05-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have several applications but the effects on environment are not well known. Therefore, the aim of this work is to establish a method for direct solid sample analysis by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to evaluate the concentration and distribution of REEs in cultivated and non-cultivated soil. Samples were collected in two areas to 40 cm of depth. The LA-ICP-MS method is easy to be implemented and the sample treatment is very fast comprising only its drying, grounding and pressing as a pellet. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by using a certified reference material (BCR 667 - Estuarine Sediment, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM)) where good agreement with the certified values was obtained. Analyte recovery at two levels of concentration (2.5 and 15.0 μg g -1 ) was also performed and recoveries in the range of 85%-120% were achieved, values that are acceptable for LA-ICP-MS analysis. In general, the concentration of the REEs is higher in the cultivated soil and increased from the surface to deeper layers, which can be a consequence of fertilizer application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy conversion and momentum coupling of the sub-kJ laser ablation of aluminum in air atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Koichi; Maruyama, Ryo; Shimamura, Kohei

    2015-08-21

    Energy conversion and momentum coupling using nano-second 1-μm-wavelength pulse laser irradiation on an aluminum target were measured in air and nitrogen gas atmospheres over a wide range of laser pulse energies from sub-J to sub-kJ. From the expansion rate of the shock wave, the blast-wave energy conversion efficiency, η{sub bw}, was deduced as 0.59 ± 0.02 in the air atmosphere at an ambient pressure from 30 to 101 kPa for a constant laser fluence at 115 J/cm{sup 2}. Moreover, the momentum coupling of a circular disk target was formulated uniquely as a function of the dimensionless shock-wave radius and the ratio of the lasermore » spot radius to the disk radius, while η{sub bw} could be approximated as constant for the laser fluence from 4.7 to 4.1 kJ/cm{sup 2}, and the ambient pressure from 0.1 to 101 kPa.« less

  3. Preliminary characterisation of new glass reference materials (GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G) by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm wavelengths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillong, M.; Hametner, K.; Reusser, E.; Wilson, S.A.; Gunther, D.

    2005-01-01

    New glass reference materials GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G have been characterised using a prototype solid state laser ablation system capable of producing wavelengths of 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm. This system allowed comparison of the effects of different laser wavelengths under nearly identical ablation and ICP operating conditions. The wavelengths 213 nm and 266 nm were also used at higher energy densities to evaluate the influence of energy density on quantitative analysis. In addition, the glass reference materials were analysed using commercially available 266 nm Nd:YAG and 193 nm ArF excimer lasers. Laser ablation analysis was carried out using both single spot and scanning mode ablation. Using laser ablation ICP-MS, concentrations of fifty-eight elements were determined with external calibration to the NIST SRM 610 glass reference material. Instead of applying the more common internal standardisation procedure, the total concentration of all element oxide concentrations was normalised to 100%. Major element concentrations were compared with those determined by electron microprobe. In addition to NIST SRM 610 for external calibration, USGS BCR-2G was used as a more closely matrix-matched reference material in order to compare the effect of matrix-matched and non matrix-matched calibration on quantitative analysis. The results show that the various laser wavelengths and energy densities applied produced similar results, with the exception of scanning mode ablation at 266 nm without matrix-matched calibration where deviations up to 60% from the average were found. However, results acquired using a scanning mode with a matrix-matched calibration agreed with results obtained by spot analysis. The increased abundance of large particles produced when using a scanning ablation mode with NIST SRM 610, is responsible for elemental fractionation effects caused by incomplete vaporisation of large particles in the ICP.

  4. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size=30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r(2)=0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative analysis of major and trace elements in NH4HF2-modified silicate rock powders by laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Zhaochu; Liu, Yongsheng; Yang, Wenwu; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong; Xiao, Hongyan

    2017-08-29

    In this paper, we described a NH 4 HF 2 digestion method as sample preparation for the rapid determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Sample powders digested by NH 4 HF 2 at 230 °C for 3 h form ultrafine powders with a typical grain size d 80  < 8.5 μm, and various silicate rocks have a consistent grain morphology and size, allowing us to produce pressed powder pellets that have excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation micro-analysis without the addition of binder. The influences of the digestion parameters were investigated and optimized, including the evaporation stage of removing residual NH 4 HF 2 , sample homogenization, selection of the digestion vessel and calibration strategy of quantitative analysis. The optimized NH 4 HF 2 digestion method was applied to dissolve six silicate rock reference materials (BCR-2, BHVO-2, AGV-2, RGM-2, GSP-2, GSR-1) covering a wide range of rock types. Ten major elements and thirty-five trace elements were simultaneously analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The analytical results of the six reference materials generally agreed with the recommended values, with discrepancies of less than 10% for most elements. The analytical precision is within 5% for most major elements and within 10% for most trace elements. Compared with previous methods of LA-ICP-MS bulk analysis, our method enables the complete dissolution of refractory minerals, such as zircon, in intermediate-acidic intrusive rocks and limits contamination as well as the loss of volatile elements. Moreover, there are many advantages for the new technique, including reducing matrix effects between reference materials and samples, spiking the internal standard simply and feasibly and sample batch processing. The applicability filed of the new technique in this study was focused on the whole-rock analysis of igneous rock samples, which are from basic rocks to acid

  6. Controllable nonlinearity in a dual-coupling optomechanical system under a weak-coupling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Gui-Lei; Lü, Xin-You; Wan, Liang-Liang; Yin, Tai-Shuang; Bin, Qian; Wu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Strong quantum nonlinearity gives rise to many interesting quantum effects and has wide applications in quantum physics. Here we investigate the quantum nonlinear effect of an optomechanical system (OMS) consisting of both linear and quadratic coupling. Interestingly, a controllable optomechanical nonlinearity is obtained by applying a driving laser into the cavity. This controllable optomechanical nonlinearity can be enhanced into a strong coupling regime, even if the system is initially in the weak-coupling regime. Moreover, the system dissipation can be suppressed effectively, which allows the appearance of phonon sideband and photon blockade effects in the weak-coupling regime. This work may inspire the exploration of a dual-coupling optomechanical system as well as its applications in modern quantum science.

  7. Influence of different propellant systems on ablation of EPDM insulators in overload state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yiwen; Li, Jiang; Liu, Yang; Xu, Tuanwei

    2018-04-01

    This study examines the propellants used in full-scale solid rocket motors (SRM) and investigates how insulator ablation is affected by two propellant formulations (A and B) during flight overload conditions. An experimental study, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations were performed to discover the intrinsic causes of insulator ablation rates from the perspective of lab-scaled ground-firing tests, the decoupling of thermochemical ablation, and particle erosion. In addition, the difference in propellant composition, and the insulator charring layer microstructure were analyzed. Results reveal that the degree of insulator ablation is positively correlated with the propellant burn rate, particle velocity, and aggregate concentrations during the condensed phase. A lower ratio of energetic additive material in the AP oxidizer of the propellant is promising for the reduction in particle size and increase in the burn rate and pressure index. However, the overall higher velocity of a two-phase flow causes severe erosion of the insulation material. While the higher ratio of energetic additive to the AP oxidizer imparts a smaller ablation rate to the insulator (under lab-scale test conditions), the slag deposition problem in the combustion chamber may cause catastrophic consequences for future large full-scale SRM flight experiments.

  8. Ablation article and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. D.; Sullivan, E. M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An ablation article, such as a conical heat shield, having an ablating surface is provided with at least one discrete area of at least one seed material, such as aluminum. When subjected to ablation conditions, the seed material is ablated. Radiation emanating from the ablated seed material is detected to analyze ablation effects without disturbing the ablation surface. By providing different seed materials having different radiation characteristics, the ablating effects on various areas of the ablating surface can be analyzed under any prevailing ablation conditions. The ablating article can be provided with means for detecting the radiation characteristics of the ablated seed material to provide a self-contained analysis unit.

  9. Enhanced laser proton acceleration by target ablation on a femtosecond laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Q.; Wu, M. J.; Gong, Z.; Geng, Y. X.; Xu, X. H.; Li, D. Y.; Shou, Y. R.; Zhu, J. G.; Li, C. C.; Yang, M.; Li, T. S.; Lu, H. Y.; Ma, W. J.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Lin, C.; Yan, X. Q.

    2018-06-01

    Proton acceleration during the interaction of an ultraintense (6 × 1019 W/cm2) femtosecond (fs) laser pulse with a thin (2.5 μm) foil target pre-ablated by a picosecond (ps) pulse is experimentally and numerically investigated. Enhancements in both proton cut-off energy and charge are observed with the target ablation due to a large number of energetic electrons generated from the preformed preplasma in front of the target. The enhanced proton beams are successfully collected at 4-9 MeV with ±4% energy spread and then transported to the irradiating platform. The results show that for the interaction between fs laser pulse and μm-thickness target, proton energy and charge can be enhanced by target ablation using a ps laser pulse, which is valuable for application like cancer radiotherapy.

  10. Study of critical defects in ablative heat shield systems for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. C.; Rummel, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for a program conducted to determine the effects of fabrication-induced defects on the performance of an ablative heat shield material. Exposures representing a variety of space shuttle orbiter mission environments-humidity acoustics, hot vacuum and cold vacuum-culuminating in entry heating and transonic acoustics, were simulated on large panels containing intentional defects. Nondestructive methods for detecting the defects, were investigated. The baseline materials were two honeycomb-reinforced low density, silicone ablators, MG-36 and SS-41. Principal manufacturing-induced defects displaying a critical potential included: off-curing of the ablator, extreme low density, undercut (or crushed) honeycomb reinforcements, and poor wet-coating of honeycomb.

  11. Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.

  12. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (CA-TPS) for Venus and Saturn Backshells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Wilder, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Prabhu, Dinesh; Kazemba, Cole D.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the work performed to date on the Conformal Ablative TPS (CA-TPS) element of the TPSM project out of GCDP. Under this element, NASA is developing improved ablative TPS materials based on flexible felt for reinforcement rather than rigid reinforcements. By replacing the reinforcements with felt, the resulting materials have much higher strain-to-failure and are much lower in thermal conductivity than their rigid counterparts. These characteristics should allow for larger tile sizes, direct bonding to aeroshells and even lower weight TPS. The conformal phenolic impregnated carbon felt (C-PICA) is a candidate for backshell TPS for both Venus and Saturn entry vehicles.

  13. Transcervical, intrauterine ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of uterine fibroids with the VizAblate® System: three- and six-month endpoint results from the FAST-EU study.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Marlies; Brölmann, Hans; Gupta, Janesh; Garza-Leal, José Gerardo; Toub, David

    This was a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter, single-arm controlled trial, using independent core laboratory validation of MRI results, to establish the effectiveness and confirm the safety of the VizAblate® System in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. The VizAblate System is a transcervical device that ablates fibroids with radiofrequency energy, guided by a built-in intrauterine ultrasound probe. Fifty consecutive women with symptomatic uterine fibroids received treatment with the VizAblate System. Patients had a minimum Menstrual Pictogram score of 120, no desire for fertility, and met additional inclusion and exclusion criteria. The VizAblate System was inserted transcervically and individual fibroids were ablated with radiofrequency energy. An integrated intrauterine ultrasound probe was used for fibroid imaging and targeting. Anesthesia was at the discretion of each investigator. The primary study endpoint was the percentage change in perfused fibroid volume, as assessed by contrast-enhanced MRI at 3 months. Secondary endpoints, reached at 6 months, included safety, percentage reductions in the Menstrual Pictogram (MP) score and the Symptom Severity Score (SSS) subscale of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom-Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL), along with the rate of surgical reintervention for abnormal uterine bleeding and the mean number of days to return to normal activity. Additional assessments included the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) subscale of the UFS-QOL, medical reintervention for abnormal uterine bleeding, and procedure times. Fifty patients were treated, representing 92 fibroids. Perfused fibroid volumes were reduced at 3 months by an average of 68.8 ± 27.8 % ( P  < 0.0001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). At 6 months, mean MP and SSS scores decreased by 60.8 ± 38.2 and 59.7 ± 30.4 %, respectively; the mean HRQOL score increased by 263 ± 468 %. There were two serious adverse events (overnight

  14. Multi-disciplinary coupling for integrated design of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effective computational simulation procedures are described for modeling the inherent multi-disciplinary interactions for determining the true response of propulsion systems. Results are presented for propulsion system responses including multi-discipline coupling effects via (1) coupled multi-discipline tailoring, (2) an integrated system of multidisciplinary simulators, (3) coupled material-behavior/fabrication-process tailoring, (4) sensitivities using a probabilistic simulator, and (5) coupled materials/structures/fracture/probabilistic behavior simulator. The results show that the best designs can be determined if the analysis/tailoring methods account for the multi-disciplinary coupling effects. The coupling across disciplines can be used to develop an integrated interactive multi-discipline numerical propulsion system simulator.

  15. A fjord-glacier coupled system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrés, Eva; Otero, Jaime; Navarro, Francisco; Prominska, Agnieszka; Lapazaran, Javier; Walczowski, Waldemar

    2017-04-01

    With the aim of studying the processes occurring at the front of marine-terminating glaciers, we couple a fjord circulation model with a flowline glacier dynamics model, with subglacial discharge and calving, which allows the calculation of submarine melt and its influence on calving processes. For ocean modelling, we use a general circulation model, MITgcm, to simulate water circulation driven by both fjord conditions and subglacial discharge, and for calculating submarine melt rates at the glacier front. To constrain freshwater input to the fjord, we use estimations from European Arctic Reanalysis (EAR). To determine the optimal values for each run period, we perform a sensitivity analysis of the model to subglacial discharge variability, aimed to get the best fit of model results to observed temperature and salinity profiles in the fjord for each of these periods. Then, we establish initial and boundary fjord conditions, which we vary weekly-fortnightly, and calculate the submarine melt rate as a function of depth at the calving front. These data are entered into the glacier-flow model, Elmer/Ice, which has been added a crevasse-depth calving model, to estimate the glacier terminus position at a weekly time resolution. We focus our study on the Hansbreen Glacier-Hansbukta Fjord system, in Southern Spitsbergen, Svalbard, where a large set of data are available for both glacier and fjord. The bathymetry of the entire system has been determined from ground penetrating radar and sonar data. In the fjord we have got temperature and salinity data from CTDs (May to September, 2010-2014) and from a mooring (September to May, 2011-2012). For Hansbreen, we use glacier surface topography data from the SPIRIT DEM, surface mass balance from EAR, centre line glacier velocities from stake measurements (May 2005-April 2011), weekly terminus positions from time-lapse photos (Sept. 2009-Sept. 2011), and sea-ice concentrations from time-lapse photos and Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM

  16. Dynamic Coupling Between Respiratory and Cardiovascular System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censi, Federica; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Cerutti, Sergio

    The analysis of non-linear dynamics of the coupling among interacting quantities can be very useful for understanding the cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular control mechanisms. In this chapter RP is used to detect and quantify the degree of non-linear coupling between respiration and spontaneous rhythms of both heart rate and blood pressure variability signals. RQA turned out to be suitable for a quantitative evaluation of the observed coupling patterns among rhythms, both in simulated and real data, providing different degrees of coupling. The results from the simulated data showed that the increased degree of coupling between the signals was marked by the increase of PR and PD, and by the decrease of ER. When the RQA was applied to experimental data, PD and ER turned out to be the most significant variables, compared to PR. A remarkable finding is the detection of transient 1:2 PL episodes between respiration and cardiovascular variability signals. This phenomenon can be associated to a sub-harmonic synchronization between the two main rhythms of HR and BP variability series.

  17. Spin Pumping in Electrodynamically Coupled Magnon-Photon Systems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lihui; Harder, M; Chen, Y P; Fan, X; Xiao, J Q; Hu, C-M

    2015-06-05

    We use electrical detection, in combination with microwave transmission, to investigate both resonant and nonresonant magnon-photon coupling at room temperature. Spin pumping in a dynamically coupled magnon-photon system is found to be distinctly different from previous experiments. Characteristic coupling features such as modes anticrossing, linewidth evolution, peculiar line shape, and resonance broadening are systematically measured and consistently analyzed by a theoretical model set on the foundation of classical electrodynamic coupling. Our experimental and theoretical approach paves the way for pursuing microwave coherent manipulation of pure spin current via the combination of spin pumping and magnon-photon coupling.

  18. The potential of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS) in the forensic analysis of micro debris.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Cameron J; Watling, R John; Thomas, Allen G

    2005-08-15

    The majority of crimes result in the generation of some form of physical evidence, which is available for collection by crime scene investigators or police. However, this debris is often limited in amount as modern criminals become more aware of its potential value to forensic scientists. The requirement to obtain robust evidence from increasingly smaller sized samples has required refinement and modification of old analytical techniques and the development of new ones. This paper describes a new method for the analysis of oxy-acetylene debris, left behind at a crime scene, and the establishment of its co-provenance with single particles of equivalent debris found on the clothing of persons of interest (POI). The ability to rapidly determine and match the elemental distribution patterns of debris collected from crime scenes to those recovered from persons of interest is essential in ensuring successful prosecution. Traditionally, relatively large amounts of sample (up to several milligrams) have been required to obtain a reliable elemental fingerprint of this type of material [R.J. Walting , B.F. Lynch, D. Herring, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12 (1997) 195]. However, this quantity of material is unlikely to be recovered from a POI. This paper describes the development and application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS), as an analytical protocol, which can be applied more appropriately to the analysis of micro-debris than conventional quadrupole based mass spectrometry. The resulting data, for debris as small as 70mum in diameter, was unambiguously matched between a single spherule recovered from a POI and a spherule recovered from the scene of crime, in an analytical procedure taking less than 5min.

  19. Raptor ablation in skeletal muscle decreases Cav1.1 expression and affects the function of the excitation–contraction coupling supramolecular complex

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Rubén J.; Mosca, Barbara; Treves, Susan; Maj, Marcin; Bergamelli, Leda; Calderon, Juan C.; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Romanino, Klaas; Hall, Michael N.; Rüegg, Markus A.; Delbono, Osvaldo; Caputo, Carlo; Zorzato, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The protein mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase regulating a number of biochemical pathways controlling cell growth. mTOR exists in two complexes termed mTORC1 and mTORC2. Regulatory associated protein of mTOR (raptor) is associated with mTORC1 and is essential for its function. Ablation of raptor in skeletal muscle results in several phenotypic changes including decreased life expectancy, increased glycogen deposits and alterations of the twitch kinetics of slow fibres. In the present paper, we show that in muscle-specific raptor knockout (RamKO), the bulk of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is mainly associated in its cAMP-non-stimulated form with sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. In addition, 3[H]–ryanodine and 3[H]–PN200-110 equilibrium binding show a ryanodine to dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) ratio of 0.79 and 1.35 for wild-type (WT) and raptor KO skeletal muscle membranes respectively. Peak amplitude and time to peak of the global calcium transients evoked by supramaximal field stimulation were not different between WT and raptor KO. However, the increase in the voltage sensor-uncoupled RyRs leads to an increase of both frequency and mass of elementary calcium release events (ECRE) induced by hyper-osmotic shock in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibres from raptor KO. The present study shows that the protein composition and function of the molecular machinery involved in skeletal muscle excitation–contraction (E–C) coupling is affected by mTORC1 signalling. PMID:25431931

  20. TERMITE: An R script for fast reduction of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry data and its application to trace element measurements.

    PubMed

    Mischel, Simon A; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Scholz, Denis

    2017-07-15

    High spatial resolution Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) determination of trace element concentrations is of great interest for geological and environmental studies. Data reduction is a very important aspect of LA-ICP-MS, and several commercial programs for handling LA-ICPMS trace element data are available. Each of these software packages has its specific advantages and disadvantages. Here we present TERMITE, an R script for the reduction of LA-ICPMS data, which can reduce both spot and line scan measurements. Several parameters can be adjusted by the user, who does not necessarily need prior knowledge in R. Currently, ten reference materials with different matrices for calibration of LA-ICPMS data are implemented, and additional reference materials can be added by the user. TERMITE also provides an optional outlier test, and the results are provided graphically (as a pdf file) as well as numerically (as a csv file). As an example, we apply TERMITE to a speleothem sample and compare the results with those obtained using the commercial software GLITTER. The two programs give similar results. TERMITE is particularly useful for samples that are homogeneous with respect to their major element composition (in particular for the element used as an internal standard) and when many measurements are performed using the same analytical parameters. In this case, data evaluation using TERMITE is much faster than with all other available software, and the concentrations of more than 100 single spot measurements can be calculated in less than a minute. TERMITE is an open-source software for the reduction of LA-ICPMS data, which is particularly useful for the fast, reproducible evaluation of large datasets of samples that are homogeneous with respect to their major element composition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Trace metal analysis by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry and x-ray K-edge densitometry of forensic samples

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonna Elizabeth

    This dissertation describes a variety of studies on the determination of trace elements in samples with forensic importance. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine the trace element composition of numerous lipstick samples. Lipstick samples were determined to be homogeneous. Most lipstick samples of similar colors were readily distinguishable at a 95% confidence interval based on trace element composition. Numerous strands of a multi-strand speaker cable were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The strands in this study are spatially heterogeneous in trace element composition. In actual forensic applications, the possibility of spatial heterogeneity must be considered, especially in casesmore » where only small samples (e.g., copper wire fragments after an explosion) are available. The effects of many unpredictable variables, such as weather, temperature, and human activity, on the retention of gunshot residue (GSR) around projectile wounds were assessed with LAICP- MS. Skin samples around gunshot and stab wounds and larvae feeding in and around the wounds on decomposing pig carcasses were analyzed for elements consistent with GSR (Sb, Pb, Ba, and Cu). These elements were detected at higher levels in skin and larvae samples around the gunshot wounds compared to the stab wounds for an extended period of time throughout decomposition in both a winter and summer study. After decomposition, radiographic images of the pig bones containing possible damage from bullets revealed metallic particles embedded within a number of bones. Metallic particles within the bones were analyzed with x-ray, K-edge densitometry and determined to contain lead, indicating that bullet residue can be retained throughout decomposition and detected within bones containing projectile trauma.« less

  2. Investigating the influence of standard staining procedures on the copper distribution and concentration in Wilson's disease liver samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hachmöller, Oliver; Aichler, Michaela; Schwamborn, Kristina; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Sperling, Michael; Walch, Axel; Karst, Uwe

    2017-12-01

    The influence of rhodanine and haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining on the copper distribution and concentration in liver needle biopsy samples originating from patients with Wilson's disease (WD), a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder of the copper metabolism, is investigated. In contemporary diagnostic of WD, rhodanine staining is used for histopathology, since rhodanine and copper are forming a red to orange-red complex, which can be recognized in the liver tissue using a microscope. In this paper, a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method is applied for the analysis of eight different WD liver samples. Apart from a spatially resolved elemental detection as qualitative information, this LA-ICP-MS method offers also quantitative information by external calibration with matrix-matched gelatine standards. The sample set of this work included an unstained and a rhodanine stained section of each WD liver sample. While unstained sections of WD liver samples showed very distinct structures of the copper distribution with high copper concentrations, rhodanine stained sections revealed a blurred copper distribution with significant decreased concentrations in a range from 20 to more than 90%. This implies a copper removal from the liver tissue by complexation during the rhodanine staining. In contrast to this, a further HE stained sample of one WD liver sample did not show a significant decrease in the copper concentration and influence on the copper distribution in comparison to the unstained section. Therefore, HE staining can be combined with the analysis by means of LA-ICP-MS in two successive steps from one thin section of a biopsy specimen. This allows further information to be gained on the elemental distribution by LA-ICP-MS additional to results obtained by histological staining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Fusion Bead Procedure for Nuclear Forensics Employing Synthetic Enstatite to Dissolve Uraniferous and Other Challenging Materials Prior to Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reading, David G; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E

    2017-06-06

    There is an increasing demand for rapid and effective analytical tools to support nuclear forensic investigations of seized or suspect materials. Some methods are simply adapted from other scientific disciplines and can effectively be used to rapidly prepare complex materials for subsequent analysis. A novel sample fusion method is developed, tested, and validated to produce homogeneous, flux-free glass beads of geochemical reference materials (GRMs), uranium ores, and uranium ore concentrates (UOC) prior to the analysis of 14 rare earth elements (REE) via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The novelty of the procedure is the production of glass beads using 9 parts high purity synthetic enstatite (MgSiO 3 ) as the glass former with 1 part of sample (sample mass ∼1.5 mg). The beads are rapidly prepared (∼10 min overall time) by fusing the blended mixture on an iridium strip resistance heater in an argon-purged chamber. Many elements can be measured in the glass bead, but the rare earth group in particular is a valuable series in nuclear forensic studies and is well-determined using LA-ICP-MS. The REE data obtained from the GRMs, presented as chondrite normalized patterns, are in very good agreement with consensus patterns. The UOCs have comparable patterns to solution ICP-MS methods and published data. The attractions of the current development are its conservation of sample, speed of preparation, and suitability for microbeam analysis, all of which are favorable for nuclear forensics practitioners and geochemists requiring REE patterns from scarce or valuable samples.

  4. Skeletal Muscle-specific G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Ablation Alters Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mechanics and Enhances Clenbuterol-stimulated Hypertrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Woodall, Benjamin P.; Woodall, Meryl C.; Luongo, Timothy S.; Grisanti, Laurel A.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Elrod, John W.; Koch, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    GRK2, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, plays a critical role in cardiac physiology. Adrenergic receptors are the primary target for GRK2 activity in the heart; phosphorylation by GRK2 leads to desensitization of these receptors. As such, levels of GRK2 activity in the heart directly correlate with cardiac contractile function. Furthermore, increased expression of GRK2 after cardiac insult exacerbates injury and speeds progression to heart failure. Despite the importance of this kinase in both the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart, relatively little is known about the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle function and disease. In this study we generated a novel skeletal muscle-specific GRK2 knock-out (KO) mouse (MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl) to gain a better understanding of the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology. In isolated muscle mechanics testing, GRK2 ablation caused a significant decrease in the specific force of contraction of the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle yet had no effect on the slow-twitch soleus muscle. Despite these effects in isolated muscle, exercise capacity was not altered in MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl mice compared with wild-type controls. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy stimulated by clenbuterol, a β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist, was significantly enhanced in MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl mice; mechanistically, this seems to be due to increased clenbuterol-stimulated pro-hypertrophic Akt signaling in the GRK2 KO skeletal muscle. In summary, our study provides the first insights into the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology and points to a role for GRK2 as a modulator of contractile properties in skeletal muscle as well as β2AR-induced hypertrophy. PMID:27566547

  5. Skeletal Muscle-specific G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Ablation Alters Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mechanics and Enhances Clenbuterol-stimulated Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Woodall, Benjamin P; Woodall, Meryl C; Luongo, Timothy S; Grisanti, Laurel A; Tilley, Douglas G; Elrod, John W; Koch, Walter J

    2016-10-14

    GRK2, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, plays a critical role in cardiac physiology. Adrenergic receptors are the primary target for GRK2 activity in the heart; phosphorylation by GRK2 leads to desensitization of these receptors. As such, levels of GRK2 activity in the heart directly correlate with cardiac contractile function. Furthermore, increased expression of GRK2 after cardiac insult exacerbates injury and speeds progression to heart failure. Despite the importance of this kinase in both the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart, relatively little is known about the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle function and disease. In this study we generated a novel skeletal muscle-specific GRK2 knock-out (KO) mouse (MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl ) to gain a better understanding of the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology. In isolated muscle mechanics testing, GRK2 ablation caused a significant decrease in the specific force of contraction of the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle yet had no effect on the slow-twitch soleus muscle. Despite these effects in isolated muscle, exercise capacity was not altered in MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl mice compared with wild-type controls. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy stimulated by clenbuterol, a β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) agonist, was significantly enhanced in MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl mice; mechanistically, this seems to be due to increased clenbuterol-stimulated pro-hypertrophic Akt signaling in the GRK2 KO skeletal muscle. In summary, our study provides the first insights into the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology and points to a role for GRK2 as a modulator of contractile properties in skeletal muscle as well as β 2 AR-induced hypertrophy. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Solid matrix transformation and tracer addition using molten ammonium bifluoride salt as a sample preparation method for laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grate, Jay W; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; O'Hara, Matthew J; Kellogg, Cynthia M; Morrison, Samuel S; Koppenaal, David W; Chan, George C-Y; Mao, Xianglei; Zorba, Vassilia; Russo, Richard E

    2017-09-08

    Solid sampling and analysis methods, such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), are challenged by matrix effects and calibration difficulties. Matrix-matched standards for external calibration are seldom available and it is difficult to distribute spikes evenly into a solid matrix as internal standards. While isotopic ratios of the same element can be measured to high precision, matrix-dependent effects in the sampling and analysis process frustrate accurate quantification and elemental ratio determinations. Here we introduce a potentially general solid matrix transformation approach entailing chemical reactions in molten ammonium bifluoride (ABF) salt that enables the introduction of spikes as tracers or internal standards. Proof of principle experiments show that the decomposition of uranium ore in sealed PFA fluoropolymer vials at 230 °C yields, after cooling, new solids suitable for direct solid sampling by LA. When spikes are included in the molten salt reaction, subsequent LA-ICP-MS sampling at several spots indicate that the spikes are evenly distributed, and that U-235 tracer dramatically improves reproducibility in U-238 analysis. Precisions improved from 17% relative standard deviation for U-238 signals to 0.1% for the ratio of sample U-238 to spiked U-235, a factor of over two orders of magnitude. These results introduce the concept of solid matrix transformation (SMT) using ABF, and provide proof of principle for a new method of incorporating internal standards into a solid for LA-ICP-MS. This new approach, SMT-LA-ICP-MS, provides opportunities to improve calibration and quantification in solids based analysis. Looking forward, tracer addition to transformed solids opens up LA-based methods to analytical methodologies such as standard addition, isotope dilution, preparation of matrix-matched solid standards, external calibration, and monitoring instrument drift against external calibration standards.

  7. Early detection of lung cancer recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy: radiomics system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammak, Salma; Palma, David; Mattonen, Sarah; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2018-02-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is the standard treatment recommendation for Stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who are inoperable or who refuse surgery. This option is well tolerated by even unfit patients and has a low recurrence risk post-treatment. However, SABR induces changes in the lung parenchyma that can appear similar to those of recurrence, and the difference between the two at an early follow-up time point is not easily distinguishable for an expert physician. We hypothesized that a radiomics signature derived from standard-of-care computed tomography (CT) imaging can detect cancer recurrence within six months of SABR treatment. This study reports on the design phase of our work, with external validation planned in future work. In this study, we performed cross-validation experiments with four feature selection approaches and seven classifiers on an 81-patient data set. We extracted 104 radiomics features from the consolidative and the peri-consolidative regions on the follow-up CT scans. The best results were achieved using the sum of estimated Mahalanobis distances (Maha) for supervised forward feature selection and a trainable automatic radial basis support vector classifier (RBSVC). This system produced an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.84, an error rate of 16.4%, a false negative rate of 12.7%, and a false positive rate of 20.0% for leaveone patient out cross-validation. This suggests that once validated on an external data set, radiomics could reliably detect post-SABR recurrence and form the basis of a tool assisting physicians in making salvage treatment decisions.

  8. Fetal laser ablation of feeding artery of cystic lung lesions with systemic arterial blood supply.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Martinez, R; Martínez-Rodríguez, M; Bermúdez-Rojas, M; Magaña-Abarca, C; Narvaez-Dominguez, V; Rojas-Macedo, A; Bautista-García, N; Alcocer-Alcocer, M

    2017-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness of laser surgery in fetuses with a cystic lung lesion with systemic arterial blood supply (hybrid lung lesion) at risk of perinatal death. A cohort of five consecutive fetuses with a large hybrid lung lesion associated with hydrops and/or pleural effusion with severe lung compression was selected for percutaneous ultrasound-guided fetal laser ablation of the feeding artery (FLAFA) before 32 weeks' gestation in a single tertiary national referral center in Queretaro, Mexico. The primary outcomes were survival and need for postnatal surgery. FLAFA was performed successfully in all cases at a median gestational age of 24.9 (range, 24.4-31.7) weeks. After fetal intervention, dimensions in both lungs increased and fluid effusions resolved in all cases. All cases were delivered liveborn at term at a median gestational age of 39.6 (range, 38.0-39.7) weeks, without respiratory morbidity or need for oxygen support, resulting in perinatal survival of 100%. During follow-up, three (60%) cases showed progressive regression of the entire lung mass and did not require postnatal surgery, whereas in two (40%) cases a progressive decrease in size of the mass was observed but a cystic portion of the lung mass persisted and postnatal lobectomy was required. In fetuses with large hybrid lung lesions at risk of perinatal death, FLAFA is feasible and could improve survival and decrease the need for postnatal surgery. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Surprises of the Transformer as a Coupled Oscillator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J. P.; Silvestre, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    We study a system of two RLC oscillators coupled through a variable mutual inductance. The system is interesting because it exhibits some peculiar features of coupled oscillators: (i) there are two natural frequencies; (ii) in general, the resonant frequencies do not coincide with the natural frequencies; (iii) the resonant frequencies of both…

  10. Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) as Thermal Protection Systems for Discovery Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K.; Johnson, Christine E.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Hui, Frank C. L.; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Chen, Timothy; Chen, Y. K.; Paragas, Daniel; Kobayashi, Loreen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the light weight Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) and its thermal performance in a simulated heating environment for planetary entry vehicles. The PICA material was developed as a member of the Light Weight Ceramic Ablators (LCA's), and the manufacturing process of this material has since been significantly improved. The density of PICA material ranges from 14 to 20 lbm/ft(exp 3), having uniform resin distribution with and without a densified top surface. The thermal performance of PICA was evaluated in the Ames arc-jet facility at cold wall heat fluxes from 375 to 2,960 BtU/ft(exp 2)-s and surface pressures of 0.1 to 0.43 atm. Heat loads used in these tests varied from 5,500 to 29,600 BtU/ft(exp 2) and are representative of the entry conditions of the proposed Discovery Class Missions. Surface and in-depth temperatures were measured using optical pyrometers and thermocouples. Surface recession was also measured by using a template and a height gage. The ablation characteristics and efficiency of PICA are quantified by using the effective heat of ablation, and the thermal penetration response is evaluated from the thermal soak data. In addition, a comparison of thermal performance of standard and surface densified PICA is also discussed.

  11. Update on Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R. A. S.; Arnold, J. O.; Gasch, M. J.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2014-06-01

    In FY13, more advanced testing and modeling of the new NASA conformal ablative TPS material was performed. Most notable were the 3- and 4-point bending tests and the aerothermal testing on seams and joints in shear. The material outperformed PICA.

  12. Comparison of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, hysterectomy, and endometrial ablation for heavy menstrual bleeding in a decision analysis model.

    PubMed

    Louie, Michelle; Spencer, Jennifer; Wheeler, Stephanie; Ellis, Victoria; Toubia, Tarek; Schiff, Lauren D; Siedhoff, Matthew T; Moulder, Janelle K

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the relative risks and benefits of common treatment options for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) can help providers and patients to make balanced, evidence-based decisions. To provide comparative estimates of clinical outcomes after placement of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), ablation, or hysterectomy for AUB. A PubMED search was done using combinations of search terms related to abnormal uterine bleeding, LNG-IUS, hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness, and quality-adjusted life years. Full articles published in 2006-2016 available in English comparing at least two treatment modalities of interest among women of reproductive age with AUB were included. A decision tree was generated to compare clinical outcomes in a hypothetical cohort of 100 000 premenopausal women with nonmalignant AUB. We evaluated complications, mortality, and treatment outcomes over a 5-year period, calculated cumulative quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and conducted probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system had the highest number of QALYs (406 920), followed by hysterectomy (403 466), non-resectoscopic ablation (399 244), and resectoscopic ablation (395 827). Ablation had more treatment failures and complications than LNG-IUS and hysterectomy. Findings were robust in probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and hysterectomy outperformed endometrial ablation for treatment of AUB. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  13. Thermal ablation of a confluent lesion in the porcine kidney with a clinically available MR-HIFU system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breugel, J. M. M.; de Greef, M.; Wijlemans, J. W.; Schubert, G.; van den Bosch, M. A. A. J.; Moonen, C. T. W.; Ries, M. G.

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of small renal masses (SRMs) sized  <4 cm has increased over the decades (as co-findings/or due to introduction of cross sectional imaging). Currently, partial nephrectomy (PN) or watchful waiting is advised in these patients. Ultimately, 80-90% of these SRMs require surgical treatment and PN is associated with a 15% complication rate. In this aging population, with possible comorbidities and poor health condition, both PN and watchful waiting are non-ideal treatment options. This resulted in an increased need for early, non-invasive treatment strategies such as MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU). (i) To investigate the feasibility of creating a confluent lesion in the kidney using respiratory-gated MR-HIFU under clinical conditions in a pre-clinical study and (ii) to evaluate the reproducibility of the MR-HIFU ablation strategy. Healthy pigs (n  =  10) under general anesthesia were positioned on a clinical MR-HIFU system with integrated cooling. A honeycomb pattern of seven overlapping ablation cells (4  ×  4  ×  10 mm3, 450 W, <30 s) was ablated successively in the cortex of the porcine kidney. Both MR thermometry and acoustic energy delivery were respiratory gated using a pencil beam navigator on the contralateral kidney. The non-perfused volume (NPV) was visualized after the last sonication by contrast-enhanced (CE) T 1-weighted MR (T 1 w) imaging. Cell viability staining was performed to visualize the extent of necrosis. Results: a median NPV of 0.62 ml was observed on CE-T 1 w images (IQR 0.58-1.57 ml, range 0.33-2.75 ml). Cell viability staining showed a median damaged volume of 0.59 ml (IQR 0.24-1.35 ml, range 0-4.1 ml). Overlooking of the false rib, shivering of the pig, and too large depth combined with a large heat-sink effect resulted in insufficient heating in 4 cases. The NPV and necrosed volume were confluent in all cases in which an ablated volume could be observed. Our

  14. Micro-fractional ablative skin resurfacing with two novel erbium laser systems.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, Christine C; Khatri, Khalil A; Tannous, Zeina S; Childs, James J; Cohen, Richard H; Erofeev, Andrei; Tabatadze, David; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V; Altshuler, Gregory B

    2008-02-01

    Fractional ablation offers the potential benefits of full-surface ablative skin resurfacing while minimizing adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, damage profile, and efficacy of erbium fractional lasers. Histology from animal and human skin as well as clinical evaluations were conducted with erbium YAG (2,940 nm) and erbium YSGG (2,790 nm) fractional lasers varying pulse width, microbeam (microb) energy, number of passes, and stacking of pulses. Single-pulse treatment parameters from 1 to 12 mJ per 50-70 microm diameter microbeam and 0.25-5 milliseconds pulse widths produced microcolumns of ablation with border coagulation of up to 100 microm width and 450 microm depth. Stacking of pulses generated deeper microcolumns. Clinical observations and in vivo histology demonstrate rapid re-epithelization and limited adverse side effects. Facial treatments were performed in the periorbital and perioral areas using 1-8 passes of single and stacked pulses. Treatments were well-tolerated and subjects could resume their normal routine in 4 days. A statistically significant reduction in wrinkle scores at 3 months was observed for both periorbital and perioral wrinkles using blinded grading. For periorbital treatments of four passes or more, over 90% had > or =1 score wrinkle reduction (0-9 scale) and 42% had > or =2. For perioral wrinkles, over 50% had substantial improvements (> or =2). The clinical observations and histology findings demonstrate that micro-fractional ablative treatment with 2,790 and 2,940 nm erbium lasers resulted in safe and effective wrinkle reduction with minimal patient downtime. The depth and width of the ablated microcolumns and varying extent of surrounding coagulation can be controlled and used to design new treatment procedures targeted for specific indications and areas such as moderate to severe rhytides and photodamaged skin.

  15. Tightly Coupled Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System (TCMIG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Jackson, Kurt (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many NASA applications planned for execution later this decade are seeking high performance, miniaturized, low power Inertial Management Units (IMU). Much research has gone into Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) over the past decade as a solution to these needs. While MEMS devices have proven to provide high accuracy acceleration measurements, they have not yet proven to have the accuracy required by many NASA missions in rotational measurements. Therefore, a new solution has been formulated integrating the best of all IMU technologies to address these mid-term needs in the form of a Tightly Coupled Micro Inertial Navigation System (INS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) (TCMIG). The TCMIG consists of an INS and a GPS tightly coupled by a Kalman filter executing on an embedded Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processor. The INS consists of a highly integrated Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyroscope (IFOG) and a MEMS accelerometer. The IFOG utilizes a tightly wound fiber coil to reduce volume and the high level of integration and advanced optical components to reduce power. The MEMS accelerometer utilizes a newly developed deep etch process to increase the proof mass and yield a highly accurate accelerometer. The GPS receiver consists of a low power miniaturized version of the Blackjack receiver. Such an IMU configuration is ideal to meet the mid-term needs of the NASA Science Enterprises and the new launch vehicles being developed for the Space Launch Initiative (SLI).

  16. Coupled dynamic systems and Le Chatelier's principle in noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidanik, G.; Becker, K. J.

    2004-05-01

    Investigation of coupling an externally driven dynamic system-a master dynamic system-to a passive one-an adjunct dynamic system-reveals that the response of the adjunct dynamic system affects the precoupled response of the master dynamic system. The responses, in the two dynamic systems when coupled, are estimated by the stored energies (Es) and (E0), respectively. Since the adjunct dynamic system, prior to coupling, was with zero (0) stored energy, E0s=0, the precoupled stored energy (E00) in the master dynamic system is expected to be reduced to (E0) when coupling is instituted; i.e., one expects E0system would result from the coupling. It is argued that the change in the disposition of the stored energies as just described may not be the only change. The coupling may influence the external input power into the master dynamic system which may interfere with the expected noise control. Indeed, the coupling may influence the external input power such that the expected beneficial noise control may not materialize. Examples of these kinds of noise control reversals are cited.

  17. Radiatively coupled thermionic and thermoelectric power system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Ewell, R.

    1981-01-01

    The study presented showed that the large power systems (about 100 kW) utilizing radiatively coupled thermionic or thermoelectric converters could be designed so that the power subsystem could be contained in a Space Shuttle bay as a part of an electrically propelled spacecraft. The radiatively coupled system requires a large number of individual converters since the transferred heat is smaller than with the conductively coupled system, but the advantages of the new system indicates merit for further study. The advantages are (1) good electrical isolation between converters and the heat source, (2) physical separation of converters from the heat source (making the system fabrication manageable), and (3) elimination of radiator heat pipes, which are required in an all-heat-pipe power system. In addition, the specific weight of the radiatively coupled power systems favorably compares with that of the all-heat-pipe systems.

  18. Coupled Human-Atmosphere-System Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmale, Julia; Chabay, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    minimize atmospheric release, but rather only complies with either climate or air quality requirements. Nor do current narratives promote behavioral change for the overall reduction of emissions (e.g., you can drive your diesel SUV as long as it has a low fuel consumption). This divide and thinking has not only been manifested in policy and regulations and hence media coverage, but has also shaped the public's general perception of this issue. There is no public conceptual understanding regarding humanity's modification of the atmosphere through the continuously and simultaneously released substances by almost any kind of activity and resulting impacts. Here, we propose a conceptual framework that provides a new perspective on the coupled human-atmosphere-system. It makes tangible the inherent linkages between the socio-economic system, the atmospheric physico-chemical changes and impacts, and legal frameworks for sustainable transformations at all levels. To implement HAS-thinking in decision and policy making, both salient disciplinary and interdisciplinary research and comprehensive science-society interactions in the form of transdisciplinary research are necessary. Societal transformations for the sake of a healthy human-atmosphere relationship are highly context dependent and require discussions of normative and value-related issues, which can only be solved through co-designed solutions. We demonstrate the importance of HAS-thinking by examples of sustainable development in the Arctic and Himalayan countries.

  19. Improving the ablation efficiency of excimer laser systems with higher repetition rates through enhanced debris removal and optimized spot pattern.

    PubMed

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Klinner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the reasons for the required increased radiant exposure for higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers and determine experimentally possible compensations to achieve equivalent ablation profiles maintaining the same single-pulse energies and radiant exposures for laser repetition rates ranging from 430 to 1000 Hz. Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The pulse laser energy was maintained during all experiments; the effects of the flow of the debris removal, the shot pattern for the correction, and precooling the PMMA plates were evaluated in terms of achieved ablation versus repetition rate. The mean ablation performance ranged from 88% to 100%; the variability between the profile measurements ranged from 1.4% to 6.2%. Increasing the laser repetition rate from 430 Hz to 1000 Hz reduced the mean ablation performance from 98% to 91% and worsened the variability from 1.9% to 4.3%. Increasing the flow of the debris removal, precooling the PMMA plates to -18°C, and adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the variability. Only adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the mean ablation performance. The ablation performance of higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers on PMMA improved with improvements in the debris removal systems and shot pattern. More powerful debris removal systems and smart shot patterns in terms of thermal response improved the performance of these excimer lasers. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum Phase Transitions in Cavity Coupled Dot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasisomayajula, Vijay; Russo, Onofrio

    2011-03-01

    We investigate a Quantum Dot System, in which the transconductance, in part, is due to spin coupling, with each dot subjected to a biasing voltage. When this system is housed in a QED cavity, the cavity dot coupling alters the spin coupling of the coupled dots significantly via the Purcell Effect. In this paper we show the extent to which one can control the various coupling parameters: the inter dot coupling, the individual dots coupling with the cavity and the coupled dots coupling with the cavity as a single entity. We show that the dots coupled to each other and to the cavity, the spin transport can be controlled selectively. We derive the conditions for such control explicitly. Further, we discuss the Quantum phase transition effects due to the charge and spin transport through the dots. The electron transport through the dots, electron-electron spin interaction and the electron-photon interaction are treated using the Non-equilibrium Green's Function Formalism. http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Trif_Mircea (Trif Mircea), http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Golovach_Vitaly_N (Vitaly N. Golovach), and http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Loss_Daniel (Daniel Loss), Phys. Rev. B 75, 085307 (2007)

  1. Synchronization of hyperexcitable systems with phase-repulsive coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázsi, Gábor; Cornell-Bell, Ann; Neiman, Alexander B.; Moss, Frank

    2001-10-01

    We study two-dimensional arrays of FitzHugh-Nagumo elements with nearest-neighbor coupling from the viewpoint of synchronization. The elements are diffusively coupled. By varying the diffusion coefficient from positive to negative values, interesting synchronization patterns are observed. The results of the simulations resemble the intracellular oscillation patterns observed in cultured human epileptic astrocytes. Three measures are proposed to determine the degree of synchronization (or coupling) in both the simulated and the experimental system.

  2. Visually Coupled Systems (VCS): The Virtual Panoramic Display (VPD) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocian, Dean F.

    1992-01-01

    The development and impact is described of new visually coupled system (VCS) equipment designed to support engineering and human factors research in the military aircraft cockpit environment. VCS represents an advanced man-machine interface (MMI). Its potential to improve aircrew situational awareness seems enormous, but its superiority over the conventional cockpit MMI has not been established in a conclusive and rigorous fashion. What has been missing is a 'systems' approach to technology advancement that is comprehensive enough to produce conclusive results concerning the operational viability of the VCS concept and verify any risk factors that might be involved with its general use in the cockpit. The advanced VCS configuration described here, was ruggedized for use in military aircraft environments and was dubbed the Virtual Panoramic Display (VPD). It was designed to answer the VCS portion of the systems problem, and is implemented as a modular system whose performance can be tailored to specific application requirements. The overall system concept and the design of the two most important electronic subsystems that support the helmet mounted parts, a new militarized version of the magnetic helmet mounted sight and correspondingly similar helmet display electronics, are discussed in detail. Significant emphasis is given to illustrating how particular design features in the hardware improve overall system performance and support research activities.

  3. Radiographic Local Tumor Control and Pain Palliation of Sarcoma Metastases within the Musculoskeletal System with Percutaneous Thermal Ablation.

    PubMed

    Vaswani, Devin; Wallace, Adam N; Eiswirth, Preston S; Madaelil, Thomas P; Chang, Randy O; Tomasian, Anderanik; Jennings, Jack W

    2018-03-14

    To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation in achieving local tumor control and pain palliation of sarcoma metastases within the musculoskeletal system. Retrospective review of 64 sarcoma metastases within the musculoskeletal system in 26 women and 15 men (total = 41) treated with ablation between December 2011 and August 2016 was performed. Mean age of the cohort was 42.9 years ± 16.0 years. Two subgroups were treated: oligometastatic disease (n = 13) and widely metastatic disease (n = 51). A variety of sarcoma histologies were treated with average tumor volume of 42.5 cm 3 (range 0.1-484.7 cm 3 ). Pain scores were recorded before and 4 weeks after therapy for 59% (38/64) of treated lesions. Follow-up imaging was evaluated for local control and to monitor sites of untreated disease as an internal control. Fifty-eight percent (37/64) were lost to imaging follow-up at varying time points over a year. Complication rate was 5% (3/64; one minor and two major events). One-year local tumor control rates were 70% (19/27) in all patients, 67% (12/18) in the setting of progression of untreated metastases, and 100% (10/10) in the setting of oligometastatic disease. Median pain scores decreased from 8 (interquartile range 5.0-9.0) to 3 (interquartile range 0.1-4.0) 1 month after the procedure (P < 0.001). Image-guided percutaneous ablation is an effective option for local tumor control and pain palliation of metastatic sarcomas within the musculoskeletal system. Treatment in the setting of oligometastatic disease offers potential for remission. Level 4, Retrospective Review.

  4. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions:An Overview of the Technology Maturation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A S.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist, NASA identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: Mass to Surface, Surface Access, Precision Landing, Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, Safety and Mission Assurance, and Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems are manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (38 cell) by hand, and in a limited amount of time all of the cells must be filled and the heatshield must be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the low strain-to-failure and manufacturing size limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS. A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials. The high strain-to-failure nature of the conformal ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. By reducing the overall part count, the cost of installation (based on cost comparisons between blanket

  5. Coupled isothermal polynucleotide amplification and translation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A cell-free system for polynucleotide amplification and translation is disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for using the system and a composition which allows the various components of the system to function under a common set of reaction conditions.

  6. Coupling apparatus for ultrasonic medical diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for the ultrasonic scanning of a breast or other tissue is reported that contains a cavity for receiving the breast, a vacuum for drawing the breast into intimate contact with the walls of the cavity, and transducers coupled through a fluid to the cavity to transmit sound waves through the breast. Each transducer lies at the end of a tapered chamber which has flexible walls and which is filled with fluid, so that the transducer can be moved in a raster pattern while the chamber walls flex accordingly, with sound transmission always occurring through the fluid.

  7. Systemic siRNA Nanoparticle-Based Drugs Combined with Radiofrequency Ablation for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Muneeb; Kumar, Gaurav; Navarro, Gemma; Wang, Yuanguo; Gourevitch, Svetlana; Moussa, Marwan H.; Rozenblum, Nir; Levchenko, Tatyana; Galun, Eithan; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Goldberg, S. Nahum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) of hepatic and renal tumors can be accompanied by non-desired tumorigenesis in residual, untreated tumor. Here, we studied the use of micelle-encapsulated siRNA to suppress IL-6-mediated local and systemic secondary effects of RFA. Methods We compared standardized hepatic or renal RFA (laparotomy, 1 cm active tip at 70±2°C for 5 min) and sham procedures without and with administration of 150nm micelle-like nanoparticle (MNP) anti-IL6 siRNA (DOPE-PEI conjugates, single IP dose 15 min post-RFA, C57Bl mouse:3.5 ug/100ml, Fisher 344 rat: 20ug/200ul), RFA/scrambled siRNA, and RFA/empty MNPs. Outcome measures included: local periablational cellular infiltration (α-SMA+ stellate cells), regional hepatocyte proliferation, serum/tissue IL-6 and VEGF levels at 6-72hr, and distant tumor growth, tumor proliferation (Ki-67) and microvascular density (MVD, CD34) in subcutaneous R3230 and MATBIII breast adenocarcinoma models at 7 days. Results For liver RFA, adjuvant MNP anti-IL6 siRNA reduced RFA-induced increases in tissue IL-6 levels, α-SMA+ stellate cell infiltration, and regional hepatocyte proliferation to baseline (p<0.04, all comparisons). Moreover, adjuvant MNP anti-IL6- siRNA suppressed increased distant tumor growth and Ki-67 observed in R3230 and MATBIII tumors post hepatic RFA (p<0.01). Anti-IL6 siRNA also reduced RFA-induced elevation in VEGF and tumor MVD (p<0.01). Likewise, renal RFA-induced increases in serum IL-6 levels and distant R3230 tumor growth was suppressed with anti-IL6 siRNA (p<0.01). Conclusions Adjuvant nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNA against IL-6 can be used to modulate local and regional effects of hepatic RFA to block potential unwanted pro-oncogenic effects of hepatic or renal RFA on distant tumor. PMID:26154425

  8. CHAP III- CHARRING ABLATOR PROGRAM FOR ADVANCED INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ENTRY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    The transient response of a thermal protection material to heat applied to the surface can be calculated using the CHAP III computer program. CHAP III can be used to analyze pyrolysis gas chemical kinetics in detail and examine pyrolysis reactions-indepth. The analysis includes the deposition of solid products produced by chemical reactions in the gas phase. CHAP III uses a modelling technique which can approximate a wide range of ablation problems. The energy equation used in CHAP III incorporates pyrolysis (both solid and gas reactions), convection, conduction, storage, work, kinetic energy, and viscous dissipation. The chemically reacting components of the solid are allowed to vary as a function of position and time. CHAP III employs a finite difference method to approximate the energy equations. Input values include specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermocouple locations, enthalpy, heating rates, and a description of the chemical reactions expected. The output tabulates the temperature at locations throughout the ablator, gas flow within the solid, density of the solid, weight of pyrolysis gases, and rate of carbon deposition. A sample case is included, which analyzes an ablator material containing several pyrolysis reactions subjected to an environment typical of entry at lunar return velocity. CHAP III is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer operating under NOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 102K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1985.

  9. Light Weight Ceramic Ablators for Mars Follow-on Mission Vehicle Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Turan, Ryan

    1994-01-01

    New Light Weight Ceramic Ablators (LCA) were produced by using ceramic and carbon fibrous substrates, impregnated with silicone and phenolic resins. The special infiltration techniques (patent pending) were developed to control the amount of organic resins in the highly porous fiber matrices so that the final densities of LCA's range from 0.22 to 0.24 g/cc. This paper presents the thermal and ablative performance of the Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablators (SIRCA) in simulated entry conditions for Mars-Pathfinder in the Ames 60 MW Interaction Heating Facility (I HF). Arc jet test results yielded no evidence of char erosion and mass loss at high stagnation pressures to 0.25 atm. Minimal silica melt was detected on surface char at a stagnation pressure of 0.31 atm. Four ceramic substrates were used in the production of SIRCA's to obtain the effective of boron oxide present in substrate so the thermal performance of SIRCA's. A sample of SIRCA was also exposed to the same heating condition for five cycles and no significant mass loss or recession was observed. Tensile testing established that the SIRCA tensile strength is about a factor of two higher than that of the virgin substrates. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the char in nitrogen and air showed no evidence of free carbon in the char. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the post test sample showed that the char surface consists of a fibrous structure that was sealed with a thin layer of silicon oxide melt.

  10. Mutual Coupling and Compensation in FMCW MIMO Radar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Christian M.; Feger, Reinhard; Wagner, Christoph; Stelzer, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with mutual coupling, its effects and the compensation thereof in frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array radar systems. Starting with a signal model we introduce mutual coupling and its primary sources in FMCW MIMO systems. We also give a worst-case boundary of the effects that mutual coupling can have on the side lobe level of an array. A method of dealing with and compensating for these effects is covered in this paper and verified by measurements from a 77-GHz FMCW radar system.

  11. GMD Coupling to Power Systems and Disturbance Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Michael Kelly; Bent, Russell Whitford

    Presentation includes slides on Geomagnetic Disturbance: Ground Fields; Geomagnetic Disturbance: Coupling to Bulk Electric System; Geomagnetic Disturbance: Transformers; GMD Assessment Workflow (TPL-007-1); FERC order 830; Goals; SuperMag (1 min data) Nov. 20-21, 2003 Storm (DST = -422); Spherical Harmonics; Spherical Harmonics Nov. 20-21, 2003 Storm (DST = -422); DST vs HN0,0; Fluctuations vs. DST; Fluctuations; Conclusions and Next Steps; GMD Assessment Workflow (TPL-007-1); EMP E3 Coupling to Texas 2000 Bus Model; E3 Coupling Comparison (total GIC) Varying Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (total MVAR) Varying Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (GIC) at Peak Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (GIC) atmore » Peak Ground Zero; and Conclusion.« less

  12. Partial ablation of uropygial gland effects on growth hormone concentration and digestive system histometrical aspect of akar putra chicken.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Hasan S A; Lokman, I H; Zuki, A B Z; Kassim, A B

    2016-04-01

    Partial ablation of the uropygial gland is being used in the poultry industry as a new way to enhance body performance of chickens. However, limited data are available estimating the efficacy of partial uropygialectomy (PU) to improve body organ activity. The present study evaluated the effect of partial ablation of the uropygial gland on the serum growth hormone concentration level and digestive system histology of 120 Akar Putra chickens in 5 trials with 3 replicates per trial. The experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment T1; partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied in the T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. All treatment groups were provided the same diet. Venous blood samples were collected on wk 7, 10, and 12 to assay the levels of growth hormone concentration. On the last d of the experiment, 4 birds per replicate were randomly isolated and euthanized to perform the necropsy. Digestive system organs' cross sections were measured by a computerized image analyzer after being stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In comparison with the control group, surgical removal of the uropygial gland, especially at wk 3, had a greater (P<0.01) effect on the total duodenum, jejunum, and ilium wall thickness. In addition, effects (P<0.05) were observed on the wall thickness of males' cecum and colon. Moreover, the wall layers of the esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, and rectum were not affected by the treatment. However, removing the uropygial gland showed significant impact (P<0.05) in males' growth hormone concentration level at wk 7 and (P<0.01) effects at wk 12 in both sexes. This study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chickens particularly. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. The evolution of a coupled ice shelf-ocean system under different climate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Sandhäger, Henner

    2004-07-01

    Based on a new approach for coupled applications of an ice shelf model and an ocean general circulation model, we investigate the evolution of an ice shelf-ocean system and its sensitivity to changed climatic boundary conditions. Combining established 3D models into a coupled model system enabled us to study the reaction and feedbacks of each component to changes at their interface, the ice shelf base. After calculating the dynamics for prescribed initial ice shelf and bathymetric geometries, the basal mass balance determines the system evolution. In order to explore possible developments for given boundary conditions, an idealized geometry has been chosen, reflecting basic features of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The model system is found to be especially sensitive in regions where high ablation or accretion rates occur. Ice Shelf Water formation as well as the build up of a marine ice body, resulting from accretion of marine ice, is simulated, indicating strong interaction processes. To improve consistency between modeled and observed ice shelf behavior, we incorporate the typical cycle of steady ice front advance and sudden retreat due to tabular iceberg calving in our time-dependent simulations. Our basic hypothesis is that iceberg break off is associated with abrupt crack propagation along elongated anomalies of the inherent stress field of the ice body. This new concept yields glaciologically plausible results and represents an auspicious basis for the development of a thorough calving criterion. Experiments under different climatic conditions (ocean warming of 0.2 and 0.5 °C and doubled surface accumulation rates) show the coupled model system to be sensitive especially to ocean warming. Increased basal melt rates of 100% for the 0.5 °C ocean warming scenario and an asymmetric development of ice shelf thicknesses suggest a high vulnerability of ice shelf regions, which represent pivotal areas between the Antarctic Ice Sheet and the Southern

  14. Myocardial Ablation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 (GRK2) Decreases Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through an Anti-Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qian; Chen, Mai; Zuo, Lin; Shang, Xiying; Huang, Maggie Z; Ciccarelli, Michele; Raake, Philip; Brinks, Henriette; Chuprun, Kurt J; Dorn, Gerald W; Koch, Walter J; Gao, Erhe

    2013-01-01

    Studies from our lab have shown that decreasing myocardial G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) activity and expression can prevent heart failure progression after myocardial infarction. Since GRK2 appears to also act as a pro-death kinase in myocytes, we investigated the effect of cardiomyocyte-specific GRK2 ablation on the acute response to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. To do this we utilized two independent lines of GRK2 knockout (KO) mice where the GRK2 gene was deleted in only cardiomyocytes either constitutively at birth or in an inducible manner that occurred in adult mice prior to I/R. These GRK2 KO mice and appropriate control mice were subjected to a sham procedure or 30 min of myocardial ischemia via coronary artery ligation followed by 24 hrs reperfusion. Echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements showed significantly improved post-I/R cardiac function in both GRK2 KO lines, which correlated with smaller infarct sizes in GRK2 KO mice compared to controls. Moreover, there was significantly less TUNEL positive myocytes, less caspase-3, and -9 but not caspase-8 activities in GRK2 KO mice compared to control mice after I/R injury. Of note, we found that lowering cardiac GRK2 expression was associated with significantly lower cytosolic cytochrome C levels in both lines of GRK2 KO mice after I/R compared to corresponding control animals. Mechanistically, the anti-apoptotic effects of lowering GRK2 expression were accompanied by increased levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and increased activation of Akt after I/R injury. These findings were reproduced in vitro in cultured cardiomyocytes and GRK2 mRNA silencing. Therefore, lowering GRK2 expression in cardiomyocytes limits I/R-induced injury and improves post-ischemia recovery by decreasing myocyte apoptosis at least partially via Akt/Bcl-2 mediated mitochondrial protection and implicates mitochondrial-dependent actions, solidifying GRK2 as a pro-death kinase in the heart.

  15. Advanced Rigid Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate s (ESMD) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project (TDP) and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate s (ARMD) Hypersonics Project are developing new advanced rigid ablators in an effort to substantially increase reliability, decrease mass, and reduce life cycle cost of rigid aeroshell-based entry systems for multiple missions. Advanced Rigid Ablators combine ablation resistant top layers capable of high heat flux entry and enable high-speed EDL with insulating mass-efficient bottom that, insulate the structure and lower the areal weight. These materials may benefit Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) vendors and may potentially enable new NASA missions for higher velocity returns (e.g. asteroid, Mars). The materials have been thermally tested to 400-450 W/sq cm at the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Lab (LHMEL), Hypersonics Materials Evaluation Test System (HyMETS) and in arcjet facilities. Tested materials exhibit much lower backface temperatures and reduced recession over the baseline materials (PICA). Although the EDL project is ending in FY11, NASA in-house development of advanced ablators will continue with a focus on varying resin systems and fiber/resin interactions.

  16. Asymmetric noise-induced large fluctuations in coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ira B.; Szwaykowska, Klimka; Carr, Thomas W.

    2017-10-01

    Networks of interacting, communicating subsystems are common in many fields, from ecology, biology, and epidemiology to engineering and robotics. In the presence of noise and uncertainty, interactions between the individual components can lead to unexpected complex system-wide behaviors. In this paper, we consider a generic model of two weakly coupled dynamical systems, and we show how noise in one part of the system is transmitted through the coupling interface. Working synergistically with the coupling, the noise on one system drives a large fluctuation in the other, even when there is no noise in the second system. Moreover, the large fluctuation happens while the first system exhibits only small random oscillations. Uncertainty effects are quantified by showing how characteristic time scales of noise-induced switching scale as a function of the coupling between the two coupled parts of the experiment. In addition, our results show that the probability of switching in the noise-free system scales inversely as the square of reduced noise intensity amplitude, rendering the virtual probability of switching an extremely rare event. Our results showing the interplay between transmitted noise and coupling are also confirmed through simulations, which agree quite well with analytic theory.

  17. Superlinearly scalable noise robustness of redundant coupled dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L

    2016-03-01

    We illustrate through theory and numerical simulations that redundant coupled dynamical systems can be extremely robust against local noise in comparison to uncoupled dynamical systems evolving in the same noisy environment. Previous studies have shown that the noise robustness of redundant coupled dynamical systems is linearly scalable and deviations due to noise can be minimized by increasing the number of coupled units. Here, we demonstrate that the noise robustness can actually be scaled superlinearly if some conditions are met and very high noise robustness can be realized with very few coupled units. We discuss these conditions and show that this superlinear scalability depends on the nonlinearity of the individual dynamical units. The phenomenon is demonstrated in discrete as well as continuous dynamical systems. This superlinear scalability not only provides us an opportunity to exploit the nonlinearity of physical systems without being bogged down by noise but may also help us in understanding the functional role of coupled redundancy found in many biological systems. Moreover, engineers can exploit superlinear noise suppression by starting a coupled system near (not necessarily at) the appropriate initial condition.

  18. 23. FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM PIPE, 'GRINNELL VALVE', 'VICTROLIC COUPLING,' AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM PIPE, 'GRINNELL VALVE', 'VICTROLIC COUPLING,' AND ALARM AT THE REAR OF BAY NO. 5. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, B.C.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a releasable coupling connecting a control rod to a control rod drive. This remotely operable coupling mechanism can connect two elements which are laterally and angviarly misaligned, and provides a means for sensing the locked condition of the elements. The coupling utilizes a spherical bayonet joint which is locked against rotation by a ball detent lock. (AEC)

  20. Ultrafast quantum computation in ultrastrongly coupled circuit QED systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimin; Guo, Chu; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Gangcheng; Wu, Chunfeng

    2017-03-10

    The latest technological progress of achieving the ultrastrong-coupling regime in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems has greatly promoted the developments of quantum physics, where novel quantum optics phenomena and potential computational benefits have been predicted. Here, we propose a scheme to accelerate the nontrivial two-qubit phase gate in a circuit QED system, where superconducting flux qubits are ultrastrongly coupled to a transmission line resonator (TLR), and two more TLRs are coupled to the ultrastrongly-coupled system for assistant. The nontrivial unconventional geometric phase gate between the two flux qubits is achieved based on close-loop displacements of the three-mode intracavity fields. Moreover, as there are three resonators contributing to the phase accumulation, the requirement of the coupling strength to realize the two-qubit gate can be reduced. Further reduction in the coupling strength to achieve a specific controlled-phase gate can be realized by adding more auxiliary resonators to the ultrastrongly-coupled system through superconducting quantum interference devices. We also present a study of our scheme with realistic parameters considering imperfect controls and noisy environment. Our scheme possesses the merits of ultrafastness and noise-tolerance due to the advantages of geometric phases.

  1. The synchronization of asymmetric-structured electric coupling neuronal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanping; Jin, Wuyin; Liu, Hao; Sun, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Based on the Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) model, the synchronization dynamics of asymmetric-structured electric coupling two neuronal system is investigated in this paper. It is discovered that when the time-delay scope and coupling strength for the synchronization are correlated positively under unequal time delay, the time-delay difference does not make a clear distinction between the two individual inter-spike intervals (ISI) bifurcation diagrams of the two coupled neurons. Therefore, the superficial difference of the system synchronization dynamics is not obvious for the unequal time-delay feedback. In the asymmetrical current incentives under asymmetric electric coupled system, the two neurons can only be almost completely synchronized in specific area of the interval which end-pointed with two discharge modes for a single neuron under different stimuli currents before coupling, but the intervention of time-delay feedback, together with the change of the coupling strength, can make the coupled system not only almost completely synchronized within anywhere in the front area, but also outside of it.

  2. Ultrafast quantum computation in ultrastrongly coupled circuit QED systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yimin; Guo, Chu; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Gangcheng; Wu, Chunfeng

    2017-01-01

    The latest technological progress of achieving the ultrastrong-coupling regime in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems has greatly promoted the developments of quantum physics, where novel quantum optics phenomena and potential computational benefits have been predicted. Here, we propose a scheme to accelerate the nontrivial two-qubit phase gate in a circuit QED system, where superconducting flux qubits are ultrastrongly coupled to a transmission line resonator (TLR), and two more TLRs are coupled to the ultrastrongly-coupled system for assistant. The nontrivial unconventional geometric phase gate between the two flux qubits is achieved based on close-loop displacements of the three-mode intracavity fields. Moreover, as there are three resonators contributing to the phase accumulation, the requirement of the coupling strength to realize the two-qubit gate can be reduced. Further reduction in the coupling strength to achieve a specific controlled-phase gate can be realized by adding more auxiliary resonators to the ultrastrongly-coupled system through superconducting quantum interference devices. We also present a study of our scheme with realistic parameters considering imperfect controls and noisy environment. Our scheme possesses the merits of ultrafastness and noise-tolerance due to the advantages of geometric phases. PMID:28281654

  3. Normal-Mode Splitting in a Weakly Coupled Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Kralj, Nenad; Zippilli, Stefano; Natali, Riccardo; Borrielli, Antonio; Pandraud, Gregory; Serra, Enrico; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Vitali, David

    2018-02-01

    Normal-mode splitting is the most evident signature of strong coupling between two interacting subsystems. It occurs when two subsystems exchange energy between themselves faster than they dissipate it to the environment. Here we experimentally show that a weakly coupled optomechanical system at room temperature can manifest normal-mode splitting when the pump field fluctuations are antisquashed by a phase-sensitive feedback loop operating close to its instability threshold. Under these conditions the optical cavity exhibits an effectively reduced decay rate, so that the system is effectively promoted to the strong coupling regime.

  4. Conservative tightly-coupled simulations of stochastic multiscale systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taverniers, Søren; Pigarov, Alexander Y.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M., E-mail: dmt@ucsd.edu

    2016-05-15

    Multiphysics problems often involve components whose macroscopic dynamics is driven by microscopic random fluctuations. The fidelity of simulations of such systems depends on their ability to propagate these random fluctuations throughout a computational domain, including subdomains represented by deterministic solvers. When the constituent processes take place in nonoverlapping subdomains, system behavior can be modeled via a domain-decomposition approach that couples separate components at the interfaces between these subdomains. Its coupling algorithm has to maintain a stable and efficient numerical time integration even at high noise strength. We propose a conservative domain-decomposition algorithm in which tight coupling is achieved by employingmore » either Picard's or Newton's iterative method. Coupled diffusion equations, one of which has a Gaussian white-noise source term, provide a computational testbed for analysis of these two coupling strategies. Fully-converged (“implicit”) coupling with Newton's method typically outperforms its Picard counterpart, especially at high noise levels. This is because the number of Newton iterations scales linearly with the amplitude of the Gaussian noise, while the number of Picard iterations can scale superlinearly. At large time intervals between two subsequent inter-solver communications, the solution error for single-iteration (“explicit”) Picard's coupling can be several orders of magnitude higher than that for implicit coupling. Increasing the explicit coupling's communication frequency reduces this difference, but the resulting increase in computational cost can make it less efficient than implicit coupling at similar levels of solution error, depending on the communication frequency of the latter and the noise strength. This trend carries over into higher dimensions, although at high noise strength explicit coupling may be the only computationally viable option.« less

  5. Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation Compared to Systemic Chemotherapy and to Partial Hepatectomy in the Treatment of Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meijerink, Martijn R; Puijk, Robbert S; van Tilborg, Aukje A J M; Henningsen, Kirsten Holdt; Fernandez, Llenalia Garcia; Neyt, Mattias; Heymans, Juanita; Frankema, Jacqueline S; de Jong, Koert P; Richel, Dick J; Prevoo, Warner; Vlayen, Joan

    2018-04-17

    To assess safety and outcome of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation (MWA) as compared to systemic chemotherapy and partial hepatectomy (PH) in the treatment of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. Randomized trials and comparative observational studies with multivariate analysis and/or matching were included. Guidelines from National Guideline Clearinghouse and Guidelines International Network were assessed using the AGREE II instrument. The search revealed 3530 records; 328 were selected for full-text review; 48 were included: 8 systematic reviews, 2 randomized studies, 26 comparative observational studies, 2 guideline-articles and 10 case series; in addition 13 guidelines were evaluated. Literature to assess the effectiveness of ablation was limited. RFA + systemic chemotherapy was superior to chemotherapy alone. PH was superior to RFA alone but not to RFA + PH or to MWA. Compared to PH, RFA showed fewer complications, MWA did not. Outcomes were subject to residual confounding since ablation was only employed for unresectable disease. The results from the EORTC-CLOCC trial, the comparable survival for ablation + PH versus PH alone, the potential to induce long-term disease control and the low complication rate argue in favour of ablation over chemotherapy alone. Further randomized comparisons of ablation to current-day chemotherapy alone should therefore be considered unethical. Hence, the highest achievable level of evidence for unresectable CRLM seems reached. The apparent selection bias from previous studies and the superior safety profile mandate the setup of randomized controlled trials comparing ablation to surgery.

  6. Photoactive dye-enhanced tissue ablation for endoscopic laser prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Minwoo; Hau, Nguyen Trung; Van Phuc, Nguyen; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2014-11-01

    Laser light has been widely used as a surgical tool to treat benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) over 20 years. Recently, application of high laser power up to 200 W was often reported to swiftly remove a large amount of prostatic tissue. The purpose of this study was to validate the feasibility of photoactive dye injection to enhance light absorption and eventually to facilitate tissue vaporization with low laser power. Chicken breast tissue was selected as a target tissue due to minimal optical absorption at the visible wavelength. Four biocompatible photoactive dyes, including amaranth (AR), black dye (BD), hemoglobin powder (HP), and endoscopic marker (EM), were selected and tested in vitro with a customized 532 nm laser system with radiant exposure ranging from 0.9 to 3.9 J/cm(2) . Light absorbance and ablation threshold were measured with UV-Vis spectrometer and Probit analysis, respectively, and compared to feature the function of the injected dyes. Ablation performance with dye-injection was evaluated in light of radiant exposure, dye concentration, and number of injection. Higher light absorption by injected dyes led to lower ablation threshold as well as more efficient tissue removal in the order of AR, BD, HP, and EM. Regardless of the injected dyes, ablation efficiency principally increased with radiant exposure, dye concentration, and number of injection. Among the dyes, AR created the highest ablation rate of 44.2 ± 0.2 µm/pulse due to higher absorbance and lower ablation threshold. High aspect ratios up to 7.1 ± 0.4 entailed saturation behavior in the tissue ablation injected with AR and BD, possibly resulting from plume shielding and increased scattering due to coagulation. Preliminary tests on canine prostate with a hydraulic injection system demonstrated that 80 W with dye injection yielded comparable ablation efficiency to 120 W with no injection, indicating 33% reduced laser power with almost equivalent performance. Due to

  7. An Update to a Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2014-01-01

    As described at IPPW-10, in FY12, the CA-TPS element focused on establishing materials requirements based on MSL-type and COTS Low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions (q 250 Wcm2) to develop and deliver a conformal ablative TPS. This involved down selecting, manufacturing and testing two of the best candidate materials, demonstrating uniform infiltration of resins into baseline 2-cm thick carbon felt, selecting a primary conformal material formulation based on novel arc jet and basic material properties testing, developing and demonstrating instrumentation for felt-based materials and, based on the data, developing a low fidelity material response model so that the conformal ablator TPS thickness for missions could be established. In addition, the project began to develop Industry Partnerships. Since the nominal thickness of baseline carbon felts was only 2-cm, a partnership with a rayon felt developer was made in order to upgrade equipment, establish the processes required and attempt to manufacture 10-cm thick white goods. A partnership with a processing house was made to develop the methodology to carbonize large pieces of the white goods into 7.5-cm thick carbon felt. In FY13, more advanced testing and modeling of the down selected conformal material was performed. Material thermal properties tests and structural properties tests were performed. The first 3 and 4-point bend tests were performed on the conformal ablator as well as PICA for comparison and the conformal ablator had outstanding behavior compared to PICA. Arc jet testing was performed with instrumented samples of both the conformal ablator and standard PICA at heating rates ranging from 40 to 400 Wcm2 and shear as high as 600 Pa. The results from these tests showed a remarkable improvement in the thermal penetration through the conformal ablator when compared to PICAs response. The data from these tests were used to develop a mid-fidelity thermal response model. Additional arc jet testing in the same

  8. Application of 1013 ohm Faraday cup current amplifiers for boron isotopic analyses by solution mode and laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Nicholas S; Sadekov, Aleksey Yu; Misra, Sambuddha

    2018-01-15

    Boron isotope ratios (δ 11 B values) are used as a proxy for seawater paleo-pH, amongst several other applications. The analytical precision can be limited by the detection of low intensity ion beams from limited sample amounts. High-gain amplifiers offer improvements in signal/noise ratio and can be used to increase measurement precision and reduce sample amounts. 10 13 ohm amplifier technology has previously been applied to several radiogenic systems, but has thus far not been applied to non-traditional stable isotopes. Here we apply 10 13 ohm amplifier technology for the measurement of boron isotope ratios using solution mode MC-ICP-MS and laser ablation mode (LA-)MC-ICP-MS techniques. Precision is shown for reference materials as well as for low-volume foraminifera samples. The baseline uncertainty for a 0.1 pA 10 B + ion beam is reduced to <0.1 ‰ for a typical measurement period. The external precision is better than 0.2 ‰ (2SD) for δ 11 B measurements for solution samples containing as little as 0.8 ng total boron. For in situ microanalyses with LA-MC-ICP-MS, the external precision of 11 B/ 10 B from an in-house calcite standard was 1 ‰ (2SD) for individual spot analyses, and 0.3 ‰ for the mean of ≥10 replicate spot analyses. 10 13 ohm amplifier technology is demonstrated to offer advantages for the determination of δ 11 B values by both MC-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS for small samples of biogenic carbonates, such as foraminifera shells. 10 13 ohm amplifier technology will also be of benefit to other non-traditional stable isotope measurements. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Microwave Ablation Compared with Radiofrequency Ablation for Breast Tissue in an Ex Vivo Bovine Udder Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihir@bf6.so-net.ne.jp; Westphal, Saskia, E-mail: swestphal@ukaachen.de; Isfort, Peter, E-mail: isfort@hia.rwth-aachen.de

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation with radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treating breast tissue in a nonperfused ex vivo model of healthy bovine udder tissue. Materials and Methods: MW ablations were performed at power outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W using a 915-MHz frequency generator and a 2-cm active tip antenna. RF ablations were performed with a bipolar RF system with 2- and 3-cm active tip electrodes. Tissue temperatures were continuously monitored during ablation. Results: The mean short-axis diameters of the coagulation zones were 1.34 {+-} 0.14, 1.45 {+-} 0.13, and 1.74 {+-} 0.11 cm for MWmore » ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W. For RF ablation, the corresponding values were 1.16 {+-} 0.09 and 1.26 {+-} 0.14 cm with electrodes having 2- and 3-cm active tips, respectively. The mean coagulation volumes were 2.27 {+-} 0.65, 2.85 {+-} 0.72, and 4.45 {+-} 0.47 cm{sup 3} for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W and 1.18 {+-} 0.30 and 2.29 {+-} 0.55 cm{sup 3} got RF ablation with 2- and 3-cm electrodes, respectively. MW ablations at 35W and 45W achieved significantly longer short-axis diameters than RF ablations (P < 0.05). The highest tissue temperature was achieved with MW ablation at 45W (P < 0.05). On histological examination, the extent of the ablation zone in MW ablations was less affected by tissue heterogeneity than that in RF ablations. Conclusion: MW ablation appears to be advantageous with respect to the volume of ablation and the shape of the margin of necrosis compared with RF ablation in an ex vivo bovine udder.« less

  10. Development and evaluation of an ablative closeout material for solid rocket booster thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    A trowellable closeout/repair material designated as MTA-2 was developed and evaluated for use on the Solid Rocket Booster. This material is composed of an epoxy-polysulfide binder and is highly filled with phenolic microballoons for density control and ablative performance. Mechanical property testing and thermal testing were performed in a wind tunnel to simulate the combined Solid Rocket Booster trajectory aeroshear and heating environments. The material is characterized by excellent thermal performance and was used extensively on the Space Shuttle STS-1 and STS-2 flight hardware.

  11. Laboratory Simulations of Micrometeoroid Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Evan Williamson

    Each day, several tons of meteoric material enters Earth's atmosphere, the majority of which consist of small dust particles (micrometeoroids) that completely ablate at high altitudes. The dust input has been suggested to play a role in a variety of phenomena including: layers of metal atoms and ions, nucleation of noctilucent clouds, effects on stratospheric aerosols and ozone chemistry, and the fertilization of the ocean with bio-available iron. Furthermore, a correct understanding of the dust input to the Earth provides constraints on inner solar system dust models. Various methods are used to measure the dust input to the Earth including satellite detectors, radar, lidar, rocket-borne detectors, ice core and deep-sea sediment analysis. However, the best way to interpret each of these measurements is uncertain, which leads to large uncertainties in the total dust input. To better understand the ablation process, and thereby reduce uncertainties in micrometeoroid ablation measurements, a facility has been developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to accelerate iron particles to relevant meteoric velocities (10-70 km/s). The particles are then introduced into a chamber pressurized with a target gas, and they partially or completely ablate over a short distance. An array of diagnostics then measure, with timing and spatial resolution, the charge and light that is generated in the ablation process. In this thesis, we present results from the newly developed ablation facility. The ionization coefficient, an important parameter for interpreting meteor radar measurements, is measured for various target gases. Furthermore, experimental ablation measurements are compared to predictions from commonly used ablation models. In light of these measurements, implications to the broader context of meteor ablation are discussed.

  12. Tinamit: Making coupled system dynamics models accessible to stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, Julien; Inam Baig, Azhar; Rojas Díaz, Marcela; Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Adamowski, Jan; Tuy, Héctor; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    Model coupling is increasingly used as a method of combining the best of two models when representing socio-environmental systems, though barriers to successful model adoption by stakeholders are particularly present with the use of coupled models, due to their high complexity and typically low implementation flexibility. Coupled system dynamics - physically-based modelling is a promising method to improve stakeholder participation in environmental modelling while retaining a high level of complexity for physical process representation, as the system dynamics components are readily understandable and can be built by stakeholders themselves. However, this method is not without limitations in practice, including 1) inflexible and complicated coupling methods, 2) difficult model maintenance after the end of the project, and 3) a wide variety of end-user cultures and languages. We have developed the open-source Python-language software tool Tinamit to overcome some of these limitations to the adoption of stakeholder-based coupled system dynamics - physically-based modelling. The software is unique in 1) its inclusion of both a graphical user interface (GUI) and a library of available commands (API) that allow users with little or no coding abilities to rapidly, effectively, and flexibly couple models, 2) its multilingual support for the GUI, allowing users to couple models in their preferred language (and to add new languages as necessary for their community work), and 3) its modular structure allowing for very easy model coupling and modification without the direct use of code, and to which programming-savvy users can easily add support for new types of physically-based models. We discuss how the use of Tinamit for model coupling can greatly increase the accessibility of coupled models to stakeholders, using an example of a stakeholder-built system dynamics model of soil salinity issues in Pakistan coupled with the physically-based soil salinity and water flow model

  13. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  14. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Yalin, Azer [Fort Collins, CO; Willson, Bryan [Fort Collins, CO; Defoort, Morgan [Fort Collins, CO; Joshi, Sachin [Fort Collins, CO; Reynolds, Adam [Fort Collins, CO

    2008-03-04

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  15. A micro-coupling for micro mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Zhixiong; Zhang, Bi; Xiao, Yunya

    2016-05-01

    The error motions of micro mechanical systems, such as micro-spindles, increase with the increasing of the rotational speed, which not only decreases the rotational accuracy, but also promotes instability and limits the maximum operational speed. One effective way to deal with it is to use micro-flexible couplings between the drive and driven shafts so as to reduce error motions of the driven shaft. But the conventional couplings, such as diaphragm couplings, elastomeric couplings, bellows couplings, and grooved couplings, etc, cannot be directly used because of their large and complicated structures. This study presents a novel micro-coupling that consists of a flexible coupling and a shape memory alloy (SMA)-based clamp for micro mechanical systems. It is monolithic and can be directly machined from a shaft. The study performs design optimization and provides manufacturing considerations, including thermo-mechanical training of the SMA ring for the desired Two-Way-Shape-Memory effect (TWSMe). A prototype micro-coupling and a prototype micro-spindle using the proposed coupling are fabricated and tested. The testing results show that the prototype micro-coupling can bear a torque of above 5 N • mm and an axial force of 8.5 N and be fitted with an SMA ring for clamping action at room temperature (15 °C) and unclamping action below-5 °C. At the same time, the prototype micro-coupling can work at a rotational speed of above 200 kr/min with the application to a high-speed precision micro-spindle. Moreover, the radial runout error of the artifact, as a substitute for the micro-tool, is less than 3 μm while that of turbine shaft is above 7 μm. It can be concluded that the micro-coupling successfully accommodates misalignment errors of the prototype micro-spindle. This research proposes a micro-coupling which is featured with an SMA ring, and it is designed to clamp two shafts, and has smooth transmission, simple assembly, compact structure, zero-maintenance and

  16. Nonlinear vibration of a coupled high- Tc superconducting levitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, T.; Inoue, T.; Ura, H.

    2004-10-01

    High- Tc superconducting levitation can be applied to electro-mechanical systems, such as flywheel energy storage and linear-drive transportation. Such a system can be modeled as a magnetically coupled system of many permanent magnets and high- Tc superconducting bulks. It is a multi-degree-of-freedom dynamical system coupled by nonlinear interaction between levitated magnets and superconducting bulks. This nonlinearly coupled system, with small damping due to no contact support, can easily show complicated phenomena of nonlinear dynamics. In mechanical design, it is important to evaluate this nonlinear dynamics, though it has not been well studied so far. This research deals with forced vibration of a coupled superconducting levitation system. As a simple modeling of a coupled system, a permanent magnet levitated above a superconducting bulk is placed between two fixed permanent magnets without contact. Frequency response of the levitated magnet under excitation of one of the fixed magnets was examined theoretically. The results show typical nonlinear vibration, such as jump, hysteresis, and parametric resonance, which were confirmed in our numerical analyses and experiments.

  17. Strong coupling effects in hybrid plexitonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikau, Dzmitry; Esteban, Ruben; Govyadinov, Alexander A.; Savateeva, Diana; Simon, Thomas; Sánchez-Iglesias, Ana; Grzelczak, Marek; Schmidt, Mikolaj K.; Urban, Alexander S.; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.; Feldmann, Jochen; Aizpurua, Javier; Rakovich, Yury P.

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the interactions between localized plasmons in gold nanorods and excitons in J-aggregates and were able to track an anticrossing behavior of the hybridized modes both in the extinction and in the photoluminescence spectra of this hybrid system. We identified the nonlinear optical behavior of this system by transient absorption spectroscopy. Finally using magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy we showed that nonmagnetic organic molecules exhibit magnetooptical response due to binding to a plasmonic nanoparticles. In our experiments we also studied the effect of detuning as well as the effect of off- and on resonance excitation on the hybrid states

  18. Discharge transient coupling in large space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John; Stillwell, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments have shown that plasma environments can induce discharges in solar arrays. These plasmas simulate the environments found in low earth orbits where current plans call for operation of very large power systems. The discharges could be large enough to couple into the power system and possibly disrupt operations. Here, the general concepts of the discharge mechanism and the techniques of coupling are discussed. Data from both ground and flight experiments are reviewed to obtain an expected basis for the interactions. These concepts were applied to the Space Station solar array and distribution system as an example of the large space power system. The effect of discharges was found to be a function of the discharge site. For most sites in the array discharges would not seriously impact performance. One location at the negative end of the array was identified as a position where discharges could couple to charge stored in system capacitors. This latter case could impact performance.

  19. Study of imaging fiber bundle coupling technique in IR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoqing; Yang, Jianfeng; Yan, Xingtao; Song, Yansong

    2017-02-01

    Due to its advantageous imaging characteristic and banding flexibility, imaging fiber bundle can be used for line-plane-switching push-broom infrared imaging. How to precisely couple the fiber bundle in the optics system is the key to get excellent image for transmission. After introducing the basic system composition and structural characteristics of the infrared systems coupled with imaging fiber bundle, this article analysis the coupling efficiency and the design requirements of its relay lenses with the angle of the numerical aperture selecting in the system and cold stop matching of the refrigerant infrared detector. For an actual need, one relay coupling system has been designed with the magnification is -0.6, field of objective height is 4mm, objective numerical aperture is 0.15, which has excellent image quality and enough coupling efficiency. In the end, the push broom imaging experiment is carried out. The results show that the design meets the requirements of light energy efficiency and image quality. This design has a certain reference value for the design of the infrared fiber optical system.

  20. Order and disorder in coupled metronome systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boda, Sz.; Davidova, L.; Néda, Z.

    2014-04-01

    Metronomes placed on a smoothly rotating disk are used for exemplifying order-disorder type phase-transitions. The ordered phase corresponds to spontaneously synchronized beats, while the disordered state is when the metronomes swing in unsynchronized manner. Using a given metronome ensemble, we propose several methods for switching between ordered and disordered states. The system is studied by controlled experiments and a realistic model. The model reproduces the experimental results, and allows to study large ensembles with good statistics. Finite-size effects and the increased fluctuation in the vicinity of the phase-transition point are also successfully reproduced.

  1. Exact synchronization bound for coupled time-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, D V; Pesquera, Luis; Banerjee, Santo; Ortín, Silvia; Kurths, J

    2013-04-01

    We obtain an exact bound for synchronization in coupled time-delay systems using the generalized Halanay inequality for the general case of time-dependent delay, coupling, and coefficients. Furthermore, we show that the same analysis is applicable to both uni- and bidirectionally coupled time-delay systems with an appropriate evolution equation for their synchronization manifold, which can also be defined for different types of synchronization. The exact synchronization bound assures an exponential stabilization of the synchronization manifold which is crucial for applications. The analytical synchronization bound is independent of the nature of the modulation and can be applied to any time-delay system satisfying a Lipschitz condition. The analytical results are corroborated numerically using the Ikeda system.

  2. Catheter radiofrequency ablation for arrhythmias under the guidance of the Carto 3 three-dimensional mapping system in an operating room without digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xingfu; Chen, Yanjia; Huang, Zheng; He, Liwei; Liu, Shenrong; Deng, Xiaojiang; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Rucheng; Xu, Dingli; Peng, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have reported the efficacy of a zero-fluoroscopy approach for catheter radiofrequency ablation of arrhythmias in a digital subtraction angiography (DSA) room. However, no reports are available on the ablation of arrhythmias in the absence of DSA in the operating room. To investigate the efficacy and safety of catheter radiofrequency ablation for arrhythmias under the guidance of a Carto 3 three-dimensional (3D) mapping system in an operating room without DSA. Patients were enrolled according to the type of arrhythmia. The Carto 3 mapping system was used to reconstruct heart models and guide the electrophysiologic examination, mapping, and ablation. The total procedure, reconstruction, electrophysiologic examination, and mapping times were recorded. Furthermore, immediate success rates and complications were also recorded. A total of 20 patients were enrolled, including 12 males. The average age was 51.3 ± 17.2 (19-76) years. Nine cases of atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia, 7 cases of frequent ventricular premature contractions, 3 cases of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and 1 case of typical atrial flutter were included. All arrhythmias were successfully ablated. The procedure time was 127.0 ± 21.0 (99-177) minutes, the reconstruction time was 6.5 ± 2.9 (3-14) minutes, the electrophysiologic study time was 10.4 ± 3.4 (6-20) minutes, and the mapping time was 11.7 ± 8.3 (3-36) minutes. No complications occurred. Radiofrequency ablation of arrhythmias without DSA is effective and feasible under the guidance of the Carto 3 mapping system. However, the electrophysiology physician must have sufficient experience, and related emergency measures must be present to ensure safety.

  3. Immune Adjuvant Activity of Pre-Resectional Radiofrequency Ablation Protects against Local and Systemic Recurrence in Aggressive Murine Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ito, Fumito; Ku, Amy W; Bucsek, Mark J; Muhitch, Jason B; Vardam-Kaur, Trupti; Kim, Minhyung; Fisher, Daniel T; Camoriano, Marta; Khoury, Thaer; Skitzki, Joseph J; Gollnick, Sandra O; Evans, Sharon S

    2015-01-01

    While surgical resection is a cornerstone of cancer treatment, local and distant recurrences continue to adversely affect outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Evidence that an alternative debulking strategy involving radiofrequency ablation (RFA) induces antitumor immunity prompted the current investigation of the efficacy of performing RFA prior to surgical resection (pre-resectional RFA) in a preclinical mouse model. Therapeutic efficacy and systemic immune responses were assessed following pre-resectional RFA treatment of murine CT26 colon adenocarcinoma. Treatment with pre-resectional RFA significantly delayed tumor growth and improved overall survival compared to sham surgery, RFA, or resection alone. Mice in the pre-resectional RFA group that achieved a complete response demonstrated durable antitumor immunity upon tumor re-challenge. Failure to achieve a therapeutic benefit in immunodeficient mice confirmed that tumor control by pre-resectional RFA depends on an intact adaptive immune response rather than changes in physical parameters that make ablated tumors more amenable to a complete surgical excision. RFA causes a marked increase in intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration, thus substantially enhancing the ratio of CD8+ effector T cells: FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Importantly, pre-resectional RFA significantly increases the number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells within the tumor microenvironment and tumor-draining lymph node but had no impact on infiltration by myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M1 macrophages or M2 macrophages at tumor sites or in peripheral lymphoid organs (i.e., spleen). Finally, pre-resectional RFA of primary tumors delayed growth of distant tumors through a mechanism that depends on systemic CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Improved survival and antitumor systemic immunity elicited by pre-resectional RFA support the translational potential of this neoadjuvant treatment for cancer patients with high-risk of

  4. Anti-PT symmetry in dissipatively coupled optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Yong-Chun; You, Li

    2017-11-01

    We show that anti-PT symmetry can be realized in dissipatively coupled optical systems. Its emergence gives rise to spontaneous phase transitions for the guided and localized photonic eigenmodes in the waveguide and cavity systems studied, respectively. As a ubiquitous feature we demonstrate that constant refraction [analogous to unit refraction in [Nat. Phys. 12, 1139 (2016), 10.1038/nphys3842

  5. Integration of myocardial scar identified by preoperative delayed contrast-enhanced MRI into a high-resolution mapping system for planning and guidance of VT ablation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Suzuki, A.; Wang, S.; Pottinger, N.; Arter, J.; Netzer, A.; Parker, K.; Viker, K.; Packer, D. L.

    2017-03-01

    Myocardial scarring creates a substrate for reentrant circuits which can lead to ventricular tachycardia. In ventricular catheter ablation therapy, regions of myocardial scarring are targeted to interrupt arrhythmic electrical pathways. Low voltage regions are a surrogate for myocardial scar and are identified by generating an electro anatomic map at the start of the procedure. Recent efforts have focussed on integration of preoperative scar information generated from delayed contrast-enhanced MR imaging to augment intraprocedural information. In this work, we describe an initial feasibility study of integration of a preoperative MRI derived scar maps into a high-resolution mapping system to improve planning and guidance of VT ablation procedures.

  6. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (CA-TPS) for Venus and Saturn Backshells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Wilder, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Prabhu, D.; Kazemba, C.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2015-01-01

    The new conformal ablator C-PICA, which was developed under STMD GCD, is an optimal candidate for use on the backshells for high velocity entry vehicles at both Venus and Saturn. The material has been tested at heat fluxes up to 400 Wcm2 in shear and over 1800 Wcm2 and 1.5 atm in stagnation with good results. C-PICA has similar density to PICA, but shows half the thermal penetration and similar recession at the same conditions, allowing for a lighter weight TPS to be flown. This poster for VEXAG will show the progress made in the development of the material and why it should be considered for use.

  7. Design, qualification, manufacturing and integration of IXV Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioeta, Mario; Di Vita, Gandolfo; Signorelli Maria, Teresa; Bianco, Gianluca; Cutroni, Maurizio; Damiani, Francesco; Ferretti, Viviana; Rotondo, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, all the activities carried out by Avio S.p.A in order to define, qualify, manufacture and integrate the IXV Ablative TPS will be presented. In particular the extensive numerical simulation in both small and full scale testing activities will be overviewed. Wide-ranging testing activity has been carried out in order to verify, confirm and correlate the numerical models used for TPS sizing. Tests ranged from classical thermo-mechanical characterization traction specimens to tests in plasma wind tunnels on dedicated prototypes. Finally manufacturing and integration activities will be described emphasizing technological aspects solved in order to meet the stringent requirements in terms of shape accuracy and integration tolerances.

  8. Ablation of dermal and mucosal lesions with a new CO2 laser application system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Sergije; Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Fuehrer, Ariane

    1997-05-01

    Laser treatment of skin changes has become common practice in recent years. The high absorption of the wavelength of the carbon-dioxide laser (10600 nm) is responsible for its low penetration depth in biological tissue. Shortening the exposure time minimizes thermic side effects such as carbonization and coagulation. This effect can be achieved with the SilkTouchTM scanner 767, since the focused laser beam is moved over a defined area by rapidly rotating mirrors. This enables controlled and reliable removal of certain dermal lesions, particularly hypertrophic scars, scars after common acne, wrinkles, rhinophyma and benign neoplasms like verruca vulgaris. Cosmetically favorable reepithelialization of the lasered surfaces results within a very short period of time. Benign mucosal changes of the upper aerodigestive tract can also be treated. Ablation is less traumatic for papillomas, fibromas, hyperplasias in the area of Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and certain laryngotracheal pathologies. Clinical examples demonstrate the advantages of this new mode of application.

  9. Concepts and models of coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, I will especially focus on the question of the position of human agency, social networks and complex co-evolutionary interactions in socio-hydrological models. The long term perspective of complex systems' modeling typically focuses on regional or global spatial scales and century/millennium time scales. It is still a challenge to relate correlations in outcomes defined at those longer and larger scales to the causalities at the shorter and smaller scales. How do we move today to the next 1000 years in the same way that our ancestors did move from their today to our present, in the small steps that produce reality? Please note, I am not arguing long term work is not interesting or the like. I just pose the question how to deal with the problem that we employ relations with hindsight that matter to us, but not necessarily to the agents that produced the relations we think we have observed. I would like to push the socio-hydrological community a little into rethinking how to deal with complexity, with the aim to bring together the timescales of humans and complexity. I will provide one or two examples of how larger-scale and longer-term observations on water flows and environmental loads can be broken down into smaller-scale and shorter-term production processes of these same loads.

  10. Coupled Oscillators System in the True Slime Mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, A.; Fujii, T.; Endo, I.

    The Plasmodium of true slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, which shows various oscillatory phenomena, can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear oscillators system. The partial bodies of the Plasmodium are interconnected by microscale tubes, whose dimension can be related to the coupling strength between the plasmodial oscillators. Investigation on the collective behavior of the oscillators under the condition that the configuration of the tube structure can be manipulated gives significant information on the characteristics of the Plasmodium from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In this study, we propose a living coupled oscillators system. Using a microfabricated structure, we patterned the geometry and the dimensions of the microscale tube structure of the Plasmodium. As the first step, the Plasmodium was grown in the microstructure for coupled two oscillators system that has two wells (oscillator part) and a microchannel (coupling part). We investigated the oscillation bahavior by monitoring the thickness oscillation of Plasmodium in the strucutre with various width (W) and length (L) of microchannel. We found that there are various types of oscillation bahavior, such as anti-phase and in-phase oscillations depending on the channel dimension W and L. The present method is suitable for further studies of the network of the Plasmodium as a collective nonlinear oscillators system.

  11. The UKC2 regional coupled environmental prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Huw W.; Castillo Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Graham, Jennifer; Saulter, Andrew; Bornemann, Jorge; Arnold, Alex; Fallmann, Joachim; Harris, Chris; Pearson, David; Ramsdale, Steven; Martínez-de la Torre, Alberto; Bricheno, Lucy; Blyth, Eleanor; Bell, Victoria A.; Davies, Helen; Marthews, Toby R.; O'Neill, Clare; Rumbold, Heather; O'Dea, Enda; Brereton, Ashley; Guihou, Karen; Hines, Adrian; Butenschon, Momme; Dadson, Simon J.; Palmer, Tamzin; Holt, Jason; Reynard, Nick; Best, Martin; Edwards, John; Siddorn, John

    2018-01-01

    It is hypothesized that more accurate prediction and warning of natural hazards, such as of the impacts of severe weather mediated through various components of the environment, require a more integrated Earth System approach to forecasting. This hypothesis can be explored using regional coupled prediction systems, in which the known interactions and feedbacks between different physical and biogeochemical components of the environment across sky, sea and land can be simulated. Such systems are becoming increasingly common research tools. This paper describes the development of the UKC2 regional coupled research system, which has been delivered under the UK Environmental Prediction Prototype project. This provides the first implementation of an atmosphere-land-ocean-wave modelling system focussed on the United Kingdom and surrounding seas at km-scale resolution. The UKC2 coupled system incorporates models of the atmosphere (Met Office Unified Model), land surface with river routing (JULES), shelf-sea ocean (NEMO) and ocean waves (WAVEWATCH III). These components are coupled, via OASIS3-MCT libraries, at unprecedentedly high resolution across the UK within a north-western European regional domain. A research framework has been established to explore the representation of feedback processes in coupled and uncoupled modes, providing a new research tool for UK environmental science. This paper documents the technical design and implementation of UKC2, along with the associated evaluation framework. An analysis of new results comparing the output of the coupled UKC2 system with relevant forced control simulations for six contrasting case studies of 5-day duration is presented. Results demonstrate that performance can be achieved with the UKC2 system that is at least comparable to its component control simulations. For some cases, improvements in air temperature, sea surface temperature, wind speed, significant wave height and mean wave period highlight the potential

  12. COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Frisch, E.; Johnson, C.G.

    1962-05-15

    A detachable coupling arrangement is described which provides for varying the length of the handle of a tool used in relatively narrow channels. The arrangement consists of mating the key and keyhole formations in the cooperating handle sections. (AEC)

  13. Modelling the Auroral Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling System at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S.; Provan, G.

    2016-12-01

    The magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system at Jupiter is a topic of central significance in understanding the fundamental properties of its large-scale plasma environment. Theoretical discussion of this topic typically considers the properties of the field-aligned current systems that form part of a large-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system associated with momentum exchange between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, communicated via the magnetic field. The current system associated with the main oval is believed to be related to centrifugally-driven outward radial transport of iogenic plasma that leads to sub-corotation in the middle magnetosphere. In addition to the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system, upward-directed field-aligned currents may flow at the open-closed field line boundary due to the shear between outer closed field lines and open field lines, which may relate to emission poleward of the main oval. An axi-symmetric model of the plasma flow in the jovian system, the related coupling currents, and the consequent auroral precipitation based on these combined ideas was initially devised to represent typical steady-state conditions for the system and later extended to consider auroral effects resulting from sudden compressions of the magnetosphere. More recently, the model has been extended along model magnetic field lines into the magnetosphere in order to relate them to in situ observations from the NASA Juno spacecraft at Jupiter. The field-aligned coupling currents associated with the modelled current systems produce a readily-observable azimuthal field signature that bends the field lines out of magnetic meridians. Here we show the computed azimuthal fields produced by our model auroral current system throughout the region between the ionosphere and the magnetic equator, and illustrate the results by evaluation of various model parameters (e.g. field-aligned current density, accelerating voltages, accelerated

  14. Plasmons in Dimensionally Mismatched Coulomb Coupled Graphene Systems.

    PubMed

    Badalyan, S M; Shylau, A A; Jauho, A P

    2017-09-22

    We calculate the plasmon dispersion relation for Coulomb coupled metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons and doped monolayer graphene. The crossing of the plasmon curves, which occurs for uncoupled 1D and 2D systems, is split by the interlayer Coulomb coupling into a lower and an upper plasmon branch. The upper branch exhibits an unusual behavior with end points at finite q. Accordingly, the structure factor shows either a single or a double peak behavior, depending on the plasmon wavelength. The new plasmon structure is relevant to recent experiments, its properties can be controlled by varying the system parameters and be used in plasmonic applications.

  15. Enhancements to the SHARP Build System and NEK5000 Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alex; Bennett, Andrew R.; Billings, Jay Jay

    The SHARP project for the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program provides a multiphysics framework for coupled simulations of advanced nuclear reactor designs. It provides an overall coupling environment that utilizes custom interfaces to couple existing physics codes through a common spatial decomposition and unique solution transfer component. As of this writing, SHARP couples neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and structural mechanics using PROTEUS, Nek5000, and Diablo respectively. This report details two primary SHARP improvements regarding the Nek5000 and Diablo individual physics codes: (1) an improved Nek5000 coupling interface that lets SHARP achieve a vast increase inmore » overall solution accuracy by manipulating the structure of the internal Nek5000 spatial mesh, and (2) the capability to seamlessly couple structural mechanics calculations into the framework through improvements to the SHARP build system. The Nek5000 coupling interface now uses a barycentric Lagrange interpolation method that takes the vertex-based power and density computed from the PROTEUS neutronics solver and maps it to the user-specified, general-order Nek5000 spectral element mesh. Before this work, SHARP handled this vertex-based solution transfer in an averaging-based manner. SHARP users can now achieve higher levels of accuracy by specifying any arbitrary Nek5000 spectral mesh order. This improvement takes the average percentage error between the PROTEUS power solution and the Nek5000 interpolated result down drastically from over 23 % to just above 2 %, and maintains the correct power profile. We have integrated Diablo into the SHARP build system to facilitate the future coupling of structural mechanics calculations into SHARP. Previously, simulations involving Diablo were done in an iterative manner, requiring a large amount manual work, and left only as a task for advanced users. This report will detail a new Diablo build

  16. Existence of a coupled system of fractional differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Rabha W.; Siri, Zailan

    2015-10-22

    We manage the existence and uniqueness of a fractional coupled system containing Schrödinger equations. Such a system appears in quantum mechanics. We confirm that the fractional system under consideration admits a global solution in appropriate functional spaces. The solution is shown to be unique. The method is based on analytic technique of the fixed point theory. The fractional differential operator is considered from the virtue of the Riemann-Liouville differential operator.

  17. Radiofrequency Ablation of Renal Tumors with an Expandable Multitined Electrode: Results, Complications, and Pilot Evaluation of Cooled Pyeloperfusion for Collecting System Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Rouviere, Olivier; Badet, Lionel; Murat, Francois Joseph

    2008-05-15

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the results of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumors with an impedance-based system using an expandable multitined electrode. Twenty-two patients (30 tumors) were treated with RFA over a 7-year period, percutaneously (16 tumors) or intraoperatively (14 tumors). Follow-up imaging was performed at 1-3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. Twenty-seven of 30 tumors (19/22 patients) showed no residual tumor on the first imaging control. Two residual tumors were successfully ablated by a second RFA procedure. Our mean follow-up period was 35 months (range, 3-84 months). Two tumors that had beenmore » completely ablated based on imaging criteria recurred 11 and 48 months after RFA. One was treated by partial nephrectomy. The other one was not treated because the patient developed bone metastases. One patient had nephrectomy because of an RFA-induced ureteropelvic junction stricture. Nine patients (11 sessions) had a pyeloperfusion of cooled saline during RFA. None developed symptomatic complications, even though in three patients the ablation zone extended to the closest calyx (3-5 mm from the tumor). We conclude that RFA of renal tumors is promising, but serious complications to the collecting system must be taken into consideration. Prophylactic per-procedural cooling of the collecting system is feasible but needs further assessment.« less

  18. The coupled nonlinear dynamics of a lift system

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, Rafael Sánchez, E-mail: rafael.sanchezcrespo@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: phil.picton@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: huijuan.su@northampton.ac.uk; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan, E-mail: rafael.sanchezcrespo@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: phil.picton@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: huijuan.su@northampton.ac.uk; Picton, Phil, E-mail: rafael.sanchezcrespo@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: phil.picton@northampton.ac.uk, E-mail: huijuan.su@northampton.ac.uk

    2014-12-10

    Coupled lateral and longitudinal vibrations of suspension and compensating ropes in a high-rise lift system are often induced by the building motions due to wind or seismic excitations. When the frequencies of the building become near the natural frequencies of the ropes, large resonance motions of the system may result. This leads to adverse coupled dynamic phenomena involving nonplanar motions of the ropes, impact loads between the ropes and the shaft walls, as well as vertical vibrations of the car, counterweight and compensating sheave. Such an adverse dynamic behaviour of the system endangers the safety of the installation. This papermore » presents two mathematical models describing the nonlinear responses of a suspension/ compensating rope system coupled with the elevator car / compensating sheave motions. The models accommodate the nonlinear couplings between the lateral and longitudinal modes, with and without longitudinal inertia of the ropes. The partial differential nonlinear equations of motion are derived using Hamilton Principle. Then, the Galerkin method is used to discretise the equations of motion and to develop a nonlinear ordinary differential equation model. Approximate numerical solutions are determined and the behaviour of the system is analysed.« less

  19. Combined microwave ablation and systemic chemotherapy for liver metastases from oesophageal cancer: Preliminary results and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fubo; Yu, Xiaoling; Liang, Ping; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Yu, Jie; Liu, Fangyi; Tan, Shuilian; Dai, Guanghai; Bai, Li

    2016-08-01

    Oesophageal cancer is a highly aggressive disease with about 50% of patients presenting with advanced or metastatic disease at initial diagnosis. In this study we assessed combined microwave ablation (MWA) and systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of liver metastases arising from oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Between February 2009 and June 2014, OSCC patients who underwent percutaneous MWA + concurrent systemic chemotherapy and systemic chemotherapy alone for liver metastases were enrolled in this study. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were recorded and compared between groups. In total 15 patients with 25 liver metastases who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous MWA and chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Technical success was achieved in 96% (24/25) of metastatic liver tumours. No major or minor complications associated with MWA procedures were observed. The median OS and PFS from initial MWA were 13 months and 4 months. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-year OS rates after MWA were 53.3%, 26.7%, 13.3%, and 13.3%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year PFS rates after MWA were 26.7% and 13.3%. The OS and PFS of the MWA + systemic chemotherapy group were superior than those of patients who received systemic chemotherapy alone (P = 0.011 and 0.030, respectively). Combined MWA with systemic chemotherapy is a feasible, safe and effective treatment for liver metastases from OSCC.

  20. Transactive memory systems scale for couples: development and validation

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Lauren Y.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2015-01-01

    People in romantic relationships can develop shared memory systems by pooling their cognitive resources, allowing each person access to more information but with less cognitive effort. Research examining such memory systems in romantic couples largely focuses on remembering word lists or performing lab-based tasks, but these types of activities do not capture the processes underlying couples’ transactive memory systems, and may not be representative of the ways in which romantic couples use their shared memory systems in everyday life. We adapted an existing measure of transactive memory systems for use with romantic couples (TMSS-C), and conducted an initial validation study. In total, 397 participants who each identified as being a member of a romantic relationship of at least 3 months duration completed the study. The data provided a good fit to the anticipated three-factor structure of the components of couples’ transactive memory systems (specialization, credibility and coordination), and there was reasonable evidence of both convergent and divergent validity, as well as strong evidence of test–retest reliability across a 2-week period. The TMSS-C provides a valuable tool that can quickly and easily capture the underlying components of romantic couples’ transactive memory systems. It has potential to help us better understand this intriguing feature of romantic relationships, and how shared memory systems might be associated with other important features of romantic relationships. PMID:25999873

  1. 1D-3D coupling for hydraulic system transient simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Nilsson, Håkan; Yang, Jiandong; Petit, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a coupling between the 1D method of characteristics (MOC) and the 3D finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The coupling method is applied to compressible flow in hydraulic systems. The MOC code is implemented as a set of boundary conditions in the OpenFOAM open source CFD software. The coupling is realized by two linear equations originating from the characteristics equation and the Riemann constant equation, respectively. The coupling method is validated using three simple water hammer cases and several coupling configurations. The accuracy and robustness are investigated with respect to the mesh size ratio across the interface, and 3D flow features close to the interface. The method is finally applied to the transient flow caused by the closing and opening of a knife valve (gate) in a pipe, where the flow is driven by the difference in free surface elevation between two tanks. A small region surrounding the moving gate is resolved by CFD, using a dynamic mesh library, while the rest of the system is modeled by MOC. Minor losses are included in the 1D region, corresponding to the contraction of the flow from the upstream tank into the pipe, a separate stationary flow regulation valve, and a pipe bend. The results are validated with experimental data. A 1D solution is provided for comparison, using the static gate characteristics obtained from steady-state CFD simulations.

  2. Six-month follow-up of isthmus-dependent right atrial flutter ablation using a remote magnetic catheter navigation system: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yan; Hindricks, Gerhard; Piorkowski, Christopher; Bollmann, Andreas; Wetzel, Ulrike; Sommer, Phillip; Gaspar, Thomas; Kottkamp, Hans; Arya, Arash

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare results between the magnetic navigation system (MNS) and conventional catheter ablation of cavo-tricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent right atrial flutter (AFL) in a case control study. A remote MNS has been used for ablation of various arrhythmias including CTI-dependent AFL but comparative results between MNS and conventional ablation are not available. Between May and September 2007, a total of 51 consecutive patients (45 men, mean age 65.4 +/- 9.4 years) had undergone catheter ablation for CTI-dependent AFL. The catheter ablation (70 degrees C, 70 W, 90 s) was performed with either an 8-mm-tip magnetic catheter using MNS (case group, n = 26, 23 men, mean age 64.6 +/- 9.6 y) or a conventional 8-mm catheter (case group, n = 25, 22 men, mean age 65.4 +/- 9.1 y). Acute procedural success was defined as complete bidirectional isthmus block and success at six months was defined as absence of AFL during the six months follow-up. With respect to baseline characteristics there were no differences between the two groups. The procedure time in MNS and conventional group was [median (range)] 53 (30-130) min and 45 (30-100) min, respectively (P = 0.12). Acute success was achieved by MNS and conventional ablation in 25/26 (96.2%) and 25/25 (100%) of patients, respectively (P = 0.53). During the six months of follow-up 4 patients, 2 in each group, experienced recurrence (P = 0.90). No major complication occurred during the procedure. Charring on the catheter tip occurred in 5 patients (19.2%) in MNS and none of the patients in the control group (P <0.05). This case-control study demonstrated the acute and mid-term efficacy and safety of catheter ablation by MNS for CTI-dependent AFL, similar to rates achieved by conventional radiofrequency catheter ablation.

  3. Microwave tumor ablation: cooperative academic-industry development of a high-power gas-cooled system with early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J.; Schefelker, Rick; Hinshaw, J. L.; Lubner, Meghan G.; Lee, Fred T.

    2013-02-01

    Microwave tumor ablation continues to evolve into a viable treatment option for many cancers. Current systems are poised to supplant radiofrequency ablation as the dominant percutaneous thermal therapy. Here is provided an overview of technical details and early clinical results with a high-powered, gas-cooled microwave ablation system. The system was developed with academic-industry collaboration using federal and private funding. The generator comprises three synchronous channels that each produce up to 140W at 2.45GHz. A mountable power distribution module facilitates CT imaging guidance and monitoring and reduces clutter in the sterile field. Cryogenic carbon-dioxide cools the coaxial applicator, permitting a thin applicator profile (~1.5 mm diameter) and high power delivery. A total of 106 liver tumors were treated (96 malignant, 10 benign) from December 2010 to June 2012 at a single academic institution. Mean tumor size +/- standard deviation was 2.5+/-1.3cm (range 0.5-13.9cm). Treatment time was 5.4+/-3.3min (range 1-20min). Median follow-up was 6 months (range 1-16 months). Technical success was reported in 100% of cases. Local tumor progression was noted in 4/96 (4.3%) of malignancies. The only major complication was a pleural effusion that was treated with thoracentesis. Microwave ablation with this system is an effective treatment for liver cancer. Compared to previous data from the same institution, these results suggest an increased efficacy and equivalent safety to RF ablation. Additional data from the lung and kidney support this conclusion.

  4. Biocomplexity in coupled natural–human systems: a multidimensional framework

    Treesearch

    S.T.A. Pickett; M.L. Cadenasso; J.M. Grove

    2005-01-01

    As defined by Ascher, biocomplexity results from a "multiplicity of interconnected relationships and levels. "However, no integrative framework yet exists to facilitate the application of this concept to coupled human-natural systems. Indeed, the term "biocomplexity" is still used primarily as a creative and provocative metaphor. To help advance its...

  5. Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stošić, Dušan; Auroux, Aline

    Basic principles of calorimetry coupled with other techniques are introduced. These methods are used in heterogeneous catalysis for characterization of acidic, basic and red-ox properties of solid catalysts. Estimation of these features is achieved by monitoring the interaction of various probe molecules with the surface of such materials. Overview of gas phase, as well as liquid phase techniques is given. Special attention is devoted to coupled calorimetry-volumetry method. Furthermore, the influence of different experimental parameters on the results of these techniques is discussed, since it is known that they can significantly influence the evaluation of catalytic properties of investigated materials.

  6. A rapid and reliable method for Pb isotopic analysis of peat and lichens by laser ablation-quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for biomonitoring and sample screening.

    PubMed

    Kylander, M E; Weiss, D J; Jeffries, T E; Kober, B; Dolgopolova, A; Garcia-Sanchez, R; Coles, B J

    2007-01-16

    An analytical protocol for rapid and reliable laser ablation-quadrupole (LA-Q)- and multi-collector (MC-) inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of Pb isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) in peats and lichens is developed. This technique is applicable to source tracing atmospheric Pb deposition in biomonitoring studies and sample screening. Reference materials and environmental samples were dry ashed and pressed into pellets for introduction by laser ablation. No binder was used to reduce contamination. LA-MC-ICP-MS internal and external precisions were <1.1% and <0.3%, respectively, on both (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios. LA-Q-ICP-MS internal precisions on (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios were lower with values for the different sample sets <14.3% while external precisions were <2.9%. The level of external precision acquired in this study is high enough to distinguish between most modern Pb sources. LA-MC-ICP-MS measurements differed from thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) values by 1% or less while the accuracy obtained using LA-Q-ICP-MS compared to solution MC-ICP-MS was 3.1% or better using a run bracketing (RB) mass bias correction method. Sample heterogeneity and detector switching when measuring (208)Pb by Q-ICP-MS are identified as sources of reduced analytical performance.

  7. Infra-red and vibration tests of hybrid ablative/ceramic matrix technological breadboards for earth re-entry thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcena, Jorge; Garmendia, Iñaki; Triantou, Kostoula; Mergia, Konstatina; Perez, Beatriz; Florez, Sonia; Pinaud, Gregory; Bouilly, Jean-Marc; Fischer, Wolfgang P. P.

    2017-05-01

    A new thermal protection system for atmospheric earth re-entry is proposed. This concept combines the advantages of both reusable and ablative materials to establish a new hybrid concept with advanced capabilities. The solution consists of the design and the integration of a dual shield resulting on the overlapping of an external thin ablative layer with a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) thermo-structural core. This low density ablative material covers the relatively small heat peak encountered during re-entry the CMC is not able to bear. On the other hand the big advantage of the CMC based TPS is of great benefit which can deal with the high integral heat for the bigger time period of the re-entry. To verify the solution a whole testing plan is envisaged, which as part of it includes thermal shock test by infra-red heating (heating flux up to 1 MW/m2) and vibration test under launcher conditions (Volna and Ariane 5). Sub-scale tile samples (100×100 mm2) representative of the whole system (dual ablator/ceramic layers, insulation, stand-offs) are specifically designed, assembled and tested (including the integration of thermocouples). Both the thermal and the vibration test are analysed numerically by simulation tools using Finite Element Models. The experimental results are in good agreement with the expected calculated parameters and moreover the solution is qualified according to the specified requirements.

  8. Sustainability Indicators for Coupled Human-Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motesharrei, S.; Rivas, J. R.; Kalnay, E.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two centuries, the Human System went from having a small impact on the Earth System (including the Climate System) to becoming dominant, because both population and per capita consumption have grown extremely fast, especially since about 1950. We therefore argue that Human System Models must be included into Earth System Models through bidirectional couplings with feedbacks. In particular, population should be modeled endogenously, rather than exogenously as done currently in most Integrated Assessment Models. The growth of the Human System threatens to overwhelm the Carrying Capacity of the Earth System, and may be leading to catastrophic climate change and collapse. We propose a set of Ecological and Economic "Sustainability Indicators" that can employ large data-sets for developing and assessing effective mitigation and adaptation policies. Using the Human and Nature Dynamical Model (HANDY) and Coupled Human-Climate-Water Model (COWA), we carry out experiments with this set of Sustainability Indicators and show that they are applicable to various coupled systems including Population, Climate, Water, Energy, Agriculture, and Economy. Impact of nonrenewable resources and fossil fuels could also be understood using these indicators. We demonstrate interconnections of Ecological and Economic Indicators. Coupled systems often include feedbacks and can thus display counterintuitive dynamics. This makes it difficult for even experts to see coming catastrophes from just the raw data for different variables. Sustainability Indicators boil down the raw data into a set of simple numbers that cross their sustainability thresholds with a large time-lag before variables enter their catastrophic regimes. Therefore, we argue that Sustainability Indicators constitute a powerful but simple set of tools that could be directly used for making policies for sustainability.

  9. Framework of distributed coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yuanqiao; Huang, Liwen; Deng, Jian; Zhang, Jinfeng; Wang, Sisi; Wang, Lijun

    2006-05-01

    In order to research the interactions between the atmosphere and ocean as well as their important role in the intensive weather systems of coastal areas, and to improve the forecasting ability of the hazardous weather processes of coastal areas, a coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave modeling system has been developed. The agent-based environment framework for linking models allows flexible and dynamic information exchange between models. For the purpose of flexibility, portability and scalability, the framework of the whole system takes a multi-layer architecture that includes a user interface layer, computational layer and service-enabling layer. The numerical experiment presented in this paper demonstrates the performance of the distributed coupled modeling system.

  10. Hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature: Boosting palladium nanocrystals efficiency by coupling with copper via liquid phase pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hanbit; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Kim, Yujin; Lee, Seunghee; Ma, Rory; Lim, Manho; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2017-04-01

    Ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanomaterials have attracted much attention in the hydrogenation of highly toxic aromatic nitro compounds to aromatic amines owing to their high stability, superior activity, reusability, and unique optical and electronic properties, as compared to monometalic nanocrystals. However, the lack of facile and economically controllable strategies of producing highly pure ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanocatalysts limits their practical industrial applications. Considering the above obstacles, we present a simple and effective strategy for the formation of bimetallic (PdCu) nanocrystals by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation using a bulk Pd metal plate submerged in CuCl2 solutions with different concentrations, in contrast to the complex and costly experimental methods used previously. The microstructural and optical properties of the synthesized nanocrystals indicate that the obtained bimetallic nanostructures are highly pure and monodispersed. Moreover, bimetallic PdCu nanostructures show a higher catalytic activity than monometallic Pd nanocrystals for the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature, also exhibiting high stability for up to four recycles. The mechanism of the enhanced catalytic activity and stability of bimetallic nanocrystals is discussed in detail. Finally, we believe that the presented design strategy and utilization of bimetallic nanocrystals for catalytic applications enables the development of novel bimetallic nanostructures by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation and their catalytic application for environmental remediation.

  11. In Situ Determination of Trace Elements in Fish Otoliths by Laser Ablation Double Focusing Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Using a Solution Standard Addition Calibration Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Jones, C. M.

    2002-05-01

    Microchemistry of fish otoliths (fish ear bones) is a very useful tool for monitoring aquatic environments and fish migration. However, determination of the elemental composition in fish otolith by ICP-MS has been limited to either analysis of dissolved sample solution or measurement of limited number of trace elements by laser ablation (LA)- ICP-MS due to low sensitivity, lack of available calibration standards, and complexity of polyatomic molecular interference. In this study, a method was developed for in situ determination of trace elements in fish otoliths by laser ablation double focusing sector field ultra high sensitivity Finnigan Element 2 ICP-MS using a solution standard addition calibration method. Due to the lack of matrix-match solid calibration standards, sixteen trace elements (Na, Mg, P, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, Y, Cd, La, Ba, Pb and U) were determined using a solution standard calibration with Ca as an internal standard. Flexibility, easy preparation and stable signals are the advantages of using solution calibration standards. In order to resolve polyatomic molecular interferences, medium resolution (M/delta M > 4000) was used for some elements (Na, Mg, P, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu). Both external calibration and standard addition quantification strategies are compared and discussed. Precision, accuracy, and limits of detection are presented.

  12. Magnetotransport in Layered Dirac Fermion System Coupled with Magnetic Moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshiki; Morinari, Takao

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the magnetotransport of Dirac fermions coupled with localized moments to understand the physical properties of the Dirac material EuMnBi2. Using an interlayer hopping form, which simplifies the complicated interaction between the layers of Dirac fermions and the layers of magnetic moments in EuMnBi2, the theory reproduces most of the features observed in this system. The hysteresis observed in EuMnBi2 can be caused by the valley splitting that is induced by the spin-orbit coupling and the external magnetic field with the molecular field created by localized moments. Our theory suggests that the magnetotransport in EuMnBi2 is due to the interplay among Dirac fermions, localized moments, and spin-orbit coupling.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis for Coupled Aero-structural Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunta, Anthony A.

    1999-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for calculating gradients of aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for an aeroelastic aircraft model. This method uses the Global Sensitivity Equations (GSE) to account for the aero-structural coupling, and a reduced-order modal analysis approach to condense the coupling bandwidth between the aerodynamic and structural models. Parallel computing is applied to reduce the computational expense of the numerous high fidelity aerodynamic analyses needed for the coupled aero-structural system. Good agreement is obtained between aerodynamic force and moment gradients computed with the GSE/modal analysis approach and the same quantities computed using brute-force, computationally expensive, finite difference approximations. A comparison between the computational expense of the GSE/modal analysis method and a pure finite difference approach is presented. These results show that the GSE/modal analysis approach is the more computationally efficient technique if sensitivity analysis is to be performed for two or more aircraft design parameters.

  14. Integrative Systems Models of Cardiac Excitation Contraction Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Joseph L.; Winslow, Raimond L.

    2010-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling in the cardiac myocyte is mediated by a number of highly integrated mechanisms of intracellular Ca2+ transport. The complexity and integrative nature of heart cell electrophysiology and Ca2+-cycling has led to an evolution of computational models that have played a crucial role in shaping our understanding of heart function. An important emerging theme in systems biology is that the detailed nature of local signaling events, such as those that occur in the cardiac dyad, have important consequences at higher biological scales. Multi-scale modeling techniques have revealed many mechanistic links between micro-scale events, such as Ca2+ binding to a channel protein, and macro-scale phenomena, such as excitation-contraction coupling gain. Here we review experimentally based multi-scale computational models of excitation-contraction coupling and the insights that have been gained through their application. PMID:21212390

  15. Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, George; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2015-01-01

    An important challenge in several disciplines is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. A number of mathematical models of these phenomena have multiple equilibria separated by saddle-node bifurcations. We study this behaviour in its normal form as fast–slow ordinary differential equations. In our model, a system consists of multiple subsystems, such as countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem. Each subsystem is described by a scalar quantity, such as economic output or population, that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantity (e.g. trade couples economic output; diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves the locations of their bifurcations. The model demonstrates two ways in which sudden changes can propagate: they can cascade (one causing the next), or they can hop over subsystems. The latter is absent from classic models of cascades. For an application, we study the Arab Spring protests. After connecting the model to sociological theories that have bistability, we use socioeconomic data to estimate relative proximities to tipping points and Facebook data to estimate couplings among countries. We find that although protests tend to spread locally, they also seem to ‘hop' over countries, like in the stylized model; this result highlights a new class of temporal motifs in longitudinal network datasets. PMID:26559684

  16. Use of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-time of flight-mass spectrometry to identify the elemental composition of vanilla and determine the geographic origin by discriminant function analysis.

    PubMed

    Hondrogiannis, Ellen M; Ehrlinger, Erin; Poplaski, Alyssa; Lisle, Meredith

    2013-11-27

    A total of 11 elements found in 25 vanilla samples from Uganda, Madagascar, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea were measured by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS) for the purpose of collecting data that could be used to discriminate among the origins. Pellets were prepared of the samples, and elemental concentrations were obtained on the basis of external calibration curves created using five National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standards and one Chinese standard with (13)C internal standardization. These curves were validated using NIST 1573a (tomato leaves) as a check standard. Discriminant analysis was used to successfully classify the vanilla samples by their origin. Our method illustrates the feasibility of using LA-ICP-TOF-MS with an external calibration curve for high-throughput screening of spice screening analysis.

  17. Finite-size scaling in the system of coupled oscillators with heterogeneity in coupling strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyunsuk

    2017-07-01

    We consider a mean-field model of coupled phase oscillators with random heterogeneity in the coupling strength. The system that we investigate here is a minimal model that contains randomness in diverse values of the coupling strength, and it is found to return to the original Kuramoto model [Y. Kuramoto, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 79, 223 (1984), 10.1143/PTPS.79.223] when the coupling heterogeneity disappears. According to one recent paper [H. Hong, H. Chaté, L.-H. Tang, and H. Park, Phys. Rev. E 92, 022122 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.022122], when the natural frequency of the oscillator in the system is "deterministically" chosen, with no randomness in it, the system is found to exhibit the finite-size scaling exponent ν ¯=5 /4 . Also, the critical exponent for the dynamic fluctuation of the order parameter is found to be given by γ =1 /4 , which is different from the critical exponents for the Kuramoto model with the natural frequencies randomly chosen. Originally, the unusual finite-size scaling behavior of the Kuramoto model was reported by Hong et al. [H. Hong, H. Chaté, H. Park, and L.-H. Tang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184101 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.184101], where the scaling behavior is found to be characterized by the unusual exponent ν ¯=5 /2 . On the other hand, if the randomness in the natural frequency is removed, it is found that the finite-size scaling behavior is characterized by a different exponent, ν ¯=5 /4 [H. Hong, H. Chaté, L.-H. Tang, and H. Park, Phys. Rev. E 92, 022122 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.022122]. Those findings brought about our curiosity and led us to explore the effects of the randomness on the finite-size scaling behavior. In this paper, we pay particular attention to investigating the finite-size scaling and dynamic fluctuation when the randomness in the coupling strength is considered.

  18. On the sensitivity of complex, internally coupled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanskisobieski, Jaroslaw

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented for computing sensitivity derivatives with respect to independent (input) variables for complex, internally coupled systems, while avoiding the cost and inaccuracy of finite differencing performed on the entire system analysis. The method entails two alternative algorithms: the first is based on the classical implicit function theorem formulated on residuals of governing equations, and the second develops the system sensitivity equations in a new form using the partial (local) sensitivity derivatives of the output with respect to the input of each part of the system. A few application examples are presented to illustrate the discussion.

  19. Sensitivity based coupling strengths in complex engineering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloebaum, C. L.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The iterative design scheme necessary for complex engineering systems is generally time consuming and difficult to implement. Although a decomposition approach results in a more tractable problem, the inherent couplings make establishing the interdependencies of the various subsystems difficult. Another difficulty lies in identifying the most efficient order of execution for the subsystem analyses. The paper describes an approach for determining the dependencies that could be suspended during the system analysis with minimal accuracy losses, thereby reducing the system complexity. A new multidisciplinary testbed is presented, involving the interaction of structures, aerodynamics, and performance disciplines. Results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system reduction scheme.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Ablation.

    PubMed

    Hue, Yik-Kiong; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Cohen, Ouri; Nevo, Erez; Roth, Abraham; Ackerman, Jerome L

    2018-02-01

    To introduce magnetic resonance mediated radiofrequency ablation (MR-RFA), in which the MRI scanner uniquely serves both diagnostic and therapeutic roles. In MR-RFA scanner-induced RF heating is channeled to the ablation site via a Larmor frequency RF pickup device and needle system, and controlled via the pulse sequence. MR-RFA was evaluated with simulation of electric and magnetic fields to predict the increase in local specific-absorption-rate (SAR). Temperature-time profiles were measured for different configurations of the device in agar phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver in a 1.5 T scanner. Temperature rise in MR-RFA was imaged using the proton resonance frequency method validated with fiber-optic thermometry. MR-RFA was performed on the livers of two healthy live pigs. Simulations indicated a near tenfold increase in SAR at the RFA needle tip. Temperature-time profiles depended significantly on the physical parameters of the device although both configurations tested yielded temperature increases sufficient for ablation. Resected livers from live ablations exhibited clear thermal lesions. MR-RFA holds potential for integrating RF ablation tumor therapy with MRI scanning. MR-RFA may add value to MRI with the addition of a potentially disposable ablation device, while retaining MRI's ability to provide real time procedure guidance and measurement of tissue temperature, perfusion, and coagulation.

  1. Mode detuning in systems of weakly coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Ross L.; Robertson, Richard D.

    2001-11-01

    A system of weakly magnetically coupled oscillating blades is studied experimentally, computationally, and theoretically. It is found that when the uncoupled natural frequencies of the blades are nearly equal, the normal modes produced by the coupling are almost impossible to find experimentally if the random variation level in the system parameters is on the order of (or larger than) the relative differences between mode frequencies. But if the uncoupled natural frequencies are made to vary (detuned) in a smooth way such that the total relative spread in natural frequency exceeds the random variations, normal modes are rather easy to find. And if the detuned uncoupled frequencies of the system are parabolically distributed, the modes are found to be shaped like Hermite functions.

  2. Coupling vibration research on Vehicle-bridge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiguo; Wang, Guihua

    2018-01-01

    The vehicle-bridge coupling system forms when vehicle running on a bridge. It will generate a relatively large influence on the driving comfort and driving safe when the vibration of the vehicle is bigger. A three-dimensional vehicle-bridge system with biaxial seven degrees of freedom has been establish in this paper based on finite numerical simulation. Adopting the finite element transient numerical simulation to realize the numerical simulation of vehicle-bridge system coupling vibration. Then, analyze the dynamic response of vehicle and bridge while different numbers of vehicles running on the bridge. Got the variation rule of vertical vibration of car body and bridge, and that of the contact force between the wheel and bridge deck. The research results have a reference value for the analysis about the vehicle running on a large-span cabled bridge.

  3. Applications of laser ablation to microengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gower, Malcolm C.; Rizvi, Nadeem H.

    2000-08-01

    Applications of pulsed laser ablation to the manufacture of micro- electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) devices are presented. Laser ablative processes used to manufacture a variety of microsystems technology (MST) components in the computer peripheral, sensing and biomedical industries are described together with a view of some future developments.

  4. Full counting statistics in a serially coupled double quantum dot system with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Xue, Hai-Bin; Xie, Hai-Qing

    2018-04-01

    We study the full counting statistics of electron transport through a serially coupled double quantum dot (QD) system with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) weakly coupled to two electrodes. We demonstrate that the spin polarizations of the source and drain electrodes determine whether the shot noise maintains super-Poissonian distribution, and whether the sign transitions of the skewness from positive to negative values and of the kurtosis from negative to positive values take place. In particular, the interplay between the spin polarizations of the source and drain electrodes and the magnitude of the external magnetic field, can give rise to a gate-voltage-tunable strong negative differential conductance (NDC) and the shot noise in this NDC region is significantly enhanced. Importantly, for a given SOC parameter, the obvious variation of the high-order current cumulants as a function of the energy-level detuning in a certain range, especially the dip position of the Fano factor of the skewness can be used to qualitatively extract the information about the magnitude of the SOC.

  5. Possible role for cryoballoon ablation of right atrial appendage tachycardia when conventional ablation fails.

    PubMed

    Amasyali, Basri; Kilic, Ayhan

    2015-06-01

    Focal atrial tachycardia arising from the right atrial appendage usually responds well to radiofrequency ablation; however, successful ablation in this anatomic region can be challenging. Surgical excision of the right atrial appendage has sometimes been necessary to eliminate the tachycardia and prevent or reverse the resultant cardiomyopathy. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who had right atrial appendage tachycardia resistant to multiple attempts at ablation with use of conventional radiofrequency energy guided by means of a 3-dimensional mapping system. The condition led to cardiomyopathy in 3 months. The arrhythmia was successfully ablated with use of a 28-mm cryoballoon catheter that had originally been developed for catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cryoballoon ablation without isolation of the right atrial appendage. It might also be an alternative to epicardial ablation or surgery when refractory atrial tachycardia originates from the right atrial appendage.

  6. Diesel engine torsional vibration control coupling with speed control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yibin; Li, Wanyou; Yu, Shuwen; Han, Xiao; Yuan, Yunbo; Wang, Zhipeng; Ma, Xiuzhen

    2017-09-01

    The coupling problems between shafting torsional vibration and speed control system of diesel engine are very common. Neglecting the coupling problems sometimes lead to serious oscillation and vibration during the operation of engines. For example, during the propulsion shafting operation of a diesel engine, the oscillation of engine speed and the severe vibration of gear box occur which cause the engine is unable to operate. To find the cause of the malfunctions, a simulation model coupling the speed control system with the torsional vibration of deformable shafting is proposed and investigated. In the coupling model, the shafting is simplified to be a deformable one which consists of several inertias and shaft sections and with characteristics of torsional vibration. The results of instantaneous rotation speed from this proposed model agree with the test results very well and are successful in reflecting the real oscillation state of the engine operation. Furthermore, using the proposed model, the speed control parameters can be tuned up to predict the diesel engine a stable and safe running. The results from the tests on the diesel engine with a set of tuned control parameters are consistent with the simulation results very well.

  7. Optimal and Miniaturized Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hao

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies for communication and recharging devices have recently attracted significant research attention. Conventional WPT systems based either on far-field or near-field coupling cannot provide simultaneously high efficiency and long transfer range. The Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) method was introduced recently, and it offers the possibility of transferring power with high efficiency over longer distances. Previous SCMR research has only focused on how to improve its efficiency and range through different methods. However, the study of optimal and miniaturized designs has been limited. In addition, no multiband and broadband SCMR WPT systems have been developed and traditional SCMR systems exhibit narrowband efficiency thereby imposing strict limitations on simultaneous wireless transmission of information and power, which is important for battery-less sensors. Therefore, new SCMR systems that are optimally designed and miniaturized in size will significantly enhance various technologies in many applications. The optimal and miniaturized SCMR systems are studied here. First, analytical models of the Conformal SCMR (CSCMR) system and thorough analysis and design methodology have been presented. This analysis specifically leads to the identification of the optimal design parameters, and predicts the performance of the designed CSCMR system. Second, optimal multiband and broadband CSCMR systems are designed. Two-band, three-band, and four-band CSCMR systems are designed and validated using simulations and measurements. Novel broadband CSCMR systems are also analyzed, designed, simulated and measured. The proposed broadband CSCMR system achieved more than 7 times larger bandwidth compared to the traditional SCMR system at the same frequency. Miniaturization methods of SCMR systems are also explored. Specifically, methods that use printable CSCMR with large capacitors, novel topologies including meandered, SRRs, and

  8. From globally coupled maps to complex-systems biology

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Kunihiko, E-mail: kaneko@complex.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Studies of globally coupled maps, introduced as a network of chaotic dynamics, are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on novel concepts therein, which are universal in high-dimensional dynamical systems. They include clustering of synchronized oscillations, hierarchical clustering, chimera of synchronization and desynchronization, partition complexity, prevalence of Milnor attractors, chaotic itinerancy, and collective chaos. The degrees of freedom necessary for high dimensionality are proposed to equal the number in which the combinatorial exceeds the exponential. Future analysis of high-dimensional dynamical systems with regard to complex-systems biology is briefly discussed.

  9. Dissipation Assisted Quantum Memory with Coupled Spin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liang; Verstraete, Frank; Cirac, Ignacio; Lukin, Mikhail

    2009-05-01

    Dissipative dynamics often destroys quantum coherences. However, one can use dissipation to suppress decoherence. A well-known example is the so-called quantum Zeno effect, in which one can freeze the evolution using dissipative processes (e.g., frequently projecting the system to its initial state). Similarly, the undesired decoherence of quantum bits can also be suppressed using controlled dissipation. We propose and analyze the use of this generalization of quantum Zeno effect for protecting the quantum information encoded in the coupled spin systems. This new approach may potentially enhance the performance of quantum memories, in systems such as nitrogen-vacancy color-centers in diamond.

  10. Automatic quadrature control and measuring system. [using optical coupling circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A quadrature component cancellation and measuring system comprising a detection system for detecting the quadrature component from a primary signal, including reference circuitry to define the phase of the quadrature component for detection is described. A Raysistor optical coupling control device connects an output from the detection system to a circuit driven by a signal based upon the primary signal. Combining circuitry connects the primary signal and the circuit controlled by the Raysistor device to subtract quadrature components. A known current through the optically sensitive element produces a signal defining the magnitude of the quadrature component.

  11. Simulation of eye-tracker latency, spot size, and ablation pulse depth on the correction of higher order wavefront aberrations with scanning spot laser systems.

    PubMed

    Bueeler, Michael; Mrochen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this theoretical work was to investigate the robustness of scanning spot laser treatments with different laser spot diameters and peak ablation depths in case of incomplete compensation of eye movements due to eye-tracker latency. Scanning spot corrections of 3rd to 5th Zernike order wavefront errors were numerically simulated. Measured eye-movement data were used to calculate the positioning error of each laser shot assuming eye-tracker latencies of 0, 5, 30, and 100 ms, and for the case of no eye tracking. The single spot ablation depth ranged from 0.25 to 1.0 microm and the spot diameter from 250 to 1000 microm. The quality of the ablation was rated by the postoperative surface variance and the Strehl intensity ratio, which was calculated after a low-pass filter was applied to simulate epithelial surface smoothing. Treatments performed with nearly ideal eye tracking (latency approximately 0) provide the best results with a small laser spot (0.25 mm) and a small ablation depth (250 microm). However, combinations of a large spot diameter (1000 microm) and a small ablation depth per pulse (0.25 microm) yield the better results for latencies above a certain threshold to be determined specifically. Treatments performed with tracker latencies in the order of 100 ms yield similar results as treatments done completely without eye-movement compensation. CONCWSIONS: Reduction of spot diameter was shown to make the correction more susceptible to eye movement induced error. A smaller spot size is only beneficial when eye movement is neutralized with a tracking system with a latency <5 ms.

  12. Coupling System Design Optimization : A Survey and Assessment of Automatic Coupling Concepts for Rail Freight Cars : Volume 1. Executive Summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an independent identification, classification, and analysis of significant freight car coupling systems concepts offering potential for improved safety and operating costs over the present system. The basic met...

  13. Energy Exchange in Driven Open Quantum Systems at Strong Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrega, Matteo; Solinas, Paolo; Sassetti, Maura; Weiss, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    The time-dependent energy transfer in a driven quantum system strongly coupled to a heat bath is studied within an influence functional approach. Exact formal expressions for the statistics of energy dissipation into the different channels are derived. The general method is applied to the driven dissipative two-state system. It is shown that the energy flows obey a balance relation, and that, for strong coupling, the interaction may constitute the major dissipative channel. Results in analytic form are presented for the particular value K =1/2 of strong Ohmic dissipation. The energy flows show interesting behaviors including driving-induced coherences and quantum stochastic resonances. It is found that the general characteristics persists for K near 1/2 .

  14. Synchronization behaviors of coupled systems composed of hidden attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ge; Wu, Fuqiang; Wang, Chunni; Ma, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Based on a class of chaotic system composed of hidden attractors, in which the equilibrium points are described by a circular function, complete synchronization between two identical systems, pattern formation and synchronization of network is investigated, respectively. A statistical factor of synchronization is defined and calculated by using the mean field theory, the dependence of synchronization on bifurcation parameters discussed in numerical way. By setting a chain network, which local kinetic is described by hidden attractors, synchronization approach is investigated. It is found that the synchronization and pattern formation are dependent on the coupling intensity and also the selection of coupling variables. In the end, open problems are proposed for readers’ extensive guidance and investigation.

  15. Mediterranea Forecasting System: a focus on wave-current coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementi, Emanuela; Delrosso, Damiano; Pistoia, Jenny; Drudi, Massimiliano; Fratianni, Claudia; Grandi, Alessandro; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Tonani, Marina

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) is a numerical ocean prediction system that produces analyses, reanalyses and short term forecasts for the entire Mediterranean Sea and its Atlantic Ocean adjacent areas. MFS became operational in the late 90's and has been developed and continuously improved in the framework of a series of EU and National funded programs and is now part of the Copernicus Marine Service. The MFS is composed by the hydrodynamic model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) 2-way coupled with the third generation wave model WW3 (WaveWatchIII) implemented in the Mediterranean Sea with 1/16 horizontal resolution and forced by ECMWF atmospheric fields. The model solutions are corrected by the data assimilation system (3D variational scheme adapted to the oceanic assimilation problem) with a daily assimilation cycle, using a background error correlation matrix varying seasonally and in different sub-regions of the Mediterranean Sea. The focus of this work is to present the latest modelling system upgrades and the related achieved improvements. In order to evaluate the performance of the coupled system a set of experiments has been built by coupling the wave and circulation models that hourly exchange the following fields: the sea surface currents and air-sea temperature difference are transferred from NEMO model to WW3 model modifying respectively the mean momentum transfer of waves and the wind speed stability parameter; while the neutral drag coefficient computed by WW3 model is passed to NEMO that computes the turbulent component. In order to validate the modelling system, numerical results have been compared with in-situ and remote sensing data. This work suggests that a coupled model might be capable of a better description of wave-current interactions, in particular feedback from the ocean to the waves might assess an improvement on the prediction capability of wave characteristics, while suggests to proceed toward a fully

  16. Compact 1.5-GHz intra-burst repetition rate Yb-doped all-PM-fiber laser system for ablation-cooled material removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcaalan, Onder; Kalaycioglu, Hamit; Ilday, F. Omer

    Although fs fiber laser systems are powerful technologies for material and tissue processing, limited ablation rates and high energy are drawbacks. Recently, we identified a new regime of laser-material interaction, ablation-cooled laser material removal, where the repetition rate has to be high enough so that the targeted spot size cannot cool down substantially by heat conduction which scales down ablation threshold by several orders of magnitude and reduces thermal effects to the bulk of the target. This opens the door to simplified laser systems for processing. In order to exploit this regime in tissue processing, a compact all-PM-fiber laser amplifier system with an intra-burst repetition rate of 1.5 GHz is developed on a 40 x 65 cm platform. The system is able to produce bursts ranging from 20-ns to 65-ns duration with 20 uJ to 80 uJ total energy, respectively, and pulses with up to 2 uJ individual energy and burst repetition rate ranging from 25 kHz to 200 kHz. The seed signal is generated by a home-built all-normal dispersion oscillator with 385 MHz repetition rate and converted to approximately 1.5 GHz by a multiplier. Amplified pulses are compressed to approximately 250-fs, the shortest pulse width for burst-mode fiber laser systems known to date.

  17. Equations of motion for coupled n-body systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program, developed to analyze spacecraft attitude dynamics, can be applied to large class of problems involving objects that can be simplified into component parts. Systems of coupled rigid bodies, point masses, symmetric wheels, and elastically flexible bodies can be analyzed. Program derives complete set of non-linear equations of motion in vectordyadic format. Numerical solutions may be printed out. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on IBM 360.

  18. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  19. Configurational coupled cluster approach with applications to magnetic model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Siyuan; Nooijen, Marcel

    2018-05-01

    A general exponential, coupled cluster like, approach is discussed to extract an effective Hamiltonian in configurational space, as a sum of 1-body, 2-body up to n-body operators. The simplest two-body approach is illustrated by calculations on simple magnetic model systems. A key feature of the approach is that equations up to a certain rank do not depend on higher body cluster operators.

  20. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  1. Central- and autonomic nervous system coupling in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Steffen; Bolz, Mathias; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been well described in schizophrenia (SZ), a severe mental disorder. Nevertheless, the coupling between the ANS and central brain activity has been not addressed until now in SZ. The interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and ANS need to be considered as a feedback–feed-forward system that supports flexible and adaptive responses to specific demands. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, this study investigates central–autonomic couplings (CAC) studying heart rate, blood pressure and electroencephalogram in paranoid schizophrenic patients, comparing them with age–gender-matched healthy subjects (CO). The emphasis is to determine how these couplings are composed by the different regulatory aspects of the CNS–ANS. We found that CAC were bidirectional, and that the causal influence of central activity towards systolic blood pressure was more strongly pronounced than such causal influence towards heart rate in paranoid schizophrenic patients when compared with CO. In paranoid schizophrenic patients, the central activity was a much stronger variable, being more random and having fewer rhythmic oscillatory components. This study provides a more in-depth understanding of the interplay of neuronal and autonomic regulatory processes in SZ and most likely greater insights into the complex relationship between psychotic stages and autonomic activity. PMID:27044986

  2. A coupled "AB" system: Rogue waves and modulation instabilities.

    PubMed

    Wu, C F; Grimshaw, R H J; Chow, K W; Chan, H N

    2015-10-01

    Rogue waves are unexpectedly large and localized displacements from an equilibrium position or an otherwise calm background. For the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model widely used in fluid mechanics and optics, these waves can occur only when dispersion and nonlinearity are of the same sign, a regime of modulation instability. For coupled NLS equations, rogue waves will arise even if dispersion and nonlinearity are of opposite signs in each component as new regimes of modulation instability will appear in the coupled system. The same phenomenon will be demonstrated here for a coupled "AB" system, a wave-current interaction model describing baroclinic instability processes in geophysical flows. Indeed, the onset of modulation instability correlates precisely with the existence criterion for rogue waves for this system. Transitions from "elevation" rogue waves to "depression" rogue waves are elucidated analytically. The dispersion relation as a polynomial of the fourth order may possess double pairs of complex roots, leading to multiple configurations of rogue waves for a given set of input parameters. For special parameter regimes, the dispersion relation reduces to a cubic polynomial, allowing the existence criterion for rogue waves to be computed explicitly. Numerical tests correlating modulation instability and evolution of rogue waves were conducted.

  3. Atrial fibrillation ablation using a closed irrigation radiofrequency ablation catheter.

    PubMed

    Golden, Keith; Mounsey, John Paul; Chung, Eugene; Roomiani, Pahresah; Morse, Michael Andew; Patel, Ankit; Gehi, Anil

    2012-05-01

    Catheter ablation is an effective therapy for symptomatic, medically refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). Open-irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation catheters produce transmural lesions at the cost of increased fluid delivery. In vivo models suggest closed-irrigated RF catheters create equivalent lesions, but clinical outcomes are limited. A cohort of 195 sequential patients with symptomatic AF underwent stepwise AF ablation (AFA) using a closed-irrigation ablation catheter. Recurrence of AF was monitored and outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. Mean age was 59.0 years, 74.9% were male, 56.4% of patients were paroxysmal and mean duration of AF was 5.4 years. Patients had multiple comorbidities including hypertension (76.4%), tobacco abuse (42.1%), diabetes (17.4%), and obesity (mean body mass index 30.8). The median follow-up was 55.8 weeks. Overall event-free survival was 73.6% with one ablation and 77.4% after reablation (reablation rate was 8.7%). Median time to recurrence was 26.9 weeks. AF was more likely to recur in patients being treated with antiarrhythmic therapy at the time of last follow-up (recurrence rate 30.3% with antiarrhythmic drugs, 13.2% without antiarrhythmic drugs; hazard ratio [HR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.4, P = 0.024) and in those with a history of AF greater than 2 years duration (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.9, P = 0.038). Our study represents the largest cohort of patients receiving AFA with closed-irrigation ablation catheters. We demonstrate comparable outcomes to those previously reported in studies of open-irrigation ablation catheters. Given the theoretical benefits of a closed-irrigation system, a large head-to-head comparison using this catheter is warranted. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Optimization of coupled systems: A critical overview of approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balling, R. J.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1994-01-01

    A unified overview is given of problem formulation approaches for the optimization of multidisciplinary coupled systems. The overview includes six fundamental approaches upon which a large number of variations may be made. Consistent approach names and a compact approach notation are given. The approaches are formulated to apply to general nonhierarchic systems. The approaches are compared both from a computational viewpoint and a managerial viewpoint. Opportunities for parallelism of both computation and manpower resources are discussed. Recommendations regarding the need for future research are advanced.

  5. Fronts in extended systems of bistable maps coupled via convolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, Ricardo; Fernandez, Bastien

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of front dynamics in discrete time and spatially extended systems with general bistable nonlinearity is presented. The spatial coupling is given by the convolution with distribution functions. It allows us to treat in a unified way discrete, continuous or partly discrete and partly continuous diffusive interactions. We prove the existence of fronts and the uniqueness of their velocity. We also prove that the front velocity depends continuously on the parameters of the system. Finally, we show that every initial configuration that is an interface between the stable phases propagates asymptotically with the front velocity.

  6. Generalized synchronization in relay systems with instantaneous coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, R.; Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; Piedrahita, P.; Finke, C.; Feudel, U.; Buldú, J. M.; Huerta-Cuellar, G.; Jaimes-Reátegui, R.; Moreno, Y.; Boccaletti, S.

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate the existence of generalized synchronization in systems that act as mediators between two dynamical units that, in turn, show complete synchronization with each other. These are the so-called relay systems. Specifically, we analyze the Lyapunov spectrum of the full system to elucidate when complete and generalized synchronization appear. We show that once a critical coupling strength is achieved, complete synchronization emerges between the systems to be synchronized, and at the same point, generalized synchronization with the relay system also arises. Next, we use two nonlinear measures based on the distance between phase-space neighbors to quantify the generalized synchronization in discretized time series. Finally, we experimentally show the robustness of the phenomenon and of the theoretical tools here proposed to characterize it.

  7. Head-coupled remote stereoscopic camera system for telepresence applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolas, Mark T.; Fisher, Scott S.

    1990-09-01

    The Virtual Environment Workstation Project (VIEW) at NASA's Ames Research Center has developed a remotely controlled stereoscopic camera system that can be used for telepresence research and as a tool to develop and evaluate configurations for head-coupled visual systems associated with space station telerobots and remote manipulation robotic arms. The prototype camera system consists of two lightweight CCD video cameras mounted on a computer controlled platform that provides real-time pan, tilt, and roll control of the camera system in coordination with head position transmitted from the user. This paper provides an overall system description focused on the design and implementation of the camera and platform hardware configuration and the development of control software. Results of preliminary performance evaluations are reported with emphasis on engineering and mechanical design issues and discussion of related psychophysiological effects and objectives.

  8. Development of double-pulse lasers ablation system for generating gold ion source under applying an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Double-pulse lasers ablation (DPLA) technique was developed to generate gold (Au) ion source and produce high current under applying an electric potential in an argon ambient gas environment. Two Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers operating at 1064 and 266 nm wavelengths are combined in an unconventional orthogonal (crossed-beam) double-pulse configuration with 45° angle to focus on a gold target along with a spectrometer for spectral analysis of gold plasma. The properties of gold plasma produced under double-pulse lasers excitation were studied. The velocity distribution function (VDF) of the emitted plasma was studied using a dedicated Faraday-cup ion probe (FCIP) under argon gas discharge. The experimental parameters were optimized to attain the best signal to noise (S/N) ratio. The results depicted that the VDF and current signals depend on the discharge applied voltage, laser intensity, laser wavelength and ambient argon gas pressure. A seven-fold increases in the current signal by increasing the discharge applied voltage and ion velocity under applying double-pulse lasers field. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and density) were also studied and their dependence on the delay (times between the excitation laser pulse and the opening of camera shutter) was investigated as well. This study could provide significant reference data for the optimization and design of DPLA systems engaged in laser induced plasma deposition thin films and facing components diagnostics.

  9. Impact of radiofrequency ablation for patients with varicose veins on the budget of the German statutory health insurance system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In contrast to other countries, surgery still represents the common invasive treatment for varicose veins in Germany. However, radiofrequency ablation, e.g. ClosureFast, becomes more and more popular in other countries due to potential better results and reduced side effects. This treatment option may cause less follow-up costs and is a more convenient procedure for patients, which could justify an introduction in the statutory benefits catalogue. Therefore, we aim at calculating the budget impact of a general reimbursement of ClosureFast in Germany. Methods To assess the budget impact of including ClosureFast in the German statutory benefits catalogue, we developed a multi-cohort Markov model and compared the costs of a “World with ClosureFast” with a “World without ClosureFast” over a time horizon of five years. To address the uncertainty of input parameters, we conducted three different types of sensitivity analysis (one-way, scenario, probabilistic). Results In the Base Case scenario, the introduction of the ClosureFast system for the treatment of varicose veins saves costs of about 19.1 Mio. € over a time horizon of five years in Germany. However, the results scatter in the sensitivity analyses due to limited evidence of some key input parameters. Conclusions Results of the budget impact analysis indicate that a general reimbursement of ClosureFast has the potential to be cost-saving in the German Statutory Health Insurance. PMID:23551943

  10. A novel simulation theory and model system for multi-field coupling pipe-flow system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Jiang, Fan; Cai, Guobiao; Xu, Xu

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lack of a theoretical basis for multi-field coupling in many system-level models, a novel set of system-level basic equations for flow/heat transfer/combustion coupling is put forward. Then a finite volume model of quasi-1D transient flow field for multi-species compressible variable-cross-section pipe flow is established by discretising the basic equations on spatially staggered grids. Combining with the 2D axisymmetric model for pipe-wall temperature field and specific chemical reaction mechanisms, a finite volume model system is established; a set of specific calculation methods suitable for multi-field coupling system-level research is structured for various parameters in this model; specific modularisation simulation models can be further derived in accordance with specific structures of various typical components in a liquid propulsion system. This novel system can also be used to derive two sub-systems: a flow/heat transfer two-field coupling pipe-flow model system without chemical reaction and species diffusion; and a chemical equilibrium thermodynamic calculation-based multi-field coupling system. The applicability and accuracy of two sub-systems have been verified through a series of dynamic modelling and simulations in earlier studies. The validity of this system is verified in an air-hydrogen combustion sample system. The basic equations and the model system provide a unified universal theory and numerical system for modelling and simulation and even virtual testing of various pipeline systems.

  11. RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J.

    2013-12-04

    The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtainedmore » Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.« less

  12. Theoretical study on perpendicular magnetoelectric coupling in ferroelectromagnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Chonggui; Jiang, Qing

    2002-06-01

    We apply the Heisenberg model for antiferromagnetic interaction and Diffour model for ferroelectric interaction to analyze the magnetic, electric, magnetoelectric property in the system with the spontaneous coexistence of the ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic orders below a certain temperature. The soft mode theory is used to calculate the on-site polarization and mean field theory is applied to deal with the on-site magnetization. We also present the perpendicular magnetoelectric susceptibility χme⊥, polarization susceptibility χp as a function of temperature, and discuss the effect of the inherent magnetoelectric coupling on them. In addition, it is found that an anomaly appears in the curve of the polarization susceptibility due to the coupling between the ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic orders.

  13. In-office rapid volumetric ablation of uterine fibroids under ultrasound imaging guidance: Preclinical and early clinical experience with the Mirabilis transabdominal HIFU treatment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, José G. Garza; León, Ivan Hernandez; Sáenz, Lorena Castillo; Aguirre, Juan M. Aguilar; Lagos, Joel J. Islas; Parsons, Jessica E.; Darlington, Gregory P.; Lau, Michael P. H.

    2017-03-01

    Mirabilis Medica, Inc. (Bothell, WA, USA) has developed a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system for producing rapid transabdominal volumetric ablation of uterine fibroids in an office-based setting. The Mirabilis HIFU Treatment System utilizes integrated ultrasound imaging guidance and short treatment times under 15 minutes. Treatment with the Mirabilis system is generally well tolerated using only oral analgesia without anesthesia or sedation. This paper summarizes certain technical aspects of the Mirabilis HIFU technology, the preclinical development process, and the results of the first in-human clinical study using the Mirabilis system. During preclinical studies, an in vivo transcutaneous porcine lower extremity model was used in a total of 180 adult swine to develop the HIFU treatment regimen parameters. Additionally, 108 excised human uteri with fibroids obtained from scheduled hysterectomies were treated in an ex vivo experimental setup and evaluated. These preclinical activities resulted in a HIFU treatment technique referred to as Mirabilis Shell Ablation, which enables rapid volumetric fibroid ablation by directing the HIFU energy to the outer perimeter of the target volume (the `shell') without insonating its core. This method results in efficient fibroid treatment through a synergistic combination of direct tissue ablation, cooperative heating effects, and indirect ischemic necrosis in the interior of the volume. After refining this technique and performing safety testing in the in vivo porcine model, a clinical pilot study was conducted to assess the initial safety and performance of the Mirabilis HIFU Treatment System for transabdominal treatment of uterine fibroids in eligible women who were scheduled to undergo hysterectomy following treatment with the device. A total of 37 women meeting certain eligibility criteria were treated at two clinical sites in Mexico. Twenty-nine (29) of these 37 women received only prophylactic sublingual

  14. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Physics of Hypersonic Flow and TPS Considerations. Destinations, Missions and Requirements. State of the Art Thermal Protection Systems Capabilities. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS. Entry Systems Concepts. Flexible TPS for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators. Conformal TPS for Rigid Aeroshell. 3-D Woven TPS for Extreme Entry Environment. Multi-functional Carbon Fabric for Mechanically Deployable.

  15. Study of magnetization switching in coupled magnetic nanostructured systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Cosmin

    A study of magnetization dynamics experiments in nanostructured materials using the rf susceptibility tunnel diode oscillator (TDO) method is presented along with a extensive theoretical analysis. An original, computer controlled experimental setup that measures the change in susceptibility with the variation in external magnetic field and sample temperature was constructed. The TDO-based experiment design and construction is explained in detail, showing all the elements of originality. This experimental technique has proven reliable for characterizing samples with uncoupled magnetic structure and various magnetic anisotropies like: CrO2, FeCo/IrMn and Co/SiO2 thin films. The TDO was subsequently used to explore the magnetization switching in coupled magnetic systems, like synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) structures. Magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) is an important example of devices where the use of SAF structure is essential. To support the understanding of the SAF magnetic behavior, its configuration and application are reviewed and more details are provided in an appendix. Current problems in increasing the scalability and decreasing the error rate of MRAM devices are closely connected to the switching properties of the SAF structures. Several theoretical studies that were devoted to the understanding of the concepts of SAF critical curve are reviewed. As one can notice, there was no experimental determination of SAF critical curve, due to the difficulties in characterizing a magnetic coupled structure. Depending of the coupling strength between the two ferromagnetic layers, on the SAF critical curve one distinguishes several new features, inexistent in the case of uncoupled systems. Knowing the configuration of the SAF critical curve is of great importance in order to control its switching characteristics. For the first time a method of experimentally recording the critical curve for SAF is proposed in this work. In order to overcome technological

  16. Systemic Ablation of MMP-9 Triggers Invasive Growth and Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer via Deregulation of IL6 Expression in the Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, Barbara; Vandooren, Jennifer; Gerg, Michael; Ahomaa, Kaarin; Hunger, Annique; Berchtold, Sonja; Akbareian, Sophia; Schaten, Susanne; Knolle, Percy; Edwards, Dylan R; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Krüger, Achim

    2016-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9/Gelatinase B) is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and plays a central role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Here we complemented mechanistic insights in the cancer biology of MMP-9 and investigated the effects of specific long-term loss-of-function, by genetic ablation, of MMP-9 on PDAC initiation and progression in the well-established KPC mouse model of spontaneous PDAC. Tumor growth and progression were analyzed by histopathology and IHC. Invasive growth of PDAC cells was analyzed by both in vitro (proliferation, survival, migration, invasion assays) and in vivo (experimental metastasis assays) methods. Retroviral shRNAi was used to knockdown target genes (MMP-9, IL6R). Gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR, immunoblot, ELISA, in situ hybridization, and zymography. PDAC tumors from MMP-9-deficient mice were dramatically larger, more invasive, and contained more stroma. Yet, ablation of MMP-9 in PDAC cells did not directly promote invasive growth. Interestingly, systemic ablation of MMP-9 led to increased IL6 levels resulting from abrogation of MMP-9-dependent SCF signaling in the bone marrow. IL6 levels in MMP-9 -/- mice were sufficient to induce invasive growth and STAT3 activation in PDAC cells via IL6 receptor (IL6R). Interference with IL6R blocked the increased invasion and metastasis of PDAC cells in MMP-9-deficient hosts. In conclusion, ablation of systemic MMP-9 initiated fatal communication between maintenance of physiological functions of MMP-9 in the bone marrow and invasive growth of PDAC via the IL6/IL6R/STAT3 axis. Thus, the beneficial effects of host MMP-9 on PDAC are an important caveat for the use of systemic MMP-9 inhibitors in cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 14(11); 1147-58. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Novel robotic catheter manipulation system integrated with remote magnetic navigation for fully remote ablation of atrial tachyarrhythmias: a two-centre evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nölker, Georg; Gutleben, Klaus-Jürgen; Muntean, Bogdan; Vogt, Jürgen; Horstkotte, Dieter; Dabiri Abkenari, Lara; Akca, Ferdi; Szili-Torok, Tamas

    2012-12-01

    Studies have shown that remote magnetic navigation is safe and effective for ablation of atrial arrhythmias, although optimal outcomes often require frequent manual manipulation of a circular mapping catheter. The Vdrive robotic system ('Vdrive') was designed for remote navigation of circular mapping catheters to enable a fully remote procedure. This study details the first human clinical experience with remote circular catheter manipulation in the left atrium. This was a prospective, multi-centre, non-randomized consecutive case series that included patients presenting for catheter ablation of left atrial arrhythmias. Remote systems were used exclusively to manipulate both the circular mapping catheter and the ablation catheter. Patients were followed through hospital discharge. Ninety-four patients were included in the study, including 23 with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), 48 with persistent AF, and 15 suffering from atrial tachycardias. The population was predominately male (77%) with a mean age of 60.5 ± 11.7 years. The Vdrive was used for remote navigation between veins, creation of chamber maps, and gap identification with segmental isolation. The intended acute clinical endpoints were achieved in 100% of patients. Mean case time was 225.9 ± 70.5 min. Three patients (3.2%) crossed over to manual circular mapping catheter navigation. There were no adverse events related to the use of the remote manipulation system. The results of this study demonstrate that remote manipulation of a circular mapping catheter in the ablation of atrial arrhythmias is feasible and safe. Prospective randomized studies are needed to prove efficiency improvements over manual techniques.

  18. First experience with zero-fluoroscopic ablation for supraventricular tachycardias using a novel impedance and magnetic-field-based mapping system.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Katie A; Galvin, Joseph; Keaney, John; Keelan, Edward; Szeplaki, Gabor

    2018-02-23

    Zero- and near-zero-fluoroscopic ablation techniques reduce the harmful effects of ionizing radiation during invasive electrophysiology procedures. We aimed to test the feasibility and safety of a zero-fluoroscopic strategy using a novel integrated magnetic and impedance-based electroanatomical mapping system for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs). We retrospectively studied 92 consecutive patients undergoing electrophysiology studies with/without RFA for supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) performed by a single operator at a single center. The first 42 (Group 1) underwent a conventional fluoroscopic-guided approach and the second 50 (Group 2) underwent a zero-fluoroscopic approach using the Ensite Precision ™ 3-D magnetic and impedance-based mapping system (Abbott Inc). Group 1 comprised 14 AV-nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT), 12 typical atrial flutter, 4 accessory pathway (AP), 2 atrial tachycardia (AT), and 9 diagnostic EP studies (EPS). Group 2 comprised 16 AVNRT, 17 atrial flutter, 6 AP, 3 AT, 2 AV-nodal ablations, and 7 EPS. A complete zero-fluoroscopic approach was achieved in 94% of Group 2 patients. All procedures were acutely successful, and no complications occurred. There was a significant reduction in fluoroscopy dose, dose area product, and time (p < 0.0001, for all), with no difference in procedure times. Ablation time for typical atrial flutter was shorter in Group 2 (p = 0.006). A zero-fluoroscopic strategy for diagnosis and treatment of SVTs using this novel 3D-electroanatomical mapping system is feasible in majority of patients, is safe, reduces ionizing radiation exposure, and does not compromise procedural times, success rates, or complication rates.

  19. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Unexpected systematic degeneracy in a system of two coupled Gaudin models with homogeneous couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbe, B.; Schliemann, J.

    2010-12-01

    We report an unexpected systematic degeneracy between different multiplets in an inversion symmetric system of two coupled Gaudin models with homogeneous couplings, as occurring for example in the context of solid state quantum information processing. We construct the full degenerate subspace (being of macroscopic dimension), which turns out to lie in the kernel of the commutator between the two Gaudin models and the coupling term. Finally we investigate to what extent the degeneracy is related to the inversion symmetry of the system and find that indeed there is a large class of systems showing the same type of degeneracy.

  20. Enhancing the Relationship Adjustment of South Asian Canadian Couples Using a Systemic-Constructivist Approach to Couple Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Saunia; Reid, David W

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT) in improving the relationship adjustment of South Asian Canadian couples in ways that attend to their culture was evaluated. The SCCT interventions engage partners in reflexive processing of both their own and their partner's ways of construing, and the reciprocity between these two. A core change mechanism of SCCT, couple identity ("we-ness"), that connotes the ability for thinking and experiencing relationally, was coded from verbatim transcripts of partners' within-session dialogue. As predicted, South Asian partners' relationship adjustment improved significantly from the first to final session of SCCT, and concurrent increases in each partner's couple identity mediated such improvements. The implications for considering culture and couple identity in couple therapy are discussed. Video Abstract is found in the online version of the article. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  1. Improved performance of selective ablation using a specially designed handpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Thomas; Rechmann, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Selective ablation is fixed to a range of fluences predicted by the ablation thresholds of infected and healthy tooth structures respectively. The aim of the study was to develop a dental handpiece, which guarantees homogeneous fluence at the irradiated tooth surface. Furthermore the point of treatment should be cooled down without energy losses due to the cooling system. We suggest the direct coupling of the laser radiation into a laminar stream of liquid, which may act in turn as a lengthened beam guide. The impacts of the laser radiation and of the cooling medium hit exactly the same point. Hot ablation debris is removed out of the crater by the flush of the water jet. While the surface of a bare fiber working on contact mode is destroyed after a few shots, it was shown that coupling the laser radiation into a stream of liquid prevents this destruction. Putting together the benefits of this special handpiece short overall treatment times seem to be possible. High average power can be applied to the tooth without the threat of thermal damage. Furthermore no time consuming cutting of the fiber prolongs the treatment time.

  2. Mechanical Analyses for coupled Vegetation-Flow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Acharya, K.; Stone, M.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation in riparian areas plays important roles in hydrology, geomorphology and ecology in local environment. Mechanical response of the aquatic vegetation to hydraulic forces and its impact on flow hydraulics have received considerable attention due to implications for flood control, habitat restoration, and water resources management. This study aims to advance understanding of the mechanical properties of in-stream vegetation including drag force, moment and stress. Dynamic changes of these properties under various flow conditions largely determine vegetation affected flow field and dynamic resistance with progressive bending, and hydraulic conditions for vegetation failure (rupture or wash-out) thus are critical for understanding the coupled vegetation-flow system. A new approach combining fluid and material mechanics is developed in this study to examine the behavior of both rigid and flexible vegetation. The major advantage of this approach is its capability to treat large deflection (bending) of plants and associated changes of mechanical properties in both vegetation and flow. Starting from simple emergent vegetation, both static and dynamic formulations of the problem are presented and the solutions are compared. Results show the dynamic behavior of a simplified system mimicking complex and real systems, implying the approach is able to disclose the physical essence of the coupled system. The approach is extended to complex vegetation under both submerged and emergent conditions using more realistic representation of biomechanical properties for vegetation.

  3. Hybrid Systems: Cold Atoms Coupled to Micro Mechanical Oscillators =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya Monge, Cris A.

    Micro mechanical oscillators can serve as probes in precision measurements, as transducers to mediate photon-phonon interactions, and when functionalized with magnetic material, as tools to manipulate spins in quantum systems. This dissertation includes two projects where the interactions between cold atoms and mechanical oscillators are studied. In one of the experiments, we have manipulated the Zeeman state of magnetically trapped Rubidium atoms with a magnetic micro cantilever. The results show a spatially localized effect produced by the cantilever that agrees with Landau-Zener theory. In the future, such a scalable system with highly localized interactions and the potential for single-spin sensitivity could be useful for applications in quantum information science or quantum simulation. In a second experiment, work is in progress to couple a sample of optically trapped Rubidium atoms to a levitated nanosphere via an optical lattice. This coupling enables the cooling of the center-of-mass motion of the nanosphere by laser cooling the atoms. In this system, the atoms are trapped in the optical lattice while the sphere is levitated in a separate vacuum chamber by a single-beam optical tweezer. Theoretical analysis of such a system has determined that cooling the center-of-mass motion of the sphere to its quantum ground state is possible, even when starting at room temperature, due to the excellent environmental decoupling achievable in this setup. Nanospheres cooled to the quantum regime can provide new tests of quantum behavior at mesoscopic scales and have novel applications in precision sensing.

  4. Improved Ablative Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-12-01

    Equipment 62 2. Gas Analysis 62 3. Chemical Analysis for Titanium and Boron 63 4. Tensile Strength Determinations 64 5. Density Determinations 64 6. X-ray...mils, and its density was about 4. 45 g/cm 3. Elastic modulus values averaged about 71 x 106 psi for the filament. -X- I. INTRODUCTION Ablative liner...20 4 /50 percent N 2H 4 -50 percent UDMH or L0 2 /LH. The more-energetic propellant systems, using fluorine or FLOX, demand more-effective abla- tive

  5. Spiral waves in driven strongly coupled Yukawa systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Amita

    2018-06-01

    Spiral wave formations are ubiquitous in nature. In the present paper, the excitation of spiral waves in the context of driven two-dimensional dusty plasma (Yukawa system) has been demonstrated at particle level using molecular-dynamics simulations. The interaction amidst dust particles is modeled by the Yukawa potential to take account of the shielding of dust charges by the lighter electron and ion species. The spatiotemporal evolution of these spiral waves has been characterized as a function of the frequency and amplitude of the driving force and dust neutral collisions. The effect of strong coupling has been studied, which shows that the excited spiral wave structures get clearer as the medium gets more strongly coupled. The radial propagation speed of the spiral wave is observed to remain unaltered with the coupling parameter. However, it is found to depend on the screening parameter of the dust medium and decreases when it is increased. In the crystalline phase (with screening parameter κ >0.58 ), the spiral wavefronts are shown to be hexagonal in shape. This shows that the radial propagation speed depends on the interparticle spacing.

  6. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  7. Catheter-based renal denervation for resistant hypertension: 12-month results of the EnligHTN I first-in-human study using a multielectrode ablation system.

    PubMed

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Tsioufis, Costas P; Sinhal, Ajay; Chew, Derek P; Meredith, Ian T; Malaiapan, Yuvi; Worthley, Matthew I; Worthley, Stephen G

    2014-09-01

    Renal denervation has emerged as a novel approach for the treatment of patients with drug-resistant hypertension. To date, only limited data have been published using multielectrode radiofrequency ablation systems. In this article, we present the 12-month data of EnligHTN I, a first-in-human study using a multielectrode ablation catheter. EnligHTN I enrolled 46 patients (average age, 60±10 years; on average 4.7±1.0 medications) with drug-resistant hypertension. Eligible patients were on ≥3 antihypertensive medications and had a systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥160 mm Hg (≥150 mm Hg for diabetics). Bilateral renal artery ablation was performed using a percutaneous femoral approach and standardized techniques. The average baseline office BP was 176/96 mm Hg, average 24-hour ambulatory BP was 150/83 mm Hg, and average home BP was 158/90 mm Hg. The average reductions (mm Hg) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were as follows: office: -28/-10, -27/-10, -26/-10, and -27/-11 mm Hg (P<0.001 for all); 24-hour ambulatory: -10/-5, -10/-5, -10/-6 (P<0.001 for all), and -7/-4 for 12 months (P<0.0094). Reductions in home measurements (based on 2-week average) were -9/-4, -8/-5,-10/-7, and -11/-6 mm Hg (P<0.001 at 12 months). At 12 months, there were no signals of worsening renal function and no new serious or life-threatening adverse events. One patient with baseline nonocclusive renal artery stenosis progressed to 75% diameter stenosis, requiring renal artery stenting. The 12-month data continue to demonstrate safety and efficacy of the EnligHTN ablation system in patients with drug-resistant hypertension. Home BP measurements parallel measurements obtained with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Memristor emulator causes dissimilarity on a coupled memristive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabarathinam, S.; Prasad, Awadhesh

    2018-04-01

    The memristor is known as abasic fourth passive solid state circuit element. Itgaining increasing attention to create the next generation electronic devices commonly used as fundamental chaotic circuit although often arbitrary (typically piecewise linear or cubic) fluxcharge characteristics. In thispresent work, the causes of the memristor emulator studied in a coupled memristive chaoticoscillator for the first time. We confirm that the emulator that allows synchronization between theoscillators and cause the dissimilarity between the systems when increasing the couplingstrength, and co-efficient of the memristor emulator. The detailed statistical analysis was performed to confirm such phenomenon.

  9. Orbital maneuvering engine feed system coupled stability investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, D. R.; Schuman, M. D.; Hunting, J. K.; Fertig, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer model used to analyze and predict engine feed system coupled instabilities over a frequency range of 10 to 1000 Hz was developed and verified. The analytical approach to modeling the feed system hydrodynamics, combustion dynamics, chamber dynamics, and overall engineering model structure is described and the governing equations in each of the technical areas are presented. This is followed by a description of the generalized computer model, including formulation of the discrete subprograms and their integration into an overall engineering model structure. The operation and capabilities of the engineering model were verified by comparing the model's theoretical predictions with experimental data from an OMS-type engine with a known feed system/engine chugging history.

  10. Coupling population dynamics with earth system models: the POPEM model.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Andrés; Moreno, Raúl; Jiménez-Alcázar, Alfonso; Tapiador, Francisco J

    2017-09-16

    Precise modeling of CO 2 emissions is important for environmental research. This paper presents a new model of human population dynamics that can be embedded into ESMs (Earth System Models) to improve climate modeling. Through a system dynamics approach, we develop a cohort-component model that successfully simulates historical population dynamics with fine spatial resolution (about 1°×1°). The population projections are used to improve the estimates of CO 2 emissions, thus transcending the bulk approach of existing models and allowing more realistic non-linear effects to feature in the simulations. The module, dubbed POPEM (from Population Parameterization for Earth Models), is compared with current emission inventories and validated against UN aggregated data. Finally, it is shown that the module can be used to advance toward fully coupling the social and natural components of the Earth system, an emerging research path for environmental science and pollution research.

  11. A Charge Coupled Device Imaging System For Ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, R. Wanda; Packer, Samuel; Rosen, James; Bizais, Yves

    1984-06-01

    A digital camera system has been constructed for obtaining reflectance images of the fundus of the eye with monochromatic light. Images at wavelengths in the visible and near infrared regions of the spectrum are recorded by a charge-coupled device array and transferred to a computer. A variety of image processing operations are performed to restore the pictures, correct for distortions in the image formation process, and extract new and diagnostically useful information. The steps involved in calibrating the system to permit quantitative measurement of fundus reflectance are discussed. Three clinically important applications of such a quantitative system are addressed: the characterization of changes in the optic nerve arising from glaucoma, the diagnosis of choroidal melanoma through spectral signatures, and the early detection and improved management of diabetic retinopathy by measurement of retinal tissue oxygen saturation.

  12. Qubit Coupled Mechanical Resonator in an Electromechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yu

    This thesis describes the development of a hybrid quantum electromechanical system. In this system the mechanical resonator is capacitively coupled to a superconducting transmon which is embedded in a superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavity. The difficulty of achieving high quality of superconducting qubit in a high-quality voltage-biased cavity is overcome by integrating a superconducting reflective T-filter to the cavity. Further spectroscopic and pulsed measurements of the hybrid system demonstrate interactions between the ultra-high frequency mechanical resonator and transmon qubit. The noise of mechanical resonator close to ground state is measured by looking at the spectroscopy of the transmon. At last, fabrication and tests of membrane resonators are discussed.

  13. Stability of power systems coupled with market dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jianping

    This Ph.D. thesis presented here spans two relatively independent topics. The first part, Chapter 2 is self-contained, and is dedicated to studies of new algorithms for power system state estimation. The second part, encompassing the remaining chapters, is dedicated to stability analysis of power system coupled with market dynamics. The first part of this thesis presents improved Newton's methods employing efficient vectorized calculations of higher order derivatives in power system state estimation problems. The improved algorithms are proposed based on an exact Newton's method using the second order terms. By efficiently computing an exact gain matrix, combined with a special optimal multiplier method, the new algorithms show more reliable convergence compared with the existing methods of normal equations, orthogonal decomposition, and Hachtel's sparse tableau. Our methods are able to handle ill-conditioned problems, yet show minimal penalty in computational cost for well-conditioned cases. These claims are illustrated through the standard IEEE 118 and 300 bus test examples. The second part of the thesis focuses on stability analysis of market/power systems. The work presented is motivated by an emerging problem. As the frequency of market based dispatch updates increases, there will inevitably be interaction between the dynamics of markets determining the generator dispatch commands, and the physical response of generators and network interconnections, necessitating the development of stability analysis for such coupled systems. We begin with numeric tests using different market models, with detailed machine/exciter/turbine/governor dynamics, in the New England 39 bus test system. A progression of modeling refinements are introduced, including such non-ideal effects as time delays. Electricity market parameter identification algorithms are also studied based on real time data from the PJM electricity market. Finally our power market model is augmented by optimal

  14. Development of 3D Woven Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Ellerby, Don; Stackpoole, Mairead; Peterson, Keith; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    The development of a new class of thermal protection system (TPS) materials known as 3D Woven TPS led by the Entry Systems and Technology Division of NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) will be discussed. This effort utilizes 3D weaving and resin infusion technologies to produce heat shield materials that are engineered and optimized for specific missions and requirements. A wide range of architectures and compositions have been produced and preliminarily tested to prove the viability and tailorability of the 3D weaving approach to TPS.

  15. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) array system for image-guided ablative therapy (IGAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczkowski, Peter J.; Keilman, George W.; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Martin, Roy W.; Vaezy, Shahram; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2003-06-01

    Recent interest in using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for surgical applications such as hemostasis and tissue necrosis has stimulated the development of image-guided systems for non-invasive HIFU therapy. Seeking an all-ultrasound therapeutic modality, we have developed a clinical HIFU system comprising an integrated applicator that permits precisely registered HIFU therapy delivery and high quality ultrasound imaging using two separate arrays, a multi-channel signal generator and RF amplifier system, and a software program that provides the clinician with a graphical overlay of the ultrasound image and therapeutic protocol controls. Electronic phasing of a 32 element 2 MHz HIFU annular array allows adjusting the focus within the range of about 4 to 12 cm from the face. A central opening in the HIFU transducer permits mounting a commercial medical imaging scanhead (ATL P7-4) that is held in place within a special housing. This mechanical fixture ensures precise coaxial registration between the HIFU transducer and the image plane of the imaging probe. Recent enhancements include development of an acoustic lens using numerical simulations for use with a 5-element array. Our image-guided therapy system is very flexible and enables exploration of a variety of new HIFU therapy delivery and monitoring approaches in the search for safe, effective, and efficient treatment protocols.

  16. Chemical ablation of the Purkinje system causes early termination and activation rate slowing of long-duration ventricular fibrillation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dosdall, Derek J; Tabereaux, Paul B; Kim, Jong J; Walcott, Gregory P; Rogers, Jack M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Huang, Jian; Robertson, Peter G; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E

    2008-08-01

    Endocardial mapping has suggested that Purkinje fibers may play a role in the maintenance of long-duration ventricular fibrillation (LDVF). To determine the influence of Purkinje fibers on LDVF, we chemically ablated the Purkinje system with Lugol solution and recorded endocardial and transmural activation during LDVF. Dog hearts were isolated and perfused, and the ventricular endocardium was exposed and treated with Lugol solution (n = 6) or normal Tyrode solution as a control (n = 6). The left anterior papillary muscle endocardium was mapped with a 504-electrode (21 x 24) plaque with electrodes spaced 1 mm apart. Transmural activation was recorded with a six-electrode plunge needle on each side of the plaque. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced, and perfusion was halted. LDVF spontaneously terminated sooner in Lugol-ablated hearts than in control hearts (4.9 +/- 1.5 vs. 9.2 +/- 3.2 min, P = 0.01). After termination of VF, both the control and Lugol hearts were typically excitable, but only short episodes of VF could be reinduced. Endocardial activation rates were similar during the first 2 min of LDVF for Lugol-ablated and control hearts but were significantly slower in Lugol hearts by 3 min. In control hearts, the endocardium activated more rapidly than the epicardium after 4 min of LDVF with wave fronts propagating most often from the endocardium to epicardium. No difference in transmural activation rate or wave front direction was observed in Lugol hearts. Ablation of the subendocardium hastens VF spontaneous termination and alters VF activation sequences, suggesting that Purkinje fibers are important in the maintenance of LDVF.

  17. Technical Note: Validation and implementation of a wireless transponder tracking system for gated stereotactic ablative radiotherapy of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    James, Joshua, E-mail: joshua.james@louisville.edu; Dunlap, Neal E.; Nguyen, Vi Nhan

    Purpose: Tracking soft-tissue targets has recently been cleared as a new application of Calypso, an electromagnetic wireless transponder tracking system, allowing for gated treatment of the liver based on the motion of the target volume itself. The purpose of this study is to describe the details of validating the Calypso system for wireless transponder tracking of the liver and to present the clinical workflow for using it to deliver gated stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). Methods: A commercial 3D diode array motion system was used to evaluate the dynamic tracking accuracy of Calypso when tracking continuous large amplitude motion. It wasmore » then used to perform end-to-end tests to evaluate the dosimetric accuracy of gated beam delivery for liver SABR. In addition, gating limits were investigated to determine how large the gating window can be while still maintaining dosimetric accuracy. The gating latency of the Calypso system was also measured using a customized motion phantom. Results: The average absolute difference between the measured and expected positional offset was 0.3 mm. The 2%/2 mm gamma pass rates for the gated treatment delivery were greater than 97%. When increasing the gating limits beyond the known extent of planned motion, the gamma pass rates decreased as expected. The 2%/2 mm gamma pass rate for a 1, 2, and 3 mm increase in gating limits was measured to be 97.8%, 82.9%, and 61.4%, respectively. The average gating latency was measured to be 63.8 ms for beam-hold and 195.8 ms for beam-on. Four liver patients with 17 total fractions have been successfully treated at our institution. Conclusions: Wireless transponder tracking was validated as a dosimetrically accurate way to provide gated SABR of the liver. The dynamic tracking accuracy of the Calypso system met manufacturer’s specification, even for continuous large amplitude motion that can be encountered when tracking liver tumors close to the diaphragm. The measured beam

  18. Nonequilibrium mode-coupling theory for uniformly sheared underdamped systems.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koshiro; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    Nonequilibrium mode-coupling theory (MCT) for uniformly sheared underdamped systems is developed, starting from the microscopic thermostated Sllod equation and the corresponding Liouville equation. Special attention is paid to the translational invariance in the sheared frame, which requires an appropriate definition of the transient time correlators. The derived MCT equation satisfies the alignment of the wave vectors and is manifestly translationally invariant. Isothermal condition is implemented by the introduction of current fluctuation in the dissipative coupling to the thermostat. This current fluctuation grows in the α relaxation regime, which generates a pronounced relaxation of the yield stress compared to the overdamped case. This result fills the gap between the molecular dynamics simulation and the overdamped MCT reported previously. The response to a perturbation of the shear rate demonstrates an inertia effect which is not observed in the overdamped case. Our theory turns out to be a nontrivial extension of the theory by Fuchs and Cates [J. Rheol. 53, 957 (2009)] to underdamped systems. Since our starting point is identical to that of Chong and Kim [Phys. Rev. E 79, 021203 (2009)], the contradictions between Fuchs-Cates and Chong-Kim are resolved.

  19. A comparison of laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation versus systemic therapy alone in the treatment of breast cancer metastasis to the liver

    PubMed Central

    Taşçi, Yunus; Aksoy, Erol; Taşkın, Halit Eren; Aliyev, Shamil; Moore, Halle; Ağcaoğlu, Orhan; Birsen, Onur; Siperstein, Allan; Berber, Eren

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is controversy about the roles of locoregional therapies in patients with liver metastases from breast cancer (LMBC). The aim of this study was to analyse survival after laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of LMBC and to compare this with survival in patients receiving systemic therapy (ST) alone. Methods During 1996–2011, 24 patients who had failed to respond or had shown an incomplete response to ST underwent laparoscopic RFA for LMBC. Outcomes in these patients were compared with those in 32 patients with LMBC matched by tumour size and number, but treated with ST alone. Clinical parameters and overall survival were compared using t-tests, chi-squared tests and Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results The groups were similar in hormone receptor status and chemotherapy exposure. In the laparoscopic RFA and ST groups, respectively, the mean ± standard deviation size of the dominant liver tumour and the number of tumours per patient were 3.7 ± 0.4 cm and 2.4 ± 0.4 cm, and 2.6 ± 0.4 tumours and 3.3 ± 0.4 tumours, respectively. These differences were not significant. At a median follow-up of 20 months in the laparoscopic RFA group, 42% of patients were found to have developed local liver recurrence, 63% had developed new liver disease and 38% had developed extrahepatic disease. Overall survival after the diagnosis of liver metastasis was 47 months in the laparoscopic RFA group and 9 months in the ST-only group (P = 0.0001). Five-year survival after the diagnosis of liver metastasis was 29% in the RFA group and 0% in the ST-only group. Conclusions This is the first study to compare outcomes in RFA and ST, respectively, in LMBC. The results show that survival after laparoscopic RFA plus ST is better than that after ST alone. PMID:24028270

  20. Cavitation enhances coagulated size during pulsed high-intensity focussed ultrasound ablation in an isolated liver perfusion system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu-Yan; Liu, Shan; Chen, Zong-Gui; Zou, Jian-Zhong; Wu, Feng

    2016-11-24

    To investigate whether cavitation enhances the degree of coagulation during pulsed high-intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) in an isolated liver perfusion system. Isolated liver was treated by pulsed HIFU or continuous-wave HIFU with different portal vein flow rates. The cavitation emission during exposure was recorded, and real-time ultrasound images were used to observe changes in the grey scale. The coagulation size was measured and calculated. HIFU treatment led to complete coagulation necrosis and total cell destruction in the target regions. Compared to exposure at a duty cycle (DC) of 100%, the mean volumes of lesions induced by 6 s exposure at DCs of 50% and 10% were significantly larger (P < .01) but were smaller at a DC of 5%. The necrosis volume was negatively related to the perfusion rate in the pulsed HIFU at a DC of 50% for exposure durations of 4 and 6 s, while the perfusion flow rate did not affect the necrosis volume for exposure durations of 1, 2 and 3 s. For increased perfusion flow rates, there was no significant decrease in the cavitation activity for the pulsed-HIFU (P > .05). For continuous-wave HIFU exposure, there was a significant decrease in the necrosis volume and cavitation activity for exposure times of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 s with increasing portal perfusion rates. Perfusion flow rates negatively influence cavitation activity and coagulation volume. Ablation is significantly enhanced during pulsed HIFU exposure compared with continuous-wave HIFU.

  1. Laser ablated micropillar energy directors for ultrasonic welding of microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esben Poulsen, Carl; Kistrup, Kasper; Korsgaard Andersen, Nis; Taboryski, Rafael; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel; Wolff, Anders

    2016-06-01

    We present a new type of energy director (ED) for ultrasonic welding of microfluidic systems. These micropillar EDs are based on the replication of cone like protrusion structures introduced using a pico-second laser and may therefore be added to any mould surface accessible to a pico-second laser beam. The technology is demonstrated on an injection moulded microfluidic device featuring high-aspect ratio (h  ×  w  =  2000 μm  ×  550 μm) and free-standing channel walls, where bonding is achieved with no detectable channel deformation. The bonding strength is similar to conventional EDs and the fabricated system can withstand pressures of over 9.5 bar.

  2. Status of the seamless coupled modelling system ICON-ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Bernhard; Rieger, Daniel; Schroeter, Jenniffer; Bischoff-Gauss, Inge; Deetz, Konrad; Eckstein, Johannes; Foerstner, Jochen; Gasch, Philipp; Ruhnke, Roland; Vogel, Heike; Walter, Carolin; Weimer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The integrated modelling framework ICON-ART [1] (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic - Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) extends the numerical weather prediction modelling system ICON by modules for gas phase chemistry, aerosol dynamics and related feedback processes. The nonhydrostatic global modelling system ICON [2] is a joint development of German Weather Service (DWD) and Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) with local grid refinement down to grid sizes of a few kilometers. It will be used for numerical weather prediction, climate projections and for research purposes. Since January 2016 ICON runs operationally at DWD for weather forecast on the global scale with a grid size of 13 km. Analogous to its predecessor COSMO-ART [3], ICON-ART is designed to account for feedback processes between meteorological variables and atmospheric trace substances. Up to now, ICON-ART contains the dispersion of volcanic ash, radioactive tracers, sea salt aerosol, as well as ozone-depleting stratospheric trace substances [1]. Recently, we have extended ICON-ART by a mineral dust emission scheme with global applicability and nucleation parameterizations which allow the cloud microphysics to explicitly account for prognostic aerosol distributions. Also very recently an emission scheme for volatile organic compounds was included. We present first results of the impact of natural aerosol (i.e. sea salt aerosol and mineral dust) on cloud properties and precipitation as well as the interaction of primary emitted particles with radiation. Ongoing developments are the coupling with a radiation scheme to calculate the photolysis frequencies, a coupling with the RADMKA (1) chemistry and first steps to include isotopologues of water. Examples showing the capabilities of the model system will be presented. This includes a simulation of the transport of ozone depleting short-lived trace gases from the surface into the stratosphere as well as of long-lived tracers. [1] Rieger, D., et al

  3. Classification of attractors for systems of identical coupled Kuramoto oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, Jan R.; Mirollo, Renato

    2014-03-15

    We present a complete classification of attractors for networks of coupled identical Kuramoto oscillators. In such networks, each oscillator is driven by the same first-order trigonometric function, with coefficients given by symmetric functions of the entire oscillator ensemble. For N≠3 oscillators, there are four possible types of attractors: completely synchronized fixed points or limit cycles, and fixed points or limit cycles where all but one of the oscillators are synchronized. The case N = 3 is exceptional; systems of three identical Kuramoto oscillators can also posses attracting fixed points or limit cycles with all three oscillators out of sync, as well asmore » chaotic attractors. Our results rely heavily on the invariance of the flow for such systems under the action of the three-dimensional group of Möbius transformations, which preserve the unit disc, and the analysis of the possible limiting configurations for this group action.« less

  4. Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2004-12-01

    Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence

  5. Transmission Geometry Laser Ablation into a Non-Contact Liquid Vortex Capture Probe for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Bhandari, Deepak; Lorenz, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Capture of material from a laser ablation plume into a continuous flow stream of solvent provides the means for uninterrupted sampling, transport and ionization of collected material for coupling with mass spectral analysis. Reported here is the use of vertically aligned transmission geometry laser ablation in combination with a new non-contact liquid vortex capture probe coupled with electrospray ionization for spot sampling and chemical imaging with mass spectrometry. Methods: A vertically aligned continuous flow liquid vortex capture probe was positioned directly underneath a sample surface in a transmission geometry laser ablation (355 nm, 10 Hz, 7 ns pulse width)more » setup to capture into solution the ablated material. The outlet of the vortex probe was coupled to the Turbo V ion source of an AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600+ mass spectrometer. System operation and performance metrics were tested using inked patterns and thin tissue sections. Glass slides and slides designed especially for laser capture microdissection, viz., DIRECTOR slides and PEN 1.0 (polyethylene naphthalate) membrane slides, were used as sample substrates. Results: The estimated capture efficiency of laser ablated material was 24%, which was enabled by the use of a probe with large liquid surface area (~ 2.8 mm2) and with gravity to help direct ablated material vertically down towards the probe. The swirling vortex action of the liquid surface potentially enhanced capture and dissolution of not only particulates, but also gaseous products of the laser ablation. The use of DIRECTOR slides and PEN 1.0 (polyethylene naphthalate) membrane slides as sample substrates enabled effective ablation of a wide range of sample types (basic blue 7, polypropylene glycol, insulin and cyctochrome c) without photodamage using a UV laser. Imaging resolution of about 6 m was demonstrated for stamped ink on DIRECTOR slides based on the ability to distinguish features present both in the optical and in

  6. Transmission geometry laser ablation into a non-contact liquid vortex capture probe for mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Bhandari, Deepak; Lorenz, Matthias; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-08-15

    Capture of material from a laser ablation plume into a continuous flow stream of solvent provides the means for uninterrupted sampling, transport and ionization of collected material for coupling with mass spectral analysis. Reported here is the use of vertically aligned transmission geometry laser ablation in combination with a new non-contact liquid vortex capture probe coupled with electrospray ionization for spot sampling and chemical imaging with mass spectrometry. A vertically aligned continuous flow liquid vortex capture probe was positioned directly underneath a sample surface in a transmission geometry laser ablation (355 nm, 10 Hz, 7 ns pulse width) set up to capture into solution the ablated material. The outlet of the vortex probe was coupled to the Turbo V™ ion source of an AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600+ mass spectrometer. System operation and performance metrics were tested using inked patterns and thin tissue sections. Glass slides and slides designed especially for laser capture microdissection, viz., DIRECTOR(®) slides and PEN 1.0 (polyethylene naphthalate) membrane slides, were used as sample substrates. The estimated capture efficiency of laser-ablated material was 24%, which was enabled by the use of a probe with large liquid surface area (~2.8 mm(2) ) and with gravity to help direct ablated material vertically down towards the probe. The swirling vortex action of the liquid surface potentially enhanced capture and dissolution not only of particulates, but also of gaseous products of the laser ablation. The use of DIRECTOR(®) slides and PEN 1.0 (polyethylene naphthalate) membrane slides as sample substrates enabled effective ablation of a wide range of sample types (basic blue 7, polypropylene glycol, insulin and cyctochrome c) without photodamage using a UV laser. Imaging resolution of about 6 µm was demonstrated for stamped ink on DIRECTOR(®) slides based on the ability to distinguish features present both in the optical and in the chemical

  7. Thermal ablation system using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and guided by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damianou, C.; Ioannides, K.; HadjiSavas, V.; Milonas, N.; Couppis, A.; Iosif, D.; Komodromos, M.; Vrionides, F.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is investigated for monitoring lesions created by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in kidney, liver and brain in vitro and in vivo. Spherically focused transducers of 4 cm diameter, focusing at 10 cm and operating at 1 and 4 MHz were used. An MRI compatible positioning device was developed in order to scan the HIFU transducer. The MRI compatibility of the system was successfully demonstrated in a clinical high-field MRI scanner. The ability of the positioning device to accurately move the transducer thus creating discrete and overlapping lesions in biological tissue was tested successfully. A simple, cost effective, portable positioning device has been developed which can be used in virtually any clinical MRI scanner since it can be sited on the scanner's table. The propagation of HIFU can use either a lateral or superior-inferior approach. Both T1-w FSE and T2-w FSE imaged successfully lesions in kidney and liver. T1-w FSE and T2-w FSE and FLAIR shows better anatomical details in brain than T1-w FSE, but with T1-w FSE the contrast between lesion and brain is higher for both thermal and bubbly lesion. With this system we were able to create large lesions (by producing overlapping lesions). The length of the lesions in vivo brain was much higher than the length in vitro, proving that the penetration in the in vitro brain is limited by reflection due to trapped bubbles in the blood vessels.

  8. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  9. Ablation of lens epithelial cells with a laser photolysis system: Histopathology, ultrastructure, and immunochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Mamalis, Nick; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Waring, George O.; Werner, Liliana; Brubaker, Jacob; Davis, Don; Espandar, Ladan; Walker, Rudolf; Thyzel, Reinhardt

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate efficacy of a neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser photolysis system in removing lens epithelial cells (LECs) and characterize the effect of the laser on laminin and fibronectin involved in LEC adhesion and migration. METHODS Cadaver eyes were evaluated using the Miyake technique. The lenses were removed with phacoemulsification. The modified Nd:YAG laser was used to clean the LECs from the capsule. Only the fornix was cleaned in some eyes and the anterior subcapsular area in other eyes. Some areas were not treated and acted as controls. Standard irrigation/aspiration (I/A) removal of LECs was performed in additional eyes. The eyes were analyzed using light microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS Histopathologic evaluation showed that the laser removed the LECs from the anterior lens capsule and from the fornix. Immunohistochemical staining showed fibronectin and laminin staining in the untreated areas that was absent in the treated areas. Standard I/A removal of the LECs showed absence of cells but persistent laminin and fibronectin. Electron microscopy showed epithelial cells in untreated areas with an absence of the LECs and debris in treated areas. CONCLUSIONS The laser photolysis system removed LECs from the anterior lens capsule and capsule fornix. Along with the cells, laminin, fibronectin, and cell debris remained in the untreated areas but were removed by the treatment. This treatment may be useful in preventing posterior capsule opacification. Financial Disclosure No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Additional disclosures are found in the footnotes. PMID:20494774

  10. SPIN–SPIN COUPLING IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Morbidelli, Alessandro, E-mail: kbatygin@gps.caltech.edu

    The richness of dynamical behavior exhibited by the rotational states of various solar system objects has driven significant advances in the theoretical understanding of their evolutionary histories. An important factor that determines whether a given object is prone to exhibiting non-trivial rotational evolution is the extent to which such an object can maintain a permanent aspheroidal shape, meaning that exotic behavior is far more common among the small body populations of the solar system. Gravitationally bound binary objects constitute a substantial fraction of asteroidal and TNO populations, comprising systems of triaxial satellites that orbit permanently deformed central bodies. In thismore » work, we explore the rotational evolution of such systems with specific emphasis on quadrupole–quadrupole interactions, and show that for closely orbiting, highly deformed objects, both prograde and retrograde spin–spin resonances naturally arise. Subsequently, we derive capture probabilities for leading order commensurabilities and apply our results to the illustrative examples of (87) Sylvia and (216) Kleopatra asteroid systems. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spin–spin coupling may be consequential for highly elongated, tightly orbiting binary objects.« less

  11. FABP-1 gene ablation impacts brain endocannabinoid system in male mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory G; Chung, Sarah; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K; Huang, Huan; Dangott, Lawrence J; Peng, Xiaoxue; Kaczocha, Martin; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2016-08-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP) has high affinity for and enhances uptake of arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4, n-6) which, when esterified to phospholipids, is the requisite precursor for synthesis of endocannabinoids (EC) such as arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The brain derives most of its ARA from plasma, taking up ARA and transporting it intracellularly via cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs 3,5, and 7) localized within the brain. In contrast, the much more prevalent cytosolic FABP1 is not detectable in the brain but is instead highly expressed in the liver. Therefore, the possibility that FABP1 outside the central nervous system may regulate brain AEA and 2-AG was examined in wild-type (WT) and FABP1 null (LKO) male mice. LKO increased brain levels of AA-containing EC (AEA, 2-AG), correlating with increased free and total ARA in brain and serum. LKO also increased brain levels of non-ARA that contain potentiating endocannabinoids (EC*) such as oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA), PEA, 2-OG, and 2-PG. Concomitantly, LKO decreased serum total ARA-containing EC, but not non-ARA endocannabinoids. LKO did not elicit these changes in the brain EC and EC* as a result of compensatory up-regulation of brain protein levels of enzymes in EC synthesis (NAPEPLD, DAGLα) or cytosolic EC chaperone proteins (FABPs 3, 5, 7, SCP-2, HSP70), or cannabinoid receptors (CB1, TRVP1). These data show for the first time that the non-CNS fatty acid-binding protein FABP1 markedly affected brain levels of both ARA-containing endocannabinoids (AEA, 2-AG) as well as their non-ARA potentiating endocannabinoids. Fatty acid-binding protein-1 (FABP-1) is not detectable in brain but instead is highly expressed in liver. The possibility that FABP1 outside the central nervous system may regulate brain endocannabinoids arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) was examined in wild-type (WT) and FABP-1 null (LKO) male mice. LKO

  12. Directional radiation pattern in structural-acoustic coupled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hee-Seon; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2005-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the possibility of designing a radiator using structural-acoustic interaction by predicting the pressure distribution and radiation pattern of a structural-acoustic coupling system that is composed by a wall and two spaces. If a wall separates spaces, then the wall's role in transporting the acoustic characteristics of the spaces is important. The spaces can be categorized as bounded finite space and unbounded infinite space. The wall considered in this study composes two plates and an opening, and the wall separates one space that is highly reverberant and the other that is unbounded without any reflection. This rather hypothetical circumstance is selected to study the general coupling problem between the finite and infinite acoustic domains. We developed an equation that predicts the energy distribution and energy flow in the two spaces separated by a wall, and its computational examples are presented. Three typical radiation patterns that include steered, focused, and omnidirected are presented. A designed radiation pattern is also presented by using the optimal design algorithm.

  13. A comparison of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of bromine in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gois, Jefferson S.; Van Malderen, Stijn J. M.; Cadorim, Heloisa R.; Welz, Bernhard; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2017-06-01

    This work describes the development and comparison of two methods for the direct determination of Br in polymer samples via solid sampling, one using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and the other using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry with direct solid sample analysis (HR-CS SS-GF MAS). The methods were optimized and their accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results obtained for 6 polymeric certified reference materials (CRMs) with the corresponding certified values. For Br determination with LA-ICP-MS, the 79Br+ signal could be monitored interference-free. For Br determination via HR-CS SS-GF MAS, the CaBr molecule was monitored at 625.315 nm with integration of the central pixel ± 1. Bromine quantification by LA-ICP-MS was performed via external calibration against a single CRM while using the 12C+ signal as an internal standard. With HR-CS SS-GF MAS, Br quantification could be accomplished using external calibration against aqueous standard solutions. Except for one LA-ICP-MS result, the concentrations obtained with both techniques were in agreement with the certified values within the experimental uncertainty as evidenced using a t-test (95% confidence level). The limit of quantification was determined to be 100 μg g- 1 Br for LA-ICP-MS and 10 μg g- 1 Br for HR-CS SS-GF MAS.

  14. Analysis of metal-binding proteins separated by non-denaturating gel electrophoresis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Becker, J Susanne; Mounicou, Sandra; Zoriy, Miroslav V; Becker, J Sabine; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2008-09-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) have become established as very efficient and sensitive biopolymer and elemental mass spectrometric techniques for studying metal-binding proteins (metalloproteins) in life sciences. Protein complexes present in rat tissues (liver and kidney) were separated in their native state in the first dimension by blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Essential and toxic metals, such as zinc, copper, iron, nickel, chromium, cadmium and lead, were detected by scanning the gel bands using quadrupole LA-ICP-MS with and without collision cell as a microanalytical technique. Several proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-MS together with a database search. For example, on one protein band cut from the BN-PAGE gel and digested with the enzyme trypsin, two different proteins - protein FAM44B and cathepsin B precursor - were identified. By combining biomolecular and elemental mass spectrometry, it was possible to characterize and identify selected metal-binding rat liver and kidney tissue proteins.

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) Imaging of Cerebral Ischemia: Combined Analysis of Rat Brain Thin Cuts Toward Improved Tissue Classification.

    PubMed

    Balbekova, Anna; Lohninger, Hans; van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Bonta, Maximilian; Limbeck, Andreas; Lendl, Bernhard; Al-Saad, Khalid A; Ali, Mohamed; Celikic, Minja; Ofner, Johannes

    2018-02-01

    Microspectroscopic techniques are widely used to complement histological studies. Due to recent developments in the field of chemical imaging, combined chemical analysis has become attractive. This technique facilitates a deepened analysis compared to single techniques or side-by-side analysis. In this study, rat brains harvested one week after induction of photothrombotic stroke were investigated. Adjacent thin cuts from rats' brains were imaged using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The LA-ICP-MS data were normalized using an internal standard (a thin gold layer). The acquired hyperspectral data cubes were fused and subjected to multivariate analysis. Brain regions affected by stroke as well as unaffected gray and white matter were identified and classified using a model based on either partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) or random decision forest (RDF) algorithms. The RDF algorithm demonstrated the best results for classification. Improved classification was observed in the case of fused data in comparison to individual data sets (either FT-IR or LA-ICP-MS). Variable importance analysis demonstrated that both molecular and elemental content contribute to the improved RDF classification. Univariate spectral analysis identified biochemical properties of the assigned tissue types. Classification of multisensor hyperspectral data sets using an RDF algorithm allows access to a novel and in-depth understanding of biochemical processes and solid chemical allocation of different brain regions.

  16. Nonequilibrium Ablation of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih K.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, an equilibrium ablation and thermal response model for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was developed. In general, over a wide range of test conditions, model predictions compared well with arcjet data for surface recession, surface temperature, in-depth temperature at multiple thermocouples, and char depth. In this work, additional arcjet tests were conducted at stagnation conditions down to 40 W/sq cm and 1.6 kPa. The new data suggest that nonequilibrium effects become important for ablation predictions at heat flux or pressure below about 80 W/sq cm or 10 kPa, respectively. Modifications to the ablation model to account for nonequilibrium effects are investigated. Predictions of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared with the arcjet data.

  17. Simulation of Pellet Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, P. B.; Ishizaki, Ryuichi

    2000-10-01

    In order to clarify the structure of the ablation flow, 2D simulation is carried out with a fluid code solving temporal evolution of MHD equations. The code includes electrostatic sheath effect at the cloud interface.(P.B. Parks et al.), Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 38, 571 (1996). An Eulerian cylindrical coordinate system (r,z) is used with z in a spherical pellet. The code uses the Cubic-Interpolated Psudoparticle (CIP) method(H. Takewaki and T. Yabe, J. Comput. Phys. 70), 355 (1987). that divides the fluid equations into non-advection and advection phases. The most essential element of the CIP method is in calculation of the advection phase. In this phase, a cubic interpolated spatial profile is shifted in space according to the total derivative equations, similarly to a particle scheme. Since the profile is interpolated by using the value and the spatial derivative value at each grid point, there is no numerical oscillation in space, that often appears in conventional spline interpolation. A free boundary condition is used in the code. The possibility of a stationary shock will also be shown in the presentation because the supersonic ablation flow across the magnetic field is impeded.

  18. FABP-1 GENE ABLATION IMPACTS BRAIN ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM IN MALE MICE

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gregory G.; Chung, Sarah; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Huang, Huan; Dangott, Lawrence J.; Peng, Xiaoxue; Kaczocha, Martin; Seeger, Drew R.; Murphy, Eric J.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP) has high affinity for and enhances uptake of arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4, n-6) which, when esterified to phospholipids, is the requisite precursor for synthesis of endocannabinoids (EC) such as arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The brain derives most of its ARA from plasma, taking up ARA and transporting it intracellularly via cytosolic fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs 3,5, and 7) localized within the brain. In contrast, the much more prevalent cytosolic FABP1 is not detectable in the brain but is instead highly expressed in the liver. Therefore, the possibility that FABP1 outside the central nervous system may regulate brain AEA and 2-AG was examined in wild-type (WT) and FABP1 null (LKO) male mice. LKO increased brain levels of AA-containing EC (AEA, 2-AG), correlating with increased free and total ARA in brain and serum. LKO also increased brain levels of non-ARA that contain potentiating endocannabinoids (EC*) such as OEA, PEA, 2-OG, and 2-PG. Concomitantly, LKO decreased serum total ARA-containing EC, but not non-ARA endocannabinoids. LKO did not elicit these changes in the brain EC and EC* due to compensatory upregulation of brain protein levels of enzymes in EC synthesis (NAPEPLD, DAGLα) or cytosolic EC chaperone proteins (FABPs 3, 5, 7, SCP-2, HSP70), or cannabinoid receptors (CB1, TRVP1). These data show for the first time that the non-CNS fatty acid binding protein FABP1 markedly affected brain levels of both ARA-containing endocannabinoids (AEA, 2-AG) as well as their non-ARA potentiating endocannabinoids. PMID:27167970

  19. Tuning the Photon Statistics of a Strongly Coupled Nanophotonic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dory, C.; Fischer, K. A.; Müller, K.; Lagoudakis, K. G.; Sarmiento, T.; Rundquist, A.; Zhang, J. L.; Kelaita, Y.; Sapra, N. V.; Vučković, J.

    Strongly coupled quantum-dot-photonic-crystal cavity systems provide a nonlinear ladder of hybridized light-matter states, which are a promising platform for non-classical light generation. The transmission of light through such systems enables light generation with tunable photon counting statistics. By detuning the frequencies of quantum emitter and cavity, we can tune the transmission of light to strongly enhance either single- or two-photon emission processes. However, these nanophotonic systems show a strongly dissipative nature and classical light obscures any quantum character of the emission. In this work, we utilize a self-homodyne interference technique combined with frequency-filtering to overcome this obstacle. This allows us to generate emission with a strong two-photon component in the multi-photon regime, where we measure a second-order coherence value of g (2) [ 0 ] = 1 . 490 +/- 0 . 034 . We propose rate equation models that capture the dominant processes of emission both in the single- and multi-photon regimes and support them by quantum-optical simulations that fully capture the frequency filtering of emission from our solid-state system. Finally, we simulate a third-order coherence value of g (3) [ 0 ] = 0 . 872 +/- 0 . 021 . Army Research Office (ARO) (W911NF1310309), National Science Foundation (1503759), Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  20. Tuning the photon statistics of a strongly coupled nanophotonic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dory, Constantin; Fischer, Kevin A.; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L.; Kelaita, Yousif; Sapra, Neil V.; Vučković, Jelena

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the dynamics of single- and multiphoton emission from detuned strongly coupled systems based on the quantum-dot-photonic-crystal resonator platform. Transmitting light through such systems can generate a range of nonclassical states of light with tunable photon counting statistics due to the nonlinear ladder of hybridized light-matter states. By controlling the detuning between emitter and resonator, the transmission can be tuned to strongly enhance either single- or two-photon emission processes. Despite the strongly dissipative nature of these systems, we find that by utilizing a self-homodyne interference technique combined with frequency filtering we are able to find a strong two-photon component of the emission in the multiphoton regime. In order to explain our correlation measurements, we propose rate equation models that capture the dominant processes of emission in both the single- and multiphoton regimes. These models are then supported by quantum-optical simulations that fully capture the frequency filtering of emission from our solid-state system.

  1. Study of Strongly Coupled Systems via Probe Brane Constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Han-Chih

    In this thesis, we present our study towards better understanding of the strongly coupled systems with extra matter content in the fundamental representation of some prescribed global symmetry group in the quenched approximation, with the toolkit of holography via a probe brane construction. Specically, for the defect conformal systems, we unearth and quantify the phase trasition diagram, and novel supersymmetric vacua in the top-down model of the D3/D5 probe brane system. For further quantify various non-Fermi quantum liquid phases realized through the holographical probe brane construction, we then propose and verify the method to include the backreaction of entanglement entropy due to the probe branes at the leading order, which can potentially be used to detect topological phase transitions. We will recapitulate the main results of our works, in collaboration with Prof. Andreas Karch, published in the following journals: "Minimal Submanifolds asymptotic to AdS4 xS2 in AdS5xS5', JHEP, vol.1404, p.037, 2014; "The Novel Solutions of Finite-Density D3/D5 Probe Brane System and Their Implications for Stability'', JHEP, vol.1210, p.060, 2014; "Entanglement Entropy for Probe Branes'', JHEP, vol.1401, p.180, 2014.

  2. Conflicting Epistemologies and Inference in Coupled Human and Natural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Last year, I presented a model that projects per capita water consumption based on changes in price, population, building codes, and water stress salience. This model applied methods from hydrological science and engineering to relationships both within and beyond their traditional scope. Epistemologically, the development of mathematical models of natural or engineered systems is objectivist while research examining relationships between observations, perceptions and action is commonly constructivist or subjectivist. Drawing on multiple epistemologies is common in, and perhaps central to, the growing fields of coupled human and natural systems, and socio-hydrology. Critically, these philosophical perspectives vary in their view of the nature of the system as mechanistic, adaptive or constructed, and the split between aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Interdisciplinary research is commonly cited as a way to address the critical and domain crossing challenge of sustainability as synthesis across perspectives can offer a more comprehensive view of system dynamics. However, combining methods and concepts from multiple ontologies and epistemologies can introduce contradictions into the logic of inference. These contractions challenge the evaluation of research products and the implications for practical application of research findings are not fully understood. Reflections on the evaluation, application, and generalization of the water consumption model described above are used to ground these broader questions and offer thoughts on the way forward.

  3. Long codas of coupled wave systems in seismic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Thomas H.

    2002-11-01

    Quite some time ago it was pointed out that the damage patterns and Fourier spectra of the 1985 earthquake in Mexico City are only compatible with a resonant effect of horizontal waves with the approximate speed of sound waves in water [see Flores et al., Nature 326, 783 (1987)]. In a more recent paper it was pointed out that this indeed will occur with a very specific frequency selection for a coupled system of Raleigh waves at the interface of the bottom of the ancient lakebed with the more solid deposits, and an evanescent sound wave in the mud above [see J. Flores et al., Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 89, 14-21 (1999)]. In the present talk we shall go over these arguments again and show that strong reflection at the edges of the lake must occur to account for the strong magnification entailing necessarily a long coda, and that the mecanism can be understood in the same terms.

  4. Theory of Raman scattering in coupled electron-phonon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itai, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Raman spectrum is calculated for a coupled conduction-electron-phonon system in the zero-momentum-transfer limit. The Raman scattering is due to electron-hole excitations and phonons as well. The phonons of those branches that contribute to the electron self-energy and the correction of the electron-phonon vertex are assumed to have flat energy dispersion (the Einstein phonons). The effect of electron-impurity scattering is also incorporated. Both the electron-phonon interaction and the electron-impurity interaction cause the fluctuation of the electron distribution between different parts of the Fermi surface, which results in overdamped zero-sound modes of various symmetries. The scattering cross section is obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The spectrum shows a lower threshold at the smallest Einstein phonon energy when only the electron-phonon interaction is taken into consideration. When impurities are also taken into consideration, the threshold disappears.

  5. Unraveling the Environmental Record of the Early Solar System: High Precision Laser Ablation Al-Mg Isotopes of Igneous CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. D.; Simon, J. I.; Russell, S. S.; Tonui, E.; Krot, A.

    2004-12-01

    Variations in intrinsic Mg isotope compositions provide a potentially rich record of the physiochemical evolution of CAIs. Moreover, Mg excesses from the short-lived 26Al chronometer can be used to constrain when these processes occurred; e.g., during the nebular phase and/or during the development of planetisimals (< 4 Myr). We obtained in situ UV (213 nm) laser ablation MC-ICPMS measurements of Al and Mg isotope ratios within core-to-rim traverses of igneous CAIs to place temporal constraints on when features of CAIs formed. Results provide tests of models for the chemical and isotopic evolution of CAIs involving volatilization and recondensation of elements in the solar nebula. We studied five CV3 CAIs, including Allende 3576-1 "b", Allende M5, Leoville 144A, Leoville MRS3, and Efremovka E44. Our sample-standard comparison approach affords a precision <0.2 \\permil per amu (2s) for intrinsic Mg isotope measurements and <0.3 \\permil (2s) for measured 26Mg excesses. Intra-object variation in \\delta25Mg exists with values ranging from as low as -2 \\permil and as high as +8 \\permil (compared to DSM3). The distinct Mg isotope patterns in the CAIs are difficult to explain by a single process or within a single nebular environment and likely require changing conditions or transfer of CAIs from one nebular environment to another. The ˜pristine Mg isotope profile of Leoville 144A is compared to results produced by implicit finite difference modeling. Model curves reflect isotopic fractionation at the moving surface of a shrinking molten sphere coupled with diffusion-limited transport within the sphere. We find that using mass-dependant diffusivities increases \\delta25Mg with evaporation, but does not produce the tight curvature in the edgeward increases in \\delta25Mg characteristic of Leoville 144A. Three CAIs that exhibit edgeward \\delta25Mg decreases are well described by diffusion in a Mg-rich chondritic environment suggestive of nebular temperatures and

  6. Strontium isotope measurement of basaltic glasses by laser ablation multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based on a linear relationship between analytical bias and Rb/Sr ratios.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Dong; Li, Nan

    2018-01-30

    In situ strontium (Sr) isotope analysis of geological samples by laser ablation multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) provides useful information about magma mixing, crustal contamination and crystal residence time. Without chemical separation, during Sr isotope analysis with laser ablation, many kinds of interference ions (such as Rb + and Kr + ) are on the Sr isotope spectrum. Most previous in situ Sr isotope studies only focused on Sr-enriched minerals (e.g. plagioclase, calcite). Here we established a simple method for in situ Sr isotope analysis of basaltic glass with Rb/Sr ratio less than 0.14 by LA-MC-ICP-MS. Seven Faraday cups, on a Neptune Plus MC-ICP-MS instrument, were used to receive the signals on m/z 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87 and 88 simultaneously for the Sr isotope analysis of basaltic glass. The isobaric interference of 87 Rb was corrected by the peak stripping method. The instrumental mass fractionation of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr was corrected to 86 Sr/ 88 Sr = 0.1194 with an exponential law. Finally, the residual analytical biases of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr were corrected with a relationship between the deviation of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr from the reference values and the measured 87 Rb/ 86 Sr. The validity of the protocol present here was demonstrated by measuring the Sr isotopes of four basaltic glasses, a plagioclase crystal and a piece of modern coral. The measured 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of all these samples agree within 100 ppm with the reference values. In addition, the Sr isotopes of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Emeishan large igneous province (LIP) were measured to show the application of our method to real geological samples. A simple but accurate approach for in situ Sr isotope measurement by LA-MC-ICP-MS has been established, which should greatly facilitate the wider application of in situ Sr isotope geochemistry, especially to volcanic rock studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reconstruction of ensembles of coupled time-delay systems from time series.

    PubMed

    Sysoev, I V; Prokhorov, M D; Ponomarenko, V I; Bezruchko, B P

    2014-06-01

    We propose a method to recover from time series the parameters of coupled time-delay systems and the architecture of couplings between them. The method is based on a reconstruction of model delay-differential equations and estimation of statistical significance of couplings. It can be applied to networks composed of nonidentical nodes with an arbitrary number of unidirectional and bidirectional couplings. We test our method on chaotic and periodic time series produced by model equations of ensembles of diffusively coupled time-delay systems in the presence of noise, and apply it to experimental time series obtained from electronic oscillators with delayed feedback coupled by resistors.

  8. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...

  9. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  10. Transgenic Reproductive Cell Ablation.

    PubMed

    Lawit, Shai J; Chamberlin, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous cell ablation technologies are available and have been used in reproductive tissues, particularly for male tissues and cells. The importance of ablation of reproductive tissues is toward a fundamental understanding reproductive tissue development and fertilization, as well as, in developing sterility lines important to breeding strategies. Here, we describe techniques for developing ablation lines for both male and female reproductive cells. Also discussed are techniques for analysis, quality control, maintenance, and the lessening of pleiotropism in such lines.

  11. Thermal distribution of microwave antenna for atrial fibrillation catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Nan, Qun; Liu, Youjun

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ablation parameters on thermal distribution during microwave atrial fibrillation catheter ablation, such as ablation time, ablation power, blood condition and antenna placement, and give proper ablative parameters to realise transmural ablation. In this paper, simplified 3D antenna-myocardium-blood finite element method models were built to simulate the endocardial ablation operation. Thermal distribution was obtained based on the coupled electromagnetic-thermal analysis. Under different antenna placement conditions and different microwave power inputs within 60 s, the lesion dimensions (maximum depth, maximum width) of the ablation zones were analysed. The ablation width and depth increased with the ablation time. The increase rate significantly slowed down after 10 s. The maximum temperature was located in 1 mm under the antenna tip when perpendicular to the endocardium, while 1.5 mm away from the antenna axis and 26 mm along the antenna (with antenna length about 30 mm) in the myocardium when parallel to the endocardium. The maximum temperature in the ablated area decreased and the effective ablation area (with the temperature raised to 50°C) shifted deeper into the myocardium due to the blood cooling. The research validated that the microwave antenna can provide continuous long and linear lesions for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. The dimensions of the created lesion widths were all larger than those of the depths. It is easy for the microwave antenna to produce transmural lesions for an atrial wall thickness of 2-6 mm by adjusting the applied power and ablation time.

  12. Overview of the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Kirk, Benjamin S.; Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the capabilities of the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code is presented. CHAR is a one-, two-, and three-dimensional unstructured continuous Galerkin finite-element heat conduction and ablation solver with both direct and inverse modes. Additionally, CHAR includes a coupled linear thermoelastic solver for determination of internal stresses induced from the temperature field and surface loading. Background on the development process, governing equations, material models, discretization techniques, and numerical methods is provided. Special focus is put on the available boundary conditions including thermochemical ablation, surface-to-surface radiation exchange, and flowfield coupling. Finally, a discussion of ongoing development efforts is presented.

  13. Simulating forest landscape disturbances as coupled human and natural systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wimberly, Michael; Sohl, Terry L.; Liu, Zhihua; Lamsal, Aashis

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances resulting from human land use affect forest landscapes over a range of spatial and temporal scales, with diverse influences on vegetation patterns and dynamics. These processes fall within the scope of the coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) concept, which has emerged as an important framework for understanding the reciprocal interactions and feedbacks that connect human activities and ecosystem responses. Spatial simulation modeling of forest landscape change is an important technique for exploring the dynamics of CHANS over large areas and long time periods. Landscape models for simulating interactions between human activities and forest landscape dynamics can be grouped into two main categories. Forest landscape models (FLMs) focus on landscapes where forests are the dominant land cover and simulate succession and natural disturbances along with forest management activities. In contrast, land change models (LCMs) simulate mosaics of different land cover and land use classes that include forests in addition to other land uses such as developed areas and agricultural lands. There are also several examples of coupled models that combine elements of FLMs and LCMs. These integrated models are particularly useful for simulating human–natural interactions in landscapes where human settlement and agriculture are expanding into forested areas. Despite important differences in spatial scale and disciplinary scope, FLMs and LCMs have many commonalities in conceptual design and technical implementation that can facilitate continued integration. The ultimate goal will be to implement forest landscape disturbance modeling in a CHANS framework that recognizes the contextual effects of regional land use and other human activities on the forest ecosystem while capturing the reciprocal influences of forests and their disturbances on the broader land use mosaic.

  14. Direct His bundle pacing post AVN ablation.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanadoss, Umashankar; Aggarwal, Ashim; Huang, David T; Daubert, James P; Shah, Abrar

    2009-08-01

    Atrioventricular nodal (AVN) ablation with concomitant pacemaker implantation is one of the strategies that reduce symptoms in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the long-term adverse effects of right ventricular (RV) apical pacing have led to the search for alternating sites of pacing. Biventricular pacing produces a significant improvement in functional capacity over RV pacing in patients undergoing AVN ablation. Another alternative site for pacing is direct His bundle to reduce the adverse outcome of RV pacing. Here, we present a case of direct His bundle pacing using steerable lead delivery system in a patient with symptomatic paroxysmal AF with concurrent AVN ablation.

  15. Flexible microwave ablation applicator for the treatment of pulmonary malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfannenstiel, Austin; Keast, Tom; Kramer, Steve; Wibowo, Henky; Prakash, Punit

    2017-02-01

    Microwave ablation (MWA) is an emerging minimally invasive treatment option for malignant lung tumors. Compared to other energy modalities, such as radiofrequency ablation, MWA offers the advantages of deeper penetration within high impedance tissues such as aerated lung, shorter treatment times, and less susceptibility to the cooling heat-sink effects of air and blood flow. Previous studies have demonstrated clinical use of MWA for treating lung tumors; however, these procedures have relied upon the percutaneous application of rigid microwave antennas. The objective of our work was to develop and characterize a novel flexible microwave applicator which could be integrated with a bronchoscopic imaging and software guidance platform to expand the use of MWA as a treatment option for small (< 2cm) pulmonary tumors. This applicator would allow physicians an even less invasive, immediate treatment option for lung tumors identified within the scope of current medical procedures. It may also improve applicator placement accuracy and increase efficacy while minimizing the risk of procedural complications. A 2D-axisymmetric coupled FEM electromagnetic-heat transfer model was implemented to characterize expected antenna radiation patterns, ablation size and shape, and optimize antenna design for lung tissue. A prototype device was fabricated and evaluated in ex vivo tissues to verify simulation results and serve as proof-of-concept. Additional experiments were conducted in an in vivo animal model to further characterize the proposed system.

  16. Whither countertransference in couples and family therapy: a systemic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaslow, F W

    2001-08-01

    This study addresses various perspectives on transference and countertransference dynamics from the context of couples and family therapy. It considers the phenomena of countertransference in couple and family therapy and illustrates treatment with three specific kinds of patient populations: adult survivors of childhood incest who receive therapy with their partner; couples group therapy; and psychotherapists and their families. How supervisors help trainees recognize and deal with the transference and countertransference in clinical practice also is explored. These reciprocal phenomena are even more complex to identify and handle in couple and family treatment than in individual therapy.

  17. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: An Update of the Technology Maturation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will update the community on the development of conformal ablative TPS. As described at IPPW-10, in FY12, the CA-TPS element focused on establishing materials requirements based on MSL-type and COTS Low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions (q 250 Wcm2) to develop and deliver a conformal ablative TPS. This involved downselecting, manufacturing and testing two of the best candidate materials, demonstrating uniform infiltration of resins into baseline 2-cm thick carbon felt, selecting a primary conformal material formulation based on novel arc jet and basic material properties testing, developing and demonstrating instrumentation for felt-based materials and, based on the data, developing a low fidelity material response model so that the conformal ablator TPS thickness for missions could be established. In addition, the project began to develop Industry Partnerships. Since the nominal thickness of baseline carbon felts was only 2-cm, a partnership with a rayon felt developer was made in order to upgrade equipment, establish the processes required and attempt to manufacture 10-cm thick white goods. A partnership with a processing house was made to develop the methodology to carbonize large pieces of the white goods into 7.5-cm thick carbon felt.In FY13, more advanced testing and modeling of the downselected conformal material was performed. Material thermal properties tests and structural properties tests were performed. The first 3 and 4-point bend tests were performed on the conformal ablator as well as PICA for comparison and the conformal ablator had outstanding behavior compared to PICA. Arc jet testing was performed with instrumented samples of both the conformal ablator and standard PICA at heating rates ranging from 40 to 400 Wcm2 and shear as high as 600 Pa. The results from these tests showed a remarkable improvement in the thermal penetration through the conformal ablator when compared to PICAs response. The data from these tests were used to

  18. Function projective synchronization in chaotic and hyperchaotic systems through open-plus-closed-loop coupling.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, K Sebastian; Sabir, M

    2010-03-01

    Recently introduced function projective synchronization in which chaotic systems synchronize up to a scaling function has important applications in secure communications. We design coupling function for unidirectional coupling in identical and mismatched oscillators to realize function projective synchronization through open-plus-closed-loop coupling method. Numerical simulations on Lorenz system, Rossler system, hyperchaotic Lorenz, and hyperchaotic Chen system are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  19. Radiofrequency ablation combined with systemic treatment versus systemic treatment alone in patients with non-resectable colorectal liver metastases: a randomized EORTC Intergroup phase II study (EORTC 40004).

    PubMed

    Ruers, T; Punt, C; Van Coevorden, F; Pierie, J P E N; Borel-Rinkes, I; Ledermann, J A; Poston, G; Bechstein, W; Lentz, M A; Mauer, M; Van Cutsem, E; Lutz, M P; Nordlinger, B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the possible benefits of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with non-resectable colorectal liver metastases. This phase II study, originally started as a phase III design, randomly assigned 119 patients with non-resectable colorectal liver metastases between systemic treatment (n = 59) or systemic treatment plus RFA ( ± resection) (n = 60). Primary objective was a 30-month overall survival (OS) rate >38% for the combined treatment group. The primary end point was met, 30-month OS rate was 61.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 48.2-73.9] for combined treatment. However, 30-month OS for systemic treatment was 57.6% (95% CI 44.1-70.4), higher than anticipated. Median OS was 45.3 for combined treatment and 40.5 months for systemic treatment (P = 0.22). PFS rate at 3 years for combined treatment was 27.6% compared with 10.6% for systemic treatment only (hazard ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.95, P = 0.025). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16.8 months (95% CI 11.7-22.1) and 9.9 months (95% CI 9.3-13.7), respectively. This is the first randomized study on the efficacy of RFA. The study met the primary end point on 30-month OS; however, the results in the control arm were in the same range. RFA plus systemic treatment resulted in significant longer PFS. At present, the ultimate effect of RFA on OS remains uncertain.

  20. Morphological effects of nanosecond- and femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation on human middle ear ossicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, Justus F.; Wehner, Martin; Lorenzen, Johann; Bovi, Manfred; Westhofen, Martin

    2004-07-01

    Introduction: Since the early 1980's, a considerable number of different laser systems have been introduced into reconstructive middle ear surgery. Depending on the ablation mode, however, pressure transients or thermal load to inner ear structures continue to be subject to discussion. Material and methods: We examined single spot ablations by a nanosecond-pulsed, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG-Laser (355 nm, beam diameter 10 μm, pulse rate 2 kHz, power 250 mW) on isolated human mallei. In a second set-up, a similar system (355 nm, beam diameter 20 μm, pulse rate 10 kHz, power 160-1500 mW) was coupled to a scanner to examine the morphology of bone surface ablation over an area of 1mm2. A third set-up employed a femtosecond-pulsed CrLiSAF-Oscillator (850 nm, pulse duration 100 fs, pulse energy 40μJ, beam diameter 36 μm, pulse rate 1 kHz) to compare these results with the former and with those obtained from a commercially available Er:YAG laser for ear surgery (Zeiss ORL E, 2940 nm, single pulse, energy 10-25 mJ). Results: In set-up 1 and 2, thermal effects in terms of marginal carbonization were visible in all single spot ablations of 1 s and longer. With ablations of 0.5 seconds, precise cutting margins with preservation of surrounding tissue could be observed. Cooling with saline solution resulted in no carbonization at 1500 mW and a scan speed of 500 mm/s. Set-up 3 equally showed no carbonization, although scanning times were longer and ablation less pronounced. Conclusion: Ultrashort pulsed laser systems could potentially aid further refinement of reconstructive microsurgery of the middle ear.

  1. Empirical Retrieval of Surface Melt Magnitude from Coupled MODIS Optical and Thermal Measurements over the Greenland Ice Sheet during the 2001 Ablation Season

    PubMed Central

    Lampkin, Derrick; Peng, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated ice flow near the equilibrium line of west-central Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) has been attributed to an increase in infiltrated surface melt water as a response to climate warming. The assessment of surface melting events must be more than the detection of melt onset or extent. Retrieval of surface melt magnitude is necessary to improve understanding of ice sheet flow and surface melt coupling. In this paper, we report on a new technique to quantify the magnitude of surface melt. Cloud-free dates of June 10, July 5, 7, 9, and 11, 2001 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily reflectance Band 5 (1.230-1.250μm) and surface temperature images rescaled to 1km over western Greenland were used in the retrieval algorithm. An optical-thermal feature space partitioned as a function of melt magnitude was derived using a one-dimensional thermal snowmelt model (SNTHERM89). SNTHERM89 was forced by hourly meteorological data from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) at reference sites spanning dry snow, percolation, and wet snow zones in the Jakobshavn drainage basin in western GIS. Melt magnitude or effective melt (E-melt) was derived for satellite composite periods covering May, June, and July displaying low fractions (0-1%) at elevations greater than 2500m and fractions at or greater than 15% at elevations lower than 1000m assessed for only the upper 5 cm of the snow surface. Validation of E-melt involved comparison of intensity to dry and wet zones determined from QSCAT backscatter. Higher intensities (> 8%) were distributed in wet snow zones, while lower intensities were grouped in dry zones at a first order accuracy of ∼ ±2%. PMID:27873793

  2. Empirical Retrieval of Surface Melt Magnitude from Coupled MODIS Optical and Thermal Measurements over the Greenland Ice Sheet during the 2001 Ablation Season.

    PubMed

    Lampkin, Derrick; Peng, Rui

    2008-08-22

    Accelerated ice flow near the equilibrium line of west-central Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) has been attributed to an increase in infiltrated surface melt water as a response to climate warming. The assessment of surface melting events must be more than the detection of melt onset or extent. Retrieval of surface melt magnitude is necessary to improve understanding of ice sheet flow and surface melt coupling. In this paper, we report on a new technique to quantify the magnitude of surface melt. Cloud-free dates of June 10, July 5, 7, 9, and 11, 2001 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily reflectance Band 5 (1.230-1.250μm) and surface temperature images rescaled to 1km over western Greenland were used in the retrieval algorithm. An optical-thermal feature space partitioned as a function of melt magnitude was derived using a one-dimensional thermal snowmelt model (SNTHERM89). SNTHERM89 was forced by hourly meteorological data from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) at reference sites spanning dry snow, percolation, and wet snow zones in the Jakobshavn drainage basin in western GIS. Melt magnitude or effective melt (E-melt) was derived for satellite composite periods covering May, June, and July displaying low fractions (0-1%) at elevations greater than 2500m and fractions at or greater than 15% at elevations lower than 1000m assessed for only the upper 5 cm of the snow surface. Validation of E-melt involved comparison of intensity to dry and wet zones determined from QSCAT backscatter. Higher intensities (> 8%) were distributed in wet snow zones, while lower intensities were grouped in dry zones at a first order accuracy of ~ ±2%.

  3. Multi-disciplinary coupling effects for integrated design of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effective computational simulation procedures are described for modeling the inherent multi-disciplinary interactions which govern the accurate response of propulsion systems. Results are presented for propulsion system responses including multi-disciplinary coupling effects using coupled multi-discipline thermal, structural, and acoustic tailoring; an integrated system of multi-disciplinary simulators; coupled material behavior/fabrication process tailoring; sensitivities using a probabilistic simulator; and coupled materials, structures, fracture, and probabilistic behavior simulator. The results demonstrate that superior designs can be achieved if the analysis/tailoring methods account for the multi-disciplinary coupling effects. The coupling across disciplines can be used to develop an integrated coupled multi-discipline numerical propulsion system simulator.

  4. Sprayable lightweight ablative coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G. (Inventor); Sharpe, Max H. (Inventor); Hill, William E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved lightweight, ablative coating is disclosed that may be spray applied and cured without the development of appreciable shrinkage cracks. The ablative mixture consists essentially of phenolic microballoons, hollow glass spheres, glass fibers, ground cork, a flexibilized resin binder, and an activated colloidal clay.

  5. Randomized, Split-Face/Décolleté Comparative Trial of Procedure Enhancement System for Fractional non-Ablative Laser Resurfacing Treatment.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Deanne Mraz; Frulla, Ashton P

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: A topical proprietary procedural enhancement system (PES) containing a combination of active ingredients including a tripeptide and hexapeptide (TriHex Technology™, Alastin Procedure Enhancement Invasive System, ALASTIN Skincare™, Inc., Carlsbad, CA) has been used successfully to aid in healing and improve symptomatology following resurfacing procedures.

    METHODS: PES (Gentle Cleanser, Regenerating Skin Nectar with TriHex Technology™, Ultra Nourishing Moisturizer with TriHex Technology™, Soothe + Protect Recovery Balm, Broad Spectrum 30+ Sunscreen) was compared to a basic regimen (Aquaphor™, Cerave™ cleanser, Vanicream™, Alastin Broad Spectrum 30+ Sunscreen) in a split face/ décolleté trial following fractional non-ablative thulium-doped resurfacing treatment to the face or décolleté. The skin was pre-conditioned and treated during and after the procedure using the two regimens.

    RESULTS: A blinded investigator rated the PES statistically superior to the basic regimen on healing post-laser treatment on day 4 based on lentigines, texture, and Global Skin Quality. Subjects also reported 'better looking and feeling' skin on the PES side.

    CONCLUSION: PES appears to improve healing post-non ablative thulium-doped resurfacing treatment to the face/décolleté in comparison with standard of care.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):707-710.

    .

  6. Monitoring radiofrequency ablation with ultrasound Nakagami imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chiao-Yin; Geng, Xiaonan; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Liu, Hao-Li; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2013-07-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a widely used alternative modality in the treatment of liver tumors. Ultrasound B-mode imaging is an important tool to guide the insertion of the RFA electrode into the tissue. However, it is difficult to visualize the ablation zone because RFA induces the shadow effect in a B-scan. Based on the randomness of ultrasonic backscattering, this study proposes ultrasound Nakagami imaging, which is a well-established method for backscattered statistics analysis, as an approach to complement the conventional B-scan for evaluating the ablation region. Porcine liver samples (n = 6) were ablated using a RFA system and monitored by employing an ultrasound scanner equipped with a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. During the stages of ablation (0-12 min) and postablation (12-24 min), the raw backscattered data were acquired at a sampling rate of 30 MHz for B-mode, Nakagami imaging, and polynomial approximation of Nakagami imaging. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was also calculated to compare the image contrasts of the B-mode and Nakagami images. The results demonstrated that the Nakagami image has the ability to visualize changes in the backscattered statistics in the ablation zone, including the shadow region during RFA. The average Nakagami parameter increased from 0.2 to 0.6 in the ablation stage, and then decreased to approximately 0.3 at the end of the postablation stage. Moreover, the CNR of the Nakagami image was threefold that of the B-mode image, showing that the Nakagami image has a better image contrast for monitoring RFA. Specifically, the use of the polynomial approximation equips the Nakagami image with an enhanced ability to estimate the range of the ablation region. This study demonstrated that ultrasound Nakagami imaging based on the analysis of backscattered statistics has the ability to visualize the RFA-induced ablation zone, even if the shadow effect exists in the B-scan.

  7. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to explore geochemical taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the upper cretaceous two medicine and Judith River formations of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, R.R.; Fricke, H.C.; Addona, V.; Canavan, R.R.; Dwyer, C.N.; Harwood, C.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Murray, R.; Thole, J.T.; Williams, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine rare earth element (REE) content of 76 fossil bones collected from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Two Medicine (TMF) and Judith River (JRF) Formations of Montana. REE content is distinctive at the formation scale, with TMF samples exhibiting generally higher overall REE content and greater variability in REE enrichment than JRF samples. Moreover, JRF bones exhibit relative enrichment in heavy REE, whereas TMF bones span heavy and light enrichment fields in roughly equal proportions. TMF bones are also characterized by more negative Ce anomalies and greater U enrichment than JRF bones, which is consistent with more oxidizing diagenetic conditions in the TMF. Bonebeds in both formations show general consistency in REE content, with no indication of spatial or temporal mixing within sites. Previous studies, however, suggest that the bonebeds in question are attritional assemblages that accumulated over considerable time spans. The absence of geochemical evidence for mixing is consistent with diagenesis transpiring in settings that remained chemically and hydrologically stable during recrystallization. Lithology-related patterns in REE content were also compared, and TMF bones recovered from fluvial sandstones show relative enrichment in heavy REE when compared with bones recovered from fine-grained floodplain deposits. In contrast, JRF bones, regardless of lithologic context (sandstone versus mudstone), exhibit similar patterns of REE uptake. This result is consistent with previous reconstructions that suggest that channel-hosted microfossil bonebeds of the JRF developed via the reworking of preexisting concentrations embedded in the interfluve. Geochemical data further indicate that reworked elements were potentially delivered to channels in a recrystallized condition, which is consistent with rapid adsorption of REE postmortem. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for

  8. Bayesian Integration and Classification of Composition C-4 Plastic Explosives Based on Time-of-Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Christine M; Kelly, Ryan T; Alexander, Liz; Newburn, Matt; Bader, Sydney; Ewing, Robert G; Fahey, Albert J; Atkinson, David A; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2016-04-05

    Time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) were used for characterization and identification of unique signatures from a series of 18 Composition C-4 plastic explosives. The samples were obtained from various commercial and military sources around the country. Positive and negative ion TOF-SIMS data were acquired directly from the C-4 residue on Si surfaces, where the positive ion mass spectra obtained were consistent with the major composition of organic additives, and the negative ion mass spectra were more consistent with explosive content in the C-4 samples. Each series of mass spectra was subjected to partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), a multivariate statistical analysis approach which serves to first find the areas of maximum variance within different classes of C-4 and subsequently to classify unknown samples based on correlations between the unknown data set and the original data set (often referred to as a training data set). This method was able to successfully classify test samples of C-4, though with a limited degree of certainty. The classification accuracy of the method was further improved by integrating the positive and negative ion data using a Bayesian approach. The TOF-SIMS data was combined with a second analytical method, LA-ICPMS, which was used to analyze elemental signatures in the C-4. The integrated data were able to classify test samples with a high degree of certainty. Results indicate that this Bayesian integrated approach constitutes a robust classification method that should be employable even in dirty samples collected in the field.

  9. Microwave Ablation of Porcine Kidneys in vivo: Effect of two Different Ablation Modes ('Temperature Control' and 'Power Control') on Procedural Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, C. M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Arnegger, F.; Koch, V.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to analyze the effect of two different ablation modes ('temperature control' and 'power control') of a microwave system on procedural outcome in porcine kidneys in vivo. Methods: A commercially available microwave system (Avecure Microwave Generator; MedWaves, San Diego, CA) was used. The system offers the possibility to ablate with two different ablation modes: temperature control and power control. Thirty-two microwave ablations were performed in 16 kidneys of 8 pigs. In each animal, one kidney was ablated twice by applying temperature control (ablation duration set point at 60 s, ablation temperature set point at 96 Degree-Signmore » C, automatic power set point; group I). The other kidney was ablated twice by applying power control (ablation duration set point at 60 s, ablation temperature set point at 96 Degree-Sign C, ablation power set point at 24 W; group II). Procedural outcome was analyzed: (1) technical success (e.g., system failures, duration of the ablation cycle), and (2) ablation geometry (e.g., long axis diameter, short axis diameter, and circularity). Results: System failures occurred in 0% in group I and 13% in group II. Duration of the ablation cycle was 60 {+-} 0 s in group I and 102 {+-} 21 s in group II. Long axis diameter was 20.3 {+-} 4.6 mm in group I and 19.8 {+-} 3.5 mm in group II (not significant (NS)). Short axis diameter was 10.3 {+-} 2 mm in group I and 10.5 {+-} 2.4 mm in group II (NS). Circularity was 0.5 {+-} 0.1 in group I and 0.5 {+-} 0.1 in group II (NS). Conclusions: Microwave ablations performed with temperature control showed fewer system failures and were finished faster. Both ablation modes demonstrated no significant differences with respect to ablation geometry.« less

  10. Optimized cross-resonance gate for coupled transmon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Susanna; Keßler, Torsten; Liebermann, Per J.; Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Motzoi, Felix; Wilhelm, Frank K.

    2018-04-01

    The cross-resonance (CR) gate is an entangling gate for fixed-frequency superconducting qubits. While being simple and extensible, it is comparatively slow, at 160 ns, and thus of limited fidelity due to on-going incoherent processes. Using two different optimal control algorithms, we estimate the quantum speed limit for a controlled-not cnot gate in this system to be 10 ns, indicating a potential for great improvements. We show that the ability to approach this limit depends strongly on the choice of ansatz used to describe optimized control pulses and limitations placed on their complexity. Using a piecewise-constant ansatz, with a single carrier and bandwidth constraints, we identify an experimentally feasible 70-ns pulse shape. Further, an ansatz based on the two dominant frequencies involved in the optimal control problem allows for an optimal solution more than twice as fast again, at under 30 ns, with smooth features and limited complexity. This is twice as fast as gate realizations using tunable-frequency, resonantly coupled qubits. Compared to current CR-gate implementations, we project our scheme will provide a sixfold speed-up and thus a sixfold reduction in fidelity loss due to incoherent effects.

  11. Wall-crossing in coupled 2d-4d systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Moore, Gregory W.; Neitzke, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a new wall-crossing formula which combines and generalizes the Cecotti-Vafa and Kontsevich-Soibelman formulas for supersymmetric 2d and 4d systems respectively. This 2d-4d wall-crossing formula governs the wall-crossing of BPS states in an {N}=2 supersymmetric 4d gauge theory coupled to a supersymmetric surface defect. When the theory and defect are compactified on a circle, we get a 3d theory with a supersymmetric line operator, corresponding to a hyperholomorphic connection on a vector bundle over a hyperkähler space. The 2d-4d wall-crossing formula can be interpreted as a smoothness condition for this hyperholomorphic connection. We explain how the 2d-4d BPS spectrum can be determined for 4d theories of class {S} , that is, for those theories obtained by compactifying the six-dimensional (0, 2) theory with a partial topological twist on a punctured Riemann surface C. For such theories there are canonical surface defects. We illustrate with several examples in the case of A 1 theories of class {S} . Finally, we indicate how our results can be used to produce solutions to the A 1 Hitchin equations on the Riemann surface C.

  12. Managing ecological thresholds in coupled environmental–human systems

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Richard D.; Fenichel, Eli P.; Drury, Kevin L. S.; Lodge, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems appear subject to regime shifts—abrupt changes from one state to another after crossing a threshold or tipping point. Thresholds and their associated stability landscapes are determined within a coupled socioeconomic–ecological system (SES) where human choices, including those of managers, are feedback responses. Prior work has made one of two assumptions about managers: that they face no institutional constraints, in which case the SES may be managed to be fairly robust to shocks and tipping points are of little importance, or that managers are rigidly constrained with no flexibility to adapt, in which case the inferred thresholds may poorly reflect actual managerial flexibility. We model a multidimensional SES to investigate how alternative institutions affect SES stability landscapes and alter tipping points. With institutionally dependent human feedbacks, the stability landscape depends on institutional arrangements. Strong institutions that account for feedback responses create the possibility for desirable states of the world and can cause undesirable states to cease to exist. Intermediate institutions interact with ecological relationships to determine the existence and nature of tipping points. Finally, weak institutions can eliminate tipping points so that only undesirable states of the world remain. PMID:21502517

  13. Endo-epicardial ablation of ventricular arrhythmias in the left ventricle with the Remote Magnetic Navigation System and the 3.5-mm open irrigated magnetic catheter: results from a large single-center case-control series.

    PubMed

    Di Biase, Luigi; Santangeli, Pasquale; Astudillo, Vladimir; Conti, Sergio; Mohanty, Prasant; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Sanchez, Javier E; Horton, Rodney; Thomas, Barbara; Burkhardt, J David; Natale, Andrea

    2010-08-01

    Remote magnetic navigation (RMN) has been reported as a feasible and safe mapping and ablation system for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). However, the reported success rates have been limited with the 4- and 8-mm catheter tips. This study sought to report the results in a large series of consecutive patients undergoing radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation of VAs using the RMN with the 3.5-mm magnetic open-irrigated-tip catheter (OIC). A total of 110 consecutive patients with a clinical history of left VA were included in the study. In all cases, an OIC was utilized for mapping and ablation. When ablation with the RMN catheters failed, a manual OIC was used to eliminate the VA. Postablation pacing maneuvers and isoproterenol were used to verify the inducibility of the VAs. Outcomes were compared with those of a group of 92 consecutive patients undergoing manual ablation by the same operator. Mapping and ablation with the magnetic OIC were performed in all 110 patients with VA. Ischemic cardiomyopathy was present in 33 (30%), nonischemic in 14 (13%), and in 63 (57%) patients no structural heart disease was present. Endocardial mapping was performed in all patients, whereas both endocardial and epicardial mapping were performed in 36 (33%) patients. Compared with manual ablation, RMN was associated with a longer procedural time (2.9 +/- 1.2 hours vs. 3.3 +/- 1.1 hours, P = 0.004) and RF time (24 +/- 12 minutes vs. 33 +/- 18 minutes, P = 0.005), whereas fluoroscopic time was significantly shorter (35 +/- 22 minutes vs. 26 +/- 14 minutes, P = 0.033). During the procedures, crossover to manual ablation was required in 15 patients (14%). At 11.7 +/- 2.1 months of follow-up in the study group and 18.7 +/- 3.7 months in the manual ablation group, 85% and 86% (P = 0.817) of patients, respectively, were free of VA. This large series of consecutive patients demonstrates that OIC ablation using RMN is effective for the treatment of left VAs. Copyright 2010 Heart

  14. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Small and Large Scale Missions: Approaching TRL 6 for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions and TRL 9 for Small Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R. A. S.; Gasch, M. J.; Milos, F. S.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Smith, B. P.; Switzer, M. R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Wilder, M. C.; Boghhozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an effort to develop an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) material that would have improved properties when compared to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and AVCOAT. Their goal was a conformal material, processed with a flexible reinforcement that would result in similar or better thermal characteristics and higher strain-to-failure characteristics that would allow for easier integration on flight aeroshells than then-current rigid ablative TPS materials. In 2012, NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began funding the maturation of the best formulation of the game changing conformal ablator, C-PICA. Progress has been reported at IPPW over the past three years, describing C-PICA with a density and recession rates similar to PICA, but with a higher strain-to-failure which allows for direct bonding and no gap fillers, and even more important, with thermal characteristics resulting in half the temperature rise of PICA. Overall, C-PICA should be able to replace PICA with a thinner, lighter weight, less complicated design. These characteristics should be particularly attractive for use as backshell TPS on high energy planetary entry vehicles. At the end of this year, the material should be ready for missions to consider including in their design, in fact, NASAs Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is considering incentivizing the use of C-PICA in the next Discovery Proposal call. This year both scale up of the material to large (1-m) sized pieces and the design and build of small probe heatshields for flight tests will be completed. NASA, with an industry partner, will build a 1-m long manufacturing demonstration unit (MDU) with a shape based on a mid LD lifting body. In addition, in an effort to fly as you test and test as you fly, NASA, with a second industry partner, will build a small probe to test in the Interactive Heating Facility (IHF) arc jet and, using nearly the

  15. Learning Management Systems: Coupled Simulations and Assessments in a Digital Systems Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuttke, Heinz-Dietrich; Henke, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The content, provided in learning management systems (LMS), is often text oriented as in a usual textbook, extended by some animations and links. Hands on activities and experiments are not possible. The paper aims to give an overview about the concept to couple smart simulation and assessment tools with an LMS to provide a more…

  16. Solar Wind Ablation of Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas Earle; Fok, Mei-Ching H.; Delcourt, Dominique C.

    2009-01-01

    Internal plasma sources usually arise in planetary magnetospheres as a product of stellar ablation processes. With the ignition of a new star and the onset of its ultraviolet and stellar wind emissions, much of the volatiles in the stellar system undergo a phase transition from gas to plasma. Condensation and accretion into a disk is replaced by radiation and stellar wind ablation of volatile materials from the system- Planets or smaller bodies that harbor intrinsic magnetic fields develop an apparent shield against direct stellar wind impact, but UV radiation still ionizes their gas phases, and the resulting internal plasmas serve to conduct currents to and from the central body along reconnected magnetic field linkages. Photoionization and thermalization of electrons warms the ionospheric topside, enhancing Jeans' escape of super-thermal particles, with ambipolar diffusion and acceleration. Moreover, observations and simulations of auroral processes at Earth indicate that solar wind energy dissipation is concentrated by the geomagnetic field by a factor of 10-100, enhancing heavy species plasma and gas escape from gravity, and providing more current carrying capacity. Thus internal plasmas enable coupling with the plasma, neutral gas and by extension, the entire body. The stellar wind is locally loaded and slowed to develop the required power. The internal source plasma is accelerated and heated, inflating the magnetosphere as it seeks escape, and is ultimately blown away in the stellar wind. Bodies with little sensible atmosphere may still produce an exosphere of sputtered matter when exposed to direct solar wind impact. Bodies with a magnetosphere and internal sources of plasma interact more strongly with the stellar wind owing to the magnetic linkage between the two created by reconnection.

  17. Stellar Ablation of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    We review observations and theories of the solar ablation of planetary atmospheres, focusing on the terrestrial case where a large magnetosphere holds off the solar wind, so that there is little direct atmospheric impact, but also couples the solar wind electromagnetically to the auroral zones. We consider the photothermal escape flows known as the polar wind or refilling flows, the enhanced mass flux escape flows that result from localized solar wind energy dissipation in the auroral zones, and the resultant enhanced neutral atom escape flows. We term these latter two escape flows the "auroral wind." We review observations and theories of the heating and acceleration of auroral winds, including energy inputs from precipitating particles, electromagnetic energy flux at magnetohydrodynamic and plasma wave frequencies, and acceleration by parallel electric fields and by convection pickup processes also known as "centrifugal acceleration." We consider also the global circulation of ionospheric plasmas within the magnetosphere, their participation in magnetospheric disturbances as absorbers of momentum and energy, and their ultimate loss from the magnetosphere into the downstream solar wind, loading reconnection processes that occur at high altitudes near the magnetospheric boundaries. We consider the role of planetary magnetization and the accumulating evidence of stellar ablation of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Finally, we suggest and discuss future needs for both the theory and observation of the planetary ionospheres and their role in solar wind interactions, to achieve the generality required for a predictive science of the coupling of stellar and planetary atmospheres over the full range of possible conditions.

  18. Flexible Ablators: Applications and Arcjet Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin A S.; Mcguire, Kathy; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Gorbunov, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Flexible ablators were conceived in 2009 to meet the technology pull for large, human Mars Exploration Class, 23 m diameter hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerators. As described elsewhere, they have been recently undergoing initial technical readiness (TRL) advancement by NASA. The performance limits of flexible ablators in terms of maximum heat rates, pressure and shear remain to be defined. Further, it is hoped that this emerging technology will vastly expand the capability of future NASA missions involving atmospheric entry systems. This paper considers four topics of relevance to flexible ablators: (1) Their potential applications to near/far term human and robotic missions (2) Brief consideration of the balance between heat shield diameter, flexible ablator performance limits, entry vehicle controllability and aft-body shear layer impingement of interest to designers of very large entry vehicles, (3) The approach for developing bonding processes of flexible ablators for use on rigid entry bodies and (4) Design of large arcjet test articles that will enable the testing of flexible ablators in flight-like, combined environments (heat flux, pressure, shear and structural tensile loading). Based on a review of thermal protection system performance requirements for future entry vehicles, it is concluded that flexible ablators have broad applications to conventional, rigid entry body systems and are enabling to large deployable (both inflatable and mechanical) heat shields. Because of the game-changing nature of flexible ablators, it appears that NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) will fund a focused, 3-year TRL advancement of the new materials capable of performance in heat fluxes in the range of 200-600 W/sq. cm. This support will enable the manufacture and use of the large-scale arcjet test designs that will be a key element of this OCT funded activity.

  19. Study on coupled shock absorber system using four electromagnetic dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumori, Y.; Hayashi, R.; Okano, H.; Suda, Y.; Nakano, K.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the electromagnetic damper, which is composed of an electric motor, a ball screw, and a nut, was proposed. The electromagnetic damper has high responsiveness, controllability, and energy saving performance. It has been reported that it improved ride comfort and drivability. In addition, the authors have proposed a coupling method of two electromagnetic dampers. The method enables the characteristics of bouncing and rolling or pitching motion of a vehicle to be tuned independently. In this study, the authors increase the number of coupling of electromagnetic dampers from two to four, and propose a method to couple four electromagnetic dampers. The proposed method enables the characteristics of bouncing, rolling and pitching motion of a vehicle to be tuned independently. Basic experiments using proposed circuit and motors and numerical simulations of an automobile equipped with the proposed coupling electromagnetic damper are carried out. The results indicate the proposed method is effective.

  20. Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To review the effectiveness, safety, and costing of ablation methods to manage atrial fibrillation (AF). The ablation methods reviewed were catheter ablation and surgical ablation. Clinical Need Atrial fibrillation is characterized by an irregular, usually rapid, heart rate that limits the ability of the atria to pump blood effectively to the ventricles. Atrial fibrillation can be a primary diagnosis or it may be associated with other diseases, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart muscle function, chronic lung diseases, and coronary heart disease. The most common symptom of AF is palpitations. Symptoms caused by decreased blood flow include dizziness, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Some patients with AF do not experience any symptoms. According to United States data, the incidence of AF increases with age, with a prevalence of 1 per 200 people aged between 50 and 60 years, and 1 per 10 people aged over 80 years. In 2004, the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) estimated that the rate of hospitalization for AF in Canada was 582.7 per 100,000 population. They also reported that of the patients discharged alive, 2.7% were readmitted within 1 year for stroke. One United States prevalence study of AF indicated that the overall prevalence of AF was 0.95%. When the results of this study were extrapolated to the population of Ontario, the prevalence of AF in Ontario is 98,758 for residents aged over 20 years. Currently, the first-line therapy for AF is medical therapy with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs). There are several AADs available, because there is no one AAD that is effective for all patients. The AADs have critical adverse effects that can aggravate existing arrhythmias. The drug selection process frequently involves trial and error until the patient’s symptoms subside. The Technology Ablation has been frequently described as a “cure” for AF, compared with drug therapy, which controls AF but does not cure it

  1. Microwave Tissue Ablation: Biophysics, Technology and Applications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an emerging treatment option for many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. During treatment, microwaves are applied directly to tissues to produce rapid temperature elevations sufficient to produce immediate coagulative necrosis. The engineering design criteria for each application differ, with individual consideration for factors such as desired ablation zone size, treatment duration, and procedural invasiveness. Recent technological developments in applicator cooling, power control and system optimization for specific applications promise to increase the utilization of microwave ablation in the future. This article will review the basic biophysics of microwave tissue heating, provide an overview of the design and operation of current equipment, and outline areas for future research for microwave ablation. PMID:21175404

  2. Design of multi-energy Helds coupling testing system of vertical axis wind power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Yang, Z. X.; Li, G. S.; Song, L.; Ma, C.

    2016-08-01

    The conversion efficiency of wind energy is the focus of researches and concerns as one of the renewable energy. The present methods of enhancing the conversion efficiency are mostly improving the wind rotor structure, optimizing the generator parameters and energy storage controller and so on. Because the conversion process involves in energy conversion of multi-energy fields such as wind energy, mechanical energy and electrical energy, the coupling effect between them will influence the overall conversion efficiency. In this paper, using system integration analysis technology, a testing system based on multi-energy field coupling (MEFC) of vertical axis wind power system is proposed. When the maximum efficiency of wind rotor is satisfied, it can match to the generator function parameters according to the output performance of wind rotor. The voltage controller can transform the unstable electric power to the battery on the basis of optimizing the parameters such as charging times, charging voltage. Through the communication connection and regulation of the upper computer system (UCS), it can make the coupling parameters configure to an optimal state, and it improves the overall conversion efficiency. This method can test the whole wind turbine (WT) performance systematically and evaluate the design parameters effectively. It not only provides a testing method for system structure design and parameter optimization of wind rotor, generator and voltage controller, but also provides a new testing method for the whole performance optimization of vertical axis wind energy conversion system (WECS).

  3. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

    PubMed

    Mora, S Jimena; Odella, Emmanuel; Moore, Gary F; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

    2018-02-20

    Artificial photosynthetic constructs can in principle operate more efficiently than natural photosynthesis because they can be rationally designed to optimize solar energy conversion for meeting human demands rather than the multiple needs of an organism competing for growth and reproduction in a complex ecosystem. The artificial photosynthetic constructs described in this Account consist primarily of covalently linked synthetic chromophores, electron donors and acceptors, and proton donors and acceptors that carry out the light absorption, electron transfer, and proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes characteristic of photosynthetic cells. PCET is the movement of an electron from one site to another accompanied by proton transfer. PCET and the transport of protons over tens of angstroms are important in all living cells because they are a fundamental link between redox processes and the establishment of transmembrane gradients of proton electrochemical potential, known as proton-motive force (PMF), which is the unifying concept in bioenergetics. We have chosen a benzimidazole phenol (BIP) system as a platform for the study of PCET because with appropriate substitutions it is possible to design assemblies in which one or multiple proton transfers can accompany oxidation of the phenol. In BIP, oxidation of the phenol increases its acidity by more than ten pK a units; thus, electrochemical oxidation of the phenol is associated with a proton transfer to the imidazole. This is an example of a PCET process involving transfer of one electron and one proton, known as electron-proton transfer (EPT). When the benzimidazole moiety of BIP is substituted at the 4-position with good proton acceptor groups such as aliphatic amines, experimental and theoretical results indicate that two proton transfers occur upon one-electron oxidation of the phenol. This phenomenon is described as a one-electron-two-proton transfer (E2PT) process and results in translocation of

  4. Precise control of coupling strength in photonic molecules over a wide range using nanoelectromechanical systems

    PubMed Central

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guoqiang; Deng, Jie; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-01-01

    Photonic molecules have a range of promising applications including quantum information processing, where precise control of coupling strength is critical. Here, by laterally shifting the center-to-center offset of coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, we demonstrate a method to precisely and dynamically control the coupling strength of photonic molecules through integrated nanoelectromechanical systems with a precision of a few GHz over a range of several THz without modifying the nature of their constituent resonators. Furthermore, the coupling strength can be tuned continuously from negative (strong coupling regime) to zero (weak coupling regime) and further to positive (strong coupling regime) and vice versa. Our work opens a door to the optimization of the coupling strength of photonic molecules in situ for the study of cavity quantum electrodynamics and the development of efficient quantum information devices. PMID:27097883

  5. Laser ablation with applied magnetic field for electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batishcheva, Alla; Batishchev, Oleg; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    2012-10-01

    Using ultrafast lasers with tera-watt-level power allows efficient ablation and ionization of solid-density materials [1], creating dense and hot (˜100eV) plasma. We propose ablating small droplets in the magnetic nozzle configurations similar to mini-helicon plasma source [2]. Such approach may improve the momentum coupling compared to ablation of solid surfaces and facilitate plasma detachment. Results of 2D modeling of solid wire ablation in the applied magnetic field are presented and discussed. [4pt] [1] O. Batishchev et al, Ultrafast Laser Ablation for Space Propulsion, AIAA technical paper 2008-5294, -16p, 44th JPC, Hartford, 2008.[0pt] [2] O. Batishchev and J.L. Cambier, Experimental Study of the Mini-Helicon Thruster, Air Force Research Laboratory Report, AFRL-RZ-ED-TR-2009-0020, 2009.

  6. Flow-dependent vascular heat transfer during microwave thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Jason; Hynes, Kieran; Brace, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    Microwave tumor ablation is an attractive option for thermal ablation because of its inherent benefits over radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Microwave energy heats tissue to higher temperatures and at a faster rate than RFA, creating larger, more homogenous ablation zones. In this study, we investigate microwave heating near large vasculature using coupled fluid-flow and thermal analysis. Low-flow conditions are predicted to be more likely to cause cytotoxic heating and, therefore, vessel thrombosis and endothelial damage of downstream tissues. Such conditions may be more prevalent in patient with severe cirrhosis or compromised blood flow. High-flow conditions create the more familiar heat-sink effect that can protect perivascular tissues from the intended thermal damage. These results may help guide placement and use of microwave ablation technologies in future studies.

  7. Amplitude death induced by mixed attractive and repulsive coupling in the relay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nannan; Sun, Zhongkui; Xu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The amplitude death (AD) phenomenon is found in the relay system in the presence of the mixed couplings composed of attractive coupling and repulsive coupling. The generation mechanism of AD is revealed and shows that the middle oscillator achieving AD is a prerequisite to further suppress oscillation of the outermost oscillators for the paradigmatic Stuart-Landau and Rössler models. Moreover, regarding the Stuart-Landau relay system as a small motif of star network, we also observe that the mixed couplings can facilitate AD state of the whole network system. Particularly, the threshold of coupling strength is invariable with the change of network size. Our findings may shed a new insight to explore the effects of hybrid coupling on complex systems, also provide a new strategy to control dynamic behaviors in engineering science and neuroscience fields.

  8. Estimation of coupling between time-delay systems from time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, M. D.; Ponomarenko, V. I.

    2005-07-01

    We propose a method for estimation of coupling between the systems governed by scalar time-delay differential equations of the Mackey-Glass type from the observed time series data. The method allows one to detect the presence of certain types of linear coupling between two time-delay systems, to define the type, strength, and direction of coupling, and to recover the model equations of coupled time-delay systems from chaotic time series corrupted by noise. We verify our method using both numerical and experimental data.

  9. Thermal and economic assessment of ground-coupled storage for residential solar heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. K.; Morehouse, J. H.

    1980-11-01

    This study performed an analysis of ground-coupled stand-alone and series configured solar-assisted liquid-to-air heat pump systems for residences. The year-round thermal performance of these systems for space heating, space cooling, and water heating were determined by simulation and compared against non-ground-coupled solar heat pump systems as well as conventional heating and cooling systems in three geographic locations: Washington, D.C., Fort Worth, Tex., and Madison, Wis. The results indicate that without tax credits a combined solar/ground-coupled heat pump system for space heating and cooling is not cost competitive with conventional systems. Its thermal performance is considerably better than non-ground-coupled solar heat pumps in Forth Worth. Though the ground-coupled stand-alone heat pump provides 51% of the heating and cooling load with non-purchased energy in Forth Worth, its thermal performance in Washington and Madison is poor.

  10. Thermal Ablation of T1c Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comparative Assessment of Technical Performance, Procedural Outcome, and Safety of Microwave Ablation, Radiofrequency Ablation, and Cryoablation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhui; Arellano, Ronald S

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate perioperative outcomes of thermal ablation with microwave (MW), radiofrequency (RF), and cryoablation for stage T1c renal cell carcinoma (RCC). A retrospective analysis of 384 patients (mean age, 71 y; range, 22-88 y) was performed between October 2006 and October 2016. Mean radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, and location relative to polar lines; preoperative aspects and dimensions used for anatomic classification; and centrality index scores were 6.3, 7.9, and 2.7, respectively. Assessment of pre- and postablation serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate was performed to assess functional outcomes. Linear regression analyses were performed to compare sedation medication dosages among the three treatment cohorts. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to compare rates of residual disease and complications among treatment modalities. A total of 437 clinical stage T1N0M0 biopsy-proven RCCs measuring 1.2-6.9 cm were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided MW ablation (n = 44; 10%), RF ablation (n = 347; 79%), or cryoablation (n = 46; 11%). There were no significant differences in patient demographic or tumor characteristics among cohorts. Complication rates and immediate renal function changes were similar among the three ablation modalities (P = .46 and P = .08, respectively). MW ablation was associated with significantly decreased ablation time (P < .05), procedural time (P < .05), and dosage of sedative medication (P < .05) compared with RF ablation and cryoablation. CT-guided percutaneous MW ablation is comparable to RF ablation or cryoablation for the treatment of stage T1N0M0 RCC with regard to treatment response and is associated with shorter treatment times and less sedation than RF ablation or cryoablation. In addition, the safety profile of CT-guided MW ablation is noninferior to those of RF ablation or

  11. Glue septal ablation: A promising alternative to alcohol septal ablation

    PubMed Central

    Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined as myocardial hypertrophy in the absence of another cardiac or systemic disease capable of producing the magnitude of present hypertrophy. In about 70% of patients with HCM, there is left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (LVOTO) and this is known as obstructive type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Cases refractory to medical treatment have had two options either surgical septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation (ASA) to alleviate LVOT gradient. ASA may cause some life-threatening complications including conduction disturbances and complete heart block, hemodynamic compromise, ventricular arrhythmias, distant and massive myocardial necrosis. Glue septal ablation (GSA) is a promising technique for the treatment of HOCM. Glue seems to be superior to alcohol due to some intrinsic advantageous properties of glue such as immediate polymerization which prevents the leak into the left anterior descending coronary artery and it is particularly useful in patients with collaterals to the right coronary artery in whom alcohol ablation is contraindicated. In our experience, GSA is effective and also a safe technique without significant complications. GSA decreases LVOT gradient immediately after the procedure and this reduction persists during 12 months of follow-up. It improves New York Heart Association functional capacity and decrease interventricular septal wall thickness. Further studies are needed in order to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of this technique. PMID:27011786

  12. Analysis of the Temporal Response of Coupled Asymmetrical Zero-Power Subcritical Bare Metal Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klain, Kimberly L.

    The behavior of symmetrical coupled-core systems has been extensively studied, yet there is a dearth of research on asymmetrical systems due to the increased complexity of the analysis of such systems. In this research, the multipoint kinetics method is applied to asymmetrical zeropower, subcritical, bare metal reactor systems. Existing research on asymmetrical reactor systems assumes symmetry in the neutronic coupling; however, it will be shown that this cannot always be assumed. Deep subcriticality adds another layer of complexity and requires modification of the multipoint kinetics equations to account for the effect of the external neutron source. A modified set ofmore » multipoint kinetics equations is derived with this in mind. Subsequently, the Rossi-alpha equations are derived for a two-region asymmetrical reactor system. The predictive capabilities of the radiation transport code MCNP6 for neutron noise experiments are shown in a comparison to the results of a series of Rossi-alpha measurements performed by J. Mihalczo utilizing a coupled set of symmetrical bare highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders. The ptrac option within MCNP6 can generate time-tagged counts in a cell (list-mode data). The list-mode data can then be processed similarly to measured data to obtain values for system parameters such as the dual prompt neutron decay constants observable in a coupled system. The results from the ptrac simulations agree well with the historical measured values. A series of case studies are conducted to study the effects of geometrical asymmetry in the coupling between two bare metal HEU cylinders. While the coupling behavior of symmetrical systems has been reported on extensively, that of asymmetrical systems remains sparse. In particular, it appears that there has been no previous research in obtaining the coupling time constants for asymmetrically-coupled systems. The difficulty in observing such systems is due in part to the inability to determine the

  13. Causality Analysis: Identifying the Leading Element in a Coupled Dynamical System

    PubMed Central

    BozorgMagham, Amir E.; Motesharrei, Safa; Penny, Stephen G.; Kalnay, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Physical systems with time-varying internal couplings are abundant in nature. While the full governing equations of these systems are typically unknown due to insufficient understanding of their internal mechanisms, there is often interest in determining the leading element. Here, the leading element is defined as the sub-system with the largest coupling coefficient averaged over a selected time span. Previously, the Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM) method has been employed to determine causality and dominant component in weakly coupled systems with constant coupling coefficients. In this study, CCM is applied to a pair of coupled Lorenz systems with time-varying coupling coefficients, exhibiting switching between dominant sub-systems in different periods. Four sets of numerical experiments are carried out. The first three cases consist of different coupling coefficient schemes: I) Periodic–constant, II) Normal, and III) Mixed Normal/Non-normal. In case IV, numerical experiment of cases II and III are repeated with imposed temporal uncertainties as well as additive normal noise. Our results show that, through detecting directional interactions, CCM identifies the leading sub-system in all cases except when the average coupling coefficients are approximately equal, i.e., when the dominant sub-system is not well defined. PMID:26125157

  14. Femtosecond laser lithotripsy: feasibility and ablation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jinze; Teichman, Joel M H; Wang, Tianyi; Neev, Joseph; Glickman, Randolph D; Chan, Kin Foong; Milner, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Light emitted from a femtosecond laser is capable of plasma-induced ablation of various materials. We tested the feasibility of utilizing femtosecond-pulsed laser radiation (lambda=800 nm, 140 fs, 0.9 mJ/pulse) for ablation of urinary calculi. Ablation craters were observed in human calculi of greater than 90% calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), cystine (CYST), or magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MAPH). Largest crater volumes were achieved on CYST stones, among the most difficult stones to fragment using Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) lithotripsy. Diameter of debris was characterized using optical microscopy and found to be less than 20 microm, substantially smaller than that produced by long-pulsed Ho:YAG ablation. Stone retropulsion, monitored by a high-speed camera system with a spatial resolution of 15 microm, was negligible for stones with mass as small as 0.06 g. Peak shock wave pressures were less than 2 bars, measured by a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) needle hydrophone. Ablation dynamics were visualized and characterized with pump-probe imaging and fast flash photography and correlated to shock wave pressures. Because femtosecond-pulsed laser ablates urinary calculi of soft and hard compositions, with micron-sized debris, negligible stone retropulsion, and small shock wave pressures, we conclude that the approach is a promising candidate technique for lithotripsy.

  15. A coupled human-water system from a systems dynamics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuil, Linda; Blöschl, Günter; Carr, Gemma

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, models used in hydrological studies have frequently assumed stationarity. Moreover, human-induced water resources management activities are often included as external forcings in water cycle dynamics. However, considering humans' current impact on the water cycle in terms of a growing population, river basins increasingly being managed and a climate considerably changing, it has recently been questioned whether this is still correct. Furthermore, research directed at the evolution of water resources and society has shown that the components constituting the human-water system are changing interdependently. Goal of this study is therefore to approach water cycle dynamics from an integrated perspective in which humans are considered as endogenous forces to the system. The method used to model a coupled, urban human-water system is system dynamics. In system dynamics, particular emphasis is placed on feedback loops resulting in dynamic behavior. Time delays and non-linearity can relatively easily be included, making the method appropriate for studying complex systems that change over time. The approach of this study is as follows. First, a conceptual model is created incorporating the key components of the urban human-water system. Subsequently, only those components are selected that are both relevant and show causal loop behavior. Lastly, the causal narratives are translated into mathematical relationships. The outcome will be a simple model that shows only those characteristics with which we are able to explore the two-way coupling between the societal behavior and the water system we depend on.

  16. Moldable cork ablation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A successful thermal ablative material was manufactured. Moldable cork sheets were tested for density, tensile strength, tensile elongation, thermal conductivity, compression set, and specific heat. A moldable cork sheet, therefore, was established as a realistic product.

  17. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Rapid and high-resolution stable isotopic measurement of biogenic accretionary carbonate using an online CO2 laser ablation system: Standardization of the analytical protocol.

    PubMed

    Sreemany, Arpita; Bera, Melinda Kumar; Sarkar, Anindya

    2017-12-30

    The elaborate sampling and analytical protocol associated with conventional dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry has long hindered high-resolution climate studies from biogenic accretionary carbonates. Laser-based on-line systems, in comparison, produce rapid data, but suffer from unresolvable matrix effects. It is, therefore, necessary to resolve these matrix effects to take advantage of the automated laser-based method. Two marine bivalve shells (one aragonite and one calcite) and one fish otolith (aragonite) were first analysed using a CO 2 laser ablation system attached to a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer under different experimental conditions (different laser power, sample untreated vs vacuum roasted). The shells and the otolith were then micro-drilled and the isotopic compositions of the powders were measured in a dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometer following the conventional acid digestion method. The vacuum-roasted samples (both aragonite and calcite) produced mean isotopic ratios (with a reproducibility of ±0.2 ‰ for both δ 18 O and δ 13 C values) almost identical to the values obtained using the conventional acid digestion method. As the isotopic ratio of the acid digested samples fall within the analytical precision (±0.2 ‰) of the laser ablation system, this suggests the usefulness of the method for studying the biogenic accretionary carbonate matrix. When using laser-based continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the high-resolution isotopic measurements of biogenic carbonates, the employment of a vacuum-roasting step will reduce the matrix effect. This method will be of immense help to geologists and sclerochronologists in exploring short-term changes in climatic parameters (e.g. seasonality) in geological times. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Laser-ablated poly(methyl methacrylate) microdevices for sub-microliter DNA amplification suitable for micro-total analysis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounsbury, Jenny A.; Poe, Brian L.; Do, Michael; Landers, James P.

    2012-08-01

    Biochemical techniques, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), can take up to 3.5 h for completion using a commercial bench-top instrument, creating a bottleneck in sample preparation processes. PCR has been successfully adapted to microfluidic devices, reducing the time needed to as little as 7-10 min. Recently, a trend in the field is to use alternative substrates, such as poly(methyl methacyrlate) (PMMA), for the fabrication of microfluidic devices. PMMA has several advantages over more expensive substrates including rigidity without fragility, disposability, and it is easy to fabricate, using techniques such as hot embossing or CO2 laser ablation. Here, we report the fabrication of PMMA microdevices to explore their effectiveness for PCR amplification. Several types of PMMA microdevices were fabricated using a CO2 laser ablation system, with two or three PMMA layers of different thicknesses. Bonding of the microdevices was significantly improved through the use of a grid system etched into the device, allowing for trapped air to escape, eliminating leakage. Using infrared thermal cycling, the ramping rates were determined to be dependent on the thickness of the PMMA used in fabrication, allowing for customization of cycling conditions. Further reduction of the thermal mass by isolation of the chambers provided a significant increase in the heating and cooling rates (up to 6.19 (±0.32 °C s-1) and -7.99 (±0.06 °C s-1), respectively). Bubble formation, a chronic problem in microfluidic systems in general and problematic during the heating phase of PCR, was minimized through the use of a biocompatible adhesive/manifold combination to seal the reservoirs. Finally, successful PCR amplification was demonstrated with both a fragment from the β-globin gene and 15 tetra-nucleotide repeat regions with a sex-typing marker in a conventional STR kit with the latter facilitated by the dynamic coating of the fluidic architecture with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG).

  20. Coupling geodynamic with thermodynamic modelling for reconstructions of magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, Lisa; Kaus, Boris J. P.; White, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Coupling geodynamic with petrological models is fundamental for understanding magmatic systems from the melting source in the mantle to the point of magma crystallisation in the upper crust. Most geodynamic codes use very simplified petrological models consisting of a single, fixed, chemistry. Here, we develop a method to better track the petrological evolution of the source rock and corresponding volcanic and plutonic rocks by combining a geodynamic code with a thermodynamic model for magma generation and evolution. For the geodynamic modelling a finite element code (MVEP2) solves the conservation of mass, momentum and energy equations. The thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibria in magmatic systems is performed with pMELTS for mantle-like bulk compositions. The thermodynamic dependent properties calculated by pMELTS are density, melt fraction and the composition of the liquid and solid phase in the chemical system: SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5-H2O. In order to take into account the chemical depletion of the source rock with increasing melt extraction events, calculation of phase diagrams is performed in two steps: 1) With an initial rock composition density, melt fraction as well as liquid and solid composition are computed over the full upper mantle P-T range. 2) Once the residual rock composition (equivalent to the solid composition after melt extraction) is significantly different from the initial rock composition and the melt fraction is lower than a critical value, the residual composition is used for next calculations with pMELTS. The implementation of several melt extraction events take the change in chemistry into account until the solidus is shifted to such high temperatures that the rock cannot be molten anymore under upper mantle conditions. An advantage of this approach is that we can track the change of melt chemistry with time, which can be compared with natural constraints. In the thermo-mechanical code the

  1. Closed system of coupling effects in generalized thermo-elastoplasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śloderbach, Z.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the field equations of the generalized coupled thermoplasticity theory are derived using the postulates of classical thermodynamics of irreversible processses. Using the Legendre transformations two new thermodynamics potentials P and S depending upon internal thermodynamic forces Π are introduced. The most general form for all the thermodynamics potentials are assumed instead of the usually used additive form. Due to this assumption, it is possible to describe all the effects of thermomechanical couples and also the elastic-plastic coupling effects observed in such materials as rocks, soils, concretes and in some metalic materials. In this paper not only the usual postulate of existence of a dissipation qupotential (the Gyarmati postulate) is used to derive the velocity equation. The plastic flow constitutive equations have the character of non-assoc