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Sample records for ablative capillary discharge

  1. A Zero Dimensional Time-Dependent Model of High-Pressure Ablative Capillary Discharge (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    comprehensive model of capillary discharge is important to understand the physics and engineering aspects of the capillary discharge thruster. A schematic...investigators since the mid-1980s see 1-11 and references therein, satisfy both of these conditions well. These studies investigated the dynamics of high...is a comprehensive description of the radiative heat transfer in the capillary discharge. It is worth noting that in other types of capillary

  2. Capillary discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Bender, III, Howard Albert

    2003-11-25

    Debris generation from an EUV electric discharge plasma source device can be significantly reduced or essentially eliminated by encasing the electrodes with dielectric or electrically insulating material so that the electrodes are shielded from the plasma, and additionally by providing a path for the radiation to exit wherein the electrodes are not exposed to the area where the radiation is collected. The device includes: (a) a body, which is made of an electrically insulating material, that defines a capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end and that defines at least one radiation exit; (b) a first electrode that defines a first channel that has a first inlet end that is connected to a source of gas and a first outlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore, wherein the first electrode is positioned at the distal end of the capillary bore; (c) a second electrode that defines a second channel that has a second inlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore and an outlet end, wherein the second electrode is positioned at the proximal end of the capillary bore; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the first and second electrodes, wherein radiation generated within the capillary bore is emitted through the at least one radiation exit and wherein the first electrode and second electrode are shielded from the emitted radiation.

  3. Optimization of gas-filled quartz capillary discharge waveguide for high-energy laser wakefield acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhiyong; Li, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Changhai; Wang, Wentao; Qi, Rong; Zhang, Zhijun; Fang, Ming; Feng, Ke; Wu, Ying; Ke, Lintong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Cheng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2018-04-01

    A hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide made of quartz is presented for high-energy laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). The experimental parameters (discharge current and gas pressure) were optimized to mitigate ablation by a quantitative analysis of the ablation plasma density inside the hydrogen-filled quartz capillary. The ablation plasma density was obtained by combining a spectroscopic measurement method with a calibrated gas transducer. In order to obtain a controllable plasma density and mitigate the ablation as much as possible, the range of suitable parameters was investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the ablation in the quartz capillary could be mitigated by increasing the gas pressure to ˜7.5-14.7 Torr and decreasing the discharge current to ˜70-100 A. These optimized parameters are promising for future high-energy LWFA experiments based on the quartz capillary discharge waveguide.

  4. Discharge reliability in ablative pulsed plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiwen; Sun, Guorui; Yuan, Shiyue; Huang, Tiankun; Liu, Xiangyang; Xie, Kan; Wang, Ningfei

    2017-08-01

    Discharge reliability is typically neglected in low-ignition-cycle ablative pulsed plasma thrusters (APPTs). In this study, the discharge reliability of an APPT is assessed analytically and experimentally. The goals of this study are to better understand the ignition characteristics and to assess the accuracy of the analytical method. For each of six sets of operating conditions, 500 tests of a parallel-plate APPT with a coaxial semiconductor spark plug are conducted. The discharge voltage and current are measured with a high-voltage probe and a Rogowski coil, respectively, to determine whether the discharge is successful. Generally, the discharge success rate increases as the discharge voltage increases, and it decreases as the electrode gap and the number of ignitions increases. The theoretical analysis and the experimental results are reasonably consistent. This approach provides a reference for designing APPTs and improving their stability.

  5. Fast plasma discharge capillary design as a high power throughput soft x-ray emission source.

    PubMed

    Wyndham, E S; Favre, M; Valdivia, M P; Valenzuela, J C; Chuaqui, H; Bhuyan, H

    2010-09-01

    We present the experimental details and results from a low energy but high repetition rate compact plasma capillary source for extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray research and applications. Two lengths of capillary are mounted in two versions of a closely related design. The discharge operates in 1.6 and 3.2 mm inner diameter alumina capillaries of lengths 21 and 36 mm. The use of water both as dielectric and as coolant simplifies the compact low inductance design with nanosecond discharge periods. The stored electrical energy of the discharge is approximately 0.5 J and is provided by directly charging the capacitor plates from an inexpensive insulated-gate bipolar transistor in 1 μs or less. We present characteristic argon spectra from plasma between 30 and 300 Å as well as temporally resolved x-ray energy fluence in discrete bands on axis. The spectra also allow the level of ablated wall material to be gauged and associated with useful capillary lifetime according to the chosen configuration and energy storage. The connection between the electron beams associated with the transient hollow cathode mechanism, soft x-ray output, capillary geometry, and capillary lifetime is reported. The role of these e-beams and the plasma as measured on-axis is discussed. The relation of the electron temperature and the ionization stages observed is discussed in the context of some model results of ionization in a non-Maxwellian plasma.

  6. Demonstration of a high repetition rate capillary discharge waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, A. J., E-mail: ajgonsalves@lbl.gov; Pieronek, C.; Daniels, J.

    2016-01-21

    A hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide operating at kHz repetition rates is presented for parameters relevant to laser plasma acceleration (LPA). The discharge current pulse was optimized for erosion mitigation with laser guiding experiments and MHD simulation. Heat flow simulations and measurements showed modest temperature rise at the capillary wall due to the average heat load at kHz repetition rates with water-cooled capillaries, which is promising for applications of LPAs such as high average power radiation sources.

  7. Study on the characteristics of a two gap capillary discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, D.; Yang, L. J., E-mail: yanglj@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huo, P.

    2015-02-15

    The paper presents a new two-gap capillary (TGC) discharge structure. The prominent innovation is the introduction of the middle electrode, which divides the capillary into the trigger gap and the main gap. The discharge circuit of the TGC comprises the trigger circuit and the main circuit. The two circuits are used for the pre-ionization of the trigger gap and providing energy of 450 J for the main gap arc discharging, respectively. When the discharge initiates, the trigger gap is pre-ionized under high voltage pulse produced by trigger circuit, and meanwhile, the weakly ionized plasma is generated. The main circuit then maintainsmore » the expansion of the plasma, which is called soft capillary discharge. Afterwards, the main gap is shorted and discharges under a relatively low voltage. With the optimization of the circuit parameter, both the energy deposition ratio in main gap and the degree of plasma ionization are enhanced. The efficiency of the energy deposition is almost twice higher compared with that of the conventional capillary structure. The life performance test indicates that the erosion of the middle electrode and the trigger gap carbonization are the key factors that limit the life performance of the TGC.« less

  8. High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge

    DOEpatents

    Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.

    2010-06-01

    A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.

  9. Intense laser pulse propagation in capillary discharge plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, R.F.; Moore, C.I.; Sprangle, P.

    Optical guiding of intense laser pulses is required for plasma-based accelerator concepts such as the laser wakefield accelerator. Reported experiments have successfully transported intense laser pulses in the hollow plasma column produced by a capillary discharge. The hollow plasma has an index of refraction which peaks on-axis, thus providing optical guiding which overcomes beam expansion due to diffraction. In more recent experiments at Hebrew University, 800 nm wavelength, 0.1 mJ, 100 fs pulses have been guided in {approximately}300 micron radius capillaries over distances as long as 6.6 cm. Simulations of these experiments using a 2-D nonlinear laser propagation model producemore » the expected optical guiding, with the laser pulse radius r{sub L} exhibiting oscillations about the equilibrium value predicted by an analytical envelope equation model. The oscillations are damped at the front of the pulse and grow in amplitude in the back of the pulse. This growth and damping is attributed to finite pulse length effects. Simulations also show that further ionization of the discharge plasma by the laser pulse may hollow the laser pulse and introduce modulations in the spot size. This ionization-defocusing effect is expected to be significant at the high intensities required for accelerator application. Capillary discharge experiments at much higher intensities are in progress on the Naval Research Laboratory T{sup 3} laser, and preliminary results are reported. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  10. Intense laser pulse propagation in capillary discharge plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, R. F.; Moore, C. I.; Sprangle, P.

    Optical guiding of intense laser pulses is required for plasma-based accelerator concepts such as the laser wakefield accelerator. Reported experiments have successfully transported intense laser pulses in the hollow plasma column produced by a capillary discharge. The hollow plasma has an index of refraction which peaks on-axis, thus providing optical guiding which overcomes beam expansion due to diffraction. In more recent experiments at Hebrew University, 800 nm wavelength, 0.1 mJ, 100 fs pulses have been guided in {approx}300 micron radius capillaries over distances as long as 6.6 cm. Simulations of these experiments using a 2-D nonlinear laser propagation model producemore » the expected optical guiding, with the laser pulse radius r{sub L} exhibiting oscillations about the equilibrium value predicted by an analytical envelope equation model. The oscillations are damped at the front of the pulse and grow in amplitude in the back of the pulse. This growth and damping is attributed to finite pulse length effects. Simulations also show that further ionization of the discharge plasma by the laser pulse may hollow the laser pulse and introduce modulations in the spot size. This ionization-defocusing effect is expected to be significant at the high intensities required for accelerator application. Capillary discharge experiments at much higher intensities are in progress on the Naval Research Laboratory T{sup 3} laser, and preliminary results are reported.« less

  11. Time resolved EUV spectra from Zpinching capillary discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jancarek, Alexandr; Nevrkla, Michal; Nawaz, Fahad

    2015-09-01

    We developed symmetrically charged driver to obtain high voltage, high current Z-pinching capillary discharge. Plasma is created by up to 70 kA, 29 ns risetime current pulse passing through a 5 mm inner diameter, 224 mm long capillary filled with gas to initial pressure in the range of 1 kPa. Due to the low inductance design of the driver, the pinch is observable directly from the measured current curve. Time-integrated and time-resolved spectra of discharge plasma radiation are recorded together with the capillary current and analyzed. The most encouraging spectra were captured in the wavelength range 8.3 ÷ 14 nm. This spectral region contains nitrogen Balmer series lines including potentially lasing NVII 2 - 3 transition. Spectral lines are identified in the NIST database using the FLY kinetic code. The line of 13.38 nm wavelength, transition NVII 2 - 3, was observed in gated, and also in time-integrated spectra for currents >60 kA. This work has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic grants LG13029.

  12. Modification of narrow ablating capillaries under the influence of multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubin, K. V.; Lotov, K. V.; Trunov, V. I.; Pestryakov, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    Powerful femtosecond laser pulses that propagate through narrow ablating capillaries cause modification of capillary walls, which is studied experimentally and theoretically. At low intensities, the laser-induced periodic surface structures and porous coating composed of sub-micron particles appear on the walls. At higher intensities, the surface is covered by deposited droplets of the size up to 10 μm. In both cases, the ablated material forms a solid plug that completely blocks the capillary after several hundreds or thousands of pulses. The suggested theoretical model indicates that the plug formation is a universal effect. It must take place in any narrow tube subject to ablation under the action of short laser pulses.

  13. Nonuniformity of the chemical composition of a capillary discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kocharyan, A. E.; Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V.

    A steady-state distribution of the concentration of two ion species in a capillary discharge plasma is studied using MHD equations for a plasma with a spatially nonuniform, time-dependent chemical composition. In our case, the set of equations is significantly simplified because of the steady-state character and symmetry of the problem. Even with such simplification, however, some results could be obtained only by numerical integration. The factors affecting the distribution of heavy ions are studied. It is shown that the distribution of the heavy impurity over the discharge cross section can be much more nonuniform than the distribution of the mainmore » component (hydrogen). A simple criterion for such a nonuniformity is obtained.« less

  14. Development of a Specific Impulse Balance for a Pulsed Capillary Discharge (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    thrust stand [rad/s] I. Introduction A capillary discharge based coaxial , electrothermal pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) is currently under...20-23 July 2008. 14. ABSTRACT A capillary discharge based pulsed plasma thruster is currently under development at the Air Force Research...Edwards AFB, CA 93524 A capillary discharge based pulsed plasma thruster is currently under development at the Air Force Research Laboratory. A

  15. Atmospheric pressure arc discharge with ablating graphite anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchinsky, V. A.; Raitses, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The anodic carbon arc discharge is used to produce carbon nanoparticles. Recent experiments with the carbon arc at atmospheric pressure helium demonstrated the enhanced ablation rate for narrow graphite anodes resulting in high deposition rates of carbonaceous products on the copper cathode (Fetterman et al 2008 Carbon 46 1322-6). The proposed model explains these results with interconnected steady-state models of the cathode and the anode processes. When considering cathode functioning, the model predicts circulation of the particles in the near-cathode region: evaporation of the cathode material, ionization of evaporated atoms and molecules in the near-cathode plasma, return of the resulting ions to the cathode, surface recombination of ions and electrons followed again by cathode evaporation etc. In the case of the low anode ablation rate, the ion acceleration in the cathode sheath provides the major cathode heating mechanism. In the case of an intensive anode ablation, an additional cathode heating is due to latent fusion heat of the atomic species evaporated from the anode and depositing at the cathode. Using the experimental arc voltage as the only input discharge parameter, the model allows us to calculate the anode ablation rate. A comparison of the results of calculations with the available experimental data shows reasonable agreement.

  16. On production and asymmetric focusing of flat electron beams using rectangular capillary discharge plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Bagdasarov, G. A.; Bobrova, N. A.; Boldarev, A. S.; ...

    2017-12-27

    A method for the asymmetric focusing of electron bunches, based on the active plasma lensing technique is proposed. Our method takes advantage of the strong inhomogeneous magnetic field generated inside the capillary discharge plasma to focus the ultrarelativistic electrons. The plasma and magnetic field parameters inside the capillary discharge are described theoretically and modeled with dissipative magnetohydrodynamic computer simulations enabling analysis of the capillaries of rectangle cross-sections. We could use large aspect ratio rectangular capillaries to transport electron beams with high emittance asymmetries, as well as assist in forming spatially flat electron bunches for final focusing before the interaction point.

  17. On production and asymmetric focusing of flat electron beams using rectangular capillary discharge plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bagdasarov, G. A.; Bobrova, N. A.; Boldarev, A. S.

    A method for the asymmetric focusing of electron bunches, based on the active plasma lensing technique is proposed. Our method takes advantage of the strong inhomogeneous magnetic field generated inside the capillary discharge plasma to focus the ultrarelativistic electrons. The plasma and magnetic field parameters inside the capillary discharge are described theoretically and modeled with dissipative magnetohydrodynamic computer simulations enabling analysis of the capillaries of rectangle cross-sections. We could use large aspect ratio rectangular capillaries to transport electron beams with high emittance asymmetries, as well as assist in forming spatially flat electron bunches for final focusing before the interaction point.

  18. On production and asymmetric focusing of flat electron beams using rectangular capillary discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdasarov, G. A.; Bobrova, N. A.; Boldarev, A. S.; Olkhovskaya, O. G.; Sasorov, P. V.; Gasilov, V. A.; Barber, S. K.; Bulanov, S. S.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; van Tilborg, J.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Levato, T.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.; Kando, M.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    A method for the asymmetric focusing of electron bunches, based on the active plasma lensing technique, is proposed. This method takes advantage of the strong inhomogeneous magnetic field generated inside the capillary discharge plasma to focus on the ultrarelativistic electrons. The plasma and magnetic field parameters inside the capillary discharge are described theoretically and modeled with dissipative magnetohydrodynamic computer simulations enabling analysis of the capillaries of rectangle cross-sections. Large aspect ratio rectangular capillaries might be used to transport electron beams with high emittance asymmetries, as well as assist in forming spatially flat electron bunches for final focusing before the interaction point.

  19. Rapid fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microchip capillary electrophoresis devices using CO2 laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Barbara A; Heppert, Kathleen E; Cory, Theodore J; Hulbutta, Kalonie R; Martin, R Scott; Lunte, Susan M

    2005-06-01

    The use of CO(2) laser ablation for the patterning of capillary electrophoresis (CE) microchannels in poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) is described. Low-cost polymer devices were produced using a relatively inexpensive CO(2) laser system that facilitated rapid patterning and ablation of microchannels. Device designs were created using a commercially available software package. The effects of PDMS thickness, laser focusing, power, and speed on the resulting channel dimensions were investigated. Using optimized settings, the smallest channels that could be produced averaged 33 microm in depth (11.1% RSD, N= 6) and 110 microm in width (5.7% RSD, N= 6). The use of a PDMS substrate allowed reversible sealing of microchip components at room temperature without the need for cleanroom facilities. Using a layer of pre-cured polymer, devices were designed, ablated, and assembled within minutes. The final devices were used for microchip CE separation and detection of the fluorescently labeled neurotransmitters aspartate and glutamate.

  20. Influence of the capillary on the ignition of the transient spark discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling, T.; Hoder, T.; Brandenburg, R.; Bussiahn, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-04-01

    A self-pulsing negative dc discharge in argon generated in a needle-to-plane geometry at open atmosphere is investigated. Additionally, the needle electrode can be surrounded by a quartz capillary. It is shown that the relative position of the capillary end to the needle tip strongly influences the discharge inception and its spatio-temporal dynamics. Without the capillary for the selected working parameters a streamer corona is ignited, but when the capillary surrounds the needle, the transient spark (TS) discharge is ignited after a pre-streamer (PS) occurs. The time between PS and TS discharge depends on the relative capillary end position. The existence of the PS is confirmed by electro-optical characterization. Furthermore, spectrally and spatio-temporally resolved cross-correlation spectroscopy is applied to show the most active region of pre-phase emission activity as indicators for high local electric field strength. The results indicate that with a capillary in place, the necessary energy input of the pre-phase into the system is mainly reduced by additional electrical fields at the capillary edge. Even such a small change as a shift of dielectric surface close to the plasma largely changes the energy balance in the system.

  1. Irradiation of orderly multiline spectra from linear plasma formed by vacuum discharge capillary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2005-03-01

    The fundamental experiments for measuring soft x-ray characteristics from the vacuum capillary are described. These experiments are primarily performed in order to generate intense soft x rays. The generator consists of a high-voltage power supply, a polarity-inversion ignitron pulse generator, a turbomolecular pump, and a radiation tube with a capillary. A high-voltage condenser of 200 nF in the pulse generator is charged up to 20 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the capillary in the tube after closing the ignitron. During the discharge, weakly ionized plasma forms on the inner and outer sides of a capillary. In the present work, the pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of about 1 mPa, and a demountable capillary was developed in order to measure x-ray spectra according to changes in the capillary length. In this capillary, the anode (target) and cathode elements can be changed corresponding to the objectives. The capillary diameter is 2.0 mm, and the length is adjusted from 1 to 50 mm. When a capillary with aluminum anode and cathode electrodes was employed, both the cathode voltage and the discharge current almost displayed damped oscillations. The peak values of the voltage and current increased when the charging voltage was increased, and their maximum values were -11.5 kV and 4.7 kA, respectively. The x-ray durations observed by a 1.6 μm aluminum filter were less than 30 μs. In the spectrum measurement, we observed orderly multi-line spectra. The line photon energies seldom varied according to changes in the condenser charging voltage and to changes in the electrode element. The line number decreased with corresponding decreases in the capillary length.

  2. Capillary Discharge Soft X-ray Laser Experiments at Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruden, E. L.; Gale, D. G.

    1997-11-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (previously Phillips Laboratory) is presently attempting to reproduce the high gain laser results of J.J. Rocca's capillary discharge z-pinch pumped 46.9 nm Ne-like Ar laser. This poster presents progress to date at measuring our laser's intensity and gain. The capillary circuit consists of a low inductance 3 nH water capacitor discharged by a coaxial spark gap into a 12 cm long, 4 mm ID plastic capillary. The capillary is supplied with 39 kA of current with a 20 ns risetime. The principle radiation diagnostic consists of a VUV monochrometer coupled to a custom high speed vacuum X-ray diode with an aluminum cathode. The signal is recorded on a fast transient digitizer (Tektronix SCD 5000). The total detector system's analog bandwidth is about 3 GHz.

  3. Laser beam coupling with capillary discharge plasma for laser wakefield acceleration applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdasarov, G. A.; Sasorov, P. V.; Gasilov, V. A.; Boldarev, A. S.; Olkhovskaya, O. G.; Benedetti, C.; Bulanov, S. S.; Gonsalves, A.; Mao, H.-S.; Schroeder, C. B.; van Tilborg, J.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Levato, T.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.

    2017-08-01

    One of the most robust methods, demonstrated to date, of accelerating electron beams by laser-plasma sources is the utilization of plasma channels generated by the capillary discharges. Although the spatial structure of the installation is simple in principle, there may be some important effects caused by the open ends of the capillary, by the supplying channels etc., which require a detailed 3D modeling of the processes. In the present work, such simulations are performed using the code MARPLE. First, the process of capillary filling with cold hydrogen before the discharge is fired, through the side supply channels is simulated. Second, the simulation of the capillary discharge is performed with the goal to obtain a time-dependent spatial distribution of the electron density near the open ends of the capillary as well as inside the capillary. Finally, to evaluate the effectiveness of the beam coupling with the channeling plasma wave guide and of the electron acceleration, modeling of the laser-plasma interaction was performed with the code INF&RNO.

  4. Modeling the capillary discharge of an electrothermal (ET) launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Least, Travis

    Over the past few decades, different branches of the US Department of Defense (DoD) have invested at improving the field ability of electromagnetic launchers. One such focus has been on achieving hypervelocity launch velocities in excess of 7 km/s for direct launch to space applications [1]. It has been shown that pre-injection is required for this to be achieved. One method of pre-injection which has promise involves using an electro-thermal (ET) due to its ability to achieve the desired velocities with a minimal amount of hot plasma injected into the launcher behind the projectile. Despite the demonstration of pre-injection using this method, polymer ablation is not very well known and this makes it challenging to predict how the system will behave for a given input of electrical power. In this work, the rate of ablation has been studied and predicted using different models to generate the best possible characteristic curve. [1] - Wetz, David A., Francis Stefani, Jerald V. Parker, and Ian R. McNab. "Advancements in the Development of a Plasma-Driven Electromagnetic Launcher." IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS 45.1 (2009): 495--500. IEEE Xplore. Web. 18 Aug. 2012.

  5. Characteristics of a capillary-discharge flash x-ray generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Usuki, Tatsumi; Sato, Koetsu; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2002-11-01

    The fundamental experiments for measuring soft x-ray characteristics from the vacuum capillary are described. These experiments are primarily performed in order to generate line spectra such as x-ray lasers. The generator consists of a high-voltage power supply, a polarity-inversion ignitron pulse generator, a turbo-molecular pump, and a radiation tube with a capillary. A high-voltage condenser of 0.2 μF in the pulse generator is charged up to 20 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the capillary in the tube after closing the ignitron. During the discharge, weakly ionized plasma forms on the inner and outer sides of a capillary. In the present work, the pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of about 1 mPa, and a demountable capillary was developed in order to measure x-ray spectra according to changes in the capillary length. In this capillary, the anode (target) and cathode elements can be changed corresponding to the objectives. The capillary diameter is 2.0 mm, and the length is adjusted from 1 to 50 mm. When a capillary with aluminum anode and cathode electrodes was employed, both the cathode voltage and the discharge current almost displayed damp oscillations. The peak values of the voltage and current increased when the charging voltage was increased and their maximum values were -10.8 kV and 4.7 kV, respectively. The x-ray durations observed by a 1.6 μm aluminum filter were less than 30 μs, and we detected the aluminum characteristic x-ray intensity using a 6.8 μm aluminum filter. In the spectrum measurement, two sets of aluminum and titanium electrodes were employed, and we observed multi-line spectra. The line photon energies seldom varied according to changes in teh condenser charging voltage and to changes in the electrode element. In the case where the titanium electrode was employed, the line number decreased with corresponding decreases in the capillary length. Compared with incoherent

  6. On the Asymmetric Focusing of Low-Emittance Electron Bunches via Active Lensing by Using Capillary Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, Stepan; Bagdasarov, Gennadiy; Bobrova, Nadezhda; Boldarev, Alexey; Olkhovskaya, Olga; Sasorov, Pavel; Gasilov, Vladimir; Barber, Samuel; Gonsalves, Anthony; Schroeder, Carl; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim; Levato, Tadzio; Margarone, Daniele; Korn, Georg; Kando, Masaki; Bulanov, Sergei

    2017-10-01

    A novel method for asymmetric focusing of electron beams is proposed. The scheme is based on the active lensing technique, which takes advantage of the strong inhomogeneous magnetic field generated inside the capillary discharge plasma to focus the ultrarelativistic electrons. The plasma and magnetic field parameters inside a capillary discharge are described theoretically and modeled with dissipative MHD simulations to enable analysis of capillaries of oblong rectangle cross-sections implying that large aspect ratio rectangular capillaries can be used to form flat electron bunches. The effect of the capillary cross-section on the electron beam focusing properties were studied using the analytical methods and simulation- derived magnetic field map showing the range of the capillary discharge parameters required for producing the high quality flat electron beams.

  7. Enhanced ablation of small anodes in a carbon nanotube arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fetterman, Abraham; Keidar, Michael

    2008-11-01

    An atmospheric pressure helium arc discharge is used for carbon nanotube synthesis. The arc discharge operates in an anodic mode with the ablating anode made from a graphite material. For such conditions, models predict the electron-repelling (negative) anode sheath. In the present experiments, the anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of the anode diameter. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters (< 0.4 cm). This result is explained by the formation of an electron-attracting (positive) anode sheath leading to increased power losses on small anodes as compared to larger anodes [1]. The suggested mechanism for the positive anode sheath formation is plasma convergence. The increased ablation rate due to this positive sheath could imply a greater yield of carbon nanotube production. [1] A. J. Fetterman, Y. Raitses and M. Keidar, Carbon (2008).

  8. Emission intensity modulation of radio-frequency helium glow-discharge emission source by laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Matsuta, Hideyuki; Naeem, Tariq M; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2003-06-01

    A novel emission excitation source comprising a high repetition rate diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and a Grimm-style glow-discharge lamp is described. Laser-ablated atoms are introduced into the He glow discharge plasma, which then give emission signals. By using phase-sensitive detection with a lock-in amplifier, the emission signal modulated by the pulsed laser can be detected selectively. It is possible to estimate only the emission intensity of sample atoms ablated by laser irradiation with little interference from the other species in the plasma.

  9. Characteristics and dispersity of a two gap capillary discharge applied for long spark gap ignition in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dong; Yang, Lanjun; Guo, Haishan; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Jiang, Hongqiu; Xu, Haipeng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the characteristics and dispersity of a two gap capillary (TGC) discharge applied for long spark gap ignition are studied. Under the same discharge condition, 30 repetitive discharges are done to get a certain number of data samples. Accordingly, the change trend of the characteristics and the dispersity with the charging voltage of C1 are analyzed statistically. The delay of soft capillary discharge is determined by the saturation rate of the magnetic core of the pulse transformer and decreases with the increase in the charging voltage. The main discharge delay decreases from 1.0 kV to 2.0 kV and stops the decreasing trend when the charging voltage increases to 2.5 kV. In contrast, the current amplitude of soft capillary discharge and main discharge increases with charging voltage. Long tail extinction is witnessed at the charging voltage of 1.0 kV and the major cause is the insufficient pressure in the post discharge. The waveform of the capillary arc resistivity is U-like shape and the minimum resistivity decreases with the increase in the charging voltage. Meanwhile, the arc resistivity in the ascending stage is much higher than that in the descending stage with the same value of the discharge current. The energy consumption of the TGC discharge can be mainly divided into four parts and more than 70% of the energy is consumed in main discharge.

  10. A compact, low cost Marx bank for generating capillary discharge plasmas.

    PubMed

    Dyson, A E; Thornton, C; Hooker, S M

    2016-09-01

    We describe in detail a low power Compact Marx Bank (CMB) circuit that can provide 20 kV, 500 A pulses of approximately 100-200 ns duration. One application is the generation of capillary discharge plasmas of density ≈10 18 cm -3 used in laser plasma accelerators. The CMB is triggered with a high speed solid state switch and gives a high voltage output pulse with a ns scale rise time into a 50 Ω load (coaxial cable) with <4 ns voltage jitter. Its small size (10 cm  ×  25 cm  ×  5 cm) means that it can be placed right next to the capillary discharge in the target chamber to avoid the need to impedance match. The electrical energy required per discharge is <1 J, and the CMB can be run at shot repetition rates of ≳1 Hz. This low power requirement means that the circuit can easily be powered by a small lead acid battery and, therefore, can be floated relative to laboratory earth. The CMB is readily scalable and pulses >45 kV are demonstrated in air discharges.

  11. A compact, low cost Marx bank for generating capillary discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, A. E.; Thornton, C.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    We describe in detail a low power Compact Marx Bank (CMB) circuit that can provide 20 kV, 500 A pulses of approximately 100-200 ns duration. One application is the generation of capillary discharge plasmas of density ≈1018 cm-3 used in laser plasma accelerators. The CMB is triggered with a high speed solid state switch and gives a high voltage output pulse with a ns scale rise time into a 50 Ω load (coaxial cable) with <4 ns voltage jitter. Its small size (10 cm × 25 cm × 5 cm) means that it can be placed right next to the capillary discharge in the target chamber to avoid the need to impedance match. The electrical energy required per discharge is <1 J, and the CMB can be run at shot repetition rates of ≳1 Hz. This low power requirement means that the circuit can easily be powered by a small lead acid battery and, therefore, can be floated relative to laboratory earth. The CMB is readily scalable and pulses >45 kV are demonstrated in air discharges.

  12. Characteristics of soft x-ray spectra from ultra-fast micro-capillary discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Avaria, Gonzalo; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Tomasel, Fernando; Grisham, Michael; Dawson, Quincy; Rocca, Jorge; NSF CenterExtreme Ultraviolet Science; Technology Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The efficient generation of high aspect ratio (e.g. 300:1) plasma columns ionized to very high degrees of ionization (e.g. Ni-like Xenon) by an ultrafast current pulses of moderate amplitude in micro-capillary channels is of interest for fundamental plasma studies and for applications such as the generation of discharge-pumped soft x-ray lasers. Spectra and simulations for plasmas generated in 500 um alumina capillary discharges driven by 35-40 kA current pulses with 4 ns rise time were obtained in Xenon and Neon discharges. The first shows the presence of lines corresponding to ionization stages up to Fe-like Xe. The latter show that Al impurities from the walls and Si (from injected SiH4) are ionized to the H-like and He-like stages. He-like spectra containing the resonance line significantly broaden by opacity, the intercombination line, and Li-like satellites are analyzed and modeled. For Xenon discharges, the spectral lines from the Ni-like transitions the 3d94d(3/2, 3/2)J=0 to the 3d94p(5/2, 3/2)J=1 and to 3d94p(3/2, 1/2)J=1 are observed at gas pressures up to 2.0 Torr. Work supported by NSF Award PHY-1004295.

  13. Recombination-pumped XUV lasing in capillary discharges and dynamic z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöckl, M.; Hebenstreit, M.; Fertner, R.; Neger, T.; Aumayr, F.

    1996-08-01

    A fully time-dependent collisional - radiative model is employed to calculate relevant population densities in a recombining carbon/hydrogen z-pinch plasma. In particular, the dependence of the small signal gain G on the maximum electron temperature and cooling rate, as well as the influence of Lyman-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 reabsorption, are studied. Although in conditions typical for dynamic z-pinches the maximum electron temperature and cooling rates would, in principle, be sufficiently high, gain on the Balmer-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 transition is strongly reduced by Lyman-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 reabsorption. In order to investigate vacuum spark capillary discharges, the system of rate equations is coupled with balance equations of the plasma energy and the total number of heavy particles. The resulting set of equations is solved self-consistently. Results are presented that show the systematic dependence of the small signal gain on electrical input power, wall material, and capillary geometry. High gain coefficients 0022-3727/29/8/005/img11 could be achieved by modelling high-voltage discharges with short ringing periods through capillaries containing boron or carbon. While the maximum achievable gain coefficient for lithium is rather poor 0022-3727/29/8/005/img12 the duration of population inversion would be long enough (a few tens of nanoseconds) to make multi-pass operation possible.

  14. Dynamics and density distributions in a capillary-discharge waveguide with an embedded supersonic jet

    SciTech Connect

    Matlis, N. H., E-mail: nmatlis@gmail.com; Gonsalves, A. J.; Steinke, S.

    We present an analysis of the gas dynamics and density distributions within a capillary-discharge waveguide with an embedded supersonic jet. This device provides a target for a laser plasma accelerator which uses longitudinal structuring of the gas-density profile to enable control of electron trapping and acceleration. The functionality of the device depends sensitively on the details of the density profile, which are determined by the interaction between the pulsed gas in the jet and the continuously-flowing gas in the capillary. These dynamics are captured by spatially resolving recombination light from several emission lines of the plasma as a function ofmore » the delay between the jet and the discharge. We provide a phenomenological description of the gas dynamics as well as a quantitative evaluation of the density evolution. In particular, we show that the pressure difference between the jet and the capillary defines three regimes of operation with qualitatively different longitudinal density profiles and show that jet timing provides a sensitive method for tuning between these regimes.« less

  15. Wall ablation of heated compound-materials into non-equilibrium discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weizong; Kong, Linghan; Geng, Jinyue; Wei, Fuzhi; Xia, Guangqing

    2017-02-01

    The discharge properties of the plasma bulk flow near the surface of heated compound-materials strongly affects the kinetic layer parameters modeled and manifested in the Knudsen layer. This paper extends the widely used two-layer kinetic ablation model to the ablation controlled non-equilibrium discharge due to the fact that the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) approximation is often violated as a result of the interaction between the plasma and solid walls. Modifications to the governing set of equations, to account for this effect, are derived and presented by assuming that the temperature of the electrons deviates from that of the heavy particles. The ablation characteristics of one typical material, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are calculated with this improved model. The internal degrees of freedom as well as the average particle mass and specific heat ratio of the polyatomic vapor, which strongly depends on the temperature, pressure and plasma non-equilibrium degree and plays a crucial role in the accurate determination of the ablation behavior by this model, are also taken into account. Our assessment showed the significance of including such modifications related to the non-equilibrium effect in the study of vaporization of heated compound materials in ablation controlled arcs. Additionally, a two-temperature magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model accounting for the thermal non-equilibrium occurring near the wall surface is developed and applied into an ablation-dominated discharge for an electro-thermal chemical launch device. Special attention is paid to the interaction between the non-equilibrium plasma and the solid propellant surface. Both the mass exchange process caused by the wall ablation and plasma species deposition as well as the associated momentum and energy exchange processes are taken into account. A detailed comparison of the results of the non-equilibrium model with those of an equilibrium model is presented. The non-equilibrium results

  16. Effects of Different Waveforms on the Performance of Active Capillary Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumlao, Morphy C.; Xiao, Dan; Zhang, Daming; Fletcher, John; Donald, William A.

    2017-04-01

    Active capillary dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) is emerging as a compact, low-cost, and robust method to form intact ions of small molecules for detection in near real time by portable mass spectrometers. Here, we demonstrate that by using a 10 kHz, 2.5 kVp-p high-voltage square-wave alternating current plasma, active capillary DBDI can consume less than 1 μW of power. In contrast, the power consumed using a sine and triangle alternating current waveform is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that for the square waveform to obtain a similar voltage for plasma generation. Moreover, the plasma obtained using a square waveform can be significantly more homogenous than that obtained using sine and triangle waveforms. Protonated dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and deprotonated perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can be detected at about the same or higher abundances using square-wave DBDI mass spectrometry compared with the use of sine and triangle waveforms. By use of benzylammonium thermometer ions, the extent of internal energy deposition using square, sine, or triangle waveform excited plasmas are essentially the same at the optimum voltages for ion detection. Using an H-bridge circuit driving a transformer optimized to reduce losses, square-wave active capillary DBDI can be continuously powered for 50 h by common 9 V-battery (PP3).

  17. Generation of warm dense matter using an argon based capillary discharge laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossall, A. K.; Tallents, G. J.

    2015-06-01

    Argon based capillary discharge lasers operating in the extreme ultra violet (EUV) at 46.9 nm with output up to 0.5 mJ energy per pulse and repetition rates up to 10 Hz are capable of focused irradiances of 109-1012 W cm-2 and can be used to generate plasma in the warm dense matter regime by irradiating solid material. To model the interaction between such an EUV laser and solid material, the 2D radiative-hydrodynamic code POLLUX has been modified to include absorption via direct photo-ionisation, a super-configuration model to describe the ionization-dependent electronic configurations and a calculation of plasma refractive indices for ray tracing of the incident EUV laser radiation. A simulation study is presented, demonstrating how capillary discharge lasers of 1200 ps pulse duration can be used to generate warm dense matter at close to solid densities with temperatures of a few eV and energy densities up to 1 × 105 J cm-3. Plasmas produced by EUV laser irradiation are shown to be useful for examining the properties of warm dense matter as, for example, plasma emission is not masked by hotter, less dense plasma emission that occurs with visible/infra-red laser target irradiation.

  18. A Study of Ignition Effects on Thruster Performance of a Multi-Electrode Capillary Discharge Using Visible Emission Spectroscopy Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    observed today, it is discussed further in Section 1.1. In addition to the work done in propulsion with coaxial electro thermal pulse plasma thrusters (PPTs...initial plasma conditions. The literature supported these findings for more basic laboratory capillaries, but the effect on a thruster device was unknown...An in- depth investigation of different ignition systems were conducted for a capillary discharge based pulsed plasma thruster. In addition to

  19. The creation of hypersonic flows by a powerful impulse capillary discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchina, A. S.; Karmatsky, R. E.; Klimov, A. I.

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of using a powerful pulsed capillary discharge to produce quasi-stationary highspeed plasma flows with characteristic Mach numbers M = 3-10 and temperatures T = 3000-6000 K has been experimentally substantiated. In a rarefied gas atmosphere ( p ∞ < 10 Torr), the transverse size of flow exceeds d < 3 cm and the duration of the working cycle can be brought to hundreds of milliseconds, which is of interest in problems of laboratory modeling of physical-chemical and gas-dynamic effects of interaction of bodies with hypersonic flows. Strong temperature nonequilibrium has been found (with the ratio between the vibrational and rotational temperatures reaching T v/ T r = 3 and more) and anomalously low values of the effective adiabatic index, which indicates an intensive formation of polyatomic molecules and condensed particles in a carbon-containing plasma.

  20. Fast surface temperature measurement of Teflon propellant-in-pulsed ablative discharges using HgCdTe photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonsen, Erik L.; Burton, Rodney L.; Reed, Garrett A.; Spanjers, Gregory G.

    2006-10-01

    High-speed mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors, sensitive to infrared emission, are investigated as a means of measuring surface temperature on a microsecond time frame during pulsed ablative discharges with Teflon™ as the ablated material. Analysis is used to derive a governing equation for detector output voltage for materials with wavelength dependent emissivity. The detector output voltage is experimentally calibrated against thermocouples embedded in heated Teflon. Experimental calibration is performed with Teflon that has been exposed to ˜200 pulsed discharges and non-plasma-exposed Teflon and is compared to theoretical predictions to analyze emissivity differences. The diagnostic capability is evaluated with measurements of surface temperature from the Teflon propellant of electric micropulsed plasma thrusters. During the pulsed current discharge, there is insufficient information to claim that the surface temperature is accurately measured. However, immediately following the discharge, the postpulse cooling curve is measured. The statistical spread of postpulse surface temperature from shot to shot, most likely due to arc constriction and localization, is investigated to determine an operational envelope for postpulse temperature and mass ablation. This information is useful for determining postpulse ablation contributions to mass loss as well as evaluation of theoretical discharge models currently under development.

  1. Investigation of capillary nanosecond discharges in air at moderate pressure: comparison of experiments and 2D numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, Andrei V.; Starikovskaia, Svetlana M.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-09-01

    Nanosecond electrical discharges in the form of ionization waves are of interest for rapidly ionizing and exciting complex gas mixtures to initiate chemical reactions. Operating with a small discharge tube diameter can significantly increase the specific energy deposition and so enable optimization of the initiation process. Analysis of the uniformity of energy release in small diameter capillary tubes will aid in this optimization. In this paper, results for the experimentally derived characteristics of nanosecond capillary discharges in air at moderate pressure are presented and compared with results from a two-dimensional model. The quartz capillary tube, having inner and outer diameters of 1.5 and 3.4 mm, is about 80 mm long and filled with synthetic dry air at 27 mbar. The capillary tube with two electrodes at the ends is inserted into a break of the central wire of a long coaxial cable. A metal screen around the tube is connected to the cable ground shield. The discharge is driven by a 19 kV 35 ns voltage pulse applied to the powered electrode. The experimental measurements are conducted primarily by using a calibrated capacitive probe and back current shunts. The numerical modelling focuses on the fast ionization wave (FIW) and the plasma properties in the immediate afterglow after the conductive plasma channel has been established between the two electrodes. The FIW produces a highly focused region of electric field on the tube axis that sustains the ionization wave that eventually bridges the electrode gap. Results from the model predict FIW propagation speed and current rise time that agree with the experiment.

  2. Pulsed laser ablation of borax target in vacuum and hydrogen DC glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, A. N.; Miotello, A.; Mosaner, P.

    2006-09-01

    The aim of our experiment was to produce a material with B sbnd H bonds for applications in hydrogen storage and generation. By using KrF excimer laser ( λ = 248 nm) ablation of borax (Na 2B 4O 7) target, thin films were deposited on KBr and silicon substrates. Ablation was performed both in vacuum and in hydrogen atmosphere. DC glow discharge technique was utilized to enhance hydrogen gas ionization. Experiments were performed using laser fluence from 5 to 20 J/cm 2. Films were deposited under gas pressure of 1 × 10 -5 to 5 × 10 -2 mbar and substrate temperatures of 130-450 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of films showed presence of circular particulates. Film thickness, roughness and particulates number increased with increase in laser fluence. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis shows that sodium content in the particulates is higher than in the target. This effect is discussed in terms of atomic arrangements (both at surface and bulk) in systems where ionic and covalent bonds are present and by looking at the increased surface/bulk ratio of the particulates with respect to the deposited films. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements showed presence of B sbnd O stretching and B sbnd O sbnd B bending bonds. Possible reasons for absence of B sbnd H bonds are attributed to binding enthalpy of the competing molecules.

  3. Note: Characterization of the plasma parameters of a capillary discharge-produced plasma channel waveguide to guide an intense laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kanagawa, Saitama 332-0012

    2010-04-15

    We demonstrated the production of an optical waveguide in a capillary discharge-produced plasma using a cylindrical capillary. Plasma parameters of its waveguide were characterized by use of both a Nomarski laser interferometer and a hydrogen plasma line spectrum. A space-averaged maximum temperature of 3.3 eV with electron densities of the order of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} was observed at a discharge time of 150 ns and a maximum discharge current of 400 A. An ultrashort, intense laser pulse was guided by use of this plasma channel.

  4. Ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed He-O2 capillary dielectric barrier discharge operated in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Brian L.; Ganguly, Biswa N.

    2013-12-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species using nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet devices has been a subject of recent interest due to their ability to generate localized concentrations from a compact source. To date, such studies with plasma jet devices have primarily utilized radio-frequency excitation. In this work, we characterize ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed capillary dielectric barrier discharge configuration comprised of an active discharge plasma jet operating in ambient air that is externally grounded. The plasma jet flow gas was composed of helium with an admixture of up to 5% oxygen. A unipolar voltage pulse train with a 20 ns pulse risetime was used to drive the discharge at repetition rates between 2-25 kHz. Using UVLED absorption spectroscopy centered at 255 nm near the Hartley-band absorption peak, ozone was detected over 1 cm from the capillary axis. We observed roughly linear scaling of ozone production with increasing pulse repetition rate up to a "turnover frequency," beyond which ozone production steadily dropped and discharge current and 777 nm O(5P→5S°) emission sharply increased. The turnover in ozone production occurred at higher pulse frequencies with increasing flow rate and decreasing applied voltage with a common energy density of 55 mJ/cm3 supplied to the discharge. The limiting energy density and peak ozone production both increased with increasing O2 admixture. The power dissipated in the discharge was obtained from circuit current and voltage measurements using a modified parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge circuit model and the volume-averaged ozone concentration was derived from a 2D ozone absorption measurement. From these measurements, the volume-averaged efficiency of ozone production was calculated to be 23 g/kWh at conditions for peak ozone production of 41 mg/h at 11 kV applied voltage, 3% O2, 2 l/min flow rate, and 13 kHz pulse repetition rate, with 1.79 W dissipated in the discharge.

  5. Sampling modulation technique in radio-frequency helium glow discharge emission source by use of pulsed laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Tariq Mahmood; Matsuta, Hideyuki; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2004-05-01

    An emission excitation source comprising a high-frequency diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and a radio-frequency powered glow discharge lamp is proposed. In this system sample atoms ablated by the laser irradiation are introduced into the lamp chamber and subsequently excited by the helium glow discharge plasma. The pulsed operation of the laser can produce a cyclic variation in the emission intensities of the sample atoms whereas the plasma gas species emit the radiation continuously. The salient feature of the proposed technique is the selective detection of the laser modulation signal from the rest of the continuous background emissions, which can be achieved with the phase sensitive detection of the lock-in amplifier. The arrangement may be used to estimate the emission intensity of the laser ablated atom, free from the interference of other species present in the plasma. The experiments were conducted with a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (rf) generator operated at 80 W power to produce plasma and the laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm (pulse duration:34 ns, repetition rate:7 kHz and average pulse energy of about 0.36 mJ) was employed for sample ablation. The measurements resulted in almost complete removal of nitrogen molecular bands (N(2)(+) 391.44 nm). Considerable reduction (about 75%) in the emission intensity of a carbon atomic line (C I 193.03 nm) was also observed.

  6. Collisional radiative model of an argon atmospheric capillary surface-wave discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Yanguas-Gil, A.; Cotrino, J.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.

    2004-12-01

    The characteristics of a microwave surface-wave sustained plasma operated at atmospheric pressure in an open-ended dielectric tube are investigated theoretically as a first step in the development of a self-consistent model for these discharges. The plasma column is sustained in flowing argon. A surface-wave discharge that fills the whole radial cross section of the discharge tube is considered. With experimental electron temperature profiles [Garcia et al., Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 55, 1733 (2000)] the numerical model is used to test the validity of the different approximations and to study the influence of the different kinetic processes and power loss mechanismsmore » on the discharge.« less

  7. Current Scaling in an Atmospheric Pressure Capillary Dielectric Barrier Discharge (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    have significant advantages in terms of enhanced plasma chemistry at atmospheric pressure,7 and has recently been used to demonstrate the high-speed depo...sition of SiO2 films. 8 This motivates a more detailed look at the properties of the discharge and the factors that can affect the plasma chemistry near...N. van Berkel, E. R. Kieft, and E. Stoffels, Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry , 2005, Vol. 22, pp. 295–308. FIG. 4

  8. Development and demonstration of a water-window soft x-ray microscope using a Z-pinching capillary discharge source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, M. F.; Jancarek, Alexandr; Nevrkla, Michal; Duda, Martin Jakub; Pina, Ladislav

    2017-05-01

    The development and demonstration of a soft X-ray (SXR) microscope, based on a Z-pinching capillary discharge source has been realized. The Z-pinching plasma acts as a source of SXR radiation. A ceramic capacitor bank is pulsed charged up to 80 kV, and discharged through a pre- ionized nitrogen filled ceramic capillary. The discharge current has an amplitude of 25 kA. Working within the water-window spectral region (λ = 2.88 nm), corresponding to the 1s2-1s2p quantum transition of helium-like nitrogen (N5+), the microscope has a potential in exploiting the natural contrast existing between the K-absorption edges of carbon and oxygen as the main constituents of biological materials, and hence imaging them with high spatial resolution. The SXR microscope uses the grazing incidence ellipsoidal condenser mirror for the illumination, and the Fresnel zone plate optics for the imaging of samples onto a BI-CCD camera. The half- pitch spatial resolution of 100 nm [1] was achieved, as demonstrated by the knife-edge test. In order to enhance the photon-flux at the sample plane, a new scheme for focusing the radiation, from multiple capillary sources has been investigated. Details about the source, and the construction of the microscope are presented and discussed.

  9. Development of a laser ablation-hollow cathode glow discharge emission source and the application to the analysis of steel samples.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Tariq M; Matsuta, Hideyuki; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2004-12-01

    A novel atomic emission spectrometry comprising laser ablation as a sampling source and hollow cathode plasma for the excitation of ablated sample atoms is proposed. In this arrangement, a conventional Grimm-type discharge lamp is employed, but the polarity of the power supply is reversed so that the cylindrical hollow tube acts as a cathode and the glow discharge plasma is produced within this tube. A laser is irradiated to introduce sample atoms into the discharge plasma. Ablated atoms are excited by collisions with electrons and gas species, and emit characteristic radiation upon de-excitation. The experiments were conducted only in an atmosphere of helium gas so as to avoid a rapid erosion of the cathode hollow tube. Phase-sensitive detection with a lock-in amplifier was utilized to reject the continuous background emission of the plasma gas and emissions of sputtered atoms from the tube material. The unique feature of this technique is that the sampling and excitation processes can be controlled independently. The proposed technique was employed for the determination of Cr, Mn, and Ni in low-alloyed steel samples. The obtained concentrations are in good agreement with the reported values. The relative standard deviation (RSD), a measure of the analytical precision, was estimated to be 2-9% for Cr, 3-4% for Mn, and 4-11% for Ni determination.

  10. Fast gas heating and radial distribution of active species in nanosecond capillary discharge in pure nitrogen and N2:O2 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepikhin, N. D.; Popov, N. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    Fast gas heating is studied experimentally and numerically using pulsed nanosecond capillary discharge in pure nitrogen and N2:O2 mixtures under the conditions of high specific deposited energy (up to 1 eV/molecule) and high reduced electric fields (100–300 Td). Deposited energy, electric field and gas temperature are measured as functions of time. The radial distribution of active species is analyzed experimentally. The roles of processes involving {{{N}}}2({{B}}) ={{{N}}}2({{{B}}}3{{{\\Pi }}}{{g}},{{{W}}}3{{{Δ }}}{{u}},{{B}}{{\\prime} }3{{{Σ }}}{{u}}-), {{{N}}}2({{{A}}}3{{{Σ }}}{{u}}+) and N(2D) excited nitrogen species leading to heat release are analyzed using numerical modeling in the framework of 1D axial approximation.

  11. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of a two-temperature polytetrafluoroethylene vapor plasma for ablation-controlled discharge applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Weizong; Yan, Joseph D.; Qi, Haiyang; Geng, Jinyue; Wu, Yaowu

    2017-10-01

    Ablation-controlled plasmas have been used in a range of technical applications where local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is often violated near the wall due to the strong cooling effect caused by the ablation of wall materials. The thermodynamic and transport properties of ablated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vapor, which determine the flowing plasma behavior in such applications, are calculated based on a two-temperature model at atmospheric pressure. To our knowledge, no data for PTFE have been reported in the literature. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are numerically determined using the two-temperature Saha equation and the Guldberg-Waage equation according to van de Sanden et al’s derivation. The transport coefficients, including viscosity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, are calculated with the most recent collision interaction potentials using Devoto’s electron and heavy-particle decoupling approach but expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the frame of the Chapman-Enskog method. Results are computed for different degrees of thermal non-equilibrium, i.e. the ratio of electron to heavy-particle temperatures, from 1 to 10, with electron temperature ranging from 300 to 40 000 K. Plasma transport properties in the LTE state obtained from the present work are compared with existing published results and the causes for the discrepancy analyzed. The two-temperature plasma properties calculated in the present work enable the modeling of wall ablation-controlled plasma processes.

  12. Nanometer-scale ablation using focused, coherent extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray light

    DOEpatents

    Menoni, Carmen S [Fort Collins, CO; Rocca, Jorge J [Fort Collins, CO; Vaschenko, Georgiy [San Diego, CA; Bloom, Scott [Encinitas, CA; Anderson, Erik H [El Cerrito, CA; Chao, Weilun [El Cerrito, CA; Hemberg, Oscar [Stockholm, SE

    2011-04-26

    Ablation of holes having diameters as small as 82 nm and having clean walls was obtained in a poly(methyl methacrylate) on a silicon substrate by focusing pulses from a Ne-like Ar, 46.9 nm wavelength, capillary-discharge laser using a freestanding Fresnel zone plate diffracting into third order is described. Spectroscopic analysis of light from the ablation has also been performed. These results demonstrate the use of focused coherent EUV/SXR light for the direct nanoscale patterning of materials.

  13. Plume collimation for laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A.

    2016-06-07

    In various embodiments, a device may generally comprise a capillary having a first end and a second end; a laser to emit energy at a sample in the capillary to ablate the sample and generate an ablation plume in the capillary; an electrospray apparatus to generate an electrospray plume to intercept the ablation plume to produce ions; and a mass spectrometer having an ion transfer inlet to capture the ions. The ablation plume may comprise a collimated ablation plume. The device may comprise a flow cytometer. Methods of making and using the same are also described.

  14. Plume collimation for laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A.

    2014-09-09

    In various embodiments, a device may generally comprise a capillary having a first end and a second end; a laser to emit energy at a sample in the capillary to ablate the sample and generate an ablation plume in the capillary; an electrospray apparatus to generate an electrospray plume to intercept the ablation plume to produce ions; and a mass spectrometer having an ion transfer inlet to capture the ions. The ablation plume may comprise a collimated ablation plume. The device may comprise a flow cytometer. Methods of making and using the same are also described.

  15. Hugoniot equation of state of Si-doped glow discharge polymer and scaling to other plastic ablators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huser, G.; Ozaki, N.; Colin-Lalu, P.; Recoules, V.; Sano, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Miyanishi, K.; Kodama, R.

    2018-05-01

    Pressure, density, and temperature were measured along the principal Hugoniot of the Si-doped Glow Discharge Polymer used in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules up to 5 Mbar, covering conditions beyond the first shock in a full-scale Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsule. The experiments were performed using the GEKKOXII laser at the Institute of Laser Engineering at Osaka University in Japan. Results are in good agreement with predictions obtained from ab initio Hugoniot calculations, but softer than the quotidian equation of state average atom model. Ab initio calculations show that dissociation of carbon bonds need to be taken into account in order to explain Hugoniot compressibility.

  16. Capillary descent.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Joachim; de Maleprade, Hélène; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2018-05-31

    A superhydrophobic capillary tube immersed in water and brought in contact with the bath surface will be invaded by air, owing to its aerophilicity. We discuss this phenomenon where the ingredients of classical capillary rise are inverted, which leads to noticeable dynamical features. (1) The main regime of air invasion is linear in time, due to the viscous resistance of water. (2) Menisci in tubes with millimetre-size radii strongly oscillate before reaching their equilibrium depth, a consequence of inertia. On the whole, capillary descent provides a broad variety of dynamics where capillary effects, viscous friction and liquid inertia all play a role.

  17. Endometrial Ablation

    MedlinePlus

    ... or lighter levels. If ablation does not control heavy bleeding, further treatment or surgery may be needed. ... ablation is used to treat many causes of heavy bleeding. In most cases, women with heavy bleeding ...

  18. Ablation Loss Studies for Capillary - Sustained Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    forming network (PFN) power supply. The PFN power supply is used to charge a 1700-µF capacitor. The system-charging voltage ranged from 680 to 1210 V ...XAVIER BAGNOUD BLDG 1320 BEAL AVE ANN ARBOR MI 48109-2140 1 PA STATE UNIVERSITY DEPT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING T LITZINGER

  19. Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To review the effectiveness, safety, and costing of ablation methods to manage atrial fibrillation (AF). The ablation methods reviewed were catheter ablation and surgical ablation. Clinical Need Atrial fibrillation is characterized by an irregular, usually rapid, heart rate that limits the ability of the atria to pump blood effectively to the ventricles. Atrial fibrillation can be a primary diagnosis or it may be associated with other diseases, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart muscle function, chronic lung diseases, and coronary heart disease. The most common symptom of AF is palpitations. Symptoms caused by decreased blood flow include dizziness, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Some patients with AF do not experience any symptoms. According to United States data, the incidence of AF increases with age, with a prevalence of 1 per 200 people aged between 50 and 60 years, and 1 per 10 people aged over 80 years. In 2004, the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) estimated that the rate of hospitalization for AF in Canada was 582.7 per 100,000 population. They also reported that of the patients discharged alive, 2.7% were readmitted within 1 year for stroke. One United States prevalence study of AF indicated that the overall prevalence of AF was 0.95%. When the results of this study were extrapolated to the population of Ontario, the prevalence of AF in Ontario is 98,758 for residents aged over 20 years. Currently, the first-line therapy for AF is medical therapy with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs). There are several AADs available, because there is no one AAD that is effective for all patients. The AADs have critical adverse effects that can aggravate existing arrhythmias. The drug selection process frequently involves trial and error until the patient’s symptoms subside. The Technology Ablation has been frequently described as a “cure” for AF, compared with drug therapy, which controls AF but does not cure it

  20. EUV nanosecond laser ablation of silicon carbide, tungsten and molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Kolacek, Karel; Schmidt, Jiri; Straus, Jaroslav; Choukourov, Andrei; Kasuya, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present results of study interaction of nanosecond EUV laser pulses at wavelength of 46.9 nm with silicon carbide (SiC), tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo). As a source of laser radiation was used discharge-plasma driver CAPEX (CAPillary EXperiment) based on high current capillary discharge in argon. The laser beam is focused with a spherical Si/Sc multilayer-coated mirror on samples. Experimental study has been performed with 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 laser pulses ablation of SiC, W and Mo at various fluence values. Firstly, sample surface modification in the nanosecond time scale have been registered by optical microscope. And the secondly, laser beam footprints on the samples have been analyzed by atomic-force microscope (AFM). This work supported by the Czech Science Foundation under Contract GA14-29772S and by the Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under Contract LG13029.

  1. Weight-controlled capillary viscometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2005-11-01

    The draining of a water column through a vertical discharge capillary tube is examined with the aid of a force sensor. The change of the mass of the liquid in the column with time is found to be not purely exponential as implied by Poiseuille's law. Using observed residuals associated with a kinetic energy correction, an approximate formula for the mass as a function of time is derived and excellent agreement with experimental data is attained. These results are verified by a viscosity test of distilled water at room temperature. A simple and inexpensive weight-controlled capillary viscometer is proposed that is especially suitable for undergraduate physics and chemistry laboratories.

  2. Capillary muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This “hyperbolic” force–velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136–195]. Hill’s heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973–976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971–973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255–318; Deshcherevskiĭ VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928–935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill’s equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  3. Ablation article and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. D.; Sullivan, E. M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An ablation article, such as a conical heat shield, having an ablating surface is provided with at least one discrete area of at least one seed material, such as aluminum. When subjected to ablation conditions, the seed material is ablated. Radiation emanating from the ablated seed material is detected to analyze ablation effects without disturbing the ablation surface. By providing different seed materials having different radiation characteristics, the ablating effects on various areas of the ablating surface can be analyzed under any prevailing ablation conditions. The ablating article can be provided with means for detecting the radiation characteristics of the ablated seed material to provide a self-contained analysis unit.

  4. A study of the time of hospital discharge of differentiated thyroid cancer patients after receiving iodine-131 for thyroid remnant ablation treatment.

    PubMed

    Azizmohammadi, Zahra; Tabei, Faraj; Shafiei, Babak; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Jukandan, Seyed Mohsen Qutbi; Naghshine, Reza; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid; Asli, Isa Neshandar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the radiation exposure rate from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients who had received iodine-131 ((131)I) treatment, and to evaluate hospital discharge planning in relation to three different sets of regulations. We studied 100 patients, 78 females and 22 males, aged 13 to 79 years (mean 44.40±15.83 years) with DTC, in three Groups who were treated with 3.7, 5.5 or 7.4GBq of (131)I, respectively. The external whole-body dose rates following oral administration of (131)I were measured after each one of the first three hospitalization days. A multivariant linear analysis was performed, considering exposure rates as dependent variables to the administered dose for treatment, age, gender, regional and/or distant metastases, thyroglobulin (Tg), antibodies to Tg and thyroid remnant in the three dose groups. We found that the exposure rates after each of the three first days of hospitalization were 30, 50 and 70μSvh-1 at 1m. All our DTC patients had an acceptable dose rate on days 2 and 3 that allowed their hospital discharge. After only 1 day of hospitalization, just 3/11 cases showed not permissible exposure rates above 70μSvh-1. In conclusion, it is the opinion of the authors that after measuring the exposure rates, most treated, DTC patients could be discharged after only one day of hospitalization, even some of those treated with high doses of (131)I (7.4GBq). Patients, who received the higher doses of (131)I, should not be released before their individual exposure rate is measured.

  5. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  6. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1995-01-01

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

  7. Sapphire capillary interstitial irradiators for laser medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dolganova, I. N.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate instruments for laser radiation delivery based on sapphire capillary needles. Such sapphire irradiators (introducers) can be used for various medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy, laser hyperthermia, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and ablation of tumors of various organs. Unique properties of sapphire allow for effective redistribution of the heat, generated in biological tissues during their exposure to laser radiation. This leads to homogeneous distribution of the laser irradiation around the needle, and lower possibility of formation of the overheating focuses, as well as the following non-transparent thrombi.

  8. Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Cholecystectomy laparoscopic - discharge; Cholelithiasis - laparoscopic discharge; Biliary calculus - laparoscopic discharge; Gallstones - laparoscopic discharge; Cholecystitis - laparoscopic discharge

  9. Extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Fornaciari, Neal R.; Nygren, Richard E.; Ulrickson, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation electric capillary discharge source that includes a boron nitride housing defining a capillary bore that is positioned between two electrodes one of which is connected to a source of electric potential can generate a high EUV and soft x-ray radiation flux from the capillary bore outlet with minimal debris. The electrode that is positioned adjacent the capillary bore outlet is typically grounded. Pyrolytic boron nitride, highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride, and cubic boron nitride are particularly suited. The boron nitride capillary bore can be configured as an insert that is encased in an exterior housing that is constructed of a thermally conductive material. Positioning the ground electrode sufficiently close to the capillary bore outlet also reduces bore erosion.

  10. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  11. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  12. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  13. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  14. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  15. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  16. Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Gamma knife - discharge; Cyberknife - discharge; Stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge; Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge; Cyclotrons - discharge; Linear accelerator - discharge; Lineacs - discharge; Proton beam radiosurgery - discharge

  17. Global ablation techniques.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah; Taylor, Betsy

    2013-12-01

    Global endometrial ablation techniques are a relatively new surgical technology for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding that can now be used even in an outpatient clinic setting. A comparison of global ablation versus earlier ablation technologies notes no significant differences in success rates and some improvement in patient satisfaction. The advantages of the newer global endometrial ablation systems include less operative time, improved recovery time, and decreased anesthetic risk. Ablation procedures performed in an outpatient surgical or clinic setting provide advantages both of potential cost savings for patients and the health care system and improved patient convenience. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Capillary condenser/evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A heat transfer device is disclosed for transferring heat to or from a fluid that is undergoing a phase change. The heat transfer device includes a liquid-vapor manifold in fluid communication with a capillary structure thermally connected to a heat transfer interface, all of which are disposed in a housing to contain the vapor. The liquid-vapor manifold transports liquid in a first direction and conducts vapor in a second, opposite direction. The manifold provides a distributed supply of fluid (vapor or liquid) over the surface of the capillary structure. In one embodiment, the manifold has a fractal structure including one or more layers, each layer having one or more conduits for transporting liquid and one or more openings for conducting vapor. Adjacent layers have an increasing number of openings with decreasing area, and an increasing number of conduits with decreasing cross-sectional area, moving in a direction toward the capillary structure.

  19. Biomimetic Unidirectional Capillary Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupert, Eric; Moran, Patrick; Dahl, Jason

    2017-11-01

    In arid environments animals require specialized adaptations to collect adequate water. The Texas horned lizard (P. cornutum) has superhydrophylic skin which draws water out of moist soil or directly from water sources. The water then makes its way into the lizard's unidirectional capillary system, made of overlapping scales, which serves to channel water to its mouth. Testing different channel geometries, repeated ``D'' shaped chambers as in Commans et al. (2015) and truncated isosceles triangle chambers, as found in P. cornutum, we show the ability to have passive, unidirectional, fluid transport. Tests were carried out with the capillaries in a horizontal configuration. While both capillary geometries produced the desired traits, the triangular chambers showed superior unidirectionality, with no observed back flow, while ``D'' chambers showed back flow under testing conditions. The chambers provided similar flow rates. These types of channel systems will find use in microfluidics, notably in medical, printing, and lab-on-chip applications.

  20. Capillary Structures for Exploration Life Support (Capillary Structures)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    iss052e013146 (July 10, 2017) --- Astronaut Jack Fischer is photographed during setup of hardware for the Capillary Structures for Exploration Life Support (Capillary Structures) two sorbent demonstrations. The Capillary Structures for Exploration Life Support (Capillary Structures) investigation studies a new method using structures of specific shapes to manage fluid and gas mixtures. The investigation studies water recycling and carbon dioxide removal, benefiting future efforts to design lightweight, more reliable life support systems for future space missions.

  1. Nonequilibrium Ablation of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih K.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, an equilibrium ablation and thermal response model for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was developed. In general, over a wide range of test conditions, model predictions compared well with arcjet data for surface recession, surface temperature, in-depth temperature at multiple thermocouples, and char depth. In this work, additional arcjet tests were conducted at stagnation conditions down to 40 W/sq cm and 1.6 kPa. The new data suggest that nonequilibrium effects become important for ablation predictions at heat flux or pressure below about 80 W/sq cm or 10 kPa, respectively. Modifications to the ablation model to account for nonequilibrium effects are investigated. Predictions of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared with the arcjet data.

  2. Thermoplastic microchannel fabrication using carbon dioxide laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shau-Chun; Lee, Chia-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ping

    2006-04-14

    We report the procedures of machining microchannels on Vivak co-polyester thermoplastic substrates using a simple industrial CO(2) laser marker. To avoid overheating the substrates, we develop low-power marking techniques in nearly anaerobic environment. These procedures are able to machine microchannels at various aspect ratios. Either straight or serpent channel can be easily marked. Like the wire-embossed channel walls, the ablated channel surfaces become charged after alkaline hydrolysis treatment. Stable electroosmotic flow in the charged conduit is observed to be of the same order of magnitude as that in fused silica capillary. Typical dynamic coating protocols to alter the conduit surface properties are transferable to the ablated channels. The effects of buffer acidity on electroosmotic mobility in both bare and coated channels are similar to those in fused silica capillaries. Using video microscopy we also demonstrate that this device is useful in distinguishing the electrophoretic mobility of bare and latex particles from that of functionalized ones.

  3. Transgenic Reproductive Cell Ablation.

    PubMed

    Lawit, Shai J; Chamberlin, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous cell ablation technologies are available and have been used in reproductive tissues, particularly for male tissues and cells. The importance of ablation of reproductive tissues is toward a fundamental understanding reproductive tissue development and fertilization, as well as, in developing sterility lines important to breeding strategies. Here, we describe techniques for developing ablation lines for both male and female reproductive cells. Also discussed are techniques for analysis, quality control, maintenance, and the lessening of pleiotropism in such lines.

  4. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  5. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Xue, Yongjun

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans.

  6. Sprayable lightweight ablative coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G. (Inventor); Sharpe, Max H. (Inventor); Hill, William E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved lightweight, ablative coating is disclosed that may be spray applied and cured without the development of appreciable shrinkage cracks. The ablative mixture consists essentially of phenolic microballoons, hollow glass spheres, glass fibers, ground cork, a flexibilized resin binder, and an activated colloidal clay.

  7. Capillary Flow Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-19

    ISS040-E-015539 (19 June 2014) --- NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE-2) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. CFE is a suite of fluid physics experiments that investigate how fluids behave in microgravity which could benefit water and fuel delivery systems on future spacecraft. Scientists designed the CFE-2 to study properties of fluids and bubbles inside containers with a specific 3-D geometry.

  8. Capillary Flow Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-19

    ISS040-E-015545 (19 June 2014) --- European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst, Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE-2) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. CFE is a suite of fluid physics experiments that investigate how fluids behave in microgravity which could benefit water and fuel delivery systems on future spacecraft. Scientists designed the CFE-2 to study properties of fluids and bubbles inside containers with a specific 3-D geometry.

  9. Enantioseparations by capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Fanali, S; Catarcini, P; Blaschke, G; Chankvetadze, B

    2001-09-01

    The review summarizes recent developments in enantioseparations by capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Selected fundamental aspects of CEC are discussed in order to stress those features which may allow the success of this technique in the competitive field of enantioseparations. In addition, the comparative characteristics of the different modes of chiral CEC and the stationary phases are presented. The effects of the characteristics of the stationary and liquid phases and operational conditions on the separation results are discussed. Finally, some future trends are briefly addressed.

  10. Capillary Flow Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-19

    ISS040-E-015532 (19 June 2014) --- European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst, Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE-2) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. CFE is a suite of fluid physics experiments that investigate how fluids behave in microgravity which could benefit water and fuel delivery systems on future spacecraft. Scientists designed the CFE-2 to study properties of fluids and bubbles inside containers with a specific 3-D geometry.

  11. Capillary Flow Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-19

    ISS040-E-015523 (19 June 2014) --- European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst, Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE-2) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. CFE is a suite of fluid physics experiments that investigate how fluids behave in microgravity which could benefit water and fuel delivery systems on future spacecraft. Scientists designed the CFE-2 to study properties of fluids and bubbles inside containers with a specific 3-D geometry.

  12. Capillary Flow Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-19

    ISS040-E-015543 (19 June 2014) --- European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst, Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE-2) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. CFE is a suite of fluid physics experiments that investigate how fluids behave in microgravity which could benefit water and fuel delivery systems on future spacecraft. Scientists designed the CFE-2 to study properties of fluids and bubbles inside containers with a specific 3-D geometry.

  13. Capillary Flow Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-19

    ISS040-E-015536 (19 June 2014) --- European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst, Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE-2) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. CFE is a suite of fluid physics experiments that investigate how fluids behave in microgravity which could benefit water and fuel delivery systems on future spacecraft. Scientists designed the CFE-2 to study properties of fluids and bubbles inside containers with a specific 3-D geometry.

  14. Plasma discharge elemental detector for a mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heppner, R. A.

    1983-06-01

    A material to be analyzed is injected into a mirowave-induced plasma discharge unit, in which the material is carried with a flow of buffer gas through an intense microwave energy field which produces a plasma discharge in the buffer gas. As the material exits from the plasma discharge, the material is sampled and conveyed along a capillary transfer tube to a mass spectrometer where it is analyzed. The plasma discharge causes dissociation of complex organic molecules into simpler molecules which return to the neutral ground state before they are analyzed in the mass spectrometer. The buffer gas is supplied to one end portion of the discharge tube and is withdrawn from the other end portion by a vacuum pump which maintains a subatmospheric pressure in the discharge tube. The sample material is injected by a capillary injection tube into the buffer gas flow as it enters the plasma discharge zone. The dissociated materials are sampled by an axial sampling tube having an entrance where the buffer gas exits from the plasma discharge zone. The sample material may be supplied by a gas chromatography having a capillary effluent line connected to the capillary injection tube, so that the effluent material is injected into the microwave induced plasma discharge. The microwave field is produced by a cavity resonator through which the discharge tube passes.

  15. Radical prostatectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - discharge; Prostate cancer - prostatectomy

  16. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - discharge; ...

  17. Automated Parallel Capillary Electrophoretic System

    DOEpatents

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, Thomas E.; Liu, Changsheng; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.; Kernan, John R.

    2000-02-22

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  18. [Thoracoscopic, epicardial ablation of atrial fibrillation using the COBRA Fusion system as the first part of hybrid ablation].

    PubMed

    Budera, P; Osmančík, P; Talavera, D; Fojt, R; Kraupnerová, A; Žďárská, J; Vaněk, T; Straka, Z

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of persistent and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation is not successfully managed by methods of catheter ablation or pharmacotherapy. Hybrid ablation (i.e. combination of minimally invasive surgical ablation, followed by electrophysiological assessment and subsequent endocardial catheter ablation to complete the entire intended procedure) presents an ever more used and very promising treatment method. Patients underwent thoracoscopic ablation of pulmonary veins and posterior wall of the left atrium (the box-lesion) with use of the COBRA Fusion catheter; thoracoscopic occlusion of the left atrial appendage using the AtriClip system was also done in later patients. After 23 months, electrophysiological assessment and catheter ablation followed. In this article we summarize a strategy of the surgical part of the hybrid procedure performed in our centre. We describe the surgery itself (including possible periprocedural complications) and we also present our short-term results, especially with respect to subsequent electrophysiological findings. Data of the first 51 patients were analyzed. The first 25 patients underwent unilateral ablation; the mean time of surgery was 102 min. Subsequent 26 patients underwent the bilateral procedure with the mean surgery time of 160 min. Serious complications included 1 stroke, 1 phrenic nerve palsy and 2 surgical re-explorations for bleeding. After 1 month, 65% of patients showed sinus rhythm. The box-lesion was found complete during electrophysiological assessment in 38% of patients and after catheter ablation, 96% of patients were discharged in sinus rhythm. The surgical part of the hybrid procedure with use of the minimally invasive approach and the COBRA Fusion catheter is a well-feasible method with a low number of periprocedural complications. For electrophysiologists, it provides a very good basis for successful completion of the hybrid ablation.Key words: atrial fibrillation hybrid ablation - thoracoscopy

  19. Cirrhosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Liver failure - discharge; Liver cirrhosis - discharge ... You have cirrhosis of the liver. Scar tissue forms and your liver gets smaller and harder. Most of the time, this damage cannot be undone. However, the ...

  20. Nipple Discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast-feeding. It also may be associated with menstrual hormone changes and fibrocystic changes. The milky discharge ... that requires treatment. If you're still having menstrual periods and your nipple discharge doesn't resolve ...

  1. Vaginal Discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be on the lookout for symptoms of yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, 3 infections that ... cause changes in your vaginal discharge. Signs of yeast infections White, cottage cheese-like discharge Swelling and ...

  2. Microwave Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marec, J.; Bloyet, E.; Chaker, M.; Leprince, P.; Nghiem, P.

    Microwave discharges first appeared as unwanted and disturbing effects. However, beginning about the end of World War II, Professors Allis and Brown at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology started to investigate the physics of these discharges. During the next few years, many experimental and theoretical studies were undertaken. However, in the early 60's and for about 15 years, there were few studies of such discharges because of the theoretical difficulties encountered. Effectively, the impossibility of modeling microwave discharges prevented a good understanding of their behavior, and their future use did not appear promising. Recently there has been new interest in these discharges. The plasmas produced by microwave discharges find applications in areas such as: 1) spectroscopy (because of their low contamination), and 2) plasma chemistry. Another advantage of these discharges as compared to d.c. discharges is their ease of operation.

  3. Comparison of the Three NIF Ablators

    SciTech Connect

    Kritcher, A. L.; Clark, D. S.; Haan, S. W.

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on NIF have now been performed using three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) or CH, high density carbon (HDC, which we also refer to as diamond), and sputtered beryllium (Be). It has been appreciated for some time that each of these materials has specific advantages and disadvantages as an ICF ablator.[1-4] In light of experiments conducted on NIF in the last few years, how do these ablators compare? Given current understanding, is any ablator more or less likely to reach ignition on NIF? Has the understanding of their respective strengths and weaknesses changed sincemore » NIF experiments began? How are those strengths and weaknesses highlighted by implosion designs currently being tested or planned for testing soon? This document aims to address these questions by combining modern simulation results with a survey of the current experimental data base. More particularly, this document is meant to fulfill an L2 Milestone for FY17 to “Document our understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of CH, HDC, and Be designs.” Note that this document does not aim to recommend a down-selection of the current three ablator choices. It is intended only to gather and document the current understanding of the differences between these ablators and thereby inform the choices made in planning future implosion experiments. This document has two themes: (i) We report on a reanalysis project in which post-shot simulations were done on a common basis for layered shots using each ablator. This included data from keyholes, 2D ConA, and so forth, from each campaign, leading up to the layered shots. (“Keyholes” are shots dedicated to measuring the shock timing in a NIF target, as described in Ref. 5. “2DConAs” are backlit implosions in which the symmetry of the implosion is measured between about half and full convergence, as described in Ref. 6.) This set of common-basis postshot simulations is

  4. Robotic navigation and ablation.

    PubMed

    Malcolme-Lawes, L; Kanagaratnam, P

    2010-12-01

    Robotic technologies have been developed to allow optimal catheter stability and reproducible catheter movements with the aim of achieving contiguous and transmural lesion delivery. Two systems for remote navigation of catheters within the heart have been developed; the first is based on a magnetic navigation system (MNS) Niobe, Stereotaxis, Saint-Louis, Missouri, USA, the second is based on a steerable sheath system (Sensei, Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA, USA). Both robotic and magnetic navigation systems have proven to be feasible for performing ablation of both simple and complex arrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation. Studies to date have shown similar success rates for AF ablation compared to that of manual ablation, with many groups finding a reduction in fluoroscopy times. However, the early learning curve of cases demonstrated longer procedure times, mainly due to additional setup times. With centres performing increasing numbers of robotic ablations and the introduction of a pressure monitoring system, lower power settings and instinctive driving software, complication rates are reducing, and fluoroscopy times have been lower than manual ablation in many studies. As the demand for catheter ablation for arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation increases and the number of centres performing these ablations increases, the demand for systems which reduce the hand skill requirement and improve the comfort of the operator will also increase.

  5. Capillary reference half-cell

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Stephen H.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods.

  6. Capillary reference half-cell

    DOEpatents

    Hall, S.H.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods. 11 figs.

  7. Critical capillary channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grah, Aleksander; Klatte, Jörg; Dreyer, Michael E.

    The main subject are numerical studies on capillary channel flow, based on results of the sounding rocket experiments TEXUS 41/42. The flow through a capillary channel is established by a gear pump at the outlet. The channel, consists of two parallel glass plates with a width of 25 mm, a gap of 10 mm and a length of 12 mm. The meniscus of a compensation tube maintains a constant system pressure. Steady and dynamic pressure effects in the system force the surfaces to bend inwards. A maximum flow rate is achieved when the free surface collapses and gas ingestion occurs at the outlet. This critical flow rate depends on the channel geometry, the flow regime and the liquid properties. The aim of the experiments is the determination of the free surface shape and to find the maximum flow rate. In order to study the unsteady liquid loop behaviour, a dimensionless transient model was developed. It is based on the unsteady Bernoulli equation, the unsteady continuity equation and geometrical conditions for the surface curvature and the flow cross-section. The pressure is related to the curvature of the free liquid surface by the dimensionless Gauss-Laplace equation with two principal radii. The experimental and evaluated contour data shows good agreement for a sequence of transient flow rate perturbations. The surface oscillation frequencies and amplitudes can be predicted with quite high accuracy. The dynamic of the pump is defined by the increase of the flow rate in a time period. To study the unsteady system behavior in the "worst case", we use a perturbations related to the natural frequency of the oscillating liquid. In the case of steady flow at maximum flow rate, when the "choking" effect occurs, the surfaces collapse and cause gas ingestion into the channel. This effect is related to the Speed Index. At the critical flow rate the Speed Index reaches the value Sca = 1, in analogy to the Mach Number. Unsteady choking does not necessarily cause surface collapse. We show

  8. Capillary Structures for Exploration Life Support (Capillary Structures)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    iss052e013081 (7/10/2017) --- The Capillary Structures for Exploration Life Support (Capillary Structures) investigation studies a new method using structures of specific shapes to manage fluid and gas mixtures. The investigation studies water recycling and carbon dioxide removal, benefiting future efforts to design lightweight, more reliable life support systems for future space missions.

  9. Moldable cork ablation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A successful thermal ablative material was manufactured. Moldable cork sheets were tested for density, tensile strength, tensile elongation, thermal conductivity, compression set, and specific heat. A moldable cork sheet, therefore, was established as a realistic product.

  10. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Tapered capillary optics

    DOEpatents

    Hirsch, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    A metal or glass wire is etched with great precision into a very narrowly tapering cone which has the shape of the desired final capillary-optics bore. By controlling the rate of removal of the wire from an etchant bath, a carefully controlled taper is produced. A sensor measures the diameter of the wire as it leaves the surface of the etchant. This signal is used for feedback control of the withdrawal speed. The etched wire undergoes a treatment to produce an extremely low surface-roughness. The etched and smoothed wire is coated with the material of choice for optimizing the reflectivity of the radiation being focused. This could be a vacuum evaporation, sputtering, CVD or aqueous chemical process. The coated wire is either electroplated, built up with electroless plating, or encapsulated in a polymer cylinder such as epoxy to increase the diameter of the wire for easier handling and greater robustness. During this process, the wire is vertically oriented and tensioned to assure that the wire is absolutely straight. The coated and electroformed wire is bonded to a flat, rigid substrate and is then periodically segmented by cutting or etching a series of narrow slits or grooves into the wire. The wire is vertically oriented and tensioned during the bonding process to assure that it is straight. The original wire material is then chemically etched away through the slits or otherwise withdrawn to leave the hollow internal bore of the final tapered-capillary optical element.

  12. Capsule physics comparison of different ablators for NIF implosion designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Daniel; Kritcher, Andrea; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Haan, Steven; Ralph, Joseph; Weber, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the Naitonal Ignition Facility (NIF) have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) plastic, high density carbon (HDC), and beryllium. How do these different ablator choices compare in current and future implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This talk compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and proposed future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Short-wavelength ablation of polymers in the high-fluence regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberatore, Chiara; Mann, Klaus; Müller, Matthias; Pina, Ladislav; Juha, Libor; Vyšín, Ludek; Rocca, Jorge J.; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas

    2014-05-01

    Short-wavelength ablation of poly(1,4-phenylene ether-ether-sulfone) (PPEES) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was investigated using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) radiation from plasma-based sources. The initial experiment was performed with a 10 Hz desktop capillary-discharge XUV laser lasing at 46.9 nm. The XUV laser beam was focused onto the sample by a spherical mirror coated with a Si/Sc multilayer. The same materials were irradiated with 13.5 nm radiation emitted by plasmas produced by focusing an optical laser beam onto a xenon gas-puff target. A Schwarzschild focusing optics coated with a Mo/Si multilayer was installed at the source to achieve energy densities exceeding 0.1 J cm-2 in the tight focus. The existing experimental system at the Laser Laboratorium Göttingen was upgraded by implementing a 1.2 J driving laser. An increase of the SXR fluence was secured by improving the alignment technique.

  14. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  15. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - ...

  16. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Xue, Y.

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans. 13 figs.

  17. Capillary optics for radiation focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, A.J.; Reeder, P.L.; Bliss, M.

    Capillary lens technology may ultimately bring benefits to neutron and x-ray-based science like conventional lenses with visible light. Although the technology is not yet 10 years old, these lenses have already had a significant impact in engineering, science, and medicine. Capillary lenses are advantageous when it is desirable to increase the radiation flux at a location without regard to its angular divergence. PNNL has worked to improve the technology in several ways. A single, optimally tapered capillary was manufactured, which allows intensity gains of a factor of 270 for an initially parallel, incident x-ray beam. Feasibility of constructing neutron lensesmore » using {sup 58}Ni (particularly effective at reflecting neutrons) has been explored. Three applications for capillary optics have been identified and studied: neutron telescope, Gandolphi x-ray diffractometry, and neutron radiotherapy. A brief guide is given for determining which potential applications are likely to be helped by capillary optics.« less

  18. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with concomitant sinus bradycardia-Insights from the German Ablation Registry.

    PubMed

    Zylla, Maura M; Brachmann, Johannes; Lewalter, Thorsten; Hoffmann, Ellen; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Andresen, Dietrich; Willems, Stephan; Hochadel, Matthias; Senges, Jochen; Katus, Hugo A; Thomas, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    This investigation addresses procedural characteristics of catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and sinus bradycardia. From the prospective, multi-center German Ablation Registry 1073 patients with sinus rhythm at the time of AF ablation were divided into two groups according to heart rate at start of procedure (A, <60 beats per minute (bpm), n=197; B, 60-99bpm, n=876). Acute procedural success was high (≥98%) and similar between groups. Procedure duration and energy application time were increased in group A (180min vs. 155min and 2561s vs. 1879s, respectively). Major complications were more frequent in group A (2.2% vs. 0.5%), and a greater proportion of these patients was discharged under antiarrhythmic medication (64% vs. 52%). Catheter ablation of AF with concomitant sinus bradycardia is associated with high procedural efficacy, longer procedure- and energy application durations, and a slightly elevated complication rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Craniosynostosis repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child's skull to grow together (fuse) too early. ... Craniectomy - child - discharge; Synostectomy - discharge; Strip craniectomy - discharge; Endoscopy-assisted craniectomy - discharge; Sagittal craniectomy - discharge; Frontal-orbital advancement - discharge; FOA - discharge

  20. Steady Capillary Driven Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, Mark M.

    1996-01-01

    A steady capillary driven flow is developed for a liquid index in a circular tube which is partially coated with a surface modifier to produce a discontinuous wetting condition from one side of the tube to the other. The bulk flow is novel in that it is truly steady, and controlled solely by the physics associated with dynamic wetting. The influence of gravity on the flow is minimized through the use of small diameter tubes approximately O(1 mm) tested horizontally in a laboratory and larger tubes approximately O(10 mm) tested in the low gravity environment of a drop tower. Average steady velocities are predicted and compared against a large experimental data set which includes the effects of tube dimensions and fluid properties. The sensitivity of the velocity to surface cleanliness is dramatic and the advantages of experimentation in a microgravity environment are discussed.

  1. Capillary interconnect device

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2007-12-25

    A manifold for connecting external capillaries to the inlet and/or outlet ports of a microfluidic device for high pressure applications is provided. The fluid connector for coupling at least one fluid conduit to a corresponding port of a substrate that includes: (i) a manifold comprising one or more channels extending therethrough wherein each channel is at least partially threaded, (ii) one or more threaded ferrules each defining a bore extending therethrough with each ferrule supporting a fluid conduit wherein each ferrule is threaded into a channel of the manifold, (iii) a substrate having one or more ports on its upper surface wherein the substrate is positioned below the manifold so that the one or more ports is aligned with the one or more channels of the manifold, and (iv) means for applying an axial compressive force to the substrate to couple the one or more ports of the substrate to a corresponding proximal end of a fluid conduit.

  2. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  3. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  4. Capillary Discharge Thruster Experiments and Modeling (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Martin1 ERC INC.1, IN-SPACE PROPULSION BRANCH, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CA USA Electric propulsion systems June 2016... PROPULSION MODELS & EXPERIMENTS Spacecraft Propulsion Relevant Plasma: From hall thrusters to plumes and fluxes on components Complex reaction physics i.e... Propulsion Plumes FRC Chamber Environment R.S. MARTIN (ERC INC.) DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED; PA# 16279 3 / 30 ELECTRIC

  5. Mass-controlled capillary viscometer for a Newtonian liquid: Viscosity of water at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2007-03-01

    The operation principle of the mass-controlled capillary viscometer is presented for a Newtonian liquid. The derived equation for the temporal changes of the mass in a liquid column draining under gravity through a discharge capillary tube accounts self-consistently for the inertial convective term associated with the acceleration effect. The viscosity of water measured at different temperatures using the new approach is in good agreement with literature data.

  6. Instability of the capillary bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pare, Gounseti; Hoepffner, Jerome

    2014-11-01

    Capillary adhesion is a physical mechanism that maintains two bodies in contact by capillarity through a liquid ligament. The capillary bridge is an idealization of this capillary adhesion. In this study we first focus on the classical case of the stability of the capillary bridge. Secondly we study a slightly more complex configuration, imagining a flow in the capillary bridge as in the case of the dynamics of the neck of a liquid ligament, in its withdrawal under the effect of capillarity. Inspired by the experiments on soap films of Plateau, the configuration analyzed consists of an initially axisymmetric, mass of fluid held by surface tension forces between two parallel, coaxial, solid pipes of the same diameter. The results presented are obtained by numerical simulations using the free software, Gerris Flow Solver. We first focus on the capillary Venturi. In the static configuration the stability diagram of the capillary bridge obtained is in perfect agreement with the results of Lev A. Slobozhanin. In the dynamic case we develop a matlab code based on the one dimensional equations of Eggers and Dupont. The comparison of the bifurcation diagram obtained and the numerical simulations shows a good agreement.

  7. Early Efficacy Analysis of Biatrial Ablation versus Left and Simplified Right Atrial Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation Treatment in Patients with Rheumatic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Chen, Lin; Xiao, Yingbin; Ma, Ruiyan; Hao, Jia; Chen, Baicheng; Qin, Chuan; Cheng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. About 60% of patients with rheumatic heart disease have persistent AF. A total of 197 patients underwent valve replacement concomitant bipolar radiofrequency ablation (BRFA). Patients were divided into the biatrial ablation group and the simplified right atrial ablation group. In biatrial ablation group, the patients underwent a complete left and right atrial ablation. In simplified right atrial ablation group, the patients underwent a complete left atrial ablation and a simplified right atrial ablation. The conversion of sinus rhythm (SR) was high in both groups during the follow-up period. In the simplified right atrial ablation group, SR conversion rate was 88.29% at discharge. At six months and 12 months after surgery, 87.39% of patients and 86.49% of patients were in SR free of antiarrhythmic drugs, respectively. While in the biatrial ablation group, SA conversion rate was 89.53% at discharge. Percentage of patients in SR free of antiarrhythmic drugs was 88.37% and 88.37% at six months and 12 months after surgery, respectively. Echocardiography showed left atrial diameter decreased significantly after the surgery in the two groups. The ejection fraction and fractional shortening were improved significantly, without significant differences between the two groups. The results suggest that the concomitant left atrial and simplified right atrial BRFA for AF in patients undergoing valve replacement can achieve similar early efficiency as biatrial ablation. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Capillary electrophoresis of inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Kaniansky, D; Masár, M; Marák, J; Bodor, R

    1999-02-26

    This review deals with the separation mechanisms applied to the separation of inorganic anions by capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques. It covers various CE techniques that are suitable for the separation and/or determination of inorganic anions in various matrices, including capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, electrochromatography and capillary isotachophoresis. Detection and sample preparation techniques used in CE separations are also reviewed. An extensive part of this review deals with applications of CE techniques in various fields (environmental, food and plant materials, biological and biomedical, technical materials and industrial processes). Attention is paid to speciations of anions of arsenic, selenium, chromium, phosphorus, sulfur and halogen elements by CE.

  9. Integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Tan, Hongdong

    2002-05-14

    The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided.

  10. Small capillary pumped AMTEC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Thomas K.; Sievers, Robert K.; Butkiewicz, David A.; Pantolin, Jan E.; Ivanenok, Joseph F.

    1993-01-01

    Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC) systems offer significant potential advantages for space power. Recent experiments have shown that electromagnetic pumps can operate with a negative priming head and so may be suitable for space applications in microgravity (Hunt et al. 1992). Capillary pumped cells offer an alternative approach to microgravity compatibility. We have designed, built, and operated capillary pumped AMTEC cells in various orientations with respect to gravity in order to provide a presumptive demonstration of zero-G capability (Sievers et al. 1992). We report lifetime and performance data for these capillary pumped AMTEC cells. Progress on other issues relating to space flight testing of AMTEC systems is also discussed.

  11. Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation of the fundamentals of ablative TPS materials for a short course at TFAWS 2017. It gives an overall description of what an ablator is, the equations that define it, and how to model it.

  12. Advanced Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Early NASA missions (Gemini, Apollo, Mars Viking) employed new ablative TPS that were tailored for the entry environment. After 40 years, heritage ablative TPS materials using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for future exploration missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable any subsequent human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. This poster summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid/conformable and flexible ablators that could potentially be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular the effort focuses technologies required to land heavy (approx.40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate future exploration plans.

  13. Pancreatitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet - clear liquid Diet - full liquid Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems Gallstones - discharge Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus Jejunostomy feeding tube Review Date 12/1/2016 Updated by: Subodh K. Lal, MD, Gastroenterologist ...

  14. Mastectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 109. Read More Breast cancer Breast lump removal Breast reconstruction - implants Breast reconstruction - natural tissue Mastectomy Patient Instructions Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge Mastectomy and breast ...

  15. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Severs, Joanne C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  16. Gravity-Capillary Lumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akylas, Triantaphyllos R.; Kim, Boguk

    2004-11-01

    In dispersive wave systems, it is known that 1-D plane solitary waves can bifurcate from linear sinusoidal wavetrains at particular wave numbers k = k0 where the phase speed c(k) happens to be an extremum (dc/dk| _0=0) and equals the group speed c_g(k_0). Two distinct possibilities thus arise: either the extremum occurs in the long-wave limit (k_0=0) and, as in shallow water, the bifurcating solitary waves are of the KdV type; or k0 ne 0 and the solitary waves are in the form of packets, described by the NLS equation to leading order, as for gravity-capillary waves in deep water. Here it is pointed out that an entirely analogous scenario is valid for the genesis of 2-D solitary waves or `lumps'. Lumps also may bifurcate at extrema of the phase speed and do so when 1-D solitary waves happen to be unstable to transverse perturbations; moreover, they have algebraically decaying tails and are either of the KPI type (e.g. in shallow water in the presence of strong surface tension) or of the wave packet type (e.g. in deep water) and are described by an elliptic-elliptic Davey-Stewartson equation system to leading order. Examples of steady lump profiles are presented and their dynamics is discussed.

  17. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the aorta repair - discharge; Heart surgery for children - discharge; Atrial septal defect repair - discharge; Ventricular septal ... discharge; Acquired heart disease - discharge; Heart valve surgery - ... Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - ...

  18. Advanced Rigid Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate s (ESMD) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project (TDP) and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate s (ARMD) Hypersonics Project are developing new advanced rigid ablators in an effort to substantially increase reliability, decrease mass, and reduce life cycle cost of rigid aeroshell-based entry systems for multiple missions. Advanced Rigid Ablators combine ablation resistant top layers capable of high heat flux entry and enable high-speed EDL with insulating mass-efficient bottom that, insulate the structure and lower the areal weight. These materials may benefit Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) vendors and may potentially enable new NASA missions for higher velocity returns (e.g. asteroid, Mars). The materials have been thermally tested to 400-450 W/sq cm at the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Lab (LHMEL), Hypersonics Materials Evaluation Test System (HyMETS) and in arcjet facilities. Tested materials exhibit much lower backface temperatures and reduced recession over the baseline materials (PICA). Although the EDL project is ending in FY11, NASA in-house development of advanced ablators will continue with a focus on varying resin systems and fiber/resin interactions.

  19. Modelling ultrafast laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rethfeld, Baerbel; Ivanov, Dmitriy S.; E Garcia, Martin; Anisimov, Sergei I.

    2017-05-01

    This review is devoted to the study of ultrafast laser ablation of solids and liquids. The ablation of condensed matter under exposure to subpicosecond laser pulses has a number of peculiar properties which distinguish this process from ablation induced by nanosecond and longer laser pulses. The process of ultrafast ablation includes light absorption by electrons in the skin layer, energy transfer from the skin layer to target interior by nonlinear electronic heat conduction, relaxation of the electron and ion temperatures, ultrafast melting, hydrodynamic expansion of heated matter accompanied by the formation of metastable states and subsequent formation of breaks in condensed matter. In case of ultrashort laser excitation, these processes are temporally separated and can thus be studied separately. As for energy absorption, we consider peculiarities of the case of metal irradiation in contrast to dielectrics and semiconductors. We discuss the energy dissipation processes of electronic thermal wave and lattice heating. Different types of phase transitions after ultrashort laser pulse irradiation as melting, vaporization or transitions to warm dense matter are discussed. Also nonthermal phase transitions, directly caused by the electronic excitation before considerable lattice heating, are considered. The final material removal occurs from the physical point of view as expansion of heated matter; here we discuss approaches of hydrodynamics, as well as molecular dynamic simulations directly following the atomic movements. Hybrid approaches tracing the dynamics of excited electrons, energy dissipation and structural dynamics in a combined simulation are reviewed as well.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Blood Flow through Capillary Networks.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Pozrikidis, C

    2011-08-01

    A numerical method is implemented for computing unsteady blood flow through a branching capillary network. The evolution of the discharge hematocrit along each capillary segment is computed by integrating in time a one-dimensional convection equation using a finite-difference method. The convection velocity is determined by the local and instantaneous effective capillary blood viscosity, while the tube to discharge hematocrit ratio is deduced from available correlations. Boundary conditions for the discharge hematocrit at divergent bifurcations arise from the partitioning law proposed by Klitzman and Johnson involving a dimensionless exponent, q≥1. When q=1, the cells are partitioned in proportion to the flow rate; as q tends to infinity, the cells are channeled into the branch with the highest flow rate. Simulations are performed for a tree-like, perfectly symmetric or randomly perturbed capillary network with m generations. When the tree involves more than a few generations, a supercritical Hopf bifurcation occurs at a critical value of q, yielding spontaneous self-sustained oscillations in the absence of external forcing. A phase diagram in the m-q plane is presented to establish conditions for unsteady flow, and the effect of various geometrical and physical parameters is examined. For a given network tree order, m, oscillations can be induced for a sufficiently high value of q by increasing the apparent intrinsic viscosity, decreasing the ratio of the vessel diameter from one generation to the next, or by decreasing the diameter of the terminal vessels. With other parameters fixed, oscillations are inhibited by increasing m. The results of the continuum model are in excellent agreement with the predictions of a discrete model where the motion of individual cells is followed from inlet to outlet.

  1. Cardiac catheterization - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - cardiac - discharge; Heart catheterization - discharge: Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization discharge; CAD - cardiac catheterization discharge; Coronary artery disease - cardiac catheterization ...

  2. Curvature capillary migration of microspheres.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Liu, Iris B; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2015-09-14

    We address the question: how does capillarity propel microspheres along curvature gradients? For a particle on a fluid interface, there are two conditions that can apply at the three phase contact line: either the contact line adopts an equilibrium contact angle, or it can be pinned by kinetic trapping, e.g. at chemical heterogeneities, asperities, or other pinning sites on the particle surface. We formulate the curvature capillary energy for both scenarios for particles smaller than the capillary length and far from any pinning boundaries. The scale and range of the distortion made by the particle are set by the particle radius; we use singular perturbation methods to find the distortions and to rigorously evaluate the associated capillary energies. For particles with equilibrium contact angles, contrary to the literature, we find that the capillary energy is negligible, with the first contribution bounded to fourth order in the product of the particle radius and the deviatoric curvature of the host interface. For pinned contact lines, we find curvature capillary energies that are finite, with a functional form investigated previously by us for disks and microcylinders on curved interfaces. In experiments, we show microspheres migrate along deterministic trajectories toward regions of maximum deviatoric curvature with curvature capillary energies ranging from 6 × 10(3)-5 × 10(4)kBT. These data agree with the curvature capillary energy for the case of pinned contact lines. The underlying physics of this migration is a coupling of the interface deviatoric curvature with the quadrupolar mode of nanometric disturbances in the interface owing to the particle's contact line undulations. This work is an example of the major implications of nanometric roughness and contact line pinning for colloidal dynamics.

  3. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-02-15

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  4. Direct chemical-analysis of uv laser-ablation products of organic polymers by using selective ion monitoring mode in gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cho, Yirang; Lee, H.W.; Fountain, S.T.; Lubman, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Trace quantities of laser ablated organic polymers were analyzed by using commercial capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the instrument was modified so that the laser ablation products could be introduced into the capillary column directly and the constituents of each peak in the chromatogram were identified by using a mass spectrometer. The present study takes advantage of the selective ion monitoring mode for significantly improving the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer as a detector, which is critical in analyzing the trace quantities and confirming the presence or absence of the species of interest in laser ablated polymers. The initial composition of the laser ablated polymers was obtained by using an electron impact reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the possible structure of the fragments observed in the spectra was proposed based on the structure of the polymers.

  5. Ear discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... swabs or other small objects into the ear Middle ear infection Other causes of ear discharge include: Eczema ... tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Images Ear anatomy Eardrum repair - series References Bauer CA, Jenkins HA. Otologic symptoms and syndromes. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et ...

  6. Optothermally actuated capillary burst valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Johan; Bilenberg, Brian; Kristensen, Anders; Marie, Rodolphe

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the optothermal actuation of individual capillary burst valves in an all-polymer microfluidic device. The capillary burst valves are realised in a planar design by introducing a fluidic constriction in a microfluidic channel of constant depth. We show that a capillary burst valve can be burst by raising the temperature due to the temperature dependence of the fluid surface tension. We address individual valves by using a local heating platform based on a thin film of near infrared absorber dye embedded in the lid used to seal the microfluidic device [L. H. Thamdrup et al., Nano Lett. 10, 826-832 (2010)]. An individual valve is burst by focusing the laser in its vicinity. We demonstrate the capture of single polystyrene 7 μm beads in the constriction triggered by the bursting of the valve.

  7. Paramecium swimming in capillary tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Saikat; Um, Soong Ho; Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-04-01

    Swimming organisms in their natural habitat need to navigate through a wide range of geometries and chemical environments. Interaction with boundaries in such situations is ubiquitous and can significantly modify the swimming characteristics of the organism when compared to ideal laboratory conditions. We study the different patterns of ciliary locomotion in glass capillaries of varying diameter and characterize the effect of the solid boundaries on the velocities of the organism. Experimental observations show that Paramecium executes helical trajectories that slowly transition to straight lines as the diameter of the capillary tubes decreases. We predict the swimming velocity in capillaries by modeling the system as a confined cylinder propagating longitudinal metachronal waves that create a finite pressure gradient. Comparing with experiments, we find that such pressure gradient considerations are necessary for modeling finite sized ciliary organisms in restrictive geometries.

  8. Physicochemical application of capillary chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, A. V.; Aleksandrov, E. N.

    1992-04-01

    The application of capillary gas chromatography in the determination of the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sorption, the saturated vapour pressure and activity coefficients, the assessment of the lipophilicity of volatile compounds, and the study of the properties of polymers and liquid crystals is described. The use of reaction cappillary chromatography in kinetic studies of conformational conversions, thermal degradation, and photochemical reactions is examined. Studies on the use of capillary columns for determination of the second virial coefficients and viscosity of gases and the diffusion coefficients in gases, liquids, supercritical fluids, and polymers are analysed. The bibliography includes 114 references.

  9. OCDR guided laser ablation device

    DOEpatents

    Dasilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A guided laser ablation device. The device includes a mulitmode laser ablation fiber that is surrounded by one or more single mode optical fibers that are used to image in the vicinity of the laser ablation area to prevent tissue damage. The laser ablation device is combined with an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) unit and with a control unit which initializes the OCDR unit and a high power laser of the ablation device. Data from the OCDR unit is analyzed by the control unit and used to control the high power laser. The OCDR images up to about 3 mm ahead of the ablation surface to enable a user to see sensitive tissue such as a nerve or artery before damaging it by the laser.

  10. Means of introducing an analyte into liquid sampling atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    DOEpatents

    Marcus, R. Kenneth; Quarles, Jr., Charles Derrick; Russo, Richard E.; Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Carado, Anthony J.

    2017-01-03

    A liquid sampling, atmospheric pressure, glow discharge (LS-APGD) device as well as systems that incorporate the device and methods for using the device and systems are described. The LS-APGD includes a hollow capillary for delivering an electrolyte solution to a glow discharge space. The device also includes a counter electrode in the form of a second hollow capillary that can deliver the analyte into the glow discharge space. A voltage across the electrolyte solution and the counter electrode creates the microplasma within the glow discharge space that interacts with the analyte to move it to a higher energy state (vaporization, excitation, and/or ionization of the analyte).

  11. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  12. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  13. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  14. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figs.

  15. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figures.

  16. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  17. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  18. Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

  19. Capillary Rise in a Wedge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piva, M.

    2009-01-01

    In introductory-level physics courses, the concept of surface tension is often illustrated using the example of capillary rise in thin tubes. In this paper the author describes experiments conducted using a planar geometry created with two small plates forming a thin wedge. The distribution of the fluid entering the wedge can be studied as a…

  20. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy.

    PubMed

    Aseyev, S A; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N; Petrunin, V V; Chekalin, S V

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ, was measured by the conical probe operating in shear force mode. In shear force regime, the dielectric capillary has been used as a "classical" SPM tip, which provided images reflecting the surface topology. In a photoelectron regime photoelectrons passed through hollow tip and entered a detector. The spatial distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element resolution using the combination of a hollow-tip scanner with time-of-flight technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis for drug analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Ira S.

    1999-02-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a high resolution separation technique which is amenable to a wide variety of solutes, including compounds which are thermally degradable, non-volatile and highly polar, and is therefore well suited for drug analysis. Techniques which have been used in our laboratory include electrokinetic chromatography (ECC), free zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). ECC, which uses a charged run buffer additive which migrates counter to osmotic flow, is excellent for many applications, including, drug screening and analyses of heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine samples. ECC approaches include the use of micelles and charged cyclodextrins, which allow for the separation of complex mixtures. Simultaneous separation of acidic, neutral and basic solutes and the resolution of optical isomers and positional isomers are possible. CZE has been used for the analysis of small ions (cations and anions) in heroin exhibits. For the ECC and CZE experiments performed in our laboratory, uncoated capillaries were used. In contrast, CEC uses capillaries packed with high performance liquid chromatography stationary phases, and offers both high peak capacities and unique selectivities. Applications include the analysis of cannabinoids and drug screening. Although CE suffers from limited concentration sensitivity, it is still applicable to trace analysis of drug samples, especially when using injection techniques such as stacking, or detection schemes such as laser induced fluorescence and extended pathlength UV.

  2. Improved Ablative Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-12-01

    Equipment 62 2. Gas Analysis 62 3. Chemical Analysis for Titanium and Boron 63 4. Tensile Strength Determinations 64 5. Density Determinations 64 6. X-ray...mils, and its density was about 4. 45 g/cm 3. Elastic modulus values averaged about 71 x 106 psi for the filament. -X- I. INTRODUCTION Ablative liner...20 4 /50 percent N 2H 4 -50 percent UDMH or L0 2 /LH. The more-energetic propellant systems, using fluorine or FLOX, demand more-effective abla- tive

  3. High temperature ablative foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ablative foam composition is formed of approximately 150 to 250 parts by weight polymeric isocyanate having an isocyanate functionality of 2.6 to 3.2; approximately 15 to 30 parts by weight reactive flame retardant having a hydroxyl number range from 200-260; approximately 10 to 40 parts by weight non-reactive flame retardant; approximately 10 to 40 parts by weight nonhydrolyzable silicone copolymer having a hydroxyl number range from 75-205; and approximately 3 to 16 parts by weight amine initiated polyether resin having an isocyanate functionality greater than or equal to 3.0 and a hydroxyl number range from 400-800.

  4. Tubal ligation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge; Contraception - tubal ... chap 23. Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, sterilization, and pregnancy termination. In: Lentz GM, Lobo ...

  5. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  6. The first clinical application of planning software for laparoscopic microwave thermosphere ablation of malignant liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Eren

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver tumour ablation is an operator-dependent procedure. The determination of the optimum needle trajectory and correct ablation parameters could be challenging. The aim of this study was to report the utility of a new, procedure planning software for microwave ablation (MWA) of liver tumours. Methods This was a feasibility study in a pilot group of five patients with nine metastatic liver tumours who underwent laparoscopic MWA. Pre-operatively, parameters predicting the desired ablation zones were calculated for each tumour. Intra-operatively, this planning strategy was followed for both antenna placement and energy application. Post-operative 2-week computed tomography (CT) scans were performed to evaluate complete tumour destruction. Results The patients had an average of two tumours (range 1–4), measuring 1.9 ± 0.4 cm (range 0.9–4.4 cm). The ablation time was 7.1 ± 1.3 min (range 2.5–10 min) at 100W. There were no complications or mortality. The patients were discharged home on post-operative day (POD) 1. At 2-week CT scans, there were no residual tumours, with a complete ablation demonstrated in all lesions. Conclusions This study describes and validates pre-treatment planning software for MWA of liver tumours. This software was found useful to determine precisely the ablation parameters and needle placement to create a predicted zone of ablation. PMID:25980481

  7. The first clinical application of planning software for laparoscopic microwave thermosphere ablation of malignant liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Berber, Eren

    2015-07-01

    Liver tumour ablation is an operator-dependent procedure. The determination of the optimum needle trajectory and correct ablation parameters could be challenging. The aim of this study was to report the utility of a new, procedure planning software for microwave ablation (MWA) of liver tumours. This was a feasibility study in a pilot group of five patients with nine metastatic liver tumours who underwent laparoscopic MWA. Pre-operatively, parameters predicting the desired ablation zones were calculated for each tumour. Intra-operatively, this planning strategy was followed for both antenna placement and energy application. Post-operative 2-week computed tomography (CT) scans were performed to evaluate complete tumour destruction. The patients had an average of two tumours (range 1-4), measuring 1.9 ± 0.4 cm (range 0.9-4.4 cm). The ablation time was 7.1 ± 1.3 min (range 2.5-10 min) at 100W. There were no complications or mortality. The patients were discharged home on post-operative day (POD) 1. At 2-week CT scans, there were no residual tumours, with a complete ablation demonstrated in all lesions. This study describes and validates pre-treatment planning software for MWA of liver tumours. This software was found useful to determine precisely the ablation parameters and needle placement to create a predicted zone of ablation. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  8. [Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Bale, Reto

    2013-03-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is well established in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to its curative potential, it is the method of choice for non resectable BCLC (Barcelona Liver Clinic) 0 and A. RFA challenges surgical resection for small HCC and is the method of choice in bridging for transplantation and recurrence after resection or transplantation. The technical feasibility of RFA depends on the size and location of the HCC and the availability of ablation techniques (one needle techniques, multi-needle techniques). More recently, stereotactic multi-needle techniques with 3D trajectory planning and guided needle placement substantially improve the spectrum of treatable lesions including large volume tumors. Treatment success depends on the realization of ablations with large intentional margins of tumor free tissue (A0 ablation in analogy to R0 resection), which has to be documented by fusion of post- with pre-ablation images, and confirmed during follow-up imaging.

  9. Simulation of Pellet Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, P. B.; Ishizaki, Ryuichi

    2000-10-01

    In order to clarify the structure of the ablation flow, 2D simulation is carried out with a fluid code solving temporal evolution of MHD equations. The code includes electrostatic sheath effect at the cloud interface.(P.B. Parks et al.), Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 38, 571 (1996). An Eulerian cylindrical coordinate system (r,z) is used with z in a spherical pellet. The code uses the Cubic-Interpolated Psudoparticle (CIP) method(H. Takewaki and T. Yabe, J. Comput. Phys. 70), 355 (1987). that divides the fluid equations into non-advection and advection phases. The most essential element of the CIP method is in calculation of the advection phase. In this phase, a cubic interpolated spatial profile is shifted in space according to the total derivative equations, similarly to a particle scheme. Since the profile is interpolated by using the value and the spatial derivative value at each grid point, there is no numerical oscillation in space, that often appears in conventional spline interpolation. A free boundary condition is used in the code. The possibility of a stationary shock will also be shown in the presentation because the supersonic ablation flow across the magnetic field is impeded.

  10. Laboratory Simulations of Micrometeoroid Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Evan Williamson

    Each day, several tons of meteoric material enters Earth's atmosphere, the majority of which consist of small dust particles (micrometeoroids) that completely ablate at high altitudes. The dust input has been suggested to play a role in a variety of phenomena including: layers of metal atoms and ions, nucleation of noctilucent clouds, effects on stratospheric aerosols and ozone chemistry, and the fertilization of the ocean with bio-available iron. Furthermore, a correct understanding of the dust input to the Earth provides constraints on inner solar system dust models. Various methods are used to measure the dust input to the Earth including satellite detectors, radar, lidar, rocket-borne detectors, ice core and deep-sea sediment analysis. However, the best way to interpret each of these measurements is uncertain, which leads to large uncertainties in the total dust input. To better understand the ablation process, and thereby reduce uncertainties in micrometeoroid ablation measurements, a facility has been developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to accelerate iron particles to relevant meteoric velocities (10-70 km/s). The particles are then introduced into a chamber pressurized with a target gas, and they partially or completely ablate over a short distance. An array of diagnostics then measure, with timing and spatial resolution, the charge and light that is generated in the ablation process. In this thesis, we present results from the newly developed ablation facility. The ionization coefficient, an important parameter for interpreting meteor radar measurements, is measured for various target gases. Furthermore, experimental ablation measurements are compared to predictions from commonly used ablation models. In light of these measurements, implications to the broader context of meteor ablation are discussed.

  11. Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of sporadic angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Prevoo, Warner; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Horenblas, Simon

    2008-07-01

    Symptomatic angiomyolipoma (AML) and asymptomatic AML larger than 4 cm in size are usually treated with nephron-sparing surgery or arterial embolization. We used another technique, that is, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), for treatment of a sporadic AML in a patient with a solitary kidney, in whom maximal sparing of normal renal tissue was required. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed an enhancing well-defined mainly lipomatous tumor, with a maximum diameter of 4.5 cm in the upper pole of the left kidney. Diagnosis of AML was confirmed with fine-needle aspiration biopsy. RFA was performed with a RF 3000 system, consisting of a generator that supplied up to 200W of power, connected to a 15-gauge LeVeen multipolar array electrode that was placed under CT-guidance centrally in the AML. Initial power was set at low power and increased with increments of 10W, according to the algorithm provided by the manufacturer, resulting in a final tumor end temperature above 65 degrees C. No complications occurred and the patient was discharged home the day after. During follow-up (12 months) function of the solitary kidney of the patient was preserved and patient did not have any AML-related symptoms develop. Contrast-enhanced CT scan showed complete (100%) tumor ablation with absence of enhancement in the tumor and decreased tumor size from 4.5 cm to 2.9 cm at 12 months. CT-guided RFA is a minimally invasive ablation procedure that allowed successful treatment of a sporadic AML in a patient with a solitary kidney. No complications occurred and no AML recurrence was observed during the 12-month follow-up.

  12. Analytical model for describing ion guiding through capillaries in insulating polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi-Dong; Zhao, Yong-Tao; Wang, Yu-Yu; N, Stolterfoht; Cheng, Rui; Zhou, Xian-Ming; Xu, Hu-Shan; Xiao, Guo-Qing

    2015-08-01

    An analytical description for guiding of ions through nanocapillaries is given on the basis of previous work. The current entering into the capillary is assumed to be divided into a current fraction transmitted through the capillary, a current fraction flowing away via the capillary conductivity and a current fraction remaining within the capillary, which is responsible for its charge-up. The discharging current is assumed to be governed by the Frenkel-Poole process. At higher conductivities the analytical model shows a blocking of the ion transmission, which is in agreement with recent simulations. Also, it is shown that ion blocking observed in experiments is well reproduced by the analytical formula. Furthermore, the asymptotic fraction of transmitted ions is determined. Apart from the key controlling parameter (charge-to-energy ratio), the ratio of the capillary conductivity to the incident current is included in the model. Differences resulting from the nonlinear and linear limits of the Frenkel-Poole discharge are pointed out. Project supported by the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB832902) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275241, 11275238, 11105192, and 11375034).

  13. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  14. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... tingling in your face or lips Alternative Names Total thyroidectomy - discharge; Partial thyroidectomy - discharge; Thyroidectomy - discharge; Subtotal thyroidectomy - discharge References Lai SY, Mandel SJ, Weber RS. Management of thyroid neoplasms. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, ...

  15. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity gastric bypass discharge; Weight loss - gastric bypass discharge ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  16. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... November 27, 2017. Garg S, McColgin AZ, Steinert RF. LASIK. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . ...

  17. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculoperitoneal - discharge; VP shunt - discharge; Shunt revision - discharge; Hydrocephalus shunt placement - discharge ... Your child has hydrocephalus and needed a shunt placed to drain excess fluid and relieve pressure in the brain. This buildup of brain ...

  18. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Dorairaj, Rathissh [Hillsboro, OR; Keynton, Robert S [Louisville, KY; Roussel, Thomas J [Louisville, KY; Crain, Mark M [Georgetown, IN; Jackson, Douglas J [New Albany, IN; Walsh, Kevin M [Louisville, KY; Naber, John F [Goshen, KY; Baldwin, Richard P [Louisville, KY; Franco, Danielle B [Mount Washington, KY

    2011-08-02

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  19. Gas-filled capillaries for plasma-based accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Brentegani, E.; Biagioni, A.; Cianchi, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Zigler, A.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma Wakefield Accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves excited by either a laser or a particle driver beam. The amplitude of the waves, as well as their spatial dimensions and the consequent accelerating gradient depend strongly on the background electron density along the path of the accelerated particles. The process needs stable and reliable plasma sources, whose density profile must be controlled and properly engineered to ensure the appropriate accelerating mechanism. Plasma confinement inside gas filled capillaries have been studied in the past since this technique allows to control the evolution of the plasma, ensuring a stable and repeatable plasma density distribution during the interaction with the drivers. Moreover, in a gas filled capillary plasma can be pre-ionized by a current discharge to avoid ionization losses. Different capillary geometries have been studied to allow the proper temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma along the acceleration length. Results of this analysis obtained by varying the length and the number of gas inlets will be presented.

  20. Solvent jet desorption capillary photoionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Haapala, Markus; Teppo, Jaakko; Ollikainen, Elisa; Kiiski, Iiro; Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto

    2015-03-17

    A new ambient mass spectrometry method, solvent jet desorption capillary photoionization (DCPI), is described. The method uses a solvent jet generated by a coaxial nebulizer operated at ambient conditions with nitrogen as nebulizer gas. The solvent jet is directed onto a sample surface, from which analytes are extracted into the solvent and ejected from the surface in secondary droplets formed in collisions between the jet and the sample surface. The secondary droplets are directed into the heated capillary photoionization (CPI) device, where the droplets are vaporized and the gaseous analytes are ionized by 10 eV photons generated by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) krypton discharge lamp. As the CPI device is directly connected to the extended capillary inlet of the MS, high ion transfer efficiency to the vacuum of MS is achieved. The solvent jet DCPI provides several advantages: high sensitivity for nonpolar and polar compounds with limit of detection down to low fmol levels, capability of analyzing small and large molecules, and good spatial resolution (250 μm). Two ionization mechanisms are involved in DCPI: atmospheric pressure photoionization, capable of ionizing polar and nonpolar compounds, and solvent assisted inlet ionization capable of ionizing larger molecules like peptides. The feasibility of DCPI was successfully tested in the analysis of polar and nonpolar compounds in sage leaves and chili pepper.

  1. Treelike networks accelerating capillary flow.

    PubMed

    Shou, Dahua; Ye, Lin; Fan, Jintu

    2014-05-01

    Transport in treelike networks has received wide attention in natural systems, oil recovery, microelectronic cooling systems, and textiles. Existing studies are focused on transport behaviors under a constant potential difference (including pressure, temperature, and voltage) in a steady state [B. Yu and B. Li, Phys. Rev. E 73, 066302 (2006); J. Chen, B. Yu, P. Xu, and Y. Li, Phys. Rev. E 75, 056301 (2007)]. However, dynamic (time-dependent) transport in such systems has rarely been concerned. In this work, we theoretically investigate the dynamics of capillary flow in treelike networks and design the distribution of radius and length of local branches for the fastest capillary flow. It is demonstrated that capillary flow in the optimized tree networks is faster than in traditional parallel tube nets under fixed constraints. As well, the flow time of the liquid is found to increase approximately linearly with penetration distance, which differs from Washburn's classic description that flow time increases as the square of penetration distance in a uniform tube.

  2. Viscous peeling with capillary suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gunnar; Lister, John

    2014-11-01

    If an elastic tape is stuck to a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous fluid and then peeled off by pulling at a small angle to the horizontal, then both viscous and capillary forces affect the peeling speed (McEwan and Taylor, 1966). If there is no capillary meniscus (e.g. if the peeling is due to viscous fluid being injected under the tape), then the peeling speed is given by a Cox-Voinov-like law, and is an increasing function of the peeling angle. We show that, with a meniscus present, the effect of the capillary forces is to suck down the tape, reducing the effective peeling angle and hence the peeling speed. When surface tension dominates and the peeling speed tends to zero, the system transitions to a new state whose time-evolution can be described by a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. These asymptotic results are confirmed by numerical calculations. Similar results hold for the peeling-by-bending of elastic beams, with ``angle'' replaced by ``curvature'' (i.e. bending moment).

  3. Large Ice Discharge From the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to measure the ice discharge of the Greenland Ice Sheet close to the grounding line and/or calving front, and compare the results with mass accumulation and ablation in the interior to estimate the ice sheet mass balance.

  4. Treatment of septic tank effluents by a full-scale capillary seepage soil biofiltration system.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chihhao; Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Teng, Chia-Ji; Chang, Tzi-Chin; Sheu, Yiong-Shing

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of septic tank effluent treatment by an underground capillary seepage soil biofiltration system in a suburban area of Taipei, Taiwan. In contrast to traditional subsurface wastewater infiltration systems, capillary seepage soil biofiltration systems initially draw incoming influent upwards from the distribution pipe by capillary and siphonage actions, then spread influent throughout the soil biofiltration bed. The underground capillary seepage soil biofiltration system consists of a train of underground treatment units, including one wastewater distribution tank, two capillary seepage soil biofiltration units in series, and a discharge tank. Each capillary seepage soil biofiltration unit contains one facultative digestion tank and one set of biofiltration beds. At the flow rate of 50 m3/day, average influent concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and total phosphates (TP), were 36.15 mg/L, 29.14 mg/L, 16.05 mg/L, and 1.75 mg/L, respectively. After 1.5 years of system operation, the measured influent and effluent results show that the treatment efficiencies of the soil biofiltration system for BOD, SS, NH3-N, TP, and total coliforms are 82.96%, 60.95%, 67.17%, 74.86%, and 99.99%, respectively.

  5. Is AF Ablation Cost Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Doyle, William; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of catheter ablation to treat AF is increasing rapidly, but there is presently an incomplete understanding of its cost-effectiveness. AF ablation procedures involve significant up-front expenditures, but multiple randomized trials have demonstrated that ablation is more effective than antiarrhythmic drugs at maintaining sinus rhythm in a second-line and possibly first-line rhythm control setting. Although truly long-term data are limited, ablation, as compared with antiarrrhythmic drugs, also appears associated with improved symptoms and quality of life and a reduction in downstream hospitalization and other health care resource utilization. Several groups have developed cost effectiveness models comparing AF ablation primarily to antiarrhythmic drugs and the model results suggest that ablation likely falls within the range generally accepted as cost-effective in developed nations. This paper will review available information on the cost-effectiveness of catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, and discuss continued areas of uncertainty where further research is required. PMID:20936083

  6. Fluid Delivery System For Capillary Electrophoretic Applications.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Qingbo; Liu, Changsheng; Kane, Thomas E.; Kernan, John R.; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.

    2002-04-23

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  7. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model

    PubMed Central

    Gens, John Scott; Glazier, James A.; Burns, Stephen A.; Gast, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions. PMID:27300722

  8. Ablative heat shield design for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiferth, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Ablator heat shield configuration optimization studies were conducted for the orbiter. Ablator and reusable surface insulation (RSI) trajectories for design studies were shaped to take advantage of the low conductance of ceramic RSI and high temperature capability of ablators. Comparative weights were established for the RSI system and for direct bond and mechanically attached ablator systems. Ablator system costs were determined for fabrication, installation and refurbishment. Cost penalties were assigned for payload weight penalties, if any. The direct bond ablator is lowest in weight and cost. A mechanically attached ablator using a magnesium subpanel is highly competitive for both weight and cost.

  9. Cardiac ablation procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... or blood pooling where the catheter is inserted Blood clot that goes to arteries in your leg, heart, ... cooking oils Cholesterol and lifestyle Controlling your high blood pressure Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart disease - risk factors ...

  10. TPS Ablator Technologies for Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Ablator technologies and the preparation for use in interplanetary spacecraft. NASA does not have adequate TPS ablatives and sufficient selection for planned missions. It includes a comparison of shuttle and interplanetary TPS requirements, the status of mainline TPS charring ablator materials, a summary of JSC SBIR accomplishments in developing advanced charring ablators and the benefits of SBIR Ablator/fabrication technology.

  11. Ion acceleration enhanced by target ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, S.; State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Key Lab of HEDPS, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871; Institute of Radiation, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden

    2015-07-15

    Laser proton acceleration can be enhanced by using target ablation, due to the energetic electrons generated in the ablation preplasma. When the ablation pulse matches main pulse, the enhancement gets optimized because the electrons' energy density is highest. A scaling law between the ablation pulse and main pulse is confirmed by the simulation, showing that for given CPA pulse and target, proton energy improvement can be achieved several times by adjusting the target ablation.

  12. Microfluidic PMMA interfaces for rectangular glass capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evander, Mikael; Tenje, Maria

    2014-02-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a polymeric capillary fluidic interface fabricated by micro-milling. The design enables the use of glass capillaries with any kind of cross-section in complex microfluidic setups. We demonstrate two different designs of the interface; a double-inlet interface for hydrodynamic focusing and a capillary interface with integrated pneumatic valves. Both capillary interfaces are presented together with examples of practical applications. This communication shows the design optimization and presents details of the fabrication process. The capillary interface opens up for the use of complex microfluidic systems in single-use glass capillaries. They also enable simple fabrication of glass/polymer hybrid devices that can be beneficial in many research fields where a pure polymer chip negatively affects the device's performance, e.g. acoustofluidics.

  13. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  14. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Barry Karger

    2011-05-09

    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linkedmore » polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other

  15. Heuristic approach to capillary pressures averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Coca, B.P.

    1980-10-01

    Several methods are available to average capillary pressure curves. Among these are the J-curve and regression equations of the wetting-fluid saturation in porosity and permeability (capillary pressure held constant). While the regression equation seem completely empiric, the J-curve method seems to be theoretically sound due to its expression based on a relation between the average capillary radius and the permeability-porosity ratio. An analysis is given of each of these methods.

  16. Electron transmission through a steel capillary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljković, J. B.; Borka, D.; Ranković, M. Lj.; Marinković, B. P.; Milosavljević, A. R.; Lemell, C.; Tőkési, K.

    2018-05-01

    The transmission of low-energy electrons through a macroscopic steel capillary has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The length of the steel capillary was L = 19.5 mm and the inner diameter was d = 0.9 mm. The kinetic energy distribution of electrons transmitted through the steel capillary was recorded for a tilt angle of ψ = 2.6 ° of the incident electron beam with respect to the capillary axis. Accompanying simulations based on classical transport theory reproduce the experimental data to a high degree of agreement. Transmission for other tilt angles has also been simulated to investigate the influence of the tilt angle on the guiding efficiency.

  17. Transient studies of capillary-induced flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, M. K.; Bowman, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical and experimental results of a study performed on the transient rise of fluid in a capillary tube. The capillary tube problem provides an excellent mechanism from which to launch an investigation into the transient flow of a fluid in a porous wick structure where capillary forces must balance both adverse gravitational effects and frictional losses. For the study, a capillary tube, initially charged with a small volume of water, was lowered into a pool of water. The behavior of the column of fluid during the transient that followed as more water entered the tube from the pool was both numerically and experimentally studied.

  18. Effects of insulator ablation on the operation of a quasi-steady MPD arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, M. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Multimegawatt operation of quasi-steady MPD arcjets can involve serious ablation of the insulator surfaces within the arc discharge chamber. Various degrees of insulator ablation manifest themselves by significantly perturbing the voltage-current characteristics and the exhaust velocity profiles. Voltage-current characteristics for two different insulator materials, Plexiglas and boron nitride, are interpreted in terms of an empirical Ohm's law. Use of the refractory insulator material eliminates the ablation-dominated nature of the terminal voltage, but the exhaust stream is still disturbed by insulator material. An Alfven critical velocity model can be applied to this influence of insulator ablation on exhaust velocity. Appropriate changes in the propellant injection geometry eliminate this influence and result in arcjet operation which is independent of insulator material. A particular combination of propellant injection geometries reduces the terminal voltage for a given current and mass flow while maintaining insulator-independent operation, thus implying an improvement in the overall efficiency of the device.

  19. Capillary electrophoresis and nanomaterials - Part I: Capillary electrophoresis of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials are in analytical science used for a broad range of purposes, covering the area of sample pretreatment as well as separation, detection, and identification of target molecules. This part of the review covers capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nanomaterials and focuses on the application of CE as a method for characterization used during nanomaterial synthesis and modification as well as the monitoring of their properties and interactions with other molecules. The heterogeneity of the nanomaterial family is extremely large. Depending on different definitions of the term Nanomaterial/Nanoparticle, the group may cover metal and polymeric nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, liposomes and even dendrimers. Moreover, these nanomaterials are usually subjected to some kind of surface modification or functionalization, which broadens the diversity even more. Not only for purposes of verification of nanomaterial synthesis and batch-to-batch quality check, but also for determination the polydispersity and for functionality characterization on the nanoparticle surface, has CE offered very beneficial capabilities. Finally, the monitoring of interactions between nanomaterials and other (bio)molecules is easily performed by some kind of capillary electromigration technique. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatographymore » relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.« less

  1. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Ablation.

    PubMed

    Hue, Yik-Kiong; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Cohen, Ouri; Nevo, Erez; Roth, Abraham; Ackerman, Jerome L

    2018-02-01

    To introduce magnetic resonance mediated radiofrequency ablation (MR-RFA), in which the MRI scanner uniquely serves both diagnostic and therapeutic roles. In MR-RFA scanner-induced RF heating is channeled to the ablation site via a Larmor frequency RF pickup device and needle system, and controlled via the pulse sequence. MR-RFA was evaluated with simulation of electric and magnetic fields to predict the increase in local specific-absorption-rate (SAR). Temperature-time profiles were measured for different configurations of the device in agar phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver in a 1.5 T scanner. Temperature rise in MR-RFA was imaged using the proton resonance frequency method validated with fiber-optic thermometry. MR-RFA was performed on the livers of two healthy live pigs. Simulations indicated a near tenfold increase in SAR at the RFA needle tip. Temperature-time profiles depended significantly on the physical parameters of the device although both configurations tested yielded temperature increases sufficient for ablation. Resected livers from live ablations exhibited clear thermal lesions. MR-RFA holds potential for integrating RF ablation tumor therapy with MRI scanning. MR-RFA may add value to MRI with the addition of a potentially disposable ablation device, while retaining MRI's ability to provide real time procedure guidance and measurement of tissue temperature, perfusion, and coagulation.

  2. Exotic containers for capillary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses 'exotic' rotationally symmetric containers that admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium capillary free surfaces. The paper extends earlier work to a larger class of parameters and clarifies and simplifies the governing differential equations, while expressing them in a parametric form appropriate for numerical integration. A unified presentation suitable for both zero and nonzero gravity is given. Solutions for the container shapes are depicted graphically along with members of the free-surface continuum, and comments are given concerning possible physical experiments.

  3. Mass Spectrometric Imaging Using Laser Ablation and Solvent Capture by Aspiration (LASCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Jonathan I.; Beech, Iwona B.; Sunner, Jan

    2015-09-01

    A novel interface for ambient, laser ablation-based mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) referred to as laser ablation and solvent capture by aspiration (LASCA) is presented and its performance demonstrated using selected, unaltered biological materials. LASCA employs a pulsed 2.94 μm laser beam for specimen ablation. Ablated materials in the laser plumes are collected on a hanging solvent droplet with electric field-enhanced trapping, followed by aspiration of droplets and remaining plume material in the form of a coarse aerosol into a collection capillary. The gas and liquid phases are subsequently separated in a 10 μL-volume separatory funnel, and the solution is analyzed with electrospray ionization in a high mass resolution Q-ToF mass spectrometer. The LASCA system separates the sampling and ionization steps in MSI and combines high efficiencies of laser plume sampling and of electrospray ionization (ESI) with high mass resolution MS. Up to 2000 different compounds are detected from a single ablation spot (pixel). Using the LASCA platform, rapid (6 s per pixel), high sensitivity, high mass-resolution ambient imaging of "as-received" biological material is achieved routinely and reproducibly.

  4. Atrial fibrillation ablation using a closed irrigation radiofrequency ablation catheter.

    PubMed

    Golden, Keith; Mounsey, John Paul; Chung, Eugene; Roomiani, Pahresah; Morse, Michael Andew; Patel, Ankit; Gehi, Anil

    2012-05-01

    Catheter ablation is an effective therapy for symptomatic, medically refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). Open-irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation catheters produce transmural lesions at the cost of increased fluid delivery. In vivo models suggest closed-irrigated RF catheters create equivalent lesions, but clinical outcomes are limited. A cohort of 195 sequential patients with symptomatic AF underwent stepwise AF ablation (AFA) using a closed-irrigation ablation catheter. Recurrence of AF was monitored and outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. Mean age was 59.0 years, 74.9% were male, 56.4% of patients were paroxysmal and mean duration of AF was 5.4 years. Patients had multiple comorbidities including hypertension (76.4%), tobacco abuse (42.1%), diabetes (17.4%), and obesity (mean body mass index 30.8). The median follow-up was 55.8 weeks. Overall event-free survival was 73.6% with one ablation and 77.4% after reablation (reablation rate was 8.7%). Median time to recurrence was 26.9 weeks. AF was more likely to recur in patients being treated with antiarrhythmic therapy at the time of last follow-up (recurrence rate 30.3% with antiarrhythmic drugs, 13.2% without antiarrhythmic drugs; hazard ratio [HR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.4, P = 0.024) and in those with a history of AF greater than 2 years duration (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.9, P = 0.038). Our study represents the largest cohort of patients receiving AFA with closed-irrigation ablation catheters. We demonstrate comparable outcomes to those previously reported in studies of open-irrigation ablation catheters. Given the theoretical benefits of a closed-irrigation system, a large head-to-head comparison using this catheter is warranted. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Numerical studies of wall–plasma interactions and ionization phenomena in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; School of Astronautics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191; Zeng, Guangshang

    2016-07-15

    Wall–plasma interactions excited by ablation controlled arcs are very critical physical processes in pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs). Their effects on the ionization processes of ablated vapor into discharge plasma directly determine PPT performances. To reveal the physics governing the ionization phenomena in PPT discharge, a modified model taking into account the pyrolysis effect of heated polytetrafluoroethylene propellant on the wall–plasma interactions was developed. The feasibility of the modified model was analyzed by creating a one-dimensional simulation of a rectangular ablative PPT. The wall–plasma interaction results based on this modified model were found to be more realistic than for the unmodifiedmore » model; this reflects the dynamic changes of the inflow parameters during discharge in our model. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial variations of the different plasma species in the discharge chamber were numerically studied. The numerical studies showed that polytetrafluoroethylene plasma was mainly composed of monovalent ions; carbon and fluorine ions were concentrated in the upstream and downstream discharge chamber, respectively. The results based on this modified model were in good agreement with the experimental formation times of the various plasma species. A large number of short-lived and highly ionized carbon and fluorine species (divalent and trivalent ions) were created during initial discharge. These highly ionized species reached their peak density earlier than the singly ionized species.« less

  6. Evaluation of capillary reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, J. E.; Halase, J. F.; South, W. K.; Stoffer, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Anti-icing of the inlet of jet engines is generally performed with high pressure heated air that is directed forward from the compressor through a series of pipes to various manifolds located near the structures to be anti-iced. From these manifolds, the air is directed to all flowpath surfaces that may be susceptible to ice formation. There the anti-icing function may be performed by either heat conduction or film heating. Unfortunately, the prospect of utilizing lighweight, high strength composites for inlet structures of jet engines has been frustrated by the low transverse thermal conductivity of such materials. It was the objective of this program to develop an advanced materials and design concept for anti-icing composite structures. The concept that was evaluated used capillary glass tubes embedded on the surface of a composite structure with heated air ducted through the tubes. An analytical computer program was developed to predict the anti-icing performance of such tubes and a test program was conducted to demonstrate actual performance of this system. Test data and analytical code results were in excellent agreement. Both indicate feasibility of using capillary tubes for surface heating as a means for composite engine structures to combat ice accumulation.

  7. Cryogenic Capillary Screen Heat Entrapment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshinskiy, L.G.; Hastings, L.J.; Stathman, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic liquid acquisition devices (LADs) for space-based propulsion interface directly with the feed system, which can be a significant heat leak source. Further, the accumulation of thermal energy within LAD channels can lead to the loss of sub-cooled propellant conditions and result in feed system cavitation during propellant outflow. Therefore, the fundamental question addressed by this program was: "To what degree is natural convection in a cryogenic liquid constrained by the capillary screen meshes envisioned for LADs.?"Testing was first conducted with water as the test fluid, followed by LN2 tests. In either case, the basic experimental approach was to heat the bottom of a cylindrical column of test fluid to establish stratification patterns measured by temperature sensors located above and below a horizontal screen barrier position. Experimentation was performed without barriers, with screens, and with a solid barrier. The two screen meshes tested were those typically used by LAD designers, "200x1400" and "325x2300", both with Twill Dutch Weave. Upon consideration of both the water and LN2 data it was concluded that heat transfer across the screen meshes was dependent upon barrier thermal conductivity and that the capillary screen meshes were impervious to natural convection currents.

  8. Comparison of remote magnetic navigation ablation and manual ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia after failed manual ablation.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Scheinman, Melvin M; Tseng, Zian H; Lee, Byron K; Marcus, Gregory M; Badhwar, Nitish

    2017-01-01

    Catheter ablation for idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia (VA) is effective and safe, but efficacy is frequently limited due to an epicardial origin and difficult anatomy. The remote magnetic navigation (RMN) catheter has a flexible catheter design allowing access to difficult anatomy. We describe the efficacy of the RMN for ablation of idiopathic VA after failed manual ablation. Among 235 patients with idiopathic VA referred for catheter ablation, we identified 51 patients who were referred for repeat ablation after a failed manual ablation. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, including the successful ablation site and findings at electrophysiology study, in repeat procedures conducted using RMN as compared with manual ablation. Among these patients, 22 (43 %) underwent repeat ablation with the RMN and 29 (57 %) underwent repeat ablation with a manual ablation. Overall, successful ablation rate was significantly higher using RMN as compared with manual ablation (91 vs. 69 %, P = 0.02). Fluoroscopy time in the RMN was 17 ± 12 min as compared with 43 ± 18 min in the manual ablation (P = 0.009). Successful ablation rate in the posterior right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) plus posterior-tricuspid annulus was higher with RMN as compared with manual ablation (92 vs. 50 %, P = 0.03). Neither groups exhibited any major complications. The RMN is more effective in selected patients with recurrent idiopathic VA after failed manual ablation and is associated with less fluoroscopy time. The RMN catheters have a flexible design enabling them to access otherwise difficult anatomy including the posterior tricuspid annulus and posterior RVOT.

  9. Electron density measurement in gas discharge plasmas by optical and acoustic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagioni, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Mostacci, A.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zigler, A.

    2016-08-01

    Plasma density represents a very important parameter for both laser wakefield and plasma wakefield acceleration, which use a gas-filled capillary plasma source. Several techniques can be used to measure the plasma density within a capillary discharge, which are mainly based on optical diagnostic methods, as for example the well-known spectroscopic method using the Stark broadening effect. In this work, we introduce a preliminary study on an alternative way to detect the plasma density, based on the shock waves produced by gas discharge in a capillary. Firstly, the measurements of the acoustic spectral content relative to the laser-induced plasmas by a solid target allowed us to understand the main properties of the acoustic waves produced during this kind of plasma generation; afterwards, we have extended such acoustic technique to the capillary plasma source in order to calibrate it by comparison with the stark broadening method.

  10. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Lateral epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... Soon after surgery, severe pain will decrease, but you may have mild soreness for 3 to 6 months.

  11. Concussion - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Brain injury - concussion - discharge; Traumatic brain injury - concussion - discharge; Closed head injury - concussion - discharge ... Barth JT, Broshek DK, Freeman JR. Concussion and brain injury. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee ...

  12. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-06-17

    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  13. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  14. Deep vein thrombosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Post-phlebitic syndrome - discharge; Post-thrombotic syndrome - discharge Images Pressure stockings References Kearon C, Akl EA, Ornelas J, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: CHEST ...

  15. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  16. Capillary leak syndrome: etiologies, pathophysiology, and management.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Eric; Khatri, Minesh; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2017-07-01

    In various human diseases, an increase in capillary permeability to proteins leads to the loss of protein-rich fluid from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Although sepsis is the disease most commonly associated with this phenomenon, many other diseases can lead to a "sepsis-like" syndrome with manifestations of diffuse pitting edema, exudative serous cavity effusions, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypotension, and, in some cases, hypovolemic shock with multiple-organ failure. The term capillary leak syndrome has been used to describe this constellation of disease manifestations associated with an increased capillary permeability to proteins. Diseases other than sepsis that can result in capillary leak syndrome include the idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome or Clarkson's disease, engraftment syndrome, differentiation syndrome, the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, viral hemorrhagic fevers, autoimmune diseases, snakebite envenomation, and ricin poisoning. Drugs including some interleukins, some monoclonal antibodies, and gemcitabine can also cause capillary leak syndrome. Acute kidney injury is commonly seen in all of these diseases. In addition to hypotension, cytokines are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury in capillary leak syndrome. Fluid management is a critical part of the treatment of capillary leak syndrome; hypovolemia and hypotension can cause organ injury, whereas capillary leakage of administered fluid can worsen organ edema leading to progressive organ injury. The purpose of this article is to discuss the diseases other than sepsis that produce capillary leak and review their collective pathophysiology and treatment. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis: capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Ramsay, Lauren M.; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Cermak, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis are coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection to create an ultrasensitive two-dimensional separation method for proteins. In this method, two capillaries are joined through a buffer filled interface. Separate power supplies control the potential at the injection end of the first capillary and at the interface; the detector is held at ground potential. Proteins are labeled with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P503, which preserves the isoelectric point of the labeled protein. The labeled proteins were mixed with ampholytes and injected into the first dimension capillary. A focusing step was performed with the injection end of the capillary at high pH and the interface at low pH. To mobilize components, the interface was filled with a high pH buffer, which was compatible with the second dimension separation. A fraction was transferred to the second dimension capillary for separation. The process of fraction transfer and second dimension separation was repeated two dozen times. The separation produced a spot capacity of 125. PMID:20603830

  18. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  19. Image-Guided Ablation of Adrenal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yamakado, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy has remained the standard of care for the treatment for adrenal tumors, percutaneous image-guided ablation therapy, such as chemical ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and microwave ablation, has been shown to be clinically useful in many nonsurgical candidates. Ablation therapy has been used to treat both functioning adenomas and malignant tumors, including primary adrenal carcinoma and metastasis. For patients with functioning adenomas, biochemical and symptomatic improvement is achieved in 96 to 100% after ablation; for patients with malignant adrenal neoplasms, however, the survival benefit from ablation therapy remains unclear, though good initial results have been reported. This article outlines the current role of ablation therapy for adrenal lesions, as well as identifying some of the technical considerations for this procedure. PMID:25049444

  20. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  1. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

    1998-06-23

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

  2. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    1998-01-01

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition.

  3. Ablative Therapies for Barrett's Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Katherine S.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus has gained increased clinical attention because of its association with esophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer with increasing incidence and poor survival rates. The goals of ablating Barrett's esophagus are to decrease esophageal cancer rates and to improve overall survival and quality of life. Different techniques have been developed and tested for their effectiveness eradicating Barrett's epithelium. This review assesses the literature associated with different ablative techniques. The safety and efficacy of different techniques are discussed. This review concludes with recommendations for the clinician, including specific strategies for patient care decisions for patients with Barrett's esophagus with varying degrees of dysplasia. PMID:21373836

  4. Tektite ablation - Some confirming calculations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, J. A., III; Silver, A. D.; Cameron, W. S.; Adams , E. W.; Warmbrod, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The calculation of tektite ablation has been redone, taking into account transient effects, internal radiation, melting and nonequilibrium vaporization of the glass, and the drag effect of the flanges. It is found that the results confirm the earlier calculations of Chapman and his group and of Adams and his co-workers. The general trend of the results is not sensitive to reasonable changes of the physical parameters. The ablation is predominantly by melting rather than by vaporization at all velocities up to 11 km/sec; this is surprising in view of the lack of detectable melt flow in most tektites. Chemical effects have not been considered.

  5. Ablative therapy for liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    Dick, E A; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Thomas, H C; Gedroyc, W M W

    2002-01-01

    Established ablative therapies for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumours, including percutaneous ethanol injection, cryotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation, are discussed. Newer techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging guided laser interstitial thermal therapy of liver tumours has produced a median survival rate of 40.8 months after treatment. The merits of this newly emerging technique are discussed, together with future developments, such as focused ultrasound therapy, which holds the promise of non-invasive thermoablation treatment on an outpatient basis. PMID:11950826

  6. Fractional ablative laser skin resurfacing: a review.

    PubMed

    Tajirian, Ani L; Tarijian, Ani L; Goldberg, David J

    2011-12-01

    Ablative laser technology has been in use for many years now. The large side effect profile however has limited its use. Fractional ablative technology is a newer development which combines a lesser side effect profile along with similar efficacy. In this paper we review fractional ablative laser skin resurfacing.

  7. Combination acetabular radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty using a navigational radiofrequency ablation device and ultrahigh viscosity cement: technical note.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Adam N; Huang, Ambrose J; Vaswani, Devin; Chang, Randy O; Jennings, Jack W

    2016-03-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty is an alternative palliative therapy for painful metastases involving axial load-bearing bones. This technical report describes the use of a navigational radiofrequency probe to ablate acetabular metastases from an anterior approach followed by instillation of ultrahigh viscosity cement under CT-fluoroscopic guidance. The tumor ablation databases of two institutions were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who underwent combination acetabular radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty using the STAR Tumor Ablation and StabiliT Vertebral Augmentation Systems (DFINE; San Jose, CA). Pre-procedure acetabular tumor volume was measured on cross-sectional imaging. Pre- and post-procedure pain scores were measured using the Numeric Rating Scale (10-point scale) and compared. Partial pain improvement was categorically defined as ≥ 2-point pain score reduction. Patients were evaluated for evidence of immediate complications. Electronic medical records were reviewed for evidence of delayed complications. During the study period, 12 patients with acetabular metastases were treated. The median tumor volume was 54.3 mL (range, 28.3-109.8 mL). Pre- and post-procedure pain scores were obtained from 92% (11/12) of the cohort. The median pre-procedure pain score was 8 (range, 3-10). Post-procedure pain scores were obtained 7 days (82%; 9/11), 11 days (9.1%; 1/11) or 21 days (9.1%; 1/11) after treatment. The median post-treatment pain score was 3 (range, 1-8), a statistically significant difference compared with pre-treatment (P = 0.002). Categorically, 73% (8/11) of patients reported partial pain relief after treatment. No immediate symptomatic complications occurred. Three patients (25%; 3/12) were discharged to hospice within 1 week of treatment. No delayed complications occurred in the remaining 75% (9/12) of patients during median clinical follow-up of 62 days (range, 14-178 days). Palliative percutaneous

  8. Multi-species impurity granule injection and mass deposition projections in NSTX-U discharges

    DOE PAGES

    Lunsford, R.; Bortolon, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; ...

    2017-05-16

    Here, by employing a neutral gas shielding (NGS) model to characterize impurity granule injection, the ablation rates for three different species of granule: lithium, boron, and carbon, are determined. Utilizing the duration of ablation events recorded on experiments performed at DIII-D to calibrate the NGS model, we quantify the ablation rate with respect to the plasma density profile. The species-specific granule shielding constant is then used to model granule ablation within NSTX-U discharges. Simulations of 300, 500 and 700 micron diameter granules injected at 50 m s –1 are presented for NSTX-U L-mode type plasmas, as well as H-mode dischargesmore » with low natural ELM frequency. Additionally, ablation calculations of 500 micron granules of each species are presented at velocities ranging from 50–150 m s –1. In H-mode discharges these simulations show that the majority of the injected granule is ablated within or just past the edge steep gradient region. At this radial position, the perturbation to the background plasma generated by the ablating granule can lead to conditions advantageous for the rapid triggering of ELM crashes.« less

  9. Multi-species impurity granule injection and mass deposition projections in NSTX-U discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, R.; Bortolon, A.; Roquemore, A. L.

    Here, by employing a neutral gas shielding (NGS) model to characterize impurity granule injection, the ablation rates for three different species of granule: lithium, boron, and carbon, are determined. Utilizing the duration of ablation events recorded on experiments performed at DIII-D to calibrate the NGS model, we quantify the ablation rate with respect to the plasma density profile. The species-specific granule shielding constant is then used to model granule ablation within NSTX-U discharges. Simulations of 300, 500 and 700 micron diameter granules injected at 50 m s –1 are presented for NSTX-U L-mode type plasmas, as well as H-mode dischargesmore » with low natural ELM frequency. Additionally, ablation calculations of 500 micron granules of each species are presented at velocities ranging from 50–150 m s –1. In H-mode discharges these simulations show that the majority of the injected granule is ablated within or just past the edge steep gradient region. At this radial position, the perturbation to the background plasma generated by the ablating granule can lead to conditions advantageous for the rapid triggering of ELM crashes.« less

  10. Electrode configuration for extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Spence, Paul Andrew; Fornaciari, Neal Robert; Chang, Jim Jihchyun

    2002-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that debris generation within an electric capillary discharge source, for generating extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray, is dependent on the magnitude and profile of the electric field that is established along the surfaces of the electrodes. An electrode shape that results in uniform electric field strength along its surface has been developed to minimize sputtering and debris generation. The electric discharge plasma source includes: (a) a body that defines a circular capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end; (b) a back electrode positioned around and adjacent to the distal end of the capillary bore wherein the back electrode has a channel that is in communication with the distal end and that is defined by a non-uniform inner surface which exhibits a first region which is convex, a second region which is concave, and a third region which is convex wherein the regions are viewed outwardly from the inner surface of the channel that is adjacent the distal end of the capillary bore so that the first region is closest to the distal end; (c) a front electrode positioned around and adjacent to the proximal end of the capillary bore wherein the front electrode has an opening that is communication with the proximal end and that is defined by a non-uniform inner surface which exhibits a first region which is convex, a second region which is substantially linear, and third region which is convex wherein the regions are viewed outwardly from the inner surface of the opening that is adjacent the proximal end of the capillary bore so that the first region is closest to the proximal end; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the front and back electrodes.

  11. Micromechanism linear actuator with capillary force sealing

    DOEpatents

    Sniegowski, Jeffry J.

    1997-01-01

    A class of micromachine linear actuators whose function is based on gas driven pistons in which capillary forces are used to seal the gas behind the piston. The capillary forces also increase the amount of force transmitted from the gas pressure to the piston. In a major subclass of such devices, the gas bubble is produced by thermal vaporization of a working fluid. Because of their dependence on capillary forces for sealing, such devices are only practical on the sub-mm size scale, but in that regime they produce very large force times distance (total work) values.

  12. Radiofrequency ablation during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toru; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Horigome, Ryoko; Kimura, Naruhiro; Honda, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Akito; Seki, Keiichi; Honma, Terasu; Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether fluid injection during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can increase the coagulation area. METHODS: Bovine liver (1-2 kg) was placed on an aluminum tray with a return electrode affixed to the base, and the liver was punctured by an expandable electrode. During RFA, 5% glucose; 50% glucose; or saline fluid was infused continuously at a rate of 1.0 mL/min through the infusion line connected to the infusion port. The area and volume of the thermocoagulated region of bovine liver were determined after RFA. The Joule heat generated was determined from the temporal change in output during the RFA experiment. RESULTS: No liquid infusion was 17.3 ± 1.6 mL, similar to the volume of a 3-cm diameter sphere (14.1 mL). Mean thermocoagulated volume was significantly larger with continuous infusion of saline (29.3 ± 3.3 mL) than with 5% glucose (21.4 ± 2.2 mL), 50% glucose (16.5 ± 0.9 mL) or no liquid infusion (17.3 ± 1.6 mL). The ablated volume for RFA with saline was approximately 1.7-times greater than for RFA with no liquid infusion, representing a significant difference between these two conditions. Total Joule heat generated during RFA was highest with saline, and lowest with 50% glucose. CONCLUSION: RFA with continuous saline infusion achieves a large ablation zone, and may help inhibit local recurrence by obtaining sufficient ablation margins. RFA during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins, and may be prevent local recurrence. PMID:23483097

  13. GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Arrol, W.J.; Jefferson, S.

    1957-08-27

    The construction of gas discharge devices where the object is to provide a gas discharge device having a high dark current and stabilized striking voltage is described. The inventors have discovered that the introduction of tritium gas into a discharge device with a subsequent electrical discharge in the device will deposit tritium on the inside of the chamber. The tritium acts to emit beta rays amd is an effective and non-hazardous way of improving the abovementioned discharge tube characteristics

  14. Brain Emboli After Left Ventricular Endocardial Ablation.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Isaac R; Gladstone, Rachel A; Badhwar, Nitish; Hsia, Henry H; Lee, Byron K; Josephson, S Andrew; Meisel, Karl M; Dillon, William P; Hess, Christopher P; Gerstenfeld, Edward P; Marcus, Gregory M

    2017-02-28

    Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) is common. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation is associated with a risk of cerebral emboli attributed to cardioversions and numerous ablation lesions in the low-flow left atrium, but cerebral embolic risk in ventricular ablation has not been evaluated. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients meeting study criteria scheduled for ventricular tachycardia or PVC ablation over a 9-month period. Patients undergoing left ventricular (LV) ablation were compared with a control group of those undergoing right ventricular ablation only. Patients were excluded if they had implantable cardioverter defibrillators or permanent pacemakers. Radiofrequency energy was used for ablation in all cases and heparin was administered with goal-activated clotting times of 300 to 400 seconds for all LV procedures. Pre- and postprocedural brain MRI was performed on each patient within a week of the ablation procedure. Embolic infarcts were defined as new foci of reduced diffusion and high signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery brain MRI within a vascular distribution. The mean age was 58 years, half of the patients were men, half had a history of hypertension, and the majority had no known vascular disease or heart failure. LV ablation was performed in 12 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=2; PVC, n=10) and right ventricular ablation was performed exclusively in 6 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=1; PVC, n=5). Seven patients (58%) undergoing LV ablation experienced a total of 16 cerebral emboli, in comparison with zero patients undergoing right ventricular ablation ( P =0.04). Seven of 11 patients (63%) undergoing a retrograde approach to the LV developed at least 1 new brain lesion. More than half of patients undergoing routine LV ablation procedures (predominately PVC ablations) experienced new brain emboli after the procedure. Future research is critical to understanding the

  15. Mucosal ablation in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Walker, S J; Selvasekar, C R; Birbeck, N

    2002-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is a prevalent, premalignant condition affecting the gastroesophageal junction and distal esophagus. Ablation plus antireflux therapy has recently been advocated to prevent the development of adenocarcinoma or to treat those unfit or unwilling to undergo esophagectomy. The present article, based on a search of Medline/ISI databases and cross-referencing of relevant articles, reviews the literature on this subject. A number of techniques have been used to remove the affected mucosa, including laser, electrocoagulation, argon plasma coagulation and photodynamic therapy but, as yet, none has been shown to be superior. Depending on the method used, ablation results in complete removal of Barrett's esophagus in approximately one third of patients and a partial response in nearly two-thirds. The resultant squamous mucosa is apparently 'normal' but may regress. To promote and maintain regeneration, antireflux therapy must be sufficient to reduce repetitive injury to the esophageal mucosa. Whether ablation reduces the cancer risk or delays its occurrence is unknown, though recent data suggests benefit. Complications are infrequent and usually mild. Regular follow-up endoscopy and deep biopsies continue to be necessary. Careful data from much larger populations with long-term follow-up is required before ablation reaches the stage of broad clinical application.

  16. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Physics of Hypersonic Flow and TPS Considerations. Destinations, Missions and Requirements. State of the Art Thermal Protection Systems Capabilities. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS. Entry Systems Concepts. Flexible TPS for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators. Conformal TPS for Rigid Aeroshell. 3-D Woven TPS for Extreme Entry Environment. Multi-functional Carbon Fabric for Mechanically Deployable.

  17. Capillary rise between planar surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullard, Jeffrey W.; Garboczi, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Minimization of free energy is used to calculate the equilibrium vertical rise and meniscus shape of a liquid column between two closely spaced, parallel planar surfaces that are inert and immobile. States of minimum free energy are found using standard variational principles, which lead not only to an Euler-Lagrange differential equation for the meniscus shape and elevation, but also to the boundary conditions at the three-phase junction where the liquid meniscus intersects the solid walls. The analysis shows that the classical Young-Dupré equation for the thermodynamic contact angle is valid at the three-phase junction, as already shown for sessile drops with or without the influence of a gravitational field. Integration of the Euler-Lagrange equation shows that a generalized Laplace-Young (LY) equation first proposed by O’Brien, Craig, and Peyton [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 26, 500 (1968)] gives an exact prediction of the mean elevation of the meniscus at any wall separation, whereas the classical LY equation for the elevation of the midpoint of the meniscus is accurate only when the separation approaches zero or infinity. When both walls are identical, the meniscus is symmetric about the midpoint, and the midpoint elevation is a more traditional and convenient measure of capillary rise than the mean elevation. Therefore, for this symmetric system a different equation is fitted to numerical predictions of the midpoint elevation and is shown to give excellent agreement for contact angles between 15° and 160° and wall separations up to 30mm . When the walls have dissimilar surface properties, the meniscus generally assumes an asymmetric shape, and significant elevation of the liquid column can occur even when one of the walls has a contact angle significantly greater than 90°. The height of the capillary rise depends on the spacing between the walls and also on the difference in contact angles at the two surfaces. When the contact angle at one wall is greater

  18. Surface Modification of ICF Target Capsules by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    DOE PAGES

    Carlson, Lane C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Bunn, Thomas L.

    2016-06-30

    Topographical modifications of spherical surfaces are imprinted on National Ignition Facility (NIF) target capsules by extending the capabilities of a recently developed full surface (4π) laser ablation and mapping apparatus. The laser ablation method combines the precision, energy density and long reach of a focused laser beam to pre-impose sinusoidal modulations on the outside surface of High Density Carbon (HDC) capsules and the inside surface of Glow Discharge Polymer (GDP) capsules. Sinusoidal modulations described in this paper have sub-micron to 10’s of microns vertical scale and wavelengths as small as 30 μm and as large as 200 μm. The modulatedmore » patterns are created by rastering a focused laser fired at discrete capsule surface locations for a specified number of pulses. The computer program developed to create these raster patterns uses inputs such as laser beam intensity profile, the material removal function, the starting surface figure and the desired surface figure. The patterns are optimized to minimize surface roughness. Lastly, in this paper, simulated surfaces are compared with actual ablated surfaces measured using confocal microscopy.« less

  19. Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

  20. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORETIC BEHAVIOR OF SEVEN SULFONYLUREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrophoretic behavior of bensulfuron Me, sulfometuron Me, nicosulfuron (Accent), chlorimuron Et, thifensulfuron Me (Harmony), metsulfuron Me, and chlorsulfuron was studied under capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) conditio...

  1. Microgravity Investigation of Capillary Driven Imbibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dushin, V. R.; Nikitin, V. F.; Smirnov, N. N.; Skryleva, E. I.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of the present paper is to investigate the capillary driven filtration in porous media under microgravity conditions. New mathematical model that allows taking into account the blurring of the front due to the instability of the displacement that is developing at the front is proposed. The constants in the mathematical model were selected on the basis of the experimental data on imbibition into unsaturated porous media under microgravity conditions. The flow under the action of a combination of capillary forces and a constant pressure drop or a constant flux is considered. The effect of capillary forces and the type of wettability of the medium on the displacement process is studied. A criterion in which case the capillary effects are insignificant and can be neglected is established.

  2. Studies and comparison of currently utilized models for ablation in Electrothermal-chemical guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Shenli; Li, Rui; Li, Xingwen

    2009-10-01

    Wall ablation is a key process taking place in the capillary plasma generator in Electrothermal-Chemical (ETC) guns, whose characteristic directly decides the generator's performance. In the present article, this ablation process is theoretically studied. Currently widely used mathematical models designed to describe such process are analyzed and compared, including a recently developed kinetic model which takes into account the unsteady state in plasma-wall transition region by dividing it into two sub-layers, a Knudsen layer and a collision dominated non-equilibrium Hydrodynamic layer, a model based on Langmuir Law, as well as a simplified model widely used in arc-wall interaction process in circuit breakers, which assumes a proportional factor and an ablation enthalpy obtained empirically. Bulk plasma state and parameters are assumed to be consistent while analyzing and comparing each model, in order to take into consideration only the difference caused by model itself. Finally ablation rate is calculated in each method respectively and differences are discussed.

  3. [Successful transcatheter ablation of fascicular potential in pediatric patients with left posterior fascicular tachycardia].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shao-ying; Shi, Ji-jun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Zhi-wei; Li, Yu-fen

    2010-08-01

    To simplify the methods of transcatheter mapping and ablation in the pediatric patients with left posterior fascicular tachycardia. While in sinus rhythm, the fascicular potential can be mapped at the posterior septal region (1 - 2 cm below inferior margin of orifice of coronary sinus vein), which display a biphasic wave before ventricular wave, and exist equipotential lines between them. When the fascicular potential occurs 20 ms later than the bundle of His' potential, radiofrequency was applied. Before applying radiofrequency, catheter position must be observed using double angle viewing (LAO 45°RAO 30°), and it should be made sure that the catheter is not at His' bundle. If the electrocardiogram displays left posterior fascicular block, the correct region is identified and ablation can continue for 60 s. Electrocardiogram monitoring should continue for 24 - 48 hours after operation, and notice abnormal repolarization after termination of ventricular tachycardia. Aspirin [2 - 3 mg/(kg·d)] was used for 3 months, and antiarrhythmic drug was discontinued. Surface electrocardiogram, chest X-ray and ultrasound cardiography were rechecked 1 d after operation. Follow-up was made at 1 month and 3 months post-discharge. Recheck was made half-yearly or follow-up was done by phone from then on. Fifteen pediatric patients were ablated successfully, and their electrocardiograms all displayed left posterior fascicular block after ablation. None of the patients had recurrences during the 3 to 12 months follow-up period. In one case, the electrocardiogram did not change after applying radiofrequency ablation and the ventricular tachycardia remained; however, on second attempt after remapping, the electrocardiogram did change. The radiofrequency lasted for 90 seconds and ablation was successful. This case had no recurrences at 6 months follow-up. Transcatheter ablation of the fascicular potential in pediatric patients with left posterior fascicular tachycardia can simplify

  4. Atrial Tachycardias Following Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Sághy, László; Tutuianu, Cristina; Szilágyi, Judith

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important proarrhythmic complications after left atrial (LA) ablation is regular atrial tachycardia (AT) or flutter. Those tachycardias that occur after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation can cause even more severe symptoms than those from the original arrhythmia prior to the index ablation procedure since they are often incessant and associated with rapid ventricular response. Depending on the method and extent of LA ablation and on the electrophysiological properties of underlying LA substrate, the reported incidence of late ATs is variable. To establish the exact mechanism of these tachycardias can be difficult and controversial but correlates with the ablation technique and in the vast majority of cases the mechanism is reentry related to gaps in prior ablation lines. When tachycardias occur, conservative therapy usually is not effective, radiofrequency ablation procedure is mostly successful, but can be challenging, and requires a complex approach. PMID:25308808

  5. Thin film capillary process and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-11-18

    Method and system of forming microfluidic capillaries in a variety of substrate materials. A first layer of a material such as silicon dioxide is applied to a channel etched in substrate. A second, sacrificial layer of a material such as a polymer is deposited on the first layer. A third layer which may be of the same material as the first layer is placed on the second layer. The sacrificial layer is removed to form a smooth walled capillary in the substrate.

  6. Capillary Movement in Substrates in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Duffie, N. A.

    1996-01-01

    A more complete understanding of the dynamics of capillary flow through an unsaturated porous medium would be useful for a number of space and terrestrial applications. Knowledge of capillary migration of liquids in granular beds in microgravity would significantly enhance the development and understanding of how a matrix based nutrient delivery system for the growth of plants would function in a microgravity environment. Thus, such information is of interest from the theoretical as well as practical point of view.

  7. OCT methods for capillary velocimetry

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Lo, Eng H.; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Jiang, James Y.; Barry, Scott; Cable, Alex E.

    2012-01-01

    To date, two main categories of OCT techniques have been described for imaging hemodynamics: Doppler OCT and OCT angiography. Doppler OCT can measure axial velocity profiles and flow in arteries and veins, while OCT angiography can determine vascular morphology, tone, and presence or absence of red blood cell (RBC) perfusion. However, neither method can quantify RBC velocity in capillaries, where RBC flow is typically transverse to the probe beam and single-file. Here, we describe new methods that potentially address these limitations. Firstly, we describe a complex-valued OCT signal in terms of a static scattering component, dynamic scattering component, and noise. Secondly, we propose that the time scale of random fluctuations in the dynamic scattering component are related to red blood cell velocity. Analysis was performed along the slow axis of repeated B-scans to parallelize measurements. We correlate our purported velocity measurements against two-photon microscopy measurements of RBC velocity, and investigate changes during hypercapnia. Finally, we image the ischemic stroke penumbra during distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO), where OCT velocimetry methods provide additional insight that is not afforded by either Doppler OCT or OCT angiography. PMID:22435106

  8. DNA Sequencing by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Karger, Barry L.; Guttman, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing of human and other genomes has been at the center of interest in the biomedical field over the past several decades and is now leading toward an era of personalized medicine. During this time, DNA sequencing methods have evolved from the labor intensive slab gel electrophoresis, through automated multicapillary electrophoresis systems using fluorophore labeling with multispectral imaging, to the “next generation” technologies of cyclic array, hybridization based, nanopore and single molecule sequencing. Deciphering the genetic blueprint and follow-up confirmatory sequencing of Homo sapiens and other genomes was only possible by the advent of modern sequencing technologies that was a result of step by step advances with a contribution of academics, medical personnel and instrument companies. While next generation sequencing is moving ahead at break-neck speed, the multicapillary electrophoretic systems played an essential role in the sequencing of the Human Genome, the foundation of the field of genomics. In this prospective, we wish to overview the role of capillary electrophoresis in DNA sequencing based in part of several of our articles in this journal. PMID:19517496

  9. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1996-01-01

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal to noise ratio.

  10. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1996-10-22

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer is disclosed for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. 12 figs.

  11. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Microwave Ablation Compared with Radiofrequency Ablation for Breast Tissue in an Ex Vivo Bovine Udder Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihir@bf6.so-net.ne.jp; Westphal, Saskia, E-mail: swestphal@ukaachen.de; Isfort, Peter, E-mail: isfort@hia.rwth-aachen.de

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation with radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treating breast tissue in a nonperfused ex vivo model of healthy bovine udder tissue. Materials and Methods: MW ablations were performed at power outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W using a 915-MHz frequency generator and a 2-cm active tip antenna. RF ablations were performed with a bipolar RF system with 2- and 3-cm active tip electrodes. Tissue temperatures were continuously monitored during ablation. Results: The mean short-axis diameters of the coagulation zones were 1.34 {+-} 0.14, 1.45 {+-} 0.13, and 1.74 {+-} 0.11 cm for MWmore » ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W. For RF ablation, the corresponding values were 1.16 {+-} 0.09 and 1.26 {+-} 0.14 cm with electrodes having 2- and 3-cm active tips, respectively. The mean coagulation volumes were 2.27 {+-} 0.65, 2.85 {+-} 0.72, and 4.45 {+-} 0.47 cm{sup 3} for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W and 1.18 {+-} 0.30 and 2.29 {+-} 0.55 cm{sup 3} got RF ablation with 2- and 3-cm electrodes, respectively. MW ablations at 35W and 45W achieved significantly longer short-axis diameters than RF ablations (P < 0.05). The highest tissue temperature was achieved with MW ablation at 45W (P < 0.05). On histological examination, the extent of the ablation zone in MW ablations was less affected by tissue heterogeneity than that in RF ablations. Conclusion: MW ablation appears to be advantageous with respect to the volume of ablation and the shape of the margin of necrosis compared with RF ablation in an ex vivo bovine udder.« less

  13. Miniaturization of Microwave Ablation Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyen, Hung

    Microwave ablation (MWA) is a promising minimally invasive technique for the treatment of various types of cancers as well as non-oncological diseases. In MWA, an interstitial antenna is typically used to deliver microwave energy to the diseased tissue and heat it up to lethal temperature levels that induce cell death. The desired characteristics of the interstitial antenna include a narrow diameter to minimize invasiveness of the treatment, a low input reflection coefficient at the operating frequency, and a localized heating zone. Most interstitial MWA antennas are fed by coaxial cables and designed for operation at either 915 MHz or 2.45 GHz. Coax-fed MWA antennas are commonly equipped with coaxial baluns to achieve localized heating. However, the conventional implementation of coaxial baluns increases the overall diameters of the antennas and therefore make them more invasive. It is highly desirable to develop less invasive antennas with shorter active lengths and smaller diameters for MWA applications. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher frequency microwaves for tissue ablation and present several techniques for decreasing diameters of MWA antennas. First, we investigated MWA at higher frequencies by conducting numerical and experimental studies to compare ablation performance at 10 GHz and 1.9 GHz. Simulation and ex vivo ablation experiment results demonstrate comparable ablation zone dimensions achieved at these two frequencies. Operating at higher frequencies enables interstitial antennas with shorter active lengths. This can be combined with smaller-diameter antenna designs to create less invasive applicators or allow integration of multiple radiating elements on a single applicator to have better control and customization of the heating patterns. Additionally, we present three different coax-fed antenna designs and a non-coaxial-based balanced antenna that have smaller-diameter configurations than conventional coax-fed balun

  14. Glue septal ablation: A promising alternative to alcohol septal ablation

    PubMed Central

    Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined as myocardial hypertrophy in the absence of another cardiac or systemic disease capable of producing the magnitude of present hypertrophy. In about 70% of patients with HCM, there is left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (LVOTO) and this is known as obstructive type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Cases refractory to medical treatment have had two options either surgical septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation (ASA) to alleviate LVOT gradient. ASA may cause some life-threatening complications including conduction disturbances and complete heart block, hemodynamic compromise, ventricular arrhythmias, distant and massive myocardial necrosis. Glue septal ablation (GSA) is a promising technique for the treatment of HOCM. Glue seems to be superior to alcohol due to some intrinsic advantageous properties of glue such as immediate polymerization which prevents the leak into the left anterior descending coronary artery and it is particularly useful in patients with collaterals to the right coronary artery in whom alcohol ablation is contraindicated. In our experience, GSA is effective and also a safe technique without significant complications. GSA decreases LVOT gradient immediately after the procedure and this reduction persists during 12 months of follow-up. It improves New York Heart Association functional capacity and decrease interventricular septal wall thickness. Further studies are needed in order to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of this technique. PMID:27011786

  15. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  16. Capillary fracture of soft gels.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Joshua B; Daniels, Karen E

    2013-10-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize (i) the initiation process, in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of the surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus, and (ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law L[proportional]t(3/4). We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid-solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and the magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids, finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent.

  17. Cholecystokinin-Assisted Hydrodissection of the Gallbladder Fossa during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, Sanjit O., E-mail: tewaris@mskcc.org; Petre, Elena N., E-mail: petree@mskcc.org; Osborne, Joseph, E-mail: osbornej@mskcc.org

    2013-12-15

    A 68-year-old female with colorectal cancer developed a metachronous isolated fluorodeoxyglucose-avid (FDG-avid) segment 5/6 gallbladder fossa hepatic lesion and was referred for percutaneous ablation. Pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a distended gallbladder abutting the segment 5/6 hepatic metastasis. In order to perform ablation with clear margins and avoid direct puncture and aspiration of the gallbladder, cholecystokinin was administered intravenously to stimulate gallbladder contraction before hydrodissection. Subsequently, the lesion was ablated successfully with sufficient margins, of greater than 1.0 cm, using microwave with ultrasound and FDG PET/CT guidance. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and was discharged home themore » next day.« less

  18. Effect of Capillary Tube’s Shape on Capillary Rising Regime for Viscos Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soroush, F.; Moosavi, A.

    2018-05-01

    When properties of the displacing fluid are considered, the rising profile of the penetrating fluid in a capillary tube deviates from its classical Lucas-Washburn profile. Also, shape of capillary tube can affect the rising profile in different aspects. In this article, effect of capillary tube’s shape on the vertical capillary motion in presence of gravity is investigated by considering the properties of the displacing fluid. According to the fact that the differential equation of the capillary rising for a non-simple wall type is very difficult to solve analytically, a finite element simulation model is used for this study. After validation of the simulation model with an experiment that has been done with a simple capillary tube, shape of the capillary tube’s wall is changed in order to understand its effects on the capillary rising and different motion regimes that may appear according to different geometries. The main focus of this article is on the sinusoidal wall shapes and comparing them with a simple wall.

  19. Capsule physics comparison of National Ignition Facility implosion designs using plastic, high density carbon, and beryllium ablators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Haan, S. W.; Weber, C. R.

    2018-03-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer plastic, high density carbon, and beryllium. How do these different ablators compare in current and proposed implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This paper compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and potential future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition on NIF.

  20. Critical Velocities in Open Capillary Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyer, Michael; Langbein, Dieter; Rath, Hans J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the proposed research program on open capillary flow and the preliminary work performed theoretically and in drop tower experiments. The work focuses on the fundamental physical understanding of the flow through capillary bound geometries, where the circumference of the cross section of the flow path contains free surfaces. Examples for such a flow configuration are capillary vanes in surface tension tanks, flow along edges and corners and flow through liquid bridges. The geometries may be classified by their cross section areas, wetted circumferences and the radii of curvature of the free surfaces. In the streaming float zone the flow path is bound by a free surface only. The ribbon vane is a model for vane types used in surface tension tanks, where a structure in proximity to the tank wall forms a capillary gap. A groove is used in heat pipes for the transportation of the condensed working fluid to the heat source and a wedge may occur in a spaceborne experiment where fluid has to be transported by the means of surface tension. The research objectives are the determination of the maximum volume flux, the observation of the free surfaces and the liquid flow inside the flow path as well as the evaluation of the limiting capillary wave speed. The restriction of the maximum volume flux is due to convective forces (flow velocity exceeding the capillary wave speed) and/or viscous forces, i.e. the viscous head loss along the flow path must be compensated by the capillary pressure due to the curved free surface. Exceeding the maximum volume flux leads to the choking of the flow path, thus the free surface collapses and.gas ingestion occurs at the outlet. The means are ground-based experimental work with plateau tanks and in a drop tower, a sounding rocket flight, and theoretical analysis with integral balances as well as full three dimensional CFD solutions for flow with free surfaces.

  1. [Percutaneous lung thermo-ablation].

    PubMed

    Palussière, Jean; Catena, Vittorio; Gaubert, Jean-Yves; Buy, Xavier; de Baere, Thierry

    2017-05-01

    Percutaneous lung thermo-ablation has steadily been developed over the past 15years. Main indications are early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) for non-surgical patients and slow evolving localized metastatic disease, either spontaneous or following a general treatment. Radiofrequency, being the most evaluated technique, offers a local control rate of about 80-90% for tumors <3 cm in diameter. With excellent tolerance and very few complications, radiofrequency may be proposed for patients with a chronic disease. Other ablation techniques under investigation such as microwaves and cryotherapy could allow overcoming radiofrequency limits. Furthermore, stereotactic radiotherapy proposed for the same indications is efficient. Comparative studies are warranted to differentiate these techniques in terms of efficacy, tolerance and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Artificial meteor ablation studies: Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Cunningham, G. G.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial meteor ablation was performed on a Mg-rich olivine sample using an arc-heated plasma of ionized air. Experimental conditions simulated a meteor traveling about 12 km/sec at an altitude of 70 km. The mineral content of the original olivine sample was 98% olivine (including traces of olivine alteration products) and 2% chromite. Forsterite content of the original olivine was Fo-89. After ablation, the forsterite content had increased to Fo-94 in the recrystallized olivine. In addition, lamella-like intergrowths of magnetite were prevalent constituents. Wherever magnetite occurred, there was an increase in Mg and a corresponding decrease in Fe for the recrystallized olivine. The Allende fusion crust consisted of a recrystallized olivine, which was more Mg-rich and Fe-deficient than the original meteorite's olivine, and abundant magnetite grains. Although troilite and pentlandite were the common opaque mineral constituents in this meteorite, magnetite was the principal opaque mineral found in the fusion crust.

  3. Percutaneous ablation of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ciaravino, Valentina; De Robertis, Riccardo; Barbi, Emilio; Salvia, Roberto; Girelli, Roberto; Paiella, Salvatore; Gasparini, Camilla; Cardobi, Nicolò; Bassi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive tumor with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Prognosis and treatment depend on whether the tumor is resectable or not, which mostly depends on how quickly the diagnosis is made. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be both used in cases of non-resectable pancreatic cancer. In cases of pancreatic neoplasm that is locally advanced, non-resectable, but non-metastatic, it is possible to apply percutaneous treatments that are able to induce tumor cytoreduction. The aim of this article will be to describe the multiple currently available treatment techniques (radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation), their results, and their possible complications, with the aid of a literature review. PMID:27956791

  4. An ablative pulsed plasma thruster with a segmented anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Junxue; Tang, Haibin; Ling, William Yeong Liang; York, Thomas M.

    2018-01-01

    An ablative pulsed plasma thruster (APPT) design with a ‘segmented anode’ is proposed in this paper. We aim to examine the effect that this asymmetric electrode configuration (a normal cathode and a segmented anode) has on the performance of an APPT. The magnetic field of the discharge arc, plasma density in the exit plume, impulse bit, and thrust efficiency were studied using a magnetic probe, Langmuir probe, thrust stand, and mass bit measurements, respectively. When compared with conventional symmetric parallel electrodes, the segmented anode APPT shows an improvement in the impulse bit of up to 28%. The thrust efficiency is also improved by 49% (from 5.3% to 7.9% for conventional and segmented designs, respectively). Long-exposure broadband emission images of the discharge morphology show that compared with a normal anode, a segmented anode results in clear differences in the luminous discharge morphology and better collimation of the plasma. The magnetic probe data indicate that the segmented anode APPT exhibits a higher current density in the discharge arc. Furthermore, Langmuir probe data collected from the central exit plane show that the peak electron density is 75% higher than with conventional parallel electrodes. These results are believed to be fundamental to the physical mechanisms behind the increased impulse bit of an APPT with a segmented electrode.

  5. Investigation of a Gallium MPD Thruster with an Ablating Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    Arc impedance, exhaust velocity, and plasma probe measurements are presented. The thruster is driven by a 50 microsecond pulse from a 6.2 milliohm pulse forming network, and gallium is supplied to the discharge by evaporation of the cathode. The arc voltage is found to vary linearly with the discharge current with an arc impedance of 6.5 milliohms. Electrostatic probes yield an exhaust velocity that is invariant with the discharge current and has a peak value of 20 kilometers per second, which is in reasonable agreement with the value (16 plus or minus 1 kilometer per second) calculated from the mass bit and discharge current data. Triple probe measurements yield on axis electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV, electron densities in the range of 1.6 x 10(exp 21) to 2.1 x 10(exp 22) per cubic meter, and a divergence half angle of 16 degrees. Measurements within the interelectrode region yield a peak magnetic field of 0.8 T, and the observed radial trends are consistent with an azimuthally symmetric current distribution. A cathode power balance model is coupled with an ablative heat conduction model predicting mass bit values that are within 20% of the experimental values.

  6. Caries selective ablation: the handpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Thomas; Rechmann, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    1995-05-01

    Caries selective ablation is fixed to a window of fluences predicted by the ablation thresholds of carious and healthy dentin, respectively. The aim of the study was to develop a dental handpiece which guarantees homogeneous fluence at the irradiated tooth surface. Furthermore the point of treatment should be cooled down without energy losses due to the cooling system. We suggest the direct coupling of the laser radiation into a laminar stream of liquid, which acts in turn as a lengthened beam guide. The impacts of the laser radiation and of the cooling medium fall exactly into the same point. Hot ablation debris is removed out of the crater by the flush of the water jet. Fluences are constant if the handpiece is used in contact mode or at a distance. Normally the surface of a bare fiber working in contact mode is destroyed after a few shots. Coupling the laser radiation into a stream of liquid prevents this destruction. Putting together the benefits of this special handpiece short overall treatment times seem to be possible. High average power can be applied to the tooth without the threat of thermal damage. Furthermore no time consuming cutting of the fiber prolongs the treatment time.

  7. Flash water-window x-ray generator with a ferrite capillary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sagae, Michiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Sakamaki, Kimio; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu

    1997-12-01

    The fundamental study on a flash water-window x-ray generator is described. This generator is composed of a high-voltage power supply, a polarity-inversion high-voltage pulser, a krytron pulser as a trigger device, an oil-diffusion pump, and a vacuum chamber with a capillary. A combined ceramic condenser of about 5 nF in the pulser is charged up to 70 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the capillary in the tube after closing a gap switch by the krytron pulser. In the present work, the chamber is evacuated by the pump with a pressure of about 1 by 10-3 Pa, and the titanium anode and cathode electrodes are employed to produce L-series characteristic x rays in the water-window range. The diameter and the length of the ferrite capillary are 2.0 and 30 mm, respectively. Both the cathode voltage and the discharge current displayed damped oscillations. The peak values of the voltage and current increased when the charging voltage was increased, and their maximum values were minus 24 kV and 2.8 kA, respectively. The pulse durations of the water-window x-rays were nearly equivalent to those of the damped oscillations of the voltage and current, and their values were less than 10 microseconds.

  8. Synthetic Capillaries to Control Microscopic Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarveswaran, K.; Kurz, V.; Dong, Z.; Tanaka, T.; Penny, S.; Timp, G.

    2016-02-01

    Capillaries pervade human physiology. The mean intercapillary distance is only about 100 μm in human tissue, which indicates the extent of nutrient diffusion. In engineered tissue the lack of capillaries, along with the associated perfusion, is problematic because it leads to hypoxic stress and necrosis. However, a capillary is not easy to engineer due to its complex cytoarchitecture. Here, it is shown that it is possible to create in vitro, in about 30 min, a tubular microenvironment with an elastic modulus and porosity consistent with human tissue that functionally mimicks a bona fide capillary using “live cell lithography”(LCL) to control the type and position of cells on a composite hydrogel scaffold. Furthermore, it is established that these constructs support the forces associated with blood flow, and produce nutrient gradients similar to those measured in vivo. With LCL, capillaries can be constructed with single cell precision—no other method for tissue engineering offers such precision. Since the time required for assembly scales with the number of cells, this method is likely to be adapted first to create minimal functional units of human tissue that constitute organs, consisting of a heterogeneous population of 100-1000 cells, organized hierarchically to express a predictable function.

  9. Synthetic Capillaries to Control Microscopic Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Sarveswaran, K; Kurz, V; Dong, Z; Tanaka, T; Penny, S; Timp, G

    2016-02-24

    Capillaries pervade human physiology. The mean intercapillary distance is only about 100 μm in human tissue, which indicates the extent of nutrient diffusion. In engineered tissue the lack of capillaries, along with the associated perfusion, is problematic because it leads to hypoxic stress and necrosis. However, a capillary is not easy to engineer due to its complex cytoarchitecture. Here, it is shown that it is possible to create in vitro, in about 30 min, a tubular microenvironment with an elastic modulus and porosity consistent with human tissue that functionally mimicks a bona fide capillary using "live cell lithography"(LCL) to control the type and position of cells on a composite hydrogel scaffold. Furthermore, it is established that these constructs support the forces associated with blood flow, and produce nutrient gradients similar to those measured in vivo. With LCL, capillaries can be constructed with single cell precision-no other method for tissue engineering offers such precision. Since the time required for assembly scales with the number of cells, this method is likely to be adapted first to create minimal functional units of human tissue that constitute organs, consisting of a heterogeneous population of 100-1000 cells, organized hierarchically to express a predictable function.

  10. Micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Koenka, Israel Joel; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    A novel micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis for the handling of samples with volumes down to as little as 300 nL was designed and built in our laboratory for analyses in which the available volume is a limitation. The sample is placed into a small cavity located directly in front of the separation capillary, and the injection is then carried out automatically by controlled pressurization of the chamber with compressed air. The system also allows automated flushing of the injection chamber as well as of the capillary. In a trial with a capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductivity detector, employing a capillary of 25 μm diameter, the results showed good stability of migration times and peak areas. To illustrate the technique, the fast separation of five inorganic cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH4 (+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) ) was set up. This could be achieved in less than 3 min, with good limits of detection (10 μM) and linear ranges (between about 10 and 1000 μM). The system was demonstrated for the determination of the inorganic cations in porewater samples of a lake sediment core. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Alternate energy sources for catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Wang, P J; Homoud, M K; Link, M S; Estes III, N A

    1999-07-01

    Because of the limitations of conventional radiofrequency ablation in creating large or linear lesions, alternative energy sources have been used as possible methods of catheter ablation. Modified radiofrequency energy, cryoablation, and microwave, laser, and ultrasound technologies may be able to create longer, deeper, and more controlled lesions and may be particularly suited for the treatment of ventricular tachycardias and for linear atrial ablation. Future studies will establish the efficacy of these new and promising technologies.

  12. Emergency catheter ablation in critical patients

    PubMed Central

    Tebbenjohanns, Jürgen; Rühmkorf, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Emergency catheter ablation is justified in critical patients with drug-refractory life-threatening arrhythmias. The procedure can be used for ablation of an accessory pathway in preexcitation syndrome with high risk of ventricular fibrillation and in patients with shock due to ischemic cardiomyopathy and incessant ventricular tachycardia. Emergency catheter ablation can also be justified in patients with an electrical storm of the implanted cardioverter-defibrillator or in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. PMID:20606793

  13. Psychiatric Discharge Process

    PubMed Central

    Alghzawi, Hamzah M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Integration of research evidence into clinical nursing practice is essential for the delivery of high-quality nursing care. Discharge planning is an essential process in psychiatric nursing field, in order to prevent recurrent readmission to psychiatric units. Objective. The purpose of this paper is to perform literature overview on psychiatric discharge planning, in order to develop evidence-based practice guideline of psychiatric discharge plan. Methods. A search of electronic databases was conducted. The search process aimed to locate different levels of evidence. Inclusion criteria were studies including outcomes related to prevention of readmission as stability in the community, studies investigating the discharge planning process in acute psychiatric wards, and studies that included factors that impede discharge planning and factors that aid timely discharge. On the other hand, exclusion criteria were studies in which discharge planning was discussed as part of a multi faceted intervention and was not the main focus of the review. Result. Studies met inclusion criteria were mainly literature reviews, consensus statements, and descriptive studies. All of these studies are considered at the lower levels of evidence. Conclusion. This review demonstrated that discharge planning based on general principles (evidence based principles) should be applied during psychiatric discharge planning to make this discharge more effective. Depending on this review, it could be concluded that effective discharge planning includes main three stages; initial discharge meeting, regular discharge meeting(s), and leaving from hospital and discharge day. Each stage of them has requirements should be accomplished be go to the next stage. PMID:23762767

  14. Anti-reflux surgery - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Fundoplication - children - discharge; Nissen fundoplication - children - discharge; Belsey (Mark IV) fundoplication - children - discharge; Toupet fundoplication - children - discharge; Thal fundoplication - ...

  15. ABLATIVE COMPOSITES FOR LIFTING REENTRY THERMAL PROTECTION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, ABLATION, DENSITY, TABLES(DATA), SPECIFIC HEAT, THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS, CORROSION RESISTANCE, COLORIMETRY , HEAT RESISTANT MATERIALS, ATMOSPHERE ENTRY.

  16. Capillary Hemangioma of the Thoracic Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sung-Kyun; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Seung-Won

    2010-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are common soft tissue tumors on the skin or mucosa of the head and neck in the early childhood, but very rare in the neuraxis. A 47-year-old man presented with one month history of back pain on the lower thoracic area, radiating pain to both legs, and hypesthesia below T7 dermatome. Thoracic spine MRI showed 1×1.3×1.5 cm, well-defined intradural mass at T6-7 disc space level, which showed isointensity to spinal cord on T1, heterogeneous isointensity on T2-weighted images, and homogeneous strong enhancement. The patient underwent T6-7 total laminotomy, complete tumor removal and laminoplasty. Histologically, the mass showed a capsulated nodular lesion composed of capillary-sized vascular channels, which were tightly packed into nodules separated by fibrous septa. These features were consistent with capillary hemangioma. PMID:21082058

  17. Recent applications of nanomaterials in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Varela-Martínez, Diana Angélica; Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials have found an important place in Analytical Chemistry and, in particular, in Separation Science. Among them, metal-organic frameworks, magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and graphene, as well as their combinations, are the most important nanomaterials that have been used up to now. Concerning capillary electromigration techniques, these nanomaterials have also been used as both pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) and as stationary phases in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC), as a result of their interesting and particular properties. This review article pretends to provide a general and critical revision of the most recent applications of nanomaterials in this field (period 2010-2017). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Analysis of iodinated contrast delivered during thermal ablation: is material trapped in the ablation zone?

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Hung; Brace, Chris L

    2016-08-21

    Intra-procedural contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) has been proposed to evaluate treatment efficacy of thermal ablation. We hypothesized that contrast material delivered concurrently with thermal ablation may become trapped in the ablation zone, and set out to determine whether such an effect would impact ablation visualization. CECT images were acquired during microwave ablation in normal porcine liver with: (A) normal blood perfusion and no iodinated contrast, (B) normal perfusion and iodinated contrast infusion or (C) no blood perfusion and residual iodinated contrast. Changes in CT attenuation were analyzed from before, during and after ablation to evaluate whether contrast was trapped inside of the ablation zone. Visualization was compared between groups using post-ablation contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Attenuation gradients were calculated at the ablation boundary and background to quantitate ablation conspicuity. In Group A, attenuation decreased during ablation due to thermal expansion of tissue water and water vaporization. The ablation zone was difficult to visualize (CNR  =  1.57  ±  0.73, boundary gradient  =  0.7  ±  0.4 HU mm(-1)), leading to ablation diameter underestimation compared to gross pathology. Group B ablations saw attenuation increase, suggesting that iodine was trapped inside the ablation zone. However, because the normally perfused liver increased even more, Group B ablations were more visible than Group A (CNR  =  2.04  ±  0.84, boundary gradient  =  6.3  ±  1.1 HU mm(-1)) and allowed accurate estimation of the ablation zone dimensions compared to gross pathology. Substantial water vaporization led to substantial attenuation changes in Group C, though the ablation zone boundary was not highly visible (boundary gradient  =  3.9  ±  1.1 HU mm(-1)). Our results demonstrate that despite iodinated contrast being trapped in the ablation zone, ablation visibility

  19. Mach-like capillary-gravity wakes.

    PubMed

    Moisy, Frédéric; Rabaud, Marc

    2014-08-01

    We determine experimentally the angle α of maximum wave amplitude in the far-field wake behind a vertical surface-piercing cylinder translated at constant velocity U for Bond numbers Bo(D)=D/λ(c) ranging between 0.1 and 4.2, where D is the cylinder diameter and λ(c) the capillary length. In all cases the wake angle is found to follow a Mach-like law at large velocity, α∼U(-1), but with different prefactors depending on the value of Bo(D). For small Bo(D) (large capillary effects), the wake angle approximately follows the law α≃c(g,min)/U, where c(g,min) is the minimum group velocity of capillary-gravity waves. For larger Bo(D) (weak capillary effects), we recover a law α∼√[gD]/U similar to that found for ship wakes at large velocity [Rabaud and Moisy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 214503 (2013)]. Using the general property of dispersive waves that the characteristic wavelength of the wave packet emitted by a disturbance is of order of the disturbance size, we propose a simple model that describes the transition between these two Mach-like regimes as the Bond number is varied. We show that the new capillary law α≃c(g,min)/U originates from the presence of a capillary cusp angle (distinct from the usual gravity cusp angle), along which the energy radiated by the disturbance accumulates for Bond numbers of order of unity. This model, complemented by numerical simulations of the surface elevation induced by a moving Gaussian pressure disturbance, is in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  20. Laser absorption waves in metallic capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, V. N.; Arutiunian, R. V.; Bol'Shov, L. A.; Kanevskii, M. F.; Kondrashov, V. V.

    1987-07-01

    The propagation of laser absorption waves in metallic capillaries was studied experimentally and numerically during pulsed exposure to CO2 laser radiation. The dependence of the plasma front propagation rate on the initial air pressure in the capillary is determined. In a broad range of parameters, the formation time of the optically opaque plasma layer is governed by the total laser pulse energy from the beginning of the exposure to the instant screening appears, and is weakly dependent on the pulse shape and gas pressure.

  1. Use of Plastic Capillaries for Macromolecular Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Rachel R.; Hong, Young-Soo; Ciszak, Ewa M.

    2003-01-01

    Methods of crystallization of biomolecules in plastic capillaries (Nalgene 870 PFA tubing) are presented. These crystallization methods used batch, free-interface liquid- liquid diffusion alone, or a combination with vapor diffusion. Results demonstrated growth of crystals of test proteins such as thaumatin and glucose isomerase, as well as protein studied in our laboratory such dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Once the solutions were loaded in capillaries, they were stored in the tubes in frozen state at cryogenic temperatures until the desired time of activation of crystallization experiments.

  2. Control of electroosmosis in coated quartz capillaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Blair J.; Van Alstine, James; Snyder, Robert S.; Shafer, Steven G.; Harris, J. Milton

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings for controlling the electroosmotic fluid flow that hinders electrophoretic processes is studied using analytical particle microelectrophoresis. The mobilities of 2-micron diameter glass and polystyrene latex spheres (exhibiting both negative and zero effective surface charge) were measured in 2-mm diameter quartz capillaries filled with NaCl solutions within the 3.5-7.8 pH range. It is found that capillary inner surface coatings using 5000 molecular weight (or higher) poly(ethylene glycol): significantly reduced electroosmosis within the selected pH range, were stable for long time periods, and appeared to be more effective than dextran, methylcellulose, or silane coatings.

  3. Biofabrication of Tobacco mosaic virus-nanoscaffolded supercapacitors via temporal capillary microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Faheng; Chu, Sangwook; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Culver, James N.; Ghodssi, Reza

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the implementation of temporal capillary microfluidic patterns and biological nanoscaffolds in autonomous microfabrication of nanostructured symmetric electrochemical supercapacitors. A photoresist layer was first patterned on the substrate, forming a capillary microfluidics layer with two separated interdigitated microchannels. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) macromolecules suspended in solution are autonomously delivered into the microfluidics, and form a dense bio-nanoscaffolds layer within an hour. This TMV layer is utilized in the electroless plating and thermal oxidation for creating nanostructured NiO supercapacitor. The galvanostatic charge/discharge cycle showed a 3.6-fold increase in areal capacitance for the nanostructured electrode compared to planar structures. The rapid creation of nanostructure-textured microdevices with only simple photolithography and bionanostructure self-assembly can completely eliminate the needs for sophisticated synthesis or deposition processes. This method will contribute to rapid prototyping of wide range of nano-/micro-devices with enhanced performance.

  4. Comprehensive protein profiling by multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis using cross-linked polyacrylamide coated capillaries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaorong; Gao, Lin; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J; Wang, Xingjia

    2006-02-01

    We have recently developed a new process to create cross-linked polyacrylamide (CPA) coatings on capillary walls to suppress protein-wall interactions. Here, we demonstrate CPA-coated capillaries for high-efficiency (>2 x 10(6) plates per meter) protein separations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Because CPA virtually eliminates electroosmotic flow, positive and negative proteins cannot be analyzed in a single run. A "one-sample-two-separation" approach is developed to achieve a comprehensive protein analysis. High throughput is achieved through a multiplexed CZE system.

  5. Perioral Rejuvenation With Ablative Erbium Resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L

    2015-11-01

    Since the introduction of the scanning full-field erbium laser, misconceptions regarding ablative erbium resurfacing have resulted in its being largely overshadowed by ablative fractional resurfacing. This case report illustrates the appropriateness of full-field erbium ablation for perioral resurfacing. A patient with profoundly severe perioral photodamage etched-in lines underwent full-field ablative perioral resurfacing with an erbium laser (Contour TRL, Sciton Inc., Palo Alto, CA) that allows separate control of ablation and coagulation. The pre-procedure consultations included evaluation of the severity of etched-in lines, and discussion of patient goals, expectations, and appropriate treatment options, as well as a review of patient photos and post-treatment care required. The author generally avoids full-field erbium ablation in patients with Fitzpatrick type IV and above. For each of 2 treatment sessions (separated by approximately 4 months), the patient received (12 cc plain 2% lidodaine) sulcus blocks before undergoing 4 passes with the erbium laser at 150 μ ablation, no coagulation, and then some very focal 30 μ ablation to areas of residual lines still visualized through the pinpoint bleeding. Similarly, full-field ablative resurfacing can be very reliable for significant wrinkles and creping in the lower eyelid skin--where often a single treatment of 80 μ ablation, 50 μ coagulation can lead to a nice improvement. Standardized digital imaging revealed significant improvement in deeply etched rhytides without significant adverse events. For appropriately selected patients requiring perioral (or periorbital) rejuvenation, full-field ablative erbium resurfacing is safe, efficacious and merits consideration.

  6. Signal enhancement in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using fast square-pulse discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral, H.; Robledo-Martinez, A.

    2016-10-01

    A fast, high voltage square-shaped electrical pulse initiated by laser ablation was investigated as a means to enhance the analytical capabilities of laser Induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The electrical pulse is generated by the discharge of a charged coaxial cable into a matching impedance. The pulse duration and the stored charge are determined by the length of the cable. The ablation plasma was produced by hitting an aluminum target with a nanosecond 532-nm Nd:YAG laser beam under variable fluence 1.8-900 J cm- 2. An enhancement of up to one order of magnitude on the emission signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved with the spark discharge assisted laser ablation. Besides, this increment is larger for ionized species than for neutrals. LIBS signal is also increased with the discharge voltage with a tendency to saturate for high laser fluences. Electron density and temperature evolutions were determined from time delays of 100 ns after laser ablation plasma onset. Results suggest that the spark discharge mainly re-excites the laser produced plume.

  7. Spectrometer capillary vessel and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Linehan, John C.; Yonker, Clement R.; Zemanian, Thomas S.; Franz, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is an arrangement of a glass capillary tube for use in spectroscopy. In particular, the invention is a capillary arranged in a manner permitting a plurality or multiplicity of passes of a sample material through a spectroscopic measurement zone. In a preferred embodiment, the multi-pass capillary is insertable within a standard NMR sample tube. The present invention further includes a method of making the multi-pass capillary tube and an apparatus for spinning the tube.

  8. Spectrometer capillary vessel and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Linehan, J.C.; Yonker, C.R.; Zemanian, T.S.; Franz, J.A.

    1995-11-21

    The present invention is an arrangement of a glass capillary tube for use in spectroscopy. In particular, the invention is a capillary arranged in a manner permitting a plurality or multiplicity of passes of a sample material through a spectroscopic measurement zone. In a preferred embodiment, the multi-pass capillary is insertable within a standard NMR sample tube. The present invention further includes a method of making the multi-pass capillary tube and an apparatus for spinning the tube. 13 figs.

  9. Possible role for cryoballoon ablation of right atrial appendage tachycardia when conventional ablation fails.

    PubMed

    Amasyali, Basri; Kilic, Ayhan

    2015-06-01

    Focal atrial tachycardia arising from the right atrial appendage usually responds well to radiofrequency ablation; however, successful ablation in this anatomic region can be challenging. Surgical excision of the right atrial appendage has sometimes been necessary to eliminate the tachycardia and prevent or reverse the resultant cardiomyopathy. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who had right atrial appendage tachycardia resistant to multiple attempts at ablation with use of conventional radiofrequency energy guided by means of a 3-dimensional mapping system. The condition led to cardiomyopathy in 3 months. The arrhythmia was successfully ablated with use of a 28-mm cryoballoon catheter that had originally been developed for catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cryoballoon ablation without isolation of the right atrial appendage. It might also be an alternative to epicardial ablation or surgery when refractory atrial tachycardia originates from the right atrial appendage.

  10. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - ...

  11. Applications of laser ablation to microengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gower, Malcolm C.; Rizvi, Nadeem H.

    2000-08-01

    Applications of pulsed laser ablation to the manufacture of micro- electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) devices are presented. Laser ablative processes used to manufacture a variety of microsystems technology (MST) components in the computer peripheral, sensing and biomedical industries are described together with a view of some future developments.

  12. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

  13. [Capillary leak syndrome disclosing Ofuji's papuloerythroderma].

    PubMed

    Carsuzaa, F; Pierre, C; Morand, J J; Farnarier, C; Marrot, F; Kaplanski, G

    1996-01-01

    Capillary leak syndrome is a specific entity among syndromes with capillary hyperpermeability. Endothelial cell activation is related to the higt level of adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-&, sCD62E) possibly due to several cytokines (IL-2, TNF ...). An 84-year-old woman was hospitalized for erythroderma. Ofujui papuloerythroderma was diagnosed and edema was attributed to capillary leak. A kinetic study of several cytokines and adhesion molecules sCD62E, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 was done. Outcome was favorable with corticopuvatherapy. The capillary leak syndrome reported here is simlar to that described in other erythrodermas with or without lymphoma. The keratinocyte would be activated by the CD4 T lymphocyte via the gamma-interferon mediator. The T cell secretes cytokines (interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor ...) which activates the endothelium and increases vascular permeability. The level of adhesion molecules and changes observed during the episode of edema demonstrated the endothelial activation.

  14. Imbibition of ``Open Capillary'': Fundamentals and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Marie; Kawano, Ryuji; Kamiya, Koki; Okumura, Ko

    2015-11-01

    Control or transportation of small amount of liquid is one of the most important issues in various contexts including medical sciences or pharmaceutical industries to fuel delivery. We studied imbibition of ``open capillary'' both experimentally and theoretically, and found simple scaling laws for both statics and dynamics of the imbibition, similarly as that of imbibition of capillary tubes. Furthermore, we revealed the existence of ``precursor film,'' which developed ahead of the imbibing front, and the dynamics of it is described well by another scaling law for capillary rise in a corner. Then, to show capabilities of open capillaries, we demonstrated two experiments by fabricating micro mixing devices to achieve (1) simultaneous multi-color change of the Bromothymol blue (BTB) solution and (2) expression of the green florescent protein (GFP). This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan). M. T. is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Research Fellowships for Young Scientists.

  15. Drops: The collapse of capillary jets

    PubMed Central

    Cordoba, Antonio; Cordoba, Diego; Fefferman, Charles; Fontelos, Marco A.

    2002-01-01

    The appearance of fluid filaments during the evolution of a viscous fluid jet is a commonly observed phenomenon. It is shown here that the break-up of such a jet subject to capillary forces is impossible through the collapse of a uniform filament. PMID:12172005

  16. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section... blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or heparinized glass tube of very small diameter used to collect blood by capillary action. (b) Classification. Class I...

  17. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section... blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or heparinized glass tube of very small diameter used to collect blood by capillary action. (b) Classification. Class I...

  18. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section... blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or heparinized glass tube of very small diameter used to collect blood by capillary action. (b) Classification. Class I...

  19. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section... blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or heparinized glass tube of very small diameter used to collect blood by capillary action. (b) Classification. Class I...

  20. Laser illumination of multiple capillaries that form a waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Quesada, Mark A.; Studier, F. William

    1998-08-04

    A system and method are disclosed for efficient laser illumination of the interiors of multiple capillaries simultaneously, and collection of light emitted from them. Capillaries in a parallel array can form an optical waveguide wherein refraction at the cylindrical surfaces confines side-on illuminating light to the core of each successive capillary in the array. Methods are provided for determining conditions where capillaries will form a waveguide and for assessing and minimizing losses due to reflection. Light can be delivered to the arrayed capillaries through an integrated fiber optic transmitter or through a pair of such transmitters aligned coaxially at opposite sides of the array. Light emitted from materials within the capillaries can be carried to a detection system through optical fibers, each of which collects light from a single capillary, with little cross talk between the capillaries. The collection ends of the optical fibers can be in a parallel array with the same spacing as the capillary array, so that the collection fibers can all be aligned to the capillaries simultaneously. Applicability includes improving the efficiency of many analytical methods that use capillaries, including particularly high-throughput DNA sequencing and diagnostic methods based on capillary electrophoresis.

  1. Laser illumination of multiple capillaries that form a waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Dhadwal, H.S.; Quesada, M.A.; Studier, F.W.

    1998-08-04

    A system and method are disclosed for efficient laser illumination of the interiors of multiple capillaries simultaneously, and collection of light emitted from them. Capillaries in a parallel array can form an optical waveguide wherein refraction at the cylindrical surfaces confines side-on illuminating light to the core of each successive capillary in the array. Methods are provided for determining conditions where capillaries will form a waveguide and for assessing and minimizing losses due to reflection. Light can be delivered to the arrayed capillaries through an integrated fiber optic transmitter or through a pair of such transmitters aligned coaxially at opposite sides of the array. Light emitted from materials within the capillaries can be carried to a detection system through optical fibers, each of which collects light from a single capillary, with little cross talk between the capillaries. The collection ends of the optical fibers can be in a parallel array with the same spacing as the capillary array, so that the collection fibers can all be aligned to the capillaries simultaneously. Applicability includes improving the efficiency of many analytical methods that use capillaries, including particularly high-throughput DNA sequencing and diagnostic methods based on capillary electrophoresis. 35 figs.

  2. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section... blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or heparinized glass tube of very small diameter used to collect blood by capillary action. (b) Classification. Class I...

  3. Application of CHESS single-bounce capillaries at synchrotron beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.; Szebenyi, T.; Pfeifer, M.; Woll, A.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Finkelstein, K.; Dale, D.; Wang, Y.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Gillilan, R.; Cook, M.; Bilderback, D. H.

    2014-03-01

    Single-bounce capillaries are achromatic X-ray focusing optics that can provide efficient and high demagnification focusing with large numerical apertures. Capillary fabrication at CHESS can be customized according to specific application requirements. Exemplary applications are reviewed in this paper, as well as recent progress on condensers for high-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy and small focal size capillaries.

  4. Radiofrequency ablation versus electrocautery in tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Daniel J; Littlefield, Philip D; Birkmire-Peters, Deborah P; Holtel, Michael R

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the safety, difficulty of removal, and postoperative pain profile of radiofrequency ablation versus standard electrocautery removal of tonsils. A prospective, blinded study was designed to remove 1 tonsil with each of the 2 methods. Time of operation, estimated blood loss, difficulty of operation, postoperative pain, rate of postoperative hemorrhage, and the patient's preferred technique were evaluated. The operating time was significantly longer (P < 0.007) and the patients reported significantly less pain (P < 0.001) with radiofrequency ablation. There were no differences in blood loss, difficulty of operation, or postoperative hemorrhage rates. The patients preferred the radiofrequency ablation technique (P < 0.001). Radiofrequency ablation is a viable method to remove tonsillar tissue. Operating time for this procedure will likely decrease with experience. There was significantly less pain reported with radiofrequency ablation compared with standard electrocautery.

  5. Artificial meteor ablation studies - Iron oxides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.

    1972-01-01

    Artificial meteor ablation was performed on natural minerals composed predominantly of magnetite and hematite by using an arc-heated plasma stream of air. Analysis indicates that most of the ablated debris was composed of two or more minerals. Wustite, a metastable mineral, was found to occur as a common product. The 'magnetite' sample, which was 80% magnetite, 14% hematite, 4% apatite, and 2% quartz, yielded ablated products consisting of more than 12 different minerals. Magnetite occurred in 91% of the specimens examined, hematite in 16%, and wustite in 30%. The 'hematite' sample, which was 96% hematite and 3% quartz, yielded ablated products consisting of more than 13 different minerals. Hematite occurred in 47% of the specimens examined, magnetite in 60%, and wustite in 28%. The more volatile elements (Si, P, and Cl) were depleted by about 50%. This study has shown that artificially created ablation products from iron oxides exhibit unique properties that can be used for identification.

  6. Toward single-cell analysis by plume collimation in laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stolee, Jessica A; Vertes, Akos

    2013-04-02

    Ambient ionization methods for mass spectrometry have enabled the in situ and in vivo analysis of biological tissues and cells. When an etched optical fiber is used to deliver laser energy to a sample in laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry, the analysis of large single cells becomes possible. However, because in this arrangement the ablation plume expands in three dimensions, only a small portion of it is ionized by the electrospray. Here we show that sample ablation within a capillary helps to confine the radial expansion of the plume. Plume collimation, due to the altered expansion dynamics, leads to greater interaction with the electrospray plume resulting in increased ionization efficiency, reduced limit of detection (by a factor of ~13, reaching 600 amol for verapamil), and extended dynamic range (6 orders of magnitude) compared to conventional LAESI. This enhanced sensitivity enables the analysis of a range of metabolites from small cell populations and single cells in the ambient environment. This technique has the potential to be integrated with flow cytometry for high-throughput metabolite analysis of sorted cells.

  7. Stellar Ablation of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    We review observations and theories of the solar ablation of planetary atmospheres, focusing on the terrestrial case where a large magnetosphere holds off the solar wind, so that there is little direct atmospheric impact, but also couples the solar wind electromagnetically to the auroral zones. We consider the photothermal escape flows known as the polar wind or refilling flows, the enhanced mass flux escape flows that result from localized solar wind energy dissipation in the auroral zones, and the resultant enhanced neutral atom escape flows. We term these latter two escape flows the "auroral wind." We review observations and theories of the heating and acceleration of auroral winds, including energy inputs from precipitating particles, electromagnetic energy flux at magnetohydrodynamic and plasma wave frequencies, and acceleration by parallel electric fields and by convection pickup processes also known as "centrifugal acceleration." We consider also the global circulation of ionospheric plasmas within the magnetosphere, their participation in magnetospheric disturbances as absorbers of momentum and energy, and their ultimate loss from the magnetosphere into the downstream solar wind, loading reconnection processes that occur at high altitudes near the magnetospheric boundaries. We consider the role of planetary magnetization and the accumulating evidence of stellar ablation of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Finally, we suggest and discuss future needs for both the theory and observation of the planetary ionospheres and their role in solar wind interactions, to achieve the generality required for a predictive science of the coupling of stellar and planetary atmospheres over the full range of possible conditions.

  8. Femtosecond ablation of ultrahard materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, G.; Romano, V.; Weber, H. P.; Sentis, M.; Marine, W.

    Several ultrahard materials and coatings of definite interest for tribological applications were tested with respect to their response when irradiated with fs laser pulses. Results on cemented tungsten carbide and on titanium carbonitride are reported for the first time and compared with outcomes of investigations on diamond and titanium nitride. The experiments were carried out in air, in a regime of 5-8 J/cm2 fluences, using the beam of a commercial Ti:sapphire laser. The changes induced in the surface morphology were analysed with a Nomarski optical microscope, and with SEM and AFM techniques. From the experimental data and from the calculated incident energy density distributions, the damage and ablation threshold values were determined. As expected, the diamond showed the highest threshold, while the cemented tungsten carbide exhibited typical values for metallic surfaces. The ablation rates determined (under the above-mentioned experimental conditions) were in the range 0.1-0.2 μm per pulse for all the materials investigated.

  9. Ablative shielding for hypervelocity projectiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hypervelocity projectile shield which includes a hollow semi-flexible housing fabricated from a plastic like, or otherwise transparent membrane which is filled with a fluid (gas or liquid) is presented. The housing has a inlet valve, similar to that on a tire or basketball, to introduce an ablating fluid into the housing. The housing is attached by a Velcro mount or double-sided adhesive tape to the outside surface of a structure to be protected. The housings are arrayed in a side-by-side relationship for complete coverage of the surface to be protected. In use, when a hypervelocity projectile penetrates the outer wall of a housing it is broken up and then the projectile is ablated as it travels through the fluid, much like a meteorite 'burns up' as it enters the earth's atmosphere, and the housing is deflated. The deflated housing can be easily spotted for replacement, even from a distance. Replacement is then accomplished by simply pulling a deflated housing off the structure and installing a new housing.

  10. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Renal Angiomyolipomas.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Mircea; Abel, E Jason; Wells, Shane; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J; Hedican, Sean P; Lubner, Megan G; Hinshaw, J Louis; Brace, Christopher L; Lee, Fred T

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of US-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation in the treatment of renal angiomyolipoma (AML). From January 2011 to April 2014, seven patients (5 females and 2 males; mean age 51.4) with 11 renal AMLs (9 sporadic type and 2 tuberous sclerosis associated) with a mean size of 3.4 ± 0.7 cm (range 2.4-4.9 cm) were treated with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation under US guidance. Tumoral diameter, volume, and CT/MR enhancement were measured on pre-treatment, immediate post-ablation, and delayed post-ablation imaging. Clinical symptoms and creatinine were assessed on follow-up visits. All ablations were technically successful and no major complications were encountered. Mean ablation parameters were ablation power of 65 W (range 60-70 W), using 456 mL of hydrodissection fluid per patient, over 4.7 min (range 3-8 min). Immediate post-ablation imaging demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 1.8% (3.4-3.3 cm) and 1.7% (27.5-26.3 cm(3)), respectively. Delayed imaging follow-up obtained at a mean interval of 23.1 months (median 17.6; range 9-47) demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 29% (3.4-2.4 cm) and 47% (27.5-12.1 cm(3)), respectively. Tumoral enhancement decreased on immediate post-procedure and delayed imaging by CT/MR parameters, indicating decreased tumor vascularity. No patients required additional intervention and no patients experienced spontaneous bleeding post-ablation. Our early experience with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation demonstrates it to be a safe and effective modality to devascularize and decrease the size of renal AMLs.

  11. Lithium battery discharge tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long term discharge of a variety of lithium cells was characterized and the susceptibility of the cells to chemical variation during the slow discharge was tested. A shunt resistor was set across the terminals to monitor the voltage as a function of time. Failures were identified by premature voltage drops.

  12. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  13. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  14. Co-axial discharges

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J. S.; Smith, L. P.

    1960-11-22

    An apparatus is described for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantuge that ions that return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. These discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering the plasma area because of the arc barrier set up by the cylindrical outer arc. (auth)

  15. GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, S.

    1958-11-11

    An apparatus utilized in introducing tritium gas into envelope of a gas discharge device for the purpose f maintaining the discharge path in ionized condition is described. ln addition to the cathode and anode, the ischarge device contains a zirconium or tantalum ilament arranged for external excitation and a metallic seed containing tritium, and also arranged to have a current passed through it. Initially, the zirconium or tantalum filament is vaporized to deposit its material adjacent the main discharge region. Then the tritium gas is released and, due to its affinity for the first released material, it deposits in the region of the main discharge where it is most effective in maintaining the discharge path in an ionized condition.

  16. Method of making tapered capillary tips with constant inner diameters

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Ryan T [West Richland, WA; Page, Jason S [Kennewick, WA; Tang, Keqi [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    Methods of forming electrospray ionization emitter tips are disclosed herein. In one embodiment, an end portion of a capillary tube can be immersed into an etchant, wherein the etchant forms a concave meniscus on the outer surface of the capillary. Variable etching rates in the meniscus can cause an external taper to form. While etching the outer surface of the capillary wall, a fluid can be flowed through the interior of the capillary tube. Etching continues until the immersed portion of the capillary tube is completely etched away.

  17. Benign thyroid nodule unresponsive to radiofrequency ablation treated with laser ablation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Silvia; Balestra, Margherita; Vera, Lara; Giusti, Massimo

    2018-05-11

    Radiofrequency ablation and laser ablation are safe and effective techniques for reducing thyroid nodule volume, neck symptoms, and cosmetic complaints. Therapeutic success is defined as a nodule reduction > 50% between 6 and 12 months after the procedure, but a percentage of nodules inexplicably do not respond to thermal ablation. We describe the case of a young Caucasian woman with a solid benign thyroid nodule who refused surgery and who had undergone radiofrequency ablation in 2013. The nodule did not respond in terms of either volume reduction or improvement in neck symptoms. After 2 years, given the patient's continued refusal of thyroidectomy, we proposed laser ablation. The nodule displayed a significant volume reduction (- 50% from radiofrequency ablation baseline volume, - 57% from laser ablation baseline), and the patient reported a significant improvement in neck symptoms (from 6/10 to 1/10 on a visual analogue scale). We conjecture that some benign thyroid nodules may be intrinsically resistant to necrosis when one specific ablation technique is used, but may respond to another technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the effect of performing a different percutaneous ablation technique in a nodule that does not respond to radiofrequency ablation.

  18. The shear strength of three-dimensional capillary-porous titanium coatings for intraosseous implants.

    PubMed

    Kalita, V I; Komlev, D I; Komlev, V S; Radyuk, A A

    2016-03-01

    A plasma spraying process for the deposition of three-dimensional capillary-porous titanium coatings using a wire has been developed. In this process, two additional dc arcs are discharged between plasmatron and both the wire and the substrate, resulting in additional activation of the substrate and the particles, particularly by increasing their temperature. The shear strength of the titanium coating with 46% porosity is 120.6 MPa. A new procedure for estimating the shear strength of porous coatings has been developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Robotically assisted ablation produces more rapid and greater signal attenuation than manual ablation.

    PubMed

    Koa-Wing, Michael; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Malcolme-Lawes, Louisa C; Salukhe, Tushar V; Linton, Nick W F; Grogan, Aaron P; Bergman, Dale; Lim, Phang Boon; Whinnett, Zachary I; McCarthy, Karen; Ho, Siew Yen; O'Neill, Mark D; Peters, Nicholas S; Davies, D Wyn; Kanagaratnam, Prapa

    2009-12-01

    Robotic remote catheter ablation potentially provides improved catheter-tip stability, which should improve the efficiency of radiofrequency energy delivery. Percentage reduction in electrogram peak-to-peak voltage has been used as a measure of effectiveness of ablation. We tested the hypothesis that improved catheter-tip stability of robotic ablation can diminish signals to a greater degree than manual ablation. In vivo NavX maps of 7 pig atria were constructed. Separate lines of ablation were performed robotically and manually, recording pre- and postablation peak-to-peak voltages at 10, 20, 30, and 60 seconds and calculating signal amplitude reduction. Catheter ablation settings were constant (25W, 50 degrees , 17 mL/min, 20-30 g catheter tip pressure). The pigs were sacrificed and ablation lesions correlated with NavX maps. Robotic ablation reduced signal amplitude to a greater degree than manual ablation (49 +/- 2.6% vs 29 +/- 4.5% signal reduction after 1 minute [P = 0.0002]). The mean energy delivered (223 +/- 184 J vs 231 +/- 190 J, P = 0.42), power (19 +/- 3.5 W vs 19 +/- 4 W, P = 0.84), and duration of ablation (15 +/- 9 seconds vs 15 +/- 9 seconds, P = 0.89) was the same for manual and robotic. The mean peak catheter-tip temperature was higher for robotic (45 +/- 5 degrees C vs 42 +/- 3 degrees C [P < 0.0001]). The incidence of >50% signal reduction was greater for robotic (37%) than manual (21%) ablation (P = 0.0001). Robotically assisted ablation appears to be more effective than manual ablation at signal amplitude reduction, therefore may be expected to produce improved clinical outcomes.

  20. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of explosives using alternating current corona discharge ion source.

    PubMed

    Usmanov, D T; Chen, L C; Yu, Z; Yamabe, S; Sakaki, S; Hiraoka, K

    2015-04-01

    The high-sensitive detection of explosives is of great importance for social security and safety. In this work, the ion source for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry using alternating current corona discharge was newly designed for the analysis of explosives. An electromolded fine capillary with 115 µm inner diameter and 12 mm long was used for the inlet of the mass spectrometer. The flow rate of air through this capillary was 41 ml/min. Stable corona discharge could be maintained with the position of the discharge needle tip as close as 1 mm to the inlet capillary without causing the arc discharge. Explosives dissolved in 0.5 µl methanol were injected to the ion source. The limits of detection for five explosives with 50 pg or lower were achieved. In the ion/molecule reactions of trinitrotoluene (TNT), the discharge products of NOx (-) (x = 2,3), O3 and HNO3 originating from plasma-excited air were suggested to contribute to the formation of [TNT - H](-) (m/z 226), [TNT - NO](-) (m/z 197) and [TNT - NO + HNO3 ](-) (m/z 260), respectively. Formation processes of these ions were traced by density functional theory calculations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Successful surgical treatment of left atrioesophageal fistula following atrial ablation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Mohara, Jun; Ogawa, Hiroomi; Igarashi, Takamichi; Motegi, Yoko

    2018-01-23

    A 69-year-old male had catheter-based ablation for atrial fibrillation. He was admitted with high fever and had neurological disorder; he was diagnosed with atrioesophageal fistula by CT scan. Intraoperative findings showed that the fistula existed adjacent to the left lower pulmonary vein with a vegetation. The esophageal fistula was repaired, and the left atrial fistula was closed. A nasogastric tube tip was placed in the esophagus for decompression and advanced into the stomach for nutritional support. After vomiting, the patient showed loss of consciousness and left hemiplegia. CT scan revealed a micro-air embolism to the brain. The nasogastric tube tip was pulled back into the esophagus. Gastrointestinal fiberscopy showed a pinhole at the fistula, and a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was made. After conservative treatment, the esophageal fistula was closed and mediastinitis was improved. He was discharged with a little neurological deficit.

  2. Design and Performance Estimates of an Ablative Gallium Electromagnetic Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study details the high-power condensable propellant research being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center. The gallium electromagnetic thruster is an ablative coaxial accelerator designed to operate at arc discharge currents in the range of 10-25 kA. The thruster is driven by a four-parallel line pulse forming network capable of producing a 250 microsec pulse with a 60 kA amplitude. A torsional-type thrust stand is used to measure the impulse of a coaxial GEM thruster. Tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber 1.5 m in diameter and 4.5 m long with a background pressure of 2 microtorr. Electromagnetic scaling calculations predict a thruster efficiency of 50% at a specific impulse of 2800 seconds.

  3. Design of Capillary Flows with Spatially Graded Porous Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Young Soo; Figliuzzi, Bruno Michel; Buie, Cullen

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a new capillary tube model, consisting of multi-layered capillary tubes oriented in the direction of flow, to predict capillary speeds on spatially graded porous films. Capillary flows through thin porous media have been widely utilized for small size liquid transport systems. However, for most media it is challenging to realize arbitrary shapes and spatially functionalized micro-structures with variable flow properties. Therefore, conventional media can only be used for capillary flows obeying Washburn's equation and the modifications thereof. Given this background, we recently developed a method called breakdown anodization (BDA) to produce highly wetting porous films. The resulting surfaces show nearly zero contact angles and fast water spreading speed. Furthermore, capillary pressure and spreading diffusivity can be expressed as functions of capillary height when customized electric fields are used in BDA. From the capillary tube model, we derived a general capillary flow equation of motion in terms of capillary pressure and spreading diffusivity. The theoretical model shows good agreement with experimental capillary flows. The study will provide novel design methodologies for paper-based microfluidic devices.

  4. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic model for direct current discharge fireball experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, K. H.; Navia, C. E.; Robba, M. B.; Carneiro, L. T.; Emelin, S. E.

    2006-11-01

    Ball lightning models and corresponding laboratory efforts in generating fireballs are briefly summarized to give an overview of the current status. In particular, emphasis is given to direct current discharge experiments at atmospheric pressure such as capillary discharge with a plasma plume in front of the anode opening [Emelin et al., Tech. Phys. Letters 23, 758 (1997)] and water resistor discharge with fluttering fireball overhead [Egorov and Stepanov, Tech. Phys. 47, 1584 (2002)]. These fireballs are interpreted as laboratory demonstrations of the self-similar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of ball lightning [Tsui, Phys. Plasmas 13, 072102 (2006)].

  5. Emerging needle ablation technology in urology.

    PubMed

    Leveillee, Raymond J; Pease, Karli; Salas, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Thermal ablation of urologic tumors in the form of freezing (cryoablation) and heating (radiofrequency ablation) have been utilized successfully to treat and ablate soft tissue tumors for over 15 years. Multiple studies have demonstrated efficacy nearing that of extirpative surgery for certain urologic conditions. There are technical limitations to their speed and safety profile because of the physical limits of thermal diffusion. Recently, there has been a desire to investigate other forms of energy in an effort to circumvent the limitations of cryoblation and radiofrequency ablation. This review will focus on three relatively new energy applications as they pertain to tissue ablation: microwave, irreversible electroporation, and water vapor. High-intensity-focused ultrasound nor interstitial lasers are discussed, as there have been no recently published updates. Needle and probe-based ablative treatments will continue to play an important role. As three-dimensional imaging workstations move from the advanced radiologic interventional suite to the operating room, surgeons will likely still play a pivotal role in the +-application of these probe ablative devices. It is essential that the surgeon understands the fundamentals of these devices in order to optimize their application.

  6. Monitoring radiofrequency ablation with ultrasound Nakagami imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chiao-Yin; Geng, Xiaonan; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Liu, Hao-Li; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2013-07-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a widely used alternative modality in the treatment of liver tumors. Ultrasound B-mode imaging is an important tool to guide the insertion of the RFA electrode into the tissue. However, it is difficult to visualize the ablation zone because RFA induces the shadow effect in a B-scan. Based on the randomness of ultrasonic backscattering, this study proposes ultrasound Nakagami imaging, which is a well-established method for backscattered statistics analysis, as an approach to complement the conventional B-scan for evaluating the ablation region. Porcine liver samples (n = 6) were ablated using a RFA system and monitored by employing an ultrasound scanner equipped with a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. During the stages of ablation (0-12 min) and postablation (12-24 min), the raw backscattered data were acquired at a sampling rate of 30 MHz for B-mode, Nakagami imaging, and polynomial approximation of Nakagami imaging. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was also calculated to compare the image contrasts of the B-mode and Nakagami images. The results demonstrated that the Nakagami image has the ability to visualize changes in the backscattered statistics in the ablation zone, including the shadow region during RFA. The average Nakagami parameter increased from 0.2 to 0.6 in the ablation stage, and then decreased to approximately 0.3 at the end of the postablation stage. Moreover, the CNR of the Nakagami image was threefold that of the B-mode image, showing that the Nakagami image has a better image contrast for monitoring RFA. Specifically, the use of the polynomial approximation equips the Nakagami image with an enhanced ability to estimate the range of the ablation region. This study demonstrated that ultrasound Nakagami imaging based on the analysis of backscattered statistics has the ability to visualize the RFA-induced ablation zone, even if the shadow effect exists in the B-scan.

  7. Thermal protection system ablation sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

  8. Direct His bundle pacing post AVN ablation.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanadoss, Umashankar; Aggarwal, Ashim; Huang, David T; Daubert, James P; Shah, Abrar

    2009-08-01

    Atrioventricular nodal (AVN) ablation with concomitant pacemaker implantation is one of the strategies that reduce symptoms in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the long-term adverse effects of right ventricular (RV) apical pacing have led to the search for alternating sites of pacing. Biventricular pacing produces a significant improvement in functional capacity over RV pacing in patients undergoing AVN ablation. Another alternative site for pacing is direct His bundle to reduce the adverse outcome of RV pacing. Here, we present a case of direct His bundle pacing using steerable lead delivery system in a patient with symptomatic paroxysmal AF with concurrent AVN ablation.

  9. Caring for women undergoing cardiac ablation.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Beryl

    2008-09-01

    Radiofrequency cardiac ablation (RFCA) has become the treatment of choice for many cardiac arrhythmias that have not responded to medication. Complications of cardiac ablation include bleeding, thrombosis, pericardial tamponade, and stroke. Many complications are procedure specific, and several complications can be avoided with appropriate nursing care. Quality patient outcomes begin with competent nursing care. Therefore it is vital for a patient undergoing a percutaneous cardiac ablation procedure to receive supportive care and pre- and post-interventional patient education. This article discusses the nursing care of women undergoing RFCA.

  10. Discharge lamp technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  11. Glow discharge detector

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2002-01-01

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

  12. INTENSE ENERGETIC GAS DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-03-01

    A method and apparatus for initiating and sustaining an energetic gas arc discharge are described. A hollow cathode and a hollow anode are provided. By regulating the rate of gas flow into the interior of the cathode, the arc discharge is caused to run from the inner surface of the cathode with the result that adequate space-charge neutralization is provided inside the cathode but not in the main arc volume. Thus, the gas fed to the cathode is substantially completely ionized before it leaves the cathode, with the result that an energetic arc discharge can be maintained at lower operating pressures.

  13. Capillary rise and swelling in cellulose sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jonghyun; Kim, Jungchul; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    A cellulose sponge, which is a mundane example of a porous hydrophilic structure, can absorb and hold a significant amount of liquid. We present the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of the capillary imbibition of various aqueous solutions in the sponge that swells at the same time. We find that the rate of water rise against the resistance caused by gravitational and viscous effects deviates from Washburn's rule beyond a certain threshold height. We rationalize the novel power law of the rise height versus time by combining Darcy's law with hygroscopic swelling equation and also predict the threshold height. The scaling law constructed through this work agrees well with the experimental results, shedding light on the physics of capillary flow in deforming porous media.

  14. Transversally periodic solitary gravity–capillary waves

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Paul A.; Wang, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    When both gravity and surface tension effects are present, surface solitary water waves are known to exist in both two- and three-dimensional infinitely deep fluids. We describe here solutions bridging these two cases: travelling waves which are localized in the propagation direction and periodic in the transverse direction. These transversally periodic gravity–capillary solitary waves are found to be of either elevation or depression type, tend to plane waves below a critical transverse period and tend to solitary lumps as the transverse period tends to infinity. The waves are found numerically in a Hamiltonian system for water waves simplified by a cubic truncation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. This approximation has been proved to be very accurate for both two- and three-dimensional computations of fully localized gravity–capillary solitary waves. The stability properties of these waves are then investigated via the time evolution of perturbed wave profiles. PMID:24399922

  15. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  16. Capillary-Effect Root-Environment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Bruce D.

    1991-01-01

    Capillary-effect root-environment system (CERES) is experimental apparatus for growing plants in nutrient solutions. Solution circulated at slight tension in cavity filled with plastic screen and covered by porous plastic membrane. By adsorptive attraction, root draws solution through membrane. Conceived for use in microgravity of space, also finds terrestrial application in germinating seedlings, because it protects them from extremes of temperature, moisture, and soil pH and from overexposure to fertilizers and herbicides.

  17. Demonstration of Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, RIchard; Tang, Linh; Wambolt, Spencer; Golliher, Eric; Agui, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a proof of concept effort for development of a Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser (NCCC or NC3) used for microgravity compatible water recovery from moist air with integral passive phase separation. Removal of liquid condensate from the air stream exiting a condenser is readily performed here on Earth. In order to perform this function in space however, without gravity or mechanical action, other tactics including utilization of inertial, drag and capillary forces are required. Within the NC3, liquid water forms via condensation on cold condenser surfaces as humid air passes along multiple spiral channels, each in its own plane, all together forming a stacked plate assembly. Non-mechanical inertial forces are employed to transfer condensate, as it forms, via centripetal action to the outer perimeter of each channel. A V-shaped groove, constructed on this outer edge of the spiral channel, increases local capillary forces thereby retaining the liquid. Air drag then pulls the liquid along to a collection region near the center of the device. Dry air produced by each parallel spiral channel is combined in a common orthogonal, out-of-plane conduit passing down the axial center of the stacked device. Similarly, the parallel condensate streams are combined and removed from the condenser/separator through yet another out-of-plane axial conduit. NC3 is an integration of conventional finned condenser operation, combined with static phase separation and capillary transport phenomena. A Mars' transit mission would be a logical application for this technology where gravity is absent and the use of vibrating, energy-intensive, motor-driven centrifugal separators is undesired. Here a vapor stream from either the Heat Melt Compactor or the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly, for example, would be dried to a dew point of 10 deg using a passive NC3 condenser/separator with the precious water condensate recycled to the water bus.

  18. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

  19. Capillary Flow Experiment in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-15

    Astronaut Karen Nyberg,Expedition 36 flight engineer,works on the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) Vane Gap-1 (VG-1) setup in the Node 2/Harmony. The CFE-2 vessel is used to observe fluid interface and critical wetting behavior in a cylindrical chamber with elliptic cross-section and an adjustable central perforated vane. The primary objective of the Vane Gap experiments is to determine equilibrium interface configurations and critical wetting conditions for interfaces between interior corners separated by a gap.

  20. Dual beam optical system for pulsed laser ablation film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-09-24

    A laser ablation apparatus having a laser source outputting a laser ablation beam includes an ablation chamber having a sidewall, a beam divider for dividing the laser ablation beam into two substantially equal halves, and a pair of mirrors for converging the two halves on a surface of the target from complementary angles relative to the target surface normal, thereby generating a plume of ablated material emanating from the target. 3 figs.

  1. Dual beam optical system for pulsed laser ablation film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus having a laser source outputting a laser ablation beam includes an ablation chamber having a sidewall, a beam divider for dividing the laser ablation beam into two substantially equal halves, and a pair of mirrors for converging the two halves on a surface of the target from complementary angles relative to the target surface normal, thereby generating a plume of ablated material emanating from the target.

  2. Student Design Challenges in Capillary Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Dennis P.; Wollman, Andrew; Hall, Nancy R.; Weislogel, Mark; DeLombard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    For some grade 8-12 students, capillary flow has bridged the gap between the classroom and research facility, from normal gravity to microgravity. In the past four years, NASA and the Portland State University (PSU) have jointly challenged students to design test cells, using Computer-Aided Design (CAD), to study capillary action in microgravity as PSU has done on the International Space Station (ISS). Using the student-submitted CAD drawings, the test cells were manufactured by PSU and tested in their 2.1-second drop tower. The microgravity results were made available online for student analysis and reporting. Over 100 such experiments have been conducted, where there has been participation from 15 states plus a German school for the children of U.S. military personnel. In 2016, a related NASA challenge was held in partnership with the ASGSR, again, based on the research conducted by PSU. In this challenge, grade 9-12 students designed and built devices using capillary action to launch droplets as far as possible in NASAs 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Example results will be presented by students at this conference. The challenges engage students in ISS science and technology and can inspire them to pursue technical careers.

  3. Femtosecond laser ablation of dentin and enamel: relationship between laser fluence and ablation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hu; Liu, Jing; Li, Hong; Ge, Wenqi; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong; Lü, Peijun

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between laser fluence and ablation efficiency of a femtosecond laser with a Gaussian-shaped pulse used to ablate dentin and enamel for prosthodontic tooth preparation. A diode-pumped thin-disk femtosecond laser with wavelength of 1025 nm and pulse width of 400 fs was used for the ablation of dentin and enamel. The laser spot was guided in a line on the dentin and enamel surfaces to form a groove-shaped ablation zone under a series of laser pulse energies. The width and volume of the ablated line were measured under a three-dimensional confocal microscope to calculate the ablation efficiency. Ablation efficiency for dentin reached a maximum value of 0.020 mm3∕J when the laser fluence was set at 6.51 J∕cm2. For enamel, the maximum ablation efficiency was 0.009 mm3∕J at a fluence of 7.59 J∕cm2.Ablation efficiency of the femtosecond laser on dentin and enamel is closely related to the laser fluence and may reach a maximum when the laser fluence is set to an appropriate value. © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  4. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... remove it. Torn or damaged anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Inflamed or damaged ... surgery Knee pain Meniscal allograft transplantation Patient Instructions ACL reconstruction - discharge Getting your home ready - knee or ...

  5. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000125.htm Concussion in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... child's provider about: Playing contact sports, such as football, hockey, and soccer Riding a bicycle, motorcycle, or ...

  6. Epilepsy or seizures - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000128.htm Epilepsy or seizures - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have epilepsy . People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  7. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000129.htm Multiple sclerosis - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis (MS). This disease affects the brain and spinal ...

  8. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowly. Get plenty of rest. You can start sexual activity around 6 weeks after delivery, if the discharge or lochia has stopped. Women who breastfeed may have a lower sex drive than normal, along with vaginal dryness and pain ...

  9. Oil Discharge Reporting Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If a facility or vessel discharges oil to navigable waters or adjoining shorelines, the owner/operator is required to follow certain federal reporting requirements. This fact sheet outlines those reporting requirements.

  10. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. Now ...

  11. Newborn jaundice - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge Images Exchange transfusion - series Infant jaundice References Kaplan M, Wong RJ, Sibley E, Stevenson DK. Neonatal ... constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial ...

  12. Hypospadias repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000158.htm Hypospadias repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child had hypospadias repair to fix a birth defect in which ...

  13. Brain injury - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  14. Gallbladder removal - open - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... your eyes turns yellow. Your stools are a gray color. Alternative Names Cholelithiasis - open discharge; Biliary calculus - ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  15. Electric discharge during electrosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I.; Keidar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 103 A/cm2. The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 1016 cm−3 and (1-2) Ohm−1cm−1, respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold. PMID:25880721

  16. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... care for your child. Take Charge of Your Child's Asthma at Home Make sure you know the ...

  17. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  18. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-04-16

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  19. Prostate radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  20. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  1. Lithium granule ablation and penetration during ELM pacing experiments at DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, R.; Bortolon, A.; Roquemore, A. L.

    At DIII-D, lithium granules were radially injected into the plasma at the outer midplane to trigger and pace edge localized modes (ELMs). Granules ranging in size from 300 to 1000 microns were horizontally launched into H-mode discharges with velocities near 100 m/s, and granule to granule injection frequencies less than 500 Hz. While the smaller granules were only successful in triggering ELMs approximately 20% of the time, the larger granules regularly demonstrated ELM triggering efficiencies of greater than 80%. A fast visible camera looking along the axis of injection observed the ablation of the lithium granules. We used the durationmore » of ablation as a benchmark for a neutral gas shielding calculation, and approximated the ablation rate and mass deposition location for the various size granules, using measured edge plasma profiles as inputs. In conclusion, this calculation suggests that the low triggering efficiency of the smaller granules is due to the inability of these granules to traverse the steep edge pressure gradient region and reach the top of the pedestal prior to full ablation.« less

  2. Lithium granule ablation and penetration during ELM pacing experiments at DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Lunsford, R.; Bortolon, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; ...

    2016-05-25

    At DIII-D, lithium granules were radially injected into the plasma at the outer midplane to trigger and pace edge localized modes (ELMs). Granules ranging in size from 300 to 1000 microns were horizontally launched into H-mode discharges with velocities near 100 m/s, and granule to granule injection frequencies less than 500 Hz. While the smaller granules were only successful in triggering ELMs approximately 20% of the time, the larger granules regularly demonstrated ELM triggering efficiencies of greater than 80%. A fast visible camera looking along the axis of injection observed the ablation of the lithium granules. We used the durationmore » of ablation as a benchmark for a neutral gas shielding calculation, and approximated the ablation rate and mass deposition location for the various size granules, using measured edge plasma profiles as inputs. In conclusion, this calculation suggests that the low triggering efficiency of the smaller granules is due to the inability of these granules to traverse the steep edge pressure gradient region and reach the top of the pedestal prior to full ablation.« less

  3. Endometrial ablation: normal appearance and complications.

    PubMed

    Drylewicz, Monica R; Robinson, Kathryn; Siegel, Cary Lynn

    2018-03-14

    Global endometrial ablation is a commonly performed, minimally invasive technique aimed at improving/resolving abnormal uterine bleeding and menorrhagia in women. As non-resectoscopic techniques have come into existence, endometrial ablation performance continues to increase due to accessibility and decreased requirements for operating room time and advanced technical training. The increased utilization of this method translates into increased imaging of patients who have undergone the procedure. An understanding of the expected imaging appearances of endometrial ablation using different modalities is important for the abdominal radiologist. In addition, the frequent usage of the technique naturally comes with complications requiring appropriate imaging work-up. We review the expected appearance of the post-endometrial ablated uterus on multiple imaging modalities and demonstrate the more common and rare complications seen in the immediate post-procedural time period and remotely.

  4. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A general thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in the ablation simulation of the meteoroid and the glassy ablator for spacecraft Thermal Protection Systems. Time-dependent axisymmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. The predicted mass loss rates will be compared with available data for model validation, and parametric studies will also be performed for meteoroid earth entry conditions.

  5. Left Atrial Anatomy Relevant to Catheter Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, Damián; Cabrera, José Angel; Saremi, Farhood

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of interventional procedures for the treatment of arrhythmias in humans, especially the use of catheter ablation techniques, has renewed interest in cardiac anatomy. Although the substrates of atrial fibrillation (AF), its initiation and maintenance, remain to be fully elucidated, catheter ablation in the left atrium (LA) has become a common therapeutic option for patients with this arrhythmia. Using ablation catheters, various isolation lines and focal targets are created, the majority of which are based on gross anatomical, electroanatomical, and myoarchitectual patterns of the left atrial wall. Our aim was therefore to review the gross morphological and architectural features of the LA and their relations to extracardiac structures. The latter have also become relevant because extracardiac complications of AF ablation can occur, due to injuries to the phrenic and vagal plexus nerves, adjacent coronary arteries, or the esophageal wall causing devastating consequences. PMID:25057427

  6. Femtosecond laser ablation of the stapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, Ryan G.; Sun, Hui; Rothholtz, Vanessa S.; Juhasz, Tibor; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2009-03-01

    A femtosecond laser, normally used for LASIK eye surgery, is used to perforate cadaveric human stapes. The thermal side effects of bone ablation are measured with a thermocouple in an inner ear model and are found to be within acceptable limits for inner ear surgery. Stress and acoustic events, recorded with piezoelectric film and a microphone, respectively, are found to be negligible. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical coherence tomography are used to confirm the precision of the ablation craters and lack of damage to the surrounding tissue. Ablation is compared to that from an Er:YAG laser, the current laser of choice for stapedotomy, and is found to be superior. Ultra-short-pulsed lasers offer a precise and efficient ablation of the stapes, with minimal thermal and negligible mechanical and acoustic damage. They are, therefore, ideal for stapedotomy operations.

  7. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry - A review

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei; Liu, Haichen

    Laser ablation is becoming a dominant technology for direct solid sampling in analytical chemistry. Laser ablation refers to the process in which an intense burst of energy delivered by a short laser pulse is used to sample (remove a portion of) a material. The advantages of laser ablation chemical analysis include direct characterization of solids, no chemical procedures for dissolution, reduced risk of contamination or sample loss, analysis of very small samples not separable for solution analysis, and determination of spatial distributions of elemental composition. This review describes recent research to understand and utilize laser ablation for direct solid sampling,more » with emphasis on sample introduction to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Current research related to contemporary experimental systems, calibration and optimization, and fractionation is discussed, with a summary of applications in several areas.« less

  8. Optical ablation/temperature gage (COTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassaing, J.; Balageas, D.

    ONERA has ground and flight tested for heat-shield recession a novel technique, different from current radiation and acoustic measurement methods. It uses a combined ablation/temperature gage that views the radiation optically from a cavity embedded within the heat shield. Flight measurements, both of temperature and of passage of the ablation front, are compared with data generated by a predictive numerical code. The ablation and heat diffusion into the instrumented ablator can be simulated numerically to evaluate accurately the errors due to the presence of the gage. This technology was established in 1978 and finally adopted after ground tests in arc heater facilities. After four years of flight evaluations, it is possible to evaluate and criticize the sensor reliability.

  9. Microwave Tissue Ablation: Biophysics, Technology and Applications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an emerging treatment option for many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. During treatment, microwaves are applied directly to tissues to produce rapid temperature elevations sufficient to produce immediate coagulative necrosis. The engineering design criteria for each application differ, with individual consideration for factors such as desired ablation zone size, treatment duration, and procedural invasiveness. Recent technological developments in applicator cooling, power control and system optimization for specific applications promise to increase the utilization of microwave ablation in the future. This article will review the basic biophysics of microwave tissue heating, provide an overview of the design and operation of current equipment, and outline areas for future research for microwave ablation. PMID:21175404

  10. Photodynamic therapy toward selective endometrial ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadir, Yona; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Berns, Michael W.

    1993-05-01

    Potential applications of photodynamic therapy for endometrial disease are discussed. Experimental models that may lead to diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis as well as selective endometrial ablation are summarized.

  11. Quantitative analysis of nailfold capillary morphology in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dug-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) has been used to examine morphological and functional microcirculation changes in connective tissue diseases. It has been demonstrated that NFC patterns reflect abnormal microvascular dynamics, which may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine NFC patterns in FM, and their association with clinical features of FM. Methods A total of 67 patients with FM, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, were included. Nailfold capillary patterns were quantitatively analyzed using computerized NFC. The parameters of interest were as follows: number of capillaries within the central 3 mm, deletion score, apical limb width, capillary width, and capillary dimension. Capillary dimension was determined by calculating the number of capillaries using the Adobe Photoshop version 7.0. Results FM patients had a lower number of capillaries and higher deletion scores on NFC compared to healthy controls (17.3 ± 1.7 vs. 21.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.05; 2.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.7 ± 0.6, p < 0.05, respectively). Both apical limb width (µm) and capillary width (µm) were significantly decreased in FM patients (1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 3.7 ± 0.6; 5.4 ± 0.5 vs. 7.5 ± 1.4, respectively), indicating that FM patients have abnormally decreased digital capillary diameter and density. Interestingly, there was no difference in capillary dimension between the two groups, suggesting that the length or tortuosity of capillaries in FM patients is increased to compensate for diminished microcirculation. Conclusions FM patients had altered capillary density and diameter in the digits. Diminished microcirculation on NFC may alter capillary density and increase tortuosity. PMID:26161020

  12. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  13. Flexible Ablators: Applications and Arcjet Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin A S.; Mcguire, Kathy; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Gorbunov, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Flexible ablators were conceived in 2009 to meet the technology pull for large, human Mars Exploration Class, 23 m diameter hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerators. As described elsewhere, they have been recently undergoing initial technical readiness (TRL) advancement by NASA. The performance limits of flexible ablators in terms of maximum heat rates, pressure and shear remain to be defined. Further, it is hoped that this emerging technology will vastly expand the capability of future NASA missions involving atmospheric entry systems. This paper considers four topics of relevance to flexible ablators: (1) Their potential applications to near/far term human and robotic missions (2) Brief consideration of the balance between heat shield diameter, flexible ablator performance limits, entry vehicle controllability and aft-body shear layer impingement of interest to designers of very large entry vehicles, (3) The approach for developing bonding processes of flexible ablators for use on rigid entry bodies and (4) Design of large arcjet test articles that will enable the testing of flexible ablators in flight-like, combined environments (heat flux, pressure, shear and structural tensile loading). Based on a review of thermal protection system performance requirements for future entry vehicles, it is concluded that flexible ablators have broad applications to conventional, rigid entry body systems and are enabling to large deployable (both inflatable and mechanical) heat shields. Because of the game-changing nature of flexible ablators, it appears that NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) will fund a focused, 3-year TRL advancement of the new materials capable of performance in heat fluxes in the range of 200-600 W/sq. cm. This support will enable the manufacture and use of the large-scale arcjet test designs that will be a key element of this OCT funded activity.

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Ablation-Controlled Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundrapu, Madhusudhan N.

    Ablation and plasma formation in high energy laser target interactions and arc discharges are studied numerically. Each of the two processes is modeled separately due to the type of energy source and the resulting flow eld. Ablation of the target material and plasma formation are coupled to obtain evaporation rate, temperature distribution, velocity eld, and species concentration self-consistently. Laser ablation is studied in the perspective of directed energy applications, where beam size varies from few centimeters to tens of centimeters with energies extending up to 10 kW/cm2. Because of this high energy deposition, the evaporated material expands to supersonic speeds into the free space. Due to the large spot sizes and associated supersonic flow, one dimensional Euler equations are considered to be sufficient for modeling the plume. Instead, more emphasis was given to evaporation model, by introducing Knudsen layer kinetics at the plume target interface, and plasma shielding. The evaporation rate is validated with results from the experiments and simulations are carried out to nd the in fluence of laser beam frequency on evaporation rates. The evaporation model used in this work is found to be more accurate than the widely used model based on sonic speed assumption. The optimum beam wavelength for Al surfaces is found to be 850 nm. Attenuation of telemetry data by plasma is a concern for the testing of directed energy systems. Electrostatic approach for the mitigation of communication attenuation is analyzed to obtain the fluency limits up to which the approach can be implemented. It is found from sheath calculations that uninterrupted telemetry can be achieved through Al plasma for fluences below 4 J/cm2 at a background pressure of 1 atm, using a maximum bias voltage of 10 kV . Arc discharge ablation is modeled for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The electric arc generated between the electrodes, placed inside a Helium chamber, evaporates the catalyst

  15. An Optical Fiber Viscometer Based on Long-Period Fiber Grating Technology and Capillary Tube Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Neng; Tang, Jaw-Luen

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses the development and assessment of a fiber optical viscometer using a simple and low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPFG) level sensor and a capillary tube mechanism. Previous studies of optical viscosity sensors were conducted by using different optical sensing methods. The proposed optical viscometer consists of an LPFG sensor, a temperature-controlled chamber, and a cone-shaped reservoir where gravitational force could cause fluid to flow through the capillary tube. We focused on the use of LPFGs as level sensors and the wavelength shifts were not used to quantify the viscosity values of asphalt binders. When the LPFG sensor was immersed in the constant volume (100 mL) AC-20 asphalt binder, a wavelength shift was observed and acquired using LabVIEW software and GPIB controller. The time spent between empty and 100 mL was calculated to determine the discharge time. We simultaneously measured the LPFG-induced discharge time and the transmission spectra both in hot air and AC-20 asphalt binder at five different temperatures, 60, 80, 100, 135, and 170 Celsius. An electromechanical rotational viscometer was also used to measure the viscosities, 0.15–213.80 Pa·s, of the same asphalt binder at the above five temperatures. A non-linear regression analysis was performed to convert LPFG-induced discharge time into viscosities. Comparative analysis shows that the LPFG-induced discharge time agreed well with the viscosities obtained from the rotational viscometer. PMID:22163519

  16. Femtosecond laser lithotripsy: feasibility and ablation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jinze; Teichman, Joel M H; Wang, Tianyi; Neev, Joseph; Glickman, Randolph D; Chan, Kin Foong; Milner, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Light emitted from a femtosecond laser is capable of plasma-induced ablation of various materials. We tested the feasibility of utilizing femtosecond-pulsed laser radiation (lambda=800 nm, 140 fs, 0.9 mJ/pulse) for ablation of urinary calculi. Ablation craters were observed in human calculi of greater than 90% calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), cystine (CYST), or magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MAPH). Largest crater volumes were achieved on CYST stones, among the most difficult stones to fragment using Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) lithotripsy. Diameter of debris was characterized using optical microscopy and found to be less than 20 microm, substantially smaller than that produced by long-pulsed Ho:YAG ablation. Stone retropulsion, monitored by a high-speed camera system with a spatial resolution of 15 microm, was negligible for stones with mass as small as 0.06 g. Peak shock wave pressures were less than 2 bars, measured by a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) needle hydrophone. Ablation dynamics were visualized and characterized with pump-probe imaging and fast flash photography and correlated to shock wave pressures. Because femtosecond-pulsed laser ablates urinary calculi of soft and hard compositions, with micron-sized debris, negligible stone retropulsion, and small shock wave pressures, we conclude that the approach is a promising candidate technique for lithotripsy.

  17. Micrometeoroid ablation simulated in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Thomas, Evan W.; DeLuca, Michael; Horanyi, Mihaly; Janches, Diego; Munsat, Tobin L.; Plane, John M. C.

    2016-04-01

    A facility is developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions, which also allows measuring the ionization probability of the ablated material. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to generate iron and meteoric analog particles with velocities 10-50 km/s. The particles are then introduced into a cell filled with nitrogen, air or carbon dioxide gas with pressures adjustable in the 0.02 - 0.5 Torr range, where the partial or complete ablation of the particle occurs over a short distance. An array of biased electrodes is used to collect the ionized products with spatial resolution along the ablating particles' path, allowing thus the study of the temporal resolution of the process. A simple ablation model is used to match the observations. For completely ablated particles the total collected charge directly yields the ionization efficiency for. The measurements using iron particles in N2 and air are in relatively good agreement with earlier data. The measurements with CO2 and He gases, however, are significantly different from the expectations.

  18. Laser Ablated Carbon Nanodots for Light Emission.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Delfino; Camacho, Marco; Camacho, Miguel; Mayorga, Miguel; Weathers, Duncan; Salamo, Greg; Wang, Zhiming; Neogi, Arup

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots-like nanostructures (CNDs) obtained through the laser ablation of a carbon solid target in liquid environment is reported. The ablation process was induced in acetone with laser pulses of 1064, 532, and 355 nm under different irradiation times. Close-spherical amorphous CNDs with sizes between 5 and 20 nm, whose abundance strongly depends on the ablation parameters were investigated using electron microscopy and was confirmed using absorption and emission spectroscopies. The π- π* electronic transition at 3.76 eV dominates the absorption for all the CNDs species synthesized under different irradiation conditions. The light emission is most efficient due to excitation at 3.54 eV with the photoluminescence intensity centered at 3.23 eV. The light emission from the CNDs is most efficient due to ablation at 355 nm. The emission wavelength of the CNDs can be tuned from the near-UV to the green wavelength region by controlling the ablation time and modifying the ablation and excitation laser wavelength.

  19. Novel Laser Ablation Technology for Surface Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chung H.

    2004-06-01

    Laser ablation for surface cleaning has been pursued for the removal of paint on airplanes. It has also been pursued for the cleaning of semiconductor surfaces. However, all these approaches have been pursued by laser ablation in air. For highly contaminated surface, laser ablation in air can easily cause secondary contamination. Thus it is not suitable to apply to achieve surface decontamination for DOE facilities since many of these facilities have radioactive contaminants on the surface. Any secondary contamination will be a grave concern. The objective of this project is to develop a novel technology for laser ablation in liquidmore » for surface decontamination. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary contamination and to evaluate the economic feasibility for large scale surface decontamination with laser ablation in liquid. When laser ablation is pursued in the solution, all the desorbed contaminants will be confined in liquid. The contaminants can be precipitated and subsequently contained in a small volume for disposal. It can reduce the risk of the decontamination workers. It can also reduce the volume of contaminants dramatically.« less

  20. Water dissociation in a radio-frequency electromagnetic field with ex situ electrodes—modelling of discharge initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jens; Holzer, Frank; Rabe, Carsten; Häupl, Tilmann; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Roland, Ulf

    2013-04-01

    Applying a new experimental design with a capillary glass reactor and plate electrodes outside of the reactor allowed the initiation of discharges in aqueous electrolytes under the influence of a radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. This study focused on the mechanism leading to the initiation of such discharges in the restriction of a glass tube. The light emission correlated with discharges was analysed with optical emission spectroscopy. Electrons with energies between 20 and 45 eV were responsible for the dissociation of water molecules into (excited) OH, H and O radicals. Current-voltage characteristics were measured before and under discharge conditions. Modelling of the experimental setup and simulation of electrical field strength distribution support the hypothesis of the origin of discharges in general and experimental findings such as ring-shaped discharges and a minimum solution conductivity of about 1 S m-1 required for discharge initiation with RF voltages of 2 kV.

  1. Recent advances of ionic liquids and polymeric ionic liquids in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheng; Liu, Shujuan; Guo, Yong; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2014-08-29

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) with unique and fascinating properties have drawn considerable interest for their use in separation science, especially in chromatographic techniques. In this article, significant contributions of ILs and PILs in the improvement of capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are described, and a specific overview of the most relevant examples of their applications in the last five years is also given. Accordingly, some general conclusions and future perspectives in these areas are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of low-temperature plasma treatment on the capillary properties of inorganic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garifullin, A. R.; Abdullin, I. Sh; Skidchenko, E. A.; Krasina, I. V.; Shaekhov, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Solving the problem of achieving high adhesion between the components in the polymeric composite material (PCM) based on carbon fibers (CF) and basalt fibers (BF) is proposed to use the radio-frequency (RF) plasma under lower pressure by virtue of efficiency, environmental friendliness and rationality of the method. The paper gives the results of studies of the properties of CF and BF after RF capacitive discharge plasma treatment. The plasma modification modes of carbon and basalt fiber were investigated. The efficiency of treatment tool in surface properties modification of carbon and basalt fibers was found, namely capillary properties of CF and BF were researched. The optimal treatment modes were selected. It was found that the method of plasma modification in the radio-frequency capacitive discharge under the lower pressure contributes enhancing the capillary properties of inorganic fibers, in particular carbon and basalt ones. It shows the tendency to increase of the adhesive properties in PCM, and, consequently, the increase of the physical and mechanical properties of the products.

  3. Localization of gaps during redo ablations of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: Preferential patterns depending on the choice of cryoballoon ablation or radiofrequency ablation for the initial procedure.

    PubMed

    Galand, Vincent; Pavin, Dominique; Behar, Nathalie; Auffret, Vincent; Fénéon, Damien; Behaghel, Albin; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Mabo, Philippe; Martins, Raphaël P

    2016-11-01

    Pulmonary vein (PV) isolation, using cryoballoon or radiofrequency ablation, is the cornerstone therapy for symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) refractory to antiarrhythmic drugs. One-third of the patients have recurrences, mainly due to PV reconnections. To describe the different locations of reconnection sites in patients who had previously undergone radiofrequency or cryoballoon ablation, and to compare the characteristics of the redo procedures in both instances. Demographic data and characteristics of the initial ablation (cryoballoon or radiofrequency) were collected. Number and localization of reconduction gaps, and redo characteristics were reviewed. Seventy-four patients scheduled for a redo ablation of paroxysmal AF were included; 38 had been treated by radiofrequency ablation and 36 by cryoballoon ablation during the first procedure. For the initial ablation, procedural and fluoroscopy times were significantly shorter for cryoballoon ablation (147.8±52.6min vs. 226.6±64.3min [P<0.001] and 37.0±17.7min vs. 50.8±22.7min [P=0.005], respectively). Overall, an identical number of gaps was found during redo procedures of cryoballoon and radiofrequency ablations. However, a significantly higher number of gaps were located in the right superior PV for patients first ablated with radiofrequency (0.9±1.0 vs. 0.5±0.9; P=0.009). Gap localization displayed different patterns. Although not significant, redo procedures of cryoballoon ablation were slightly shorter and needed shorter durations of radiofrequency to achieve PV isolation. During redo procedures, gap localization pattern is different for patients first ablated with cryoballoon or radiofrequency ablation, and right superior PV reconnections occur more frequently after radiofrequency ablation. Redo ablation of a previous cryoballoon ablation appears to be easier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Capillary density: An important parameter in nailfold capillaroscopy.

    PubMed

    Emrani, Zahra; Karbalaie, Abdolamir; Fatemi, Alimohammad; Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz; Erlandsson, Björn-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is one of the various noninvasive bioengineering methods used to investigate skin microcirculation. It is an effective examination for assessing microvascular changes in the peripheral circulation; hence it has a significant role for the diagnosis of Systemic sclerosis with the classic changes of giant capillaries as well as the decline in capillary density with capillary dropout. The decline in capillary density is one of microangiopathic features existing in connective tissue disease. It is detectable with nailfold capillaroscopy. This parameter is assessed by applying quantitative measurement. In this article, we reviewed a common method for calculating the capillary density and the relation between the number of capillaries as well as the existence of digital ulcers, pulmonary arterial hypertension, autoantibodies, scleroderma patterns and different scoring system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ablation mass features in multi-pulses femtosecond laser ablate molybdenum target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongye; Gierse, Niels; Wegner, Julian; Pretzler, Georg; Oelmann, Jannis; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Liang, Yunfeng; Neubauer, Olaf; Rasinski, Marcin; Linsmeier, Christian; Ding, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the ablation mass features related to reflectivity of bulk Molybdenum (Mo) were investigated by a Ti: Sa 6 fs laser pulse at central wavelength 790 nm. The ablated mass removal was determined using Confocal Microscopy (CM) technique. The surface reflectivity was calibrated and measured by a Lambda 950 spectrophotometer as well as a CCD camera during laser ablation. The ablation mass loss per pulse increase with the increasing of laser shots, meanwhile the surface reflectivity decrease. The multi-pulses (100 shots) ablation threshold of Mo was determined to be 0.15 J/cm2. The incubation coefficient was estimated as 0.835. The reflectivity change of the Mo target surface following multi-pulses laser ablation were studied as a function of laser ablation shots at various laser fluences from 1.07 J/cm2 to 36.23 J/cm2. The results of measured reflectivity indicate that surface reflectivity of Mo target has a significant decline in the first 3-laser pulses at the various fluences. These results are important for developing a quantitative analysis model for laser induced ablation and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the first wall diagnosis of EAST tokamak.

  6. Dust Ablation in Pluto's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.; Poppe, A. R.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurements by in situ dust detectors onboard the Pioneer and New Horizon spacecraft the total production rate of dust particles born in the Kuiper belt can be estimated to be on the order of 5 x 10 ^3 kg/s in the approximate size range of 1 - 10 micron. These particles slowly migrate inward due to Poynting - Robertson drag and their spatial distribution is shaped by mean motion resonances with the gas giant planets in the outer solar system. The expected mass influx into Pluto's atmosphere is on the order of 50 kg/day, and the arrival speed of the incoming particles is on the order of 3 - 4 km/s. We have followed the ablation history as function of speed and size of dust particles in Pluto's atmosphere, and found that, if the particles are rich in volatiles, they can fully sublimate due to drag heating and deposit their mass in a narrow layer. This deposition might promote the formation of the haze layers observed by the New Horizons spacecraft. This talk will explore the constraints on the composition of the dust particles, as well as on our newly developed models of Pluto's atmosphere that can be learned by matching the altitude where haze layers could be formed.

  7. Dust ablation in Pluto's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Based on measurements by dust detectors onboard the Pioneer 10/11 and New Horizons spacecraft the total production rate of dust particles born in the Edgeworth Kuiper Belt (EKB) has been be estimated to be on the order of 5 ṡ 103 kg/s in the approximate size range of 1 - 10 μm. Dust particles are produced by collisions between EKB objects and their bombardment by both interplanetary and interstellar dust particles. Dust particles of EKB origin, in general, migrate towards the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag but their distributions are further sculpted by mean-motion resonances as they first approach the orbit of Neptune and later the other planets, as well as mutual collisions. Subsequently, Jupiter will eject the vast majority of them before they reach the inner solar system. The expected mass influx into Pluto atmosphere is on the order of 200 kg/day, and the arrival speed of the incoming particles is on the order of 3 - 4 km/s. We have followed the ablation history as function of speed and size of dust particles in Pluto's atmosphere, and found that volatile rich particles can fully sublimate due to drag heating and deposit their mass in narrow layers. This deposition might promote the formation of the haze layers observed by the New Horizons spacecraft. This talk will explore the constraints on the composition of the dust particles by comparing the altitude of the deposition layers to the observed haze layers.

  8. Energy transfer studies in krypton-xenon mixtures excited in a cooled DC discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, B.; Gerasimov, G.; Morozov, A.; Arnesen, A.; Hallin, R.; Heijkenskjold, F.

    2000-01-01

    The VUV spectrum of gaseous mixtures of krypton with a small amount of xenon added was investigated in the range 115-200 nm. The mixtures were excited in a capillary DC discharge where the capillary could be cooled by using liquid nitrogen. The mixed molecule band around the Xe I resonance line at λ = 147 nm and the mixed molecule continuum to the long wavelength side from the line were analysed. The band around λ = 147 nm was identified as transitions between a weakly bound excited state and the weakly bound ground state of XeKr molecules. When cooling the capillary wall, the appearance of the Xe2 continuum was observed. The effect is ascribed to energy transfer between molecular states as a consequence of radiation trapping in the band around λ = 147 nm. The role of the mixed molecule in the formation of the VUV spectrum of the gas mixture is discussed and underlined.

  9. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1996-02-20

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  10. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edwards; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1991-04-09

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  11. Capillary-Condenser-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1989-01-01

    Heat being transferred supplies operating power. Capillary-condenser-pumped heat-transfer loop similar to heat pipe and to capillary-evaporator-pumped heat-transfer loop in that heat-transfer fluid pumped by evaporation and condensation of fluid at heat source and sink, respectively. Capillary condenser pump combined with capillary evaporator pump to form heat exchanger circulating heat-transfer fluids in both loops. Transport of heat more nearly isothermal. Thermal stress in loop reduced, and less external surface area needed in condenser section for rejection of heat to heat sink.

  12. Ablation enhancement of silicon by ultrashort double-pulse laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Shin, Yung C.

    In this study, the ultrashort double-pulse ablation of silicon is investigated. An atomistic simulation model is developed to analyze the underlying physics. It is revealed that the double-pulse ablation could significantly increase the ablation rate of silicon, compared with the single pulse ablation with the same total pulse energy, which is totally different from the case of metals. In the long pulse delay range (over 1 ps), the enhancement is caused by the metallic transition of melted silicon with the corresponding absorption efficiency. At ultrashort pulse delay (below 1 ps), the enhancement is due to the electron excitation by the first pulse.more » The enhancement only occurs at low and moderate laser fluence. The ablation is suppressed at high fluence due to the strong plasma shielding effect.« less

  13. (Gas discharges and applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, I.

    1988-10-04

    The traveler attended the Ninth International Conference on Gas Discharges and Their Applications, which was held in Venice, Italy, on September 19--23, 1988; presented two papers, (1) Ion Chemistry in SF{sub 6} Corona'' and (2) Production of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} by SF{sub 6} Spark Discharge''; and participated in numerous discussions with conference participants on gas discharges related to his work on SF{sub 6}. The traveler visited the Centre de Physique Atomique at the University Paul Sabatier in Toulouse, France, to discuss with Dr. J. Casanovas his work on SF{sub 6} decomposition. Following that visit, the traveler visited the Laboratoire demore » Photoelectricite at the University of Dijon to discuss with Dr. J.-P. Goudonnet his work on surface studies and on the use of tunneling electron spectroscopy for the chemical analysis of surfaces.« less

  14. Stable glow discharge detector

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2004-05-18

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) stable glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The stable glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma and a solid rod electrode. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured. The solid rod electrode provides greater stability and thus easier alignment.

  15. Photoacoustic characterization of radiofrequency ablation lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-02-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh (i.e., never frozen) porcine hearts was harvested within 24 hours of the animals' sacrifice. A THERMOCOOLR Ablation System (Biosense Webster, Inc.) operating at 40 W for 30-60 s was used to induce lesions through the endocardial and epicardial walls of the cardiac samples. Following lesion creation, the ablated tissue samples were placed in 25 °C saline to allow for multi-wavelength PA imaging. Samples were imaged with a VevoR 2100 ultrasound system (VisualSonics, Inc.) using a modified 20-MHz array that could provide laser irradiation to the sample from a pulsed tunable laser (Newport Corp.) to allow for co-registered photoacoustic-ultrasound (PAUS) imaging. PA imaging was conducted from 750-1064 nm, with a surface fluence of approximately 15 mJ/cm2 maintained during imaging. In this preliminary study with PA imaging, the ablated region could be well visualized on the surface of the sample, with contrasts of 6-10 dB achieved at 750 nm. Although imaging penetration depth is a concern, PA imaging shows promise in being able to reliably visualize RF ablation lesions.

  16. Global microwave endometrial ablation for menorrhagia treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahi, Hojjatollah; Å ebek, Jan; Frattura, Eric; Schenck, Jessica; Prakash, Punit

    2017-02-01

    Thermal ablation is a dominant therapeutic option for minimally invasive treatment of menorrhagia. Compared to other energy modalities for ablation, microwaves offer the advantages of conformal energy delivery to tissue within short times. The objective of endometrial ablation is to destroy the endometrial lining of the uterine cavity, with the clinical goal of achieving reduction in bleeding. Previous efforts have demonstrated clinical use of microwaves for endometrial ablation. A considerable shortcoming of most systems is that they achieve ablation of the target by translating the applicator in a point-to-point fashion. Consequently, treatment outcome may be highly dependent on physician skill. Global endometrial ablation (GEA) not only eliminates this operator dependence and simplifies the procedure but also facilitates shorter and more reliable treatments. The objective of our study was to investigate antenna structures and microwave energy delivery parameters to achieve GEA. Another objective was to investigate a method for automatic and reliable determination of treatment end-point. A 3D-coupled FEM electromagnetic and heat transfer model with temperature and frequency dependent material properties was implemented to characterize microwave GEA. The unique triangular geometry of the uterus where lateral narrow walls extend from the cervix to the fundus forming a wide base and access afforded through an endocervical approach limit the overall diameter of the final device. We investigated microwave antenna designs in a deployed state inside the uterus. The impact of ablation duration on treatment outcome was investigated. Prototype applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in ex vivo tissue to verify the simulation results and demonstrate proof-of-concept.

  17. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing

    1992-01-01

    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  18. Paramecium swimming in a capillary tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Saikat; Jung, Sunghwan

    2010-03-01

    Micro-organisms exhibit different strategies for swimming in complex environments. Many micro-swimmers such as paramecium congregate and tend to live near wall. We investigate how paramecium moves in a confined space as compared to its motion in an unbounded fluid. A new theoretical model based on Taylor's sheet is developed, to study such boundary effects. In experiments, paramecia are put inside capillary tubes and their swimming behavior is observed. The data obtained from experiments is used to test the validity of our theoretical model and understand how the cilia influence the locomotion of paramecia in confined geometries.

  19. Metallized Capillaries as Probes for Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A class of miniature probes has been proposed to supplant the fiber-optic probes used heretofore in some Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic systems. A probe according to the proposal would include a capillary tube coated with metal on its inside to make it reflective. A microlens would be hermetically sealed onto one end of the tube. A spectroscopic probe head would contain a single such probe, which would both deliver laser light to a sample and collect Raman or fluorescent light emitted by the sample.

  20. Capillary Flow of Liquid Metals in Brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehsara, Mohammad

    Capillary flow is driven or controlled by capillary forces, exerted at the triple line where the fluid phases meet the solid boundary. Phase field (PF) models naturally accommodate diffusive triple line motion with variable contact angle, thus allowing for the no-slip boundary condition without the stress singularities. Moreover, they are uniquely suited for modeling of topological discontinuities which often arise during capillary flows. In this study, we consider diffusive triple line motion within two PF models: the compositionally compressible (CC) and the incompressible (IC) models. We derive the IC model as a systematic approximation to the CC model, based on a suitable choice of continuum velocity field. The CC model, applied to the fluids of dissimilar mass densities, exhibits a computational instability at the triple line. The IC model perfectly represents the analytic equilibria. We develop the parameter identification procedure and show that the triple line kinetics can be well represented by the IC model's diffusive boundary condition. The IC model is first tested by benchmarking the phase-field and experimental kinetics of water, and silicone oil spreading over the glass plates in which two systems do not interact with the substrate. Then, two high-temperature physical settings involving spreading of the molten Al-Si alloy: one over a rough wetting substrate, the other over a non-wetting substrate are modeled in a T-joint structure which is a typical geometric configuration for many brazing and soldering applications. Surface roughness directly influences the spreading of the molten metal by causing break-ups of the liquid film and trapping the liquid away from the joint. In the early stages of capillary flow over non-wetting surface, the melting and flow are concurrent, so that the kinetics of wetting is strongly affected by the variations in effective viscosity of the partially molten metal. We define adequate time-dependent functions for the

  1. Capillary Thinning of Particle-laden Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagoner, Brayden; Thete, Sumeet; Jahns, Matt; Doshi, Pankaj; Basaran, Osman

    2015-11-01

    Drop formation is central in many applications such as ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and atomization. During drop formation, a thinning filament is created between the about-to-form drop and the fluid hanging from the nozzle. Therefore, the physics of capillary thinning of filaments is key to understanding drop formation and has been thoroughly studied for pure Newtonian fluids. The thinning dynamics is, however, altered completely when the fluid contains particles, the physics of which is not well understood. In this work, we explore the impact of solid particles on filament thinning and drop formation by using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations.

  2. Microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis device and method

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Peter C.; Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2000-01-01

    A capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) micro-plate with an array of separation channels connected to an array of sample reservoirs on the plate. The sample reservoirs are organized into one or more sample injectors. One or more waste reservoirs are provided to collect wastes from reservoirs in each of the sample injectors. Additionally, a cathode reservoir is also multiplexed with one or more separation channels. To complete the electrical path, an anode reservoir which is common to some or all separation channels is also provided on the micro-plate. Moreover, the channel layout keeps the distance from the anode to each of the cathodes approximately constant.

  3. Microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis device and method

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Peter C.; Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2004-06-15

    A capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) micro-plate with an array of separation channels connected to an array of sample reservoirs on the plate. The sample reservoirs are organized into one or more sample injectors. One or more waste reservoirs are provided to collect wastes from reservoirs in each of the sample injectors. Additionally, a cathode reservoir is also multiplexed with one or more separation channels. To complete the electrical path, an anode reservoir which is common to some or all separation channels is also provided on the micro-plate. Moreover, the channel layout keeps the distance from the anode to each of the cathodes approximately constant.

  4. Epicardial Radiofrequency Ablation Failure During Ablation Procedures for Ventricular Arrhythmias: Reasons and Implications for Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baldinger, Samuel H; Kumar, Saurabh; Barbhaiya, Chirag R; Mahida, Saagar; Epstein, Laurence M; Michaud, Gregory F; John, Roy; Tedrow, Usha B; Stevenson, William G

    2015-12-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) from the epicardial space for ventricular arrhythmias is limited or impossible in some cases. Reasons for epicardial ablation failure and the effect on outcome have not been systematically analyzed. We assessed reasons for epicardial RFA failure relative to the anatomic target area and the type of heart disease and assessed the effect of failed epicardial RFA on outcome after ablation procedures for ventricular arrhythmias in a large single-center cohort. Epicardial access was attempted during 309 ablation procedures in 277 patients and was achieved in 291 procedures (94%). Unlimited ablation in an identified target region could be performed in 181 cases (59%), limited ablation was possible in 22 cases (7%), and epicardial ablation was deemed not feasible in 88 cases (28%). Reasons for failed or limited ablation were unsuccessful epicardial access (6%), failure to identify an epicardial target (15%), proximity to a coronary artery (13%), proximity to the phrenic nerve (6%), and complications (<1%). Epicardial RFA was impeded in the majority of cases targeting the left ventricular summit region. Acute complications occurred in 9%. The risk for acute ablation failure was 8.3× higher (4.5-15.0; P<0.001) after no or limited epicardial RFA compared with unlimited RFA, and patients with unlimited epicardial RFA had better recurrence-free survival rates (P<0.001). Epicardial RFA for ventricular arrhythmias is often limited even when pericardial access is successful. Variability of success is dependent on the target area, and the presence of factors limiting ablation is associated with worse outcomes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Microwave ablation versus radiofrequency ablation in the kidney: high-power triaxial antennas create larger ablation zones than similarly sized internally cooled electrodes.

    PubMed

    Laeseke, Paul F; Lee, Fred T; Sampson, Lisa A; van der Weide, Daniel W; Brace, Christopher L

    2009-09-01

    To determine whether microwave ablation with high-power triaxial antennas creates significantly larger ablation zones than radiofrequency (RF) ablation with similarly sized internally cooled electrodes. Twenty-eight 12-minute ablations were performed in an in vivo porcine kidney model. RF ablations were performed with a 200-W pulsed generator and either a single 17-gauge cooled electrode (n = 9) or three switched electrodes spaced 1.5 cm apart (n = 7). Microwave ablations were performed with one (n = 7), two (n = 3), or three (n = 2) 17-gauge triaxial antennas to deliver 90 W continuous power per antenna. Multiple antennas were powered simultaneously. Temperatures 1 cm from the applicator were measured during two RF and microwave ablations each. Animals were euthanized after ablation and ablation zone diameter, cross-sectional area, and circularity were measured. Comparisons between groups were performed with use of a mixed-effects model with P values less than .05 indicating statistical significance. No adverse events occurred during the procedures. Three-electrode RF (mean area, 14.7 cm(2)) and single-antenna microwave (mean area, 10.9 cm(2)) ablation zones were significantly larger than single-electrode RF zones (mean area, 5.6 cm(2); P = .001 and P = .0355, respectively). No significant differences were detected between single-antenna microwave and multiple-electrode RF. Ablation zone circularity was similar across groups (P > .05). Tissue temperatures were higher during microwave ablation (maximum temperature of 123 degrees C vs 100 degrees C for RF). Microwave ablation with high-power triaxial antennas created larger ablation zones in normal porcine kidneys than RF ablation with similarly sized applicators.

  6. The efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of pediatric arrhythmia and its effects on serum IL-6 and hs-CRP

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunli; Jia, Libo; Wang, Zhenzhou; Niu, Ling; An, Xinjiang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of pediatric arrhythmia and to assess the changes in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hs-CRP levels after treatment. Hundred and six children with tachyarrhythmia who were admitted to Xuzhou Children's Hospital from November, 2014 to December, 2015 were recruited for study. The efficacies of radiofrequency in the treatment of different types of arrhythmia were analyzed. Successful ablation was found in 104 cases (98.11%) and recurrence was found in 7 cases (6.73%). Among 62 cases of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), successful ablation was found in 60 cases (96.77%) and recurrence was found in 3 cases (4.84%). Among 33 cases of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), successful ablation was found in 33 cases (100%) and recurrence was found in 2 cases (6.06%). Among 5 cases of ventricular tachycardia (VT), successful ablation was found in 5 cases (100%) and no recurrence was found. Among 4 cases of atrial tachycardia (AT), successful ablation was found in 4 cases (100%) and recurrence was found in 1 case (25%). Among 2 cases of atrial flutter (AFL), successful ablation was found in both (100%) and recurrence was found in 1 case (50%). After operation, the levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP were increased and were continually increased within 6 h after operation. The levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP at 24 h after operation were reduced but still higher than preoperative levels. The duration of radiofrequency and ablation energy were positively correlated with the levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP, while the number of discharges was not significantly correlated with either. In conclusion, radiofrequency ablation is a safe and effective treatment for pediatric arrhythmia. Postoperative monitoring of IL-6 and hs-CRP levels is conducive to understanding postoperative myocardial injury and inflammatory response. PMID:29042948

  7. The efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of pediatric arrhythmia and its effects on serum IL-6 and hs-CRP.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunli; Jia, Libo; Wang, Zhenzhou; Niu, Ling; An, Xinjiang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of pediatric arrhythmia and to assess the changes in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hs-CRP levels after treatment. Hundred and six children with tachyarrhythmia who were admitted to Xuzhou Children's Hospital from November, 2014 to December, 2015 were recruited for study. The efficacies of radiofrequency in the treatment of different types of arrhythmia were analyzed. Successful ablation was found in 104 cases (98.11%) and recurrence was found in 7 cases (6.73%). Among 62 cases of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), successful ablation was found in 60 cases (96.77%) and recurrence was found in 3 cases (4.84%). Among 33 cases of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), successful ablation was found in 33 cases (100%) and recurrence was found in 2 cases (6.06%). Among 5 cases of ventricular tachycardia (VT), successful ablation was found in 5 cases (100%) and no recurrence was found. Among 4 cases of atrial tachycardia (AT), successful ablation was found in 4 cases (100%) and recurrence was found in 1 case (25%). Among 2 cases of atrial flutter (AFL), successful ablation was found in both (100%) and recurrence was found in 1 case (50%). After operation, the levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP were increased and were continually increased within 6 h after operation. The levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP at 24 h after operation were reduced but still higher than preoperative levels. The duration of radiofrequency and ablation energy were positively correlated with the levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP, while the number of discharges was not significantly correlated with either. In conclusion, radiofrequency ablation is a safe and effective treatment for pediatric arrhythmia. Postoperative monitoring of IL-6 and hs-CRP levels is conducive to understanding postoperative myocardial injury and inflammatory response.

  8. Infrared thermography and thermocouple mapping of radiofrequency renal ablation to assess treatment adequacy and ablation margins.

    PubMed

    Ogan, Kenneth; Roberts, William W; Wilhelm, David M; Bonnell, Leonard; Leiner, Dennis; Lindberg, Guy; Kavoussi, Louis R; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2003-07-01

    The primary disadvantage of renal tumor RF ablation is the inability to monitor the intraoperative propagation of the RF lesion with real-time imaging. We sought to assess whether adequately lethal temperatures are obtained at the margins of the intended ablation zone using laparoscopic thermography to monitor radiofrequency (RF) lesions in real time, thermocouple measurements, and histopathologic evaluation. Renal RF lesions were created under direct laparoscopic vision in the upper (1 cm diameter) and lower (2 cm) poles of the right kidney in 5 female pigs. The RF lesions were produced with the RITA generator and probe, set at 105 degrees C for 5-minute ablations. During RF treatment, a laparoscopic infrared (IR) camera measured the surface parenchymal temperatures, as did multiple thermocouples. The pigs were then either immediately killed (n = 3) or allowed to live for 2 weeks (n = 2). The kidneys were removed to correlate the temperature measurements with histologic analysis of the ablated lesion. Using a threshold temperature of greater than 70 degrees C for visual "temperature" color change, the IR camera identified the region of pathologic necrosis of the renal parenchyma during RF ablation. Thermocouple measurements demonstrated that the temperatures at the intended ablation radius reached 77.5 degrees C at the renal surface and 83.7 degrees C centrally, and temperatures 5 mm beyond the set radius reached 52.6 degrees C at the surface and 47.7 degrees C centrally. The average diameter of the gross lesion on the surface of the kidney measured 17.1 mm and 22.4 mm for 1-cm and 2-cm ablations, respectively. These surface measurements correlated with an average diameter of 16.1 mm and 15.9 mm (1-cm and 2-cm ablations, respectively) as measured with the IR camera. All cells within these ablation zones were nonviable by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide diaphorase analysis. The average depth of the lesions measured 19 mm (1-cm ablation) and 25 mm (2-cm ablation

  9. Fracture in Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Pham, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel technique to understand the failure mechanisms inside thermal protection materials. The focus of this research is on the class of materials known as phenolic impregnated carbon ablators. It has successfully flown on the Stardust spacecraft and is the thermal protection system material chosen for the Mars Science Laboratory and SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. Although it has good thermal properties, structurally, it is a weak material. To understand failure mechanisms in carbon ablators, fracture tests were performed on FiberForm(Registered TradeMark) (precursor), virgin, and charred ablator materials. Several samples of these materials were tested to investigate failure mechanisms at a microstructural scale. Stress-strain data were obtained simultaneously to estimate the tensile strength and toughness. It was observed that cracks initiated and grew in the FiberForm when a critical stress limit was reached such that the carbon fibers separated from the binder. However, both for virgin and charred carbon ablators, crack initiation and growth occurred in the matrix (phenolic) phase. Both virgin and charred carbon ablators showed greater strength values compared with FiberForm samples, confirming that the presence of the porous matrix helps in absorbing the fracture energy.

  10. Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, Debra; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Spears, B. K.

    2010-11-01

    Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments will be described. The convergent ablator experiments measure the implosion trajectory, velocity, and ablation rate of an x-ray driven capsule and are a important component of the U. S. National Ignition Campaign at NIF. The design calculations are post-processed to provide simulations of the key diagnostics: (1) Dante measurements of hohlraum x-ray flux and spectrum, (2) streaked radiographs of the imploding ablator shell, (3) wedge range filter measurements of D-He3 proton output spectra, and (4) GXD measurements of the imploded core. The simulated diagnostics will be compared to the experimental measurements to providemore » an assessment of the accuracy of the design code predictions of hohlraum radiation temperature, capsule ablation rate, implosion velocity, shock flash areal density, and x-ray bang time. Post-shot versions of the design calculations are used to enhance the understanding of the experimental measurements and will assist in choosing parameters for subsequent shots and the path towards optimal ignition capsule tuning.« less

  11. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  12. Development of a cryogenic capillary pumped loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroliczek, Edward J.; Cullimore, Brent

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the initial development of a promising new cryogenic technology. Room temperature capillary pumped loops (CPLs), a derivative of heat pipe technology, have been under development for almost two decades and are emerging as a design solution for many spacecraft thermal control problems. While cryogenic capillary pumped loops have application to passive spacecraft radiators and to long term storage of cryogenic propellants and open-cycle coolants, their application to the integration of spacecraft cryocoolers has generated the most excitement. Without moving parts or complex controls, they are able to thermally connect redundant cryocoolers to a single remote load, eliminating thermal switches and providing mechanical isolation at the same time. Development of a cryogenic CPL (CCPL) presented some unique challenges including start-up from a super-critical state, the management of parasitic heat leaks and pressure containment at ambient temperatures. These challenges have been overcome with a novel design that requires no additional devices or preconditioning for start-up. This paper describes the design concept and development and results conducted under SBIR Phase I and Phase II.

  13. Analysis of spiramycin by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, R; Li, Y M; Van Schepdael, A; Roets, E; Hoogmartens, J

    1999-09-01

    The development and validation of an analytical method for the determination of spiramycin I in the presence of its related substances by capillary electrophoresis is shown. The separation, performed in a phosphate buffer (80 mM, pH 7.5) containing 12 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and 20 mM sodium cholate, with a 50 microm ID and 44 cm long fused-silica capillary (36 cm effective length), applying a voltage of 12 kV (l approximately 80 microA), at 25 degrees C, is achieved in 15 min. Good selectivity among spiramycin I and its related substances was obtained. The influence of the buffer pH, and of the CTAB and sodium cholate concentrations was investigated. The method robustness, examined by means of a full-fraction factorial design, shows that it can be used within the limits set for the three parameters that were investigated. The method is linear (r = 0.9992) and precise (day-to-day corrected peak area repeatability, n = 18, relative standard deviation = 1.3%). The limits of detection and quantitation are 7 pg (0.025%) and 22 pg (0.08%), respectively, relative to a 2 mg/mL solution.

  14. Capillary Liquid Acquisition Device Heat Entrapment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hastings, L. J.; Statham, G.; Turpin, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic liquid acquisition devices (LADs) for space-based propulsion interface directly with the feed system, which can be a significant heat leak source. Further, the accumulation of thermal energy within LAD channels can lead to the loss of subcooled propellant conditions and result in feed system cavitation during propellant outflow. Therefore, the fundamental question addressed by this program was: To what degree is natural convection in a cryogenic liquid constrained by the capillary screen meshes envisioned for LADs? Testing was first conducted with water as the test fluid, followed by LN2 tests. In either case, the basic experimental approach was to heat the bottom of a cylindrical column of test fluid to establish stratification patterns measured by temperature sensors located above and below a horizontal screen barrier position. Experimentation was performed without barriers, with screens, and with a solid barrier. The two screen meshes tested were those typically used by LAD designers, 200x1400 and 325x2300, both with Twill Dutch Weave. Upon consideration of both the water and LN2 data, it was concluded that heat transfer across the screen meshes was dependent upon barrier thermal conductivity and that the capillary screen meshes were impervious to natural convection currents.

  15. Effects of material composition on the ablation performance of low density elastomeric ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Kabana, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    The ablation performance of materials composed of various concentrations of nylon, hollow silica spheres, hollow phenolic spheres, and four elastomeric resins was determined. Both blunt-body and flat-panel specimens were used, the cold-wall heating-rate ranges being 0.11 to 0.8 MW/sq m, respectively. The corresponding surface pressure ranges for these tests were 0.017 to 0.037 atmosphere and 0.004 to 0.005 atmosphere. Some of the results show that (1) the addition of nylon significantly improved the ablation performance, but the nylon was not compatible with one resin system; (2) panel and blunt-body specimen data do not show the same effect of phenolic sphere content on ablation effectiveness; and (3) there appears to be an optimum concentration of hollow silica spheres for good ablation performance. The composition of an efficient, nonproprietary ablator for lifting body application is identified and the ablation performance of this ablator is compared with the performance of three commercially available materials.

  16. Influence of ablation wavelength and time on optical properties of laser ablated carbon dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnaeni, Hanna, M. Yusrul; Pambudi, A. A.; Murdaka, F. H.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dots, which are unique and applicable materials, have been produced using many techniques. In this work, we have fabricated carbon dots made of coconut fiber using laser ablation technique. The purpose of this work is to evaluate two ablation parameters, which are ablation wavelength and ablation time. We used pulsed laser from Nd:YAG laser with emit wavelength at 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm. We varied ablation time one hour and two hours. Photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence setup were used to study the optical properties of fabricated carbon dots. In general, fabricated carbon dots emit bluish green color emission upon excitation by blue laser. We found that carbon dots fabricated using 1064 nm laser produced the highest carbon dots emission among other samples. The peak wavelength of carbon dots emission is between 495 nm until 505 nm, which gives bluish green color emission. Two hours fabricated carbon dots gave four times higher emission than one hour fabricated carbon dot. More emission intensity of carbon dots means more carbon dots nanoparticles were fabricated during laser ablation process. In addition, we also measured electron dynamics of carbon dots using time-resolved photoluminescence. We found that sample with higher emission has longer electron decay time. Our finding gives optimum condition of carbon dots fabrication from coconut fiber using laser ablation technique. Moreover, fabricated carbon dots are non-toxic nanoparticles that can be applied for health, bio-tagging and medical applications.

  17. Pulsed laser ablation of IC packages for device failure analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ming Hui; Mai, ZhiHong; Chen, G. X.; Thiam, Thomas; Song, Wen D.; Lu, Yongfeng; Soh, Chye E.; Chong, Tow Chong

    2002-06-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of mold compounds for IC packaging in air and with steam assistance is investigated. It is applied to decap IC packages and expose computer CPU dies for the device failure analyses. Compared with chemical decapping, the laser ablation has advantages of being fast speed, non- contact and dry processing. Laser ablation with the steam assistance results in higher ablation rate and wider ablated crater with much smoother surface morphology. It implies that the steam assisted laser ablation can achieve a faster and better quality laser processing. Audible acoustic wave and plasma optical signal diagnostics are also carried out to have a better understanding of the mechanisms behind. Light wavelength and laser fluence applied in the decapping are two important parameters. The 532 nm Nd:YAG laser decapping at a low laser fluence can achieve a large decapping area with a fine ablation profile. IC packages decapped by the laser ablation show good quality for the device failure analyses.

  18. Capillary Absorption Spectrometer for 13C Isotopic Composition of Pico to Subpico Molar Sample Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J.; Kelly, J.; Sams, R.; Newburn, M.; Kreuzer, H.; Alexander, M.

    2011-12-01

    Quick incorporation of IR spectroscopy based isotope measurements into cutting edge research in biogeochemical cycling attests to the advantages of a spectroscopy versus mass spectrometry method for making some 13C measurements. The simple principles of optical spectroscopy allow field portability and provide a more robust general platform for isotope measurements. We present results with a new capillary absorption spectrometer (CAS) with the capability of reducing the sample size required for high precision isotopic measurements to the picomolar level and potentially the sub-picomolar level. This work was motivated by the minute sample size requirements for laser ablation isotopic studies of carbon cycling in microbial communities but has potential to be a valuable tool in other areas of biological and geological research. The CAS instrument utilizes a capillary waveguide as a sample chamber for interrogating CO2 via near IR laser absorption spectroscopy. The capillary's small volume (~ 0.5 mL) combined with propagation and interaction of the laser mode with the entire sample reduces sample size requirements to a fraction of that accessible with commercially available IR absorption including those with multi-pass or ring-down cavity systems. Using a continuous quantum cascade laser system to probe nearly adjacent rovibrational transitions of different isotopologues of CO2 near 2307 cm-1 permits sample measurement at low analyte pressures (as low as 2 Torr) for further sensitivity improvement. A novel method to reduce cw-fringing noise in the hollow waveguide is presented, which allows weak absorbance features to be studied at the few ppm level after averaging 1,000 scans in 10 seconds. Detection limits down to the 20 picomoles have been observed, a concentration of approximately 400 ppm at 2 Torr in the waveguide with precision and accuracy at or better than 1 %. Improvements in detection and signal averaging electronics and laser power and mode quality are

  19. A Simple Double-Source Model for Interference of Capillaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Zhibo; Zhao, Xiaohong; Xiao, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    A simple but physically intuitive double-source model is proposed to explain the interferogram of a laser-capillary system, where two effective virtual sources are used to describe the rays reflected by and transmitted through the capillary. The locations of the two virtual sources are functions of the observing positions on the target screen. An…

  20. Two classes of capillary optical fibers: refractive and photonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2008-11-01

    This paper is a digest tutorial on some properties of capillary optical fibers (COF). Two basic types of capillary optical fibers are clearly distinguished. The classification is based on propagation mechanism of optical wave. The refractive, singlemode COF guides a dark hollow beam of light (DHB) with zero intensity on fiber axis. The photonic, singlemode COF carries nearly a perfect axial Gaussian beam with maximum intensity on fiber axis. A subject of the paper are these two basic kinds of capillary optical fibers of pure refractive and pure photonic mechanism of guided wave transmission. In a real capillary the wave may be transmitted by a mixed mechanism, refractive and photonic, with strong interaction of photonic and refractive guided wave modes. Refractive capillary optical fibers are used widely for photonic instrumentation applications, while photonic capillary optical fibers are considered for trunk optical communications. Replacement of classical, single mode, dispersion shifted, 1550nm optimized optical fibers for communications with photonic capillaries would potentially cause a next serious revolution in optical communications. The predictions say that such a revolution may happen within this decade. This dream is however not fulfilled yet. The paper compares guided modes in both kinds of optical fiber capillaries: refractive and photonic. The differences are emphasized indicating prospective application areas of these fibers.

  1. Thermodynamics of Capillary Rise: Why Is the Meniscus Curved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksson, Ulf; Eriksson, Jan Christer

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamics of capillary rise is explained as the gravitational elevation of the whole column of liquid caused by the positive connection between the liquid, and the solid wall of the capillary tube. The curvature of the meniscus is ascribed to the maintenance of a physiochemical balance throughout the gravitational column of liquid.

  2. Double emulsions from a capillary array injection microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Shang, Luoran; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Jie; Ding, Haibo; Rong, Fei; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-09-21

    A facile microfluidic device was developed by inserting an annular capillary array into a collection channel for single-step emulsification of double emulsions. By inserting multiple inner-phase solutions into the capillary array, multicomponent double emulsions or microcapsules with inner droplets of different content could also be obtained from the device.

  3. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10-20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode.

  4. Modeling topology formation during laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodapp, T. W.; Fleming, P. R.

    1998-07-01

    Micromachining high aspect-ratio structures can be accomplished through ablation of surfaces with high-powered lasers. Industrial manufacturers now use these methods to form complex and regular surfaces at the 10-1000 μm feature size range. Despite its increasingly wide acceptance on the manufacturing floor, the underlying photochemistry of the ablation mechanism, and hence the dynamics of the machining process, is still a question of considerable debate. We have constructed a computer model to investigate and predict the topological formation of ablated structures. Qualitative as well as quantitative agreement with excimer-laser machined polyimide substrates has been demonstrated. This model provides insights into the drilling process for high-aspect-ratio holes.

  5. Specific Impulse Definition for Ablative Laser Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Kenneth A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2004-01-01

    The term "specific impulse" is so ingrained in the field of rocket propulsion that it is unlikely that any fundamental argument would be taken seriously for its removal. It is not an ideal measure but it does give an indication of the amount of mass flow (mass loss/time), as in fuel rate, required to produce a measured thrust over some time period This investigation explores the implications of being able to accurately measure the ablation rate and how the language used to describe the specific impulse results may have to change slightly, and recasts the specific impulse as something that is not a time average. It is not currently possible to measure the ablation rate accurately in real time so it is generally just assumed that a constant amount of material will be removed for each laser pulse delivered The specific impulse dependence on the ablation rate is determined here as a correction to the classical textbook definition.

  6. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in ablation simulations of the meteoroid or glassy Thermal Protection Systems for spacecraft. Time-dependent axi-symmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. For model validation, the surface recession of fused amorphous quartz rod is computed, and the recession predictions reasonably agree with available data. The present parametric studies for two groups of meteoroid earth entry conditions indicate that the mass loss through moving molten layer is negligibly small for heat-flux conditions at around 1 MW/cm(exp. 2).

  7. Numerical Modeling of Ablation Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, Mark E.; Laker, Travis S.; Walker, David T.

    2013-01-01

    A unique numerical method has been developed for solving one-dimensional ablation heat transfer problems. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, along with detailed derivations of the governing equations. This methodology supports solutions for traditional ablation modeling including such effects as heat transfer, material decomposition, pyrolysis gas permeation and heat exchange, and thermochemical surface erosion. The numerical scheme utilizes a control-volume approach with a variable grid to account for surface movement. This method directly supports implementation of nontraditional models such as material swelling and mechanical erosion, extending capabilities for modeling complex ablation phenomena. Verifications of the numerical implementation are provided using analytical solutions, code comparisons, and the method of manufactured solutions. These verifications are used to demonstrate solution accuracy and proper error convergence rates. A simple demonstration of a mechanical erosion (spallation) model is also provided to illustrate the unique capabilities of the method.

  8. Performance of Conformable Ablators in Aerothermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, J.; Fan, W.; Skokova, K.; Stackpoole, M.; Beck, R.; Chavez-Garcia, J.

    2012-01-01

    Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICAs performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.

  9. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, W. II; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10--20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode. 12 figs.

  10. Image-Guided Spinal Ablation: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@chru-strasbourg.fr; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr

    2016-09-15

    The image-guided thermal ablation procedures can be used to treat a variety of benign and malignant spinal tumours. Small size osteoid osteoma can be treated with laser or radiofrequency. Larger tumours (osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst and metastasis) can be addressed with radiofrequency or cryoablation. Results on the literature of spinal microwave ablation are scarce, and thus it should be used with caution. A distinct advantage of cryoablation is the ability to monitor the ice-ball by intermittent CT or MRI. The different thermal insulation, temperature and electrophysiological monitoring techniques should be applied. Cautious pre-procedural planning and intermittent intra-procedural monitoring of themore » ablation zone can help reduce neural complications. Tumour histology, patient clinical-functional status and life-expectancy should define the most efficient and least disabling treatment option.« less

  11. Ablation of benign prostatic hyperplasia using microbubble-mediated ultrasound cavitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Liu, Zheng

    2010-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a world-wide common disease in elderly male patients. A number of invasive physiotherapies have been used to replace prostatectomy. In this article we report our hypothesis of using microbubbles-mediated ultrasound cavitation effects to ablate prostatic tissues. Microbubble ultrasound contrast agent is widely used contrast media in ultrasonography, yet it is also found to act as cavitation nuclei or enhancer. Once excited by a high peak pressure ultrasound pulse, the mechanical effects, like shock wave and microstream, released from cavitation could produce a series of bioeffects, contributing to sonoporation, microvascular rupture and hematoma. BPH is known to have hyperplastic neovasculature and this make it possible to be disrupted by the physical effects of cavitation under existing microbubbles in circulation. Mechanical ablation of prostatic capillary or small vessels could result in pathological alterations such as thrombosis, micro-circulation blockage, prostatic necrosis and atrophia. Thereupon it could effectively treat BPH by nontraumatic ways. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnosis and ablation of multiform fascicular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Sung, Raphael K; Kim, Albert M; Tseng, Zian H; Han, Frederick; Inada, Keiichi; Tedrow, Usha B; Viswanathan, Mohan N; Badhwar, Nitish; Varosy, Paul D; Tanel, Ronn; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Stephenson, William G; Scheinman, Melvin

    2013-03-01

    Fascicular tachycardia (FT) is an uncommon cause of monomorphic sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). We describe 6 cases of FT with multiform QRS morphologies. Six of 823 consecutive VT cases were retrospectively analyzed and found attributable to FT with multiform QRS patterns, with 3 cases exhibiting narrow QRS VT as well. All underwent electrophysiology study including fascicular potential mapping, entrainment pacing, and electroanatomic mapping. The first 3 cases describe similar multiform VT patterns with successful ablation in the upper mid septum. Initially, a right bundle branch block (RBBB) VT with superior axis was induced. Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) targeting the left posterior fascicle (LPF) resulted in a second VT with RBBB inferior axis. RFCA in the upper septum just apical to the LBB potential abolished VT in all cases. Cases 4 and 5 showed RBBB VT with alternating fascicular block compatible with upper septal dependent VT, resulting in bundle branch reentrant VT (BBRT) after ablation of LPF and left anterior fascicle (LAF). Finally, Cases 5 and 6 demonstrated spontaneous shift in QRS morphology during VT, implicating participation of a third fascicle. In Case 6, successful ablation was achieved over the proximal LAF, likely representing insertion of the auxiliary fascicle near the proximal LAF. Multiform FTs show a reentrant mechanism using multiple fascicular branches. We hypothesize that retrograde conduction over the septal fascicle produces alternate fascicular patterns as well as narrow VT forms. Ablation of the respective fascicle was successful in abolishing FT but does not preclude development of BBRT unless septal fascicle is targeted and ablated. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of Radiofrequency Endometrial Ablation on Dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Sabrina N; Banahan, Taylor; Tang, Ying; Nadendla, Kavita; Szychowski, Jeff M; Jenkins, Todd R

    To examine rates of dysmenorrhea after radiofrequency endometrial ablation in patients with and without known dysmenorrhea symptoms prior to the procedure in a diverse population. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Academic gynecology practice. A total of 307 women underwent endometrial ablation between 2007 and 2013 at our institution. Patients who had preoperative and postoperative pain symptom assessments as well as a description of pain timing recorded were included in our analysis. Exclusion criteria were age <19 years and operative biopsy findings consistent with complex atypical hyperplasia. The difference in preoperative and postoperative rates of dysmenorrhea was evaluated. Demographic information and other outcome variables were used to evaluate factors associated with resolution of dysmenorrhea. A total of 307 patients who underwent radiofrequency endometrial ablation were identified. After exclusions, 296 charts were examined, and 144 patients met our enrollment criteria. The mean age of the study cohort was 45.4 ± 6.2 years; 57 patients (40%) were African American, 16 (11%) had a body mass index (BMI) > 40, and 41 (29%) were of normal weight. Preoperative dysmenorrhea was reported by 100 patients (69%); 48 of these patients (48%) experienced resolution of symptoms postoperatively. Only 3 of the 44 patients (7%) without preoperative dysmenorrhea reported new-onset dysmenorrhea postoperatively. Significantly fewer patients had dysmenorrhea after compared to before radiofrequency ablation (55 of 144 [38%] vs 100 of 144 [69%]; p < .001). Resolution of dysmenorrhea after ablation was associated with reduction in bleeding volume (p = .048) but not with a reduction in frequency of bleeding (p = .12). Approximately one-half of women who undergo radiofrequency endometrial ablation to treat heavy menstrual bleeding who also have preoperative dysmenorrhea exhibit documented pain resolution after the procedure

  14. [Magnetic navigation for ablation of cardiac arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Hoff, Per Ivar; Solheim, Eivind; Schuster, Peter; Off, Morten Kristian; Ohm, Ole-Jørgen

    2010-08-12

    The first use of magnetic navigation for radiofrequency ablation of supraventricular tachycardias, was published in 2004. Subsequently, the method has been used for treatment of most types of tachyarrhythmias. This paper provides an overview of the method, with special emphasis on usefulness of a new remote-controlled magnetic navigation system. The paper is based on our own scientific experience and literature identified through a non-systematic search in PubMed. The magnetic navigation system consists of two external electromagnets (to be placed on opposite sides of the patient), which guide an ablation catheter (with a small magnet at the tip of the catheter) to the target area in the heart. The accuracy of this procedure is higher than that with manual navigation. Personnel can be quickly trained to use remote magnetic navigation, but the procedure itself is time-consuming, particularly for patients with atrial fibrillation. The major advantage is a considerably lower radiation burden to both patient and operator, in some studies more than 50 %, and a corresponding reduction in physical strain on the operator. The incidence of procedure-related complications seems to be lower than that observed with use of manually operated ablation catheters. Work is ongoing to improve magnetic ablation catheters and methods that can simplify mapping procedures and improve efficacy of arrhythmia ablation. The basic cost for installing a complete magnetic navigation laboratory may be three times that of a conventional electrophysiological laboratory. The new magnetic navigation system has proved to be applicable during ablation for a variety of tachyarrhythmias, but is still under development.

  15. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Valcavi, Roberto; Pacella, Claudio M.; Rhim, Hyunchul; Na, Dong Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation. PMID:21927553

  16. Subcellular analysis by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A; Shrestha, Bindesh

    2014-12-02

    In various embodiments, a method of laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) may generally comprise micro-dissecting a cell comprising at least one of a cell wall and a cell membrane to expose at least one subcellular component therein, ablating the at least one subcellular component by an infrared laser pulse to form an ablation plume, intercepting the ablation plume by an electrospray plume to form ions, and detecting the ions by mass spectrometry.

  17. Bone marrow transplant – children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow - children - discharge; Stem cell transplant - children - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant -children - discharge; Reduced intensity, non-myeloablative transplant - children - discharge; Mini transplant - children - discharge; Allogenic bone ...

  18. Voltage and pace-capture mapping of linear ablation lesions overestimates chronic ablation gap size.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Louisa; Harrison, James; Chubb, Henry; Whitaker, John; Mukherjee, Rahul K; Bloch, Lars Ølgaard; Andersen, Niels Peter; Dam, Høgni; Jensen, Henrik K; Niederer, Steven; Wright, Matthew; O'Neill, Mark; Williams, Steven E

    2018-04-26

    Conducting gaps in lesion sets are a major reason for failure of ablation procedures. Voltage mapping and pace-capture have been proposed for intra-procedural identification of gaps. We aimed to compare gap size measured acutely and chronically post-ablation to macroscopic gap size in a porcine model. Intercaval linear ablation was performed in eight Göttingen minipigs with a deliberate gap of ∼5 mm left in the ablation line. Gap size was measured by interpolating ablation contact force values between ablation tags and thresholding at a low force cut-off of 5 g. Bipolar voltage mapping and pace-capture mapping along the length of the line were performed immediately, and at 2 months, post-ablation. Animals were euthanized and gap sizes were measured macroscopically. Voltage thresholds to define scar were determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis as <0.56 mV (acutely) and <0.62 mV (chronically). Taking the macroscopic gap size as gold standard, error in gap measurements were determined for voltage, pace-capture, and ablation contact force maps. All modalities overestimated chronic gap size, by 1.4 ± 2.0 mm (ablation contact force map), 5.1 ± 3.4 mm (pace-capture), and 9.5 ± 3.8 mm (voltage mapping). Error on ablation contact force map gap measurements were significantly less than for voltage mapping (P = 0.003, Tukey's multiple comparisons test). Chronically, voltage mapping and pace-capture mapping overestimated macroscopic gap size by 11.9 ± 3.7 and 9.8 ± 3.5 mm, respectively. Bipolar voltage and pace-capture mapping overestimate the size of chronic gap formation in linear ablation lesions. The most accurate estimation of chronic gap size was achieved by analysis of catheter-myocardium contact force during ablation.

  19. Dispersion and viscous attenuation of capillary waves with finite amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, Fabian; Paré, Gounséti; Zaleski, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the dispersion of capillary waves with finite amplitude, based on direct numerical simulations. The presented results show an increase of viscous attenuation and, consequently, a smaller frequency of capillary waves with increasing initial wave amplitude. Interestingly, however, the critical wavenumber as well as the wavenumber at which the maximum frequency is observed remain the same for a given two-phase system, irrespective of the wave amplitude. By devising an empirical correlation that describes the effect of the wave amplitude on the viscous attenuation, the dispersion of capillary waves with finite initial amplitude is shown to be, in very good approximation, self-similar throughout the entire underdamped regime and independent of the fluid properties. The results also shown that analytical solutions for capillary waves with infinitesimal amplitude are applicable with reasonable accuracy for capillary waves with moderate amplitude.

  20. Construction of stable capillary networks using a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Construction of stable capillary networks is required to provide sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the deep region of thick tissues, which is important in the context of 3D tissue engineering. Although conventional in vitro culture models have been used to investigate the mechanism of capillary formation, recent advances in microfluidics technologies allowed us to control biophysical and biochemical culture environments more precisely, which led to the construction of functional and stable capillary networks. In this study, endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured in microfluidic devices to construct stable capillary networks, which resulted in the construction of luminal structures covered by pericytes. Interactions between endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells are also discussed in the context of capillary formation.

  1. Exact Solution for Capillary Bridges Properties by Shooting Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang-Nian, Li; Jia-Qi, Zhang; Feng-Xi, Zhou

    2017-04-01

    The investigation of liquid bridge force acting between wet particles has great significance in many fields. In this article, the exact solution of capillary force between two unequal-sized spherical particles is investigated. Firstly, The Young-Laplace equation with moving boundary is converted into a set of ordinary differential equations with two fix point boundary using variable substitution technique, in which the gravity effects have been neglected. The geometry of the liquid bridge between two particles is solved by shooting method. After that, the gorge method is applied to calculate the capillary-bridge force that is consists of contributions from the capillary suction and surface tension. Finally, the effect of various parameters including distance between two spheres, radii of spheres, and contact angles on the capillary force are investigated. It is shown that the presented approach is an efficient and accurate algorithm for capillary force between two particles in complex situations.

  2. Recent advances in capillary ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Blue, Laura E; Franklin, Edward G; Godinho, Justin M; Grinias, James P; Grinias, Kaitlin M; Lunn, Daniel B; Moore, Stephanie M

    2017-11-10

    In the twenty years since its initial demonstration, capillary ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) has proven to be one of most powerful separation techniques for the analysis of complex mixtures. This review focuses on the most recent advances made since 2010 towards increasing the performance of such separations. Improvements in capillary column preparation techniques that have led to columns with unprecedented performance are described. New stationary phases and phase supports that have been reported over the past decade are detailed, with a focus on their use in capillary formats. A discussion on the instrument developments that have been required to ensure that extra-column effects do not diminish the intrinsic efficiency of these columns during analysis is also included. Finally, the impact of these capillary UHPLC topics on the field of proteomics and ways in which capillary UHPLC may continue to be applied to the separation of complex samples are addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatal Primary Capillary Leak Syndrome in a Late Preterm Newborn.

    PubMed

    Kulihova, Katarina; Prochazkova, Martina; Semberova, Jana; Janota, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Primary capillary leak syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by episodes of vascular collapse and plasma extravasation, which may lead to multiple organ failure. Primary capillary leak is extremely rare in children. The authors report a case of a late preterm newborn with fatal capillary leak syndrome of unknown etiology, manifesting as hypotension unresponsive to treatment, extravasation leading to generalised edema, disseminated intravascular coagulation and finally, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Aggressive volumotherapy and a combination of inotropes and high doses of terlipressin did not influence systemic vascular collapse and plasma extravasation. The newborn developed multiple organ failure and died on day 27 of life. Investigations performed failed to reveal any specific cause of capillary leak. This is the first report of a fatal primary capillary leak syndrome in a newborn.

  4. Direct measurement of capillary blood pressure in the human lip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, S. E.; Tucker, B. J.; Aratow, M.; Crenshaw, A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we developed and tested a new procedure for measuring microcirculatory blood pressures above heart level in humans. Capillary and postcapillary venule blood pressures were measured directly in 13 human subjects by use of the servonulling micropressure technique adapted for micropuncture of lip capillaries. Pressure waveforms were recorded in 40 separate capillary vessels and 14 separate postcapillary venules over periods ranging from 5 to 64 s. Localization and determination of capillary and postcapillary vessels were ascertained anatomically before pressure measurements. Capillary pressure was 33.2 +/- 1.5 (SE) mm Hg in lips of subjects seated upright. Repeated micropunctures of the same vessel gave an average coefficient of variation of 0.072. Postcapillary venule pressure was 18.9 +/- 1.6 mm Hg. This procedure produces a direct and reproducible means of measuring microvascular blood pressures in a vascular bed above heart level in humans.

  5. Study of the efficiency for ion transfer through bent capillaries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Xu, Wei; Garimella, Sandilya; Ouyang, Zheng

    2012-11-01

    Discontinuous atmospheric pressure interfaces (DAPIs) with bent capillaries represent a highly simplified and flexible means for introducing ions into a vacuum manifold for mass analysis or gas phase ion reactions. In this work, a series of capillaries of different radians and curvatures were used with DAPI for studying the impact of the capillary bending on the ion transfer. The variation of transfer efficiency was systematically characterized for dry and solvated ions. The efficiency loss for dry ions was less than one order of magnitude, even with a three-turn bent capillary. The transfer of solvated ions generated by electrospray was found to be minimally impacted by the bending of the transfer capillary. For multiply protonated ions, the transfer efficiency for ions at lower charge states could be relatively well retained, presumably due to the lower reactivity associated with proton transfer reaction and the compensation in intensity by conversion of ions at higher charge states. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Paper Capillary Enables Effective Sampling for Microfluidic Paper Analytical Devices.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Jin-Wen; Liu, Yu; Wang, Sha; Hou, Yun-Xuan; Xu, Bi-Yi; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-06-06

    Paper capillary is introduced to enable effective sampling on microfluidic paper analytical devices. By coupling mac-roscale capillary force of paper capillary and microscale capillary forces of native paper, fluid transport can be flexibly tailored with proper design. Subsequently, a hybrid-fluid-mode paper capillary device was proposed, which enables fast and reliable sampling in an arrayed form, with less surface adsorption and bias for different components. The resulting device thus well supports high throughput, quantitative, and repeatable assays all by hands operation. With all these merits, multiplex analysis of ions, proteins, and microbe have all been realized on this platform, which has paved the way to level-up analysis on μPADs.

  7. [Catheter ablation of ectopic incessant atrial tachycardia using radiofrequency. Reversion of tachycardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    de Paola, A A; Mendonça, A; Balbão, C E; Tavora, M Z; da Silva, R M; Hara, V M; Guiguer Júnior, N; Vattimo, A C; Souza, I A; Portugal, O P

    1993-10-01

    A 8-year-old female patient with refractory incessant atrial tachycardia, very symptomatic and with left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.25. Electrophysiological study and endocardial mapping localized the site of the origin of atrial tachycardia in the superior right atrium. In this site 2 applications of radiofrequency current (25V, 20 and 50 seconds) resulted in termination of the atrial tachycardia. She was discharged off antiarrhythmic drugs and after 2 months ejection fraction was 0.52. She was completely asymptomatic 6 months after ablation procedure.

  8. Testing of Advanced Conformal Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Agrawal, Parul; Beck, Robin

    2013-01-01

    In support of the CA250 project, this paper details the results of a test campaign that was conducted at the Ames Arcjet Facility, wherein several novel low density thermal protection (TPS) materials were evaluated in an entry like environment. The motivation for these tests was to investigate whether novel conformal ablative TPS materials can perform under high heat flux and shear environment as a viable alternative to rigid ablators like PICA or Avcoat for missions like MSL and beyond. A conformable TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials (such as tiled Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) system on MSL, and honeycomb-based Avcoat on the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV)). The compliant (high strain to failure) nature of the conformable ablative materials will allow better integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments to be used in fabrication.A novel SPRITE1 architecture, developed by the researchers at NASA Ames was used for arcjet testing. This small probe like configuration with 450 spherecone, enabled us to test the materials in a combination of high heat flux, pressure and shear environment. The heat flux near the nose were in the range of 500-1000 W/sq cm whereas in the flank section of the test article the magnitudes were about 50 of the nose, 250-500W/sq cm range. There were two candidate conformable materials under consideration for this test series. Both test materials are low density (0.28 g/cu cm) similar to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) or Silicone Impregnated Refractory Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA) and are comprised of: A flexible carbon substrate (Carbon felt) infiltrated with an ablative resin system: phenolic (Conformal-PICA) or silicone (Conformal-SICA). The test demonstrated a successful performance of both the conformable ablators for heat flux conditions between 50

  9. General Model for Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Marschall, Jochen; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A previous paper (AIAA 94-2042) presented equations and numerical procedures for modeling the thermochemical ablation and pyrolysis of thermal protection materials which contain multiple surface species. This work describes modifications and enhancements to the Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (MAT) theory and code for application to the general case which includes surface area constraints, rate limited surface reactions, and non-thermochemical mass loss (failure). Detailed results and comparisons with data are presented for the Shuttle Orbiter reinforced carbon-carbon oxidation protection system which contains a mixture of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), silica (SiO2), silicon carbide (SiC), and carbon (C).

  10. Effects of Laser Wavelength on Ablator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength-dependent or spectral radiation effects are potentially significant for thermal protection materials. NASA atmospheric entry simulations include trajectories with significant levels of shock layer radiation which is concentrated in narrow spectral lines. Tests using two different high powered lasers, the 10.6 micron LHMEL I CO2 laser and the near-infrared 1.07 micron fiber laser, on low density ablative thermal protection materials offer a unique opportunity to evaluate spectral effects. Test results indicated that the laser wavelength can impact the thermal response of an ablative material, in terms of bond-line temperatures, penetration times, mass losses, and char layer thicknesses.

  11. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2014-10-14

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  12. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  13. Experimental measurement of ablation effects in plasma armature railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.; Parsons, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental evidence supporting the importance of ablation in plasma armature railguns is presented. Experiments conducted using the HYVAX and MIDI-2 railguns are described. Several indirect effects of ablation are identified from the experimental results. An improved ablation model of plasma armature dynamics is proposed which incorporates the restrike process.

  14. Experimental measurement of ablation effects in plasma armature railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.; Parsons, W.M.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental evidence supporting the importance of ablation in plasma armature railguns is presented. Experiments conducted using the HYVAX and MIDI-2 railguns are described. Several indirect effects of ablation are identified from the experimental results. An improved ablation model of plasma armature dynamics is proposed which incorporates the restrike process.

  15. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  16. Measurement of the refractive index of microquantity liquid filled in a capillary and a capillary wall without destruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Pu, Xiaoyun

    2013-07-20

    A method for measuring the refractive index (RI) of a small volume of liquid and a capillary wall is presented in this paper. A transparent capillary filled with liquid is used as a cylindrical positive lens; subsequently, the focal length of the lens is derived through the base of paraxial approximation, which is recorded as a function of the RIs of the liquid and capillary wall. With the RI of a capillary wall known, the RI of the liquid can be obtained by measuring the focal length of the lens, which is characterized by a microquantity liquid, spatial resolution, and easy operation. The RI of the capillary wall can be calculated without ruining the capillary if the capillary is filled with a standard liquid (RI is known), the deviation of which is less than 0.003 RIU. The factors affecting accuracy of the measurement, for instance, the depth of a field (DOF) in a reading microscope system and the outer and inner diameters of a capillary are analyzed, while illustrating that the effective DOF plays an essential role in accurate measurement.

  17. GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gow, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    An extremely compact two-terminal gaseous discharge device is described that is capable of producing neutrons in copious quantities, relatively high energy ions, intense x rays, and the like. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a crossed electric-magnetic field region in the discharge envelope that traps electrons and accelerates them to very high energies to provide an intense ionizing medium adjacent the anode of the device for ionizing gas therein with extremely high efficiency. In addition, the crossed-field trapping region holds the electrons close to the anode whereby the acceleration of ions to the cathode is not materially effected by the electron sheath and the ions assume substantially the full energy of the anodecathode potential drop. (auth)

  18. Discharge pulse phenomenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model was developed which places radiation induced discharge pulse results into a unified conceptual framework. Only two phenomena are required to interpret all space and laboratory results: (1) radiation produces large electrostatic fields inside insulators via the trapping of a net space charge density; and (2) the electrostatic fields initiate discharge streamer plasmas similar to those investigated in high voltage electrical insulation materials; these streamer plasmas generate the pulsing phenomena. The apparent variability and diversity of results seen is an inherent feature of the plasma streamer mechanism acting in the electric fields which is created by irradiation of the dielectrics. The implications of the model are extensive and lead to constraints over what can be done about spacecraft pulsing.

  19. Charging and discharging Teflon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passenheim, B. C.; Vanlint, V. A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The charging and discharging characteristics of several common satellite materials exposed to 0-30KV electrons are measured. Teflon is discussed because the charging characteristics are radically altered immediately after a spontaneous discharge. The exterior geometry of the test structure is shown. In all cases dielectric samples were 82 cm in diameter mounted on the front of a 120 cm diameter cylinder supported on an 85 cm, 0.95 cm thick plexiglass disc. Dielectric materials investigated were: back surface aluminized Kapton, back surface silvered Teflon, silicon alkyd white thermal control paint, and 50 cm by 50 cm array of 0.030 cm thick MgF2 coated fused silica solar cell cover slips.

  20. Growth of metal-organic framework HKUST-1 in capillary using liquid-phase epitaxy for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bao, Tao; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2015-02-13

    Much attention is being paid to applying metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as stationary phases in chromatography because of their fascinating properties, such as large surface-to-volume ratios, high levels of porosity, and selective adsorption. HKUST-1 is one of the best-studied face-centered-cubic MOF containing nano-sized channels and side pockets for film growth. However, growth of HKUST-1 framework inside capillary column as stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography is a challenge work. In this work, we carry out the growth of HKUST-1 on the inner wall of capillary by using liquid-phase epitaxy process at room temperature. The fabricated HKUST-1@capillary can be successfully used for the separation of substituted benzene including methylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, benzene series, phenolic acids, and benzoic acids derivates. High column efficiency of 1.5×10(5) N/m for methylbenzene was achieved. The formation of HKUST-1 grown in the capillary was confirmed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy images, Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction. The column showed long lifetime and excellent stability. The relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day repeatability of the HKUST-1@capillary were lower than 7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring Electrostatic Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William C.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus measures electrostatic-discharge properties of several materials at once. Allows samples charged either by friction or by exposure to corona. By testing several samples simultaneously, apparatus eliminates errors introduced by variations among test conditions. Samples spaced so they pass at intervals under either of two retractable arms. Samples are 2 inches wide along circular path. Arm tips and voltmeter probe are 6 inches from turntable center. Servocontrolled turntable speed constant within 0.1 percent.

  2. Electrostatic discharge test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge properties of materials are quantitatively measured and ranked. Samples (20) are rotated on a turntable (15) beneath selectable, co-available electrostatic chargers (30/40), one being a corona charging element (30) and the other a sample-engaging triboelectric charging element (40). They then pass under a voltage meter (25) to measure the amount of residual charge on the samples (20). After charging is discontinued, measurements are continued to record the charge decay history over time.

  3. Electrostatic discharge test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William Conrad (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge properties of materials are quantitatively measured and ranked. Samples are rotated on a turntable beneath selectable, co-available electrostatic chargers, one being a corona charging element and the other a sample-engaging triboelectric charging element. Samples then pass under a voltage meter to measure the amount of residual charge on the samples. After charging is discontinued, measurements are continued to record the charge decay history over time.

  4. Graywater Discharges from Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    soaps and detergents used in any capacity that will be discharged as part of graywater must be nontoxic and phosphate -free, and should be...mounted on one skid. The Evac MBR process is fully automated and controlled through a PLC. Evac uses high quality Kubota membranes. Kubota membranes...the best solution. • Non- corrosive . By choosing to use non- corrosive materials (including a special space age polymer yielding strength and

  5. Improved Sensitivity of Spectroscopic Quantification of Stable Isotope Content Using Capillary Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J.; Wilcox Freeburg, E.; Kriesel, J.; Linley, T. J.; Kelly, J.; Coleman, M. L.; Christensen, L. E.; Vance, S.

    2016-12-01

    Spectroscopy-based platforms have recently risen to the forefront for making stable isotope measurements of methane, carbon dioxide, water, or other analytes. These spectroscopy systems can be relatively straightforward to operate (versus a mass spectrometry platform), largely relieve the analyst of mass interference artifacts, and many can be used in the field. Despite these significant advantages, however, existing spectroscopy techniques suffer from a lack of measurement sensitivity that can ultimately limit select applications including spatially resolved and compound-specific measurements. Here we present a capillary absorption spectroscopy (CAS) system that is designed to mitigate sensitivity issues in spectroscopy-based stable isotope evaluation. The system uses mid-wave infrared excitation generated from a continuous wave quantum cascade laser. Importantly, the sample `chamber' is a flexible capillary with a total volume of less than one cc. Proprietary coatings on the internal surface of the fiber improve optical performance, guiding the light to a detector and facilitating high levels of interaction between the laser beam and gaseous analytes. We present data demonstrating that a tapered hollow fiber cell, with an internal diameter that broadens toward the detector, reduces optical feedback to further improve measurement sensitivity. Sensitivity of current hollow fiber / CAS systems enable measurements of only 10's of picomoles CO2 while theoretical improvements should enable measurements of as little as 10's of femtomoles. Continued optimization of sample introduction and improvements to optical feedback are being explored. Software is being designed to provide rapid integration of data and generation of processed isotope measurements using a graphical user interface. Taken together, the sensitivity improvements of the CAS system under development could, when coupled to a laser ablation sampling device, enable up to 2 µm spatial resolution (roughly the

  6. Powerful glow discharge excilamp

    DOEpatents

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Panchenko, Aleksey N.; Skakun, Victor S.; Sosnin, Edward A.; Wang, Francis T.; Myers, Booth R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

  7. Modeling electronegative plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A.

    Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}=more » 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.« less

  8. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Renal VX-2 Carcinoma: Ethiodol-Ethanol Capillary Embolization Combined with Carboplatin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Gil; Van Pelt, Carolyn S.; Wright, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective We wanted to determine whether transcatheter Ethiodol-based capillary embolization in combination with carboplatin could improve the efficiency of a 1:1 Ethiodol-ethanol mixture (EEM) to ablate kidneys that been inoculated with VX-2 carcinoma. Materials and Methods The right kidney in 34 New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with fresh VX-2 tumor fragments. One week later, the kidneys were subjected to transarterial treatment (4-5 rabbits/group): Saline infusion (Group 1); carboplatin infusion (5 or 10 mg, Groups 2A and 2B); carboplatin-Ethiodol (CE) alone (Group 3) and followed by main renal artery occlusion with ethanol (RAO) (Group 4); carboplatin-EEM (C-EEM) followed by RAO (Group 5); carboplatin infusion followed by EEM plus RAO (Group 6); and EEM followed by RAO (Group 7). The animals were followed for up to 3-weeks. The treated kidneys were evaluated angiographically and macroscopically. The kidneys that showed successful embolization macroscopically were entirely cut into serial sections, and these were examined microscopically. Histologically, the kidneys were evaluated on the basis of the residual tumor found in the serial sections. Results The results obtained with carboplatin infusion alone (Groups 2A and 2B) and CE without RAO (Group 3) were similar to those of the control animals (Group 1). Kidneys from Groups 4-7 demonstrated macroscopically successful embolization with histologically proven complete renal parenchyma infarction; however, some residual tumor was evident in all but one animal. Conclusion None of the Ethiodol-based modalities combined with locoregional carboplatin were more efficacious for tumor ablation than EEM alone. PMID:17420631

  9. Separation of oligopeptides, nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography with sol-gel modified inner capillary wall.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, Jana; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Král, Vladimír; Mikšík, Ivan

    2017-09-29

    The aim of this article is to study the modification of an inner capillary wall with sol-gel coating (pure silica sol-gel or silica sol-gel containing porphyrin-brucine conjugate) and determine its influence on the separation process using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography method. After modification of the inner capillary surface the separation of analytes was performed using two different phosphate buffers (pH 2.5 and 9.0) and finally the changes in electrophoretic mobilities of various samples were calculated. To confirm that the modification of the inner capillary surface was successful, the parts of the inner surfaces of capillaries were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The analytes used as testing samples were oligopeptides, nucleosides, nucleobases and finally nucleotides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Capillary test specimen, system, and methods for in-situ visualization of capillary flow and fillet formation

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Aaron C.; Hosking, F. Michael ,; Reece, Mark

    2003-06-24

    A capillary test specimen, method, and system for visualizing and quantifying capillary flow of liquids under realistic conditions, including polymer underfilling, injection molding, soldering, brazing, and casting. The capillary test specimen simulates complex joint geometries and has an open cross-section to permit easy visual access from the side. A high-speed, high-magnification camera system records the location and shape of the moving liquid front in real-time, in-situ as it flows out of a source cavity, through an open capillary channel between two surfaces having a controlled capillary gap, and into an open fillet cavity, where it subsequently forms a fillet on free surfaces that have been configured to simulate realistic joint geometries. Electric resistance heating rapidly heats the test specimen, without using a furnace. Image-processing software analyzes the recorded images and calculates the velocity of the moving liquid front, fillet contact angles, and shape of the fillet's meniscus, among other parameters.

  11. Left atrial concomitant surgical ablation for treatment of atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunguo; Ye, Minhua; Lin, Jiang; Jin, Jiang; Hu, Quanteng; Zhu, Chengchu; Chen, Baofu

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Surgical ablation is a generally established treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing concomitant cardiac surgery. Left atrial (LA) lesion set for ablation is a simplified procedure suggested to reduce the surgery time and morbidity after procedure. The present meta-analysis aims to explore the outcomes of left atrial lesion set versus no ablative treatment in patients with AF undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods A literature research was performed in six database from their inception to July 2017, identifying all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing left atrial lesion set versus no ablative treatment in AF patient undergoing cardiac surgery. Data were extracted and analyzed according to predefined clinical endpoints. Results Eleven relevant RCTs were included for analysis in the present study. The prevalence of sinus rhythm in ablation group was significantly higher at discharge, 6-month and 1-year follow-up period. The morbidity including 30 day mortality, late all-cause mortality, reoperation for bleeding, permanent pacemaker implantation and neurological events were of no significant difference between two groups. Conclusions The result of our meta-analysis demonstrates that left atrial lesion set is an effective and safe surgical ablation strategy for AF patients undergoing concomitant cardiac surgery. PMID:29360851

  12. Capillary Electrophoresis of Mono- and Oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Toppazzini, Mila; Coslovi, Anna; Rossi, Marco; Flamigni, Anna; Baiutti, Edi; Campa, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports an overview of the recent advances in the analysis of mono- and oligosaccharides by capillary electrophoresis (CE); furthermore, relevant reviews and research articles recently published in the field are tabulated. Additionally, pretreatments and procedures applied to uncharged and acidic carbohydrates (i.e., monosaccharides and lower oligosaccharides carrying carboxylate, sulfate, or phosphate groups) are described.Representative examples of such procedures are reported in detail, upon describing robust methodologies for the study of (1) neutral oligosaccharides derivatized by reductive amination and by formation of glycosylamines; (2) sialic acid derivatized with 2-aminoacridone, released from human serum immunoglobulin G; (3) anomeric couples of neutral glycosides separated using borate-based buffers; (4) unsaturated, underivatized oligosaccharides from lyase-treated alginate.

  13. Dating silk by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moini, Mehdi; Klauenberg, Kathryn; Ballard, Mary

    2011-10-01

    A new capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) technique is introduced for age estimation of silk textiles based on amino acid racemization rates. With an L to D conversion half-life of ~2500 years for silk (B. mori) aspartic acid, the technique is capable of dating silk textiles ranging in age from several decades to a few-thousand-years-old. Analysis required only ~100 μg or less of silk fiber. Except for a 2 h acid hydrolysis at 110 °C, no other sample preparation is required. The CE-MS analysis takes ~20 min, consumes only nanoliters of the amino acid mixture, and provides both amino acid composition profiles and D/L ratios for ~11 amino acids.

  14. Capillary droplet propulsion on a fibre.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Sabrina; Bäumchen, Oliver; Jacobs, Karin

    2015-09-21

    A viscous liquid film coating a fibre becomes unstable and decays into droplets due to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability (RPI). Here, we report on the generation of uniform droplets on a hydrophobized fibre by taking advantage of this effect. In the late stages of liquid column breakup, a three-phase contact line can be formed at one side of the droplet by spontaneous rupture of the thinning film. The resulting capillary imbalance leads to droplet propulsion along the fibre. We study the dynamics and the dewetting speed of the droplet as a function of molecular weight as well as temperature and compare to a force balance model based on purely viscous dissipation.

  15. [Recent advances and applications of capillary electrochromatography and pressurized capillary electrochromatography].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wei, Juan; Xue, Yunyun; Bahatibieke, Marjan; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chao

    2009-09-01

    Capillary electrochromatography (CEC), in which electroosmotic flow (EOF) created from the electrical double layer is made to act as a pump to drive the mobile phase in a capillary column packed with micro-particulates or coated with stationary phase. Both neutral and charged species can be resolved by CEC. It has been demonstrated that the efficiency of a separation obtained by electroosmotic propulsion is superior to that obtained by pressure-driven flow (as is the case in HPLC). CEC combines the best features of CE and versatile selectivity and large sample capacity of HPLC, promising high efficiency, high resolution, high selectivity and high peak capacity. However, in practice, when CEC is used without pressure, often used on a commercial CE instrument, there are problems and difficulties associated with bubbles formation and column dry-out. These difficulties can be overcome by a pressurized CEC (pCEC) system, in which a supplementary pressure is applied to the column in addition to the EOF. In such a system, a pressure can be applied to the capillary column to suppress bubbles formation. Quantitative sample introduction in pCEC can be easily achieved through a rotary-type injector. Most importantly, it is amenable for a solvent gradient mode, similar to that in HPLC, by programming the composition of mobile phase. The article brings a comprehensive survey of recent development of CEC and pCEC, including the development of instrumentation, capillary columns and stationary phase as well as CEC and pCEC applications in life science, biotechnology, pharmaceutical analysis, food safety and environmental security. Prospects for CEC and pCEC development and application are also discussed.

  16. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  17. Capillary refill: prognostic value in Kenyan children

    PubMed Central

    Pamba, A; Maitland, K

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether delayed capillary refill time (>3 seconds) is a useful prognostic indicator in Kenyan children admitted to hospital. Methods: A total of 4160 children admitted to Kilifi District Hospital with malaria, malarial anaemia, acute respiratory tract infection (ARI), severe anaemia (haemoglobin <50 g/l), gastroenteritis, malnutrition, meningitis, or septicaemia were studied. Results: Overall, delayed capillary refill time (dCRT), present in 346/4160 (8%) of the children, was significantly more common in fatal cases (44/189, 23%) than survivors (7.5%), and had useful prognostic value. In children admitted with malaria, gastroenteritis, or malnutrition, likelihood ratio tests suggested that dCRT was useful in identifying high risk groups for mortality, but its prognostic value in anaemia, ARI, and sepsis was unclear due to low case fatality or limited numbers. The severity features of impaired consciousness and deep breathing were significantly associated both with the presence of dCRT and fatal outcome. In children, with either of these severity features, a less stringent value of dCRT(>2 s) identified 50% of children with hypotension (systolic BP <2SD) and 40% of those requiring volume resuscitation (for metabolic acidosis). Conclusions: Although CRT is a simple bedside test, which may be used in resource poor settings as a guide to the circulatory status, dCRT should not be relied on in the absence of other features of severity. In non-severe disease, the additional presence of hypoxia, a moderately raised creatinine (>80 µmol/l), or a raised white cell count should prompt the need for fluid expansion. PMID:15383440

  18. Capillary sieving electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography produce highly correlated separation of tryptic digests

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis on fluorescently labeled proteins and peptides. Capillary sieving electrophoresis was performed in the first dimension and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was performed in the second. A cellular homogenate was labeled with the fluorogenic reagent FQ and separated using the system. This homogenate generated a pair of ridges; the first had essentially constant migration time in the CSE dimension, while the second had essentially constant migration time in the MEKC dimension. In addition a few spots were scattered through the electropherogram. The same homogenate was digested using trypsin, and then labeled and subjected to the two dimensional separation. In this case, the two ridges observed from the original two-dimensional separation disappeared, and were replaced by a set of spots that fell along the diagonal. Those spots were identified using a local-maximum algorithm and each was fit using a two-dimensional Gaussian surface by an unsupervised nonlinear least squares regression algorithm. The migration times of the tryptic digest components were highly correlated (r = 0.862). When the slowest migrating components were eliminated from the analysis, the correlation coefficient improved to r = 0.956. PMID:20564272

  19. Uniform Laser Excitation And Detection In Capillary Array Electrophoresis System And Method.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Qingbo; Zhou, Songsan; Liu, Changsheng

    2003-10-07

    A capillary electrophoresis system comprises capillaries positioned in parallel to each other forming a plane. The capillaries are configured to allow samples to migrate. A light source is configured to illuminate the capillaries and the samples therein. This causes the samples to emit light. A lens is configured to receive the light emitted by the samples and positioned directly over a first group of the capillaries and obliquely over a second group of the capillaries. The light source is further configured to illuminate the second group of capillaries more than the first group of the capillaries such that amount of light received by the lens from the first group of capillaries is substantially identical to amount of light received from the second group of capillaries when an identical amount of the samples is migrating through the first and second group capillaries.

  20. Intumescent-ablator coatings using endothermic fillers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An intumescent-ablator coating composition which contains the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid or 4,4 dinitrosul fanilide, a polymeric binder system and about 5 to 30% weight of an endothermic filler is reported. The filler has a decomposition temperature about or within the exothermic region of the intumescent agent.

  1. Combining Electrolysis and Electroporation for Tissue Ablation.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Mary; Rubinsky, Liel; Meir, Arie; Raju, Narayan; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-08-01

    Electrolytic ablation is a method that operates by delivering low magnitude direct current to the target region over long periods of time, generating electrolytic products that destroy cells. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis stating that electrolytic ablation can be made more effective when the electrolysis-producing electric charges are delivered using electric pulses with field strength typical in reversible electroporation protocols. (For brevity we will refer to tissue ablation protocols that combine electroporation and electrolysis as E(2).) The mechanistic explanation of this hypothesis is related to the idea that products of electrolysis generated by E(2) protocols can gain access to the interior of the cell through the electroporation permeabilized cell membrane and therefore cause more effective cell death than from the exterior of an intact cell. The goal of this study is to provide a first-order examination of this hypothesis by comparing the charge dosage required to cause a comparable level of damage to a rat liver, in vivo, when using either conventional electrolysis or E(2) approaches. Our results show that E(2) protocols produce tissue damage that is consistent with electrolytic ablation. Furthermore, E(2) protocols cause damage comparable to that produced by conventional electrolytic protocols while delivering orders of magnitude less charge to the target tissue over much shorter periods of time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Organized Atrial Tachycardias after Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Castrejón-Castrejón, Sergio; Ortega, Marta; Pérez-Silva, Armando; Doiny, David; Estrada, Alejandro; Filgueiras, David; López-Sendón, José L.; Merino, José L.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of catheter-based ablation techniques to treat atrial fibrillation is limited not only by recurrences of this arrhythmia but also, and not less importantly, by new-onset organized atrial tachycardias. The incidence of such tachycardias depends on the type and duration of the baseline atrial fibrillation and specially on the ablation technique which was used during the index procedure. It has been repeatedly reported that the more extensive the left atrial surface ablated, the higher the incidence of organized atrial tachycardias. The exact origin of the pathologic substrate of these trachycardias is not fully understood and may result from the interaction between preexistent regions with abnormal electrical properties and the new ones resultant from radiofrequency delivery. From a clinical point of view these atrial tachycardias tend to remit after a variable time but in some cases are responsible for significant symptoms. A precise knowledge of the most frequent types of these arrhythmias, of their mechanisms and components is necessary for a thorough electrophysiologic characterization if a new ablation procedure is required. PMID:21941669

  3. Atmospheric Profile Imprint in Firewall Ablation Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceplecha, Z.; Pecina, P.

    1984-01-01

    A general formula which expresses the distance along the meteoric fireball trajectory 1 as a function of t is discussed. Differential equations which include the motion and ablation of a single nonfragmenting meteor body are presented. The importance of the atmospheric density profile in the meteor formula is emphasized.

  4. Femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cangueiro, Liliana T.; Vilar, Rui; Botelho do Rego, Ana M.; Muralha, Vania S. F.

    2012-12-01

    We study the surface topographical, structural, and compositional modifications induced in bovine cortical bone by femtosecond laser ablation. The tests are performed in air, with a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (500 fs, 1030 nm) at fluences ranging from 0.55 to 2.24 J/cm2. The ablation process is monitored by acoustic emission measurements. The topography of the laser-treated surfaces is studied by scanning electron microscopy, and their constitution is characterized by glancing incidence x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation allows removing bone without melting, carbonization, or cracking. The structure and composition of the remaining tissue are essentially preserved, the only constitutional changes observed being a reduction of the organic material content and a partial recrystallization of hydroxyapatite in the most superficial region of samples. The results suggest that, within this fluence range, ablation occurs by a combination of thermal and electrostatic mechanisms, with the first type of mechanism predominating at lower fluences. The associated thermal effects explain the constitutional changes observed. We show that femtosecond lasers are a promising tool for delicate orthopaedic surgeries, where small amounts of bone must be cut with negligible damage, thus minimizing surgical trauma.

  5. Pulsed Radiofrequency Ablation for Treating Sural Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa; Jackson, Markus; Plovanich, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Sural neuralgia is persistent pain in the distribution of the sural nerve that provides sensation to the lateral posterior corner of the leg, lateral foot, and fifth toe. Sural neuralgia is a rare condition but can be challenging to treat and can cause significant limitation. We present 2 cases of sural neuralgia resistant to conservative management that were effectively treated by pulsed radiofrequency ablation. A 65-year-old female developed sural neuralgia after a foot surgery and failed conservative management. She had successful sural nerve blocks, and pulsed radiofrequency ablation led to an 80% improvement in her pain. A 33-year-old female presented with sural neuralgia secondary to two falls. The patient had tried several conservative modalities with no success. We performed diagnostic blocks and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and the patient reported 80% improvement in her pain. Pulsed radiofrequency ablation may be a safe and effective treatment for patients with sural neuralgia that does not respond to conservative therapy. However, studies are needed to elucidate its effectiveness and safety profile.

  6. Microwave ablation devices for interventional oncology.

    PubMed

    Ward, Robert C; Healey, Terrance T; Dupuy, Damian E

    2013-03-01

    Microwave ablation is one of the several options in the ablation armamentarium for the treatment of malignancy, offering several potential benefits when compared with other ablation, radiation, surgical and medical treatment modalities. The basic microwave system consists of the generator, power distribution system and antennas. Often under image (computed tomography or ultrasound) guidance, a needle-like antenna is inserted percutaneously into the tumor, where local microwave electromagnetic radiation is emitted from the probe's active tip, producing frictional tissue heating, capable of causing cell death by coagulation necrosis. Half of the microwave ablation systems use a 915 MHz generator and the other half use a 2450 MHz generator. To date, there are no completed clinical trials comparing microwave devices head-to-head. Prospective comparisons of microwave technology with other treatment alternatives, as well as head-to-head comparison with each microwave device, is needed if this promising field will garner more widespread support and use in the oncology community.

  7. Ablation Resistant Zirconium and Hafnium Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Jeffrey (Inventor); White, Michael J. (Inventor); Kaufman, Larry (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    High temperature ablation resistant ceramic composites have been made. These ceramics are composites of zirconium diboride and zirconium carbide with silicon carbide, hafnium diboride and hafnium carbide with silicon carbide and ceramic composites which contain mixed diborides and/or carbides of zirconium and hafnium. along with silicon carbide.

  8. Aluminum X-ray mass-ablation rate measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Kline, John L.; Hager, Jonathan D.

    2016-10-15

    Measurements of the mass ablation rate of aluminum (Al) have been completed at the Omega Laser Facility. Measurements of the mass-ablation rate show Al is higher than plastic (CH), comparable to high density carbon (HDC), and lower than beryllium. The mass-ablation rate is consistent with predictions using a 1D Lagrangian code, Helios. Lastly, the results suggest Al capsules have a reasonable ablation pressure even with a higher albedo than beryllium or carbon ablators warranting further investigation into the viability of Al capsules for ignition should be pursued.

  9. Acceleration processes in the quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic discharge. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The flow field characteristics within the discharge chamber and exhaust of a quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjet were examined to clarify the nature of the plasma acceleration process. The observation of discharge characteristics unperturbed by insulator ablation and terminal voltage fluctuations, first requires the satisfaction of three criteria: the use of refractory insulator materials; a mass injection geometry tailored to provide propellant to both electrode regions of the discharge; and a cathode of sufficient surface area to permit nominal MPD arcjet operation for given combinations of arc current and total mass flow. The axial velocity profile and electromagnetic discharge structure were measured for an arcjet configuration which functions nominally at 15.3 kA and 6 g/sec argon mass flow. An empirical two-flow plasma acceleration model is advanced which delineates inner and outer flow regions and accounts for the observed velocity profile and calculated thrust of the accelerator.

  10. Fluoroscopy of spontaneous breathing is more sensitive than phrenic nerve stimulation for detection of right phrenic nerve injury during cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Markus; Nielson, Annika; Andrié, René P; Mittmann-Braun, Erica L; Stöckigt, Florian; Kreuz, Jens; Nickenig, Georg; Schrickel, Jan W; Lickfett, Lars M

    2014-08-01

    Right phrenic nerve palsy (PNP) is a typical complication of cryoballoon ablation of the right-sided pulmonary veins (PVs). Phrenic nerve function can be monitored by palpating the abdomen during phrenic nerve pacing from the superior vena cava (SVC pacing) or by fluoroscopy of spontaneous breathing. We sought to compare the sensitivity of these 2 techniques during cryoballoon ablation for detection of PNP. A total of 133 patients undergoing cryoballoon ablation were monitored with both SVC pacing and fluoroscopy of spontaneous breathing during ablation of the right superior PV. PNP occurred in 27/133 patients (20.0%). Most patients (89%) had spontaneous recovery of phrenic nerve function at the end of the procedure or on the following day. Three patients were discharged with persistent PNP. All PNP were detected first by fluoroscopic observation of diaphragm movement during spontaneous breathing, while diaphragm could still be stimulated by SVC pacing. In patients with no recovery until discharge, PNP occurred at a significantly earlier time (86 ± 34 seconds vs. 296 ± 159 seconds, P < 0.001). No recovery occurred in 2/4 patients who were ablated with a 23 mm cryoballoon as opposed to 1/23 patients with a 28 mm cryoballoon (P = 0.049). Fluoroscopic assessment of diaphragm movement during spontaneous breathing is more sensitive for detection PNP as compared to SVC pacing. PNP as assessed by fluoroscopy is frequent (20.0%) and carries a high rate of recovery (89%) until discharge. Early onset of PNP and use of 23 mm cryoballoon are associated with PNP persisting beyond hospital discharge. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Thermochemical Ablation Analysis of the Orion Heatshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sixel, William

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will one day carry astronauts to the Moon and beyond, and Orion's heatshield is a critical component in ensuring their safe return to Earth. The Orion heatshield is the structural component responsible for absorbing the intense heating environment caused by re-entry to Earth's atmosphere. The heatshield is primarily composed of Avcoat, an ablative material that is consumed during the re-entry process. Ablation is primarily characterized by two processes: pyrolysis and recession. The decomposition of in-depth virgin material is known as pyrolysis. Recession occurs when the exposed surface of the heatshield reacts with the surrounding flow. The Orion heatshield design was changed from an individually filled Avcoat honeycomb to a molded block Avcoat design. The molded block Avcoat heatshield relies on an adhesive bond to keep it attached to the capsule. In some locations on the heatshield, the integrity of the adhesive bond cannot be verified. For these locations, a mechanical retention device was proposed. Avcoat ablation was modelled in CHAR and the in-depth virgin material temperatures were used in a Thermal Desktop model of the mechanical retention device. The retention device was analyzed and shown to cause a large increase in the maximum bondline temperature. In order to study the impact of individual ablation modelling parameters on the heatshield sizing process, a Monte Carlo simulation of the sizing process was proposed. The simulation will give the sensitivity of the ablation model to each of its input parameters. As part of the Monte Carlo simulation, statistical uncertainties on material properties were required for Avcoat. Several properties were difficult to acquire uncertainties for: the pyrolysis gas enthalpy, non-dimensional mass loss rate (B´c), and Arrhenius equation parameters. Variability in the elemental composition of Avcoat was used as the basis for determining the statistical uncertainty in pyrolysis gas

  12. Burn, freeze, or photo-ablate?: comparative symptom profile in Barrett's dysplasia patients undergoing endoscopic ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Kanwar Rupinder S.; Gross, Seth A.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Hemminger, Lois L.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.

    2009-06-01

    Background: There are few data available comparing endoscopic ablation methods for Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia (BE-HGD). Objective: To determine differences in symptoms and complications associated with endoscopic ablation. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Two tertiary care centers in USA. Patients: Consecutive patients with BE-HGD Interventions: In this pilot study, symptoms profile data were collected for BE-HGD patients among 3 endoscopic ablation methods: porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy, radiofrequency ablation and low-pressure liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy. Main Outcome Measurements: Symptom profiles and complications from the procedures were assessed 1-8 weeks after treatment. Results: Ten BE-HGD patients were treated with each ablation modality (30 patients total; 25 men, median age: 69 years (range 53-81). All procedures were performed in the clinic setting and none required subsequent hospitalization. The most common symptoms among all therapies were chest pain, dysphagia and odynophagia. More patients (n=8) in the porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy group reported weight loss compared to radio-frequency ablactation (n=2) and cryotherapy (n=0). Four patients in the porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy group developed phototoxicity requiring medical treatment. Strictures, each requiring a single dilation, were found in radiofrequency ablactation (n=1) and porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy (n=2) patients. Limitations: Small sample size, non-randomized study. Conclusions: These three endoscopic therapies are associated with different types and severity of post-ablation symptoms and complications.

  13. [Catheter ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: new generation cryoballoon or contact force sensing radiofrequency ablation?].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsófia; Kis, Zsuzsanna; Som, Zoltán; Földesi, Csaba; Kardos, Attila

    2016-05-29

    Contact force sensing radiofrequency ablation and the new generation cryoballoon ablation are prevalent techniques for the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. The authors aimed to compare the procedural and 1-year outcome of patients after radiofrequency and cryoballoon ablation. 96 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (radiofrequency ablation: 58, cryoballoon: 38 patients; 65 men and 31 women aged 28-70 years) were enrolled. At postprocedural 1, 3, 6 and 12 months ECG, Holter monitoring and telephone interviews were performed. Procedure and fluorosocopy time were: radiofrequency ablation, 118.5 ± 15 min and 15.8 ± 6 min; cryoballoon, 73.5 ± 16 min (p<0.05) and 13.8 ± 4.,1 min (p = 0.09), respectively. One year later freedom from atrial fibrillation was achieved in 76.5% of patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation and in 81% of patients treated with cryoballoon. Temporary phrenic nerve palsy occurred in two patients and pericardial tamponade developed in one patient. In this single center study freedom from paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was similar in the two groups with significant shorter procedure time in the cryoballoon group.

  14. Cerebral capillary velocimetry based on temporal OCT speckle contrast.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo June; Li, Yuandong; Qin, Wan; Wang, Ruikang K

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new optical coherence tomography (OCT) based method to measure red blood cell (RBC) velocities of single capillaries in the cortex of rodent brain. This OCT capillary velocimetry exploits quantitative laser speckle contrast analysis to estimate speckle decorrelation rate from the measured temporal OCT speckle signals, which is related to microcirculatory flow velocity. We hypothesize that OCT signal due to sub-surface capillary flow can be treated as the speckle signal in the single scattering regime and thus its time scale of speckle fluctuations can be subjected to single scattering laser speckle contrast analysis to derive characteristic decorrelation time. To validate this hypothesis, OCT measurements are conducted on a single capillary flow phantom operating at preset velocities, in which M-mode B-frames are acquired using a high-speed OCT system. Analysis is then performed on the time-varying OCT signals extracted at the capillary flow, exhibiting a typical inverse relationship between the estimated decorrelation time and absolute RBC velocity, which is then used to deduce the capillary velocities. We apply the method to in vivo measurements of mouse brain, demonstrating that the proposed approach provides additional useful information in the quantitative assessment of capillary hemodynamics, complementary to that of OCT angiography.

  15. Capillary electrophoresis: principles and applications in illicit drug analysis.

    PubMed

    Tagliaro, F; Turrina, S; Smith, F P

    1996-02-09

    Capillary electrophoresis, which appeared in the early 1980s, is now rapidly expanding into many scientific disciplines, including analytical chemistry, biotechnology and biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. In capillary electrophoresis,electrokinetic separations are carried out in tiny capillaries at high voltages (10-30 kV), thus obtaining high efficiencies (N > 10(5)) and excellent mass sensitivities (down to 10(-18)-10(-20) moles). The main features of capillary electrophoresis are: versatility of application (from inorganic ions to large DNA fragments), use of different separation modes with different selectivity, extremely low demands on sample volume, negligible running costs, possibility of interfacing with different detection systems, ruggedness and simplicity of instrumentation. Capillary electrophoresis applications in forensic sciences have appeared only recently, but are now rapidly growing, particularly in forensic toxicology. The present paper briefly describes the basic principles of capillary electrophoresis, from both the instrumental and analytical points of view. Furthermore, the main applications in the analysis of illicit/controlled drugs in both illicit preparations and biological samples are presented and discussed (43 references). It is concluded that the particular separation mechanism and the high complementarity of this technique to chromatography makes capillary electrophoresis a new powerful tool of investigation in the hands of forensic toxicologists.

  16. Geometry-induced phase transition in fluids: Capillary prewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-02-01

    We report a new first-order phase transition preceding capillary condensation and corresponding to the discontinuous formation of a curved liquid meniscus. Using a mean-field microscopic approach based on the density functional theory we compute the complete phase diagram of a prototypical two-dimensional system exhibiting capillary condensation, namely that of a fluid with long-ranged dispersion intermolecular forces which is spatially confined by a substrate forming a semi-infinite rectangular pore exerting long-ranged dispersion forces on the fluid. In the T-μ plane the phase line of the new transition is tangential to the capillary condensation line at the capillary wetting temperature Tcw. The surface phase behavior of the system maps to planar wetting with the phase line of the new transition, termed capillary prewetting, mapping to the planar prewetting line. If capillary condensation is approached isothermally with T>Tcw, the meniscus forms at the capping wall and unbinds continuously, making capillary condensation a second-order phenomenon. We compute the corresponding critical exponent for the divergence of adsorption.

  17. Capillary Contact Angle in a Completely Wet Groove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, A. O.; Malijevský, A.; Rascón, C.

    2014-10-01

    We consider the phase equilibria of a fluid confined in a deep capillary groove of width L with identical side walls and a bottom made of a different material. All walls are completely wet by the liquid. Using density functional theory and interfacial models, we show that the meniscus separating liquid and gas phases at two phase capillary coexistence meets the bottom capped end of the groove at a capillary contact angle θcap(L) which depends on the difference between the Hamaker constants. If the bottom wall has a weaker wall-fluid attraction than the side walls, then θcap>0 even though all the isolated walls are themselves completely wet. This alters the capillary condensation transition which is now first order; this would be continuous in a capped capillary made wholly of either type of material. We show that the capillary contact angle θcap(L) vanishes in two limits, corresponding to different capillary wetting transitions. These occur as the width (i) becomes macroscopically large, and (ii) is reduced to a microscopic value determined by the difference in Hamaker constants. This second wetting transition is characterized by large scale fluctuations and essential critical singularities arising from marginal interfacial interactions.

  18. Assessing vitamin D nutritional status: Is capillary blood adequate?

    PubMed

    Jensen, M E; Ducharme, F M; Théorêt, Y; Bélanger, A-S; Delvin, E

    2016-06-01

    Venous blood is the usual sample for measuring various biomarkers, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). However, it can prove challenging in infants and young children. Hence the finger-prick capillary collection is an alternative, being a relatively simple procedure perceived to be less invasive. We elected to validate the use of capillary blood sampling for 25OHD quantification by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Venous and capillary blood samples were simultaneously collected from 15 preschool-aged children with asthma 10days after receiving 100,000IU of vitamin-D3 or placebo and 20 apparently healthy adult volunteers. 25OHD was measured by an in-house LC/MS-MS method. The venous 25OHD values varied between 23 and 255nmol/l. The venous and capillary blood total 25OHD concentrations highly correlated (r(2)=0.9963). The mean difference (bias) of capillary blood 25OHD compared to venous blood was 2.0 (95% CI: -7.5, 11.5) nmol/l. Our study demonstrates excellent agreement with no evidence of a clinically important bias between venous and capillary serum 25OHD concentrations measured by LC/MS-MS over a wide range of values. Under those conditions, capillary blood is therefore adequate for the measurement of 25OHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel technique for orchiectomy and scrotal ablation in the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps).

    PubMed

    Morges, Michelle A; Grant, Krystan R; MacPhail, Catriona M; Johnston, Matthew S

    2009-03-01

    In this report, we describe a simple, safe, and efficacious technique for orchiectomy and scrotal ablation with the use of a carbon dioxide light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) in sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps). The study population included nine sugar gliders, ages 2-24 mo, presented for orchiectomy. After induction of general anesthesia, orchiectomy and scrotal ablation were performed by severing the scrotal stalk with the laser. All sugar gliders were discharged the same day. Mean anesthesia time was 6.09 +/- 0.94 min. Mean surgery time was 15.11 +/- 8.39 sec, and mean recovery time was 4.11 +/- 3.60 min. With an outlier removed, mean recovery time was 2.95 +/- 1.03 min. No serious postoperative surgical complications were observed. The technique described is a simple procedure with rapid surgical and recovery times that has the potential to become the standard procedure for orchiectomy and scrotal ablation in sugar gliders.

  20. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. The NPDES permit program regulates direct discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities that discharge directly into surface waters. The NPDES permit program is part of the Permit Compliance System (PCS) which issues, records, tracks, and regulates point source discharge facilities. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit. Facilities in PCS are identified as either major or minor. Within the major/minor classification, facilities are grouped into municipals or non-municipals. In many cases, non-municipals are industrial facilities. This data layer contains Minor dischargers. Major municipal dischargers include all facilities with design flows of greater than one million gallons per day; minor dischargers are less that one million gallons per day. Essentially, a minor discharger does not meet the discharge criteria for a major. Since its introduction in 1972, the NPDES permit program is responsible for significant improvements to our Nation's water quality.