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Sample records for ablative thermal response

  1. Thermal response and ablation characteristics of light weight ceramic ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Esfahani, Lili

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the thermal performance and ablation characteristics of the NASA-Ames Lightweight Ceramic Ablators (LCAs) in supersonic, high-enthalpy convective environments, which use low density ceramic or carbon fiber matrices as substrates for main structural support, with organic resin fillers. LCA densities are in the 0.224-1.282 g/cu cm range. In-depth temperature data have been obtained to determine thermal penetration depths and conductivity. The addition of SiC and PPMA is noted to significantly improve the ablation performance of LCAs with silica substrates. Carbon-based LCAs are the most mass-efficient at high flux levels.

  2. Ablative Thermal Response Analysis Using the Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    A review of the classic techniques used to solve ablative thermal response problems is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of both the finite element and finite difference methods are described. As a first step in developing a three dimensional finite element based ablative thermal response capability, a one dimensional computer tool has been developed. The finite element method is used to discretize the governing differential equations and Galerkin's method of weighted residuals is used to derive the element equations. A code to code comparison between the current 1-D tool and the 1-D Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response Program (FIAT) has been performed.

  3. Thermal Response and Ablation Programs for TPS Sizing Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. K.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The computer programs developed at NASA Ames Research Center for TPS sizing computation have been applied to many NASA's space missions, such as Mars Pathfinder, StarDust, Mars 2001, DS-II, and Saturn Entry Probe. These computer programs include FIAT (Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response Program, MAT (Multi-component Ablation Thermochemistry Program), TPSX (Thermal Protection Systems Expert & Material Properties Database), and TPSGui (Thermal Protection Systems Graphical User Interface). For most planetary missions, the aerothermodynamics and material response are strongly coupled; thus a closed loop iteration technique between the FIAT and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes has been developed to obtain the high fidelity bench mark TPS sizing solution. The computer codes and predictive methods are presented and discussed in detail.

  4. Thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Webb, Heather; Lubner, Meghan G; Hinshaw, J Louis

    2011-04-01

    Image-guided tumor ablation refers to a group of treatment modalities that have emerged during the past 2 decades as important tools in the treatment of a wide range of tumors throughout the body. Although most widely recognized in the treatment of hepatic and renal malignancies, the role of thermal ablation has expanded to include lesions of the lung, breast, prostate, bone, as well as other organs and its clinical applications continue to increase. In the following article, we discuss the major thermal ablation modalities, their respective strengths and weaknesses, potential complications and how to avoid them, as well as possible future applications.

  5. Ablation and Thermal Response Property Model Validation for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, F. S.; Chen, Y.-K.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was the heatshield material for the Stardust probe and is also a candidate heatshield material for the Orion Crew Module. As part of the heatshield qualification for Orion, physical and thermal properties were measured for newly manufactured material, included emissivity, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, elemental composition, and thermal decomposition rates. Based on these properties, an ablation and thermal-response model was developed for temperatures up to 3500 K and pressures up to 100 kPa. The model includes orthotropic and pressure-dependent thermal conductivity. In this work, model validation is accomplished by comparison of predictions with data from many arcjet tests conducted over a range of stagnation heat flux and pressure from 107 Watts per square centimeter at 2.3 kPa to 1100 Watts per square centimeter at 84 kPa. Over the entire range of test conditions, model predictions compare well with measured recession, maximum surface temperatures, and in depth temperatures.

  6. Ablation, Thermal Response, and Chemistry Program for Analysis of Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2010-01-01

    In previous work, the authors documented the Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (MAT) and Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal response (FIAT) programs. In this work, key features from MAT and FIAT were combined to create the new Fully Implicit Ablation, Thermal response, and Chemistry (FIATC) program. FIATC is fully compatible with FIAT (version 2.5) but has expanded capabilities to compute the multispecies surface chemistry and ablation rate as part of the surface energy balance. This new methodology eliminates B' tables, provides blown species fractions as a function of time, and enables calculations that would otherwise be impractical (e.g. 4+ dimensional tables) such as pyrolysis and ablation with kinetic rates or unequal diffusion coefficients. Equations and solution procedures are presented, then representative calculations of equilibrium and finite-rate ablation in flight and ground-test environments are discussed.

  7. Thermal Response Simulation of Ultra Light Weight Phenolic Carbon Ablator by the Use of the Ablation Analysis Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Sumio; Okuyama, Keiichi; Gibo, Kenta; Miyagi, Takuma; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Sakai, Takeharu; Nishio, Seiji; Watanabe, Akihiro

    A space vehicle which undergoes the atmospheric re-entry or a planetary entry needs the heat shield system to protect inner equipments against severe aerodynamic heating environments. Charring ablator is usually used for the heat shield system. In order to design the heat shield system, it is necessary to predict the thermal behavior under aerodynamic heating by ablation analysis. A computer code for charring ablation and thermal response analysis is newly developed for simulation of one-dimensional transient thermal behavior of charring ablation materials. The mathematical model for the charring ablation including basic equation and computational method of ablation analysis is briefly described. A new ultra light weight phenolic carbon ablator called LATS (Lightweight Ablator series for Transfer vehicle) was recently developed. Arc-heated tests of the LATS ablator were carried out and measured results of the temperature response and surface mass loss are compared with the simulation results of the ablation analysis program. The agreement between the results of simulation and measurement is found to be good. It is also found that the mathematical model used in the ablation code can be applied to the ablation analysis of the low density LATS ablator.

  8. Two-Dimensional Finite Element Ablative Thermal Response Analysis of an Arcjet Stagnation Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Laub, Bernard; Braun, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    The finite element ablation and thermal response (FEAtR, hence forth called FEAR) design and analysis program simulates the one, two, or three-dimensional ablation, internal heat conduction, thermal decomposition, and pyrolysis gas flow of thermal protection system materials. As part of a code validation study, two-dimensional axisymmetric results from FEAR are compared to thermal response data obtained from an arc-jet stagnation test in this paper. The results from FEAR are also compared to the two-dimensional axisymmetric computations from the two-dimensional implicit thermal response and ablation program under the same arcjet conditions. The ablating material being used in this arcjet test is phenolic impregnated carbon ablator with an LI-2200 insulator as backup material. The test is performed at the NASA, Ames Research Center Interaction Heating Facility. Spatially distributed computational fluid dynamics solutions for the flow field around the test article are used for the surface boundary conditions.

  9. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Ablative Thermal Response and Thermostructural Design of Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    A finite element ablation and thermal response program is presented for simulation of three-dimensional transient thermostructural analysis. The three-dimensional governing differential equations and finite element formulation are summarized. A novel probabilistic design methodology for thermal protection systems is presented. The design methodology is an eight step process beginning with a parameter sensitivity study and is followed by a deterministic analysis whereby an optimum design can determined. The design process concludes with a Monte Carlo simulation where the probabilities of exceeding design specifications are estimated. The design methodology is demonstrated by applying the methodology to the carbon phenolic compression pads of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. The maximum allowed values of bondline temperature and tensile stress are used as the design specifications in this study.

  10. Graphite Ablation and Thermal Response Simulation Under Arc-Jet Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.-K.; Milos, F. S.; Reda, D. C.; Stewart, D. A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Response and Ablation program, TITAN, was developed and integrated with a Navier-Stokes solver, GIANTS, for multidimensional ablation and shape change simulation of thermal protection systems in hypersonic flow environments. The governing equations in both codes are demoralized using the same finite-volume approximation with a general body-fitted coordinate system. Time-dependent solutions are achieved by an implicit time marching technique using Gauess-Siedel line relaxation with alternating sweeps. As the first part of a code validation study, this paper compares TITAN-GIANTS predictions with thermal response and recession data obtained from arc-jet tests recently conducted in the Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) at NASA Ames Research Center. The test models are graphite sphere-cones. Graphite was selected as a test material to minimize the uncertainties from material properties. Recession and thermal response data were obtained from two separate arc-jet test series. The first series was at a heat flux where graphite ablation is mainly due to sublimation, and the second series was at a relatively low heat flux where recession is the result of diffusion-controlled oxidation. Ablation and thermal response solutions for both sets of conditions, as calculated by TITAN-GIANTS, are presented and discussed in detail. Predicted shape change and temperature histories generally agree well with the data obtained from the arc-jet tests.

  11. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  12. Thermal Ablative Therapies and Immune Checkpoint Modulation: Can Locoregional Approaches Effect a Systemic Response?

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amol; Oklu, Rahmi

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous image-guided ablation is an increasingly common treatment for a multitude of solid organ malignancies. While historically these techniques have been restricted to the management of small, unresectable tumors, there is an expanding appreciation for the systemic effects these locoregional interventions can cause. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of action for the most common thermal ablation modalities and highlight the key advances in knowledge regarding the interactions between thermal ablation and the immune system. PMID:27051417

  13. Thermal ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Head, Hayden W; Dodd, Gerald D

    2004-11-01

    Thermal ablation, as a form of minimally invasive therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has become an important treatment modality. Because of the limitations of surgery, the techniques of thermal ablation have become standard therapies for HCC in some situations. This article reviews 4 thermal ablation techniques-radiofrequency (RF) ablation, microwave ablation, laser ablation, and cryoablation. Each of these techniques may have a role in treating HCC, and the mechanisms, equipment, patient selection, results, and complications of each are considered. Furthermore, combined therapies consisting of thermal ablation and adjuvant chemotherapy also show promise for enhancing these techniques. Important areas of research into thermal ablation remain, including improving the ability of ablation to treat larger tumors, determining the indications for each thermal ablation modality, optimizing image guidance, and obtaining good outcome data on the efficacy of these techniques.

  14. Validation of PICA Ablation and Thermal-Response Model at Low Heat Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was the forebody heatshield material on the Stardust sample-return capsule and is also a primary candidate material for the Mars Science Lander (MSL), the Orion Crew Module, and the SpaceX Dragon vehicle. As part of the heatshield qualification for Orion, physical and thermal properties of virgin and charred PICA were measured, and an ablation and thermal response model was developed. We validated the model by comparing it with recession and temperature data from stagnation arcjet tests conducted over a wide range of stagnation heat flux of 107 to 1102 W/sq cm. The effect of orthotropic thermal conductivity was evident in the thermal response of the arcjet models. In general, model predictions compared well with the data; however, the uncertainty of the recession prediction was greatest for heat fluxes below 200 W/sq cm. More recent MSL testing focused on the low heat flux regime of 45 to 250 W/sq cm. The new results confirm the recession uncertainty, especially for pressures below 6 kPa. In this work we focus on improving the model predictions for MSL and Orion tests below 250 W/sq cm.

  15. Validation of a Three-Dimensional Ablation and Thermal Response Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Milos, Frank S.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2010-01-01

    The 3dFIAT code simulates pyrolysis, ablation, and shape change of thermal protection materials and systems in three dimensions. The governing equations, which include energy conservation, a three-component decomposition model, and a surface energy balance, are solved with a moving grid system to simulate the shape change due to surface recession. This work is the first part of a code validation study for new capabilities that were added to 3dFIAT. These expanded capabilities include a multi-block moving grid system and an orthotropic thermal conductivity model. This paper focuses on conditions with minimal shape change in which the fluid/solid coupling is not necessary. Two groups of test cases of 3dFIAT analyses of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator in an arc-jet are presented. In the first group, axisymmetric iso-q shaped models are studied to check the accuracy of three-dimensional multi-block grid system. In the second group, similar models with various through-the-thickness conductivity directions are examined. In this group, the material thermal response is three-dimensional, because of the carbon fiber orientation. Predictions from 3dFIAT are presented and compared with arcjet test data. The 3dFIAT predictions agree very well with thermocouple data for both groups of test cases.

  16. Prompt response and durability of polymer ablation from synthetic fibers irradiated by thermal plasmas for arc resistant clothes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Masahiro; Shinsei, Naoki; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Mio, Wataru; Hagi, Hiroyasu; Uchibori, Keita

    2013-06-01

    Interactions between thermal plasmas and synthetic fibers such as polyamide, polyester, phenol and aramid were investigated by thermal plasma irradiation technique. Understanding the above interactions is crucial to design effective flame retardant synthetic fiber clothes with arc resistance to protect a human from arc flash accidents. To investigate the interactions, an Ar inductively coupled thermal plasma (ICTP) was used instead of the arc discharge because the ICTP has high controllability and no contamination. The ICTP irradiation raises polymer ablation in case of polyamide and polyester. Two features of the polymer ablation such as prompt response and durability were fundamentally investigated from viewpoint of shielding the heat flux. It was found that polyamide fiber has both a high prompt response and a long durability.

  17. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A general thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in the ablation simulation of the meteoroid and the glassy ablator for spacecraft Thermal Protection Systems. Time-dependent axisymmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. The predicted mass loss rates will be compared with available data for model validation, and parametric studies will also be performed for meteoroid earth entry conditions.

  18. Thermal therapy, Part III: ablation techniques.

    PubMed

    Habash, Riadh W Y; Bansal, Rajeev; Krewski, Daniel; Alhafid, Hafid T

    2007-01-01

    Ablative treatments are gaining increasing attention as an alternative to standard surgical therapies, especially for patients with contraindication or those who refuse open surgery. Thermal ablation is used in clinical applications mainly for treating heart arrhythmias, benign prostate hyperplasia, and nonoperable liver tumors; there is also increasing application to other organ sites, including the kidney, lung, and brain. Potential benefits of thermal ablation include reduced morbidity and mortality in comparison with standard surgical resection and the ability to treat nonsurgical patients. The purpose of this review is to outline and discuss the engineering principles and biological responses by which thermal ablation techniques can provide elevation of temperature in organs within the human body. Because of the individual problems associated with each type of treatment, a wide range of ablation techniques have evolved including cryoablation as well as ultrasound, radiofrequency (RF), microwave, and laser ablation. Aspects of each ablation technique, including mechanisms of action, equipment required, selection of eligible patients, treatment techniques, and patient outcomes are presented, along with a discussion of limitations of the techniques and future research directions.

  19. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in ablation simulations of the meteoroid or glassy Thermal Protection Systems for spacecraft. Time-dependent axi-symmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. For model validation, the surface recession of fused amorphous quartz rod is computed, and the recession predictions reasonably agree with available data. The present parametric studies for two groups of meteoroid earth entry conditions indicate that the mass loss through moving molten layer is negligibly small for heat-flux conditions at around 1 MW/cm(exp. 2).

  20. Thermal ablation of lung tumors.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Ryan A; Dupuy, Damian E

    2007-06-01

    Thermal ablation can be applied to treat any thoracic malignancy: primary lung cancers, recurrent primary lung cancers, metastatic disease, chest wall masses, and painful, bony metastases. Since the first reported use of thermal ablation for lung cancer in 2000 there has been an explosive use of the procedure, and by 2010 the number of procedures to treat thoracic malignancy is expected to exceed 150,000 per year. Presently, thermal ablation is best used for patients with early-stage lung cancers in patients who are not surgical candidates, patients with small and favorably located pulmonary metastases, and patients in whom palliation of tumor-related symptoms is the goal. Radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, and cryoablation are novel treatment modalities for lung cancer and can safely accomplish tumor destruction and even complete eradication of tumor in patients who are not candidates for surgical resection. In this article, we discuss technical considerations for each modality and the periprocedure and postprocedure management of patients with this disease.

  1. Endometrial ablation

    MedlinePlus

    Hysteroscopy-endometrial ablation; Laser thermal ablation; Endometrial ablation-radiofrequency; Endometrial ablation-thermal balloon ablation; Rollerball ablation; Hydrothermal ablation; Novasure ablation

  2. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Allgaier, H P; Galandi, D; Zuber, I; Blum, H E

    2001-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major malignancies worldwide. Due to advanced or decompensated liver cirrhosis, comorbidity and multicentricity of the tumor lesions, 70-80% of HCC patients are inoperable at the time of diagnosis. Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) is a new minimally invasive and sage technique for the nonsurgical treatment of HCCs. Similar to other ablation techniques, the treatment strategy depends on several factors, including the patient's clinical status, the stage of liver cirrhosis and of the HCC. RFTA can be performed percutaneously, laparoscopically or after laparotomy. Advanced RFTA equipment, refined techniques of modifying tumor tissue response to RFTA, and combined treatment strategies should lead to better response rates even in larger HCCs.

  3. Tumor Thermal Ablation Enhancement by Micromaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fan; Su, Hongying; Han, Xiangjun; Bao, Han; Qi, Ji

    2016-01-07

    Thermal ablation is a minimally invasive therapeutic technique that has shown remarkable potential in treating un resectable tumors. However, clinical applications have stalled, due to safety ambiguities, slow heat induction, lengthy ablation times, and post-therapeutic monitoring issues. To further improve treatment efficacy, an assortment of micro materials (eg, nano particulates of gold, silica, or iron oxide and single-walled carbon nanotubes) are under study as thermal ablative adjuncts.In recent years, the micro material domain has become especially interesting.In vivo and in vitro animal studies have validated the use of microspheres as embolic agents in liver tumors, in advance of radiofrequency ablation. Microcapsules and micro bubbles serving as ultrasound contrast and ablation sensibilizers are strong prospects for clinical applications. This review was conducted to explore benefits of the three aforementioned micro scale technologies, in conjunction with tumor thermal ablation.

  4. Thermal protection system ablation sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

  5. Laser Thermal Ablation of Thyroid Benign Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Shahrzad, Mohammad Karim

    2015-01-01

    Thermal ablation therapies for benign thyroid nodules have been introduced in recent years to avoid the complications of traditional methods such as surgery. Despite the little complications and the reportedly acceptable efficacy of thermal ablation methods, quite few medical centers have sought the potential benefits of employing them. This paper provides an introduction to the literature, principles and advances of Percutaneous Laser Ablation therapy of thyroid benign nodules, as well as a discussion on its efficacy, complications and future. Several clinical research papers evaluating the thermal effect of laser on the alleviation of thyroid nodules have been reviewed to illuminate the important points. The results of this research can help researchers to advance the approach and medical centers to decide on investing in these novel therapies. PMID:26705459

  6. Thermal tumor ablation in clinical use.

    PubMed

    Brace, C

    2011-01-01

    Although a surgical procedure is performed by visual inspection with histopathological assessment of the excised tumor and margins, percutaneous and noninvasive thermal ablation is performed strictly with the aid of imaging. Applicator guidance into the target zone, treatment monitoring and verification, and clinical follow-up rely on effective imaging. Detailed discussion of imaging is beyond the scope of this article, but the influence of imaging on the choice of thermal ablation or procedural approach will be discussed as needed. More information on imaging for interventional therapies can be found in other articles in this issue of IEEE Pulse.

  7. Heat-Based Tumor Ablation: Role of the Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The ideal cancer therapy not only induces the death of all localized tumor cells with less damage to surrounding normal tissue, but also activates a systemic antitumor immunity. Heat-based tumor ablation has the potential to be such a treatment as it can minimal-invasively ablate a targeted tumor below the skin surface, and may subsequently augment host antitumor immunity. This chapter primarily introduces increasing pre-clinical and clinical evidence linking antitumor immune response to thermal tumor ablation, and then discusses the potential mechanisms involved in ablation-enhanced host antitumor immunity. The seminal studies performed so far indicate that although it is not possible to make definite conclusions on the connection between thermal ablation and antitumor immune response, it is nonetheless important to conduct extensive studies on the subject in order to elucidate the processes involved.

  8. Healing responses following cryothermic and hyperthermic tissue ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwin, Braden L.; Coad, James E.

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive, thermally ablative, interventional technologies have been changing the practice of medicine since before the turn of the 20th century. More recently, cryothermic and hyperthermic therapies have expanded in terms of their spectrum of thermal generators, modes for controlling and monitoring the treatment zone and both benign and malignant medical applications. The final tissue, and hence clinical outcome, of a thermal ablation is determined by the summation of direct primary (thermal) and secondary (apoptosis, ischemia, free radical, inflammation, wound healing, etc.) injury followed by possible cellular regeneration and scar formation. The initial thermal lesion can be broadly divided into two major zones of cellular death: 1) the complete ablation zone closer to the thermal source and 2) the peripheral transition zone with a decreasing gradient of cell death. While not applicable to cryotherapy, hyperthermic complete ablation zones are subdivided into two zones: 1) thermal or heat fixation and 2) coagulative necrosis. It is important to clearly differentiate these tissue zones because of their substantially different healing responses. Therefore, the development of clinically successful thermal therapies requires an understanding of tissue healing responses. The healing responses can be affected by a number of additional factors such as the tissue's anatomy, organ specific healing differences, blood supply, protein vs. lipid content, and other factors. Thus, effective biomedical instrument development requires both an understanding of thermal cell injury/death and the body's subsequent healing responses. This paper provides a general overview of the healing pathways that follow thermal tissue treatment.

  9. Systemic inflammatory response and downmodulation of peripheral CD25+Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells in patients undergoing radiofrequency thermal ablation for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fietta, Anna Maria; Morosini, Monica; Passadore, Ileana; Cascina, Alessandro; Draghi, Paola; Dore, Roberto; Rossi, Sandro; Pozzi, Ernesto; Meloni, Federica

    2009-07-01

    Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) is a local tumor-destructing technique that can potentially modulate the host immune response through mechanisms that are not clearly defined. We assessed whether RFTA could affect multiple systemic inflammatory and immunological parameters, including CD25+Foxp+ cells, in patients with primary or metastatic lung tumors. Three days after RFTA, a moderate and temporary systemic inflammatory response developed, as demonstrated by the increase in peripheral neutrophils and monocytes and in plasma levels of proinflammatory chemokines (MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, eotaxin, and interleukin[IL]-8) and acute phase reactants (complement C3 and C4, serum amyloid, alpha1 antichymotrypsin, and C-reactive protein). Moreover, we found a concomitant release of the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. Thirty days after RFTA, a significant reduction in CD25+Foxp3+ counts with an increase in CD4+ T-cell proliferation and number of interferon-gamma-secreting cells was observed. The reduction in CD25+Foxp3+ cells lasted up to 90 days after treatment. The use of RFTA in lung cancer patients has an immunomodulatory activity: it induces a self-limiting systemic inflammation early and later a reduction of circulating CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs. In addition to tumor ablation, downmodulation of this regulatory subset might be an important mechanism involved in the long-term clinical efficacy of RFTA.

  10. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  11. Phenomenological and experimental study of the thermal response of low density silica ablators to high enthalpy plasma flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henline, William D.; Tran, Huy K.; Hamm, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    A complete analysis of the melting-ablator governing equations is carried out for porous ablators with the purpose of establishing an approximate analytical model capable of determining surface recession, temperature, and heat flux as well as in-depth temperature profiles. A detailed dimensional analysis of the melt-flow governing equations is performed for parameters applicable to high-enthalpy flows. Results of arc-jet flow experiments performed on NASA Reusable Surface Insulation materials of different densities and over a range of stagnation pressures and heat fluxes are discussed. A dimensionless correlation for melt run-offs is derived in terms of material and flow parameters; however, it is pointed out that the accuracy of the current data is sufficient to conclude the compliance with the model.

  12. Thermal Convection on an Ablating Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva

    2015-11-01

    Modeling and analysis of thermal convection of a metallic targets subject to radiative flux is of relevance to various manufacturing processes as well as for the development of protective shields. The present work involves the computational modeling of metallic targets subject to high heat fluxes that are both steady and pulsed. Modeling of the ablation and associated fluid dynamics when metallic surfaces are exposed to high intensity pulsed laser fluence at normal atmospheric conditions is considered. The incident energy from the laser is partly absorbed and partly reflected by the surface during ablation and subsequent vaporization of the convecting melt also participates in the radiative exchange. The energy distribution during the process between the bulk and vapor phase strongly depends on optical and thermodynamic properties of the irradiated material, radiation wavelength, and laser pulse intensity and duration. Computational findings based on effective representation and prediction of the heat transfer, melting and vaporization of the targeting material as well as plume formation and expansion are presented and discussed in the context of various ablation mechanisms, variable thermo-physical and optical properties, plume expansion and surface geometry. Funded in part by U. S. Army ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ.

  13. Analysis of iodinated contrast delivered during thermal ablation: is material trapped in the ablation zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Po-hung; Brace, Chris L.

    2016-08-01

    Intra-procedural contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) has been proposed to evaluate treatment efficacy of thermal ablation. We hypothesized that contrast material delivered concurrently with thermal ablation may become trapped in the ablation zone, and set out to determine whether such an effect would impact ablation visualization. CECT images were acquired during microwave ablation in normal porcine liver with: (A) normal blood perfusion and no iodinated contrast, (B) normal perfusion and iodinated contrast infusion or (C) no blood perfusion and residual iodinated contrast. Changes in CT attenuation were analyzed from before, during and after ablation to evaluate whether contrast was trapped inside of the ablation zone. Visualization was compared between groups using post-ablation contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Attenuation gradients were calculated at the ablation boundary and background to quantitate ablation conspicuity. In Group A, attenuation decreased during ablation due to thermal expansion of tissue water and water vaporization. The ablation zone was difficult to visualize (CNR  =  1.57  ±  0.73, boundary gradient  =  0.7  ±  0.4 HU mm-1), leading to ablation diameter underestimation compared to gross pathology. Group B ablations saw attenuation increase, suggesting that iodine was trapped inside the ablation zone. However, because the normally perfused liver increased even more, Group B ablations were more visible than Group A (CNR  =  2.04  ±  0.84, boundary gradient  =  6.3  ±  1.1 HU mm-1) and allowed accurate estimation of the ablation zone dimensions compared to gross pathology. Substantial water vaporization led to substantial attenuation changes in Group C, though the ablation zone boundary was not highly visible (boundary gradient  =  3.9  ±  1.1 HU mm-1). Our results demonstrate that despite iodinated contrast being trapped in the ablation zone, ablation visibility was

  14. Current status of thermal ablation treatments for lung malignancies.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Damian E; Shulman, Maria

    2010-09-01

    About 75% of lung cancer patients are not surgical candidates, either due to advanced disease or medical comorbidities. Furthermore, conventional treatments that can be offered to these patients are beneficial only to a small percentage of them. Thermal ablation is a minimally invasive treatment that is commonly used in this group of patients, and which has shown promising results. Currently, the most widely used ablation techniques in the treatment of lung malignancies are radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation, and cryoablation. Although the most studied technique is RFA, recent studies with microwave ablation and cryoablation have shown some advantages over RFA. This article reviews the application of thermal ablation in the thorax, including patient selection, basic aspects of procedure technique, imaging follow-up, treatment outcomes, and comparison of ablation techniques.

  15. Renaissance of laser interstitial thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon; Barnett, Gene H

    2015-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique for treating intracranial tumors, originally introduced in 1983. Its use in neurosurgical procedures was historically limited by early technical difficulties related to the monitoring and control of the extent of thermal damage. The development of magnetic resonance thermography and its application to LITT have allowed for real-time thermal imaging and feedback control during laser energy delivery, allowing for precise and accurate provision of tissue hyperthermia. Improvements in laser probe design, surgical stereotactic targeting hardware, and computer monitoring software have accelerated acceptance and clinical utilization of LITT as a neurosurgical treatment alternative. Current commercially available LITT systems have been used for the treatment of neurosurgical soft-tissue lesions, including difficult to access brain tumors, malignant gliomas, and radiosurgery-resistant metastases, as well as for the ablation of such lesions as epileptogenic foci and radiation necrosis. In this review, the authors aim to critically analyze the literature to describe the advent of LITT as a neurosurgical, laser excision tool, including its development, use, indications, and efficacy as it relates to neurosurgical applications.

  16. A Numerical Analysis of the Transient Response of an Ablation System Including Effects of Thermal Nonequilibrium, Mass Transfer and Chemical Kinetics. Ph.D Thesis - Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    The differential equations governing the transient response of a one-dimensional ablative thermal protection system undergoing stagnation ablation are derived. These equations are for thermal nonequilibrium effects between the pyrolysis gases and the char layer and kinetically controlled chemical reactions and mass transfer between the pyrolysis gases and the char layer. The boundary conditions are written for the particular case of stagnation heating with surface removal by oxidation or sublimation and pyrolysis of the uncharred layer occurring in a plane. The governing equations and boundary conditions are solved numerically using the modified implicit method (Crank-Nicolson method). Numerical results are compared with exact solutions for a number of simplified cases. The comparison is favorable in each instance.

  17. Percutaneous thermal ablation of primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    de Baere, T; Tselikas, L; Catena, V; Buy, X; Deschamps, F; Palussière, J

    2016-10-01

    Percutaneous ablation of small-size non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has demonstrated feasibility and safety in nonsurgical candidates. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA), the most commonly used technique, has an 80-90% reported rate of complete ablation, with the best results obtained in tumors less than 2-3cm in diameter. The highest one-, three-, and five-year overall survival rates reported in NSCLC following RFA are 97.7%, 72.9%, and 55.7% respectively. Tumor size, tumor stage, and underlying comorbidities are the main predictors of survival. Other ablation techniques such as microwave or cryoablation may help overcome the limitations of RFA in the future, particularly for large tumors or those close to large vessels. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has its own complications and carries the risk of fiducial placement requiring multiple lung punctures. SABR has also demonstrated significant efficacy in treating small-size lung tumors and should be compared to percutaneous ablation.

  18. Thermal ablation of hepatic malignancy: useful but still not optimal.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, M B; Bilchik, A J

    2008-03-01

    The mortality associated with primary and metastatic hepatic malignancies remains high because few patients are candidates for hepatic resection or transplantation. Resection is the most effective treatment for liver tumors but may be contraindicated by factors such as the tumor's location; hepatic transplantation can cure primary hepatocellular carcinoma and underlying cirrhosis, but a donor may not be immediately available. When resection or transplantation is not possible, thermal ablation is a reasonable therapeutic option. Effective destruction of tumors can be achieved with low recurrence rates and minimal complications or risk of death. In patients with primary hepatic malignancy, ablation treatment does not preclude subsequent transplantation. Although radiofrequency ablation is currently the most widely used thermal ablative technique for hepatic malignancy, microwave ablation is gaining popularity and eventually may prove to be more effective.

  19. Alternative High Performance Polymers for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghozian, Tane; Stackpoole, Mairead; Gonzales, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Ablative thermal protection systems are commonly used as protection from the intense heat during re-entry of a space vehicle and have been used successfully on many missions including Stardust and Mars Science Laboratory both of which used PICA - a phenolic based ablator. Historically, phenolic resin has served as the ablative polymer for many TPS systems. However, it has limitations in both processing and properties such as char yield, glass transition temperature and char stability. Therefore alternative high performance polymers are being considered including cyanate ester resin, polyimide, and polybenzoxazine. Thermal and mechanical properties of these resin systems were characterized and compared with phenolic resin.

  20. Harnessing the immunomodulatory effect of thermal and non-thermal ablative therapies for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Bastianpillai, Christopher; Petrides, Neophytos; Shah, Taimur; Guillaumier, Stephanie; Ahmed, Hashim U; Arya, Manit

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive interventional therapies are evolving rapidly and their use for the treatment of solid tumours is becoming more extensive. The in situ destruction of solid tumours by such therapies is thought to release antigens that can prime an antitumour immune response. In this review, we offer an overview of the current evidence for immune response activation associated with the utilisation of the main thermal and non-thermal ablation therapies currently in use today. This is followed by an assessment of the hypothesised mechanisms behind this immune response priming and by a discussion of potential methods of harnessing this specific response, which may subsequently be applicable in the treatment of cancer patients. References were identified through searches of PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane databases to identify peer-reviewed original articles, meta-analyses and reviews. Papers were searched from 1850 until October 2014. Articles were also identified through searches of the authors' files. Only papers published in English were reviewed. Thermal and non-thermal therapies have the potential to stimulate antitumour immunity although the current body of evidence is based mostly on murine trials or small-scale phase 1 human trials. The evidence for this immune-modulatory response is currently the strongest in relation to cryotherapy and radiotherapy, although data is accumulating for related ablative treatments such as high-intensity focused ultrasound, radiofrequency ablation and irreversible electroporation. This effect may be greatly enhanced by combining these therapies with other immunostimulatory interventions. Evidence is emerging into the immunomodulatory effect associated with thermal and non-thermal ablative therapies used in cancer treatment in addition to the mechanism behind this effect and how it may be harnessed for therapeutic use. A potential exists for treatment approaches that combine ablation of the primary tumour with control and possible

  1. Implications and considerations of thermal effects when applying irreversible electroporation tissue ablation therapy.

    PubMed

    Davalos, Rafael V; Bhonsle, Suyashree; Neal, Robert E

    2015-07-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) describes a cellular response to electric field exposure, resulting in the formation of nanoscale defects that can lead to cell death. While this behavior occurs independently of thermally-induced processes, therapeutic ablation of targeted tissues with IRE uses a series of brief electric pulses, whose parameters result in secondary Joule heating of the tissue. Where contemporary clinical pulse protocols use aggressive energy regimes, additional evidence is supplementing original studies that assert care must be taken in clinical ablation protocols to ensure the cumulative thermal effects do not induce damage that will alter outcomes for therapies using the IRE non-thermal cell death process for tissue ablation. In this letter, we seek to clarify the nomenclature regarding IRE as a non-thermal ablation technique, as well as identify existing literature that uses experimental, clinical, and numerical results to discretely address and evaluate the thermal considerations relevant when applying IRE in clinical scenarios, including several approaches for reducing these effects. Existing evidence in the literature describes cell response to electric fields, suggesting cell death from IRE is a unique process, independent from traditional thermal damage. Numerical simulations, as well as preclinical and clinical findings demonstrate the ability to deliver therapeutic IRE ablation without occurrence of morbidity associated with thermal therapies. Clinical IRE therapy generates thermal effects, which may moderate the non-thermal aspects of IRE ablation. Appropriate protocol development, utilization, and pulse delivery devices may be implemented to restrain these effects and maintain IRE as the vastly predominant tissue death modality, reducing therapy-mitigating thermal damage. Clinical applications of IRE should consider thermal effects and employ protocols to ensure safe and effective therapy delivery.

  2. Priming is key to effective incorporation of image-guided thermal ablation into immunotherapy protocols

    PubMed Central

    Silvestrini, Matthew T.; Ingham, Elizabeth S.; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Liu, Yu; Fite, Brett Z.; Tam, Sarah M.; Tucci, Samantha T.; Watson, Katherine D.; Wong, Andrew W.; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Hubbard, Neil E.; Murphy, William J.; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2017-01-01

    Focal therapies play an important role in the treatment of cancers where palliation is desired, local control is needed, or surgical resection is not feasible. Pairing immunotherapy with such focal treatments is particularly attractive; however, there is emerging evidence that focal therapy can have a positive or negative impact on the efficacy of immunotherapy. Thermal ablation is an appealing modality to pair with such protocols, as tumors can be rapidly debulked (cell death occurring within minutes to hours), tumor antigens can be released locally, and treatment can be conducted and repeated without the concerns of radiation-based therapies. In a syngeneic model of epithelial cancer, we found that 7 days of immunotherapy (TLR9 agonist and checkpoint blockade), prior to thermal ablation, reduced macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells and enhanced IFN-γ–producing CD8+ T cells, the M1 macrophage fraction, and PD-L1 expression on CD45+ cells. Continued treatment with immunotherapy alone or with immunotherapy combined with ablation (primed ablation) then resulted in a complete response in 80% of treated mice at day 90, and primed ablation expanded CD8+ T cells as compared with all control groups. When the tumor burden was increased by implantation of 3 orthotopic tumors, successive primed ablation of 2 discrete lesions resulted in survival of 60% of treated mice as compared with 25% of mice treated with immunotherapy alone. Alternatively, when immunotherapy was begun immediately after thermal ablation, the abscopal effect was diminished and none of the mice within the cohort exhibited a complete response. In summary, we found that immunotherapy begun before ablation can be curative and can enhance efficacy in the presence of a high tumor burden. Two mechanisms have potential to impact the efficacy of immunotherapy when begun immediately after thermal ablation: mechanical changes in the tumor microenvironment and inflammatory-mediated changes in immune

  3. Thermal ablation of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: radiofrequency, microwave and laser ablation therapies.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Thomas J; Farshid, Parviz; Naguib, Nagy N N; Darvishi, Abbas; Bazrafshan, Babak; Mbalisike, Emmanuel; Burkhard, Thorsten; Zangos, Stephan

    2014-07-01

    Surgery is currently considered the treatment of choice for patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM) when resectable. The majority of these patients can also benefit from systemic chemotherapy. Recently, local or regional therapies such as thermal ablations have been used with acceptable outcomes. We searched the medical literature to identify studies and reviews relevant to radiofrequency (RF) ablation, microwave (MW) ablation and laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) in terms of local progression, survival indexes and major complications in patients with CRLM. Reviewed literature showed a local progression rate between 2.8 and 29.7 % of RF-ablated liver lesions at 12-49 months follow-up, 2.7-12.5 % of MW ablated lesions at 5-19 months follow-up and 5.2 % of lesions treated with LITT at 6-month follow-up. Major complications were observed in 4-33 % of patients treated with RF ablation, 0-19 % of patients treated with MW ablation and 0.1-3.5 % of lesions treated with LITT. Although not significantly different, the mean of 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates for RF-, MW- and laser ablated lesions was (92.6, 44.7, 31.1 %), (79, 38.6, 21 %) and (94.2, 61.5, 29.2 %), respectively. The median survival in these methods was 33.2, 29.5 and 33.7 months, respectively. Thermal ablation may be an appropriate alternative in patients with CRLM who have inoperable liver lesions or have operable lesions as an adjunct to resection. However, further competitive evaluation should clarify the efficacy and priority of these therapies in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases.

  4. Laser ablation dynamics in metals: The thermal regime

    SciTech Connect

    Mezzapesa, F. P.; Brambilla, M.; Dabbicco, M.; Scamarcio, G.; Columbo, L. L.; Ancona, A.; Sibillano, T.

    2012-07-02

    We studied the laser ablation dynamics of steel in the thermal regime both experimentally and theoretically. The real-time monitoring of the process shows that the ablation rate depends on laser energy density and ambient pressure during the exposure time. We demonstrated that the ablation efficiency can be enhanced when the pressure is reduced with respect to the atmospheric pressure for a given laser fluence, reaching an upper limit despite of high-vacuum conditions. An analytical model based on the Hertz-Knudsen law reproduces all the experimental results.

  5. The thermal and mechanical properties of a low density elastomeric ablation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, W. T.; Robertson, R. W.; Bush, A. L.; Pears, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal and mechanical properties data were obtained for a low density elastomeric resin based ablation material with phenolic-glass honeycomb reinforcement. Data were obtained for the material in the charred and uncharred state. Ablation material specimens were charred in a laboratory furnace at temperatures in the range from 600 K to 1700 K to obtain char specimens representative of the ablation char layer formed during reentry. These specimens were then used to obtain effective thermal conductivity, heat capacity, porosity, and permeability data at the char formation temperature. This provided a boxing of the data which enables the prediction of the transient response of the material during ablation. Limited comparisons were made between the furnace charred specimens and specimens which had been exposed to simulated reentry conditions.

  6. Thermal melting and ablation of silicon by femtosecond laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I. Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Bunkin, A. F.; Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M.

    2013-03-15

    The space-time dynamics of thermal melting, subsurface cavitation, spallative ablation, and fragmentation ablation of the silicon surface excited by single IR femtosecond laser pulses is studied by timeresolved optical reflection microscopy. This dynamics is revealed by monitoring picosecond and (sub)nanosecond oscillations of probe pulse reflection, which is modulated by picosecond acoustic reverberations in the dynamically growing surface melt subjected to ablation and having another acoustic impedance, and by optical interference between the probe pulse replicas reflected by the spalled layer surface and the layer retained on the target surface. The acoustic reverberation periods change during the growth and ablation of the surface melt film, which makes it possible to quantitatively estimate the contributions of these processes to the thermal dynamics of the material surface. The results on the thermal dynamics of laser excitation are supported by dynamic measurements of the ablation parameters using noncontact ultrasonic diagnostics, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical interference microscopy of the modified regions appearing on the silicon surface after ablation.

  7. The thermal and mechanical properties of a low-density glass-fiber-reinforced elastomeric ablation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, W. T.; Robertson, R. W.; Bush, A. L.; Pears, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the thermal and mechanical properties was performed on a molded low-density elastomeric ablation material designated as Material B. Both the virgin and charred states were examined to provide meaningful inputs to the design of a thermal protection system. Chars representative of the flight chars formed during ablation were prepared in a laboratory furnace from 600 K to 1700 K and properties of effective thermal conductivity, heat capacity, porosity and permeability were determined on the furnace chars formed at various temperature levels within the range. This provided a boxing of the data which will enable the prediction of the transient response of the material during flight ablation.

  8. Thermal-mechanical deformation modelling of soft tissues for thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza; Subic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues is of great importance for thermal ablation. This paper presents a method by integrating the heating process with thermal-induced mechanical deformations of soft tissues for simulation and analysis of the thermal ablation process. This method combines bio-heat transfer theories, constitutive elastic material law under thermal loads as well as non-rigid motion dynamics to predict and analyze thermal-mechanical deformations of soft tissues. The 3D governing equations of thermal-mechanical soft tissue deformation are discretized by using the finite difference scheme and are subsequently solved by numerical algorithms. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively predict the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues, and can be used for the thermal ablation therapy to effectively control the delivered heat energy for cancer treatment.

  9. Interest of Electrostimulation of Peripheral Motor Nerves during Percutaneous Thermal Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia Garnon, Julien Ramamurthy, Nitin Buy, Xavier Gangi, Afshin

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: We present our experience of utilizing peripheral nerve electrostimulation as a complementary monitoring technique during percutaneous thermal ablation procedures; and we highlight its utility and feasibility in the prevention of iatrogenic neurologic thermal injury. Methods: Peripheral motor nerve electrostimulation was performed in 12 patients undergoing percutaneous image-guided thermal ablations of spinal/pelvic lesions in close proximity to the spinal cord and nerve roots. Electrostimulation was used in addition to existing insulation (active warming/cooling with hydrodissection, passive insulation with CO{sub 2} insufflation) and temperature monitoring (thermocouples) techniques. Impending neurologic deficit was defined as a visual reduction of muscle response or need for a stronger electric current to evoke muscle contraction, compared with baseline. Results: Significant reduction of the muscle response to electrostimulation was observed in three patients during the ablation, necessitating temporary interruption, followed by injection of warm/cool saline. This resulted in complete recovery of the muscle response in two cases, while for the third patient the response did not improve and the procedure was terminated. No patient experienced postoperative motor deficit. Conclusion: Peripheral motor nerve electrostimulation is a simple, easily accessible technique allowing early detection of impending neurologic injury during percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation. It complements existing monitoring techniques and provides a functional assessment along the whole length of the nerve.

  10. Thermal ablation for the treatment of abdominal tumors.

    PubMed

    Brace, Christopher L; Hinshaw, J Louis; Lubner, Meghan G

    2011-03-07

    Percutaneous thermal ablation is an emerging treatment option for many tumors of the abdomen not amenable to conventional treatments. During a thermal ablation procedure, a thin applicator is guided into the target tumor under imaging guidance. Energy is then applied to the tissue until temperatures rise to cytotoxic levels (50-60 °C). Various energy sources are available to heat biological tissues, including radiofrequency (RF) electrical current, microwaves, laser light and ultrasonic waves. Of these, RF and microwave ablation are most commonly used worldwide. During RF ablation, alternating electrical current (~500 kHz) produces resistive heating around the interstitial electrode. Skin surface electrodes (ground pads) are used to complete the electrical circuit. RF ablation has been in use for nearly 20 years, with good results for local tumor control, extended survival and low complication rates. Recent studies suggest RF ablation may be a first-line treatment option for small hepatocellular carcinoma and renal-cell carcinoma. However, RF heating is hampered by local blood flow and high electrical impedance tissues (eg, lung, bone, desiccated or charred tissue). Microwaves may alleviate some of these problems by producing faster, volumetric heating. To create larger or conformal ablations, multiple microwave antennas can be used simultaneously while RF electrodes require sequential operation, which limits their efficiency. Early experiences with microwave systems suggest efficacy and safety similar to, or better than RF devices. Alternatively, cryoablation freezes the target tissues to lethal levels (-20 to -40 °C). Percutaneous cryoablation has been shown to be effective against RCC and many metastatic tumors, particularly colorectal cancer, in the liver. Cryoablation may also be associated with less post-procedure pain and faster recovery for some indications. Cryoablation is often contraindicated for primary liver cancer due to underlying coagulopathy and

  11. Kidney function outcomes following thermal ablation of small renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Jay D; Jafri, Syed M; Qi, David

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of small renal masses (SRMs) continues to increase likely attributable to widespread use of axial cross-sectional imaging. Many of these SRMs present in elderly patients with abnormal baseline renal function. Such patients are at risk for further decline following therapeutic intervention. Renal thermal ablation presents one approach for management of SRMs whereby tumors are treated in situ without need for global renal ischemia. These treatment characteristics contribute to favorable renal function outcomes following kidney tumor ablation particularly in patients with an anatomic or functional solitary renal unit. PMID:27152264

  12. Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) as Thermal Protection Systems for Discovery Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K.; Johnson, Christine E.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Hui, Frank C. L.; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Chen, Timothy; Chen, Y. K.; Paragas, Daniel; Kobayashi, Loreen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the light weight Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) and its thermal performance in a simulated heating environment for planetary entry vehicles. The PICA material was developed as a member of the Light Weight Ceramic Ablators (LCA's), and the manufacturing process of this material has since been significantly improved. The density of PICA material ranges from 14 to 20 lbm/ft(exp 3), having uniform resin distribution with and without a densified top surface. The thermal performance of PICA was evaluated in the Ames arc-jet facility at cold wall heat fluxes from 375 to 2,960 BtU/ft(exp 2)-s and surface pressures of 0.1 to 0.43 atm. Heat loads used in these tests varied from 5,500 to 29,600 BtU/ft(exp 2) and are representative of the entry conditions of the proposed Discovery Class Missions. Surface and in-depth temperatures were measured using optical pyrometers and thermocouples. Surface recession was also measured by using a template and a height gage. The ablation characteristics and efficiency of PICA are quantified by using the effective heat of ablation, and the thermal penetration response is evaluated from the thermal soak data. In addition, a comparison of thermal performance of standard and surface densified PICA is also discussed.

  13. Ablative thermal management structural material on the hypersonic vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Shortland, H.; Tsai, C.

    1995-09-01

    A hypersonic vehicle is designed to fly at high Mach number in the earth`s atmosphere that will result in higher aerodynamic heating loads on specific areas of the vehicle. A thermal protection system is required for these areas that may exceed the operating temperature limit of structural materials. This paper delineates the application of ablative material as the passive type of thermal protection system for the nose or wing leading edges. A simplified quasi-steady-state one-dimensional computer model was developed to evaluate the performance and thermal design of a leading edge. The detailed description of the governing mathematical equations and results are presented. This model provides a quantitative information to support the design estimate, performance optimization, and assess preliminary feasibility of using ablation as a design approach.

  14. Non-Fourier based thermal-mechanical tissue damage prediction for thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-01-02

    Prediction of tissue damage under thermal loads plays important role for thermal ablation planning. A new methodology is presented in this paper by combing non-Fourier bio-heat transfer, constitutive elastic mechanics as well as non-rigid motion of dynamics to predict and analyze thermal distribution, thermal-induced mechanical deformation and thermal-mechanical damage of soft tissues under thermal loads. Simulations and comparison analysis demonstrate that the proposed methodology based on the non-Fourier bio-heat transfer can account for the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues and predict tissue thermal damage more accurately than classical Fourier bio-heat transfer based model.

  15. Tissue healing response following hyperthermic vapor ablation in the porcine longissimus muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, John T.; Grisez, Brian T.; Famoso, Justin; Hoey, Michael; Dixon, Chris; Coad, James E.

    2015-03-01

    As the use of hyperthermic ablation technologies has increased, so too has the need to understand their effects on tissue and their healing responses. This study was designed to characterize tissue injury and healing following hyperthermic vapor ablation in the in vivo porcine longissimus muscle model. The individual ablations were performed using the NxThera Vapor Delivery System (NxThera Inc., Minneapolis, MN). To assess the vapor ablation's evolution, the swine were euthanized post-treatment on Day 0, Day 3, Day 7, Day 14, Day 28, Day 45 and Day 90. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride viability staining (TTC staining) was used to macroscopically assess the extent of each vapor ablation within the tissue. The ablation associated healing responses were then histologically evaluated for acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, foreign body reaction and fibrosis. Two zones of tissue injury were initially identified in the ablations: 1) a central zone of complete coagulative necrosis and 2) an outer "transition zone" of viable and non-viable cells. The ablations initially increased in size from Day 0 to Day 7 and then progressively decreased in size though Day 45. The initial Day 3 healing changes originated in the transition zone with minimal acute and chronic inflammation. As time progressed, granulation tissue began to form by Day 7 and peaked around Day 14. Collagen formation, deposition and remodeling began in the adjacent healthy tissue by Day 28, replaced the ablation site by Day 45 and reorganized by Day 90. In conclusion, this vapor ablation technology provided a non-desiccating form of hyperthermic ablation that resulted in coagulative necrosis without a central thermally/heat-fixed tissue component, followed a classical wound healing pathway, and healed with minimal associated inflammation.

  16. More than just tumor destruction: immunomodulation by thermal ablation of cancer.

    PubMed

    Haen, Sebastian P; Pereira, Philippe L; Salih, Helmut R; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Gouttefangeas, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades, thermoablative techniques for the therapy of localized tumors have gained importance in the treatment of patients not eligible for surgical resection. Anecdotal reports have described spontaneous distant tumor regression after thermal ablation, indicating a possible involvement of the immune system, hence an induction of antitumor immunity after thermoinduced therapy. In recent years, a growing body of evidence for modulation of both adaptive and innate immunity, as well as for the induction of danger signals through thermoablation, has emerged. Induced immune responses, however, are mostly weak and not sufficient for the complete eradication of established tumors or durable prevention of disease progression, and combination therapies with immunomodulating drugs are being evaluated with promising results. This article aims to summarize published findings on immune modulation through radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and laser-induced thermotherapy.

  17. Ablation Modeling of Ares-I Upper State Thermal Protection System Using Thermal Desktop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, John R.; Page, Arthur T.

    2007-01-01

    The thermal protection system (TPS) for the Ares-I Upper Stage will be based on Space Transportation System External Tank (ET) and Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) heritage materials. These TPS materials were qualified via hot gas testing that simulated ascent and re-entry aerothermodynamic convective heating environments. From this data, the recession rates due to ablation were characterized and used in thermal modeling for sizing the thickness required to maintain structural substrate temperatures. At Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the in-house code ABL is currently used to predict TPS ablation and substrate temperatures as a FORTRAN application integrated within SINDA/G. This paper describes a comparison of the new ablation utility in Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT with the heritage ABL code and empirical test data which serves as the validation of the Thermal Desktop software for use on the design of the Ares-I Upper Stage project.

  18. Treatment of bone tumours by radiofrequency thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Fernando Ruiz; Del Mar Castellano García, María; Montes, Jose Luis Martínez; García, Manuel Ruiz; Fernández, Juan Miguel Tristán

    2009-03-01

    Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) is considered the treatment of choice for osteoid osteomas, in which it has long been safely used. Other benign conditions (chondroblastoma, osteoblastoma, giant cell tumour, etc.) can also be treated by this technique, which is less invasive than traditional surgical procedures. RFTA ablation is also an option for the palliation of localized, painful osteolytic metastatic and myeloma lesions. The reduction in pain improves the quality of life of patients with cancer, who often have multiple morbidities and a limited life expectancy. In some cases, these patients are treated with RFTA because conventional therapies (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, etc.) have been exhausted. In other cases, it is combined with conventional therapies or other percutaneous treatments, e.g., cementoplasty, offering faster pain relief and bone strengthening. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of these patients is recommended to select the optimal treatment, including orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, medical and radiation oncologists and interventional radiologists.

  19. Ablation study of tungsten-based nuclear thermal rocket fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Tabitha Elizabeth Rose

    The research described in this thesis has been performed in order to support the materials research and development efforts of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), of Tungsten-based Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) fuel. The NTR was developed to a point of flight readiness nearly six decades ago and has been undergoing gradual modification and upgrading since then. Due to the simplicity in design of the NTR, and also in the modernization of the materials fabrication processes of nuclear fuel since the 1960's, the fuel of the NTR has been upgraded continuously. Tungsten-based fuel is of great interest to the NTR community, seeking to determine its advantages over the Carbide-based fuel of the previous NTR programs. The materials development and fabrication process contains failure testing, which is currently being conducted at MSFC in the form of heating the material externally and internally to replicate operation within the nuclear reactor of the NTR, such as with hot gas and RF coils. In order to expand on these efforts, experiments and computational studies of Tungsten and a Tungsten Zirconium Oxide sample provided by NASA have been conducted for this dissertation within a plasma arc-jet, meant to induce ablation on the material. Mathematical analysis was also conducted, for purposes of verifying experiments and making predictions. The computational method utilizes Anisimov's kinetic method of plasma ablation, including a thermal conduction parameter from the Chapman Enskog expansion of the Maxwell Boltzmann equations, and has been modified to include a tangential velocity component. Experimental data matches that of the computational data, in which plasma ablation at an angle shows nearly half the ablation of plasma ablation at no angle. Fuel failure analysis of two NASA samples post-testing was conducted, and suggestions have been made for future materials fabrication processes. These studies, including the computational kinetic model at an angle and the

  20. Investigation on nanoparticle distribution for thermal ablation of a tumour subjected to nanoparticle assisted thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Soni, Sanjeev; Tyagi, Himanshu; Taylor, Robert A; Kumar, Amod

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of the distribution of nanoparticles delivered to a skin tumour for the thermal ablation conditions attained during thermal therapy. Ultimate aim is to define a distribution of nanoparticles as well as a combination of other therapeutic parameters to attain thermal ablation temperatures (50-60 °C) within whole of the tumour region. Three different cases of nanoparticle distributions are analysed under controlled conditions for all other parameters viz. irradiation intensity and duration, and volume fraction of nanoparticles. Results show that distribution of nanoparticles into only the periphery of tumour resulted in desired thermal ablation temperature in whole of tumour. For the tumour size considered in this study, an irradiation intensity of 1.25 W/cm(2) for duration of 300 s and a nanoparticle volume fraction of 0.001% was optimal to attain a temperature of ≥53 °C within the whole tumour region. It is concluded that distribution of nanoparticles in peripheral region of tumour, along with a controlled combination of other parameters, seems favourable and provides a promising pathway for thermal ablation of a tumour subjected to nanoparticle assisted thermal therapy.

  1. Novel approaches to treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic metastases using thermal ablation and thermosensitive liposomes.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Mark W; Landon, Chelsea D; Hofmann, Christina L; Stauffer, Paul R

    2013-07-01

    Because of the limitations of surgical resection, thermal ablation is commonly used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. Current methods of ablation can result in marginal recurrences of larger lesions and in tumors located near large vessels. This review presents a novel approach for extending treatment out to the margins where temperatures do not provide complete treatment with ablation alone, by combining thermal ablation with drug-loaded thermosensitive liposomes. A history of the development of thermosensitive liposomes is presented. Clinical trials have shown that the combination of radiofrequency ablation and doxorubicin-loaded thermosensitive liposomes is a promising treatment.

  2. [Application of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Zhai, Y; Zhang, Z H; Li, Y; Zhang, Z Y

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy, safety and promotion value of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: Fourty three patients who had received TB type endometrial ablation system for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding from January, 2015 to January, 2016 in theDepartment of gynecology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital were enrolled in this study. The intra-operative and post-operative complications and improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea were observed. Results: There were nointra-operative complication occurred, such as uterine perforation, massive hemorrhage or surrounding organ damage. At 6 months after operation, 32 patients developed amenorrhea, 6 developed menstrual spotting, 3 developed menstruation with a small volume and 1 had a normal menstruation. No menstruation with an increased volume occurred. The occurrence of amenorrhea was 76.19% and the response rate was 97.62%.At 6 months after operation, 1 case had no response, 2 cases had partial response and 11 cases had complete response among the 14 cases of pre-operative dysmenorrhea; only 3 cases still had anemia among the 23 cases of pre-operative anemia. Compared with before treatment, patients with dysmenorrhea and anemia both significantly reduced with a statistically significant difference(P<0.01). Conclusion: TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation has a significant efficacy with high safety for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, which could have clinical promotion practice.

  3. Picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide: Effect of crystallinity on the material response

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, Rocio; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Lejardi, Ainhoa; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon

    2011-11-01

    The picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) as a function of laser fluence and degree of crystallinity was examined. The ablation parameters and the surface modifications were analyzed under various irradiation conditions using laser wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet through the visible. When processing the amorphous PLLA, both energy threshold and topography varied considerably depending on laser wavelength. Laser irradiation showed a reduction in the energy ablation threshold as the degree of crystallinity increased, probably related to photomechanical effects involved in laser ablation with ultra-short pulses and the lower stress accommodation behavior of semicrystalline polymers. In particular, cooperative chain motions are impeded by the higher degree of crystallinity, showing fragile mechanical behavior and lower energy dissipation. The experimental results on ablation rate versus laser energy showed that UV laser ablation on semicrystalline PLLA was more efficient than the visible ablation, i.e., it exhibits higher etch rates over a wide range of pulse energy conditions. These results were interpreted in terms of photo-thermal and photo-chemical response of polymers as a function of material micro-structure and incident laser wavelength. High quality micro-grooves were produced in amorphous PLLA, reveling the potential of ultra-fast laser processing technique in the field of micro-structuring biocompatible and biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications.

  4. Determination of cytotoxic thermal dose during HIFU ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandlall, Sacha D.; Bazán-Peregrino, Miriam; Mo, Steven; Coussios, Constantin-C.

    2012-10-01

    Thermal dose has been proposed for various hyperthermic cancer treatment modalities as a measure of heat-induced cell and tissue damage. However, many of the models that are currently used for calculating thermal dose have not been validated or suitably adapted for the elevated temperatures and rates of heating encountered during ablation by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). This work quantifies the performance of the widely employed Cumulative Equivalent Minutes at 43°C (CEM43) thermal dose metric under HIFU-relevant heating. A total of 36 agar phantoms were embedded with different human cancer cell lines (PC3, 22RV1, or ZR75.1) as well as calcein AM and propidium iodide assays. The phantoms were cast in sterile molds with internal dimensions of 7 cm × 7 cm × 2 mm. Using a water bath, 12 of the phantoms were treated with mild hyperthermia (43-46°C for up to 60 minutes), while another 12 were subjected to HIFU-relevant temperature profiles (60-80°C peak temperature, 2-3°C/s peak heating rate). In each of the remaining 12 phantoms, 8 HIFU exposures were carried out in a 37°C water tank (1.067 MHz, 95% duty cycle, 3-6 MPa peak rarefaction pressure, 2-20 s exposure duration). Cavitation emissions were monitored passively with a detector transducer that was confocally and co-axially aligned with the HIFU source. Cell death was quantified by measuring the locally averaged fluorescence intensity of the assays relative to unheated and severely heat-shocked phantoms. The results show that the CEM43 dose required to achieve the same level of heat-induced cell death varies considerably across cell lines, and that inertial cavitation can cause significant mechanical damage at ablation-relevant intensities even when no significant thermal dose is delivered (CEM43 < 5 s). These findings demonstrate the need for improved models of cell death at ablation-relevant temperatures.

  5. Overview of the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Kirk, Benjamin S.; Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the capabilities of the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code is presented. CHAR is a one-, two-, and three-dimensional unstructured continuous Galerkin finite-element heat conduction and ablation solver with both direct and inverse modes. Additionally, CHAR includes a coupled linear thermoelastic solver for determination of internal stresses induced from the temperature field and surface loading. Background on the development process, governing equations, material models, discretization techniques, and numerical methods is provided. Special focus is put on the available boundary conditions including thermochemical ablation, surface-to-surface radiation exchange, and flowfield coupling. Finally, a discussion of ongoing development efforts is presented.

  6. Overview of the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Kirk, Benjamin S.; Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the capabilities of the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code is presented. CHAR is a one-, two-, and three-dimensional unstructured continuous Galerkin finite-element heat conduction and ablation solver with both direct and inverse modes. Additionally, CHAR includes a coupled linear thermoelastic solver for determination of internal stresses induced from the temperature field and surface loading. Background on the development process, governing equations, material models, discretization techniques, and numerical methods is provided. Special focus is put on the available boundary conditions including thermochemical ablation and contact interfaces, and example simulations are included. Finally, a discussion of ongoing development efforts is presented.

  7. Artificial ascites and pneumoperitoneum to facilitate thermal ablation of liver tumors: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Bhagavatula, Sharath K; Chick, Jeffrey F B; Chauhan, Nikunj R; Shyn, Paul B

    2017-02-01

    Image-guided percutaneous thermal ablation is increasingly utilized in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. Peripherally located hepatic tumors can be difficult to access or located adjacent to critical structures that can be injured. As a result, ablation of peripheral tumors may be avoided or may be performed too cautiously, leading to inadequate ablation coverage. In these cases, separating the tumor from adjacent critical structures can increase the efficacy and safety of procedures. Artificial ascites and artificial pneumoperitoneum are techniques that utilize fluid and gas, respectively, to insulate critical structures from the thermal ablation zone. Induction of artificial ascites and artificial pneumoperitoneum can enable complete ablation of otherwise inaccessible hepatic tumors, improve tumor visualization, minimize unintended thermal injury to surrounding organs, and reduce post-procedural pain. This pictorial essay illustrates and discusses the proper technique and clinical considerations for successful artificial ascites and pneumoperitoneum creation to facilitate safe peripheral hepatic tumor ablation.

  8. Radiofrequency thermal ablation in painful myeloma of the clavicle.

    PubMed

    Gharaei, Helen; Imani, Farnad; Vakily, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    A 57-year-old male patient had myeloma. He had severe pain in the left clavicle that did not respond to radiotherapy; therefore, it was treated with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Under fluoroscopic guidance, two RF needles at a distance of 1.5 cm from each other were inserted into the mass and conventional radiofrequency (90℃ and 60 seconds) at two different depths (1 cm apart) was applied. Then, 2 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine along with triamcinolone 40 mg was injected in each needle. The visual analogue pain score (VAS from 0 to 10) was decreased from 8 to 0. In the next 3 months of follow-up, the patient was very satisfied with the procedure and the mass gradually became smaller. There were no complications. This study shows that RFTA could be a useful method for pain management in painful osteolytic myeloma lesions in the clavicle.

  9. Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation in Painful Myeloma of the Clavicle

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Farnad; Vakily, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    A 57-year-old male patient had myeloma. He had severe pain in the left clavicle that did not respond to radiotherapy; therefore, it was treated with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Under fluoroscopic guidance, two RF needles at a distance of 1.5 cm from each other were inserted into the mass and conventional radiofrequency (90℃ and 60 seconds) at two different depths (1 cm apart) was applied. Then, 2 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine along with triamcinolone 40 mg was injected in each needle. The visual analogue pain score (VAS from 0 to 10) was decreased from 8 to 0. In the next 3 months of follow-up, the patient was very satisfied with the procedure and the mass gradually became smaller. There were no complications. This study shows that RFTA could be a useful method for pain management in painful osteolytic myeloma lesions in the clavicle. PMID:24478905

  10. Radiologically-guided thermal ablation of renal tumours.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, F; Balageas, P; Le Bras, Y; Rigou, G; Boutault, J-R; Bouzgarrou, M; Grenier, N

    2012-04-01

    Thermal ablation techniques for renal tumours have become the norm in surgically at-risk patients. These percutaneous treatments are locally effective, particularly for tumours measuring less than 4cm. Larger tumours may be treated by adapting the technique and strategy. Multidisciplinary discussion is essential before any decision, in order to decide on the most appropriate technique. Radiofrequency is simple, effective and inexpensive. Cryotherapy is more complex and should be preferred when the tumour is large or there is vascular or urinary tract contact. Microwaves can be used to treat larger tumours. Morbidity is low, but good knowledge of these techniques and of dissection is required to avoid injury to neighbouring digestive or urinary structures.

  11. CHAP III- CHARRING ABLATOR PROGRAM FOR ADVANCED INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ENTRY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    The transient response of a thermal protection material to heat applied to the surface can be calculated using the CHAP III computer program. CHAP III can be used to analyze pyrolysis gas chemical kinetics in detail and examine pyrolysis reactions-indepth. The analysis includes the deposition of solid products produced by chemical reactions in the gas phase. CHAP III uses a modelling technique which can approximate a wide range of ablation problems. The energy equation used in CHAP III incorporates pyrolysis (both solid and gas reactions), convection, conduction, storage, work, kinetic energy, and viscous dissipation. The chemically reacting components of the solid are allowed to vary as a function of position and time. CHAP III employs a finite difference method to approximate the energy equations. Input values include specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermocouple locations, enthalpy, heating rates, and a description of the chemical reactions expected. The output tabulates the temperature at locations throughout the ablator, gas flow within the solid, density of the solid, weight of pyrolysis gases, and rate of carbon deposition. A sample case is included, which analyzes an ablator material containing several pyrolysis reactions subjected to an environment typical of entry at lunar return velocity. CHAP III is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer operating under NOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 102K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1985.

  12. Co:MgF2 laser ablation of tissue: effect of wavelength on ablation threshold and thermal damage.

    PubMed

    Schomacker, K T; Domankevitz, Y; Flotte, T J; Deutsch, T F

    1991-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of the ablation threshold of a variety of tissues has been studied by using a tunable pulsed Co:MgF2 laser to determine how closely it tracks the optical absorption length of water. The Co:MgF2 laser was tuned between 1.81 and 2.14 microns, a wavelength region in which the absorption length varies by a decade. For soft tissues the ablation threshold tracks the optical absorption length; for bone there is little wavelength dependence, consistent with the low water content of bone. Thermal damage vs. wavelength was also studied for cornea and bone. Thermal damage to cornea has a weak wavelength dependence, while that to bone shows little wavelength dependence. Framing-camera pictures of the ablation of both cornea and liver show explosive removal of material, but differ as to the nature of the explosion.

  13. Review of asian experience of thermal ablation techniques and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rhim, H

    2004-11-01

    The field of image-guided tumour ablation has gained great attention from Asian physicians because it represents a safe and effective technique for many commonly seen tumours in this population, showing minimal morbidity and excellent local control rates. Based on the current survey data from Asian physicians who are currently performing image-guided tumour ablation, thermal ablation has been mainly performed for patients with unresectable liver tumours. Radiofrequency ablation has replaced many other local ablation techniques such as microwave or ethanol ablation in treating small focal hepatic tumours for the last 5 years. Surgery and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization also have a unique role as curative and palliative treatment options for patients with more extensive tumour burden. Although radiofrequency ablation represents a paradigm shift in local therapy, more sophisticated strategies to enhance the therapeutic efficacy are necessary and more randomized and controlled investigations to estimate its clinical benefit are warranted.

  14. Patient specific optimization-based treatment planning for catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia and thermal ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Punit; Chen, Xin; Wootton, Jeffery; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.-Chow; Diederich, Chris J.

    2009-02-01

    A 3D optimization-based thermal treatment planning platform has been developed for the application of catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia in conjunction with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for treating advanced pelvic tumors. Optimal selection of applied power levels to each independently controlled transducer segment can be used to conform and maximize therapeutic heating and thermal dose coverage to the target region, providing significant advantages over current hyperthermia technology and improving treatment response. Critical anatomic structures, clinical target outlines, and implant/applicator geometries were acquired from sequential multi-slice 2D images obtained from HDR treatment planning and used to reconstruct patient specific 3D biothermal models. A constrained optimization algorithm was devised and integrated within a finite element thermal solver to determine a priori the optimal applied power levels and the resulting 3D temperature distributions such that therapeutic heating is maximized within the target, while placing constraints on maximum tissue temperature and thermal exposure of surrounding non-targeted tissue. This optimizationbased treatment planning and modeling system was applied on representative cases of clinical implants for HDR treatment of cervix and prostate to evaluate the utility of this planning approach. The planning provided significant improvement in achievable temperature distributions for all cases, with substantial increase in T90 and thermal dose (CEM43T90) coverage to the hyperthermia target volume while decreasing maximum treatment temperature and reducing thermal dose exposure to surrounding non-targeted tissues and thermally sensitive rectum and bladder. This optimization based treatment planning platform with catheter-based ultrasound applicators is a useful tool that has potential to significantly improve the delivery of hyperthermia in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy. The planning platform has been extended

  15. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ran; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  16. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Jing E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Jia

    2015-07-15

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  17. High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE) for non-thermal ablation without muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Therapeutic irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging technology for the non-thermal ablation of tumors. The technique involves delivering a series of unipolar electric pulses to permanently destabilize the plasma membrane of cancer cells through an increase in transmembrane potential, which leads to the development of a tissue lesion. Clinically, IRE requires the administration of paralytic agents to prevent muscle contractions during treatment that are associated with the delivery of electric pulses. This study shows that by applying high-frequency, bipolar bursts, muscle contractions can be eliminated during IRE without compromising the non-thermal mechanism of cell death. Methods A combination of analytical, numerical, and experimental techniques were performed to investigate high-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE). A theoretical model for determining transmembrane potential in response to arbitrary electric fields was used to identify optimal burst frequencies and amplitudes for in vivo treatments. A finite element model for predicting thermal damage based on the electric field distribution was used to design non-thermal protocols for in vivo experiments. H-FIRE was applied to the brain of rats, and muscle contractions were quantified via accelerometers placed at the cervicothoracic junction. MRI and histological evaluation was performed post-operatively to assess ablation. Results No visual or tactile evidence of muscle contraction was seen during H-FIRE at 250 kHz or 500 kHz, while all IRE protocols resulted in detectable muscle contractions at the cervicothoracic junction. H-FIRE produced ablative lesions in brain tissue that were characteristic in cellular morphology of non-thermal IRE treatments. Specifically, there was complete uniformity of tissue death within targeted areas, and a sharp transition zone was present between lesioned and normal brain. Conclusions H-FIRE is a feasible technique for non-thermal tissue

  18. Treatment of Uterine Myomas by Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Yang, Shujun; Li, Juan; Zhu, Tongyu; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Patients’ selection criteria, effectiveness, and safety of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) therapy for uterine myomas (UM) were assessed using a 10-year retrospective cohort study. From July 2001 to July 2011, a total of 1216 patients treated for UM were divided into 2 groups. Group A consisted of 476 premenopause patients, average age 36.5 ± 8.5 years, average number of myomas 1.7 ± 0.9, and average diameter of myomas 4.5 ± 1.5 cm, and group B consisted of 740 menopause patients, average age 48.5 ± 3.5 years, average number of myomas 2.6 ± 1.3, and average diameter of myomas 5.0 ± 2.5 cm. Average follow-up period was 36.5 ± 11.5 months. At 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after RFTA, average diameters of myomas in group A were 3.8, 3.0, 2.7, 2.4, and 2.2 cm, respectively, and 47.7% (227 of 476) of patients had tumor trace at 12 months after RFTA. In group B, the results were 4.7, 3.7, 3.3, 2.3, and 2.3 cm, respectively, and 58.8% (435 of 740) of patients had tumor trace at 12 months after RFTA. Three months after treatment, myoma volumes were significantly reduced in both the groups (P < .01), and group B had higher rate of tumor trace at 12 months after RFTA than group A (P < .05). Clinical symptoms and health-related quality-of-life outcome (HRQL) were significantly improved after RFTA in both groups and the postoperative recurrence rate of UM was significantly higher in group A at 10.7% (51 of 476) than group B at 2.4% (18 of 740; P < .05). Radiofrequency thermal ablation is an excellent minimally invasive treatment for UM smaller than 5.0 cm in diameter. PMID:25355802

  19. Numerical study of the thermal ablation of wet solids by ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Danny; Beland, Laurent Karim; Deryng, Delphine; Lewis, Laurent J.; Meunier, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The ablation by ultrashort laser pulses at relatively low fluences (i.e., in the thermal regime) of solids wetted by a thin liquid film is studied using a generic numerical model. In comparison with dry targets, the liquid is found to significantly affect ablation by confining the solid and slowing down the expansion of the laser-heated material. These factors affect the relative efficiency of the various ablation mechanisms, leading, in particular, to the complete inhibition of phase explosion at lower fluences, a reduced ablation yield, and significant changes in the composition of the plume. As a consequence, at fluences above the ablation threshold, the size of the ejected nanoclusters is lower in presence of the liquid. Our results provide a qualitative understanding of the effect of wetting layers on the ablation process.

  20. Percutaneous treatment of bone tumors by radiofrequency thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Castellano García, María del Mar; Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Martínez Montes, Jose Luis; Ruiz García, Manuel; Tristán Fernández, Juan Miguel

    2011-01-01

    We present our experience of the treatment of bone tumors with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Over the past 4 years, we have treated 26 cases (22 benign and 4 malignant) using CT-guided RFTA. RFTA was the sole treatment in 19 cases and was combined with percutaneous cementation during the same session in the remaining seven cases. Our approach to the tumors was simplified, using a single point of entrance for both RFTA and percutaneous osteoplasty. In the benign cases, clinical success was defined as resolution of pain within 1 month of the procedure and no recurrence during the follow-up period. It was achieved in 19 out of the 21 patients in which curative treatment was attempted. The two non-resolved cases were a patient with osteoid osteoma who developed a symptomatic bone infarct after a symptom-free period of 2 months and another with femoral diaphysis osteoblastoma who suffered a pathological fracture after 8 months without symptoms. The procedure was considered clinically successful in the five cases (4 malign and 1 benign) in which palliative treatment was attempted, because there was a mean (±SD) reduction in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score from 9.0±0.4 before the procedure to <4 during the follow-up period.

  1. Thermochromic tissue-mimicking phantom for optimisation of thermal tumour ablation.

    PubMed

    Negussie, Ayele H; Partanen, Ari; Mikhail, Andrew S; Xu, Sheng; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Maruvada, Subha; Wood, Bradford J

    2016-05-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to (1) develop a novel tissue-mimicking thermochromic (TMTC) phantom that permanently changes colour from white to magenta upon heating above ablative temperatures, and (2) assess its utility for specific applications in evaluating thermal therapy devices. Materials and methods Polyacrylamide gel mixed with thermochromic ink was custom made to produce a TMTC phantom that changes its colour upon heating above biological ablative temperatures (> 60 °C). The thermal properties of the phantom were characterised, and compared to those of human tissue. In addition, utility of this phantom as a tool for the assessment of laser and microwave thermal ablation was examined. Results The mass density, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity of the TMTC phantom were measured as 1033 ± 1.0 kg/m(3), 0.590 ± 0.015 W/m.K, and 0.145 ± 0.002 mm(2)/s, respectively, and found to be in agreement with reported values for human soft tissues. Heating the phantom with laser and microwave ablation devices produced clearly demarcated regions of permanent colour change geographically corresponding to regions with temperature elevations above 60 °C. Conclusion The TMTC phantom provides direct visualisation of ablation dynamics, including ablation volume and geometry as well as peak absolute temperatures within the treated region post-ablation. This phantom can be specifically tailored for different thermal therapy modalities, such as radiofrequency, laser, microwave, or therapeutic ultrasound ablation. Such modality-specific phantoms may enable better quality assurance, device characterisation, and ablation parameter optimisation, or optimise the study of dynamic heating parameters integral to drug device combination therapies relying upon heat.

  2. Integrated Thermal Response Tool for Earth Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.-K.; Milos, F. S.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A system is presented for multi-dimensional, fully-coupled thermal response modeling of hypersonic entry vehicles. The system consists of a two-dimensional implicit thermal response, pyrolysis and ablation program (TITAN), a commercial finite-element thermal and mechanical analysis code (MARC), and a high fidelity Navier-Stokes equation solver (GIANTS). The simulations performed by this integrated system include hypersonic flow-field, fluid and solid interaction, ablation, shape change, pyrolysis gas generation and flow, and thermal response of heatshield and structure. The thermal response of the ablating and charring heatshield material is simulated using TITAN, and that of the underlying structural is simulated using MARC. The ablating heatshield is treated as an outer boundary condition of the structure, and continuity conditions of temperature and heat flux are imposed at the interface between TITAN and MARC. Aerothermal environments with fluid and solid interaction are predicted by coupling TITAN and GIANTS through surface energy balance equations. With this integrated system, the aerothermal environments for an entry vehicle and the thermal response of both the heatshield and the structure can be obtained simultaneously. Representative computations for a proposed blunt body earth entry vehicle are presented and discussed in detail.

  3. Analysis of internal ablation for the thermal control of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camberos, Jose A.; Roberts, Leonard

    1989-01-01

    A new method of thermal protection for transatmospheric vehicles is introduced. The method involves the combination of radiation, ablation and transpiration cooling. By placing an ablating material behind a fixed-shape, porous outer shield, the effectiveness of transpiration cooling is made possible while retaining the simplicity of a passive mechanism. A simplified one-dimensional approach is used to derive the governing equations. Reduction of these equations to non-dimensional form yields two parameters which characterize the thermal protection effectiveness of the shield and ablator combination for a given trajectory. The non-dimensional equations are solved numerically for a sample trajectory corresponding to glide re-entry. Four typical ablators are tested and compared with results obtained by using the thermal properties of water. For the present level of analysis, the numerical computations adequately support the analytical model.

  4. An Update to a Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2014-01-01

    As described at IPPW-10, in FY12, the CA-TPS element focused on establishing materials requirements based on MSL-type and COTS Low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions (q 250 Wcm2) to develop and deliver a conformal ablative TPS. This involved down selecting, manufacturing and testing two of the best candidate materials, demonstrating uniform infiltration of resins into baseline 2-cm thick carbon felt, selecting a primary conformal material formulation based on novel arc jet and basic material properties testing, developing and demonstrating instrumentation for felt-based materials and, based on the data, developing a low fidelity material response model so that the conformal ablator TPS thickness for missions could be established. In addition, the project began to develop Industry Partnerships. Since the nominal thickness of baseline carbon felts was only 2-cm, a partnership with a rayon felt developer was made in order to upgrade equipment, establish the processes required and attempt to manufacture 10-cm thick white goods. A partnership with a processing house was made to develop the methodology to carbonize large pieces of the white goods into 7.5-cm thick carbon felt. In FY13, more advanced testing and modeling of the down selected conformal material was performed. Material thermal properties tests and structural properties tests were performed. The first 3 and 4-point bend tests were performed on the conformal ablator as well as PICA for comparison and the conformal ablator had outstanding behavior compared to PICA. Arc jet testing was performed with instrumented samples of both the conformal ablator and standard PICA at heating rates ranging from 40 to 400 Wcm2 and shear as high as 600 Pa. The results from these tests showed a remarkable improvement in the thermal penetration through the conformal ablator when compared to PICAs response. The data from these tests were used to develop a mid-fidelity thermal response model. Additional arc jet testing in the same

  5. Clinical experiences with microwave thermal ablation of lung malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sidoff, Luby; Dupuy, Damian E

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 30% of early stage lung cancer patients are not surgical candidates due to medical co-morbidities, poor cardiopulmonary function and advanced age. These patients are traditionally offered chemotherapy and radiation, which have shown relatively modest improvements in mortality. For over a decade, percutaneous image-guided ablation has emerged as a safe, cost-effective, minimally invasive treatment alternative for patients who would otherwise not qualify for surgery. Although radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is currently the most extensively studied and widely utilised technique in the treatment of lung malignancies, there is a growing body of evidence that microwave ablation (MWA) has several unique benefits over RFA and cryoablation in the lung. This article reviews our institution's clinical experiences in the treatment of lung malignancies with MWA including patient selection, procedural technique, imaging follow-up, treatment outcomes and comparison of ablation techniques.

  6. A system for advanced real-time visualization and monitoring of MR-guided thermal ablations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothgang, Eva; Gilson, Wesley D.; Hornegger, Joachim; Lorenz, Christine H.

    2010-02-01

    In modern oncology, thermal ablations are increasingly used as a regional treatment option to supplement systemic treatment strategies such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The goal of all thermal ablation procedures is to cause cell death of disease tissue while sparing adjacent healthy tissue. Real-time assessment of thermal damage is the key to therapeutic efficiency and safety of such procedures. Magnetic resonance thermometry is capable of monitoring the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of temperature changes during thermal ablations. In this work, we present an advanced monitoring system for MR-guided thermal ablations that includes multiplanar visualization, specialized overlay visualization methods, and additional methods for correcting errors resulting from magnetic field shifts and motion. To ensure the reliability of the displayed thermal data, systematic quality control of thermal maps is carried out on-line. The primary purpose of this work is to provide clinicians with an intuitive tool for accurately visualizing the progress of thermal treatment at the time of the procedure. Importantly, the system is designed to be independent of the heating source. The presented system is expected to be of great value not only to guide thermal procedures but also to further explore the relationship between temperature-time exposure and tissue damage. The software application was implemented within the eXtensible Imaging Platform (XIP) and has been validated with clinical data.

  7. Development and Verification of Enclosure Radiation Capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin C.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    With the recent development of multi-dimensional thermal protection system (TPS) material response codes, the capability to account for surface-to-surface radiation exchange in complex geometries is critical. This paper presents recent efforts to implement such capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This work also describes the different numerical methods implemented in the code to compute geometric view factors for radiation problems involving multiple surfaces. Verification of the code's radiation capabilities and results of a code-to-code comparison are presented. Finally, a demonstration case of a two-dimensional ablating cavity with enclosure radiation accounting for a changing geometry is shown.

  8. A methodology to analyze treatment zone geometry and variability of percutaneous thermal ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshava, Krishna N.; Kimia, Benjamin B.; Cook, Madeleine; Dupuy, Damian E.; Collins, Scott A.; Merck, Derek

    2015-03-01

    A major challenge for image guided tumor ablation is the high treatment variability due to heterogeneous tissue characteristics and thermal sinks. In this work, we present a methodology to analyze the geometry of the treatment zones and treatment zone variability. Our first contribution is an applicator centric co-ordinate system which enables us to compare treatment zones and vendor specifications across patients. Our second contribution is the analysis of the shape of the ablation zone using applicator centric longitudinal 2D cross sections. We present initial results of applying this methodology to analyze the geometry and variability in synthetic examples like ellipsoid, sphere and real microwave ablation zones in lung and liver.

  9. Development, Verification and Validation of Enclosure Radiation Capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin C.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    With the recent development of multi-dimensional thermal protection system (TPS) material response codes including the capabilities to account for radiative heating is a requirement. This paper presents the recent efforts to implement such capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This work also describes the different numerical methods implemented in the code to compute view factors for radiation problems involving multiple surfaces. Furthermore, verification and validation of the code's radiation capabilities are demonstrated by comparing solutions to analytical results, to other codes, and to radiant test data.

  10. Review of temperature dependence of thermal properties, dielectric properties, and perfusion of biological tissues at hyperthermic and ablation temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Christian; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The application of supraphysiological temperatures (>40°C) to biological tissues causes changes at the molecular, cellular, and structural level, with corresponding changes in tissue function and in thermal, mechanical and dielectric tissue properties. This is particularly relevant for image-guided thermal treatments (e.g. hyperthermia and thermal ablation) delivering heat via focused ultrasound (FUS), radiofrequency (RF), microwave (MW), or laser energy; temperature induced changes in tissue properties are of relevance in relation to predicting tissue temperature profile, monitoring during treatment, and evaluation of treatment results. This paper presents a literature survey of temperature dependence of electrical (electrical conductivity, resistivity, permittivity) and thermal tissue properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, diffusivity). Data of soft tissues (liver, prostate, muscle, kidney, uterus, collagen, myocardium and spleen) for temperatures between 5 to 90°C, and dielectric properties in the frequency range between 460 kHz and 3 GHz are reported. Furthermore, perfusion changes in tumors including carcinomas, sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, adenocarcinoma and ependymoblastoma in response to hyperthmic temperatures up to 46°C are presented. Where appropriate, mathematical models to describe temperature dependence of properties are presented. The presented data is valuable for mathematical models that predict tissue temperature during thermal therapies (e.g. hyperthermia or thermal ablation), as well as for applications related to prediction and monitoring of temperature induced tissue changes. PMID:25955712

  11. Attenuated cold defense responses in orexin neuron-ablated rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mazher; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Blessing, William; Ootsuka, Youichirou

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent reports of the use of transgenic mice targeting orexin neurons show that the ablation of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus causes hypothermia during cold exposure. This suggests the importance of orexin neurons for cold-induced autonomic and physiological defense responses, including brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and vasoconstriction in thermoregulatory cutaneous vascular bed. The present study investigated whether the ablation of orexin neurons attenuated cold-elicited BAT thermogenesis and cutaneous vasoconstriction. The study took advantage of our established conscious rat experimental model of direct measurement of BAT and body temperature and tail cutaneous blood flow. The study used transgenic orexin neurons-ablated (ORX-AB) rats and wild type (WT) rats. BAT temperature and tail artery blood flow with pre-implanted probes were measured, as well as behavioral locomotor activity under conscious free-moving condition. Gradually, the ambient temperature was decreased to below 5°C. ORX-AB rats showed an attenuated cold-induced BAT thermogenesis and behavioral activity, and delayed tail vasoconstriction. An ambient temperature that initiated BAT thermogenesis and established full cutaneous vasoconstriction was 14.1 ± 1.9 °C, which was significantly lower than 20.5 ± 1.9 °C, the corresponding value in WT rats (n = 10, P < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that the integrity of orexin-synthesising neurons in thermoregulatory networks is important for full expression of the cold defense responses. PMID:28349086

  12. Temperature response of biological materials to pulsed non-ablative CO2 laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Brugmans, M J; Kemper, J; Gijsbers, G H; van der Meulen, F W; van Gemert, M J

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents surface temperature responses of various tissue phantoms and in vitro and in vivo biological materials in air to non-ablative pulsed CO2 laser irradiation, measured with a thermocamera. We studied cooling off behavior of the materials after a laser pulse, to come to an understanding of heat accumulation and related thermal damage during (super) pulsed CO2 laser irradiation. The experiments show a very slow decay of temperatures in the longer time regime. This behavior is well predicted by a simple model for one-dimensional heat flow that considers the CO2 laser radiation as producing a heat flux on the material surface. The critical pulse repetition frequency for which temperature accumulation is sufficiently low is estimated at about 5 Hz. Although we have not investigated the ablative situation, our results suggest that very low pulse frequencies in microsurgical procedures may be recommended.

  13. Thermal Response Modeling System for a Mars Sample Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.-K.; Miles, Frank S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, coupled thermal response modeling system for analysis of hypersonic entry vehicles is presented. The system consists of a high fidelity Navier-Stokes equation solver (GIANTS), a two-dimensional implicit thermal response, pyrolysis and ablation program (TITAN), and a commercial finite-element thermal and mechanical analysis code (MARC). The simulations performed by this integrated system include hypersonic flowfield, fluid and solid interaction, ablation, shape change, pyrolysis gas eneration and flow, and thermal response of heatshield and structure. The thermal response of the heatshield is simulated using TITAN, and that of the underlying structural is simulated using MARC. The ablating heatshield is treated as an outer boundary condition of the structure, and continuity conditions of temperature and heat flux are imposed at the interface between TITAN and MARC. Aerothermal environments with fluid and solid interaction are predicted by coupling TITAN and GIANTS through surface energy balance equations. With this integrated system, the aerothermal environments for an entry vehicle and the thermal response of the entire vehicle can be obtained simultaneously. Representative computations for a flat-faced arc-jet test model and a proposed Mars sample return capsule are presented and discussed.

  14. Thermal Response Modeling System for a Mars Sample Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.-K.; Milos, F. S.

    2002-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, coupled thermal response modeling system for analysis of hypersonic entry vehicles is presented. The system consists of a high fidelity Navier-Stokes equation solver (GIANTS), a two-dimensional implicit thermal response, pyrolysis and ablation program (TITAN), and a commercial finite element thermal and mechanical analysis code (MARC). The simulations performed by this integrated system include hypersonic flowfield, fluid and solid interaction, ablation, shape change, pyrolysis gas generation and flow, and thermal response of heatshield and structure. The thermal response of the heatshield is simulated using TITAN, and that of the underlying structural is simulated using MARC. The ablating heatshield is treated as an outer boundary condition of the structure, and continuity conditions of temperature and heat flux are imposed at the interface between TITAN and MARC. Aerothermal environments with fluid and solid interaction are predicted by coupling TITAN and GIANTS through surface energy balance equations. With this integrated system, the aerothermal environments for an entry vehicle and the thermal response of the entire vehicle can be obtained simultaneously. Representative computations for a flat-faced arc-jet test model and a proposed Mars sample return capsule are presented and discussed.

  15. Palliation of Painful Perineal Metastasis Treated with Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, L. Mylona, S.; Kalioras, V.; Pomoni, M.; Batakis, N.

    2005-04-15

    We report a case of painful perineal metastasis from urinary bladder carcinoma in a 73-years-old woman, treated with CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The pain was immediately relieved and follow-up at 1 and 6 months showed total necrosis of the mass. One year later, the patient has no pain and her quality of life is improved.

  16. Three-dimensional finite-element code for electrosurgery and thermal ablation simulations (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Stanley; Johnson, Kristin; Rick, Kyle; Liu, Zheng-jun; Goldberg, S. Nahum

    2005-04-01

    ETherm3 is a finite-element software suite for simulations of electrosurgery and RF thermal ablation processes. Program components cover the complete calculation process from mesh generation to solution analysis. The solutions employ three-dimensional conformal meshes to handle cluster probes and other asymmetric assemblies. The conformal-mesh approach is essential for high-accuracy surface integrals of net electrode currents. ETherm3 performs coupled calculations of RF electric fields in conductive dielectrics and thermal transport via dynamic solutions of the bioheat equation. The boundary-value RF field solution is updated periodically to reflect changes in material properties. ETherm3 features advanced material models with the option for arbitrary temperature variations of thermal and electrical conductivity, perfusion rate, and other quantities. The code handles irreversible changes by switching the material reference of individual elements at specified transition temperatures. ETherm3 is controlled through a versatile interpreter language to enable complex run sequences. The code can automatically maintain constant current or power, switch to different states in response to temperature or impedance information, and adjust parameters on the basis of user-supplied control functions. In this paper, we discuss the physical basis and novel features of the code suite and review application examples.

  17. A Spectrum of Nerve Injury after Thermal Ablation: A Report of Four Cases and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Asher; Gupta, Sanjay Ahrar, Kamran Tam, Alda L.

    2013-10-15

    Thermal ablation is an accepted alternative for the palliation of pain from bone metastases. Although rare, neurologic complications after thermal ablation have been reported. We present four cases, including two cases of rapid reversal of postcryoablation neurapraxia after the administration of steroid therapy, and review the literature.

  18. Ablation of TrpV1-neurons reveals their selective role in thermal pain sensation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Santosh K.; Hoon, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Here we make use of neural ablation to investigate the properties of the TrpV1-expressing neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia of mice. Resiniferotoxin (RTX), a potent TrpV1-agonist, administered either by direct injection in the ganglion or intrathecally killed approx. 70% of TrpV1-cells and resulted in modest thermal analgesia. Interestingly, after carageenan injection in the hind-paw, the analgesic effects of RTX were dramatically increased with mice now paradoxically showing far less response to heat applied at sites of inflammation. This additional carageenan and RTX-induced analgesia was transient, lasting less than 2 days, and likely resulted from deafferation of remaining TrpV1-neurons. Remarkably although RTX affected sensitivity to heat, mechanical sensitivity (both of normal and inflamed tissue) was completely unaltered by toxin-mediated silencing of the TrpV1-sensory input. Thus our data demonstrate that TrpV1-neurons are selectively tuned nociceptors that mediate responses to thermal but not mechanical pain and insinuate a labeled line model for somatosensory coding. PMID:19853036

  19. Thermal chemical energy of ablating silica surfaces in air breathing solid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, Michael D.

    1993-11-01

    This paper provides theoretical adaptation and extension of current industry methodologies for analytical predictions of insulation ablation in solid fuel ramjets. Solid fuel ramjets predominantly operate in a fuel-lean state and require thermal protection systems that are highly oxidation resistant, such as insulation materials that form silica-based char. However, local regions of fuel rich gases exist in ramjets where mixing and combustion of fuel and air is incomplete. Modeling corrosion of silica based char in fuel rich regions of the combustor requires new methods. Accurate ablation prediction of these fuel rich regions are in the design of ramjets. Current analytical methods used to model the ablation of insulation are most suitable for oxidative corrosion of carbonaceous insulation char. Silica-based insulation will ablate corrosively by reduction reactions with carbon and carbon based fuels. Silica ablation by carbon reduction reactions with silica is not correctly modeled by the current industry code, ACE. This paper describes the causes of the current limitations and provides extensions to the ACE methodology to allow for the modeling of silica ablation.

  20. Estimation of surface heat flux for ablation and charring of thermal protection material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wei-qi; He, Kai-feng; Zhou, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Ablation of the thermal protection material of the reentry hypersonic flight vehicle is a complex physical and chemical process. To estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperature measurement is much more complex than the conventional inverse heat conduction problem case. In the paper, by utilizing a two-layer pyrogeneration-plane ablation model to model the ablation and charring of the material, modifying the finite control volume method to suit for the numerical simulation of the heat conduction equation with variable-geometry, the CGM along with the associated adjoint problem is developed to estimate the surface heat flux. This estimation method is verified with a numerical example at first, the results show that the estimation method is feasible and robust. The larger is the measurement noise, the greater is the deviation of the estimated result from the exact value, and the measurement noise of ablated surface position has a significant and more direct influence on the estimated result of surface heat flux. Furthermore, the estimation method is used to analyze the experimental data of ablation of blunt Carbon-phenolic material Narmco4028 in an arc-heater. It is shown that the estimated surface heat flux agrees with the heating power value of the arc-heater, and the estimation method is basically effective and potential to treat the engineering heat conduction problem with ablation.

  1. A novel approach to ablative fractional treatment of mature thermal burn scars.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Robert E

    2010-04-01

    This report details the use of a fractionated ablative Er:YAG laser in treating two cases of thermal burn injuries using a novel approach which matches the energy required to the depth of the burn scar. This method is termed "selective objective fractional technique (SOFT)".

  2. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (CA-TPS) for Venus and Saturn Backshells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Wilder, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Prabhu, Dinesh; Kazemba, Cole D.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the work performed to date on the Conformal Ablative TPS (CA-TPS) element of the TPSM project out of GCDP. Under this element, NASA is developing improved ablative TPS materials based on flexible felt for reinforcement rather than rigid reinforcements. By replacing the reinforcements with felt, the resulting materials have much higher strain-to-failure and are much lower in thermal conductivity than their rigid counterparts. These characteristics should allow for larger tile sizes, direct bonding to aeroshells and even lower weight TPS. The conformal phenolic impregnated carbon felt (C-PICA) is a candidate for backshell TPS for both Venus and Saturn entry vehicles.

  3. Thermal vapor bubble and pressure dynamics during infrared laser ablation of tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Sokolow, Adam; Pearlstein, Robert; Edwards, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Free-electron laser irradiation can superheat tissue water, driving thermal vapor bubbles confined by tissue matrix and leading to mechanical tissue failure (ablation). Acoustic transients propagating from an ablation cavity were recorded with a polarization quadrature, interferometric vibrometer. For 3.0 μm infrared irradiation, the shocklike transients with peak pressures in the megapascal range indicate amplification due to bubble collapse. In contrast, for 6.45 μm irradiation, elastic transients with peak pressures in the 0.1 MPa range indicate tissue failure during bubble growth.

  4. High-intensity interstitial ultrasound for thermal ablation of focal cancer targets in prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena; Kurhanewicz, John; Diederich, Chris J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent advances in image based techniques such as multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) can provide precise targeting of focal disease in the prostate. Thermal ablation of such cancer targets while avoiding rectum, urethra, neurovascular bundles (NVB) and sphincter is clinically challenging. The approach described here employs multi-element ultrasound linear arrays designed for transperineal placement within prostate. They consist of independently powered sectored tubular transducers (6.5 - 8.0 MHz) that provide spatial control of energy deposition in angle and length. Volumetric ablation strategies were investigated through patient-specific biothermal models based on Pennes bioheat transfer equation. The acoustic and heat transfer models used here have been validated in several previous simulation and experimental studies. Focal disease sites in prostate were identified through multi-parametric MR images of representative patient cases (n=3). Focal cancer lesions and critical anatomy (prostate, urethra, rectum, bladder, seminal vesicles) were manually segmented (Mimics, Materialise) and converted to 3D finite element meshes (3-Matic, Materialise). The chosen test cases consisted of patients with medium and large sized glands and models of bulk tissue ablation covered volumes in a single quadrant in posterior prostate, hemi-gland targets and "hockey-stick" targets (lesions in three quadrants). Ultrasound applicator placement was determined such that devices were positioned along the prostate periphery while avoiding surrounding anatomy. Transducer sector angles were chosen based on applicator location within limits of fabrication practicability. Thermal models were numerically solved using finite element methods (FEM) in COMSOL Multiphysics. Temperature and thermal dose distributions were calculated to determine treated volumes (> 240 CEM43C, >52 °C) and safety profiles (<10 CEM43C, <45 °C) for nerve, rectal and urethral sparing. Modeling studies indicated that focal

  5. Extending the Frontiers Beyond Thermal Ablation by Radiofrequency Ablation: SBRT, Brachytherapy, SIRT (Radioembolization).

    PubMed

    Hass, Peter; Mohnike, Konrad

    2014-08-01

    Metastatic spread of the primary is still defined as the systemic stage of disease in treatment guidelines for various solid tumors. This definition is the rationale for systemic therapy. Interestingly and despite the concept of systemic involvement, surgical resection as a local treatment has proven to yield long-term outcomes in a subset of patients with limited metastatic disease, supporting the concept of oligometastatic disease. Radiofrequency ablation has yielded favorable outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal metastases, and some studies indicate its prognostic potential in combined treatments with systemic therapies. However, some significant technical limitations apply, such as size limitation, heat sink effects, and unpredictable heat distribution to adjacent risk structures. Interventional and non-invasive radiotherapeutic techniques may overcome these limitations, expanding the options for oligometastatic patients and cytoreductive concepts. Current data suggest very high local control rates even in large tumors at any given location in the human body. The article focusses on the characteristics and possibilities of stereotactic body radiation therapy, interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy, and Yttrium-90 radioembolization. In this article, we discuss the differences of the technical preferences as well as their impact on indications. Current data is presented and discussed with a focus on application in oligometastatic or cytoreductive concepts in different tumor biologies.

  6. Extending the Frontiers Beyond Thermal Ablation by Radiofrequency Ablation: SBRT, Brachytherapy, SIRT (Radioembolization)

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Peter; Mohnike, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Summary Metastatic spread of the primary is still defined as the systemic stage of disease in treatment guidelines for various solid tumors. This definition is the rationale for systemic therapy. Interestingly and despite the concept of systemic involvement, surgical resection as a local treatment has proven to yield long-term outcomes in a subset of patients with limited metastatic disease, supporting the concept of oligometastatic disease. Radiofrequency ablation has yielded favorable outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal metastases, and some studies indicate its prognostic potential in combined treatments with systemic therapies. However, some significant technical limitations apply, such as size limitation, heat sink effects, and unpredictable heat distribution to adjacent risk structures. Interventional and non-invasive radiotherapeutic techniques may overcome these limitations, expanding the options for oligometastatic patients and cytoreductive concepts. Current data suggest very high local control rates even in large tumors at any given location in the human body. The article focusses on the characteristics and possibilities of stereotactic body radiation therapy, interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy, and Yttrium-90 radioembolization. In this article, we discuss the differences of the technical preferences as well as their impact on indications. Current data is presented and discussed with a focus on application in oligometastatic or cytoreductive concepts in different tumor biologies. PMID:26288597

  7. TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF ABLATING AXISYMMETRIC BODIES INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF SHAPE CHANGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howser, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the transient response of an ablating axisymmetric body, including the effect of shape change. The governing differential equation, the boundary conditions for the analysis on which the computer program is based, and the method of solution of the resulting finite-difference equations are discussed in the documentation. Some of the features of the analysis and the associated program are (1) the ablation material is considered to be orthotropic with temperature-dependent thermal properties; (2) the thermal response of the entire body is considered simultaneously; (3) the heat transfer and pressure distribution over the body are adjusted to the new geometry as ablation occurs; (4) the governing equations and several boundary-condition options are formulated in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates for fixed points in a moving coordinate system; (5) the finite-difference equations are solved implicitly; and (6) other instantaneous body shapes can be displayed with a user-supplied plotting routine. The physical problem to be modeled with the analysis is described by FORTRAN input variables. For example, the external body geometry is described in the W, Z coordinates; material density is given; and the stagnation cold-wall heating rate is given in a time-dependent array. Other input variables are required which control the solution, specify boundary conditions, and determine output from the program. The equations have been programmed so that either the International System of Units or the U. S. Customary Units may be used. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 Series computer. This program was developed in 1972.

  8. Ultrathin Injectable Sensors of Temperature, Thermal Conductivity, and Heat Capacity for Cardiac Ablation Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ahyeon; Gutbrod, Sarah R.; Meyers, Jason D.; Lu, Chaofeng; Webb, Richard Chad; Shin, Gunchul; Li, Yuhang; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the distributions of temperature in cardiac tissue during and after ablation is important in advancing a basic understanding of this process, and for improving its efficacy in treating arrhythmias. Technologies that enable real-time temperature detection and thermal characterization in the transmural direction can help to predict the depths and sizes of lesion that form. Herein, materials and designs for an injectable device platform that supports precision sensors of temperature and thermal transport properties distributed along the length of an ultrathin and flexible needle-type polymer substrate are introduced. The resulting system can insert into the myocardial tissue, in a minimally invasive manner, to monitor both radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation, in a manner that has no measurable effects on the natural mechanical motions of the heart. The measurement results exhibit excellent agreement with thermal simulations, thereby providing improved insights into lesion transmurality. PMID:26648177

  9. Ultrathin Injectable Sensors of Temperature, Thermal Conductivity, and Heat Capacity for Cardiac Ablation Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ahyeon; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Meyers, Jason D; Lu, Chaofeng; Webb, Richard Chad; Shin, Gunchul; Li, Yuhang; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Huang, Yonggang; Efimov, Igor R; Rogers, John A

    2016-02-04

    Knowledge of the distributions of temperature in cardiac tissue during and after ablation is important in advancing a basic understanding of this process, and for improving its efficacy in treating arrhythmias. Technologies that enable real-time temperature detection and thermal characterization in the transmural direction can help to predict the depths and sizes of lesion that form. Herein, materials and designs for an injectable device platform that supports precision sensors of temperature and thermal transport properties distributed along the length of an ultrathin and flexible needle-type polymer substrate are introduced. The resulting system can insert into the myocardial tissue, in a minimally invasive manner, to monitor both radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation, in a manner that has no measurable effects on the natural mechanical motions of the heart. The measurement results exhibit excellent agreement with thermal simulations, thereby providing improved insights into lesion transmurality.

  10. Crack Arrest in Brittle Ceramics Subjected to Thermal Shock and Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Wei; Yu, He-Long; Tang, Hong-Xiang; Feng, Xue

    2014-09-01

    Ceramics are suitable for high temperature applications, especially for aerospace materials. When serving in high temperature environments, ceramics usually have to deal with the challenge of both thermal shock and ablation. We report the crack arrest in brittle ceramics during thermal shock and ablation. In our experiment, the specimens of Al2O3 are subjected to oxygen-propane flame heating until the temperature arises up to 1046°C and then are cooled down in air. The crack occurs, however, it does not propagate when arrested by the microstructures (e.g., micro-bridges) of the crack tip. Such micro-bridge enhances the toughness of the brittle ceramics and prevents the crack propagation, which provides a hint for design of materials against the thermal shock.

  11. SonoKnife: Feasibility of a line-focused ultrasound device for thermal ablation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duo; Xia, Rongmin; Chen, Xin; Shafirstein, Gal; Corry, Peter M.; Griffin, Robert J.; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Tulunay-Ugur, Ozlem E.; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of line-focused ultrasound for thermal ablation of superficially located tumors. Methods: A SonoKnife is a cylindrical-section ultrasound transducer designed to radiate from its concave surface. This geometry generates a line-focus or acoustic edge. The motivation for this approach was the noninvasive thermal ablation of advanced head and neck tumors and positive neck nodes in reasonable treatment times. Line-focusing may offer advantages over the common point-focusing of spherically curved radiators such as faster coverage of a target volume by scanning of the acoustic edge. In this paper, The authors report studies using numerical models and phantom and ex vivo experiments using a SonoKnife prototype. Results: Acoustic edges were generated by cylindrical-section single-element ultrasound transducers numerically, and by the prototype experimentally. Numerically, simulations were performed to characterize the acoustic edge for basic design parameters: transducer dimensions, line-focus depth, frequency, and coupling thickness. The dimensions of the acoustic edge as a function of these parameters were determined. In addition, a step-scanning simulation produced a large thermal lesion in a reasonable treatment time. Experimentally, pressure distributions measured in degassed water agreed well with acoustic simulations, and sonication experiments in gel phantoms and ex vivo porcine liver samples produced lesions similar to those predicted with acoustic and thermal models. Conclusions: Results support the feasibility of noninvasive thermal ablation with a SonoKnife. PMID:21859038

  12. Gas-dynamic acceleration of laser-ablation plumes: Hyperthermal particle energies under thermal vaporization

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, A. A.; Evtushenko, A. B.; Bulgakov, A. V.

    2015-02-02

    The expansion of a plume produced by low-fluence laser ablation of graphite in vacuum is investigated experimentally and by direct Monte Carlo simulations in an attempt to explain hyperthermal particle energies for thermally vaporized materials. We demonstrate that the translation energy of neutral particles, ∼2 times higher than classical expectations, is due to two effects, hydrodynamic plume acceleration into the forward direction and kinetic selection of fast particles in the on-axis region. Both effects depend on the collision number within the plume and on the particles internal degrees of freedom. The simulations allow ablation properties to be evaluated, such as ablation rate and surface temperature, based on time-of-flight measurements. Available experimental data on kinetic energies of various laser-produced particles are well described by the presented model.

  13. Alterations in Ultrasound Scattering Following Thermal Ablation in ex vivo Bovine Liver.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Nicholas; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-09-06

    Thermal ablation is a minimally invasive cancer treatment which has been rapidly gaining clinical acceptance. It is well known that thermal ablation increases the acoustic attenuation and shear modulus of tissue. In this work, we examine changes to the spatial distribution of scatterers in liver tissue following thermal ablation. Acoustic scatterers within liver tissue have frequently been modeled as pseudo-periodic. The positions of pseudo-periodic scatterers have been Gamma distributed along the beam dimension, and these scatterers are characterized by their mean scatterer spacing (MSS). Prior work have demonstrated significant changes in MSS due to diffuse liver disease, such as steatosis progressing to cirrhosis. However, relatively few results have been reported regarding changes in MSS following thermal ablation. In this study, we estimated MSS in ex vivo bovine liver by detecting local maxima in spectral coherence functions calculated using Thomson's multi-taper method. We examined a large number of uncorrelated regions of interest recorded from five normal bovine livers (~300 images from each animal). We also examined a large number of ROI's from five bovine livers following thermal coagulation. All bovine livers were obtained from a commercial meat production facility immediately following animal sacrifice and imaged within 12 hours. Thermal coagulation was induced by heating liver in saline water baths at 80° C for 45 minutes. For normal, unheated liver an MSS of approximately 1.5 mm was estimated. Following thermal ablation, an MSS of approximately 0.5 mm in thermally coagulated tissue was obtained. Frequently, studies estimating MSS in liver tissue provide an MSS estimate regardless of the state of tissue. Authors rarely present what their MSS estimation algorithm would produce if it were applied to tissue which is better modeled as a collection of uniformly, randomly distributed scatterers lacking periodicity. In this study, we found that thermal

  14. Performance of a Light-Weight Ablative Thermal Protection Material for the Stardust Mission Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covington, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    New tests and analyses are reported that were carried out to resolve testing uncertainties in the original development and qualification of a lightweight ablative material used for the Stardust spacecraft forebody heat shield. These additional arcjet tests and analyses confirmed the ablative and thermal performance of low density Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) material used for the Stardust design. Testing was done under conditions that simulate the peak convective heating conditions (1200 W/cm2 and 0.5 atm) expected during Earth entry of the Stardust Sample Return Capsule. Test data and predictions from an ablative material response computer code for the in-depth temperatures were compared to guide iterative adjustment of material thermophysical properties used in the code so that the measured and predicted temperatures agreed. The PICA recession rates and maximum internal temperatures were satisfactorily predicted by the computer code with the revised properties. Predicted recession rates were also in acceptable agreement with measured rates for heating conditions 37% greater than the nominal peak heating rate of 1200 W/sq cm. The measured in-depth temperature response data show consistent temperature rise deviations that may be caused by an undocumented endothermic process within the PICA material that is not accurately modeled by the computer code. Predictions of the Stardust heat shield performance based on the present evaluation provide evidence that the maximum adhesive bondline temperature will be much lower than the maximum allowable of 250 C and an earlier design prediction. The re-evaluation also suggests that even with a 25 percent increase in peak heating rates, the total recession of the heat shield would be a small fraction of the as-designed thickness. These results give confidence in the Stardust heat shield design and confirm the potential of PICA material for use in new planetary probe and sample return applications.

  15. Endometrial thermal balloon ablation under local anesthesia in patients with prosthetic heart valves: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Soysal, M; Soysal, S K

    2000-01-01

    We treated eleven cases of high risk surgical candidate women with prosthetic heart valves, complaining of menorrhagia, by thermal balloon ablation under local anesthesia after pharmacological endometrial thinning. Menorrhagia was documented by a validated pad scoring system. All patients were severely anemic at presentation. Nine of them had one valve replaced among these cases, two were restenosic at presentation, one had twice mitral valve replacement. Two of them had two valves replaced. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia supplemented by analgesics, no complications were observed either intraoperatively or during the follow-up of at least 24 months. After two years, thermal balloon ablation proved to be statistically significantly effective in terms of pad score reduction; two patients reported spotting and the rest was hypomenorrheic, none of the group experienced amenorrhea. This technique proved to be safe, feasible and effective under this clinical circumstances.

  16. Non-thermal ablation of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene with an intense femtosecond-pulse laser.

    PubMed

    Hashida, M; Mishima, H; Tokita, S; Sakabe, S

    2009-07-20

    Ablation of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene without disruption of the fine porous structure is demonstrated using an intense femtosecond-pulse laser. As a result of laser-matter interactions near ablation threshold fluence, high-energy ions are emitted, which cannot be produced by thermal dissociation of the molecules. The ion energy is produced by Coulomb explosion of the elements of (-CF(2)-CF(2)-)(n) and the energy spectra of the ions show contributions from the Coulomb explosions of the ions rather than those of thermal expansion to generate high-energy ions. The dependence of ion energy on the laser fluence of a 180-fs pulse, compared with that of a 400-ps pulse, also suggests that the high-energy ions are accelerated by Coulomb explosion.

  17. Thermal Stability and Ablation Behavior of Modified Polydimethylsiloxane-Based Polyurethane Composites Reinforced with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhongyou; Xi, Yukun; Kwon, Younghwan

    2016-02-01

    Series of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based polyurethane (PU)/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) composites are prepared using ether or polyether modified diol/polyol PDMS prepolymers, isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and either non-reactive or reactive POSS. The effect of POSS incorporated chemically or physically, number of ethylene oxide units and crosslinking on PDMS based PU is investigated in terms of thermal stability and ablation properties. The ablation property is measured using an oxyacetylene torch test, and the ablation rate is evaluated. The results show that POSS molecules make a considerable influence on the ablative resistance, because they act as protective silica forming precursors under oxyacetylene condition. POSS molecules, especially methyl POSS, in PU matrix leads to the formation of densely accumulated spherical silica layers on the top of the ablated surface, resulting in improved ablation resistance.

  18. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: An Update of the Technology Maturation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will update the community on the development of conformal ablative TPS. As described at IPPW-10, in FY12, the CA-TPS element focused on establishing materials requirements based on MSL-type and COTS Low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions (q 250 Wcm2) to develop and deliver a conformal ablative TPS. This involved downselecting, manufacturing and testing two of the best candidate materials, demonstrating uniform infiltration of resins into baseline 2-cm thick carbon felt, selecting a primary conformal material formulation based on novel arc jet and basic material properties testing, developing and demonstrating instrumentation for felt-based materials and, based on the data, developing a low fidelity material response model so that the conformal ablator TPS thickness for missions could be established. In addition, the project began to develop Industry Partnerships. Since the nominal thickness of baseline carbon felts was only 2-cm, a partnership with a rayon felt developer was made in order to upgrade equipment, establish the processes required and attempt to manufacture 10-cm thick white goods. A partnership with a processing house was made to develop the methodology to carbonize large pieces of the white goods into 7.5-cm thick carbon felt.In FY13, more advanced testing and modeling of the downselected conformal material was performed. Material thermal properties tests and structural properties tests were performed. The first 3 and 4-point bend tests were performed on the conformal ablator as well as PICA for comparison and the conformal ablator had outstanding behavior compared to PICA. Arc jet testing was performed with instrumented samples of both the conformal ablator and standard PICA at heating rates ranging from 40 to 400 Wcm2 and shear as high as 600 Pa. The results from these tests showed a remarkable improvement in the thermal penetration through the conformal ablator when compared to PICAs response. The data from these tests were used to

  19. A Novel Combination of Thermal Ablation and Heat-Inducible Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT High intensity focused ultrasound ...focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablation and HIFU-induced gene therapy represents a promising approach in improving the overall efficacy and quality...R3230Ac cells with concentration from 0.5x106 /ml to 5x106/ml. The speed of sound and attenuation were measured in a broadband transmission ultrasound

  20. A Novel Combination of Thermal Ablation and Heat-Inducible Gene therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    11. Khokhlova, V.A., et al., Effects of nonlinear propagation, cavitation , and boiling in lesion formation by high intensity focused ultrasound in...intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been developed as an emerging non-invasive strategy for cancer treatment by thermal ablation of tumor tissue. The...Concepts, Seattle, WA) operating at its fundamental frequency (1.1 MHz) or its third harmonics (3.3 MHz). The ultrasound imaging system was a 5/7

  1. Evaluation of a Novel Thermal Accelerant for Augmentation of Microwave Energy during Image-guided Tumor Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Park, William Keun Chan; Maxwell, Aaron Wilhelm Palmer; Frank, Victoria Elizabeth; Primmer, Michael Patrick; Collins, Scott Andrew; Baird, Grayson Luderman; Dupuy, Damian Edward

    2017-01-01

    The primary challenge in thermal ablation of liver tumors (e.g. hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic colorectal cancer) is the relatively high recurrence rate (~30%) for which incomplete ablation at the periphery of the tumor is the most common reason. In an attempt to overcome this, we have developed a novel thermal accelerant (TA) agent capable of augmenting microwave energy from a distance normally unattainable by a single microwave ablation antenna. This cesium-based block co-polymer compound transforms from a liquid to a gel at body temperature and is intrinsically visible by computed tomography. Using an agarose phantom model, herein we demonstrate that both the rate and magnitude of temperature increase during microwave ablation were significantly greater in the presence of TA when compared with controls. These results suggest robust augmentation of microwave energy, and may translate into larger ablation zone volumes within biologic tissues. Further work using in vivo techniques is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:28382173

  2. Ultrasound-directed robotic system for thermal ablation of liver tumors: a preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jian; Tian, Jie; Dai, Yakang; Zhang, Xing; Dong, Di; Xu, Min

    2010-03-01

    Thermal ablation has been proved safe and effective as the treatment for liver tumors that are not suitable for resection. Currently, manually performed thermal ablation is greatly dependent on the surgeon's acupuncture manipulation against hand tremor. Besides that, inaccurate or inappropriate placement of the applicator will also directly decrease the final treatment effect. In order to reduce the influence of hand tremor, and provide an accurate and appropriate guidance for a better treatment, we develop an ultrasound-directed robotic system for thermal ablation of liver tumors. In this paper, we will give a brief preliminary report of our system. Especially, three innovative techniques are proposed to solve the critical problems in our system: accurate ultrasound calibration when met with artifacts, realtime reconstruction with visualization using Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) acceleration and 2D-3D ultrasound image registration. To reduce the error of point extraction with artifacts, we propose a novel point extraction method by minimizing an error function which is defined based on the geometric property of our N-fiducial phantom. Then realtime reconstruction with visualization using GPU acceleration is provided for fast 3D ultrasound volume acquisition with dynamic display of reconstruction progress. After that, coarse 2D-3D ultrasound image registration is performed based on landmark points correspondences, followed by accurate 2D-3D ultrasound image registration based on Euclidean distance transform (EDT). The effectiveness of our proposed techniques is demonstrated in phantom experiments.

  3. Non-thermal, pulsed electric field cell ablation: A novel tool for regenerative medicine and scarless skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G Felix; Bohr, Stefan; Mihm, Martin C; Austen, William G; Albadawi, Hassan; Watkins, Michael T; Yarmush, Martin L

    2013-09-01

    High voltage, short pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a non-thermal ablation method, in which defined PEF irreversibly destabilize cell membranes, while preserving other tissue components such as the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present report, we show that PEF ablated rat skin retains its microvascular blood supply and ECM structure. Complete regeneration of epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and the panniculus carnosusis observed two months after the ablation. Our results clearly indicate that non-thermal PEF has the potential to be a powerful and novel tool for scarless tissue regeneration.

  4. Non-thermal, pulsed electric field cell ablation: A novel tool for regenerative medicine and scarless skin regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G. Felix; Bohr, Stefan; Mihm, Martin C.; Austen, William G.; Albadawi, Hassan; Watkins, Michael T.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    High voltage, short pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a non-thermal ablation method, in which defined PEF irreversibly destabilize cell membranes, while preserving other tissue components such as the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present report, we show that PEF ablated rat skin retains its microvascular blood supply and ECM structure. Complete regeneration of epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and the panniculus carnosusis observed two months after the ablation. Our results clearly indicate that non-thermal PEF has the potential to be a powerful and novel tool for scarless tissue regeneration. PMID:24999487

  5. Development and evaluation of an ablative closeout material for solid rocket booster thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    A trowellable closeout/repair material designated as MTA-2 was developed and evaluated for use on the Solid Rocket Booster. This material is composed of an epoxy-polysulfide binder and is highly filled with phenolic microballoons for density control and ablative performance. Mechanical property testing and thermal testing were performed in a wind tunnel to simulate the combined Solid Rocket Booster trajectory aeroshear and heating environments. The material is characterized by excellent thermal performance and was used extensively on the Space Shuttle STS-1 and STS-2 flight hardware.

  6. Ignition relevant ablator response of boron carbide and high-density carbon driven by multiple shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisbrey, Shon T.; Baker, Kevin; Celliers, Peter; Dittrich, Tom; Moore, Alastair; Wu, Kuang Jen; Kervin, Peggy; Hurricane, Omar

    2013-10-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The current ablation material, a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile. In an effort to evaluate the performance of other possible ablators that could be suitable for achieving self-propagating fusion burn we have inferred the ablation performance of two possible ablators, boron carbide and high-density carbon, by measuring the shock speed of induced shocks while subjecting the ablators to a multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. We present the platform used, velocity measurements used to infer the ablation response, and matching simulations to show the relative performance of boron carbide and high-density carbon with a general comparison to current performance of the currently used glow-discharge polymer ablator. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-640519.

  7. Light Weight Ceramic Ablators for Mars Follow-on Mission Vehicle Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Turan, Ryan

    1994-01-01

    New Light Weight Ceramic Ablators (LCA) were produced by using ceramic and carbon fibrous substrates, impregnated with silicone and phenolic resins. The special infiltration techniques (patent pending) were developed to control the amount of organic resins in the highly porous fiber matrices so that the final densities of LCA's range from 0.22 to 0.24 g/cc. This paper presents the thermal and ablative performance of the Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablators (SIRCA) in simulated entry conditions for Mars-Pathfinder in the Ames 60 MW Interaction Heating Facility (I HF). Arc jet test results yielded no evidence of char erosion and mass loss at high stagnation pressures to 0.25 atm. Minimal silica melt was detected on surface char at a stagnation pressure of 0.31 atm. Four ceramic substrates were used in the production of SIRCA's to obtain the effective of boron oxide present in substrate so the thermal performance of SIRCA's. A sample of SIRCA was also exposed to the same heating condition for five cycles and no significant mass loss or recession was observed. Tensile testing established that the SIRCA tensile strength is about a factor of two higher than that of the virgin substrates. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the char in nitrogen and air showed no evidence of free carbon in the char. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the post test sample showed that the char surface consists of a fibrous structure that was sealed with a thin layer of silicon oxide melt.

  8. Response microcantilever thermal detector

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, Joseph P.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Evans III, Boyd M.

    2004-10-19

    A "folded leg" thermal detector microcantilever constructed of a substrate with at least one leg interposed between a fixed end and a deflective end, each leg having at least three essentially parallel leg segments interconnected on alternate opposing ends and aligned in a serpentine pattern with only the first leg segment attached to the fixed end and only the last leg segment attached to the deflective end. Alternate leg segment are coated on the pentalever with coating applied to the top of the first, third, and fifth leg segments of each leg and to the bottom of the second and fourth leg segments of each leg.

  9. Ablative Focused Ultrasound Synergistically Enhances Thermally Triggered Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Arora, Jaspreet S; Murad, Hakm Y; Ashe, Stephen; Halliburton, Gray; Yu, Heng; He, Jibao; John, Vijay T; Khismatullin, Damir B

    2016-09-06

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can locally ablate biological tissues such as tumors, i.e., induce their rapid heating and coagulative necrosis without causing damage to surrounding healthy structures. It is widely used in clinical practice for minimally invasive treatment of prostate cancer. Nonablative, low-power HIFU was established as a promising tool for triggering the release of chemotherapeutic drugs from temperature-sensitive liposomes (TSLs). In this study, we combine ablative HIFU and thermally triggered chemotherapy to address the lack of safe and effective treatment options for elderly patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer. DU145 prostate cancer cells were exposed to chemotherapy (free and liposomal Sorafenib) and ablative HIFU, alone or in combination. Prior to cell viability assessment by trypan blue exclusion and flow cytometry, the uptake of TSLs by DU145 cells was verified by confocal microscopy and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). The combination of TSLs encapsulating 10 μM Sorafenib and 8.7W HIFU resulted in a viability of less than 10% at 72 h post-treatment, which was significant less than the viability of the cells treated with free Sorafenib (76%), Sorafenib-loaded TSLs (63%), or HIFU alone (44%). This synergy was not observed on cells treated with Sorafenib-loaded nontemperature sensitive liposomes and HIFU. According to cryo-SEM analysis, cells exposed to ablative HIFU exhibited significant mechanical disruption. Water bath immersion experiments also showed an important role of mechanical effects in the synergistic enhancement of TSL-mediated chemotherapy by ablative HIFU. This combination therapy can be an effective strategy for treatment of geriatric prostate cancer patients.

  10. Nonequilibrium Ablation of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih K.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, an equilibrium ablation and thermal response model for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was developed. In general, over a wide range of test conditions, model predictions compared well with arcjet data for surface recession, surface temperature, in-depth temperature at multiple thermocouples, and char depth. In this work, additional arcjet tests were conducted at stagnation conditions down to 40 W/sq cm and 1.6 kPa. The new data suggest that nonequilibrium effects become important for ablation predictions at heat flux or pressure below about 80 W/sq cm or 10 kPa, respectively. Modifications to the ablation model to account for nonequilibrium effects are investigated. Predictions of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared with the arcjet data.

  11. Minimisation of the thermal load of the ablation in high-speed laser corneal refractive surgery: the 'intelligent thermal effect control' of the AMARIS platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsmann, Ulrich; Sauer, Udo; Dressler, Katharina; Triefenbach, Nico; Arba Mosquera, Samuel

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the extent that minimisation of the thermal load of the ablation in high-speed laser corneal refractive surgery is possible. To do this, thermal load from ablations onto flat PMMA plates was recorded with an infrared thermal camera and analysed for different flying-spot sorting algorithms (from pure randomised to 36 Hz local frequency) using a 500 Hz laser system with a fluence of 500 mJ/cm2, and aspheric ablation profiles. Each ablation configuration was repeated three times. Thermal load valid for corneal ablations was modelled based upon the results from ablations onto flat PMMA plates. It was found that the thermal load of ablations onto flat PMMA plates declines steadily when the allowed local frequency decreases or when the diameter of the blocked area increases. With this laser system, a local frequency of 39 Hz dynamically controlled over a diameter of 3.865 mm seems to be optimal for avoiding corneal collagen denaturation with minimum compromise on treatment duration. Peak temperature changes of 48°C in PMMA (16°C equivalent cornea) using pure randomised flying-spot sorting algorithms were reduced to 27°C in PMMA (9°C equivalent cornea) using 36 Hz local frequency over a blocked diameter of 4.25 mm. Average temperature changes of 15°C in PMMA (5°C equivalent cornea) using pure randomised flying-spot sorting algorithms were reduced to 7°C in PMMA (2°C equivalent cornea) using 36 Hz local frequency over a blocked diameter of 4.25 mm. Hence, minimisation of the thermal load of the ablation in high-speed laser corneal refractive surgery seems feasible using 'Intelligent Thermal Effect Control'. Clinical evaluations of human eyes are needed to confirm the preliminary simulated results presented here.

  12. Numerical models to evaluate the temperature increase induced by ex vivo microwave thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, M; Pinto, R; Lopresto, V

    2015-04-21

    Microwave thermal ablation (MTA) therapies exploit the local absorption of an electromagnetic field at microwave (MW) frequencies to destroy unhealthy tissue, by way of a very high temperature increase (about 60 °C or higher). To develop reliable interventional protocols, numerical tools able to correctly foresee the temperature increase obtained in the tissue would be very useful. In this work, different numerical models of the dielectric and thermal property changes with temperature were investigated, looking at the simulated temperature increments and at the size of the achievable zone of ablation. To assess the numerical data, measurement of the temperature increases close to a MTA antenna were performed in correspondence with the antenna feed-point and the antenna cooling system, for increasing values of the radiated power. Results show that models not including the changes of the dielectric and thermal properties can be used only for very low values of the power radiated by the antenna, whereas a good agreement with the experimental values can be obtained up to 20 W if water vaporization is included in the numerical model. Finally, for higher power values, a simulation that dynamically includes the tissue's dielectric and thermal property changes with the temperature should be performed.

  13. Numerical models to evaluate the temperature increase induced by ex vivo microwave thermal ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, M.; Pinto, R.; Lopresto, V.

    2015-04-01

    Microwave thermal ablation (MTA) therapies exploit the local absorption of an electromagnetic field at microwave (MW) frequencies to destroy unhealthy tissue, by way of a very high temperature increase (about 60 °C or higher). To develop reliable interventional protocols, numerical tools able to correctly foresee the temperature increase obtained in the tissue would be very useful. In this work, different numerical models of the dielectric and thermal property changes with temperature were investigated, looking at the simulated temperature increments and at the size of the achievable zone of ablation. To assess the numerical data, measurement of the temperature increases close to a MTA antenna were performed in correspondence with the antenna feed-point and the antenna cooling system, for increasing values of the radiated power. Results show that models not including the changes of the dielectric and thermal properties can be used only for very low values of the power radiated by the antenna, whereas a good agreement with the experimental values can be obtained up to 20 W if water vaporization is included in the numerical model. Finally, for higher power values, a simulation that dynamically includes the tissue’s dielectric and thermal property changes with the temperature should be performed.

  14. Gold nanoshell/polysaccharide nanofilm for controlled laser-assisted tissue thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Redolfi Riva, Eugenio; Desii, Andrea; Sinibaldi, Edoardo; Ciofani, Gianni; Piazza, Vincenzo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2014-06-24

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a freestanding ultrathin, mucoadhesive gold nanoshell/polysaccharide multilayer nanocomposite (thermonanofilm, TNF), that can be used for controlled photothermal ablation of tissues through irradiation with near-infrared radiation (NIR) laser. The aim of this work is to provide a new strategy to precisely control particle concentration during photothermalization of cancerous lesions, since unpredictable and aspecific biodistributions still remains the central issue of inorganic nanoparticle-assisted photothermal ablation. Gold nanoshell encapsulation in polysaccharide matrix is achieved by drop casting deposition method combined with spin-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Submicrometric thickness of films ensures tissue adhesion. Basic laser-induced heating functionality has been demonstrated by in vitro TNF-mediated thermal ablation of human neuroblastoma cancer cells, evidenced by irreversible damage to cell membranes and nuclei. Ex vivo localized vaporization and carbonization of animal muscular tissue is also demonstrated by applying TNF onto tissue surface. Thermal distribution in the tissue reaches a steady state in a few seconds, with significant increases in temperature (ΔT > 50) occurring across an 1 mm span, ensuring control of local photothermalization and providing more safety and predictability with respect to traditional laser surgery. A steady-state model of tissue thermalization mediated by TNFs is also introduced, predicting the temperature distribution being known the absorbance of TNFs, the laser power, and the tissue thermal conductivity, thus providing useful guidelines in the development of TNFs. Thermonanofilms can find applications for local photothermal treatment of cancerous lesions and wherever high precision and control of heat treatment is required.

  15. Numerical simulation of microwave ablation incorporating tissue contraction based on thermal dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Brace, Christopher L.

    2017-03-01

    Tissue contraction plays an important role during high temperature tumor ablation, particularly during device characterization, treatment planning and imaging follow up. We measured such contraction in 18 ex vivo bovine liver samples during microwave ablation by tracking fiducial motion on CT imaging. Contraction was then described using a thermal dose dependent model and a negative thermal expansion coefficient based on the empirical data. FEM simulations with integrated electromagnetic wave propagation, heat transfer, and structural mechanics were evaluated using temperature-dependent dielectric properties and the negative thermal expansion models. Simulated temperature and displacement curves were then compared with the ex vivo experimental results on different continuous output powers. The optimized thermal dose model indicated over 50% volumetric contraction occurred at the temperature over 102.1 °C. The numerical simulation results on temperature and contraction-induced displacement showed a good agreement with experimental results. At microwave powers of 55 W, the mean errors on temperature between simulation and experimental results were 8.25%, 2.19% and 5.67% at 5 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm radially from the antenna, respectively. The simulated displacements had mean errors of 16.60%, 14.08% and 23.45% at the same radial locations. Compared to the experimental results, the simulations at the other microwave powers had larger errors with 10–40% mean errors at 40 W, and 10–30% mean errors at 25 W. The proposed model is able to predict temperature elevation and simulate tissue deformation during microwave ablation, and therefore may be incorporated into treatment planning and clinical translation from numerical simulations.

  16. Lightweight Ablative and Ceramic Thermal Protection System Materials for NASA Exploration Systems Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

    2006-01-01

    As a collaborative effort among NASA Centers, the "Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology" Project was set up to assist mission/vehicle design trade studies, to support risk reduction in thermal protection system (TPS) material selections, to facilitate vehicle mass optimization, and to aid development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on advanced heatshields that allow reductions in spacecraft mass by minimizing propellant requirements. Information will be presented on candidate materials for such reentry approaches and on screening tests conducted (material property and space environmental effects tests) to evaluate viable candidates. Seventeen materials, in three classes (ablatives, tiles, and ceramic matrix composites), were studied. In additional to physical, mechanical, and thermal property tests, high heat flux laser tests and simulated-reentry oxidation tests were performed. Space environmental effects testing, which included exposures to electrons, atomic oxygen, and hypervelocity impacts, was also conducted.

  17. Role of laser and thermal ablation devices in the treatment of vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Litvack, F; Grundfest, W S; Papaioannou, T; Mohr, F W; Jakubowski, A T; Forrester, J S

    1988-05-09

    Since the first coronary angioplasty in 1977, both the number and complexity of interventional procedures have grown dramatically. Continuous-wave and pulsed lasers may further extend the capabilities of balloon angioplasty. Fiberoptic catheters may be used to transmit continuous-wave laser energy to ablate plaque via thermal mechanisms. Pulsed laser systems (such as the excimer) are technologically more complex than the continuous-wave systems, but may prove superior in small vessels given their ability to ablate plaque with minimal associated effects. On the other hand, modifications of the fiber-optic tip, such as the placement of a metal cap, have yielded even better results than current bare fiber systems. Such laser thermal techniques have proved a useful adjunct to balloon dilatation in peripheral vessels, but further research is necessary to determine their effect on coronary arteries. New, nonlaser technologies, however, may provide simpler power sources for thermal angioplasty. Although balloon angioplasty remains the cornerstone of interventional vascular therapy, new technologies should help to further expand the indications for nonsurgical interventions.

  18. Pathology of non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE)-induced ablation of the canine brain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Roberston, John L.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the neuropathologic features of normal canine brain ablated with non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE). The parietal cerebral cortices of four dogs were treated with N-TIRE using a dose-escalation protocol with an additional dog receiving sham treatment. Animals were allowed to recover following N-TIRE ablation and the effects of treatment were monitored with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Brains were subjected to histopathologic and ultrastructural assessment along with Bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 immunohistochemical staining following sacrifice 72 h post-treatment. Adverse clinical effects of N-TIRE were only observed in the dog treated at the upper energy tier. MRI and neuropathologic examinations indicated that N-TIRE ablation resulted in focal regions of severe cytoarchitectural and blood-brain-barrier disruption. Lesion size correlated to the intensity of the applied electrical field. N-TIRE-induced lesions were characterized by parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage; however, large blood vessels were preserved. A transition zone containing parenchymal edema, perivascular inflammatory cuffs, and reactive gliosis was interspersed between the necrotic focus and normal neuropil. Apoptotic labeling indices were not different between the N-TIRE-treated and control brains. This study identified N-TIRE pulse parameters that can be used to safely create circumscribed foci of brain necrosis while selectively preserving major vascular structures. PMID:23820168

  19. [Techniques of thermal ablation in primary hepatic carcinoma and metastatic tumors of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Rudzki, Sławomir; Jamroz, Adam

    2004-01-01

    Liver metastases develop in 30-50 per cent of patients with colorectal cancer. Without treatment, the median survival is approximately 7 months. Recent results from multiple investigations indicate that several minimally invasive treatment techniques are very effective for treating primary and secondary malignant hepatic tumors and they may replace surgical resection in the near future. Thermal ablation techniques for the treatment of primary and secondary malignant hepatic tumors include both freezing (cryoablation) and heating (microwave, laser, and high-intensity focused ultrasound) are characterized in this article.

  20. Lightning Strike Ablation Damage Influence Factors Analysis of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Based on Coupled Electrical-Thermal Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J. J.; Chang, F.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, J. R.; Xiao, Y.

    2016-12-01

    According to the mathematical analysis model constructed on the basis of energy-balance relationship in lightning strike, and accompany with the simplified calculation strategy of composite resin pyrolysis degree dependent electrical conductivity, an effective three dimensional thermal-electrical coupling analysis finite element model of composite laminate suffered from lightning current was established based on ABAQUS, to elucidate the effects of lighting current waveform parameters and thermal/electrical properties of composite laminate on the extent of ablation damage. Simulated predictions agree well with the composite lightning strike directed effect experimental data, illustrating the potential accuracy of the constructed model. The analytical results revealed that extent of composite lightning strike ablation damage can be characterized by action integral validly, there exist remarkable power function relationships between action integral and visual damage area, projected damage area, maximum damage depth and damage volume of ablation damage, and enhancing the electrical conductivity and specific heat of composite, ablation damage will be descended obviously, power function relationships also exist between electrical conductivity, specific heat and ablation damage, however, the impact of thermal conductivity on the extent of ablation damage is not notable. The conclusions obtained provide some guidance for composite anti-lightning strike structure-function integration design.

  1. Speed of sound estimation with active PZT element for thermal monitoring during ablation therapy: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younsu; Guo, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Alexis; Boctor, Emad M.

    2016-04-01

    Controlling the thermal dose during ablation therapy is instrumental to successfully removing the tumor while preserving the surrounding healthy tissue. In the practical scenario, surgeons must be able to determine the ablation completeness in the tumor region. Various methods have been proposed to monitor it, one of which uses ultrasound since it is a common intraoperative imaging modality due to its non-invasive, cost-effective, and convenient natures. In our approach, we propose to use time of flight (ToF) information to estimate speed of sound changes. Accurate speed of sound estimation is crucial because it is directly correlated with temperature change and subsequent determination of ablation completeness. We divide the region of interest in a circular fashion with a variable radius from the ablator tip. We introduce the concept of effective speed of sound in each of the sub-regions. Our active PZT element control system facilitates this unique approach by allowing us to acquire one-way ToF information between the PZT element and each of the ultrasound elements. We performed a simulation and an experiment to verify feasibility of this method. The simulation result showed that we could compute the effective speed of sound within 0.02m/s error in our discrete model. We also perform a sensitivity analysis for this model. Most of the experimental results had less than 1% error. Simulation using a Gaussian continuous model with multiple PZT elements is also demonstrated. We simulate the effect of the element location one the optimization result.

  2. Behavioral response of Caenorhabditis elegans to localized thermal stimuli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nociception evokes a rapid withdrawal behavior designed to protect the animal from potential danger. C. elegans performs a reflexive reversal or forward locomotory response when presented with noxious stimuli at the head or tail, respectively. Here, we have developed an assay with precise spatial and temporal control of an infrared laser stimulus that targets one-fifth of the worm’s body and quantifies multiple aspects of the worm’s escape response. Results When stimulated at the head, we found that the escape response can be elicited by changes in temperature as small as a fraction of a degree Celsius, and that aspects of the escape behavior such as the response latency and the escape direction change advantageously as the amplitude of the noxious stimulus increases. We have mapped the behavioral receptive field of thermal nociception along the entire body of the worm, and show a midbody avoidance behavior distinct from the head and tail responses. At the midbody, the worm is sensitive to a change in the stimulus location as small as 80 μm. This midbody response is probabilistic, producing either a backward, forward or pause state after the stimulus. The distribution of these states shifts from reverse-biased to forward-biased as the location of the stimulus moves from the middle towards the anterior or posterior of the worm, respectively. We identified PVD as the thermal nociceptor for the midbody response using calcium imaging, genetic ablation and laser ablation. Analyses of mutants suggest the possibility that TRPV channels and glutamate are involved in facilitating the midbody noxious response. Conclusion Through high resolution quantitative behavioral analysis, we have comprehensively characterized the C. elegans escape response to noxious thermal stimuli applied along its body, and found a novel midbody response. We further identified the nociceptor PVD as required to sense noxious heat at the midbody and can spatially differentiate

  3. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided radiofrequency thermal ablation of small unresectable lung tumours.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S; Dore, R; Cascina, A; Vespro, V; Garbagnati, F; Rosa, L; Ravetta, V; Azzaretti, A; Di Tolla, P; Orlandoni, G; Pozzi, E

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety and the efficacy of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and isolated pulmonary metastases (METs) from colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 31 patients (15 with NSCLCs and 16 with CRC lung METs), with 36 lung tumour nodules (mean+/-sd diameter: 22+/-8 mm, range: 10-35 mm) underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided RFTA using expandable electrodes. Contrast-enhanced CT was performed before and after (immediately and 30+/-5 days) each RFTA session to assess immediate results and complications and repeated 3 and 6 months post-RFTA, as well as every 6 months thereafter, to evaluate long-term results. Complete radiological necrosis was defined as a nonenhancing area at the tumour site that was equal to or larger than the treated tumour; persistence of enhancement at the tumour site indicated incomplete treatment. Local recurrence was defined as an increase in tumour size and/or enhancing tissue at the tumour site. Complete radiological necrosis of the 36 tumours was achieved with 39 RFTA sessions and 42 electrode insertions. No major complications or deaths were observed. Six patients experienced mild-to-moderate pain during the procedure. There were five cases of pneumothorax, none requiring drainage and four cases of pneumonia, which were successfully treated with antibiotics. After a mean follow-up of 11.4+/-7.7 months (range of 3-36 months), the overall local recurrence rate was 13.9% (20 and 9.5% for NSCLC and CRC-METs patients, respectively). Nineteen of the 31 (61.3%) patients were alive (15 apparently disease free) and 12 (38.7%) had died (three from causes unrelated to their cancer). Radiofrequency thermal ablation seems to be a safe, effective method for producing complete ablation of small nonsmall cell lung cancers and pulmonary colorectal cancer metastases.

  4. Development and Verification of the Charring, Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Calvert, Nathan; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2011-01-01

    The development and verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver (CATPISS) is presented. This work concentrates on the derivation and verification of the stationary grid terms in the equations that govern three-dimensional heat and mass transfer for charring thermal protection systems including pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer. The governing equations are discretized according to the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) with first and second order fully implicit time integrators. The governing equations are fully coupled and are solved in parallel via Newton s method, while the linear system is solved via the Generalized Minimum Residual method (GMRES). Verification results from exact solutions and Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) are presented to show spatial and temporal orders of accuracy as well as nonlinear convergence rates.

  5. Multichannel Magnetorelaxometry In Vivo Monitoring of Magnetic Nanoparticle Quantity for Thermal Ablation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Heike; Kettering, Melanie; Wiekhorst, Frank; Kosch, Olaf; Hilger, Ingrid; Trahms, Lutz

    2010-12-01

    To inactivate cancer cells with minimal side-effects to the normal tissue, cancer therapy as magnetic thermal ablation utilizes superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) injected into the tumor. When exposed to an externally applied alternating magnetic field MNP generate heat, which deactivates cellular processes or even generates lethal thermal doses. Hence, the intratumoral quantity of MNP needs to be thoroughly controlled to govern adequate heat production in the carcinoma region. Here, we investigate the capability of multichannel magnetorelaxometry (MRX) for quantitative measurement of MNP accumulation in the tumor region performed in vivo on a carcinoma mouse, and moreover, the feasibility of quantitative long-term monitoring of MNP amount in a conscious, freely moving mouse.

  6. Development and Verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Calvert, Nathan D.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-01

    The development and verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver is presented. This work concentrates on the derivation and verification of the stationary grid terms in the equations that govern three-dimensional heat and mass transfer for charring thermal protection systems including pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer. The governing equations are discretized according to the Galerkin finite element method with first and second order implicit time integrators. The governing equations are fully coupled and are solved in parallel via Newton's method, while the fully implicit linear system is solved with the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Verification results from exact solutions and the Method of Manufactured Solutions are presented to show spatial and temporal orders of accuracy as well as nonlinear convergence rates.

  7. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  8. Enhanced Thermal Ablation by Combining Ultrasound Contrast Agents with a Miniature Flat Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, A.; Goldendstedt, C.; Lafon, C.; Cathignol, D.; Chapelon, J.-Y.

    2007-05-01

    Miniature transducers can be used for performing interstitial thermal ablation. Increasing the frequency of non-focused transducers enhances energy deposition but limits the therapeutic range. In order to treat extended tumors, new therapeutic strategies must be explored. This work aimed to combine ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) with flat transducers for increasing the treatment depth. The idea consists in increasing attenuation away from the transducer to favor remote heat deposition. Thermal ablation is induced in three steps. 1- Attenuation raises by injecting UCA; 2- Destruction of bubbles next to the transducer by pulsed high intensity bursts, results in a gradient of attenuation; 3- Continuous ultrasound are applied for generating a localized thermal lesion. In vitro tests were performed on temperature-sensitive tissue phantoms in which the UCA BR14 (Bracco) was injected during the liquid phase. The feasibility of the idea was demonstrated in three stages. 1- The coefficient of attenuation was measured with the force balance as a function of the concentration of BR14. For 0.8 and 4.8% attenuation at 10MHz was found to be 0.35 and 1.33 Np/cm respectively. 2- Pulsed ultrasound was applied on phantoms to destroy UCA. Based on the echogenicity decay evidenced on ultrasound images, a 1MPa-pressure was required at 10MHz. 3- Heating beams were applied on phantoms presenting a gradient in attenuation. Lesions were 1.5 times larger than in phantoms with constant attenuation. This study demonstrates that UCA can be selectively destroyed in order to generate a gradient of attenuation and extended thermal lesions.

  9. Fiber-optic chirped FBG for distributed thermal monitoring of ex-vivo radiofrequency ablation of liver.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Daniele; Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Gallati, Mario; Braschi, Giovanni; Cigada, Alfredo; Rossi, Sandro; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-06-01

    A linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG) has been used as a temperature sensor for online monitoring of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). The LCFBG acts as a distributed sensor, with spatial resolution of 75 μm. A white-light setup that records the LCFBG spectrum estimates the temperature profile in real time. Three RFTA experiments have been performed ex-vivo on porcine liver measuring the radial temperature distribution during the heating process. The analysis of thermal maps quantifies the spatial heat distribution along the measurement axis and determines the ablation efficiency.

  10. Fiber-optic chirped FBG for distributed thermal monitoring of ex-vivo radiofrequency ablation of liver

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Daniele; Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Gallati, Mario; Braschi, Giovanni; Cigada, Alfredo; Rossi, Sandro; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-01-01

    A linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG) has been used as a temperature sensor for online monitoring of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). The LCFBG acts as a distributed sensor, with spatial resolution of 75 μm. A white-light setup that records the LCFBG spectrum estimates the temperature profile in real time. Three RFTA experiments have been performed ex-vivo on porcine liver measuring the radial temperature distribution during the heating process. The analysis of thermal maps quantifies the spatial heat distribution along the measurement axis and determines the ablation efficiency. PMID:24940541

  11. Novel Hybrid Ablative/Ceramic Layered Composite for Earth Re-entry Thermal Protection: Microstructural and Mechanical Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantou, K.; Mergia, K.; Marinou, A.; Vekinis, G.; Barcena, J.; Florez, S.; Perez, B.; Pinaud, G.; Bouilly, J.-M.; Fischer, W. P. P.

    2015-04-01

    In view of spacecraft re-entry applications into planetary atmospheres, hybrid thermal protection systems based on layered composites of ablative materials and ceramic matrix composites are investigated. Joints of ASTERM™ lightweight ablative material with Cf/SiC (SICARBON™) were fabricated using commercial high temperature inorganic adhesives. Sound joints without defects are produced and very good bonding of the adhesive with both base materials is observed. Mechanical shear tests under ambient conditions and in liquid nitrogen show that mechanical failure always takes place inside the ablative material with no decohesion of the interface of the adhesive layer with the bonded materials. Surface treatment of the ablative surface prior to bonding enhances both the shear strength and the ultimate shear strain by up to about 60%.

  12. Biomechanical assessment and monitoring of thermal ablation using Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Gary Yi

    Cancer remains, one of the major public health problems in the United States as well as many other countries worldwide. According to According to the World Health Organization, cancer is currently the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 7.6 million deaths annually, and 25% of the annual death was due to Cancer during the year of 2011. In the long history of the cancer treatment field, many treatment options have been established up to date. Traditional procedures include surgical procedures as well as systemic therapies such as biologic therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation therapy. Nevertheless, side-effects are often associated with such procedures due to the systemic delivery across the entire body. Recently technologies have been focused on localized therapy under minimally or noninvasive procedure with imaging-guidance, such as cryoablation, laser ablation, radio-frequency (RF) ablation, and High Intensity F-ocused Ultrasound (HIFU). HIFU is a non-invasive procedure aims to coagulate tissue thermally at a localized focal zone created with noninvasively emitting a set of focused ultrasound beams while the surrounding healthy tissues remain relatively untreated. Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a dynamic, radiation-force-based imaging technique, which utilizes a single HIFU transducer by emitting an Amplitude-modulated (AM) beam to both thermally ablate the tumor while inducing a stable oscillatory tissue displacement at its focal zone. The oscillatory response is then estimated by a cross-correlation based motion tracking technique on the signal collected by a confocally-aligned diagnostic transducer. HMIFU addresses the most critical aspect and one of the major unmet needs of HIFU treatment, which is the ability to perform real-time monitoring and mapping of tissue property change during the HIFU treatment. In this dissertation, both the assessment and monitoring aspects of HMIFU have been investigated

  13. Magnetic thermal ablation using ferrofluids: influence of administration mode on biological effect in different porcine tissues.

    PubMed

    Bruners, Philipp; Hodenius, Michael; Baumann, Martin; Oversohl, Jessica; Günther, Rolf W; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of magnetic thermal ablation in different porcine tissues using either a singular injection or a continuous infusion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. In the first setting samples of three ferrofluids containing different amounts of iron (1:171, 2:192, and 3:214 mg/ml) were singularly interstitially injected into specimens of porcine liver, kidney, and muscle (n = 5). Then the specimens were exposed to an alternating magnetic field (2.86 kA/m, 190 kHz) generated by a circular coil for 5 min. In the second experimental setup ferrofluid samples were continuously interstitially infused into the tissue specimens during the exposure to the magnetic field. To measure the temperature increase two fiber-optic temperature probes with a fixed distance of 0.5 cm were inserted into the specimens along the puncture tract of the injection needle and the temperature was measured every 15 s. Finally, the specimens were dissected, the diameters of the created thermal lesions were measured, and the volumes were calculated and compared. Compared to continuous infusion, a single injection of ferrofluids resulted in smaller coagulation volumes in all tissues. Significant differences regarding coagulation volume were found in kidney and muscle specimens. The continuous infusion technique led to more elliptically shaped coagulation volumes due to larger diameters along the puncture tract. Our data show the feasibility of magnetic thermal ablation using either a single interstitial injection or continuous infusion for therapy of lesions in muscle, kidney, and liver. Continuous infusion of ferrofluids results in larger zones of necrosis compared to a single injection technique.

  14. Magnetic Thermal Ablation Using Ferrofluids: Influence of Administration Mode on Biological Effect in Different Porcine Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bruners, Philipp Hodenius, Michael Baumann, Martin Oversohl, Jessica; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of magnetic thermal ablation in different porcine tissues using either a singular injection or a continuous infusion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. In the first setting samples of three ferrofluids containing different amounts of iron (1:171, 2:192, and 3:214 mg/ml) were singularly interstitially injected into specimens of porcine liver, kidney, and muscle (n = 5). Then the specimens were exposed to an alternating magnetic field (2.86 kA/m, 190 kHz) generated by a circular coil for 5 min. In the second experimental setup ferrofluid samples were continuously interstitially infused into the tissue specimens during the exposure to the magnetic field. To measure the temperature increase two fiber-optic temperature probes with a fixed distance of 0.5 cm were inserted into the specimens along the puncture tract of the injection needle and the temperature was measured every 15 s. Finally, the specimens were dissected, the diameters of the created thermal lesions were measured, and the volumes were calculated and compared. Compared to continuous infusion, a single injection of ferrofluids resulted in smaller coagulation volumes in all tissues. Significant differences regarding coagulation volume were found in kidney and muscle specimens. The continuous infusion technique led to more elliptically shaped coagulation volumes due to larger diameters along the puncture tract. Our data show the feasibility of magnetic thermal ablation using either a single interstitial injection or continuous infusion for therapy of lesions in muscle, kidney, and liver. Continuous infusion of ferrofluids results in larger zones of necrosis compared to a single injection technique.

  15. Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation: Increase in Lesion Diameter with Continuous Acetic Acid Infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lubienski, Andreas Duex, Markus; Lubienski, Katrin; Grenacher, Lars; Kauffmann, Guenter

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of continuous infusion of acetic acid 50% during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on the size of the thermal lesion produced. Methods. Radiofrequency (RF) was applied to excised bovine liver by using an expandable needle electrode with 10 retractable tines (LeVeen Needle Electrode, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA) connected to a commercially available RF generator (RF 2000, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA). Experiments were performed using three different treatment modalities: RF only (n = 15), RF with continuous saline 0.9% infusion (n = 15), and RF with continuous acetic acid 50% infusion (n = 15). RF duration, power output, tissue impedance, and time to a rapid rise in impedance were recorded. The ablated lesions were evaluated both macroscopically and histologically. Results. The ablated lesions appeared as spherical or ellipsoid, well-demarcated pale areas with a surrounding brown rim with both RF only and RF plus saline 0.9% infusion. In contrast, thermolesions generated with RF in combination with acetic acid 50% infusion were irregular in shape and the central portion was jelly-like. Mean diameter of the coagulation necrosis was 22.3 {+-} 2.1 mm (RF only), 29.2 {+-} 4.8 mm (RF + saline 0.9%) and 30.7 {+-} 5.7 mm (RF + acetic acid 50%), with a significant increase in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Time to a rapid rise in impedance was significantly prolonged in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Conclusions. A combination of RF plus acetic acid 50% infusion is able to generate larger thermolesions than RF only or RF combined with saline 0.9% infusion.

  16. Temperature-dependent thermal properties of ex vivo liver undergoing thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Guntur, Sitaramanjaneya Reddy; Lee, Kang Il; Paeng, Dong-Guk; Coleman, Andrew John; Choi, Min Joo

    2013-10-01

    Thermotherapy uses a heat source that raises temperatures in the target tissue, and the temperature rise depends on the thermal properties of the tissue. Little is known about the temperature-dependent thermal properties of tissue, which prevents us from accurately predicting the temperature distribution of the target tissue undergoing thermotherapy. The present study reports the key thermal parameters (specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity) measured in ex vivo porcine liver while being heated from 20 ° C to 90 ° C and then naturally cooled down to 20 ° C. The study indicates that as the tissue was heated, all the thermal parameters resulted in plots with asymmetric quasi-parabolic curves with temperature, being convex downward with their minima at the turning temperature of 35-40 ° C. The largest change was observed for thermal conductivity, which decreased by 9.6% from its initial value (at 20 ° C) at the turning temperature (35 ° C) and rose by 45% at 90 ° C from its minimum (at 35 ° C). The minima were 3.567 mJ/(m(3) ∙ K) for specific heat capacity, 0.520 W/(m.K) for thermal conductivity and 0.141 mm(2)/s for thermal diffusivity. The minimum at the turning temperature was unique, and it is suggested that it be taken as a characteristic value of the thermal parameter of the tissue. On the other hand, the thermal parameters were insensitive to temperature and remained almost unchanged when the tissue cooled down, indicating that their variations with temperature were irreversible. The rate of the irreversible rise at 35 ° C was 18% in specific heat capacity, 40% in thermal conductivity and 38.3% in thermal diffusivity. The study indicates that the key thermal parameters of ex vivo porcine liver vary largely with temperature when heated, as described by asymmetric quasi-parabolic curves of the thermal parameters with temperature, and therefore, substantial influence on the temperature distribution of the tissue undergoing

  17. Image-Guided Ablation of Malignant Liver Tumors: Recommendations for Clinical Validation of Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies – A Western Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lencioni, Riccardo; de Baere, Thierry; Martin, Robert C.; Nutting, Charles W.; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-01-01

    Background Image-guided ablation is used to treat patients with unresectable malignant hepatic tumors that are limited in number and size, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal hepatic metastases. While radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been the most popular technique, several alternate options for focal tissue destruction have recently attracted attention. These technologies appear to be able to overcome some specific limitations of RFA. Currently, there is no accepted algorithm for the use of the different techniques for image-guided ablation. Summary A panel of physicians practicing in North America or Europe met to develop a set of recommendations aimed at providing directions for clinical validation of energy-based, thermal and non-thermal image-guided ablation technologies in the treatment of malignant liver tumors. The recommendations were developed through a critical appraisal of potential advantages and disadvantages of each ablation technology, based on experimental findings and available data, as well as on critical considerations for their clinical validation in hepatic tumor treatment from a Western perspective. Key Messages Significant variability appears to exist among the different equipment and devices within each type of technology. A comprehensive understanding of the data and a critical appraisal of the efficacy and safety profile of each ablation system is required. Clinical practice guidelines should include specific information of the recommended techniques and protocols instead of a generic indication of the technology. PMID:26734576

  18. Combined Therapies for the Treatment of Technically Unresectable Liver Malignancies: Bland Embolization and Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation within the Same Session

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomo, Guido Della Vigna, Paolo Monfardini, Lorenzo Orgera, Gianluigi; Chiappa, Antonio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Zampino, Maria Giulia; Orsi, Franco

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study evaluated the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of combining transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) in a single session for the treatment of technically unresectable liver-only malignancies. Methods: From May 2006 to January 2011, a total of 30 patients affected by liver metastases with single or multiple unresectable liver-only lesions underwent a combined treatment with TAE followed by RFA in the same session, for a total of 36 treated lesions. Patients were extrapolated from a cohort of patients discussed within the weekly institutional tumor board. TAE was performed by using 100 {mu}m microspheres; RFA was performed immediately after TAE by positioning the electrode needle via ultrasound and/or computed tomographic guidance. Local tumor responses and procedure-related complications were evaluated. Results: Completion of both procedures was obtained in all patients for all 36 lesions. Liver lesions had a maximum axial diameter ranging 16-59 mm. Postintervention unenhanced ablated areas ranged 28-104 mm in maximum axial diameter. Safety margins ranged 1-30.5 mm. Complete response, defined as complete devascularization at computed tomography, was obtained in all treated lesions for a maximum period of 12 months. Tumor relapse was observed in one patient at 12 months. Sixteen patients developed new liver lesions or progressive systemic disease during follow-up. Nine patients were still disease-free. Seven patients died as a result of systemic progressive disease. One major treatment-related complication was observed. Conclusions: In patients with technically unresectable liver-only malignancies, single-session combined TAE-RFA is an effective and safe treatment.

  19. Boundary conditions at the ablative walls in two-temperature modelling of thermal plasmas with reactive working gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekker, Leonid; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new set of boundary conditions at ablative hot walls with thermionic electron emission for two-temperature thermal arc models in which the temperature of electrons can deviate from the temperature of heavy particles,~{{T}\\text{e}}\

  20. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (CA-TPS) for Venus and Saturn Backshells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Gasch, M.; Stackpoole, M.; Wilder, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Prabhu, D.; Kazemba, C.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2015-01-01

    The new conformal ablator C-PICA, which was developed under STMD GCD, is an optimal candidate for use on the backshells for high velocity entry vehicles at both Venus and Saturn. The material has been tested at heat fluxes up to 400 Wcm2 in shear and over 1800 Wcm2 and 1.5 atm in stagnation with good results. C-PICA has similar density to PICA, but shows half the thermal penetration and similar recession at the same conditions, allowing for a lighter weight TPS to be flown. This poster for VEXAG will show the progress made in the development of the material and why it should be considered for use.

  1. Non-linear dual-phase-lag model for analyzing heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a non-linear dual-phase-lag (DPL) bio-heat transfer model based on temperature dependent metabolic heat generation rate is derived to analyze the heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation treatment. The numerical solution of the present non-linear problem has been done by finite element Runge-Kutta (4,5) method which combines the essence of Runge-Kutta (4,5) method together with finite difference scheme. Our study demonstrates that at the thermal ablation position temperature predicted by non-linear and linear DPL models show significant differences. A comparison has been made among non-linear DPL, thermal wave and Pennes model and it has been found that non-linear DPL and thermal wave bio-heat model show almost same nature whereas non-linear Pennes model shows significantly different temperature profile at the initial stage of thermal ablation treatment. The effect of Fourier number and Vernotte number (relaxation Fourier number) on temperature profile in presence and absence of externally applied heat source has been studied in detail and it has been observed that the presence of externally applied heat source term highly affects the efficiency of thermal treatment method.

  2. Changes in the dielectric properties of ex vivo bovine liver during microwave thermal ablation at 2.45 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, Vanni; Pinto, Rosanna; Lovisolo, Giorgio A.; Cavagnaro, Marta

    2012-04-01

    In microwave thermal ablation (MTA) therapy, the dielectric properties of the target tissue play an important role in determining the radiation properties of the microwave ablation antenna. In this work, the ex vivo dielectric properties of bovine liver were experimentally characterized as a function of the temperature during MTA at the frequency of 2.45 GHz. The obtained data were compared with measurements performed at the end of the MTA treatment, and considering the heating achieved with a temperature-controlled water bath. Finally, measured data were used to perform a numerical study evaluating the effects of changes in tissue's dielectric properties during the MTA treatment on the radiation properties of a microwave interstitial ablation antenna, as well as on the obtained thermal lesion. Results evidenced a significant decrease of both relative permittivity (about 38%) and electric conductivity (about 33%) in the tissue during treatment as the temperature increased to over 60 °C, with a dramatic drop when the temperature approached 100 °C. Moreover, the numerical study evidenced that changes in tissue's dielectric properties during the MTA treatment affect the distribution of the power absorbed by the tissue (specific absorption rate—SAR, W kg-1) surrounding the microwave interstitial ablation antenna, leading to a peak SAR up to 20% lower, as well as to a thermal lesion up to 8% longer. This work may represent a preliminary step towards the future development of a procedure for MTA treatment planning.

  3. Thermal response based item identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. K.; Hypes, P. A.; Bracken, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems in NDA of nuclear materials is identifying the chemical form of the nuclear material and the surrounding matrix. Recent work analyzing the calorimeter response of sources embedded in a variety of matrices has led to a possible solution to this problem. The wide range of thermal time constants exhibited by typical matrix materials lends itself to permitting the differentiation between materials, based on time constants extracted from the measured response. Potential applications include simple item identification, item fingerprinting as part of shipper-receiver measurements, and distinguishing between Pu metal and Pu oxide as required under certain proposed attribute measurements. The results of applying this technique to a variety of items will be presented and discussed.

  4. Monitoring radio-frequency thermal ablation with ultrasound by low frequency acoustic emissions--in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Itai; Adam, Dan

    2011-05-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the monitoring of thermal ablation therapy by measuring the nonlinear response to ultrasound insonation at the region being treated. Previous reports have shown that during tissue heating, microbubbles are formed. Under the application of ultrasound, these microbubbles may be driven into nonlinear motion that produces acoustic emissions at sub-harmonic frequencies and a general increase of emissions at low frequencies. These low frequency emissions may be used to monitor ablation surgery. In this study, a modified commercial ultrasound system was used for transmitting ultrasound pulses and for recording raw RF-lines from a scan plane in porcine (in vitro) and rabbit (in vivo) livers during radio-frequency ablation (RFA). The transmission pulse was 15 cycles in length at 4 MHz (in vitro) and 3.6 MHz (in vivo). Thermocouples were used for monitoring temperatures during the RFA treatment.In the in vitro experiments, recorded RF signals (A-lines) were segmented, and the total energy was measured at two different frequency bands: at a low frequency band (LFB) of 1-2.5 MHz and at the transmission frequency band (TFB) of 3.5-4.5 MHz. The mean energy at the LFB and at the TFB increased substantially in areas adjacent to the RF needle. These energies also changed abruptly at higher temperatures, thus, producing great variance in the received energy. Mean energies in areas distant from RF needle showed little change and variation during treatment. It was also shown that a 3 dB increase of energy at the low frequency band was typically obtained in regions in which temperature was above 53.3 ± 5° C. Thus, this may help in evaluating regions undergoing hyperthermia. In the in vivo experiments, an imaging algorithm based on measuring the LFB energy was used. The algorithm performs a moving average of the LFB energies measured at segments within the scan plane.Results show that a colored region is formed on the image and that it is

  5. Experimental methods for improved spatial control of thermal lesions in magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Viallon, Magalie; Petrusca, Lorena; Auboiroux, Vincent; Goget, Thomas; Baboi, Loredana; Becker, Christoph D; Salomir, Rares

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU, or MRgFUS) is a hybrid technology that was developed to provide efficient and tolerable thermal ablation of targeted tumors or other pathologic tissues, while preserving the normal surrounding structures. Fast 3-D ablation strategies are feasible with the newly available phased-array HIFU transducers. However, unlike fixed heating sources for interstitial ablation (radiofrequency electrode, microwave applicator, infra-red laser applicator), HIFU uses propagating waves. Therefore, the main challenge is to avoid thermo-acoustical adverse effects, such as energy deposition at reflecting interfaces and thermal drift of the focal lesion toward the near field. We report here our investigations on some novel experimental solutions to solve, or at least to alleviate, these generally known tolerability problems in HIFU-based therapy. Online multiplanar MR thermometry was the main investigational tool extensively used in this study to identify the problems and to assess the efficacy of the tested solutions. We present an improved method to cancel the beam reflection at the exit window (i.e., tissue-to-air interface) by creating a multilayer protection, to dissipate the residual HIFU beam by bulk scattering. This study evaluates selective de-activation of transducer elements to reduce the collateral heating at bone surfaces in the far field, mainly during automatically controlled volumetric ablation. We also explore, using hybrid US/MR simultaneous imaging, the feasibility of using disruptive boiling at the focus, both as a far-field self-shielding technique and as an enhanced ablation strategy (i.e., boiling core controlled HIFU ablation).

  6. Review of current thermal ablation treatment for lung cancer and the potential of electrochemotherapy as a means for treatment of lung tumours.

    PubMed

    Jahangeer, Saleem; Forde, Patrick; Soden, Declan; Hinchion, John

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the most common cancer diagnosed worldwide and has one of the lowest survival rates of all cancers. Surgery remains the only curative treatment option but because most patients are either diagnosed at advanced stages or are unfit for surgery, less than a third of all lung cancer patients will undergo a surgical resection. Thermal ablation has emerged as an alternative option in patients who are unfit to undergo surgery. Thermal ablative therapies used in clinical practice to date include Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA), Microwave Ablation (MWA) and Cryoablation This article will focus on the advantages and limitations of thermal ablative therapy and investigates the potential of a relatively new treatment modality, Electrochemotherapy (ECT), as a novel treatment for lung cancer.

  7. Thermal Shock and Ablation Behavior of Tungsten Nozzle Produced by Plasma Spray Forming and Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. M.; Xiong, X.; Zhao, Z. W.; Xie, L.; Min, X. B.; Yan, J. H.; Xia, G. M.; Zheng, F.

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten nozzle was produced by plasma spray forming (PSF, relative density of 86 ± 2%) followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing, 97 ± 2%) at 2000 °C and 180 MPa for 180 min. Scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, Archimedes method, Vickers hardness, and tensile tests have been employed to study microstructure, phase composition, density, micro-hardness, and mechanical properties of the parts. Resistance of thermal shock and ablation behavior of W nozzle were investigated by hot-firing test on solid rocket motor (SRM). Comparing with PSF nozzle, less damage was observed for HIPed sample after SRM test. Linear ablation rate of nozzle made by PSF was (0.120 ± 0.048) mm/s, while that after HIPing reduced to (0.0075 ± 0.0025) mm/s. Three types of ablation mechanisms including mechanical erosion, thermophysical erosion, and thermochemical ablation took place during hot-firing test. The order of degree of ablation was nozzle throat > convergence > dilation inside W nozzle.

  8. Growth of Nanostructure of Metal Oxides by Laser Ablation and by SiO2 Assisted Thermal Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EL Nadi, Lotfia M.; Mehena, Galila; Omar, Mgdy M.; Moneim, Hussein A.; Taieb, Fakiha H. A.; Rahiem, Faried A.

    2007-02-01

    We report the results of growing nanostructures of gallium oxide and indium oxide by two methods. In the first one we applied laser ablation in air of pure graphite rod filled with Gallium or Indium metals. The ablated plume then deposited on SS substrates in air. In the second method the oxides were synthesized by thermal heating of the Ga or In metals mixed with powder of graphite and covered with SiO2 plates, supported by ceramic, in high temperature oven. The ablation method produced nanowires of Ga2O3 and nano particles of In2O3 developing in nanowires. . The solid carbon ablated from the graphite rod existing in the ablated plum as fine solid particles mixed with metal Ga or In melt in contact with oxygen gas in air, produced the growth of the metal oxide nano structures by solid -liquid-gas mechanism. The silica assisted catalytic growth oxides produce only nano particle of each metal. The reaction of the metals with SiO2 melt and graphite produced Si and carbon. The then formed Si carbide can effectively initiate vapor- liquid-solid growth of nano structure metal oxide. It seems that SiO2 in addition to the atmospheric oxygen provide the oxygen source for forming metal oxide nano dots.

  9. Treatment of uterine myomas by radiofrequency thermal ablation: a 10-year retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Geping; Chen, Ming; Yang, Shujun; Li, Juan; Zhu, Tongyu; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2015-05-01

    Patients' selection criteria, effectiveness, and safety of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) therapy for uterine myomas (UM) were assessed using a 10-year retrospective cohort study. From July 2001 to July 2011, a total of 1216 patients treated for UM were divided into 2 groups. Group A consisted of 476 premenopause patients, average age 36.5 ± 8.5 years, average number of myomas 1.7 ± 0.9, and average diameter of myomas 4.5 ± 1.5 cm, and group B consisted of 740 menopause patients, average age 48.5 ± 3.5 years, average number of myomas 2.6 ± 1.3, and average diameter of myomas 5.0 ± 2.5 cm. Average follow-up period was 36.5 ± 11.5 months. At 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after RFTA, average diameters of myomas in group A were 3.8, 3.0, 2.7, 2.4, and 2.2 cm, respectively, and 47.7% (227 of 476) of patients had tumor trace at 12 months after RFTA. In group B, the results were 4.7, 3.7, 3.3, 2.3, and 2.3 cm, respectively, and 58.8% (435 of 740) of patients had tumor trace at 12 months after RFTA. Three months after treatment, myoma volumes were significantly reduced in both the groups (P < .01), and group B had higher rate of tumor trace at 12 months after RFTA than group A (P < .05). Clinical symptoms and health-related quality-of-life outcome (HRQL) were significantly improved after RFTA in both groups and the postoperative recurrence rate of UM was significantly higher in group A at 10.7% (51 of 476) than group B at 2.4% (18 of 740; P < .05). Radiofrequency thermal ablation is an excellent minimally invasive treatment for UM smaller than 5.0 cm in diameter.

  10. Thermal Ablation of Lung Tissue: In Vivo Experimental Comparison of Microwave and Radiofrequency

    SciTech Connect

    Crocetti, Laura Bozzi, Elena; Faviana, Pinuccia; Cioni, Dania; Della Pina, Clotilde; Sbrana, Alberto; Fontanini, Gabriella; Lencioni, Riccardo

    2010-08-15

    This study was designed to compare feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation versus radiofrequency (RF) ablation of lung tissue in a rabbit model. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits were submitted to MW (n = 10, group A) or RF ablation (n = 10, group B). The procedures were performed with a prototype MW ablation device with a 1.6-cm radiating section antenna (Valleylab MW Ablation System) and with a 2-cm exposed-tip RF electrode (Cool-tip RF Ablation System). At immediate computed tomography increase in density, maximum diameters (D1-D3) of ablation zones were measured and ablation volume was calculated. Histopathologic assessment was performed 3 and 7 days after the procedure. Technical success was achieved in nine of 10 rabbits in each group. One death occurred in group B. Complications included pneumothorax (group A, n = 4; group B, n = 4), abscess (group A, n = 1; group B, n = 1), and thoracic wall burn (group A, n = 4). No significant differences were demonstrated in attenuation increase (P = 0.73), dimensions (P = 0.28, 0.86, 0.06, respectively, comparing D1-D3) and volume (P = 0.17). At histopathology, ablation zones were similar, with septal necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and peripheral lymphocytic infiltrate. Complete thrombosis of more than 90% of vessels up to 2 mm in diameter was depicted at the periphery of the ablation zone in group A specimens. In group B specimens, complete thrombosis was depicted in 20% of vessels. Feasibility and safety of MW and RF ablation are similar in a lung rabbit model. MW ablation produces a greater damage to peripheral small vessels inducing thrombosis.

  11. Percutaneous minimally invasive therapies in the treatment of bone tumors: thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Caroline J; Dupuy, Damian E

    2006-06-01

    Many percutaneous image-guided ablative techniques have been utilized in the treatment of bone cancers. These techniques are fast becoming a focus in the treatment of patients with both benign and malignant forms of bone cancer. This article will review the principles of radiofrequency ablation including its use in combination with other therapies, cryoablation, and microwave ablation in the treatment of osteoid osteomas and bone metastases.

  12. The impact of subcellular location on the near infrared-mediated thermal ablation of cells by targeted carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Vasanth S.; Wang, Ruhung; Mikoryak, Carole A.; Pantano, Paul; Draper, Rockford K.

    2016-10-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are used in the near infrared (NIR)-mediated thermal ablation of tumor cells because they efficiently convert absorbed NIR light into heat. Despite the therapeutic potential of SWNTs, there have been no published studies that directly quantify how many SWNTs need be associated with a cell to achieve a desired efficiency of killing, or what is the most efficient subcellular location of SWNTs for killing cells. Herein we measured dose response curves for the efficiency of killing correlated to the measured amounts of folate-targeted SWNTs that were either on the surface or within the vacuolar compartment of normal rat kidney cells. Folate-targeted SWNTs on the cell surface were measured after different concentrations of SWNTs in medium were incubated with cells for 30 min at 4 °C. Folate-targeted SWNTs within the vacuolar compartments were measured after cells were incubated with different concentrations of SWNTs in medium for 6 h at 37 °C. It was observed that a SWNT load of ∼13 pg/cell when internalized was sufficient to kill 90% of the cells under standardized conditions of NIR light irradiation. When ∼3.5 pg/cell of SWNTs were internalized within the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, ∼50% of the cells were killed, but when ∼3.5 pg/cell of SWNTs were confined to the cell surface only ∼5% of the cells were killed under the same NIR irradiation conditions. The SWNT subcellular locations were verified using Raman imaging of SWNTs merged with fluorescence images of known subcellular markers. To our knowledge, this is the first time that SWNT amounts at known subcellular locations have been correlated with a dose-normalized efficacy of thermal ablation and the results support the idea that SWNTs confined to the plasma membrane are not as effective in NIR-mediated cell killing as an equivalent amount of SWNTs when internalized within the endosomal/lysosomal vesicles.

  13. Thermal response of integral multicomponent composite thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. A.; Leiser, D. B.; Smith, M.; Kolodziej, P.

    1985-01-01

    Integral-multicomponent thermal-protection materials are discussed in terms of their thermal response to an arc-jet airstream. In-depth temperature measurements are compared with predictions from a one-dimensional, finite-difference code using calculated thermal conductivity values derived from an engineering model. The effect of composition, as well as the optical properties of the bonding material between components, on thermal response is discussed. The performance of these integral-multicomponent composite materials is compared with baseline Space Shuttle insulation.

  14. Thermal ablation of an aluminium film upon absorption of a femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Bezhanov, S G; Kanavin, A P; Uryupin, S A

    2016-02-28

    We have found the time dependence of the ablation depth of aluminium irradiated by a femtosecond laser pulse. It is shown to what extent an increase in the radiation energy flux density leads to an increase in the quasi-stationary value of the ablation depth. By reducing the aluminium film thickness down to one hundred nanometres and less, the ablation depth significantly increases. At the same time, the quasi-stationary value of the ablation depth of a thin film is obtained due to the removal of heat from the focal spot region. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  15. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpole, M.; Wercinski, R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Fan, W.; Thornton, J; Szalai, C.

    2012-01-01

    interest. The entry environment is not always guaranteed with a direct entry, and improving the entry systems robustness to a variety of environmental conditions could aid in reaching more varied landing sites. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: 1) Mass to Surface, 2) Surface Access, 3) Precision Landing, 4) Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, 5) Safety and Mission Assurance, and 6) Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems is manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (3/8 cell) by hand and within a limited amount of time once the ablative compound is mixed, all of the cells have to be filled and the entire heat-shield has to be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the mechanical strength characteristic and the manufacturing limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS> A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials.

  16. Thermal melting and ablation dynamics on a femtosecond laser-heated highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.

    2016-10-01

    Time-resolved optical reflection microscopy studies demonstrate spatiotemporal dynamics of melting and ablation of graphite surface molten by single IR femtosecond laser pulses, which are revealed by monitoring picosecond oscillations of the probe reflectivity modulated by transient acoustic reverberations in the surface melt. Temporal periods and amplitudes of the reverberations are affected through transient variations of melt thickness and acoustic impedance by melting, thermal expansion, spallation and fragmentation processes, thus enabling quantitative evaluation of their contributions and basic parameters.

  17. Thermal Versus Impedance-Based Ablation of Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Modabber, Milad Martin, Jason; Athreya, Sriharsha

    2013-10-04

    BackgroundPercutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal carcinoma has become an established treatment modality. However, thermal (TB) versus impedance-based (IB)-RF generators have not been previously compared.MethodsA literature search on the application of RFA for renal masses using TB or IB-RF generators was performed. The safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes of TB versus IB-based RFA were assessed using the outcome measures of technical success, local recurrence rate, complications, and preservation of renal function.ResultsAcross the 27 included studies, pooled results suggested comparable results for technical success (TB-RFA 98.53 % vs. IB-RFA 98.78 %, P = 0.9813). Clinical efficacy results were also similar across both generators (91.0 % TB-RFA vs. 91.5 % IB-RFA; P = 0.73). At follow-up, no differences in renal function (relative risk [RR] 0.5, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.45–5.48), and local recurrence (RR 0.717, 95 % CI 0.49–1.50) were observed. The pooled proportion of overall complication rates was 13.1 % for TB-RFA and 11.5 % for IB-RFA.ConclusionNo differences in the observed parameters were found either during surgery or at follow-up.

  18. Thermal nonlinear optical properties of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared through pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehirad, F.; Majles Ara, M. H.; Torkamany, M. J.; Afsary, M.; Ghorannevis, M.; Sabbaghzadeh, J.

    2013-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using the pulsed laser ablation method by irradiating a titanium target immersed in distilled water with 1064 nm, Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser pulses. The indirect band gap of the NPs was estimated with the aid of ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy showed the NPs to be spherical in shape and to vary from 5 to 50 nm. The average size of the NPs and their crystalline phases were determined by means of x-ray diffraction analysis. The thermal conductivity of the nano-TiO2 colloids was measured at a temperature of 25 °C. The single-beam z-scan technique was employed to obtain the nonlinear index of refraction (n2) and the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) under continuous wave He-Ne laser excitation at different input powers. Thermo-optical coefficients of the NPs were calculated using the z-scan results.

  19. [Effect of pharmacotherapy on course of postoperative period after endovenous thermal ablation].

    PubMed

    Stoiko, Yu M; Mazaishvili, K V; Khlevtova, T V; Tsyplyashchuk, A V; Kharitonova, S E; Akimov, S S

    2015-01-01

    The authors assessed the effect of a micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) on the course of the postoperative period after endovenous thermal ablation (EVTA). The patients of the Study Group matching by the main studied parameters to the Control Group patients were given the MPFF according to the suggested regimen for 7 days. The obtained results were analysed by means of questionnaires (CIVIQ, VCSS, VAS) and ultrasound angioscanning. The obtained findings were statistically processed by means of the program Statistica 6.0 and reliability of the results was assessed with the help of the Student t-test. Patients of the both groups showed complete stable obliteration of the target veins. No statistically significant differences of the items of the questionnaires CIVIQ and VCSS at the beginning of the study and at the last examination were revealed, differences were noted on days 2-14 after EVTA and were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Phlebotrophic therapy in the postoperative period after EVTA helps to decrease phlebitic alterations in the coagulated vein, to improve motor activity and mental psychoemotional state of the patients.

  20. Endometrial thermal balloon ablation using a high temperature, pulsed system: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Daniel M; Baldwin, Susan A; Bert, Joel L

    2003-12-01

    A new endometrial thermal balloon ablation treatment for menorrhagia is modeled mathematically to predict its efficacy and safety. A device preheats a fluid to 173 degrees C within a reservoir external to the uterus, and then pulses this fluid without further heating between the reservoir and the balloon for 2.1 min of treatment time. The model predicted this treatment to result in consistent immediate tissue death (coagulation) depths of 3.4 +/- 0.1 mm for uterine cavities of 7 to 26 mL, and that eventual necrosis (tissue death that would occur 1-5 days post burn) may occur to depths of 6.5 +/- 0.2 mm. Whereas, burn depths varied with uterine cavity volume when a low temperature treatment (constant 75 degrees C for 15 min) was modeled (2.3-2.9 mm and 6.8-8.2 mm, for immediate tissue death and eventual necrosis respectively). Similarly, the high temperature, pulsed treatment was less sensitive to blood perfusion rate than the low temperature treatment. Predicted eventual necrosis depth was 1.5 mm less for the high temperature, pulsed treatment than that predicted for a low temperature treatment (constant 87 degrees C for 7 min) for the same immediate tissue death depth (3.5 mm), indicating that the new high temperature treatment may result in less damage to non targeted tissues.

  1. Responses of polymers to laser plasma EUV light beyond ablation threshold and micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makimura, Tetsuya; Torii, Shuichi; Okazaki, Kota; Nakamura, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akihiko; Niino, Hiroyuki; Okada, Tatsuo; Murakami, Kouichi

    2011-06-01

    We have investigated responses of PDMS, PMMA and acrylic block copolymers (BCP) to EUV light from laserproduced plasma beyond ablation thresholds and micromachining. We generated wide band EUV light around 100 eV by irradiation of Ta targets with Nd:YAG laser light. In addition, narrow band EUV light at 11 and 13 nm were generated by irradiation of solid Xe and Sn targets, respectively, with pulsed CO2 laser light. The generated EUV light was condensed onto samples, using an ellipsoidal mirror. The EUV light was incident through windows of contact masks on the samples. We found that through-holes with a diameter of 1 μm can be fabricated in PDMS sheets with thicknesses of 10 μm. PDMS sheets are ablated if they are irradiated with EUV light beyond a threshold power density, while PDMS surfaces were modified by irradiation with the narrow band EUV light at lower power densities. Effective ablation of PMMA sheets can be applied to a LIGA-like process for fabricating micro-structures of metals using the practical apparatus. Furthermore, BCP sheets were ablated to have micro-structures. Thus, we have developed a practical technique for microma chining of PMMA, PDMS and BCP sheets in a micrometer scale.

  2. Optical-thermal mathematical model for endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    van Ruijven, Peter W M; Poluektova, Anna A; van Gemert, Martin J C; Neumann, H A Martino; Nijsten, Tamar; van der Geld, Cees W M

    2014-03-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is successfully used to treat varicose veins. However, the exact working mechanism is still not fully identified and the clinical procedure is not yet standardized. Mathematical modeling of EVLA could strongly improve our understanding of the influence of the various EVLA processes. The aim of this study is to combine Mordon's optical-thermal model with the presence of a strongly absorbing carbonized blood layer on the fiber tip. The model anatomy includes a cylindrically symmetric blood vessel surrounded by an infinite homogenous perivenous tissue. The optical fiber is located in the center of the vessel and is withdrawn with a pullback velocity. The fiber tip includes a small layer of strongly absorbing material, representing the layer of carbonized blood, which absorbs 45% of the emitted laser power. Heat transfer due to boiling bubbles is taken into account by increasing the heat conduction coefficient by a factor of 200 for temperatures above 95 °C. The temperature distribution in the blood, vessel wall, and surrounding medium is calculated from a numerical solution of the bioheat equation. The simulations were performed in MATLAB™ and validated with the aid of an analytical solution. The simulations showed, first, that laser wavelength did virtually not influence the simulated temperature profiles in blood and vessel wall, and, second, that temperatures of the carbonized blood layer varied slightly, from 952 to 1,104 °C. Our improved mathematical optical-thermal EVLA model confirmed previous predictions and experimental outcomes that laser wavelength is not an important EVLA parameter and that the fiber tip reaches exceedingly high temperatures.

  3. Thermal characteristics of CO2, Argon, and KTP (Nd:YAG) ablated bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Brian J.; Neev, Joseph; Lee, Jon P.; Hashisaki, George T.; Berns, Michael W.

    1995-05-01

    CO2 (10.6 micrometers ), Argon (514 nm), and KTP (Nd:YAG) (532 nm) are the lasers of choice for the stapedotomy operation. While each of these lasers is effective in surgically treating otosclerosis, few studies exist which compare the relative deleterious effects of these lasers in a model that is relevant to clinical practice and also based on the physics of laser- tissue interactions. This study focuses on surface temperature changes that occur in otic capsule, cortical, and lamellar bone when treated with clinical laser energy densities. Fresh porcine otic capsule, cortical, and lamellar bone were micromachined to a uniform thickness of 0.8 mm. A microspot manipulator was used for CO2, testing both continuous wave (CW) and super-pulse (SP) modes. A focused lens based system was used for argon, and a micro fiber was used for KTP. A Hg-Cd-Te infrared imaging system was used to measure temperature. Hot spot temperatures were recorded, as well as the full width-half maximum of the thermal disturbance at that time. The time for the hot spot to return to ambient temperature was also recorded. With visible wavelengths, the experiments were performed in the presence and absence of an initiator (black ink). Temperature elevations with CW CO2 were markedly elevated relative to SP mode. The CW irradiated tissue also required longer to cool. In both KTP and argon treated bone, minimal surface temperature elevation was recorded in the absence of an initiator. No surface modification was observed by light microscopy. In contrast, the addition of an initiator resulted in marked temperature elevations and significant surface carbonization with these visible wavelengths. The mechanisms of ablation and thermal conduction are discussed along with the clinical relevance of these findings.

  4. Expanded modeling of temperature-dependent dielectric properties for microwave thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhen; Brace, Christopher L

    2011-08-21

    Microwaves are a promising source for thermal tumor ablation due to their ability to rapidly heat dispersive biological tissues, often to temperatures in excess of 100 °C. At these high temperatures, tissue dielectric properties change rapidly and, thus, so do the characteristics of energy delivery. Precise knowledge of how tissue dielectric properties change during microwave heating promises to facilitate more accurate simulation of device performance and helps optimize device geometry and energy delivery parameters. In this study, we measured the dielectric properties of liver tissue during high-temperature microwave heating. The resulting data were compiled into either a sigmoidal function of temperature or an integration of the time-temperature curve for both relative permittivity and effective conductivity. Coupled electromagnetic-thermal simulations of heating produced by a single monopole antenna using the new models were then compared to simulations with existing linear and static models, and experimental temperatures in liver tissue. The new sigmoidal temperature-dependent model more accurately predicted experimental temperatures when compared to temperature-time integrated or existing models. The mean percent differences between simulated and experimental temperatures over all times were 4.2% for sigmoidal, 10.1% for temperature-time integration, 27.0% for linear and 32.8% for static models at the antenna input power of 50 W. Correcting for tissue contraction improved agreement for powers up to 75 W. The sigmoidal model also predicted substantial changes in heating pattern due to dehydration. We can conclude from these studies that a sigmoidal model of tissue dielectric properties improves prediction of experimental results. More work is needed to refine and generalize this model.

  5. Effectiveness of various thermal ablation techniques for the treatment of nodular thyroid disease--comparison of laser-induced thermotherapy and bipolar radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Jörg-Peter; Lehmann, Kai S; Schumann, Thomas; Knappe, Verena; Zurbuchen, Urte; Buhr, Heinz J; Holmer, Christoph

    2011-07-01

    Alternative minimally invasive treatment options such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) are at present under investigation for achieving a nonsurgical targeted cytoreduction in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. So far, studies have not been able to show a secure advantage for neither LITT nor RFA. The aim of this study was to compare the two ablation procedures in terms of their effectiveness. Thermal lesions were induced in porcine thyroid glands either by LITT or bipolar RFA ex vivo (n = 110 each) and in vivo (n = 10 each) using power settings between 10 and 20 W. Temperature spread during application was documented in 5- and 10-mm distance of the applicator. Postinterventional lesion diameters were measured and lesion size was calculated. Furthermore, enzyme histochemical analysis of the thyroid tissue was performed in vivo. Lesion volumes induced by LITT ranged between 0.74 ± 0.18 cm(3) (10 W) and 3.80 ± 0.41 cm(3) (20 W) with a maximum of 5.13 ± 0.16 cm(3) at 18 W. The inducible lesion volumes by RFA were between 2.43 ± 0.68 cm(3) (10 W) and 0.91 ± 0.71 cm(3) (20 W) with a maximum of 2.80 ± 0.85 cm(3) at 14 W. The maximum temperatures were 112.9 ± 9.2°C (LITT) and 61.6 ± 13.9°C (RFA) at a distance of 5 mm and 73.2 ± 6.7°C (LITT) and 53.5 ± 8.6°C (RFA) at a distance of 10 mm. The histochemical analysis demonstrates a complete loss of NADPH dehydrogenase activity in thermal lesions as a sign of irreversible cell damage both for LITT and RFA. This study is the first to compare the effectiveness of laser-induced thermotherapy and radiofrequency ablation of thyroid tissue. LITT as well as RFA are suitable for singular thyroid nodules and induces reproducible clinically relevant lesions in an appropriate application time. The maximum inducible lesion volumes by LITT are significantly larger than by RFA with the devices used herein.

  6. Experimental investigation on thermal ablation of carbon-fiber/epoxy composite irradiated by continuous wave laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Minbo; Ma, Zhiliang; Chen, Linzhu; Lin, Xinwei; Zhou, Menglian

    2015-05-01

    The tests of carbon-fiber/epoxy composite laminates, subjected to a tangential gas-flow and 1070 nm continuous wave laser are carried out to acquire the ablation laws of samples on the conditions of different gas-flow. Simultaneously, considered the images from camera of large dynamic range, the damage laws of samples are also obtained for various laser power densities. Experimental results reveal that, without airflow on sample surface, the smoke caused by laser heating can be quickly on fire which causes a burn damage on the surface of samples so that the mass loss is most of all. However, the tangential airflow can remove away the smoke which has a weakening effect on the energy of incidence laser. So the ablation depth has an obvious increase in laser irradiation area. Unlike airflow, nitrogen flow can obviously restrain oxidation ablation on surface so that the ablation damage in laser irradiation area is relatively not severe. On the other hand, as laser power density increases, the mass loss of samples continues to rise but isn't proportional. And the ablation heat with the increase of power density shows a complex change. Below power density of 390 W/cm2, the mass loss mainly depends on the pyrolysis of epoxy while the ablation heat has a gradual decrease. Along with power density increasing but less than 1330 W/cm2 , the oxidation ablation of carbon fibers will be a leading factor and the ablation heat shows a little increase. Above power density of 1330 W/cm2 , the carbon fibers turn up the phenomenon of sublimation. What's more, airflow removed effects will be enhanced in high temperature. In this case, the ablation heat again has a trend of decrease.

  7. Thermal--electrical finite element modelling for radio frequency cardiac ablation: effects of changes in myocardial properties.

    PubMed

    Tungjitkusolmun, S; Woo, E J; Cao, H; Tsai, J Z; Vorperian, V R; Webster, J G

    2000-09-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis has been utilised as a numerical tool to determine the temperature distribution in studies of radio frequency (RF) cardiac ablation. However, none of the previous FE analyses clarified such computational aspects as software requirements, computation time or convergence test. In addition, myocardial properties included in the previous models vary greatly. A process of FE modelling of a system that included blood, myocardium, and an ablation catheter with a thermistor embedded at the tip is described. The bio-heat equation is solved to determine the temperature distribution in myocardium using a commercial software application (ABAQUS). A Cauchy convergence test (epsilon = 0.1 degree C) was performed and it is concluded that the optimal number of elements for the proposed system is 24610. The effects of changes in myocardial properties (+/- 50% electric conductivity, +100%/-50% thermal conductivity, and +100%/-50% specific heat capacity) in both power-controlled (PCRFA) and temperature-controlled RF ablation (TCRFA) were studied. Changes in myocardial properties affect the results of the FE analyses of PCRFA more than those of TCRFA, and the maximum changes in lesion volumes were -58.6% (-50% electric conductivity), -60.7% (+100% thermal conductivity), and +43.2% (-50% specific heat).

  8. Bronchoscopic thermal vapour ablation therapy in the management of heterogeneous emphysema.

    PubMed

    Snell, Gregory; Herth, Felix J F; Hopkins, Peter; Baker, Kimberley M; Witt, Christian; Gotfried, Mark H; Valipour, Arschang; Wagner, Manfred; Stanzel, Franz; Egan, Jim J; Kesten, Steven; Ernst, Armin

    2012-06-01

    The need for a less invasive procedure than surgical lung volume reduction that can produce consistent improvements with reduced morbidity remains a medical goal in patients with emphysema. We sought to determine the effect of bronchoscopic thermal vapour ablation (BTVA) on lung volumes and outcomes in patients with emphysema. 44 patients with upper lobe-predominant emphysema were treated unilaterally with BTVA. Entry criteria included: age 40-75 yrs, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) 15-45% predicted, previous pulmonary rehabilitation and a heterogeneity index (tissue/air ratio of lower lobe/upper lobe) from high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) ≥ 1.2. Changes in FEV(1), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 6-min walk distance (6 MWD), modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea score, and hyperinflation were measured at baseline, and 3 and 6 months post-BTVA. At 6 months, mean ± SE FEV(1) improved by 141 ± 26 mL (p<0.001) and residual volume was reduced by 406 ± 113 mL (p<0.0001). SGRQ total score improved by 14.0 ± 2.4 points (p<0.001), with 73% improving by ≥ 4 points. Improvements were observed in 6 MWD (46.5 ± 10.6 m) and mMRC dyspnoea score (0.9 ± 0.2) (p<0.001 for both). Lower respiratory events (n=11) were the most common adverse event and occurred most often during the initial 30 days. BTVA therapy results in clinically relevant improvements in lung function, quality of life and exercise tolerance in upper lobe predominant emphysema.

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation of Uterine Fibroids: Medium-Term Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Recaldini, Chiara Fontana, Federico; Ghezzi, Fabio; Cuffari, Salvatore; Lagana, Domenico; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2010-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) of uterine fibroids through a percutaneous ultrasound (US)-guided procedure is an effective and safe minimally invasive treatment, with encouraging short-term results. The aim of this study was to assess the results in terms of volume reduction and clinical symptoms improvement in the midterm follow-up of fibroids with a diameter of up to 8 cm. Eleven premenopausal females affected by symptomatic fibroids underwent percutaneous US-guided RFA. Symptom severity and reduction in volume were evaluated at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The mean symptom score (SSS) before the procedure was 50.30 (range 31.8-67.30), and the average quality of life (QOL) score value was 62 (range 37.20-86.00). The mean basal diameter was 5.5 cm (range 4.4-8) and the mean volume was 101.5 cm{sup 3} (range 44.58-278 cm{sup 3}). The mean follow-up was 9 months (range 3-12 months). The mean SSS value at the end of the follow-up was 13.38 (range 0-67.1) and the QOL 90.4 (range 43.8-100). At follow-up the mean diameter was 3.0 cm (range 1.20-4.5 cm), and the mean volume was 18 cm{sup 3} (range 0.90-47.6 cm{sup 3}). In 10 of 11 patients we obtained total or partial regression of symptoms. In one case the clinical manifestations persisted and it was thus considered unsuccessful. In conclusion, US-guided percutaneous RFA is a safe and effective treatment even for fibroids up to 8 cm.

  10. Fiber-optic combined FPI/FBG sensors for monitoring of radiofrequency thermal ablation of liver tumors: ex vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Daniele; Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Braschi, Giovanni; Cigada, Alfredo; Gallati, Mario; Rossi, Sandro; Poeggel, Sven; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-04-01

    We present a biocompatible, all-glass, 0.2 mm diameter, fiber-optic probe that combines an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry and a proximal fiber Bragg grating sensor; the probe enables dual pressure and temperature measurement on an active 4 mm length, with 40 Pa and 0.2°C nominal accuracy. The sensing system has been applied to monitor online the radiofrequency thermal ablation of tumors in liver tissue. Preliminary experiments have been performed in a reference chamber with uniform heating; further experiments have been carried out on ex vivo porcine liver, which allowed the measurement of a steep temperature gradient and monitoring of the local pressure increase during the ablation procedure.

  11. Non-thermal effects on femtosecond laser ablation of polymers extracted from the oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kumada, Takayuki Akagi, Hiroshi; Itakura, Ryuji; Otobe, Tomohito; Nishikino, Masaharu; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of femtosecond laser ablation of transparent polymers were examined using time-resolved reflectivity. When these polymers were irradiated by a pump pulse with fluence above the ablation threshold of 0.8–2.0 J/cm{sup 2}, we observed the oscillation of the reflectivity caused by the interference between the reflected probe pulses from the sample surface and the thin layer due to the non-thermal photomechanical effects of spallation. As the fluence of the pump pulse increased, the separation velocity of the thin layer increased from 6 km/s to the asymptotic value of 11 km/s. It is suggested that the velocities are determined by shock-wave velocities of the photo-excited layer.

  12. Evaluation of the energy transfer in the char zone during ablation. Part 2: In-depth response of ablative composites, volume 1. Ph.D. Thesis, 1975. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, R. W.; Delvalle, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    The decomposition of ablative composites is described along with the transport phenomena of pyrolysis gases which result from the decomposition of these plastics as they flow through the porous char of char-forming ablators. The pyrolysis products are those formed by the thermal degradation of nylon-phenolic resin and silicone elastomer composites. Emphasis is placed on the nature and extent of chemical reactions of the pyrolysis products and the char, along with the energy absorbed by the combined pyrolysis and char zone. Chemical reactions with thermodynamically consistent kinetic data are determined in order to develop a realistic analysis for predicting the thermal performance of ablative heat shields.

  13. Modifications to the Aerotherm Charring Material Thermal Response and Ablation Program (CMA) for Carbon Ablation Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    RESISTANCE; DL/(K*A) C GAMA = VOLUME FRACTION C DO 105 N=I,NL J=J+JF CBM 194 RR(N)=RR(N)/ASU CBM 195 CALL LOOK (3,TA(N),II;’,TCP,TKP,III/,O,Y2,Y2(4),3) CBM...196 C VIRGIN PLASTIC MA[ERIAL CN(N)=Y2(2) CBM 191 CPV(N)=Y2( 1) CBM 198 HIP(N)hY2( 3 )+Dl1i CBM 199 CALL LOOK (4,TA(N),II2(1.2),TCP(1,2),TKP(1,2),TIIZ...NDBU LL=NF 1(L) CON 231 LU=NLA(L) CON 232 N=2*L-1 CBM 233 DO 7141 1 =LL j U C8M 2314 CALL LOOK (2O4+*L- IA( I ITT5( I N) . C8U( IN) TKBU( IN) TENT( 1,N

  14. Noninvasive Thermal Ablation of Osteomyelitis-Causing Bacteria using Functionalized Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    2008). One alternative approach to antibiotics includes the use of near infrared (IR) radiation to thermally kill pathogenic organisms (Kam, 2005...characterized bacteriophage. (month 1-6) We have obtained several phage through depositories or international collaborators. Sequencing has been... phage that we believe is responsible for binding to the surface. This domain, known as a choline binding domain (CBD), will serve us for our proof

  15. On heat balance integral solutions of carbonaceous ablator response during reentry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Use of the heat balance integral (HBI) method for computing carbonaceous ablator response to reentry is investigated. Realistic models of graphite, carbon-carbon, and carbon-phenolic behavior are presented, including convenient new curve-fit equations. Subtle difficulties in applying HBI to these models are analyzed. HBI calculations show very favorable comparison to finite-difference results (except for in-depth charring of carbon-phenolic) at great savings in cost and are more accurate than quasi-steady solutions of surface response.

  16. Test of Thermal Transport Models through Dynamic Overpressure Stabilization of Ablation-Front Perturbation Growth in Laser-Driven CH Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Gotchev, O.V.; Goncharov, V.N.; Knauer, J.P.; Boehly, T.R.; Collins, T.J.B.; Epstein, R.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Meyerhofer, D.D.

    2006-03-24

    Heat-flow-induced dynamic overpressure at the perturbed ablation front of an ICF target can stabilize the ablative Richtmyer/Meshkov-like instability and mitigate the subsequent ablative Rayleigh/Taylor (RT) instability. A series of experiments was performed on the OMEGA laser to quantify the dynamic overpressure stabilization during the shock transit. Analysis of the experimental data using hydrocode simulations shows that the observed oscillatory evolution of the ablation-front perturbations depends on Dc, the size of the thermal conduction zone, and the fluid velocity in the blowoff region Vbl that are sensitive to the thermal transport model used. We show that the simulations match the experiment well when the time dependence of the heat-flux inhibition is taken into account using a recently developed nonlocal heat transport model.

  17. Ablation of PGC1 beta prevents mTOR dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress response

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Alberto; Rodriguez-Cuenca, Sergio; Blount, Margaret; Prieur, Xavier; Barbarroja, Nuria; Fuller, Maria; Hardingham, Giles E.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of obesity, diabetes, neurodegeneration and ageing. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1β (PGC-1β) coordinates mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as fatty acid metabolism. It has been suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may be one of the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction and these pathologies. Here we investigate whether PGC-1β ablation affects the ER stress response induced by specific nutritional and pharmacological challenges in the CNS. By using flow cytometry, western blot, real time PCR and several pharmacological and nutritional interventions in PGC-1β knock out and WT mice, we confirmed that PGC-1β coordinates mitochondria function in brain and reported for the first time that a) ablation of PGC-1β is associated with constitutive activation of mTORC1 pathway associated with increased basal GRP78 protein levels in hypothalamus and cortex of animals fed chow diet; and b) in animals fed chronically with high fat diet (HFD) or high protein diet (HPD), we observed a failure to appropriately induce ER stress response in the absence of PGC-1β, associated with an increase in mTOR pathway phosphorylation. This contrasted with the appropriate upregulation of ER stress response observed in wild type littermates. Additionally, inefficient in vitro induction of ER stress by thapsigargin seems result in apoptotic neuronal cell death in PGC-1β KO. Our data indicate that PGC-1β is required for a neuronal ER response to nutritional stress imposed by HFD and HPD diets and that genetic ablation of PGC-1β might increase the susceptibility to neuronal damage and cell death. PMID:22771762

  18. Successful segmental thermal ablation of varicose saphenous veins in a patient with confirmed vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael; Says, Jerome; Denarié, Nicolas; Sapoval, Marc; Messas, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    We describe here the successful scheduled treatment of varicose veins by radiofrequency segmental thermal ablation in a 43-year-old patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Her venous disease started at the age of 16 years, 1 year prior to her first major Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-related event which led to the diagnosis of her genetic condition. Surgical stripping was contra-indicated because of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome at the age of 18 years. More than 20 years later, her venous disease had become highly symptomatic despite daily compression and pain medication. Venous reassessment evidenced incompetent right and left great saphenous and left small saphenous veins, with increased diameters of both sapheno-femoral and sapheno-popliteal junctions. Radiofrequency endovenous ablation rather than surgery was considered because of its minimally invasive nature and because of standardized energy delivery.All intended-to-be-treated incompetent saphenous vein segments were occluded successfully, followed by an important improvement of clinical disease severity at day 30, persistent at 1 year post-treatment. Duplex ultrasound confirmed closure and fibrotic retraction of all treated venous segments at 1 year. This report shows that radiofrequency endovenous ablation may be a safe and effective therapy of varicose veins in patients with diagnosed vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

  19. Some controversies in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins addressed by optical-thermal mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Poluektova, Anna A; Malskat, Wendy S J; van Gemert, Martin J C; Vuylsteke, Marc E; Bruijninckx, Cornelis M A; Neumann, H A Martino; van der Geld, Cees W M

    2014-03-01

    Minimally invasive treatment of varicose veins by endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) becomes more and more popular. However, despite significant research efforts performed during the last years, there is still a lack of agreement regarding EVLA mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. The aim of this article is to address some of these controversies by utilizing optical-thermal mathematical modeling. Our model combines Mordon's light absorption-based optical-thermal model with the thermal consequences of the thin carbonized blood layer on the laser fiber tip that is heated up to temperatures of around 1,000 °C due to the absorption of about 45% of the laser light. Computations were made in MATLAB. Laser wavelengths included were 810, 840, 940, 980, 1,064, 1,320, 1,470, and 1,950 nm. We addressed (a) the effect of direct light absorption by the vein wall on temperature behavior, comparing computations by using normal and zero wall absorption; (b) the prediction of the influence of wavelength on the temperature behavior; (c) the effect of the hot carbonized blood layer surrounding the fiber tip on temperature behavior, comparing wall temperatures from using a hot fiber tip and one kept at room temperature; (d) the effect of blood emptying the vein, simulated by reducing the inside vein diameter from 3 down to 0.8 mm; (e) the contribution of absorbed light energy to the increase in total energy at the inner vein wall in the time period where the highest inner wall temperature was reached; (f) the effect of laser power and pullback velocity on wall temperature of a 2-mm inner diameter vein, at a power/velocity ratio of 30 J/cm at 1,470 nm; (g) a comparison of model outcomes and clinical findings of EVLA procedures at 810 nm, 11 W, and 1.25 mm/s, and 1,470 nm, 6 W, and 1 mm/s, respectively. Interestingly, our model predicts that the dominating mechanism for heating up the vein wall is not direct absorption of the laser light by the vein wall but, rather, heat flow to the

  20. Radiofrequency Volumetric Thermal Ablation of Fibroids and Laparoscopic Myomectomy: Long-Term Follow-up From a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, M.; Brucker, S.; Kraemer, D.; Wallwiener, M.; Taran, F.-A.; Wallwiener, C. W.; Krämer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) has been the gold standard treatment for uterine fibroids in women desiring uterine conservation. To evaluate a new fibroid treatment modality – radiofrequency volumetric thermal ablation (RFVTA) – we compare 12-month results in women who had symptomatic uterine fibroids and who were randomized to laparoscopic ultrasound-guided RFVTA or LM. Materials and Methods: Our study is a 1 : 1 parallel, randomized, prospective, single-center, longitudinal, comparative analysis of RFVTA to LM for fibroid treatment in women ≥ 18 years of age who desired uterine conservation. Fifty women were randomized intraoperatively to RFVTA (n = 25) or to LM (n = 25) after laparoscopic ultrasound mapping of the uterus. Results: Post surgery, ablation and myomectomy subjects took pain medications for 4 days (range: 1–46) and 7 days (range: 1–83 days) respectively (p = 0.60). Ablation and myomectomy subjects missed 10.0 workdays (range: 2–86 days) and 17.0 workdays (range: 7–30 days) (p = 0.28), resumed normal activities in 20.5 days (range: 5–103 days) versus 28.0 days (range: 10–42 days) (p = 0.86) respectively. Mean symptom severity scores decreased (improved) by − 7.8 for the ablation subjects and by − 17.9 for the myomectomy subjects (p = 0.16). Health-related quality of life improved (increased) by 7.5 and 13.1, respectively, for the two groups (p = 0.46). Two myomectomy subjects had pregnancies that ended in a Cesarean delivery and a vaginal delivery of healthy infants. Two pregnancies in the RFVTA group ended in full-term vaginal deliveries of healthy infants. Conclusions: Early postoperative recovery and twelve-month results attest to similar clinical benefits from RFVTA and LM. PMID:26097247

  1. Effects of Laser Wavelength on Ablator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength-dependent or spectral radiation effects are potentially significant for thermal protection materials. NASA atmospheric entry simulations include trajectories with significant levels of shock layer radiation which is concentrated in narrow spectral lines. Tests using two different high powered lasers, the 10.6 micron LHMEL I CO2 laser and the near-infrared 1.07 micron fiber laser, on low density ablative thermal protection materials offer a unique opportunity to evaluate spectral effects. Test results indicated that the laser wavelength can impact the thermal response of an ablative material, in terms of bond-line temperatures, penetration times, mass losses, and char layer thicknesses.

  2. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Chwalek, Jennifer; Goldberg, David J

    2011-01-01

    Ablative skin resurfacing has remained the gold standard for treating photodamage and acne scars since the development of the first CO(2) lasers. CO(2) and Er:YAG lasers emit infrared light, which targets water resulting in tissue contraction and collagen formation. The first ablative laser systems created significant thermal damage resulting in unacceptably high rates of scarring and prolonged healing. Newer devices, such as high-energy pulsed lasers and fractional ablative lasers, are capable of achieving significant improvements with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times. While ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection is still important to avoid post-treatment scarring, dyspigmentation, and infections. Clinicians utilizing ablative devices need to be aware of possible side effects in order to maximize results and patient satisfaction. This chapter reviews the background of ablative lasers including the types of ablative lasers, mechanism of action, indications for ablative resurfacing, and possible side effects.

  3. Effect of a poloxamer 407-based thermosensitive gel on minimization of thermal injury to diaphragm during microwave ablation of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Li; Xia, Gui-Min; Liu, Yu-Jiang; Dou, Rui; Eisenbrey, John; Liu, Ji-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Qian, Lin-Xue

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the insulating effect of a poloxamer 407 (P407)-based gel during microwave ablation of liver adjacent to the diaphragm. METHODS We prepared serial dilutions of P407, and 22.5% (w/w) concentration was identified as suitable for ablation procedures. Subsequently, microwave ablations were performed on the livers of 24 rabbits (gel, saline, control groups, n = 8 in each). The P407 solution and 0.9% normal saline were injected into the potential space between the diaphragm and liver in experimental groups. No barriers were applied to the controls. After microwave ablations, the frequency, size and degree of thermal injury were compared histologically among the three groups. Subsequently, another 8 rabbits were injected with the P407 solution and microwave ablation was performed. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in serum were tested at 1 d before microwave ablation and 3 and 7 d after operation. RESULTS In vivo ablation thermal injury to the adjacent diaphragm was evaluated in the control, saline and 22.5% P407 gel groups (P = 0.001-0.040). However, there was no significant difference in the volume of ablation zone among the three groups (P > 0.05). Moreover, there were no statistical differences among the preoperative and postoperative gel groups according to the levels of ALT, AST, BUN and Cr in serum (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION Twenty-two point five percent P407 gel could be a more effective choice during microwave ablation of hepatic tumors adjacent to the diaphragm. Further studies for clinical translation are warranted.

  4. Moldable cork ablation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A successful thermal ablative material was manufactured. Moldable cork sheets were tested for density, tensile strength, tensile elongation, thermal conductivity, compression set, and specific heat. A moldable cork sheet, therefore, was established as a realistic product.

  5. Update on Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R. A. S.; Arnold, J. O.; Gasch, M. J.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2014-06-01

    In FY13, more advanced testing and modeling of the new NASA conformal ablative TPS material was performed. Most notable were the 3- and 4-point bending tests and the aerothermal testing on seams and joints in shear. The material outperformed PICA.

  6. The thermal impulse response of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Paster, Eli; Ryu, William S.

    2008-01-01

    Swimming Escherichia coli responds to changes in temperature by modifying its motor behavior. Previous studies using populations of cells have shown that E. coli accumulate in spatial thermal gradients, but these experiments did not cleanly separate thermal responses from chemotactic responses. Here we have isolated the thermal response by studying the behavior of single, tethered cells. The motor output of cells grown at 33°C was measured at constant temperature, from 10° to 40°C, and in response to small, impulsive increases in temperature, from 23° to 43°C. The thermal impulse response at temperatures < 31°C is similar to the chemotactic impulse response: Both follow a similar time course, share the same directionality, and show biphasic characteristics. At temperatures > 31°C, some cells show an inverted response, switching from warm- to cold-seeking behavior. The fraction of inverted responses increases nonlinearly with temperature, switching steeply at the preferred temperature of 37°C. PMID:18385380

  7. Pulmonary ablation: a primer.

    PubMed

    Roberton, Benjamin J; Liu, David; Power, Mark; Wan, John M C; Stuart, Sam; Klass, Darren; Yee, John

    2014-05-01

    Percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation is safe and efficacious in achieving local control and improving outcome in the treatment of both early stage non-small-cell lung cancer and pulmonary metastatic disease, in which surgical treatment is precluded by comorbidity, poor cardiorespiratory reserve, or unfavorable disease distribution. Radiofrequency ablation is the most established technology, but new thermal ablation technologies such as microwave ablation and cryoablation may offer some advantages. The use of advanced techniques, such as induced pneumothorax and the popsicle stick technique, or combining thermal ablation with radiotherapy, widens the treatment options available to the multidisciplinary team. The intent of this article is to provide the reader with a practical knowledge base of pulmonary ablation by concentrating on indications, techniques, and follow-up.

  8. Thermal responses of Symbiodinium photosynthetic carbon assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, Clinton A.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hopkinson, Brian M.

    2014-06-01

    The symbiosis between hermatypic corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts, genus Symbiodinium, is based on carbon exchange. This symbiosis is disrupted by thermally induced coral bleaching, a stress response in which the coral host expels its algal symbionts as they become physiologically impaired. The disruption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supply or the thermal inactivation of Rubisco have been proposed as sites of initial thermal damage that leads to the bleaching response. Symbiodinium possesses a highly unusual Form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which exhibits a lower CO2:O2 specificity and may be more thermally unstable than the Form I Rubiscos of other algae and land plants. Components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM), which supplies inorganic carbon for photosynthesis, may also be temperature sensitive. Here, we examine the ability of four cultured Symbiodinium strains to acquire and fix DIC across a temperature gradient. Surprisingly, the half-saturation constant of photosynthesis with respect to DIC concentration ( K P), an index of CCM function, declined with increasing temperature in three of the four strains, indicating a greater potential for photosynthetic carbon acquisition at elevated temperatures. In the fourth strain, there was no effect of temperature on K P. Finding no evidence for thermal inhibition of the CCM, we conclude that CCM components are not likely to be the primary sites of thermal damage. Reduced photosynthetic quantum yields, a hallmark of thermal bleaching, were observed at low DIC concentrations, leaving open the possibility that reduced inorganic carbon availability is involved in bleaching.

  9. EF5 PET of Tumor Hypoxia: A Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Billy W...CONTRACT NUMBER Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0236 5c...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose and scope: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has become a new standard of care for early stage lung

  10. Comparison of the synergistic effect of lipid nanobubbles and SonoVue microbubbles for high intensity focused ultrasound thermal ablation of tumors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuanzhi; Yang, Ke; Cao, Yang; Zhou, Xuan; Xu, Jinshun; Liu, Jianxin; Wang, Qi; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Microbubbles (MBs) are considered as an important enhancer for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of benign or malignant tumors. Recently, different sizes of gas-filled bubbles have been investigated to improve the therapeutic efficiency of HIFU thermal ablation and reduce side effects associated with ultrasound power and irradiation time. However, nanobubbles (NBs) as an ultrasound contrast agent for synergistic therapy of HIFU thermal ablation remain controversial due to their small nano-size in diameter. In this study, phospholipid-shell and gas-core NBs with a narrow size range of 500-600 nm were developed. The synergistic effect of NBs for HIFU thermal ablation was carefully studied both in excised bovine livers and in breast tumor models of rabbits, and made a critical comparison with that of commercial SonoVue microbubbles (SonoVue MBs). In addition, the pathological changes of the targeted area in tumor tissue after HIFU ablation were further investigated. Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was used as the control. Under the same HIFU parameters, the quantitative echo intensity of B-mode ultrasound image and the volume of coagulative necrosis in lipid NBs groups were significantly higher and larger than that in PBS groups, but could not be demonstrated a difference to that in SonoVue MBs groups both ex vivo and in vivo. These results showed that the synergistic effect of lipid NBs for HIFU thermal ablation were similar with that of SonoVue MBs, and further indicate that lipid NBs could potentially become an enhancer for HIFU thermal ablation of tumors.

  11. Comparison of the synergistic effect of lipid nanobubbles and SonoVue microbubbles for high intensity focused ultrasound thermal ablation of tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuanzhi; Yang, Ke; Cao, Yang; Zhou, Xuan; Xu, Jinshun; Liu, Jianxin; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Microbubbles (MBs) are considered as an important enhancer for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of benign or malignant tumors. Recently, different sizes of gas-filled bubbles have been investigated to improve the therapeutic efficiency of HIFU thermal ablation and reduce side effects associated with ultrasound power and irradiation time. However, nanobubbles (NBs) as an ultrasound contrast agent for synergistic therapy of HIFU thermal ablation remain controversial due to their small nano-size in diameter. In this study, phospholipid-shell and gas-core NBs with a narrow size range of 500–600 nm were developed. The synergistic effect of NBs for HIFU thermal ablation was carefully studied both in excised bovine livers and in breast tumor models of rabbits, and made a critical comparison with that of commercial SonoVue microbubbles (SonoVue MBs). In addition, the pathological changes of the targeted area in tumor tissue after HIFU ablation were further investigated. Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was used as the control. Under the same HIFU parameters, the quantitative echo intensity of B-mode ultrasound image and the volume of coagulative necrosis in lipid NBs groups were significantly higher and larger than that in PBS groups, but could not be demonstrated a difference to that in SonoVue MBs groups both ex vivo and in vivo. These results showed that the synergistic effect of lipid NBs for HIFU thermal ablation were similar with that of SonoVue MBs, and further indicate that lipid NBs could potentially become an enhancer for HIFU thermal ablation of tumors. PMID:26925336

  12. Pyrolysis Gas Flow in Thermally Ablating Media Using Time-Implicit Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    dynamics of flow of pyrolysis gas in a charring ablating media. We have benchmarked our results with the published data. The protective coating of... Dynamics Laboratory and Test Facility,Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,Gainesville,FL,32611 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...Gas flow Code, which is a family of our in-house finite element modules, and has been used to solve problems in plasma dynamics like low pressure

  13. Pre-ablation treatment of carbon/carbon composites to improve the thermal shock resistance for SiC coating under oxyacetylene torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Ping; Fu, Qian-Gang; Qu, Jun-Ling; Li, He-Jun

    2015-11-01

    C/C composites were pre-ablated for different time (0 s, 15 s, 30 s and 45 s) under oxyacetylene torch. The mass ablation rate of the C/C composites was 0.39 mg cm-2 s-1. An interlocking transition layer of SiC was formed on the pre-ablated C/C composites by pack cementation. Thermal shock test of the SiC coated C/C composites was performed under oxyacetylene torch from 1873 K to room temperature. Compared with the coated C/C composites pre-ablated for 0 s, 15 s and 45 s, after 10 thermal cycles, no coating/substrate gaps or penetrating cracks were found in the SiC coated C/C composites with the C/C substrate pre-ablated for 30 s. The good shock performance was attributed to the interlocking structure of transition layer, which could efficiently alleviate the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient between C/C substrate and SiC coating.

  14. A Short Review of Ablative-Material Response Models and Simulation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachaud, Jean; Magin, Thierry E.; Cozmuta, Ioana; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2011-01-01

    A review of the governing equations and boundary conditions used to model the response of ablative materials submitted to a high-enthalpy flow is proposed. The heritage of model-development efforts undertaken in the 1960s is extremely clear: the bases of the models used in the community are mathematically equivalent. Most of the material-response codes implement a single model in which the equation parameters may be modified to model different materials or conditions. The level of fidelity of the models implemented in design tools only slightly varies. Research and development codes are generally more advanced but often not as robust. The capabilities of each of these codes are summarized in a color-coded table along with research and development efforts currently in progress.

  15. CSB ablation induced apoptosis is mediated by increased endoplasmic reticulum stress response

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Manuela; Balzerano, Alessio; Arisi, Ivan; D’Onofrio, Mara; Brandi, Rossella; Bongiorni, Silvia; Brancorsini, Stefano; Frontini, Mattia; Proietti-De-Santis, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The DNA repair protein Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) has been recently identified as a promising anticancer target. Suppression, by antisense technology, of this protein causes devastating effects on tumor cells viability, through a massive induction of apoptosis, while being non-toxic to non-transformed cells. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying the pro-apoptotic effects observed after CSB ablation, global gene expression patterns were determined, to identify genes that were significantly differentially regulated as a function of CSB expression. Our findings revealed that response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and response to unfolded proteins were ranked top amongst the cellular processes affected by CSB suppression. The major components of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis pathway, including pro-apoptotic factors downstream of the ATF3-CHOP cascade, were dramatically up-regulated. Altogether our findings add new pieces to the understanding of CSB mechanisms of action and to the molecular basis of CS syndrome. PMID:28253359

  16. VEGF-ablation therapy reduces drug delivery and therapeutic response in ECM-dense tumors.

    PubMed

    Röhrig, F; Vorlová, S; Hoffmann, H; Wartenberg, M; Escorcia, F E; Keller, S; Tenspolde, M; Weigand, I; Gätzner, S; Manova, K; Penack, O; Scheinberg, D A; Rosenwald, A; Ergün, S; Granot, Z; Henke, E

    2017-01-05

    The inadequate transport of drugs into the tumor tissue caused by its abnormal vasculature is a major obstacle to the treatment of cancer. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs can cause phenotypic alteration and maturation of the tumor's vasculature. However, whether this consistently improves delivery and subsequent response to therapy is still controversial. Clinical results indicate that not all patients benefit from antiangiogenic treatment, necessitating the development of criteria to predict the effect of these agents in individual tumors. We demonstrate that, in anti-VEGF-refractory murine tumors, vascular changes after VEGF ablation result in reduced delivery leading to therapeutic failure. In these tumors, the impaired response after anti-VEGF treatment is directly linked to strong deposition of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) components and high expression of lysyl oxidases. The resulting condensed, highly crosslinked ECM impeded drug permeation, protecting tumor cells from exposure to small-molecule drugs. The reduced vascular density after anti-VEGF treatment further decreased delivery in these tumors, an effect not compensated by the improved vessel quality. Pharmacological inhibition of lysyl oxidases improved drug delivery in various tumor models and reversed the negative effect of VEGF ablation on drug delivery and therapeutic response in anti-VEGF-resistant tumors. In conclusion, the vascular changes after anti-VEGF therapy can have a context-dependent negative impact on overall therapeutic efficacy. A determining factor is the tumor ECM, which strongly influences the effect of anti-VEGF therapy. Our results reveal the prospect to revert a possible negative effect and to potentiate responsiveness to antiangiogenic therapy by concomitantly targeting ECM-modifying enzymes.

  17. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ=9.3-μm CO2 laser: heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Lee, Chulsung; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    A mechanically scanned CO2 laser operated at high laser pulse repetition rates can be used to rapidly and precisely remove dental decay. This study aims to determine whether these laser systems can safely ablate enamel and dentin without excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. Samples were derived from noncarious extracted molars. Pulpal temperatures were recorded using microthermocouples situated at the pulp chamber roof of samples (n=12), which were occlusally ablated using a rapid-scanning, water-cooled 300 Hz CO2 laser over a two minute time course. The mechanical strength of facially ablated dentin (n=10) was determined via four-point bend test and compared to control samples (n=10) prepared with 320 grit wet sand paper to simulate conventional preparations. Composite-to-enamel bond strength was measured via single-plane shear test for ablated/non-etched (n=10) and ablated/acid-etched (n=8) samples and compared to control samples (n=9) prepared by 320 grit wet sanding. Thermocouple measurements indicated that the temperature remained below ambient temperature at 19.0°C (s.d.=0.9) if water-cooling was used. There was no discoloration of either dentin and enamel, the treated surfaces were uniformly ablated and there were no cracks observable on the laser treated surfaces. Fourpoint bend tests yielded mean mechanical strengths of 18.2 N (s.d.=4.6) for ablated dentin and 18.1 N (s.d.=2.7) for control (p>0.05). Shear tests yielded mean bond strengths of 31.2 MPa (s.d.=2.5, p<0.01) for ablated/acid-etched samples, 5.2 MPa (s.d.=2.4, p<0.001) for ablated/non-etched samples, and 37.0 MPa (s.d.=3.6) for control. The results indicate that a rapid-scanning 300 Hz CO2 laser can effectively ablate dentin and enamel without excessive heat accumulation and with minimal

  18. Vibration testing based on impulse response excited by pulsed-laser ablation: Measurement of frequency response function with detection-free input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoya, Naoki; Kajiwara, Itsuro; Hosokawa, Takahiko

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a non-contact vibration-measurement system that is based on impulse excitation by laser ablation (i.e. laser excitation) to measure the high-frequency-vibration characteristics of objects. The proposed method makes it possible to analyse the frequency response function just by measuring the output (acceleration response) of a test object excited by pulsed-laser ablation. This technique does not require detection of the input force. Firstly, using a rigid block, the pulsed-laser-ablation force is calibrated via Newton's second law. Secondly, an experiment is conducted in which an object whose natural frequency lies in the high-frequency domain is excited by pulsed-laser ablation. The complex frequency spectrum obtained by Fourier transform of the measured response is then divided by the estimated pulsed-laser-ablation force. Finally, because of the error involved in the trigger position of the response with respect to the impulse arrival time, the phase of the complex Fourier transform is modified by accounting for the response dead time. The result is the frequency response function of the object. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by a vibration test of an aluminium block.

  19. Heat Stress-Induced PI3K/mTORC2-Dependent AKT Signaling Is a Central Mediator of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Survival to Thermal Ablation Induced Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Scott M.; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Jondal, Danielle E.; Butters, Kim A.; Knudsen, Bruce E.; Anderson, Jill L.; Lien, Karen R.; Sutor, Shari L.; Lee, Ju-Seog; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Grande, Joseph P.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Woodrum, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal ablative therapies are important treatment options in the multidisciplinary care of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but lesions larger than 2–3 cm are plagued with high local recurrence rates and overall survival of these patients remains poor. Currently no adjuvant therapies exist to prevent local HCC recurrence in patients undergoing thermal ablation. The molecular mechanisms mediating HCC resistance to thermal ablation induced heat stress and local recurrence remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the HCC cells with a poor prognostic hepatic stem cell subtype (Subtype HS) are more resistant to heat stress than HCC cells with a better prognostic hepatocyte subtype (Subtype HC). Moreover, sublethal heat stress rapidly induces phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) dependent-protein kinase B (AKT) survival signaling in HCC cells in vitro and at the tumor ablation margin in vivo. Conversely, inhibition of PI3K/mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2)-dependent AKT phosphorylation or direct inhibition of AKT function both enhance HCC cell killing and decrease HCC cell survival to sublethal heat stress in both poor and better prognostic HCC subtypes while mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-inhibition has no impact. Finally, we showed that AKT isoforms 1, 2 and 3 are differentially upregulated in primary human HCCs and that overexpression of AKT correlates with worse tumor biology and pathologic features (AKT3) and prognosis (AKT1). Together these findings define a novel molecular mechanism whereby heat stress induces PI3K/mTORC2-dependent AKT survival signaling in HCC cells and provide a mechanistic rationale for adjuvant AKT inhibition in combination with thermal ablation as a strategy to enhance HCC cell killing and prevent local recurrence, particularly at the ablation margin. PMID:27611696

  20. Thermal ablation of plasma-facing surfaces in tokamak disruptions: Sensitivity to particle kinetic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.; Hassanein, A.

    1996-02-01

    Ablation damage to solid targets with high heat flux impulses is generally greater high-energy electron beam heat sources compared to low-energy plasma guns. This sensitivity to incoming particle kinetic energy is explored with computer modelling; a fast-running routine (DESIRE) is developed for initial scoping analysis and is found to be in reasonable agreement with several experiments on graphite and tungsten targets. If tokamak disruptions are characterized by particle energies less than {approximately}1 keV, then we expect plasma guns are a better analogue than electron beams for simulating disruption behavior and testing candidate plasma-facing materials.

  1. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions:An Overview of the Technology Maturation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A S.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist, NASA identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: Mass to Surface, Surface Access, Precision Landing, Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, Safety and Mission Assurance, and Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems are manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (38 cell) by hand, and in a limited amount of time all of the cells must be filled and the heatshield must be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the low strain-to-failure and manufacturing size limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS. A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials. The high strain-to-failure nature of the conformal ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. By reducing the overall part count, the cost of installation (based on cost comparisons between blanket

  2. Thermal Management Architecture for Future Responsive Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D.; Zimbeck, W.; Kroliczek, E.

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a novel thermal design architecture that enables satellites to be conceived, configured, launched, and operationally deployed very quickly. The architecture has been given the acronym SMARTS for Satellite Modular and Reconfigurable Thermal System and it involves four basic design rules: modest radiator oversizing, maximum external insulation, internal isothermalization and radiator heat flow modulation. The SMARTS philosophy is being developed in support of the DoD Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) initiative which seeks to drastically improve small satellite adaptability, deployability, and design flexibility. To illustrate the benefits of the philosophy for a prototypical multi-paneled small satellite, the paper describes a SMARTS thermal control system implementation that uses: panel-to-panel heat conduction, intra-panel heat pipe isothermalization, radiator heat flow modulation via a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) cold-biased loop heat pipe (LHP) and maximum external multi-layer insulation (MLI). Analyses are presented that compare the traditional "cold-biasing plus heater power" passive thermal design approach to the SMARTS approach. Plans for a 3-panel SMARTS thermal test bed are described. Ultimately, the goal is to incorporate SMARTS into the design of future ORS satellites, but it is also possible that some aspects of SMARTS technology could be used to improve the responsiveness of future NASA spacecraft. [22 CFR 125.4(b)(13) applicable

  3. Computational modeling of ultra-short-pulse ablation of enamel

    SciTech Connect

    London, R.A.; Bailey, D.S.; Young, D.A.

    1996-02-29

    A computational model for the ablation of tooth enamel by ultra-short laser pulses is presented. The role of simulations using this model in designing and understanding laser drilling systems is discussed. Pulses of duration 300 sec and intensity greater than 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} are considered. Laser absorption proceeds via multi-photon initiated plasma mechanism. The hydrodynamic response is calculated with a finite difference method, using an equation of state constructed from thermodynamic functions including electronic, ion motion, and chemical binding terms. Results for the ablation efficiency are presented. An analytic model describing the ablation threshold and ablation depth is presented. Thermal coupling to the remaining tissue and long-time thermal conduction are calculated. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements of the ablation efficiency. Desired improvements in the model are presented.

  4. Ablation velocity and thermal damage of myocardial tissue using a CO2 laser for transmyocardial laser revascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachinopoulou, Anna; Beek, Johan F.; van Leeuwen, Ton G. J. M.; Beek, W. J.

    1999-02-01

    Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization (TMLR) is a new experimental method for relief of angina pectoris in patients with severe coronary artery disease. TMLR aims at revascularizing chronic hibernating myocardium by creating transmural channels. One of the working mechanism hypotheses is that the endocardial side of the channels remains open, enabling perfusion of the hibernating myocardium directly from the left ventricle. Although the working mechanism of TMLR is still unknown (perfusion through patent channels, induction of angiogenesis, relief of angina through destruction of sympatic innervation, others?), first clinical studies are successful. Currently, the Heart LaserTM and other CO2 lasers, XeCl Excimer laser and Ho:YAG laser are under investigation for TMLR. The initial attempts of TMR with needles were soon replaced by laser induced channels. Efforts were focused on developing a CO2 laser that could penetrate a beating heart during its relaxation phase. Later, the position of the beam could be fixed in the myocardial wall using lasers with fiber delivery systems and perforation was achieved within multiple cycles. Various researchers reported on both patent and non-patent channels after TMLR. Our belief is that the extent of laser induced thermal damage is one of the factors that determine the clinical outcome and the extent of angiogenesis (and, possibly, the patency of the channel). The purpose of this study is to present a simple theoretical model to predict the extent of thermal damage around a transmyocardial channel. In vitro experiments were performed on myocardial bovine tissue and damage was assessed. The results were used to determine the final parameters of the approximating theoretical equation. To evaluate our results, we compared our results to in vitro data using the Heart LaserTM from the literature. Ablation velocities were also measured and the results were compared to ablation velocity calculations using a model described by Ostegar

  5. Thermal weights for semiclassical vibrational response functions

    SciTech Connect

    Moberg, Daniel R.; Alemi, Mallory; Loring, Roger F.

    2015-08-28

    Semiclassical approximations to response functions can allow the calculation of linear and nonlinear spectroscopic observables from classical dynamics. Evaluating a canonical response function requires the related tasks of determining thermal weights for initial states and computing the dynamics of these states. A class of approximations for vibrational response functions employs classical trajectories at quantized values of action variables and represents the effects of the radiation-matter interaction by discontinuous transitions. Here, we evaluate choices for a thermal weight function which are consistent with this dynamical approximation. Weight functions associated with different semiclassical approximations are compared, and two forms are constructed which yield the correct linear response function for a harmonic potential at any temperature and are also correct for anharmonic potentials in the classical mechanical limit of high temperature. Approximations to the vibrational linear response function with quantized classical trajectories and proposed thermal weight functions are assessed for ensembles of one-dimensional anharmonic oscillators. This approach is shown to perform well for an anharmonic potential that is not locally harmonic over a temperature range encompassing the quantum limit of a two-level system and the limit of classical dynamics.

  6. Ultrasound-Guided Genicular Nerve Thermal Radiofrequency Ablation for Chronic Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Joshua; Weyker, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is one of the most common joint diseases affecting adults in the United States. For elderly patients with multiple medical comorbidities who do not wish to undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA), lifestyle modification, pharmacologic management, and injections are the mainstay of therapy. Previously, pain management interventions were limited to intra-articular joint injections and viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid. Fluoroscopic-guided techniques for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the genicular nerves have been previously described and a recent cadaveric study suggests that ultrasound-guided genicular nerve blocks can be performed accurately. We performed an ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of the genicular nerves in 88-year-old woman who had deferred surgical management given her age. Following successful ultrasound guided diagnostic genicular nerve blocks, she proceeded to RFA using the same ultrasound guided technique. The procedure resulted in significant pain relief and improvement in overall function for greater than 6 months. The use of ultrasound provides a relatively rapid and noninvasive method to directly visualize genicular nerves and surrounding vasculature. Our case suggests that, for genicular nerve blockade and RFA, ultrasound may be a useful alternative to fluoroscopy. Not only did the procedure result in significant pain relief that has persisted for greater than 6 months but also more importantly her function status and quality of life were improved. PMID:27822391

  7. The effects of electron thermal radiation on laser ablative shock waves from aluminum plasma into ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai Shiva, S.; Leela, Ch.; Prem Kiran, P.; Sijoy, C. D.; Chaturvedi, S.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of electron thermal radiation on 7 ns laser ablative shock waves from aluminum (Al) plasma into an ambient atmospheric air has been numerically investigated using a one-dimensional, three-temperature (electron, ion, and radiation) radiation hydrodynamic code MULTI. The governing equations in Lagrangian form are solved using an implicit scheme for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The shockwave velocities (Vsw) obtained numerically are compared with our experimental values obtained over the intensity range of 2.0 × 1010 to 1.4 × 1011 W/cm2. It is observed that the numerically obtained Vsw is significantly influenced by the thermal radiation effects which are found to be dominant in the initial stage up to 2 μs depending on the input laser energy. Also, the results are found to be sensitive to the co-ordinate geometry used in the simulation (planar, cylindrical, and spherical). Moreover, it is revealed that shock wave undergoes geometrical transitions from planar to cylindrical nature and from cylindrical to spherical nature with time during its propagation into an ambient atmospheric air. It is also observed that the spatio-temporal evolution of plasma electron and ion parameters such as temperature, specific energy, pressure, electron number density, and mass density were found to be modified significantly due to the effects of electron thermal radiation.

  8. Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, Scott D. (Inventor); Gray, David L. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specified surface of the body. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes: (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature.

  9. Equivalence of cell survival data for radiation dose and thermal dose in ablative treatments: analysis applied to essential tremor thalamotomy by focused ultrasound and gamma knife.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, D; Lee, M; Ter Haar, G; Sela, B; Eames, M; Snell, J; Kassell, N; Sheehan, J; Larner, J M; Aubry, J-F

    2017-01-31

    Thermal dose and absorbed radiation dose have historically been difficult to compare because different biological mechanisms are at work. Thermal dose denatures proteins and the radiation dose causes DNA damage in order to achieve ablation. The purpose of this paper is to use the proportion of cell survival as a potential common unit by which to measure the biological effect of each procedure. Survival curves for both thermal and radiation doses have been extracted from previously published data for three different cell types. Fits of these curves were used to convert both thermal and radiation dose into the same quantified biological effect: fraction of surviving cells. They have also been used to generate and compare survival profiles from the only indication for which clinical data are available for both focused ultrasound (FUS) thermal ablation and radiation ablation: essential tremor thalamotomy. All cell types could be fitted with coefficients of determination greater than 0.992. As an illustration, survival profiles of clinical thalamotomies performed by radiosurgery and FUS are plotted on a same graph for the same metric: fraction of surviving cells. FUS and Gamma Knife have the potential to be used in combination to deliver a more effective treatment (for example, FUS may be used to debulk the main tumour mass, and radiation to treat the surrounding tumour bed). In this case, a model which compares thermal and radiation treatments is valuable in order to adjust the dose between the two.

  10. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu Gandi, Appala; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical phonons are found to occur as a consequence of the van der Waals bonding, contribute significantly to the thermal transport, and compensate for the reduced contributions of the acoustic phonons (increased scattering cross-sections in heterostructures), such that the thermal conductivities turn out to be similar to those of the bare MXenes. Our results indicate that the important superlattice design approach of thermoelectrics (to reduce the thermal conductivity) may be effective for two-dimensional van der Waals materials when used in conjunction with intercalation.

  11. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Gandi, Appala Naidu; Alshareef, Husam N; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-25

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical phonons are found to occur as a consequence of the van der Waals bonding, contribute significantly to the thermal transport, and compensate for the reduced contributions of the acoustic phonons (increased scattering cross-sections in heterostructures), such that the thermal conductivities turn out to be similar to those of the bare MXenes. Our results indicate that the important superlattice design approach of thermoelectrics (to reduce the thermal conductivity) may be effective for two-dimensional van der Waals materials when used in conjunction with intercalation.

  12. Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, Scott D. (Inventor); Gray, David L. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to, or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

  13. Ablation efficiency and relative thermal confinement measurements using wavelengths 1,064, 1,320, and 1,444 nm for laser-assisted lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jong-In; Holcomb, J David

    2013-02-01

    Laser-assisted lipolysis is routinely used for contouring the body and the neck while modifications of the technique have recently been advocated for facial contouring. In this study, wavelength-dependence measurements of laser lipolysis effect were performed using different lasers at 1,064, 1,320, and 1,444 nm wavelengths that are currently used clinically. Fresh porcine skin with fatty tissue was used for the experiments with radiant exposure of 5-8 W with the same parameters (beam diameter = 600 μm, peak power = 200 mJ, and pulse rate = 40 Hz) for 1,064, 1,320 and 1,444 nm laser wavelengths. After laser irradiation, ablation crater depth and width and tissue mass loss were measured using spectral optical coherence tomography and a micro-analytical balance, respectively. In addition, thermal temporal monitoring was performed with a thermal imaging camera placed over ex vivo porcine fat tissue; temperature changes were recorded for each wavelength. This study demonstrated greatest ablation crater depth and width and mass removal in fatty tissue at the 1,444 nm wavelength followed by, in order, 1,320 and 1,064 nm. In the evaluation of heat distribution at different wavelengths, reduced heat diffusion was observed at 1,444 nm. The ablation efficiency was found to be dependent upon wavelength, and the 1,444 nm wavelength was found to provide both the highest efficiency for fatty tissue ablation and the greatest thermal confinement.

  14. Temperature profile of ex-vivo organs during radio frequency thermal ablation by fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Giovanna; Iadicicco, Agostino; Tosi, Daniele; Verze, Paolo; Carlomagno, Nicola; Tammaro, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Juliet; Campopiano, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    We report on the integration of fiber optic sensors with commercial medical instrumentation for temperature monitoring during radio frequency ablation for tumor treatment. A suitable configuration with five fiber Bragg grating sensors bonded to a bipolar radio frequency (RF) probe has been developed to monitor the area under treatment. A series of experiments were conducted on ex-vivo animal kidney and liver and the results confirm that we were able to make a multipoint measurement and to develop a real-time temperature profile of the area, with a temperature resolution of 0.1°C and a spatial resolution of 5 mm during a series of different and consecutive RF discharges.

  15. Design, qualification, manufacturing and integration of IXV Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioeta, Mario; Di Vita, Gandolfo; Signorelli Maria, Teresa; Bianco, Gianluca; Cutroni, Maurizio; Damiani, Francesco; Ferretti, Viviana; Rotondo, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, all the activities carried out by Avio S.p.A in order to define, qualify, manufacture and integrate the IXV Ablative TPS will be presented. In particular the extensive numerical simulation in both small and full scale testing activities will be overviewed. Wide-ranging testing activity has been carried out in order to verify, confirm and correlate the numerical models used for TPS sizing. Tests ranged from classical thermo-mechanical characterization traction specimens to tests in plasma wind tunnels on dedicated prototypes. Finally manufacturing and integration activities will be described emphasizing technological aspects solved in order to meet the stringent requirements in terms of shape accuracy and integration tolerances.

  16. The influence of light on thermal responses.

    PubMed

    te Kulve, M; Schellen, L; Schlangen, L J M; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2016-02-01

    Light is essential for vision and plays an important role in non-visual responses, thus affecting alertness, mood and circadian rhythms. Furthermore, light influences physiological processes, such as thermoregulation, and therefore may be expected to play a role in thermal comfort (TC) as well. A systematic literature search was performed for human studies exploring the relation between ocular light exposure, thermophysiology and TC. Experimental results show that light in the evening can reduce melatonin secretion, delay the natural decline in core body temperature (CBT) and slow down the increase in distal skin temperature. In the morning though, bright light can result in a faster decline in melatonin levels, thus enabling a faster increase in CBT. Moreover, the colour of light can affect temperature perception of the environment. Light with colour tones towards the red end of the visual spectrum leads to a warmer perception compared to more bluish light tones. It should be noted, however, that many results of light on thermal responses are inconclusive, and a theoretical framework is largely lacking. In conclusion, light is capable of evoking thermophysiological responses and visual input can alter perception of the thermal environment. Therefore, lighting conditions should be taken into consideration during thermophysiological research and in the design of indoor climates.

  17. Renal Ablation Update

    PubMed Central

    Khiatani, Vishal; Dixon, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal ablative technologies have evolved considerably in the recent past and are now an important component of current clinical guidelines for the treatment of small renal masses. Both radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation have intermediate-term oncologic control that rivals surgical options, with favorable complication profiles. Studies comparing cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation show no significant difference in oncologic control or complication profile between the two modalities. Early data from small series with microwave ablation have shown similar promising results. Newer technologies including irreversible electroporation and high-intensity–focused ultrasound have theoretical advantages, but will require further research before becoming a routine part of the ablation armamentarium. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the current ablative technologies available, briefly review their mechanisms of action, discuss technical aspects of each, and provide current data supporting their use. PMID:25049445

  18. A fast response thermal conductivity gage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilcher, J. O., II; Krummerich, M. B.

    1986-04-01

    During the spring of 1983, the Ballistic Research Laboratory measured behind-the-armor effects for several weapons against a variety of targets. One of the major concerns was heat generation during and immediately following impact of the warhead against the targets. Previous tests of this type had used thin skin total heat gages and standard laboratory heat detectors. Thin skin gages record only the maximum temperature attained by the skins' back surface with no indication of the time required to reach this temperature. Although an approximation of the total heat deposition can be made, no rate of deposition can be estimated without knowing the time of the event. The large thermal mass of a typical laboratory detector such as an infrared power meter is designed to measure a steady-state flux and cannot respond quickly enough to register a transient event. Neither gage type can withstand severe blast and shock environments. Since the temperature inside the target rose sharply in a very short time, special thermal fluence gages were fabricated which emphasized the time response of the gage rather than its thermal capacity. This gage is used when the thermal flux is of short duration, 150 milliseconds or less, and of low total energy, 179 calories per square centimeter or less. The maximum operating temperature of the gage is 500 degree Celsius.

  19. Optimization of the Thermal Dosimetry for Endocavitary HICU Ablation of Sectorial Digestive Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rata, Mihaela; Salomir, Rares; Lafon, Cyril; Chapelon, Jean Yves; Cotton, François; Bonmartin, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Effective treatment of malignant tumours demands well controlled energy deposition in the region of interest. Generally, two major steps must be fulfilled: pre-operative optimal planning of the thermal dosimetry and per-operative active control of the delivered thermal dose. The first issue is addressed here in the particular case of the ultrasound therapy for endocavitary tumours (oesophagus, colon or rectum) with phased array cylindrical contact applicators. Computation is divided into two main parts: 1. definition of the heating sequence parameters (the total sonication time, the number of independent beams, the orientation and the applied time for every beam), and 2. calculation of the corresponding thermal dose. One slice orthogonal to the symmetry axis of the High Intensity Contact Ultrasound (HICU) device is considered. User defined tumoral geometry is divided into a regular polar grid (5.625 degrees step). The different duration applied for interleaved fast switched beams corresponding to selected orientations is exponentially scaled to the measured depth along each direction. Iterative 2D Fourier transformation of the BHTE equation allows fast calculation of the temperature and thermal dose (computing time accomplished with Matlab language ˜ 3 minutes for a medium size tumour). Border conditions (cooling balloon) are taken into account with a binary mask applied to the simulated temperature at each iteration. The planned thermal dose covered the target region at 300% of lethal threshold with extra margin ranged from 1 to 3 mm. The short computing time allows near real time, in-situ planning of the dosimetry.

  20. Multifunctional magnetic-optical nanoparticle probes for simultaneous detection, separation, and thermal ablation of multiple pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chungang; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles possessing magnetization and near-infrared (NIR) absorption have warranted interest due to their significant applications in magnetic resonance imaging, diagnosis, bioseparation, target delivery, and NIR photothermal ablation. Herein, the site-selective assembly of magnetic nanoparticles onto the ends or ends and sides of gold nanorods with different aspect ratios (ARs) to create multifunctional nanorods decorated with varying numbers of magnetic particles is described for the first time. The resulting hybrid nanoparticles are designated as Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod)-Fe(3)O(4) nanodumbbells and Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod) necklacelike constructs with tunable optical and magnetic properties, respectively. These hybrid nanomaterials can be used for multiplex detection and separation because of their tunable magnetic and plasmonic functionality. More specifically, Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod) necklacelike probes of different ARs are utilized for simultaneous optical detection based on their plasmon properties, magnetic separation, and photokilling of multiple pathogens from a single sample at one time. The combined functionalities of the synthesized probes will open up many exciting opportunities in dual imaging for targeted delivery and photothermal therapy.

  1. Computer modeling of electromagnetic and thermal effects in microwave soft tissue ablation (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Nigel J.; Clegg, Peter J.

    2005-04-01

    Microwave Endometrial Ablation (MEA) is a technique that can be used for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. The procedure involves sweeping a specially designed microwave applicator throughout the uterine cavity to achieve an ideally uniform depth of tissue necrosis of between 5 and 6mm. We have performed a computer analysis of the MEA procedure in which finite element analysis was used to determine the SAR pattern around the applicator. This was followed by a Green Function based solution of the Bioheat equation to determine the resulting induced temperatures. The method developed is applicable to situations involving a moving microwave source, as used in MEA. The validity of the simulation was verified by measurements in a tissue phantom material using a purpose built applicator and a calibrated pulling device. From the calculated temperatures the depth of necrosis was assessed through integration of the resulting rates of cell death estimated using the Arrhenius equation. The Arrhenius parameters used were derived from published data on BHK cells. Good agreement was seen between the calculated depths of cell necrosis and those found in human in-vivo testing.

  2. [New techniques of tumor ablation (microwaves, electroporation)].

    PubMed

    de Baere, T

    2011-09-01

    Since the introduction of radiofrequency tumor ablation of liver tumors in the late 1990s, local destructive therapies have been applied to lung, renal and bone lesions. In addition, new techniques have been introduced to compensate for the limitations of radiofrequency ablation, namely the reduced rate of complete ablation for tumors larger than 3 cm and tumors near vessels larger than 3 mm. Microwave ablation is currently evolving rapidly. While it is a technique based on thermal ablation similar to radiofrequency ablation, there are significant differences between both techniques. Electroporation, of interest because of the non-thermal nature of the ablation process, also is under evaluation.

  3. Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

  4. Assessment of tbe Performance of Ablative Insulators Under Realistic Solid Rocket Motor Operating Conditions (a Doctoral Dissertation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Heath Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ablative insulators are used in the interior surfaces of solid rocket motors to prevent the mechanical structure of the rocket from failing due to intense heating by the high-temperature solid-propellant combustion products. The complexity of the ablation process underscores the need for ablative material response data procured from a realistic solid rocket motor environment, where all of the potential contributions to material degradation are present and in their appropriate proportions. For this purpose, the present study examines ablative material behavior in a laboratory-scale solid rocket motor. The test apparatus includes a planar, two-dimensional flow channel in which flat ablative material samples are installed downstream of an aluminized solid propellant grain and imaged via real-time X-ray radiography. In this way, the in-situ transient thermal response of an ablator to all of the thermal, chemical, and mechanical erosion mechanisms present in a solid rocket environment can be observed and recorded. The ablative material is instrumented with multiple micro-thermocouples, so that in-depth temperature histories are known. Both total heat flux and thermal radiation flux gauges have been designed, fabricated, and tested to characterize the thermal environment to which the ablative material samples are exposed. These tests not only allow different ablative materials to be compared in a realistic solid rocket motor environment but also improve the understanding of the mechanisms that influence the erosion behavior of a given ablative material.

  5. Ablator Response Model Development: From Flight Data Back to Fundamental Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Nagi N.; Lachaud, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    The successful Mars atmospheric entry by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL-Curiosity) combined with the success of the Earth atmospheric entry by the Stardust capsule have established PICA as a major Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) material. We expect that this class of materials will be on the short list selected by NASA for any atmospheric entry missions and that it will be the lead of that list of materials in any planning, feasibility studies or flight readiness studies. In addition to NASAs successes, the Dragon capsule, the successful commercial space vehicle built by SpaceX, uses PICA-X, while the European Space Agency is considering ASTERM for its exploration missions that involve atmospheric entries, both of these materials are of the same family as PICA. In the talk, a high-fidelity model will be detailed and discussed. The model tracks the chemical composition of the gases produced during pyrolysis. As in the conventional models, it uses equilibrium chemistry to determine the recession rate at high temperatures but switches to in-volume finite-rate ablation for lower temperatures. It also tracks the time evolution of the porosity of the material. Progress in implementing this high-fidelity model in a code will be presented. In addition, a set of basic experimental data being supported for model validation will be summarized. The validation process for the model development will be discussed. Preliminary results will be presented for a case where detailed pyrolysis product chemistry is computed. Finally, a wish list for a set of validation experiments will be outlined and discussed.

  6. A 1-MHz 2-D CMUT array for HIFU thermal ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hyo-Seon; Vaithilingam, Srikant; Park, Kwan Kyu; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Firouzi, Kamyar; Choe, Jung Woo; Watkins, Ronald D.; Oguz, Huseyin Kagan; Kupnik, Mario; Pauly, Kim Butts; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre

    2017-03-01

    We developed a fully-populated 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. The 2-D CMUT array, which consists of 20 × 20 square CMUT elements with an element-to-element pitch of 1 mm, was designed and fabricated using the thick-buried-oxide (BOX) fabrication process. It was then assembled on a custom interface board that can provide various array configurations depending on the desired applications. In this study, the interface board groups the CMUT array elements into eight channels, based on the phase delay from the element to the targeted focal point at a 20-mm distance from the array surface, which corresponds to an F-number of 1. An 8-channel phase generating system supplies continuous waves with eight different phases to the eight channels of the CMUT array through bias-tees and amplifiers. This array aperture, grouped into eight channels, gives a focusing gain of 6.09 according to field simulation using Field II. Assuming a peak-to-peak pressure of 1 MPa at the surface of the array, our custom temperature simulator predicts successful tissue ablation at the focus. During the measurements, each channel was tuned with a series inductor for an operational frequency of 1 MHz. With a CMUT DC bias of 100 V and a 1-MHz AC input voltage of 55 V, we achieved peak-to-peak output pressures of 173.9 kPa and 568.7 kPa at the array surface and at the focus, respectively. The focusing gain calculated from this measurement is 3.27, which is lower than the simulated gain of 6.09 because of the mutual radiation impedance among the CMUT cells. Further optimization of the operating condition of this array and design improvements for reducing the effect of mutual radiation impedance are currently on-going.

  7. Combined ultrasonic thermal ablation with interleaved ARFI image monitoring using a single diagnostic curvilinear array: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Kristin Frinkley; Rouze, Ned C.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Rotemberg, Veronica M.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a diagnostic ultrasound system (Siemens Antares™ and CH6-2 curvilinear array) 1) to ablate ex vivo liver with a custom M-mode sequence and 2) to monitor the resulting tissue stiffening with 2-D Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging. Images were taken before and after ablation, as well as in 5 s intervals during the ablation sequence in order to monitor the ablation lesion formation temporally. Ablation lesions were generated at depths up to 1.5 cm from the surface of the liver and were not visible in B-mode. ARFI images showed liver stiffening with heating that corresponded to discolored regions in gross pathology. As expected, the contrast of ablation lesions in ARFI images is observed to increase with ablation lesion size. This study demonstrated the ability of a diagnostic system using custom beam sequences to localize an ablation site, heat the site to the point of irreversible damage, and monitor the formation of the ablation lesion with ARFI imaging. PMID:22518953

  8. Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation versus Bipolar Electrocautery for the Treatment of Inferior Turbinate Hypertrophy: Comparison of Efficacy and Postoperative Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Uluyol, Sinan; Karakaya, Nermin Erdas; Gur, Mehmet Hafit; Kilicaslan, Saffet; Kantarcioglu, Esin Ozlem; Yagiz, Ozlem; Arslan, Ilker Burak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Numerous surgical methods are used to treat nasal obstruction due to inferior turbinate hypertrophy. The primary goal of the therapy is to maximize the nasal airway for as extended a period of time as possible while minimizing therapeutic complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effects of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) and bipolar electrocautery (BEC) on the removal of nasal obstruction in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy and on nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC). Patients in both groups were also evaluated in terms of postoperative morbidity. Methods We compared the outcomes of two groups of patients: those treated with RFTA (n = 23) and those who underwent BEC (n = 20). Nasal obstruction was graded using a visual analog scale (VAS) and MCC was measured using a saccharin clearance test. Both measurements were performed before and 2 months after treatment. Results Pre- and postoperative VAS scores showed significant improvement for both groups. However, MCC results did not significantly differ between two groups. Neither edema nor crust formation persisted for more than 1 week in any patients. Conclusion Submucosal cauterization with preservation of the nasal mucosa and periosteum is as effective and safe as RFTA and should be considered when planning inferior turbinate interventions.

  9. Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation versus Bipolar Electrocautery for the Treatment of Inferior Turbinate Hypertrophy: Comparison of Efficacy and Postoperative Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Uluyol, Sinan; Karakaya, Nermin Erdas; Gur, Mehmet Hafit; Kilicaslan, Saffet; Kantarcioglu, Esin Ozlem; Yagiz, Ozlem; Arslan, Ilker Burak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous surgical methods are used to treat nasal obstruction due to inferior turbinate hypertrophy. The primary goal of the therapy is to maximize the nasal airway for as extended a period of time as possible while minimizing therapeutic complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effects of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) and bipolar electrocautery (BEC) on the removal of nasal obstruction in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy and on nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC). Patients in both groups were also evaluated in terms of postoperative morbidity. Methods We compared the outcomes of two groups of patients: those treated with RFTA (n = 23) and those who underwent BEC (n = 20). Nasal obstruction was graded using a visual analog scale (VAS) and MCC was measured using a saccharin clearance test. Both measurements were performed before and 2 months after treatment. Results Pre- and postoperative VAS scores showed significant improvement for both groups. However, MCC results did not significantly differ between two groups. Neither edema nor crust formation persisted for more than 1 week in any patients. Conclusion Submucosal cauterization with preservation of the nasal mucosa and periosteum is as effective and safe as RFTA and should be considered when planning inferior turbinate interventions. PMID:26722337

  10. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Takaaki Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  11. Hyaluronic acid gel injection to prevent thermal injury of adjacent gastrointestinal tract during percutaneous liver radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takaaki; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean ± standard deviation, 2.1 ± 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 ± 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 ± 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1%, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 ± 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  12. Characterization of a 50kW Inductively Coupled Plasma Torch for Testing of Ablative Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Benton R.; Clemens, Noel T.; Varghese, Philip L.; Bouslog, Stanley A.; Del Papa, Steven V.

    2017-01-01

    With the development of new manned spaceflight capabilities including NASA's Orion capsule and the Space-X Dragon capsule, there is a renewed importance of understanding the dynamics of ablative thermal protection systems. To this end, a new inductively coupled plasma torch facility is being developed at UT-Austin. The torch operates on argon and/or air at plasma powers up to 50 kW. In the present configuration the flow issues from a low-speed subsonic nozzle and the hot plume is characterized using slug calorimetry and emission spectroscopy. Preliminary measurements using emission spectroscopy have indicated that the torch is capable of producing an air plasma with a temperature between 6,000 K and 8,000 K depending on the power and flow settings and an argon plasma with a temperature of approximately 12,000 K. The operation envelope was measured, and heat flux measured for every point within the envelope using both a slug calorimeter and a Gardon gauge heat flux sensor. The torch was found to induce a stagnation point heat flux of between 90 and 225 W/sq cm.

  13. Selective ablation of atherosclerotic lesions with less thermal damage by controlling the pulse structure of a quantum cascade laser in the 5.7-µm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimura, Keisuke; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-04-01

    Cholesteryl esters are the main components of atherosclerotic plaques, and they have an absorption peak at the wavelength of 5.75 µm. To realize less-invasive ablation of the atherosclerotic plaques using a quasi-continuous wave (quasi-CW) quantum cascade laser (QCL), the thermal effects on normal vessels must be reduced. In this study, we attempted to reduce the thermal effects by controlling the pulse structure. The irradiation effects on rabbit atherosclerotic aortas using macro pulse irradiation (irradiation of pulses at intervals) and conventional quasi-CW irradiation were compared. The macro pulse width and the macro pulse interval were determined based on the thermal relaxation time of atherosclerotic and normal aortas in the oscillation wavelength of the QCL. The ablation depth increased and the coagulation width decreased using macro pulse irradiation. Moreover, difference in ablation depth between the atherosclerotic and normal rabbit aortas using macro pulse irradiation was confirmed. Therefore, the QCL in the 5.7-µm wavelength range with controlling the pulse structure was effective for less-invasive laser angioplasty.

  14. Bioadhesion to model thermally responsive surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrzejewski, Brett Paul

    This dissertation focuses on the characterization of two surfaces: mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of hexa(ethylene glycol) and alkyl thiolates (mixed SAM) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm). The synthesis of hexa(ethylene gylcol) alkyl thiol (C11EG 6OH) is presented along with the mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance results. The gold substrates were imaged prior to SAM formation with atomic force micrscopy (AFM). Average surface roughness of the gold substrate was 0.44 nm, 0.67 nm, 1.65 nm for 15, 25 and 60 nm gold thickness, respectively. The height of the mixed SAM was measured by ellipsometry and varied from 13 to 28°A depending on surface mole fraction of C11EG6OH. The surface mole fraction of C11EG6OH for the mixed SAM was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with optimal thermal responsive behavior in the range of 0.4 to 0.6. The mixed SAM surface was confirmed to be thermally responsive by contact angle goniometry, 35° at 28°C and ˜55° at 40°C. In addition, the mixed SAM surfaces were confirmed to be thermally responsive for various aqueous mediums by tensiometry. Factors such as oxygen, age, and surface mole fraction and how they affect the thermal responsive of the mixed SAM are discussed. Lastly, rat fibroblasts were grown on the mixed SAM and imaged by phase contrast microscopy to show inhibition of attachment at temperatures below the molecular transition. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of the fibroblast adhesion data are provided that support the hypothesis of the mixed SAM exhibits a dominantly non-fouling molecular conformation at 25°C whereas it exhibits a dominantly fouling molecular conformation at 40°C. The adhesion of six model proteins: bovine serum albumin, collagen, pyruvate kinase, cholera toxin subunit B, ribonuclease, and lysozyme to the model thermally responsive mixed SAM were examined using AFM. All six proteins possessed adhesion to the pure component alkyl thiol, in

  15. [The influence of radiofrequency thermal ablation on the clinical course of hypertrophic rhinitis and histomorphology of the inferior turbinated bones].

    PubMed

    Talyshinskiĭ, A A; Siutaĭ, Semikh; Ozogul, Dzhandal; Talyshinskiĭ, A M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the influence of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) of the inferior turbinated bones on the main functions of the nasal cavity in the patients suffering hypertrophic rhinitis. The secondary objective was to elucidate the histomorphological features of the inferior turbinated bones. A total of 40 patients presenting with nasal breathing disorders associated with the inferior turbinated bone hypertrophy were available for the examination. This work was supplemented by an experimental study with the use of rabbit the inferior turbinated bones. The influence of radiofrequency thermal energy on the hypertrophic the inferior turbinated bones was estimated based on dynamics of clinical symptoms and functional state of the nasal cavity before and after its application. The patients' complaints and the results of the objective evaluation were analysed and compared with the help of the visual-analog scale (VAS) before and 1-8 weeks after RFTA. The study has demonstrated that the size of the inferior turbinated bones and the severity of nasal obstruction significantly decreased within 28 days after RFTA whereas the patients' complaints of nasal stiffness and difficulty of nasal breathing totally disappeared. The inferior turbinated bones of the rabbits underwent a marked reduction of density and cilia growth in conjunction with the thickening of the basal membrane and the onset of subepithelial fibrosis within 7 days after RFTA. The structure of basal membrane was virtually normalized within 28 days after RFTA simultaneously with a rise in the number of cilia and the enhancement of their growth. It is concluded that the results of clinical and experimental studies give reason to consider RFTA as an effective method for the treatment of nasal stiffness caused by hypertrophy of the inferior turbinated bones. RFTA induces subepithelial fibrosis and thereby promotes the decrease of the inferior turbinated bone volume in the

  16. Fast Conformal Thermal Ablation in the Prostate with Transurethral Multi-Sectored Ultrasound Devices and MR Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, Adam M.; Diederich, Chris J.; Nau, William H.; Ross, Anthony B.; Pauly, Kim Butts; Rieke, Viola; Sommer, Graham

    2007-05-01

    Transurethral ultrasound applicators incorporating an array of multisectored tubular transducers were evaluated in theoretical simulations and in vivo canine prostates under MR guidance as a method for fast, conformal thermal therapy of the prostate. Comprehensive simulations with a biothermal model investigated the effect on lesion creation of sector size, perfusion, treatment time, rectal cooling, prostate target dimensions, and feedback controller parameters (maximum temperature, pilot points at boundary, update times). In vivo canine prostates (n = 4) were treated with trisectored ultrasound transducers (3 mm OD) under MR temperature monitoring to contour the ablation zone (>52 C for 1-2 min) to the boundary of the prostate. Contiguous thermal lesions extended 2 cm in radius from the urethra in less than 15 min and independent sector control simultaneously allowed for conformal treatment in the angular dimension. Experiments investigated sequential translation of the transducer assembly within the catheter for tailoring heat treatments to different partitions in the prostate (base, apex) without changing the initial setup. This treatment method offered greater lesion shape control in three dimensions and slightly lengthened the overall treatment time. The MR temperature images correlated with post-treatment histology and accurately controlled the heating to the target boundary. MR-based control of transurethral ultrasound devices appeared more practical with multisectored transducers compared to rotating curvilinear and planar applicators due to less stringent requirements on spatial and temporal MR parameters. This study demonstrated the applicability of these devices in the prostate for anterior-lateral BPH treatment, and whole gland or quadrant target volumes for cancer treatment.

  17. Thermal modeling for pulsed radiofrequency ablation: analytical study based on hyperbolic heat conduction.

    PubMed

    López Molina, Juan A; Rivera, María J; Trujillo, Macarena; Berjano, Enrique J

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to model the temperature progress of a pulsed radiofrequency (RF) power during RF heating of biological tissue, and to employ the hyperbolic heat transfer equation (HHTE), which takes the thermal wave behavior into account, and compare the results to those obtained using the heat transfer equation based on Fourier theory (FHTE). A theoretical model was built based on an active spherical electrode completely embedded in the biological tissue, after which HHTE and FHTE were analytically solved. We found three typical waveforms for the temperature progress depending on the relations between the dimensionless duration of the RF pulse delta(a) and the expression square root of lambda(rho-1), with lambda as the dimensionless thermal relaxation time of the tissue and rho as the dimensionless position. In the case of a unique RF pulse, the temperature at any location was the result of the overlapping of two different heat sources delayed for a duration delta(a) (each heat source being produced by a RF pulse of limitless duration). The most remarkable feature in the HHTE analytical solution was the presence of temperature peaks traveling through the medium at a finite speed. These peaks not only occurred during the RF power switch-on period but also during switch off. Finally, a physical explanation for these temperature peaks is proposed based on the interaction of forward and reverse thermal waves. All-purpose analytical solutions for FHTE and HHTE were obtained during pulsed RF heating of biological tissues, which could be used for any value of pulsing frequency and duty cycle.

  18. Development of 3D Woven Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Ellerby, Don; Stackpoole, Mairead; Peterson, Keith; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    The development of a new class of thermal protection system (TPS) materials known as 3D Woven TPS led by the Entry Systems and Technology Division of NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) will be discussed. This effort utilizes 3D weaving and resin infusion technologies to produce heat shield materials that are engineered and optimized for specific missions and requirements. A wide range of architectures and compositions have been produced and preliminarily tested to prove the viability and tailorability of the 3D weaving approach to TPS.

  19. Autonomous Aerobraking: Thermal Analysis and Response Surface Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Thornblom, Mark N.

    2011-01-01

    A high-fidelity thermal model of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was developed for use in an autonomous aerobraking simulation study. Response surface equations were derived from the high-fidelity thermal model and integrated into the autonomous aerobraking simulation software. The high-fidelity thermal model was developed using the Thermal Desktop software and used in all phases of the analysis. The use of Thermal Desktop exclusively, represented a change from previously developed aerobraking thermal analysis methodologies. Comparisons were made between the Thermal Desktop solutions and those developed for the previous aerobraking thermal analyses performed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter during aerobraking operations. A variable sensitivity screening study was performed to reduce the number of variables carried in the response surface equations. Thermal analysis and response surface equation development were performed for autonomous aerobraking missions at Mars and Venus.

  20. TPS Ablator Technologies for Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Ablator technologies and the preparation for use in interplanetary spacecraft. NASA does not have adequate TPS ablatives and sufficient selection for planned missions. It includes a comparison of shuttle and interplanetary TPS requirements, the status of mainline TPS charring ablator materials, a summary of JSC SBIR accomplishments in developing advanced charring ablators and the benefits of SBIR Ablator/fabrication technology.

  1. Thermal response properties of protective clothing fabrics

    SciTech Connect

    Baitinger, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    In the industrial workplace, it becomes increasingly incumbent upon employers to require employees to use suitable protective equipment and to wear protective apparel. When workers may be subjected to accidental radiant, flame, or electric arc heat sources, work clothing should be used that does not become involved in burning. It is axiomatic that work clothing should not become a primary fuel source, adding to the level of heat exposure, since clothing is usually in intimate contact with the skin. Further, clothing should provide sufficient insulation to protect the skin from severe burn injury. If the worker receives such protection from clothing, action then may be taken to escape the confronted thermal hazard. Published laboratory test methods are used to measure flame resistance and thermal responses of flame resistant fabrics in protective clothing. The purpose of this article is to review these test methods, to discuss certain limitations in application, and to suggest how flame resistant cotton fabrics may be used to enhance worker safety.

  2. Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): a fully integrated technique for sonication and monitoring of thermal ablation in tissues.

    PubMed

    Maleke, C; Konofagou, E E

    2008-03-21

    FUS (focused ultrasound), or HIFU (high-intensity-focused ultrasound) therapy, a minimally or non-invasive procedure that uses ultrasound to generate thermal necrosis, has been proven successful in several clinical applications. This paper discusses a method for monitoring thermal treatment at different sonication durations (10 s, 20 s and 30 s) using the amplitude-modulated (AM) harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) technique in bovine liver samples in vitro. The feasibility of HMI for characterizing mechanical tissue properties has previously been demonstrated. Here, a confocal transducer, combining a 4.68 MHz therapy (FUS) and a 7.5 MHz diagnostic (pulse-echo) transducer, was used. The therapy transducer was driven by a low-frequency AM continuous signal at 25 Hz, producing a stable harmonic radiation force oscillating at the modulation frequency. A pulser/receiver was used to drive the pulse-echo transducer at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5.4 kHz. Radio-frequency (RF) signals were acquired using a standard pulse-echo technique. The temperature near the ablation region was simultaneously monitored. Both RF signals and temperature measurements were obtained before, during and after sonication. The resulting axial tissue displacement was estimated using one-dimensional cross correlation. When temperature at the focal zone was above 48 degrees C during heating, the coagulation necrosis occurred and tissue damage was irreversible. The HMI displacement profiles in relation to the temperature and sonication durations were analyzed. At the beginning of heating, the temperature at the focus increased sharply, while the tissue stiffness decreased resulting in higher HMI displacements. This was confirmed by an increase of 0.8 microm degrees C(-1)(r=0.93, p<.005). After sustained heating, the tissue became irreversibly stiffer, followed by an associated decrease in the HMI displacement (-0.79 microm degrees C(-1), r=-0.92, p<0.001). Repeated

  3. Dynamic response of laser ablative shock waves from coated and uncoated amorphous boron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelikani, Leela; Pinnoju, Venkateshwarlu; Verma, Pankaj; Singh, Raja V.; Kiran, P. Prem

    2017-01-01

    Laser ablative shock waves from compacted nano-sized powders was studied using time resolved shadowgraphy technique. Shock wave properties such as propagation of shock front, contact front, velocity and pressure behind the shock front were studied from nano-sized powders of Amorphous Boron (B) and Lithium Fluoride coated Boron (LiF-B) with the material density of 2.34 g/cc. The experiments were performed to understand the challenging aspects of laser-powder interactions to explore their application potential for laser ablation Propulsion (LAP).

  4. Cardiac shear-wave elastography using a transesophageal transducer: application to the mapping of thermal lesions in ultrasound transesophageal cardiac ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiecinski, Wojciech; Bessière, Francis; Constanciel Colas, Elodie; Apoutou N'Djin, W.; Tanter, Mickaël; Lafon, Cyril; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-10-01

    Heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia can be treated by catheter-based thermal ablation. However, clinically available systems based on radio-frequency or cryothermal ablation suffer from limited energy penetration and the lack of lesion’s extent monitoring. An ultrasound-guided transesophageal device has recently successfully been used to perform High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) ablation in targeted regions of the heart in vivo. In this study we investigate the feasibility of a dual therapy and imaging approach on the same transesophageal device. We demonstrate in vivo that quantitative cardiac shear-wave elastography (SWE) can be performed with the device and we show on ex vivo samples that transesophageal SWE can map the extent of the HIFU lesions. First, SWE was validated with the transesophageal endoscope in one sheep in vivo. The stiffness of normal atrial and ventricular tissues has been assessed during the cardiac cycle (n=11 ) and mapped (n= 7 ). Second, HIFU ablation has been performed with the therapy-imaging transesophageal device in ex vivo chicken breast samples (n  =  3), then atrial (left, n= 2 ) and ventricular (left n=1 , right n=1 ) porcine heart tissues. SWE provided stiffness maps of the tissues before and after ablation. Areas of the lesions were obtained by tissue color change with gross pathology and compared to SWE. During the cardiac cycle stiffness varied from 0.5   ±   0.1 kPa to 6.0   ±   0.3 kPa in the atrium and from 1.3   ±   0.3 kPa to 13.5   ±   9.1 kPa in the ventricles. The thermal lesions were visible on all SWE maps performed after ablation. Shear modulus of the ablated zones increased to 16.3   ±   5.5 kPa (versus 4.4   ±   1.6 kPa before ablation) in the chicken breast, to 30.3   ±   10.3 kPa (versus 12.2   ±   4.3 kPa) in the atria and to 73.8   ±   13

  5. Thermal alteration and morphological changes of sound and demineralized primary dentin after Er:YAG laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Cristina Bueno; Contente, Marta Maria Martins Giamatei; De Lima, Fabrício Augusto; Galo, Rodrigo; Corrêa-Afonso, Alessandra Marques; Bachmann, Luciano; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of Er:YAG laser pulse repetition rate on the thermal alterations occurring during laser ablation of sound and demineralized primary dentin. The morphological changes at the lased areas were examined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). To this end, 60 fragments of 30 sound primary molars were selected and randomly assigned to two groups (n = 30); namely A sound dentin (control) and B demineralized dentin. Each group was divided into three subgroups (n = 10) according to the employed laser frequencies: I-4 Hz; II-6 Hz, and III-10 Hz. Specimens in group B were submitted to a pH-cycling regimen for 21 consecutive days. The irradiation was performed with a 250 mJ pulse energy in the noncontact and focused mode, in the presence of a fine water mist at 1.5 mL/min, for 15 s. The measured temperature was recorded by type K thermocouples adapted to the dentin wall relative to the pulp chamber. Three samples of each group were analyzed by SEM. The data were submitted to the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and to qualitative SEM analysis. The results revealed that the temperature increase did not promote any damage to the dental structure. Data analysis demonstrated that in group A, there was a statistically significant difference among all the subgroups and the temperature rise was directly proportional to the increase in frequency. In group B, there was no difference between subgroup I and II in terms of temperature. The superficial dentin observed by SEM displayed irregularities that augmented with rising frequency, both in sound and demineralized tissues. In conclusion, temperature rise and morphological alterations are directly related to frequency increment in both demineralized and sound dentin.

  6. Gold nanorods coupled with upconverting nanophosphors for targeted thermal ablation and imaging of bladder cancer cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Suehyun K.; Su, Lih-Jen; Flaig, Thomas W.; Park, Wounjhang

    2016-09-01

    NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ upconverting nanophosphors (UCNPs) are robust and stable nanoparticles that absorb near-infrared (NIR) photons and emit green and red visible photons through energy transfer upconversion. This mechanism provides UCNPs several advantages as a bioimaging agent over traditional fluorescence imaging agent in that NIR excitation allows high-contrast imaging without autofluorescence and that they can be used for deep-tissue imaging. However, additional surface modification of UCNPs is necessary for them to be biocompatible. We use an amphiphilic polymer (poly(maleic anhydride-alt-octadecene) (PMAO) and a hetero-functional polyethylene glycol with amine and thiol ends (NH2-PEG-SH)) to make the UCNPs water-soluble. This reaction yields a carboxylic group that allows functionalization with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (aEGFR), which provides specific binding of UCNPs to EGFR-expressing bladder cancer cells. Additionally, the thiol ends of the PEGylated UCNPs are able to bind with gold nanorods (AuNRs) to create UCNP-AuNR complexes. The localized surface plasmon of the AuNR then allow localized heating of HTB9 bladder cancer cells, enabling in situ cell killing upon detection by UCNP fluorescence. Here, we report a successful synthesis, surface modification and conjugation of aEGFR functionalized UCNP-AuNR complexes and in vitro imaging and thermal ablation studies using them. Synthesis and surface modification of UCNP-AuNR complexes are confirmed by electron microscopy. Then, a combination of brightfield, NIR confocal fluorescence, and darkfield microscopy on the UCNP-AuNR treated bladder cancer cells revealed successful cancer targeting and imaging capabilities of the complex. Finally, cell viability assay showed that NIR irradiation of UCNP-AuNR conjugated cells resulted highly selective cell killing.

  7. Comparison of two methods of treatment for intraluminal thermal ablation using an ultrasound cylindrical phased array.

    PubMed

    Melodelima, David; Prat, Frédéric; Birer, Alain; Theillère, Yves; Cathignol, Dominique

    2004-04-01

    Intraluminal (within the alimentary tract) thermal surgery has been shown to be a useful therapeutic option when extracorporeal focused ultrasound applicators cannot be used since their beam may not reach the target site. If plane transducers are used for the treatment of alimentary tract tumours, the applicator must be rotated in order to generate a cylindrical volume of necrosis. However, rotating these applicators and controlling their shooting direction presents technical difficulties. If tubular transducers are used it is difficult to treat arbitrary angles with a large therapeutic length. To solve these difficulties, the feasibility of an ultrasound phased array applicator has been evaluated using a cylindrical prototype (outer diameter 10.6 mm), which is composed of 16 elementary transducers working at 4.55 MHz and arranged on a quarter of the cylinder. Using this applicator it is possible to generate plane or cylindrical waves. Plane waves were generated by exciting eight successive elements of the array with appropriate delay times. The exposure direction was changed by exciting a different set of eight elements. In this way, the ultrasound beam was electronically rotated through the tissues. Cylindrical waves were generated by exciting several transducers without delay times. Imaging was provided using a miniature echographic probe. Ex vivo experiments were carried out in pig liver to compare two approaches of treatment. The first consisted of generating successive plane waves separated from each other by a 6 degrees angle. The second one consisted of exciting all the 16 elements without delay times. In the two cases, the lesions were well-defined and occupied a quarter of cylinder. In both sets of experiments, the sonication time and the intensity were 20 s and 17 W/cm(2), respectively. In the first case, the depth was up to 17 mm compared to 6 mm in the second case.

  8. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  9. Thermal Responses to Exercise and Their Relationship to Physical Conditioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-14

    APPROVAL SHEET Title of Thesis: THERMAL RESPONSES TO EXERCISE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO PHYSICAL CONDITIONING Name of Candidate: Guy R. Banta...aims of this study were: 1) to identify the acute (non steady-state) exercise -induced thermal responses of men with different levels of physical ...during exercise , and for one hour post exercise . Several major points about thermal responses to exercise and their relationship to physical

  10. Long-Term Evolution of Brainstem Electrical Evoked Responses to Sound after Restricted Ablation of the Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Verónica; Alvarado, Juan C.; Carro, Juan; Merchán, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the top-down control of sound processing in the auditory brainstem of rats. Short latency evoked responses were analyzed after unilateral or bilateral ablation of auditory cortex. This experimental paradigm was also used towards analyzing the long-term evolution of post-lesion plasticity in the auditory system and its ability to self-repair. Method Auditory cortex lesions were performed in rats by stereotactically guided fine-needle aspiration of the cerebrocortical surface. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR) were recorded at post-surgery day (PSD) 1, 7, 15 and 30. Recordings were performed under closed-field conditions, using click trains at different sound intensity levels, followed by statistical analysis of threshold values and ABR amplitude and latency variables. Subsequently, brains were sectioned and immunostained for GAD and parvalbumin to assess the location and extent of lesions accurately. Results Alterations in ABR variables depended on the type of lesion and post-surgery time of ABR recordings. Accordingly, bilateral ablations caused a statistically significant increase in thresholds at PSD1 and 7 and a decrease in waves amplitudes at PSD1 that recover at PSD7. No effects on latency were noted at PSD1 and 7, whilst recordings at PSD15 and 30 showed statistically significant decreases in latency. Conversely, unilateral ablations had no effect on auditory thresholds or latencies, while wave amplitudes only decreased at PSD1 strictly in the ipsilateral ear. Conclusion Post-lesion plasticity in the auditory system acts in two time periods: short-term period of decreased sound sensitivity (until PSD7), most likely resulting from axonal degeneration; and a long-term period (up to PSD7), with changes in latency responses and recovery of thresholds and amplitudes values. The cerebral cortex may have a net positive gain on the auditory pathway response to sound. PMID:24066057

  11. Thermal performance of 625-kg/cu m elastomeric ablative materials on spherically blunted 0.44-radian cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champman, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Spherically blunted 0.44-radian (25 deg) half-angle conical models coated with elastomeric ablative materials were tested in supersonic arc-heated wind tunnels to evaluate performance of the ablators over a range of conditions typical of lifting entry. Four test conditions were combinations of stagnation point-heat transfer rates of 2.3 and 4.5 MW/m2 and stagnation pressures of 20 and 2kN/m2. Afterbody values of heat transfer rate and pressure were 0.05 to 0.20 of stagnation point values. Stagnation enthalpy varied from 4.4 to 25 MJ/kg (1900 to 11000 Btu/lbm) and free-stream Mach number was in a range from 3.5 to 4. Ablative materials retained the spherical nose shape throughout tests at the lower heat transfer level, but receded, assuming a flattened nose shape, during tests at the high heat transfer level. The residue layer that formed on the conical after-body was weak, friable, and extensively cracked. The reference ablative material, which contained phenolic microspheres, generally retained the conical shape on the model afterbody. However, a modified ablator, in which phenolic microspheres were replaced with silica microspheres, deformed and separated from the undegraded material, and thereby produced a very uneven surface. Substrate temperatures and ablator recession were in good agreement with values computed by a numerical analysis.

  12. Thermal ablation in colorectal liver metastases: Lack of evidence or lack of capability to prove the evidence?

    PubMed

    Sartori, Sergio; Tombesi, Paola; Di Vece, Francesca

    2016-04-07

    Many studies suggest that combined multimodality treatments including ablative therapies may achieve better outcomes than systemic chemotherapy alone in patients with colorectal liver metastases. Nevertheless, ablative therapies are not yet considered as effective options because their efficacy has never been proved by randomized controlled trials (RCT). However, there are in literature no trials that failed in demonstrating the effectiveness of ablative treatments: what are lacking, are the trials. All the attempts to organize phase III studies on this topic failed as a result of non accrual. Just one prospective RCT comparing radiofrequency ablation combined with systemic chemotherapy vs chemotherapy alone has been published. It was designed as a phase III study, but it was closed early because of slow accrual, and was downscaled to phase II study, with the consequent limits in drawing definite conclusions on the benefit of combined treatment. However, the combination treatment met the primary end point of the study and obtained a significantly higher 3-year progression-free survival than systemic chemotherapy alone. It is very unlikely that ultimate efficacy of ablation treatments will ever be tested again, and the best available evidence points toward a benefit for the combination strategy using ablative treatments and chemotherapy.

  13. Thermal ablation in colorectal liver metastases: Lack of evidence or lack of capability to prove the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Sergio; Tombesi, Paola; Di Vece, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Many studies suggest that combined multimodality treatments including ablative therapies may achieve better outcomes than systemic chemotherapy alone in patients with colorectal liver metastases. Nevertheless, ablative therapies are not yet considered as effective options because their efficacy has never been proved by randomized controlled trials (RCT). However, there are in literature no trials that failed in demonstrating the effectiveness of ablative treatments: what are lacking, are the trials. All the attempts to organize phase III studies on this topic failed as a result of non accrual. Just one prospective RCT comparing radiofrequency ablation combined with systemic chemotherapy vs chemotherapy alone has been published. It was designed as a phase III study, but it was closed early because of slow accrual, and was downscaled to phase II study, with the consequent limits in drawing definite conclusions on the benefit of combined treatment. However, the combination treatment met the primary end point of the study and obtained a significantly higher 3-year progression-free survival than systemic chemotherapy alone. It is very unlikely that ultimate efficacy of ablation treatments will ever be tested again, and the best available evidence points toward a benefit for the combination strategy using ablative treatments and chemotherapy. PMID:27053843

  14. The Molecular Mechanism of the Supra-Additive Response of Prostate Cancer to Androgen Ablation and Radiotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    Biol. Phys., 43: 607-616, 1999. wild-type p53 gene and induction of apoptosis in cervical cancer . 29. Lang, F. F., Yung, W. K. A., Raju, U., Libunao... cervical cancer . Cancer Res 1996;56:3047- 25. Li JH, Lax SA, Kim J, et al. The effects of ionizing radiation 3054. and adenoviral p53 therapy in...Mechanism of the Supra-Additive Response of Prostate Cancer to Androgen Ablation and Radiotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alan Pollack, M.D., Ph.D

  15. Inducible ablation of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells reveals their central role in non-image forming visual responses.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Megumi; Le, Hiep; Vollmers, Christopher; Keding, Sheena Racheal; Tanaka, Nobushige; Buch, Thorsten; Waisman, Ari; Schmedt, Christian; Jegla, Timothy; Panda, Satchidananda

    2008-06-11

    Rod/cone photoreceptors of the outer retina and the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) of the inner retina mediate non-image forming visual responses including entrainment of the circadian clock to the ambient light, the pupillary light reflex (PLR), and light modulation of activity. Targeted deletion of the melanopsin gene attenuates these adaptive responses with no apparent change in the development and morphology of the mRGCs. Comprehensive identification of mRGCs and knowledge of their specific roles in image-forming and non-image forming photoresponses are currently lacking. We used a Cre-dependent GFP expression strategy in mice to genetically label the mRGCs. This revealed that only a subset of mRGCs express enough immunocytochemically detectable levels of melanopsin. We also used a Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor (iDTR) expression approach to express the DTR in mRGCs. mRGCs develop normally, but can be acutely ablated upon diphtheria toxin administration. The mRGC-ablated mice exhibited normal outer retinal function. However, they completely lacked non-image forming visual responses such as circadian photoentrainment, light modulation of activity, and PLR. These results point to the mRGCs as the site of functional integration of the rod/cone and melanopsin phototransduction pathways and as the primary anatomical site for the divergence of image-forming and non-image forming photoresponses in mammals.

  16. Deletion of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase 1 Modifies the Response to Mechanical Bone Marrow Ablation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jodi; Zhang, Qing; Bennett, Anton; Vignery, Agnès

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance of bone mass results from a delicate balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. Understanding these processes is essential for the development of effective treatments for skeletal diseases. Mechanical bone marrow ablation provides a unique animal model to study bone repair and the roles of specific genes in this process. Ablation of marrow induces the formation of intramembranous bone in the medullary cavity, which is subsequently resorbed by osteoclasts. We used this model to ask whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase 1 (MKP1) affects the bone formed in response to marrow ablation. MKP1 is a negative regulator of MAPK signaling, which is essential for a wide variety of cellular mechanisms, including those critical for osteoblast and osteoclast function. At 10 d after mechanical bone marrow ablation, the femurs of male mkp1+/+ and mkp1−/− mice were compared with those of unoperated baseline mice by using radiography, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and microcomputed tomography. Both genotypes developed increased bone mass after marrow ablation, but the increase was more pronounced in mkp1−/− mice compared with mkp1+/+ mice. These results indicate that MKP1 affects the bone formed in response to marrow ablation and suggest encouraging possibilities for the use of inhibitors of MKP1 to modulate bone repair. PMID:19619411

  17. Hydrodynamic model for ultra-short pulse ablation of hard dental tissue

    SciTech Connect

    London, R.A.; Bailey, D.S.; Young, D.A.; Alley, W.E.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Neev, J.

    1996-02-29

    A computational model for the ablation of tooth enamel by ultra-short laser pulses is presented. The role of simulations using this model in designing and understanding laser drilling systems is discussed. Pulses of duration 300 fsec and intensity greater than 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} are considered. Laser absorption proceeds via multi-photon initiated plasma mechanism. The hydrodynamic response is calculated with a finite difference method, using an equation of state constructed from thermodynamic functions including electronic, ion motion, and chemical binding terms. Results for the ablation efficiency are presented. An analytic model describing the ablation threshold and ablation depth is presented. Thermal coupling to the remaining tissue and long-time thermal conduction are calculated. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements of the ablation efficiency. Desired improvements in the model are presented.

  18. Effect of Surface Nonequilibrium Thermochemistry in Simulation of Carbon Based Ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kang; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates that coupling of a material thermal response code and a flow solver using finite-rate gas/surface interaction model provides time-accurate solutions for multidimensional ablation of carbon based charring ablators. The material thermal response code used in this study is the Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Response and Ablation Program (TITAN), which predicts charring material thermal response and shape change on hypersonic space vehicles. Its governing equations include total energy balance, pyrolysis gas momentum conservation, and a three-component decomposition model. The flow code solves the reacting Navier-Stokes equations using Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) method. Loose coupling between material response and flow codes is performed by solving the surface mass balance in DPLR and the surface energy balance in TITAN. Thus, the material surface recession is predicted by finite-rate gas/surface interaction boundary conditions implemented in DPLR, and the surface temperature and pyrolysis gas injection rate are computed in TITAN. Two sets of gas/surface interaction chemistry between air and carbon surface developed by Park and Zhluktov, respectively, are studied. Coupled fluid-material response analyses of stagnation tests conducted in NASA Ames Research Center arc-jet facilities are considered. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests was a Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA). Computational predictions of in-depth material thermal response and surface recession are compared with the experimental measurements for stagnation cold wall heat flux ranging from 107 to 1100 Watts per square centimeter.

  19. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects.

  20. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Small and Large Scale Missions: Approaching TRL 6 for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions and TRL 9 for Small Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R. A. S.; Gasch, M. J.; Milos, F. S.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Smith, B. P.; Switzer, M. R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Wilder, M. C.; Boghhozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an effort to develop an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) material that would have improved properties when compared to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and AVCOAT. Their goal was a conformal material, processed with a flexible reinforcement that would result in similar or better thermal characteristics and higher strain-to-failure characteristics that would allow for easier integration on flight aeroshells than then-current rigid ablative TPS materials. In 2012, NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began funding the maturation of the best formulation of the game changing conformal ablator, C-PICA. Progress has been reported at IPPW over the past three years, describing C-PICA with a density and recession rates similar to PICA, but with a higher strain-to-failure which allows for direct bonding and no gap fillers, and even more important, with thermal characteristics resulting in half the temperature rise of PICA. Overall, C-PICA should be able to replace PICA with a thinner, lighter weight, less complicated design. These characteristics should be particularly attractive for use as backshell TPS on high energy planetary entry vehicles. At the end of this year, the material should be ready for missions to consider including in their design, in fact, NASAs Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is considering incentivizing the use of C-PICA in the next Discovery Proposal call. This year both scale up of the material to large (1-m) sized pieces and the design and build of small probe heatshields for flight tests will be completed. NASA, with an industry partner, will build a 1-m long manufacturing demonstration unit (MDU) with a shape based on a mid LD lifting body. In addition, in an effort to fly as you test and test as you fly, NASA, with a second industry partner, will build a small probe to test in the Interactive Heating Facility (IHF) arc jet and, using nearly the

  1. Unintended Thermal Injuries from Radiofrequency Ablation: Organ Protection with an Angioplasty Balloon Catheter in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Knuttinen, Martha-Grace; Van Ha, Thuong G.; Reilly, Christopher; Montag, Anthony; Straus, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate a novel approach of using a balloon catheter as a protective device to separate liver from the diaphragm or nearby bowel during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic dome tumors in an animal model. Materials and Methods: All experimental procedures were approved by animal Institutional Review Board. Using a 3 cm RF needle electrode, 70 hepatic ablation zones were created using ultrasound in 7 pigs. 50 lesions were created using balloon interposition between liver and diaphragm; 20 lesions were created using the balloon device interposed posteriorly between liver and bowel. Additional 21 control lesions were performed. Animals were sacrificed immediately; diaphragm and bowel were then visually inspected and sectioned. Diaphragmatic and bowel injury was then classified according to the depth of thickness. Results: Control lesions caused full thickness injury, either to diaphragm or bowel. During ablation of lesions with balloon interposition, there was significantly less diaphragmatic injury, P < 0.001 and less bowel injury, P < 0.01. Conclusion: Using balloon interposition as a protective device has advantages over previous saline infusion or CO2 insufflation, providing a safe way to expand percutaneous RFA of liver tumors located on the undersurface of the diaphragm. In addition, this method may be used in protection of other organs adjacent to areas being ablated. PMID:24678433

  2. Theoretical Modeling for Hepatic Microwave Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Punit

    2010-01-01

    Thermal tissue ablation is an interventional procedure increasingly being used for treatment of diverse medical conditions. Microwave ablation is emerging as an attractive modality for thermal therapy of large soft tissue targets in short periods of time, making it particularly suitable for ablation of hepatic and other tumors. Theoretical models of the ablation process are a powerful tool for predicting the temperature profile in tissue and resultant tissue damage created by ablation devices. These models play an important role in the design and optimization of devices for microwave tissue ablation. Furthermore, they are a useful tool for exploring and planning treatment delivery strategies. This review describes the status of theoretical models developed for microwave tissue ablation. It also reviews current challenges, research trends and progress towards development of accurate models for high temperature microwave tissue ablation. PMID:20309393

  3. A study of photothermal laser ablation of various polymers on microsecond time scales.

    PubMed

    Kappes, Ralf S; Schönfeld, Friedhelm; Li, Chen; Golriz, Ali A; Nagel, Matthias; Lippert, Thomas; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Gutmann, Jochen S

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the photothermal ablation of polymers, we designed a temperature measurement setup based on spectral pyrometry. The setup allows to acquire 2D temperature distributions with 1 μm size and 1 μs time resolution and therefore the determination of the center temperature of a laser heating process. Finite element simulations were used to verify and understand the heat conversion and heat flow in the process. With this setup, the photothermal ablation of polystyrene, poly(α-methylstyrene), a polyimide and a triazene polymer was investigated. The thermal stability, the glass transition temperature Tg and the viscosity above Tg were governing the ablation process. Thermal decomposition for the applied laser pulse of about 10 μs started at temperatures similar to the start of decomposition in thermogravimetry. Furthermore, for polystyrene and poly(α-methylstyrene), both with a Tg in the range between room and decomposition temperature, ablation already occurred at temperatures well below the decomposition temperature, only at 30-40 K above Tg. The mechanism was photomechanical, i.e. a stress due to the thermal expansion of the polymer was responsible for ablation. Low molecular weight polymers showed differences in photomechanical ablation, corresponding to their lower Tg and lower viscosity above the glass transition. However, the difference in ablated volume was only significant at higher temperatures in the temperature regime for thermal decomposition at quasi-equilibrium time scales.

  4. Assembling tungsten oxide hydrate nanocrystal colloids formed by laser ablation in liquid into fast-response electrochromic films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shalong; Dou, Kang; Zou, Yousheng; Dong, Yuhang; Li, Jubin; Ju, Dan; Zeng, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    High-performance electrochromic films based on tungsten oxide hydrate ([WO2(O2)H2O]·1.66H2O) colloidal nanocrystals with fast switching speed were fabricated by laser ablation in a mixture of water and hydrogen peroxide followed by electrophoretic methods. Through electrophoretic deposition, the nanoparticles in the colloids synthesized by laser ablation aggregated onto the FTO coated glass substrate forming a lager cell with a uniform size of around 200nm, which subsequently self-assembled into a porous tungsten oxide hydrate film. By optimizing the electrophoretic time (800s) and voltage (-0.5V), the mesh-like porous tungsten oxide hydrate film achieved a wide optical modulation of 32% at 632nm, fast coloration and bleaching response speed of 7.8 s and 1.7s respectively due to the synergetic effect of the unique atomic structure of [WO2(O2)H2O]·1.66H2O and porous structure with large surface area that facilitates the ion insertion/extraction. Thus the tungsten oxide hydrate can be a promising electrochromic material for practical applications.

  5. In vitro and in vivo mapping of drug release after laser ablation thermal therapy with doxorubicin-loaded hollow gold nanoshells using fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hannah J; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Min; Bouchard, Richard R; Mitcham, Trevor; Wallace, Michael; Stafford, R Jason; Li, Chun; Gupta, Sanjay; Melancon, Marites P

    2013-11-28

    conclude that fluorescence optical imaging and photoacoustic imaging are promising approaches to assessing Dox release and monitoring temperature, respectively, after Dox@PEG-HAuNS-mediated thermal ablation therapy.

  6. Catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M; Shenasa, M

    1991-02-01

    Catheter ablation is gaining increasing interest for the therapy of symptomatic, sustained arrhythmias of various origins. The scope of this review is to give an overview of the biophysical aspects and major characteristics of some of the most widely used energy sources in catheter ablation, e.g., the discharge of conventional defibrillators, modified defibrillators, laser light, and radiofrequency current application. Results from animal studies are considered to explain the basic mechanisms of catheter ablation. The recent achievements with the use of radiofrequency current to modify or ablate cardiac conduction properties are outlined in more detail.

  7. Sensitive Period for the Recovery of the Response Rate of the Wind-Evoked Escape Behavior of Unilaterally Cercus-Ablated Crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Kanou, Masamichi

    2015-04-01

    We examined the compensational recovery of the response rate (relative occurrence) of the wind-evoked escape behavior in unilaterally cercus-ablated crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and elucidated the existence of a sensitive period for such recovery by rearing the crickets under different conditions. In one experiment, each cricket was reared in an apparatus called a walking inducer (WI) to increase the sensory input to the remaining cercus, i.e., the self-generated wind caused by walking. In another experiment, each cricket was reared in a small plastic case separate from the outside atmosphere (wind-free: WF). In this rearing condition, the cricket did not experience self-generated wind as walking was prohibited. During the recovery period after the unilateral cercus ablation, the crickets were reared under either the WI or WF condition to investigate the role of the sensory inputs on the compensational recovery of the response rate. The compensational recovery of the response rate occurred only in the crickets reared under the WI condition during the early period after the ablation. In particular, WI rearing during the first three days after the ablation resulted in the largest compensational recovery in the response rate. In contrast, no compensational recovery was observed in the crickets reared under the WF condition during the first three days. These results suggest that a sensitive period exists in which sensory inputs from the remaining cercus affect the compensational recovery of the response rate more effectively than during other periods.

  8. Water-assisted CO(2) laser ablated glass and modified thermal bonding for capillary-driven bio-fluidic application.

    PubMed

    Chung, C K; Chang, H C; Shih, T R; Lin, S L; Hsiao, E J; Chen, Y S; Chang, E C; Chen, C C; Lin, C C

    2010-02-01

    The glass-based microfluidic chip has widely been applied to the lab-on-a-chip for clotting tests. Here, we have demonstrated a capillary driven flow chip using the water-assisted CO(2) laser ablation for crackless fluidic channels and holes as well as the modified low-temperature glass bonding with assistance of adhesive polymer film at 300 degrees Celsius. Effect of water depth on the laser ablation of glass quality was investigated. The surface hydrophilic property of glass and polymer film was measured by static contact angle method for hydrophilicity examination in comparison with the conventional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. Both low-viscosity deionized water and high-viscosity whole blood were used for testing the capillary-driving flow behavior. The preliminary coagulation testing in the Y-channel chip was also performed using whole blood and CaCl(2) solution. The water-assisted CO(2) laser processing can cool down glass during ablation for less temperature gradient to eliminate the crack. The modified glass bonding can simplify the conventional complex fabrication procedure of glass chips, such as high-temperature bonding, long consuming time and high cost. Moreover, the developed fluidic glass chip has the merit of hydrophilic behavior conquering the problem of traditional hydrophobic recovery of polymer fluidic chips and shows the ability to drive high-viscosity bio-fluids.

  9. Mathematical modelling of tumour volume dynamics in response to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, Imran; Humbert-Vidan, Laia; Chen, Tao; South, Christopher P.; Ezhil, Veni; Kirkby, Norman F.; Jena, Rajesh; Nisbet, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports a modelling study of tumour volume dynamics in response to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). The main objective was to develop a model that is adequate to describe tumour volume change measured during SABR, and at the same time is not excessively complex as lacking support from clinical data. To this end, various modelling options were explored, and a rigorous statistical method, the Akaike information criterion, was used to help determine a trade-off between model accuracy and complexity. The models were calibrated to the data from 11 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with SABR. The results showed that it is feasible to model the tumour volume dynamics during SABR, opening up the potential for using such models in a clinical environment in the future.

  10. Thermoluminescent response of C-modified Al2O3 thin films deposited by parallel laser ablation plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, J.; Escobar-Alarcón, L.; Gonzalez-Martinez, P. R.; Solís-Casados, D. A.; Romero, S.; Gonzalez-ZAvala, F.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium oxide thin films modified with different amounts of carbon were prepared using a parallel laser ablation plasmas configuration. The effect of the amount of carbon incorporated in the films on their compositional, morphological, structural, and thermoluminescent properties was studied. The results showed that films with different C content, from 11 to 33 at. %, were obtained. The structural characterization revealed the growth of an amorphous material. Surface morphology of the obtained thin films showed smooth surfaces. The films were exposed to UV and gamma radiation (Co-60) in order to study their thermoluminescence response. The results tend to indicate that carbon incorporation into the alumina favours the increase of a high temperature TL peak.

  11. Thermal response of cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hama; Urayama, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    The effects of temperature variation on photonic properties of cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers (CLCEs) are investigated in mechanically unconstrained and constrained geometries. In the unconstrained geometry, cooling in the cholesteric state induces both a considerable shift of the selective reflection band to shorter wavelengths and a finite degree of macroscopic expansion in the two directions normal to the axis of the helical director configuration. The thermal deformation is driven by a change in orientational order of the underlying nematic structure S and the relation between the macroscopic strain and S is explained on the basis of the anisotropic Gaussian chain network model. The helical pitch varies with the film thickness in an affine manner under temperature variation. The CLCEs under the constrained geometry where thermal deformation is strictly prohibited show no shift of the reflection bands when subjected to temperature variation. This also reveals the strong correlation between the macroscopic dimensions and the pitch of the helical director configuration.

  12. Insights into secondary reactions occurring during atmospheric ablation of micrometeoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Court, Richard W.; Tan, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Ablation of micrometeoroids during atmospheric entry yields volatile gases such as water, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, capable of altering atmospheric chemistry and hence the climate and habitability of the planetary surface. While laboratory experiments have revealed the yields of these gases during laboratory simulations of ablation, the reactions responsible for the generation of these gases have remained unclear, with a typical assumption being that species simply undergo thermal decomposition without engaging in more complex chemistry. Here, pyrolysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals that mixtures of meteorite-relevant materials undergo secondary reactions during simulated ablation, with organic matter capable of taking part in carbothermic reduction of iron oxides and sulfates, resulting in yields of volatile gases that differ from those predicted by simple thermal decomposition. Sulfates are most susceptible to carbothermic reduction, producing greater yields of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide at lower temperatures than would be expected from simple thermal decomposition, even when mixed with meteoritically relevant abundances of low-reactivity Type IV kerogen. Iron oxides were less susceptible, with elevated yields of water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide only occurring when mixed with high abundances of more reactive Type III kerogen. We use these insights to reinterpret previous ablation simulation experiments and to predict the reactions capable of occurring during ablation of carbonaceous micrometeoroids in atmospheres of different compositions.

  13. Thermal Response of an Additive Manufactured Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tong; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Wang, Hsin; Ozpineci, Burak; Ayers, Curtis William

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the impacts of abnormal thermal property introduced by additive manufacture has been analysis based on simulation and experiment of a 3D printed liquid-cooled heat sink. Comparisons to the heat sink with identical geometry and conventionally manufactured by Aluminum 6061 are presented. Micro-structure analysis is implemented and solutions to eliminate the impacts by different manufacture methods are proposed.

  14. Protective role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors in chronic intestinal inflammation: TNFR1 ablation boosts systemic inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Yu; Wang, Ke; Liu, Guijun; Wang, Renxi; Xiao, He; Li, Xinying; Hou, Chunmei; Shen, Beifen; Guo, Renfeng; Li, Yan; Chen, Guojiang

    2013-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) acts as a key factor for the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), whose function is known to be mediated by TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) or TNFR2. However, the precise role of the two receptors in IBD remains poorly understood. Herein, chronic colitis was established by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in TNFR1 or TNFR2-/- mice. Unexpectedly, TNFR1 or TNFR2 deficiency led to exacerbation of signs of colitis compared with wild-type (WT) counterparts. Of note, TNFR1 ablation rendered significantly increased mortality compared with TNFR2 and WT mice after DSS. Aggravated pathology of colitis in TNFR1-/- or TNFR2-/- mice correlated with elevated colonic expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, ablation of TNFR1 or TNFR2 increased apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells, which might be due to the heightened ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and increased expression of caspase-8. Intriguingly, despite comparable intensity of intestinal inflammation in TNFR-deficient mice after DSS, systemic inflammatory response (including splenomegaly and myeloid expansion) was augmented dramatically in TNFR1-/- mice, instead of TNFR2-/- mice. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) was identified as a key mediator in this process, as neutralization of GMCSF dampened peripheral inflammatory reaction and reduced mortality in TNFR1-/- mice. These data suggest that signaling via TNFR1 or TNFR2 has a protective role in chronic intestinal inflammation, and that lacking TNFR1 augments systemic inflammatory response in GMCSF-dependent manner.

  15. Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Oraevsky, A.A. |; DaSilva, L.B.; Feit, M.D.

    1995-03-08

    Plasma mediated ablation of collagen gels and porcine cornea was studied at various laser pulse durations in the range from 350 fs to 1 ns at 1,053 nm wavelength. A time resolved stress detection technique was employed to measure transient stress profiles and amplitudes. Optical microscopy was used to characterize ablation craters qualitatively, while a wide band acoustic transducer helped to quantify tissue mechanical response and the ablation threshold. The ablation threshold was measured as a function of laser pulse duration and linear absorption coefficient. For nanosecond pulses the ablation threshold was found to have a strong dependence on the linear absorption coefficient of the material. As the pulse length decreased into the subpicosecond regime the ablation threshold became insensitive to the linear absorption coefficient. The ablation efficiency was found to be insensitive to both the laser pulse duration and the linear absorption coefficient. High quality ablation craters with no thermal or mechanical damage to surrounding material were obtained with 350 fs laser pulses. The mechanism of optical breakdown at the tissue surface was theoretically investigated. In the nanosecond regime, optical breakdown proceeds as an electron collisional avalanche ionization initiated by thermal seed electrons. These seed electrons are created by heating of the tissue by linear absorption. In the ultrashort pulse range, optical breakdown is initiated by the multiphoton ionization of the irradiated medium (6 photons in case of tissue irradiated at 1,053 nm wavelength), and becomes less sensitive to the linear absorption coefficient. The energy deposition profile is insensitive to both the laser pulse duration and the linear absorption coefficient.

  16. Thermal responses of shape memory alloy artificial anal sphincters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yun; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Matsuzawa, Kenichi

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of the thermal behavior of an artificial anal sphincter using shape memory alloys (SMAs) proposed by the authors. The SMA artificial anal sphincter has the function of occlusion at body temperature and can be opened with a thermal transformation induced deformation of SMAs to solve the problem of severe fecal incontinence. The investigation of its thermal behavior is of great importance in terms of practical use in living bodies as a prosthesis. In this work, a previously proposed phenomenological model was applied to simulate the thermal responses of SMA plates that had undergone thermally induced transformation. The numerical approach for considering the thermal interaction between the prosthesis and surrounding tissues was discussed based on the classical bio-heat equation. Numerical predictions on both in vitro and in vivo cases were verified by experiments with acceptable agreements. The thermal responses of the SMA artificial anal sphincter were discussed based on the simulation results, with the values of the applied power and the geometric configuration of thermal insulation as parameters. The results obtained in the present work provided a framework for the further design of SMA artificial sphincters to meet demands from the viewpoint of thermal compatibility as prostheses.

  17. Transient thermal response of a hot-wire anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, S. C.; Foss, J. F.

    2003-03-01

    The ability of a thermal anemometry system to accurately measure unsteady fluid velocity depends on the electrical control system as well as the thermal properties of the sensor. The present work is a numerical study of the thermal transient response of a hot-wire. A conventional constant temperature anemometer with an ideal feedback amplifier as well as a pulse width modulated system were used to model the electrical current supplied to the sensor to maintain a nominally constant sensor resistance. The agreement between these two electrical models confirmed that the response characteristics are only due to thermal effects. The thermal response was tested by providing a known input function for the cooling velocity, and comparing this with the output of the model. The first test used a step input function. It was found that the thermal transient effects along the length of the sensor caused the system to initially under predict the actual velocity increase; this was followed by an exponential increase to the steady state velocity. Secondly, the model was tested with sinusoidal inputs over a wide frequency range. The ratio: indicated-velocity/input-velocity, as a function of the input frequency was used to characterize the 'thermal frequency response'.

  18. Consideration of different heating lengths of needles with induction heating and resistance system: A novel design of needle module for thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Bui, Huy-Tien; Hwang, Sheng-Jye; Lee, Huei-Huang; Huang, Durn-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Thermal ablation using alternating electromagnetic fields is a promising method to treat tissues including tumors. With this approach, an electromagnetic field is generated around an induction coil, which is supplied with high frequency current from a power source. Any electrically conducting object, which is placed in the electromagnetic field, is then heated due to eddy currents. Basic principles underlying this novel thermotherapy needle system are internal induction and resistance heating. This presents a new design of a standard gauge 18 percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangiography needle module combined with a compact power source. Three needle modules containing coils of different lengths were used to locally heat up different volumes of tissues in in vitro experiments on pig livers. Temperature on the inside surface of the needle was controlled and monitored through a K-type thermocouple. By using this needle module system, no two-section or ferromagnetic nanoparticle-coated needles were required; the system worked well with the SUS-304 stainless-steel needle. Successful results were demonstrated in the in vitro experiments on pig livers with different heating lengths of 10, 20, and 30 mm needles. With low power sources, needles could be heated up to a high temperature. The novel design of the needle module incorporated with a high frequency power source was thus shown to be a promising technology for tissue ablation. Bioelectromagnetics.38:220-226, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Post-flight Analysis of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Aerothermal Environment and Thermal Protection System Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Todd Richard; Mahazari, Milad; Bose, Deepak; Santos, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory successfully landed on the Martian surface on August 5th, 2012. The rover was protected from the extreme heating environments of atmospheric entry by an ablative heatshield. This Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator heatshield was instrumented with a suite of embedded thermocouples, isotherm sensors, and pressure transducers. The sensors monitored the in-depth ablator response, as well as the surface pressure at discrete locations throughout the hypersonic deceleration. This paper presents a comparison of the flight data with post-entry estimates. An assessment of the aerothermal environments, as well as the in-depth response of the heatshield material is made, and conclusions regarding the overall performance of the ablator at the suite locations are presented.

  20. Stochastic interpretation of thermal response test with TRT-SInterp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquier, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    A program designed to analyze thermal response tests by deterministic or stochastic inversion is presented. In its current state, the program treats variable heating power signals and emulates a borehole heat exchanger by a finite line-source model or a thermal resistance and capacity model. The possibly unknown parameters identified may comprise the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the ground or grout, as well as the pipes spacing and initial ground temperature. If the thermal resistance and capacity model is used as the interpretation model, it is possible to integrate to the inversion the temperature measurements made at various depths in the fluid and grout and to take into account the thermal capacity of the underground components and the fluid flow rate. The program is tested under real field conditions by using the temperature measurements recorded by 18 probes installed at various depths in a borehole heat exchanger during a thermal response test. The test results indicate a relative insensitivity of the fluid temperature to the ground volumetric heat capacity and suggest that it is currently illusive to try identifying its real value from a conventional thermal response test.

  1. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses to metabolic step-changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, T.; Toftum, J.; de Dear, R.; Fanger, P. O.

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated the effect on thermal perception and thermophysiological variables of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities and durations. Twenty-four subjects were alternately seated on a chair or exercised by walking on a treadmill at a temperature predicted to be neutral at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise or decline immediately (within 1 min) after a change of activity, which means that even moderate activity changes of short duration affect thermal perceptions of humans. After approximately 15 20 min under constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady-state response. The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10 5 min 25% and during the prior 20 10 min 10%.

  2. Enhanced laser thermal ablation for the in vitro treatment of liver cancer by specific delivery of multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian; Bele, Constantin; Orza, Anamaria Ioana; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Catoi, Cornel; Stiufiuc, Rares; Stir, Ariana; Matea, Cristian; Iancu, Dana; Agoston-Coldea, Lucia; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Teodora

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this investigation was to develop and test a new method of treatment for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We present a method of carbon nanotube-enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line) based on a simple multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) carrier system, such as human serum albumin (HSA), and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy compared with normal hepatocyte cells. Both HepG2 cells and hepatocytes were treated with HSA–MWCNTs at various concentrations and at various incubation times and further irradiated using a 2 W, 808 nm laser beam. Transmission electron, phase contrast, and confocal microscopy combined with immunochemical staining were used to demonstrate the selective internalization of HSA–MWCNTs via Gp60 receptors and the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inside HepG2 cells. The postirradiation apoptotic rate of HepG2 cells treated with HSA–MWCNTs ranged from 88.24% (for 50 mg/L) at 60 sec to 92.34% (for 50 mg/L) at 30 min. Significantly lower necrotic rates were obtained when human hepatocytes were treated with HSA–MWCNTs in a similar manner. Our results clearly show that HSA–MWCNTs selectively attach on the albondin (aka Gp60) receptor located on the HepG2 membrane, followed by an uptake through a caveolin-dependent endocytosis process. These unique results may represent a major step in liver cancer treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating. PMID:21289990

  3. Laser-ablation-plume thermalization dynamics in background gases studied by time-resolved imaging, spectroscopic, and ion probe diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geohegan, David B.; Puretzky, Alexander A.

    1995-04-01

    A combination of fast plasma diagnostics are utilized to probe the propagation of laser ablation plumes in vacuum and low-pressure background gases in order to understand key gas dynamic processes relevant to film growth by pulsed laser deposition. During expansion into low-pressure background gases, the ion flux in the plasma plume splits into fast and slow components over a limited range of distances and times. This general effect is presented here for the case of yttrium ablation into argon, a single-element target into an inert gas. Time- resolved optical absorption spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy are employed to simultaneously view the populations of both excited and ground states of Y and Y+ for comparison with intensified-CCD photography of the visible plume luminescence and ion flux measurements made with fast ion probes during this phenomenon. These measurements indicate that plume-splitting in background gases is consistent with momentum transfer from an initial, vacuum velocity distribution into a second, slowed velocity distribution initiated by scattering collisions between plume and background gas atoms. The fast distribution is exponentially attenuated in accordance with Beer's law, and the second, slowed distribution coalesces into a stable, propagating shock structure.

  4. A clinical study of thermal monitoring techniques of ultrasound-guided microwave ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma in high-risk locations

    PubMed Central

    Zhi-yu, Han; Ping, Liang; Xiao-ling, Yu; Zhi-gang, Cheng; Fang-yi, Liu; Jie, Yu

    2017-01-01

    To confirm the safety and effectiveness of the minimally invasive thermal monitor technique on percutaneous ultrasound-guided microwave ablation (MWA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in high-risk locations, a total of 189 patients with 226 HCC nodules in high-risk locations were treated with MWA. The real-time temperature of the tissue between the lesion margin and the vital structures was monitored by inserting a 21G thermal monitoring needle. The major indexes of technical success, technique effectiveness, local tumour progression and complications were observed during the follow-up period. Technical success was acquired in all patients. Technique effectiveness was achieved with one session in 119 lesions based on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) 3–5 days after treatment. An additional 95 lesions achieved technique effectiveness at the second session. Within the follow–up period of 6–58 months (median 38 months), the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year local tumour progression rate was 11.1%, 18.1%, 19.1%, and 19.9%, respectively. There were no major complications in all the patients except for the common side effects. These results indicate that the thermal monitor technique can be applied to prevent major complications in vulnerable structures and allow percutaneous MWA to achieve satisfactory technique effectiveness in the treatment of HCC in high-risk locations. PMID:28112263

  5. A simulation-based and analytic analysis of the off-Hugoniot response of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-09-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign (Lindl et al. 2014) [1], a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile (Robey et al., 2012). We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) compared to the performance of GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator material subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP, and analytic estimations of the ablation pressure indicate that while the pressure produced by B4C and GDP is similar when the ablator is allowed to release, the pressure reached by B4C seems to exceed that of HDC when backed by a Au/quartz layer.

  6. Thermal ecology of the fiddler crab Uca panacea: Thermal constraints and organismal responses.

    PubMed

    Darnell, M Zachary; Nicholson, Haley S; Munguia, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is one of the primary environmental variables limiting organismal performance, fitness, and species distributions. Yet, understanding temperature effects requires thorough exploration of thermal constraints and organismal responses that can translate to fitness and non-lethal long-term consequences under both constant and changing thermal regimes. We examined the thermal ecology of the fiddler crab Uca panacea, including critical thermal limits, thermal sensitivity of locomotion, operative environmental temperatures, preferred body temperatures, and acclimation ability. Operative environmental temperatures frequently reached the critical thermal maximum (41.8±0.8°C, mean ± s.e.m.), especially in unvegetated microhabitats, indicating the need for behavioral thermoregulation to maintain diurnal activity patterns. Preferred body temperatures (21.1-28.6°C) were substantially below the thermal optimum (30-40°C), although further research is needed to determine the driver of this mismatch. Critical thermal limits shifted 2-4°C in response to exposure to low (20°C) or high (35°C) temperatures, with full acclimation occurring in approximately 9d. This capacity for rapid acclimation, combined with the capacity for behavioral thermoregulation, is a strong candidate mechanism that explains the broad habitat use and could help explain the successful pantropical distribution of fiddler crabs.

  7. Microwave tumors ablation: principles, clinical applications and review of preliminary experiences.

    PubMed

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Laganà, Domenico; Mangini, Monica; Fontana, Federico; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Boni, Luigi; Rovera, Francesca; Cuffari, Salvatore; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Local ablative techniques have been developed to enable local control of unresectable tumors. Ablation has been performed with several modalities including ethanol ablation, laser ablation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ablation. Microwave technology is a new thermal ablation technique for different types of tumors, providing all the benefits of radiofrequency and substantial advantages. Microwave ablation has been applied to liver, lung, kidney and more rarely to bone, pancreas and adrenal glands. Preliminary works show that microwave ablation may be a viable alternative to other ablation techniques in selected patients. However further studies are necessary to confirm short- and long-term effectiveness of the methods and to compare it with other ablative techniques, especially RF.

  8. Drift emplaced waste package thermal response

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffner, D.J.; Johnson, G.L.; Platt, E.A.; Blink, J.A.; Doering, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal calculations of the effects of radioactive waste decay heat on the I repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada have been conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in conjunction with the B&W Fuel Company. For a number of waste package spacings, these 3D transient calculations use the TOPAZ3D code to predict drift wall temperatures to 10,000 years following emplacement. Systematic tcniperature variation occurs as a function of fuel age at emplacement and Areal Mass Loading (AML) during the first few centuries after emplacement. After about 1000 years, emplacement age is not a strong driver on rock temperature; AML has a larger impact. High AMLs occur when large waste packages are emplaced end-tocnd in drifts. Drift emplacement of equivalent packages results in lower rock teniperatures than borehole emplacement. For an emplacement scheme with 50% of the drift length occupied by packages, an AML of 138 MTU/acre is about three times higher than the Site Characterization Plan-Conceptual Design (SCP-CD) value. With this higher AML (requiring only 1/3 of the SCP-CD repository footprint), peak drift wall temperatures do not exceed 160*C, but rock temperatures excetd the boiling point of water for about 3000 years. These TOPAZ3D results Iiive been compared with reasonable agreement with two other computer codes.

  9. Drift emplaced waste package thermal response

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffner, D.J.; Johnson, G.L.; Platt, E.A.; Blink, J.A.; Doering, T.W.

    1993-12-31

    Thermal calculations of the effects of radioactive waste decay heat on the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL) in conjunction with the B&W Fuel Co. For a number of waste package spacings, these 3D transient calculations use the TOPAZ3D code to predict drift wall temperatures to 10,000 years following emplacement. Systematic temperature variation occurs as a function of fuel age at emplacement and Areal Mass Loading (AML) during the first few centuries after emplacement. After about 1000 years, emplacement age is not a strong driver on rock temperature; AML has a larger impact. High AMLs occur when large waste packages are emplaced end-to-end in drifts. Drift emplacement of equivalent packages results in lower rock temperatures than borehole emplacement. For an emplacement scheme with 50% of the drift length occupied by packages, an AML of 138 MTU/acre is about three times higher than the Site Characterization Plan-Conceptual Design (SCP-CD) value. With this higher AML (requiring only 1/3 of the SCP-CD repository footprint), peak drift wall temperatures do not exceed 160{degrees}C, but rock temperatures exceed the boiling point of water for about 3000 years. These TOPAZ3D results have been compared with reasonable agreement with two other computer codes.

  10. Thermal-vacuum response of polymer matrix composites in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Matthews, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a thermal-vacuum outgassing model and test protocol for predicting outgassing times and dimensional changes for polymer matrix composites. Experimental results derived from 'control' samples are used to provide the basis for analytical predictions to compare with the outgassing response of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight samples. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) data are also presented. In addition, an example is given illustrating the dimensional change of a 'zero' CTE laminate due to moisture outgassing.

  11. Temporal Treatment of a Thermal Response for Defect Depth Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotnikov, Y. A.; Winfree, W. P.

    2004-01-01

    Transient thermography, which employs pulse surface heating of an inspected component followed by acquisition of the thermal decay stage, is gaining wider acceptance as a result of its remoteness and rapidness. Flaws in the component s material may induce a thermal contrast in surface thermograms. An important issue in transient thermography is estimating the depth of a subsurface flaw from the thermal response. This improves the quantitative ability of the thermal evaluation: from one scan it is possible to locate regions of anomalies in thickness (caused by corrosion) and estimate the implications of the flaw on the integrity of the structure. Our research focuses on thick composite aircraft components. A long square heating pulse and several minutes observation period are required to receive an adequate thermal response from such a component. Application of various time-related informative parameters of the thermal response for depth estimation is discussed. A three-dimensional finite difference model of heat propagation in solids in Cartesian coordinates is used to simulate the thermographic process. Typical physical properties of polymer graphite composites are assumed for the model.

  12. Catheter Ablation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you during the procedure. Machines will measure your heart’s activity. All types of ablation require cardiac catheterization to place flexible tubes, or catheters, inside your heart to make the scars. Your doctor will clean ...

  13. Differential responses to thermal variation between fitness metrics

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo-Baquet, Sabrina; Boher, Francisca; Ziegler, Lucia; Martel, Sebastián I.; Estay, Sergio A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is a major factor affecting population abundance and individual performance. Net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) differ in their response to different temperature regimes, and much of the difference is mediated by generation time (Tg). Here, we evaluate the effects of thermal mean and variability on R0, r and Tg, at four population densities in Drosophila melanogaster. The results show that R0, r and Tg present differential responses to thermal variation. Although temperature effects on R0 and Tg are non-linear, r response was negligible. R0 and Tg comprise a generational time scale, while r is at a chronological time scale. Thus, we argue that individuals growing under different thermal environments perform similarly on a chronological scale, but differently on a generational scale. PMID:24954717

  14. Differential responses to thermal variation between fitness metrics.

    PubMed

    Clavijo-Baquet, Sabrina; Boher, Francisca; Ziegler, Lucia; Martel, Sebastián I; Estay, Sergio A; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2014-06-23

    Temperature is a major factor affecting population abundance and individual performance. Net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) differ in their response to different temperature regimes, and much of the difference is mediated by generation time (Tg). Here, we evaluate the effects of thermal mean and variability on R0, r and Tg, at four population densities in Drosophila melanogaster. The results show that R0, r and Tg present differential responses to thermal variation. Although temperature effects on R0 and Tg are non-linear, r response was negligible. R0 and Tg comprise a generational time scale, while r is at a chronological time scale. Thus, we argue that individuals growing under different thermal environments perform similarly on a chronological scale, but differently on a generational scale.

  15. Thermal effect on thermoluminescence response of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Zarate-Medina, J; Sandoval-Cedeño, K J; Barrera-Villatoro, A; Lemus-Ruiz, J; Rivera Montalvo, T

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the thermoluminescence (TL) induced by gamma radiation in synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained by the precipitation method, using Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4 and calcined at different temperatures. The structural and morphological characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. TL response as a function of gamma radiation dose was in a wide range, where intensity was enhanced in the sample annealed at 900°C, which tricalcium diphosphate (TCP) phase appear. Fading of the TL was also studied.

  16. Implicit Coupling Approach for Simulation of Charring Carbon Ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Gokcen, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates that coupling of a material thermal response code and a flow solver with nonequilibrium gas/surface interaction for simulation of charring carbon ablators can be performed using an implicit approach. The material thermal response code used in this study is the three-dimensional version of Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal response program, which predicts charring material thermal response and shape change on hypersonic space vehicles. The flow code solves the reacting Navier-Stokes equations using Data Parallel Line Relaxation method. Coupling between the material response and flow codes is performed by solving the surface mass balance in flow solver and the surface energy balance in material response code. Thus, the material surface recession is predicted in flow code, and the surface temperature and pyrolysis gas injection rate are computed in material response code. It is demonstrated that the time-lagged explicit approach is sufficient for simulations at low surface heating conditions, in which the surface ablation rate is not a strong function of the surface temperature. At elevated surface heating conditions, the implicit approach has to be taken, because the carbon ablation rate becomes a stiff function of the surface temperature, and thus the explicit approach appears to be inappropriate resulting in severe numerical oscillations of predicted surface temperature. Implicit coupling for simulation of arc-jet models is performed, and the predictions are compared with measured data. Implicit coupling for trajectory based simulation of Stardust fore-body heat shield is also conducted. The predicted stagnation point total recession is compared with that predicted using the chemical equilibrium surface assumption

  17. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and ethanol induced tissue ablation: Thermal lesion volume and temperature ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen Hai

    HIFU is the upcoming technology for noninvasive or minimally invasive tumor ablation via the localized acoustic energy deposition at the focal region within the tumor target. The presence of cavitation bubbles had been shown to improve the therapeutic effect of HIFU. In this study, we have investigated the effect of HIFU on temperature rise and cavitation bubble activity in ethanol-treated porcine liver and kidney tissues. We have also explored changes in the viability and proliferation rate of HepG2, SW1376, and FB1 cancer cells with their exposure to ethanol and HIFU. Tissues were submerged in 95% ethanol for five hours and then exposed to HIFU generated by a 1.1 MHz transducer or injected into focal spot before HIFU exposure. Cavitation events were measured by a passive cavitation detection technique for a range of acoustic power from 1.17 W to 20.52 W. The temperature around the focal zone was measured by type K or type E thermocouples embedded in the samples. In experiments with cancer cells, 2.7 millions cells were treated with concentration of ethanol at concentration 2%, 4%, 10%, 25%, and 50% and the cell were exposed to HIFU with power of 2.73 W, 8.72 W, and 12.0 W for 30 seconds. Our data show that the treatment of tissues with ethanol reduces the threshold power for inertial cavitation and increases the temperature rise. The exposure of cancer cells to various HIFU power only showed a higher number of viable cells 24 to 72 hours after HIFU exposure. On the other hand, both the viability and proliferation rate were significantly decreased in cells treated with ethanol and then HIFU at 8.7 W and 12.0 W even at ethanol concentration of 2 and 4 percent. In conclusion, the results of our study indicate that percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and HIFU have a synergistic effect on cancer cells ablation.

  18. Performance characterization of fiber Bragg grating thermal response in space vacuum thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junfeng; Song, Luyao; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Jingchuan; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Jinde; Zhao, Peng; Xie, Jihui; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Xuezhi

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) thermal response in space vacuum thermal environment. The FBGs were packaged with 6061-T6 aluminum. The liquid nitrogen immersion experiment results show that its wavelength shift standard deviation is 0.76 pm for 217 h. The combination effect of vacuum and cryogenic temperature was studied by thermal cycling process in space environment simulator. The FBG sensors show accuracy better than 2% full scale, and the hysteresis errors are below 1%. It proves that these metal packaged FBG sensors can survive and meet the requirement of space measurement.

  19. Modeling of the Laser-Induced Thermal Response, Ablation, and Fragmentation of Biological Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-27

    Most of our effo" .s thus far have been focused on the "hard" tissue problem, i.e., kidney stones, gallstones , calcified plaque. IDuring this first... gallstones , (3) modeling of laser-driven shock-induced fragmentation of kidney stones and gallstones , and (4) modeling of the above surface hydrodynamics, i.e... gallstones (Section 3); (3) modeling of aser-driven shock-induced fragmentation of kidney stones and gallstones (Section 4); and (4) modeling of the above

  20. Thermally responsive aqueous silicate mixtures and use thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Vinson, E.F.

    1987-02-03

    A method is described of plugging or sealing a zone in a subterranean formation comprising: (a) contacting the zone with an aqueous silicate composition consisting essentially of (i) an aqueous solution containing an alkali metal silicate; and, (ii) a thermally responsive gelation activator selected from the group consisting of lactose, dextrose, fructose, galactose, mannose, mantose, xylose and mixtures thereof; and (b) activating the gelation activator in response to a thermal change in the composition within the formation whereby the silicate composition is caused to form a gel in the zone.

  1. Modeling thermally driven energetic response of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; McCallen, R C; Nichols III, A L; Otero, I; Sharp, R

    1998-08-17

    We have improved our ability to model the response of energetic materials to thermal stimuli and the processes involved in the energetic response. Traditionally, the analyses of energetic materials have involved coupled thermal transport/chemical reaction codes. This provides only a reasonable estimate of the time and location of ensuing rapid reaction. To predict the violence of the reaction, the mechanical motion must be included in the wide range of time scales associated with the thermal hazard. The ALE3D code has been modified to assess the hazards associated with heating energetic materials in weapons by coupling to thermal transport model and chemistry models. We have developed an implicit time step option to efficiently and accurately compute the hours of heating to reaction of the energetic material. Since, on these longer time scales materials can be expected to have significant motion, it is even more important to provide high-order advection for all components, including the chemical species. We show two examples of coupled thermal/mechanical/chemical models of energetic materials in thermal environments.

  2. Modeling thermally driven energetic response of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R; Couch, R; McCallen, R C; Nichols III, A L; Otero, I

    1998-02-01

    We have improved our ability to model the response of energetic materials to thermal stimuli and the processes involved in the energetic response. Traditionally, the analyses of energetic materials have involved coupled thermal transport/chemical reaction codes. This provides only a reasonable estimate of the time and location of ensuing rapid reaction. To predict the violence of the reaction, the mechanical motion must be included in the wide range of time scales associated with the thermal hazard. The ALE3D code has been modified to assess the hazards associated with heating energetic materials in weapons by coupling to thermal transport model and chemistry models. We have developed an implicit time step option to efficiently and accurately compute the hours of heating to reaction of the energetic material. Since, on these longer time scales materials can be expected to have significant motion, it is even more important to provide high-order advection for all components, including the chemical species. We show two examples of coupled thermal/mechanical/chemical models of energetic materials in thermal environments.

  3. New tumor ablation techniques for cancer treatment (microwave, electroporation).

    PubMed

    de Baere, T; Deschamps, F

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of liver tumors at the end of the 1990s, indications for local ablation techniques have been extended to other organs, in particular, the lungs, kidneys and bones. These techniques have also been improved, in particular to try and overcome the limitations of radiofrequency techniques, especially the significant decrease in complete ablation rates for tumors larger than 3cm and tumors that are contiguous to vessels larger than 3mm. Microwave ablation is a rapidly developing thermal ablation technique similar to RFA but with numerous differences. Electroporation, a non-thermal ablation technique with other possibilities, is in earlier stages of clinical development.

  4. Thermally-responsive poly(ester urethane)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Benjamin Franklin

    Thermally-responsive materials are quite useful in the biomedical field, but their full potential has yet to be realized. For example, polyurethanes are capable of exhibiting shape-memory properties, or the ability to change shape upon the application of a stimulus, but only a few practical thermally responsive polyurethanes have been reported due to the lack of novel starting materials and optimized systems. This work describes the synthesis of several degradable polymers and the characterization of their thermally responsive behavior. First, several amorphous polyester prepolymers are synthesized and incorporated in thermoplastic poly(ester urethane)s, which are highly elastic but display impractical thermal properties. Their potential as degradable implants is investigated, as well as their bulk and surface properties. These systems are then optimized and tailored for more practical purposes, resulting in the synthesis of thermoset elastomers based on poly(1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate) (PCCD) prepolymers that display a broad range of useful mechanical properties, thermal properties, and shape-memory properties. A novel method for controlling a microscopic and nanoscopic topographical shape-memory phenomenon is presented. Finally, the synthesis of amine-functionalized polyesters is presented. All materials are characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, GPC, DSC, TGA, and Instron.

  5. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical response of rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.

    1997-12-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams are frequently used as encapsulants to isolate and support thermally sensitive components within weapon systems. When exposed to abnormal thermal environments, such as fire, the polyurethane foam decomposes to form products having a wide distribution of molecular weights and can dominate the overall thermal response of the system. Mechanical response of the decomposing foam, such as thermal expansion under various loading conditions created by gas generation, remains a major unsolved problem. A constitutive model of the reactive foam is needed to describe the coupling between mechanical response and chemical decomposition of foam exposed to environments such as fire. Towards this end, a reactive elastic-plastic constitutive model based on bubble mechanics describing nucleation, decomposition chemistry, and elastic/plastic mechanical behavior of rigid polyurethane foam has been developed. A local force balance, with mass continuity constraints, forms the basis of the constitutive model requiring input of temperature and the fraction of the material converted to gas. This constitutive model provides a stress-strain relationship which is applicable for a broad class of reacting materials such as explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and decomposing foams. The model is applied to a block of foam exposed to various thermal fluxes. The model is also applied to a sphere of foam confined in brass. The predicted mechanical deformation of the foam block and sphere are shown to qualitatively agree with experimental observations.

  6. Percutaneous Lung Thermal Ablation of Non-surgical Clinical N0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of Eight Years’ Experience in 87 Patients from Two Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Palussiere, Jean; Lagarde, Philippe; Aupérin, Anne; Deschamps, Frédéric; Chomy, François; Baere, Thierry de

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the survival outcomes of percutaneous thermal ablation (RFA + microwaves) for patients presenting N0 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) ineligible for surgery.Materials and MethodsEighty-seven patients from two comprehensive cancer centers were included. Eighty-two patients were treated with RFA electrodes and five with microwave antenna. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated and predictive factors of local tumor progression, OS and DFS identified and compared by univariate and multivariate analysesResultsMedian follow-up was 30.5 months (interquartile range 16.7–51) and tumor size was 21 mm (range 10–54 mm). Treatment was incomplete for 14 patients with a local tumor progression of 11.5, 18.3, and 21.1 % at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Two patients presented with neurological (grade III or IV) complications, and one died of respiratory and multivisceral failure as a result of the procedure at 29 days. In univariate analysis, increasing tumor size (P = 0.003) was the only predictive factor related to risk of local tumor progression. 5-year OS and DFS were 58.1 and 27.9 %, respectively. Sex (P = 0.044), pathology (P = 0.032), and tumor size >2 cm (P = 0.046) were prognostic factors for DFS. In multivariate analysis, pathology (P = 0.033) and tumor size >2 cm (P = 0.032) were independent prognostic factors for DFS.ConclusionsOversized and overlapping ablation of N0 NSCLC was well tolerated, effective, with few local tumor progressions, even over long-term follow-up. Increasing tumor size was the main prognostic factor linked to OS, DFS, and local tumor progression.

  7. Elastic response of thermal spray deposits under indentation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, S.H.; Lin, C.K.; Berndt, C.C.

    1997-08-01

    The elastic response behavior of thermal spray deposits at Knoop indentations has been investigated using indentation techniques. The ration of hardness to elastic modulus, which is an important prerequisite for the evaluation of indentation fracture toughness, is determined by measuring the elastic recovery of the in-surface dimensions of Knoop indentations. The elastic moduli of thermal spray deposits are in the range of 12%--78% of the comparable bulk materials and reveal the anisotropic behavior of thermal spray deposits. A variety of thermal spray deposits has been examined, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, yttria-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ), and NiAl. Statistical tools have been used to evaluate the error estimates of the data.

  8. Micro-thermocouple probe for measurement of cellular thermal responses.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Kakuta, N; Mabuchi, K; Yamada, Y

    2005-01-01

    We have produced micro-thermocouple probes for the measurement of cellular thermal responses. Cells generate heat with their metabolisms and more heat with reactions to a certain physical or chemical stimulation. Therefore, the analysis of the cellular thermal responses would provide new physiological information. However, a real-time thermal measurement technique on a target of a single cell has not been established. In this study, glass micropipettes, which are widely used in bioengineering and medicine, are used for the base of the thermocouple probes. Using microfabrication techniques, the junction of two different metal films is formed at the micropipette tip with a diameter of 1 μm. This probe can inject a chemical substance into a cell and to detect its subsequent temperature changes simultaneously.

  9. Response of neutron-irradiated RPV steels to thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-03-01

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is to thermally anneal them to restore the fracture toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. This paper summarizes experimental results of work performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the annealing response of several irradiated RPV steels.

  10. Evaluation of Finite-Rate GasSurface Interaction Models for a Carbon Based Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Goekcen, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of finite-rate gas-surface interaction model between air and the carbon surface are studied. The first set is an engineering model with one-way chemical reactions, and the second set is a more detailed model with two-way chemical reactions. These two proposed models intend to cover the carbon surface ablation conditions including the low temperature rate-controlled oxidation, the mid-temperature diffusion-controlled oxidation, and the high temperature sublimation. The prediction of carbon surface recession is achieved by coupling a material thermal response code and a Navier-Stokes flow code. The material thermal response code used in this study is the Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal-response and Ablation Program, which predicts charring material thermal response and shape change on hypersonic space vehicles. The flow code solves the reacting full Navier-Stokes equations using Data Parallel Line Relaxation method. Recession analyses of stagnation tests conducted in NASA Ames Research Center arc-jet facilities with heat fluxes ranging from 45 to 1100 wcm2 are performed and compared with data for model validation. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests is Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator. Additionally, computational predictions of surface recession and shape change are in good agreement with measurement for arc-jet conditions of Small Probe Reentry Investigation for Thermal Protection System Engineering.

  11. Modeling thermal/chemical/mechanical response of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gross, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of modeling at Sandia National Laboratories is presented which describes coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical response of energetic materials. This modeling addresses cookoff scenarios for safety assessment studies in systems containing energetic materials. Foundation work is discussed which establishes a method for incorporating chemistry and mechanics into multidimensional analysis. Finite element analysis offers the capabilities to simultaneously resolve reactive heat transfer and structural mechanics in complex geometries. Nonlinear conduction heat transfer, with multiple step finite-rate chemistry, is resolved using a thermal finite element code. Rate equations are solved element-by-element using a modified matrix-free stiff solver This finite element software was developed for the simulation of systems requiring large numbers of finite elements. An iterative implicit scheme, based on the conjugate gradient method, is used and a hemi-cube algorithm is employed for the determination of view factors in surface-to-surface radiation transfer The critical link between the reactive heat transfer and mechanics is the introduction of an appropriate constitutive material model providing a stress-strain relationship for quasi-static mechanics analysis. This model is formally derived from bubble nucleation theory, and parameter variations of critical model parameters indicate that a small degree of decomposition leads to significant mechanical response. Coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical analysis is presented which simulates experiments designed to probe cookoff thermal-mechanical response of energetic materials.

  12. Hydraulic characterization of aquifers by thermal response testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Valentin; Blum, Philipp; Bayer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Temperature as a major physical quantity of the subsurface, and naturally occurring thermal anomalies are recognized as promising passive tracers to characterize the subsurface. Accelerated by the increasing popularity of geothermal energy, also active thermal field experiments have gained interest in hydrogeology. Such experiments involve artificial local ground heating or cooling. Among these, the thermal response test (TRT) is one of the most established field investigation techniques in shallow geothermal applications. It is a common method to investigate important subsurface heat transport parameters to design sustainable ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems. During the test, the borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is heated up with a defined amount of energy by circulating a heat carrier fluid. By comparing temperature change between BHE inlet and outlet, the ability of the BHE to transfer heat or cold to the ambient ground is assessed. However, standard interpretation does not provide any insight into the governing processes of in-situ heat transfer. We utilize a groundwater advection sensitive TRT evaluation approach based on the analytical moving line source equation. It is shown that the TRT as a classical geothermal field test can also be used as a hydrogeological field test. Our approach benefits from the fact that thermal properties, such as thermal conductivity, of natural aquifers typically are much less variable than hydraulic properties, such as hydraulic conductivity. It is possible to determine a relatively small hydraulic conductivity range with our TRT evaluation approach, given realistic ranges for thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity, thermal dispersivity and thermal borehole resistance. The method is successfully tested on a large-scale geothermal laboratory experiment (9 m × 6 m × 4.5 m) and with a commercially performed TRT in the field scale. The laboratory experiment consists of a layered artificial aquifer, which is penetrated

  13. [Ablative and fractional lasers].

    PubMed

    Beylot, C; Grognard, C; Michaud, T

    2009-10-01

    The use of pulsed or scanning Carbon Dioxide, and pulsed Erbium-YAG lasers allows the programmable and reproducible photocoagulation of thin layers of the epidermis and superficial dermis. Thermal damage depends on the type of laser and is greater with CO(2) lasers. The degree of neocollagenesis is proportional to the thermal damage and is better with CO(2) lasers. Their main indication is the correction of photoaged facial skin but they can also be used for corrective dermatology, e.g. for scars and genodermatosis. Results are highly satisfactory but the technique is invasive and the patient experiences a social hindrance of around two weeks. Fractionated techniques treat 25% of the defective skin area at each session in noncontiguous microzones; four sessions are therefore necessary to treat the entire cutaneous surface. The treatment is given under topical anesthesia and is much less invasive, particularly with nonablative fractional laser treatment in which photothermolysis does not penetrate below the epidermis and/or the effects are slight, with no or very little social isolation. However, the results are much less satisfactory than the results of ablative laser and there is no firming effect. Other zones than the face can be treated. With the fractional CO(2) and Erbium ablative lasers, which have multiplied over the past 2 years, the much wider impacts cause perforation of the epidermis and there is a zone of ablation by laser photovaporization, with a zone of thermal damage below. The results are better in correcting photoaging of the face, without, however, achieving the efficacy of ablative lasers, which remain the reference technique. However, the effects are not insignificant, requiring at least 5 days of social isolation.

  14. Improved therapeutic outcomes of thermal ablation on rat orthotopic liver allograft sarcoma models by radioiodinated hypericin induced necrosis targeted radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Long; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Tengchuang; Yao, Nan; Gao, Meng; Shan, Xin; Ni, Yicheng; Shao, Haibo; Xu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Residual tumor resulting in tumor recurrence after various anticancer therapies is an unmet challenge in current clinical oncology. This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that radioiodinated hypericin (131I-Hyp) may inhibit residual tumor recurrence after microwave ablation (MWA) on rat orthotopic liver allograft sarcoma models. Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with hepatic tumors were divided into three groups: Group A received laparotomy MWA and sequential intravenous injection (i.v.) of 131I labelled hypericin (131I-Hyp) in a time interval of 24 h; Group B received only laparotomy MWA; Group C was a blank control. Tumor inhibitory effects were monitored with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and these findings were compared to histopathology data before (baseline, day 0) and 1, 4, and 8 days after MWA. In addition, biodistribution of 131I-Hyp was assessed with in vivo single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) imaging, in vitro autoradiography, fluorescent microscopy, and gamma counting. A fast clearance of 131I-Hyp and increasing deposit in necrotic tumors appeared over time, with a significantly higher radioactivity than other organs (0.9169 ± 1.1138 % ID/g, P < 0.01) on day 9. Tumor growth was significantly slowed down in group A compared to group B and C according to MRI images and corresponding tumor doubling time (12.13 ± 1.99, 4.09 ± 0.97, 3.36 ± 0.72 days respectively). The crescent tagerability of 131I-Hyp to necrosis was visualized consistently by autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, 131I-Hyp induced necrosis targeted radiotherapy improved therapeutic outcomes of MWA on rat orthotopic liver allograft sarcoma models. PMID:27285983

  15. One-Dimensional Ablation with Pyrolysis Gas Flow Using a Full Newton's Method and Finite Control Volume Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Blackwell, Ben F.; Edwards, Jack R.

    2007-01-01

    The development and verification of a one-dimensional material thermal response code with ablation is presented. The implicit time integrator, control volume finite element spatial discretization, and Newton's method for nonlinear iteration on the entire system of residual equations have been implemented and verified for the thermochemical ablation of internally decomposing materials. This study is a continuation of the work presented in "One-Dimensional Ablation with Pyrolysis Gas Flow Using a Full Newton's Method and Finite Control Volume Procedure" (AIAA-2006-2910), which described the derivation, implementation, and verification of the constant density solid energy equation terms and boundary conditions. The present study extends the model to decomposing materials including decomposition kinetics, pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer, and a mixture (solid and gas) energy equation. Verification results are presented for the thermochemical ablation of a carbon-phenolic ablator which involves the solution of the entire system of governing equations.

  16. Holographic thermal DC response in the hydrodynamic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Elliot; Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Griffin, Tom; Melgar, Luis

    2017-02-01

    We consider black hole solutions of Einstein gravity that describe deformations of CFTs at finite temperature in which spatial translations have been broken explicitly. We focus on deformations that are periodic in the non-compact spatial directions, which effectively corresponds to considering the CFT on a spatial torus with a non-trivial metric. We apply a DC thermal gradient and show that in a hydrodynamic limit the linearised, local thermal currents can be determined by solving linearised, forced Navier–Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid on the torus. We also show how sub-leading corrections to the thermal current can be calculated as well as showing how the full stress tensor response that is generated by the DC source can be obtained. We also compare our results with the fluid-gravity approach.

  17. Thermochemical Ablation Analysis of the Orion Heatshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sixel, William

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will one day carry astronauts to the Moon and beyond, and Orion's heatshield is a critical component in ensuring their safe return to Earth. The Orion heatshield is the structural component responsible for absorbing the intense heating environment caused by re-entry to Earth's atmosphere. The heatshield is primarily composed of Avcoat, an ablative material that is consumed during the re-entry process. Ablation is primarily characterized by two processes: pyrolysis and recession. The decomposition of in-depth virgin material is known as pyrolysis. Recession occurs when the exposed surface of the heatshield reacts with the surrounding flow. The Orion heatshield design was changed from an individually filled Avcoat honeycomb to a molded block Avcoat design. The molded block Avcoat heatshield relies on an adhesive bond to keep it attached to the capsule. In some locations on the heatshield, the integrity of the adhesive bond cannot be verified. For these locations, a mechanical retention device was proposed. Avcoat ablation was modelled in CHAR and the in-depth virgin material temperatures were used in a Thermal Desktop model of the mechanical retention device. The retention device was analyzed and shown to cause a large increase in the maximum bondline temperature. In order to study the impact of individual ablation modelling parameters on the heatshield sizing process, a Monte Carlo simulation of the sizing process was proposed. The simulation will give the sensitivity of the ablation model to each of its input parameters. As part of the Monte Carlo simulation, statistical uncertainties on material properties were required for Avcoat. Several properties were difficult to acquire uncertainties for: the pyrolysis gas enthalpy, non-dimensional mass loss rate (B´c), and Arrhenius equation parameters. Variability in the elemental composition of Avcoat was used as the basis for determining the statistical uncertainty in pyrolysis gas

  18. Effect of Non-Equilibrium Surface Thermochemistry in Simulation of Carbon Based Ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates that coupling of a material thermal response code and a flow solver using non-equilibrium gas/surface interaction model provides time-accurate solutions for the multidimensional ablation of carbon based charring ablators. The material thermal response code used in this study is the Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal-response and AblatioN Program (TITAN), which predicts charring material thermal response and shape change on hypersonic space vehicles. Its governing equations include total energy balance, pyrolysis gas mass conservation, and a three-component decomposition model. The flow code solves the reacting Navier-Stokes equations using Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) method. Loose coupling between the material response and flow codes is performed by solving the surface mass balance in DPLR and the surface energy balance in TITAN. Thus, the material surface recession is predicted by finite-rate gas/surface interaction boundary conditions implemented in DPLR, and the surface temperature and pyrolysis gas injection rate are computed in TITAN. Two sets of nonequilibrium gas/surface interaction chemistry between air and the carbon surface developed by Park and Zhluktov, respectively, are studied. Coupled fluid-material response analyses of stagnation tests conducted in NASA Ames Research Center arc-jet facilities are considered. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests was Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA). Computational predictions of in-depth material thermal response and surface recession are compared with the experimental measurements for stagnation cold wall heat flux ranging from 107 to 1100 Watts per square centimeter.

  19. Thermal Ablation by High-Intensity-Focused Ultrasound Using a Toroid Transducer Increases the Coagulated Volume and Allows Coagulation Near Portal and Hepatic veins in Pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melodelima, D.; N'Djin, W. A.; Parmentier, H.; Rivoire, M.; Chapelon, J. Y.

    2009-04-01

    A new geometry of HIFU transducer is described to enlarge the coagulated volume. The geometry of the transducer was not spherical. The surface of the transducer was built based on a toroid geometry. The transducer was generated by the revolution of a circle about an axis lying in its plane. Eight emitters operating at a frequency of 3 MHz were diced out of a single toroid piezocomposite element. Each of the eight emitters was divided into 32 transducers. The focal zone is conical and located at 70 mm from the transducer. A 7.5 MHz ultrasound imaging probe is placed in the centre of the device for guiding the treatment. Our long-term objective is to develop a device that can be used during surgery. In vivo trials have been performed on 13 pigs to demonstrate this new principle and to evaluate the vascular tolerance of the treatment. This new geometry combined with consecutive activation of the eight emitters around the toroid allows achieving a mean thermal ablation of 7.0±2.5 cm3 in 40 seconds. All lesions were visible with high contrast on sonograms. The correlation between the size of lesions observed on sonograms and during gross examination was 92%. This allows the user to easily enlarge the coagulated volume by juxtaposing single lesions. The pigs tolerate the treatment well over the experimental period even when coagulation was produced through portal and/or hepatic veins.

  20. Thermal Ablation by High-Intensity-Focused Ultrasound Using a Toroid Transducer Increases the Coagulated Volume and Allows Coagulation Near Portal and Hepatic veins in Pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Melodelima, D.; N'Djin, W. A.; Parmentier, H.; Chapelon, J. Y.; Rivoire, M.

    2009-04-14

    A new geometry of HIFU transducer is described to enlarge the coagulated volume. The geometry of the transducer was not spherical. The surface of the transducer was built based on a toroid geometry. The transducer was generated by the revolution of a circle about an axis lying in its plane. Eight emitters operating at a frequency of 3 MHz were diced out of a single toroid piezocomposite element. Each of the eight emitters was divided into 32 transducers. The focal zone is conical and located at 70 mm from the transducer. A 7.5 MHz ultrasound imaging probe is placed in the centre of the device for guiding the treatment. Our long-term objective is to develop a device that can be used during surgery. In vivo trials have been performed on 13 pigs to demonstrate this new principle and to evaluate the vascular tolerance of the treatment. This new geometry combined with consecutive activation of the eight emitters around the toroid allows achieving a mean thermal ablation of 7.0{+-}2.5 cm3 in 40 seconds. All lesions were visible with high contrast on sonograms. The correlation between the size of lesions observed on sonograms and during gross examination was 92%. This allows the user to easily enlarge the coagulated volume by juxtaposing single lesions. The pigs tolerate the treatment well over the experimental period even when coagulation was produced through portal and/or hepatic veins.

  1. Analysis of piping response to thermal and operational transients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The reactor piping system is an extremely complex three-dimensional structure. Maintaining its structural integrity is essential to the safe operation of the reactor and the steam-supply system. In the safety analysis, various transient loads can be imposed on the piping which may cause plastic deformation and possible damage to the system, including those generated from hydrodynamic wave propagations, thermal and operational transients, as well as the seismic events. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), a three-dimensional (3-D) piping code, SHAPS, aimed for short-duration transients due to wave propagation, has been developed. Since 1984, the development work has been shifted to the long-duration accidents originating from the thermal and operational transient. As a result, a new version of the code, SHAPS-2, is being established. This paper describes many features related to this later development. To analyze piping response generated from thermal and operational transients, a 3-D implicit finite element algorithm has been developed for calculating the hoop, flexural, axial, and torsional deformations induced by the thermomechanical loads. The analysis appropriately accounts for stresses arising from the temperature dependence of the elastic material properties, the thermal expansion of the materials, and the changes in the temperature-dependent yield surface. Thermal softening, failure, strain rate, creep, and stress ratching can also be considered.

  2. An evaluation of flight data for the Apollo thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, E. P.; Curry, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to correlate Apollo ablation and thermal response flight data using advanced state-of-the-art analytical procedures. The agreement between flight data and predictions is consistently excellent for in-depth temperature distributions, char density profiles, and surface ablation, thus validating the analytical procedures.

  3. Numerical modeling of Thermal Response Tests in Energy Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Toledo, M.; Moffat, R.; Herrera, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, thermal response tests (TRT) are used as the main tools for the evaluation of low enthalpy geothermal systems such as heat exchangers. The results of TRT are used for estimating thermal conductivity and thermal resistance values of those systems. We present results of synthetic TRT simulations that model the behavior observed in an experimental energy pile system, which was installed at the new building of the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de Chile. Moreover, we also present a parametric study to identify the most influent parameters in the performance of this type of tests. The modeling was developed using the finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, which allows the incorporation of flow and heat transport processes. The modeled system consists on a concrete pile with 1 m diameter and 28 m deep, which contains a 28 mm diameter PEX pipe arranged in a closed circuit. Three configurations were analyzed: a U pipe, a triple U and a helicoid shape implemented at the experimental site. All simulations were run considering transient response in a three-dimensional domain. The simulation results provided the temperature distribution on the pile for a set of different geometry and physical properties of the materials. These results were compared with analytical solutions which are commonly used to interpret TRT data. This analysis demonstrated that there are several parameters that affect the system response in a synthetic TRT. For example, the diameter of the simulated pile affects the estimated effective thermal conductivity of the system. Moreover, the simulation results show that the estimated thermal conductivity for a 1 m diameter pile did not stabilize even after 100 hours since the beginning of the test, when it reached a value 30% below value used to set up the material properties in the simulation. Furthermore, we observed different behaviors depending on the thermal properties of concrete and soil. According to the simulations, the thermal

  4. Effect of fire engulfment on thermal response of LPG tanks.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ming-shu; Ren, Jing-jie; Zhao, Bo; Che, Wei

    2011-08-30

    A model has been developed to predict the thermal response of liquefied-pressure gases (LPG) tanks under fire, and three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out on a horizontal LPG tank which was 60% filled. Comparison between numerical predictions and published experimental data shows close agreement. The attention is focused on the influence of different fire conditions (different fire scenarios, various engulfing degrees and flame temperatures) on thermal response of LPG tanks. Potential hazard probabilities under different fire conditions were discussed by analyzing the maximum wall temperature and media energy after the internal pressure rose to the same value. It is found that the less severe fire scenario and lower engulfing case may lead to a greater probability of burst hazard because of the higher maximum wall temperature and media energy before the pressure relief valve (PRV) opens.

  5. Thermally tunable grating using thermo-responsive magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibudeen, A. W.; Philip, John

    2017-04-01

    We report a thermally tunable grating prepared using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The array spacing is reversibly tuned by varying the temperature between 5 and 38 °C. Here, the ability of thermo-responsive polymer brushes to alter their conformation at an interface is exploited to control the grating spacing in nanoscale. The underlying mechanism for the temperature dependent conformational changes are studied by measuring the subtle intermolecular forces between the polymer covered interfaces. It is observed that the interparticle forces are repulsive and exponentially decaying with distance. The thermo-responsive grating is simple to use and offers a wide range of applications.

  6. Research of electrosurgical ablation with antiadhesive functionalization on thermal and histopathological effects of brain tissues in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Kung, Chun-Ming; Chu, Jan-Show; Ou, Keng-Liang; Peng, Pei-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Thermal injury and tissue sticking are two major concerns in the electrosurgery. In the present study, the effect of lateral thermal injury caused by different electrosurgical electrodes on wound healing was investigated. An electrosurgical unit equipped with untreated (SS) and titanium oxide layer-coated (TiO2-coated) stainless steel needle-type electrodes was used to create lesions on the rat brain tissue. TiO2 layers were produced by radiofrequency plasma and magnetron sputtering in the form of amorphous (TO-SS-1), anatase (TO-SS-2), and rutile (TO-SS-3) phase. Animals were sacrificed for evaluations at 0, 2, 7, and 28 days postoperatively. TO-SS-3 electrodes generated lower levels of sticking tissue, and the thermographs showed that the recorded highest temperature in brain tissue from the TO-SS-3 electrode was significantly lower than in the SS electrode. The total injury area of brain tissue caused by TO-SS-1 and TO-SS-3 electrodes was significantly lower than that caused by SS electrodes at each time point. The results of the present study reveal that the plating of electrodes with a TiO2 film with rutile phases is an efficient method for improving the performance of electrosurgical units and should benefit wound healing.

  7. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems.

  8. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ = 9.3 μm CO2 laser: adhesion, mechanical strength, heat accumulation, and peripheral thermal damage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Daniel; Chang, Kwang; Hedayatollahnajafi, Saba; Staninec, Michal; Chan, Kenneth; Lee, Robert; Fried, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    CO(2) lasers can be operated at high laser pulse repetition rates for the rapid and precise removal of dental decay. Excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage is a concern when using high pulse repetition rates. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. The interpulpal temperature rise was recorded using microthermocouples situated at the roof of the pulp chamber on teeth that were occlusally ablated using a rapidly-scanned CO(2) laser operating at 9.3 μm with a pulse duration of 10 to 15 μs and repetition rate of 300 Hz over a 2 min time course. The adhesion strength of laser treated enamel and dentin surfaces was measured for various laser scanning parameters with and without post-ablation acid etching using the single-plane shear test. The mechanical strength of laser-ablated dentin surfaces were determined via the four-point bend test and compared to control samples prepared with 320 grit wet sand paper to simulate conventional preparations. Thermocouple measurements indicated that the temperature remained below ambient temperature if water-cooling was used. There was no discoloration of either dentin or enamel laser treated surfaces, the surfaces were uniformly ablated, and there were no cracks visible. Four-point bend tests yielded mean mechanical strengths of 18.2 N (s.d. = 4.6) for ablated dentin and 18.1 N (s.d. = 2.7) for control (p > 0.05). Shear tests yielded mean bond strengths approaching 30 MPa for both enamel and dentin under certain irradiation conditions. These values were slightly lower than nonirradiated acid-etched control samples. Additional studies are needed to determine if the slightly lower bond strength than the acid-etched control samples is clinically significant. These measurements demonstrate that enamel and dentin surfaces can be rapidly ablated by CO(2) lasers with

  9. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ = 9.3 μm CO2 laser: adhesion, mechanical strength, heat accumulation, and peripheral thermal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Daniel; Chang, Kwang; Hedayatollahnajafi, Saba; Staninec, Michal; Chan, Kenneth; Lee, Robert; Fried, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    CO2 lasers can be operated at high laser pulse repetition rates for the rapid and precise removal of dental decay. Excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage is a concern when using high pulse repetition rates. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. The interpulpal temperature rise was recorded using microthermocouples situated at the roof of the pulp chamber on teeth that were occlusally ablated using a rapidly-scanned CO2 laser operating at 9.3 μm with a pulse duration of 10 to 15 μs and repetition rate of 300 Hz over a 2 min time course. The adhesion strength of laser treated enamel and dentin surfaces was measured for various laser scanning parameters with and without post-ablation acid etching using the single-plane shear test. The mechanical strength of laser-ablated dentin surfaces were determined via the four-point bend test and compared to control samples prepared with 320 grit wet sand paper to simulate conventional preparations. Thermocouple measurements indicated that the temperature remained below ambient temperature if water-cooling was used. There was no discoloration of either dentin or enamel laser treated surfaces, the surfaces were uniformly ablated, and there were no cracks visible. Four-point bend tests yielded mean mechanical strengths of 18.2 N (s.d. = 4.6) for ablated dentin and 18.1 N (s.d. = 2.7) for control (p > 0.05). Shear tests yielded mean bond strengths approaching 30 MPa for both enamel and dentin under certain irradiation conditions. These values were slightly lower than nonirradiated acid-etched control samples. Additional studies are needed to determine if the slightly lower bond strength than the acid-etched control samples is clinically significant. These measurements demonstrate that enamel and dentin surfaces can be rapidly ablated by CO2 lasers with minimal

  10. IR laser ablation of dental enamel: mechanistic dependence on the primary absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Zuerlein, Michael; Featherstone, John D. B.; Seka, Wolf; Duhn, Clifford; McCormack, Sandra M.

    1998-05-01

    The mechanism of ablation of dental enamel was investigated at IR laser wavelengths from 9.3-10.6 μm and 2.7-3.0 μm. The mechanism of ablation varies markedly depending on whether the laser energy is coupled to the water (Er:YAG - λ=3.0 μm) or coupled to the mineral (CO 2 - λ=9.6 μm). The ablation threshold occurs well below the melting point of dental enamel (1280°C) as indicated by SEM and time resolved surface temperature measurements during Er:YAG laser ablation. Conversely, ablation is initiated at temperatures above the melting point of hydroxyapatite during irradiation with 9.6 μm CO 2 laser radiation. The ablation mechanism is apparently photomechanical in nature and water mediated at 2.94 μm, while near 9.6 μm, the mechanism is more indicative of thermal vaporization of the mineral matrix. Absorption spectra and SEM are used to support the hypothesis that the spatial distribution of water and mineral in the enamel microstructure is responsible for the mechanistic differences in ablation observed between the two IR wavelength regions.

  11. Thermal fluctuations, mechanical response, and hyperuniformity in jammed solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Atsushi; Berthier, Ludovic

    2015-07-01

    Jamming is a geometric phase transition occurring in dense particle systems in the absence of temperature. We use computer simulations to analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on several signatures of the transition. We show that scaling laws for bulk and shear moduli only become relevant when thermal fluctuations are extremely small, and propose their relative ratio as a quantitative signature of jamming criticality. Despite the nonequilibrium nature of the transition, we find that thermally induced fluctuations and mechanical responses obey equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relations near jamming, provided the appropriate fluctuating component of the particle displacements is analyzed. This shows that mechanical moduli can be directly measured from particle positions in mechanically unperturbed packings, and suggests that the definition of a "nonequilibrium index" is unnecessary for amorphous materials. We find that fluctuations of particle displacements are spatially correlated, and define a transverse and a longitudinal correlation length scale which both diverge as the jamming transition is approached. We analyze the frozen component of density fluctuations and find that it displays signatures of nearly hyperuniform behavior at large length scales. This demonstrates that hyperuniformity in jammed packings is unrelated to a vanishing compressibility and explains why it appears remarkably robust against temperature and density variations. Differently from jamming criticality, obstacles preventing the observation of hyperuniformity in colloidal systems do not originate from thermal fluctuations.

  12. Image-guided ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Riccardo; Crocetti, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Image-guided ablation is accepted as the best therapeutic choice for patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) when surgical options-including resection and transplantation-are precluded. The term image-guided tumor ablation is defined as the direct application of chemical substances or sources of energy to a focal tumor in an attempt to achieve eradication or substantial tumor destruction. Over the past 25 years, several methods for local tumor destruction have been developed and clinically tested. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has shown superior anticancer effect and greater survival benefit with respect to the seminal percutaneous technique, ethanol injection, in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials, and is currently established as the standard ablative modality. Nevertheless, novel thermal and nonthermal techniques for tumor ablation-including microwave ablation and irreversible electroporation-seem to have potential to improve the efficacy of RFA and are currently undergoing clinical investigation.

  13. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions. PMID:27788197

  14. Thermal-mechanical response to simple shear extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furlong, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanism of extension in the continental crust is apparently much more complex than that acting in the oceanic lithosphere. Recently, Wernicke has proposed that a significant fraction of extension in the continental lithosphere may occur by a simple shear mechanism along discrete fault/shear zones which cut the crust, and perhaps extend into the uppermost mantle. Clearly much of the surface evidence for extension supports this concept, but the depth extent of simple shear extension in the continental crust is unclear. Using numerical simulations, the thermal and associated mechanical behavior of the continental lithosphere in response to lithosphere extension along a low-angle simple shear zone which cuts through the lithospheric plate was determined in order to evaluate the resolving ability of thermal (heat flow and metamorphic P-T-time paths) and elevation observations in constraining the mode of continental extension.

  15. Thermal-mechanical response to simple shear extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, K. P.

    The mechanism of extension in the continental crust is apparently much more complex than that acting in the oceanic lithosphere. Recently, Wernicke has proposed that a significant fraction of extension in the continental lithosphere may occur by a simple shear mechanism along discrete fault/shear zones which cut the crust, and perhaps extend into the uppermost mantle. Clearly much of the surface evidence for extension supports this concept, but the depth extent of simple shear extension in the continental crust is unclear. Using numerical simulations, the thermal and associated mechanical behavior of the continental lithosphere in response to lithosphere extension along a low-angle simple shear zone which cuts through the lithospheric plate was determined in order to evaluate the resolving ability of thermal (heat flow and metamorphic P-T-time paths) and elevation observations in constraining the mode of continental extension.

  16. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of air thermal plasmas mixed with ablated vapors of Cu and polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, JunMin; Lu, ChunRong; Guan, YongGang; Liu, WeiDong

    2015-10-01

    Because the fault arc in aircraft electrical system often causes a fire, it is particularly important to analyze its energy and transfer for aircraft safety. The calculation of arc energy requires the basic parameters of the arc. This paper is mainly devoted to the calculations of equilibrium composition, thermodynamic properties (density, molar weight, enthalpy, and specific heat at constant pressure) and transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and viscosity) of plasmas produced by a mixture of air, Cu, and polytetrafluoroethylene under the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium composition is determined by solving a system of equations around the number densities of each species. The thermodynamic properties are obtained according to the standard thermodynamic relationships. The transport coefficients are calculated using the Chapman-Enskog approximations. Results are presented in the temperature range from 3000 to 30 000 K for pressures of 0.08 and 0.1 MPa, respectively. The results are more accurate and are reliable reference data for theoretical analysis and computational simulation of the behavior of fault arc.

  17. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of air thermal plasmas mixed with ablated vapors of Cu and polytetrafluoroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, JunMin E-mail: guanyg@tsinghua.edu.cn; Lu, ChunRong; Guan, YongGang E-mail: guanyg@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, WeiDong

    2015-10-15

    Because the fault arc in aircraft electrical system often causes a fire, it is particularly important to analyze its energy and transfer for aircraft safety. The calculation of arc energy requires the basic parameters of the arc. This paper is mainly devoted to the calculations of equilibrium composition, thermodynamic properties (density, molar weight, enthalpy, and specific heat at constant pressure) and transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and viscosity) of plasmas produced by a mixture of air, Cu, and polytetrafluoroethylene under the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium composition is determined by solving a system of equations around the number densities of each species. The thermodynamic properties are obtained according to the standard thermodynamic relationships. The transport coefficients are calculated using the Chapman-Enskog approximations. Results are presented in the temperature range from 3000 to 30 000 K for pressures of 0.08 and 0.1 MPa, respectively. The results are more accurate and are reliable reference data for theoretical analysis and computational simulation of the behavior of fault arc.

  18. Percutaneous ablation of colorectal lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Lung metastasectomy can prolong survival in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Thermal ablation offers a potential solution with similar reported survival outcomes. It has minimal effect on pulmonary function, or quality of life, can be repeated, and may be considered more acceptable to patients because of the associated shorter hospital stay and recovery. This review describes the indications, technique, reported outcomes, complications and radiologic appearances after thermal ablation of colorectal lung metastases. PMID:26697202

  19. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Physics of Hypersonic Flow and TPS Considerations. Destinations, Missions and Requirements. State of the Art Thermal Protection Systems Capabilities. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS. Entry Systems Concepts. Flexible TPS for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators. Conformal TPS for Rigid Aeroshell. 3-D Woven TPS for Extreme Entry Environment. Multi-functional Carbon Fabric for Mechanically Deployable.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of thermally responsive polymer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeber, Michael

    Future devices such as biomedical and microfluidic devices, to a large extent, will depend on the interactions between the device surfaces and the contacting liquid. Further, biological liquids containing proteins call for controllable interactions between devices and such proteins, however the bulk material must retain the inherent mechanical properties from which the device was fabricated from. It is well known that surface modification is a suitable technique to tune the surface properties without sacrificing the bulk properties of the substrate. In the present study, surface properties were modified through temperature responsive polymer layers. After the modification, the surfaces gained switchability toward protein interaction as well as surface wettability properties. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), a well studied thermo-responsive polymer was utilized in the subsequent work. Firstly, thermally responsive brushes made from well defined block copolymers incorporating NIPAM and the surface reactive monomer, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) were fabricated in a single step process. Reaction of the PGMA block with surface hydroxyl groups anchors the polymers to the surface yet allows PNIPAM to assemble at the interface at high enough concentration to exhibit thermally responsive properties in aqueous solutions. Surface properties of the resulting brushes prepared the 1-step process are compared to characteristics of PNIPAM brushes synthesized by already established methods. The thickness, swelling, and protein adsorption of the PNIPAM films were studied by ellipsometry. Chemical composition of the layer was studied by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Film morphologies and forces of adhesion to fibrinogen were examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode and colloidal probe technique. Block copolymer (BCP) and conventional brush films were abraded and subsequently examined for changes in thermally responsive behavior. The results

  1. Reflectance and thermal response of graphite-fiber reinforced epoxy during irradiation by a high-power CO/sub 2/ laser

    SciTech Connect

    Brighton, D.R.

    1986-08-01

    Graphite-fiber reinforced epoxy (GFRP) samples were irradiated by a high-power CO/sub 2/ laser while the samples were exposed to high-speed flows of argon and air. Part of the angular distribution of the reflected CO/sub 2/ radiation was measured as a function of time and the total reflectance/absorptance estimated. The thermal response of the samples was measured using thermocouples embedded in the samples. A one-dimensional model was used to show that one set of parameters could predict both the observed thermal response and the mass-loss rate that had been observed by other experimenters. The values of ablation enthalpy and absorptance derived from the model appear to be effective values that compensate for effects that are not included in the model, such as the mechanical removal of material and the combustion of decomposition products in air near the surface of the samples.

  2. Randomised controlled trial comparing percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, and percutaneous acetic acid injection to treat hepatocellular carcinoma of 3 cm or less

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S-M; Lin, C-J; Lin, C-C; Hsu, C-W; Chen, Y-C

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), and percutaneous acetic acid injection (PAI) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and methods: A total of 187 patients with HCCs of 3 cm or less were randomly assigned to RFTA (n = 62), PEI (n = 62), or PAI (n = 63). Tumour recurrence and survival rates were assessed. Results: One, two, and three year local recurrence rates were 10%, 14%, and 14% in the RFTA group, 16%, 34%, and 34% in the PEI group, and 14%, 31%, and 31% in the PAI group (RFTA v PEI, p = 0.012; RFTA v PAI, p = 0.017). One, two, and three year survival rates were 93%, 81%, and 74% in the RFTA group, 88%, 66%, and 51% in the PEI group, and 90%, 67%, and 53% in the PAI group (RFTA v PEI, p = 0.031; RFTA v PAI, p = 0.038). One, two, and three year cancer free survival rates were 74%, 60%, and 43% in the RFTA group, 70%, 41%, and 21% in the PEI group, and 71%, 43%, and 23% in the PAI group (RFTA v PEI, p = 0.038; RFTA v PAI, p = 0.041). Tumour size, tumour differentiation, and treatment methods (RFTA v PEI and PAI) were significant factors for local recurrence, overall survival, and cancer free survival. Major complications occurred in 4.8% of patients (two with haemothorax, one gastric perforation) in the RFTA group and in none in two other groups (RFTA v PEI and PAI, p = 0.035). Conclusions: RFTA was superior to PEI and PAI with respect to local recurrence, overall survival, and cancer free survival rates, but RFTA also caused more major complications. PMID:16009687

  3. Advances in Moire interferometry for thermal response of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, E. W., Jr.; Herakovich, C. T.; Post, D.; Hyer, M. W.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental technique for the precise measurement of the thermal response of both sides of a laminated composite coupon specimen uses Moire interferometry with fringe multiplication which yields a sensitivity of 833 nm (32.8 micro in.) per fringe. The reference gratings used are virtual gratings and are formed by partially mirrorized glass prisms in close proximity to the specimen. Results are compared with both results obtained from tests which used Moire interferometry on one side of composite laminates, and with those predicted by classical lamination theory. The technique is shown to be capable of producing the sensitivity and accuracy necessary to measure a wide range of thermal responses and to detect small side to side variations in the measured response. Tests were conducted on four laminate configurations of T300/5208 graphite epoxy over a temperature range of 297 K (75 F) to 422 K (300 F). The technique presented allows for the generation of reference gratings for temperature regimes well outside that used in these tests.

  4. Optothermal profile of an ablation catheter with integrated microcoil for MR-thermometry during Nd:YAG laser interstitial thermal therapies of the liver—An in-vitro experimental and theoretical study

    PubMed Central

    Kardoulaki, Evdokia M.; Syms, Richard R. A.; Young, Ian R.; Choonee, Kaushal; Rea, Marc; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Flexible microcoils integrated with ablation catheters can improve the temperature accuracy during local MR-thermometry in Nd:YAG laser interstitial thermal therapies. Here, the authors are concerned with obtaining a preliminary confirmation of the clinical utility of the modified catheter. They investigate whether the thin-film substrate and copper tracks of the printed coil inductor affect the symmetry of the thermal profile, and hence of the lesion produced. Methods: Transmission spectroscopy in the near infrared was performed to test for the attenuation at 1064 nm through the 25 μm thick Kapton substrate of the microcoil. The radial transmission profile of an infrared high-power, light emitting diode with >80% normalized power at 1064 nm was measured through a cross section of the modified applicator to assess the impact of the copper inductor on the optical profile. The measurements were performed in air, as well as with the applicator surrounded by two types of scattering media; crystals of NaCl and a layer of liver-mimicking gel phantom. A numerical model based on Huygens–Fresnel principle and finite element simulations, using a commercially available package (COMSOL Multiphysics), were employed to compare with the optical measurements. The impact of the modified optical profile on the thermal symmetry was assessed by examining the high resolution microcoil derived thermal maps from a Nd:YAG laser ablation performed on a liver-mimicking gel phantom. Results: Less than 30% attenuation through the Kapton film was verified. Shadowing behind the copper tracks was observed in air and the measured radial irradiation correlated well with the diffraction pattern calculated numerically using the Huygens–Fresnel principle. Both optical experiments and simulations, demonstrate that shadowing is mitigated by the scattering properties of a turbid medium. The microcoil derived thermal maps at the end of a Nd:YAG laser ablation performed on a gel phantom in a

  5. Real-Time US-CT/MRI Image Fusion for Guidance of Thermal Ablation of Liver Tumors Undetectable with US: Results in 295 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Mauri, Giovanni Cova, Luca; Beni, Stefano De; Ierace, Tiziana Tondolo, Tania Cerri, Anna; Goldberg, S. Nahum; Solbiati, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess feasibility of US-CT/MRI fusion-guided ablation in liver tumors undetectable with US.MethodsFrom 2002 to 2012, 295 tumors (162 HCCs and 133 metastases; mean diameter 1.3 ± 0.6 cm, range 0.5–2.5 cm) detectable on contrast-enhanced CT/MRI, but completely undetectable with unenhanced US and either totally undetectable or incompletely conspicuous with contrast-enhanced US (CEUS), were treated in 215 sessions using either internally cooled radiofrequency or microwave with standard ablation protocols, guided by an image fusion system (Virtual Navigation System, Esaote S.p.A., Genova, Italy) that combines US with CT/ MRI images. Correct targeting and successful ablation of tumor were verified after 24 hours with CT or MRI.ResultsA total of 282 of 295 (95.6 %) tumors were correctly targeted with successful ablation achieved in 266 of 295 (90.2 %). Sixteen of 295 (5.4 %) tumors were correctly targeted, but unsuccessfully ablated, and 13 of 295 (4.4 %) tumors were unsuccessfully ablated due to inaccurate targeting. There were no perioperative deaths. Major complications were observed in 2 of the 215 treatments sessions (0.9 %).ConclusionsReal-time virtual navigation system with US-CT/MRI fusion imaging is precise for targeting and achieving successful ablation of target tumors undetectable with US alone. Therefore, a larger population could benefit from ultrasound guided ablation procedures.

  6. Selective ablation of rabbit atherosclerotic plaque with less thermal effect by the control of pulse structure of a quantum cascade laser in the 5.7 μm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimura, Keisuke; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-03-01

    Cholesteryl esters are main components of atherosclerotic plaques and have an absorption peak at the wavelength of 5.75 μm originated from C=O stretching vibration mode of ester bond. Our group achieved the selective ablation of atherosclerotic lesions using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the 5.7 μm wavelength range. QCLs are relatively new types of semiconductor lasers that can emit mid-infrared range. They are sufficiently compact and considered to be useful for clinical application. However, large thermal effects were observed because the QCL worked as quasicontinuous wave (CW) lasers due to its short pulse interval. Then we tried macro pulse irradiation (irradiation of pulses at intervals) of the QCL and achieved effective ablation with less-thermal effects than conventional quasi-CW irradiation. However, lesion selectivity might be changed by changing pulse structure. Therefore, in this study, irradiation effects of the macro pulse irradiation to rabbit atherosclerotic plaque and normal vessel were compared. The macro pulse width and the macro pulse interval were set to 0.5 and 12 ms, respectively, because the thermal relaxation time of rabbit normal and atherosclerotic aortas in the oscillation wavelength of the QCL was 0.5-12 ms. As a result, cutting difference was achieved between rabbit atherosclerotic and normal aortas by the macro pulse irradiation. Therefore, macro pulse irradiation of a QCL in the 5.7 μm wavelength range is effective for reducing thermal effects and selective ablation of the atherosclerotic plaque. QCLs have the potential of realizing less-invasive laser angioplasty.

  7. Modeling the thermal response of porcine cartilage to laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Valdes, Sergio H.; Aguilar, Guillermo; Basu, Reshmi; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Wong, Brian J.

    2002-06-01

    Cartilage laser thermoforming, also known as laser reshaping, is a new surgical procedure that allows in-situ treatment of deformities in the head and neck with less morbidity than traditional approaches. During laser irradiation, cartilage becomes sufficiently subtle or deformable for stretching and shaping into new stable configurations. This study describes the experimental and theoretical characterization of the thermal response of porcine cartilage to laser irradiation (Nd:YAG). The surface temperature history of cartilage specimens was monitored during heating and thermal relaxation; using laser exposure times ranging between 1 and 15 s and laser powers of 1 to 10 W. The experimental results were then used to validate a finite element model, which accounts for heat diffusion, light propagation in tissue, and heat loss due to water evaporation. The simultaneous solution of the energy and mass diffusion equations resulted in predictions of temperature distribution in cartilage that were in good agreement with experiments. The model simulations will provide insights to the relationship between the laser treatment parameters (exposure time, laser beam diameter, and power) and the onset of new molecular arrangements and cell thermal injury in the material, thus conceiving basic guidelines of laser thermoforming.

  8. Weather Satellite Thermal IR Responses Prior to Earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Daniel P.

    2005-01-01

    A number of observers claim to have seen thermal anomalies prior to earthquakes, but subsequent analysis by others has failed to produce similar findings. What exactly are these anomalies? Might they be useful for earthquake prediction? It is the purpose of this study to determine if thermal anomalies can be found in association with known earthquakes by systematically co-registering weather satellite images at the sub-pixel level and then determining if statistically significant responses occurred prior to the earthquake event. A new set of automatic co-registration procedures was developed for this task to accommodate all properties particular to weather satellite observations taken at night, and it relies on the general condition that the ground cools after sunset. Using these procedures, we can produce a set of temperature-sensitive satellite images for each of five selected earthquakes (Algeria 2003; Bhuj, India 2001; Izmit, Turkey 2001; Kunlun Shan, Tibet 2001; Turkmenistan 2000) and thus more effectively investigate heating trends close to the epicenters a few hours prior to the earthquake events. This study will lay tracks for further work in earthquake prediction and provoke the question of the exact nature of the thermal anomalies.

  9. Improvements to a Response Surface Thermal Model for Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stephen W.; Walker, William Q.

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed to determine if a Design of Experiments (DOE)/Response Surface Methodology could be applied to on-orbit thermal analysis and produce a set of Response Surface Equations (RSE) that predict Orion vehicle temperatures within 10 F. The study used the Orion Outer Mold Line model. Five separate factors were identified for study: yaw, pitch, roll, beta angle, and the environmental parameters. Twenty-three external Orion components were selected and their minimum and maximum temperatures captured over a period of two orbits. Thus, there are 46 responses. A DOE case matrix of 145 runs was developed. The data from these cases were analyzed to produce a fifth order RSE for each of the temperature responses. For the 145 cases in the DOE matrix, the agreement between the engineering data and the RSE predictions was encouraging with 40 of the 46 RSEs predicting temperatures within the goal band. However, the verification cases showed most responses did not meet the 10 F goal. After reframing the focus of the study to better align the RSE development with the purposes of the model, a set of RSEs for both the minimum and maximum radiator temperatures was produced which predicted the engineering model output within +/-4 F. Therefore, with the correct application of the DOE/RSE methodology, RSEs can be developed that provide analysts a fast and easy way to screen large numbers of environments and assess proposed changes to the RSE factors.

  10. The thermal response of HMX-TATB charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    One approach to achieving charge safety and performance requirements is to prepare formulations containing two (or more) explosives. The intention of this approach is that by judicious choice of explosives and binder the formulation will have the desirable features of the constituent materials. HMX and TATB have very different properties. In an attempt to achieve a formulation which has the safety and performance characteristics of TATB and HMX, respectively, a range of formulations were prepared. The thermal response of the formulations were measured in the One-Dimensional Time To Explosion (ODTX) configuration and compared to those of formulations containing only HMX and TATB. The response of the mixed formulations was found to be largely determined by the HMX component with the binder making a small contribution. A formulation with a Kel-F 800 binder had a much higher critical temperature than would have been expected based on the critical temperatures of formulations with HTPB-IPDI as the binder.

  11. Advanced structural analysis of nanoporous materials by thermal response measurements.

    PubMed

    Oschatz, Martin; Leistner, Matthias; Nickel, Winfried; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-04-07

    Thermal response measurements based on optical adsorption calorimetry are presented as a versatile tool for the time-saving and profound characterization of the pore structure of porous carbon-based materials. This technique measures the time-resolved temperature change of an adsorbent during adsorption of a test gas. Six carbide and carbon materials with well-defined nanopore architecture including micro- and/or mesopores are characterized by thermal response measurements based on n-butane and carbon dioxide as the test gases. With this tool, the pore systems of the model materials can be clearly distinguished and accurately analyzed. The obtained calorimetric data are correlated with the adsorption/desorption isotherms of the materials. The pore structures can be estimated from a single experiment due to different adsorption enthalpies/temperature increases in micro- and mesopores. Adsorption/desorption cycling of n-butane at 298 K/1 bar with increasing desorption time allows to determine the pore structure of the materials in more detail due to different equilibration times. Adsorption of the organic test gas at selected relative pressures reveals specific contributions of particular pore systems to the increase of the temperature of the samples and different adsorption mechanisms. The use of carbon dioxide as the test gas at 298 K/1 bar provides detailed insights into the ultramicropore structure of the materials because under these conditions the adsorption of this test gas is very sensitive to the presence of pores smaller than 0.7 nm.

  12. Thyroglobulin levels measured at the time of remnant ablation to predict response to treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH.

    PubMed

    Pitoia, Fabian; Abelleira, Erika; Cross, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of stimulated thyroglobulin levels at the moment of remnant ablation for predicting an initial excellent or a structural incomplete response to treatment according to the risk of recurrence in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients were divided into two groups according to the preparation mode for remnant ablation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH). We included 219 patients followed-up for at least for 24 months after remnant ablation. The primary endpoint was the best response to initial therapy assessed in the first 9-18 months of follow-up. An excellent response was observed in 45.1 % of patients prepared after recombinant human TSH compared to 44.6 % of patients prepared after thyroid hormone withdrawal (P = NS). The cutoff value of thyroglobulin level after recombinant human TSH for predicting an excellent response was 8 ng/ml (n = 51), with a sensitivity of 73.9 %, and a positive predictive value of 61 %. It was similar for patients with low vs. intermediate to high risk of recurrence. This cutoff value for thyroglobulin level after thyroid hormone withdrawal was 22 ng/ml (n = 168), with a sensitivity of 94.7 % and a positive predictive value of 61.7 %. In the thyroid hormone withdrawal group the thyroglobulin cutoff level was 12 ng/ml for low-risk patients compared to 16 ng/ml for those with intermediate to high risk of recurrence (P = 0.003). The cutoff value of the thyroglobulin level for predicting a structural incomplete response to initial treatment was 20 ng/ml after rhTSH, with a negative predictive value of 91.4 %. This level was higher in thyroid hormone withdrawal group, and it was established at 25 ng/ml, with a negative predictive value of 97.7 %. The stimulated Tg level seems to be different depending on the preparation mode (rhTSH or THW) for RA. It has a high NPV to predict the absence of a structural

  13. Thermal response of various thermal barrier coatings in a high heat flux rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Traditional APS ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) formed by air plasma spraying and low pressure and air plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY cermet coatings were tested in an H2-O2 rocket engine. The test cycle was approximately 1.2 s at 1400 C in a hydrogen-rich environment. During testing, the maximum metal temperature without a coating was 1310 C. The traditional ZrO2-Y2O3 TBCs with a 100-125 micron thick ceramic layer reduced the maximum metal temperature by approximately 350 C. Increasing the ceramic layer thickness to 200-225 microns resulted in an additional metal temperature reduction of 100 C. However, the cermet coatings, consisting of a ceramic and metal mixture, exhibited a much lower thermal protection capability by reducing the maximum metal temperature by approximately 100 C. It was also found that the surface roughness of the traditional TBCs had little effect on the thermal response.

  14. Computed Tomography and Ultrasounds for the Follow-up of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ablation: What You Need to Know

    PubMed Central

    Kelekis, Alexios; Filippiadis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided tumor ablation provides curative treatment in properly selected patients or appropriate therapeutic options whenever surgical techniques are precluded. Tumor response assessment post ablation is important in determining treatment success and future therapy. Accurate interpretation of post-ablation imaging findings is crucial for therapeutic and follow-up strategies. Computed Tomography (CT) and Ultrasound (US) play important roles in patients’ follow-up post liver thermal ablation therapies. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can provide valuable information on the ablation effects faster and at a lower cost than computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. However, a disadvantage is that the technique cannot examine total liver parenchyma for disease progression as CT and Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging can. Follow-up strategies for assessment of tumor response includes contrast enhanced multiphasic (non-contrast, arterial, portal, delayed phases) imaging with Computed Tomography at three, six, and 12 months post ablation session and annually ever since in order to prove sustained effectiveness of the ablation or detect progression. PMID:26861398

  15. Plasma-mediated ablation of biofilm contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhixiong; Wang, Xiaoliang; Huang, Huan

    2010-12-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser removal of thin biofilm contamination on different substrates has been conducted via the use of plasma-mediated ablation. The biofilms were formed using sheep whole blood. The ablation was generated using a 1.2 ps ultra-short pulsed laser with wavelength centered at 1552 nm. The blood contamination was transformed into plasma and collected with a vacuum system. The single line ablation features have been measured. The ablation thresholds of blood contamination and bare substrates were determined. It is found that the ablation threshold of the blood contamination is lower than those of the beneath substrates including the glass slide, PDMS, and human dermal tissues. The ablation effects of different laser parameters (pulse overlap rate and pulse energy) were studied and ablation efficiency was measured. Proper ablation parameters were found to efficiently remove contamination with maximum efficiency and without damage to the substrate surface for the current laser system. Complete removal of blood contaminant from the glass substrate surface and freeze-dried dermis tissue surface was demonstrated by the USP laser ablation with repeated area scanning. No obvious thermal damage was found in the decontaminated glass and tissue samples.

  16. Development and validation of experimental models for hyperemic thermal response using IR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Eulalia; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Palomares, Benjamin Giron

    2012-06-01

    A common method for diagnosing heart health condition is to analyze blood flow rate and temperature behaviors after arterial occlusion. However, multiple factors besides heart condition could affect these behaviors. The objective of this research was to identify other factors that affect blood flow and thermal response after arterial occlusion, evaluate a mathematical model to determine thermal response after arterial occlusion, and develop an experimental model for thermal response after arterial occlusion. Twenty-eight experiments were conducted with 14 subjects to determine blood and thermal responses by using plethysmography and infrared imaging after applying arterial occlusion. Possible factors affecting blood flow and thermal responses that were investigated were: Initial finger temperature, blood pressure, body temperature, gender, and age. After determining the correlation coefficient among the mentioned factors and blood flow and thermal responses after occlusion, it was determined that only initial finger temperature and blood pressure show a strong effect. A mathematical model accounting only for the convective thermal effects, but not thermal conduction effects, was developed and tested, but was found to be insufficiently accurate in describing the thermal response by means of blood flow parameters for all of the subjects tested (error>90%). A linear regression model was then developed to relate blood flow to thermal response using two thirds of the experimental data, and was tested using one third of the data. The linear regression model was found to predict thermal response by means of blood flow response with an error rate of less than 50%.

  17. Vaporization response of evaporating drops with finite thermal conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosta, V. D.; Hammer, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    A numerical computing procedure was developed for calculating vaporization histories of evaporating drops in a combustor in which travelling transverse oscillations occurred. The liquid drop was assumed to have a finite thermal conductivity. The system of equations was solved by using a finite difference method programmed for solution on a high speed digital computer. Oscillations in the ratio of vaporization of an array of repetitivity injected drops in the combustor were obtained from summation of individual drop histories. A nonlinear in-phase frequency response factor for the entire vaporization process to oscillations in pressure was evaluated. A nonlinear out-of-phase response factor, in-phase and out-of-phase harmonic response factors, and a Princeton type 'n' and 'tau' were determined. The resulting data was correlated and is presented in graphical format. Qualitative agreement with the open literature is obtained in the behavior of the in-phase response factor. Quantitatively the results of the present finite conductivity spray analysis do not correlate with the results of a single drop model.

  18. Effects of Non-Equilibrium Chemistry and Darcy-Forchheimer Flow of Pyrolysis Gas for a Charring Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Milos, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    The Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response code, FIAT, simulates pyrolysis and ablation of thermal protection materials and systems. The governing equations, which include energy conservation, a three-component decomposition model, and a surface energy balance, are solved with a moving grid. This work describes new modeling capabilities that are added to a special version of FIAT. These capabilities include a time-dependent pyrolysis gas flow momentum equation with Darcy-Forchheimer terms and pyrolysis gas species conservation equations with finite-rate homogeneous chemical reactions. The total energy conservation equation is also enhanced for consistency with these new additions. Parametric studies are performed using this enhanced version of FIAT. Two groups of analyses of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) are presented. In the first group, an Orion flight environment for a proposed Lunar-return trajectory is considered. In the second group, various test conditions for arcjet models are examined. The central focus of these parametric studies is to understand the effect of pyrolysis gas momentum transfer on PICA material in-depth thermal responses with finite-rate, equilibrium, or frozen homogeneous gas chemistry. Results are presented, discussed, and compared with those predicted by the baseline PICA/FIAT ablation and thermal response model developed by the Orion Thermal Protection System Advanced Development Project.

  19. Depth Profiling of Polymer Composites by Ultrafast Laser Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Christopher; Clayton, Clive; Longtin, Jon

    2009-03-01

    Past work has shown femtosecond laser ablation to be an athermal process at low fluences in polymer systems. The ablation rate in this low fluence regime is very low, allowing for micro-scale removal of material. We have taken advantage of this fact to perform shallow depth profiling ablation on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. Neat composite and resin samples were studied to establish reference ablation profiles. These profiles and the effects of the heterogeneous distribution of carbon fibers were observed through confocal laser profilometry and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Weathered materials that have been subjected to accelerated tests in artificial sunlight or water conditions were ablated to determine the correlation between exposure and change in ablation characteristics. Preliminary Raman and micro-ATR analysis performed before and after ablation shows no chemical changes indicative of thermal effects. The low-volume-ablation property was utilized in an attempt to expose the sizing-matrix interphase for analysis.

  20. Computational Analysis of Arc-Jet Wedge Tests Including Ablation and Shape Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goekcen, Tahir; Chen, Yih-Kanq; Skokova, Kristina A.; Milos, Frank S.

    2010-01-01

    Coupled fluid-material response analyses of arc-jet wedge ablation tests conducted in a NASA Ames arc-jet facility are considered. These tests were conducted using blunt wedge models placed in a free jet downstream of the 6-inch diameter conical nozzle in the Ames 60-MW Interaction Heating Facility. The fluid analysis includes computational Navier-Stokes simulations of the nonequilibrium flowfield in the facility nozzle and test box as well as the flowfield over the models. The material response analysis includes simulation of two-dimensional surface ablation and internal heat conduction, thermal decomposition, and pyrolysis gas flow. For ablating test articles undergoing shape change, the material response and fluid analyses are coupled in order to calculate the time dependent surface heating and pressure distributions that result from shape change. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests was Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator. Effects of the test article shape change on fluid and material response simulations are demonstrated, and computational predictions of surface recession, shape change, and in-depth temperatures are compared with the experimental measurements.

  1. Comparison of defects responsible for nanosecond laser-induced damage and ablation in common high index optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yejia; Abdulameer, Mohammed R.; Emmert, Luke A.; Day, Travis; Patel, Dinesh; Menoni, Carmen S.; Rudolph, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Spatiotemporally resolved optical laser-induced damage is an experimental technique used to study nanosecond laser damage and initiation of ablation in dielectric metal-oxide films used for optical coatings. It measures the fluence (intensity) at the initiation of damage during a single laser pulse. The technique was applied to coatings of HfO2, Sc2O3, and Ta2O5, which were prepared by ion-beam sputtering, and HfO2 which was prepared by electron-beam evaporation. Using the data obtained, we were able to retrieve the defect density distributions of these films without a priori assumptions about their functional form.

  2. Pellet ablation and ablation model development

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    A broad survey of pellet ablation is given, based primarily on information presented at this meeting. The implications of various experimental observations for ablation theory are derived from qualitative arguments of the physics involved. The major elements of a more complete ablation theory are then outlined in terms of these observations. This is followed by a few suggestions on improving the connections between theory and experimental results through examination of ablation data. Although this is a rather aggressive undertaking for such a brief (and undoubtedly incomplete) assessment, some of the discussion may help us advance the understanding of pellet ablation. 17 refs.

  3. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Thermal Ablation for Small Renal Masses in Solitary Kidney: Evidence from Meta-Analysis of Comparative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong; Nie, Qingyuan; Che, Zi; Liu, Min; Sun, Yan; Zhao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate comparative renal functional preservation, perioperative and oncologic outcomes, and complications of thermal ablation (TA) versus partial nephrectomy (PN) in management of Small renal masses (SRMs) in solitary kidney. Methods and Findings Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched. A meta-analysis for comparative studies comparing TA with PN was performed. According to predefined inclusion criteria, seven datasets were identified from 8 observational studies including a total of 628 patients. Cumulated data showed the changes of creatinine (p=0.02) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p<0.0001) in TA arm were significantly less than these in PN arm. Significantly less new-set chronic kidney disease (CKD) was observed in TA group (p=0.04). In terms of postoperative dialysis rate, the difference favoring TA was also noted, though there is no statistical significance (p=0.09). With regard to perioperative outcomes, our data demonstrated that patients who underwent TA had significantly shorter operation time (p=0.002), less blood loss (p<0.0001), shorter length of stay (p<0.00001), and less transfusion rate (p=0.01) than those underwent PN. In addition, patients underwent TA suffered less intra- and postoperative complications (p=0.007, p<0.00001; respectively). With regard to oncologic outcomes, disease-free survival (DFS) (p<0.00001) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (p=0.01) in the PN arm were significantly better than these of the TA arm. But, TA yielded a comparable overall survival to PN (p=0.40). Sensitivity analyses led to very similar results with overall results, and confirmed its stability. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that PN have advantage in controlling cancer recurrence. However, TA is associated with significantly better renal functional preservation and perioperative outcomes, and less complications without increasing overall death. Our data suggest that indication for

  5. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  6. Transient response of a thermal buffer: a study for ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider. W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Operation of the superconducting magnets in ISABELLE may necessitate rapid cooldown and warmup from ambient (300K) to liquid helium temperature (3K) to meet the requirements of the experimental program. Similarly, unprogrammed temperature excursions can also occur due to operator error or equipment malfunction. The coal bore tube of the magnets has a small mass relative to the more massive iron laminations and the stainless steel support tube. In addition the magnet coil, in thermal contact with the cold bore tube, has excellent heat transfer to the helium flowing through it compared to the iron mass. These two factors, mass and heat transfer, dictate that the cold bore tube will follow the temperature of the coolant more closely than the iron and hence substantial temperature gradients can exist. If the temperature difference between the coolant and the iron in the magnet exceeds 44K stress failure may occur to either the cold bore tube or the magnet dewar end cap. To preclude such failures from occuring at least two options are available. One method is to modify the magnet design by introducing flexibility between the bore tube and the end plate. Another is to introduce an insensitive thermal mass or buffer as has been suggested by Shutt, at the inlet of a sextant ahead of the first magnets. This paper describes the latter method, the design and transient response of a buffer during cooldown.

  7. Method for Selective Thermal Ablation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James (Inventor); Ngo, Phong (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method, simulation, and apparatus are provided that are highly suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A catheter is disclosed that includes a small diameter disk loaded monopole antenna surrounded by fusion material having a high heat of fusion and a melting point preferably at or near body temperature. Microwaves from the antenna heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. The fusion material keeps the urethra cool by means of the heat of fusion of the fusion material. This prevents damage to the urethra while the prostatic tissue is necrosed. A computer simulation is provided that can be used to predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of the catheter and method of applying microwave energy a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  8. Method for selective thermal ablation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James (Inventor); Ngo, Phong (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method, simulation, and apparatus are provided that are highly suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A catheter is disclosed that includes a small diameter disk loaded monopole antenna surrounded by fusion material having a high heat of fusion and a melting point preferably at or near body temperature. Microwaves from the antenna heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. The fusion material keeps the urethra cool by means of the heat of fusion of the fusion material. This prevents damage to the urethra while the prostatic tissue is necrosed. A computer simulation is provided that can be used to predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of the catheter and method of applying microwave energy a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  9. Irreversible Electroporation for Focal Ablation at the Porta Hepatis

    SciTech Connect

    Kasivisvanathan, Veeru; Thapar, Ankur Oskrochi, Youssof; Picard, John; Leen, Edward L. S.

    2012-12-15

    Patients with chemotherapy-refractory liver metastases who are not candidates for surgery may be treated with focal ablation techniques with established survival benefits. Irreversible electroporation is the newest of these and has the putative advantages of a nonthermal action, preventing damage to adjacent biliary structures and bowel. This report describes the use of irreversible electroporation in a 61-year-old man with a solitary chemoresistant liver metastasis unsuitable for radiofrequency ablation as a result of its proximity to the porta hepatis. At 3 months, tumor size was decreased on computed tomography from 28 Multiplication-Sign 19 to 20 Multiplication-Sign 17 mm, representing stable disease according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. This corresponded to a decrease in tumor volume size from 5.25 to 3.16 cm{sup 3}. There were no early or late complications. Chemoresistant liver metastases in the proximity of the porta hepatis that are considered to be too high a risk for conventional surgery or thermal ablation may be considered for treatment by the novel ablation technique of irreversible electroporation.

  10. Catecholamines: Mediator of the Hypermetabolic Response to Thermal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilmore, Douglas W.; Long, James M.; Mason, Arthur D.; Skreen, Robert W.; Pruitt, Basil A.

    1974-01-01

    Hypermetabolism characterizes the metabolic response to thermal injury and the extent of energy production is positively related to the rate of urinary catecholamine excretion. Alpha and beta adrenergic blockade decreased metabolism from 69.6 ± 5.3 Kcal/m2/hr to 57.4 ± 5.2 (p < 0.01), and infusion of 6 µgm epinephrine/minute in normal man significantly increased metabolic rate. Twenty noninfected burned adults with a mean burn size of 45% total body surface (range 7-84%) and four normal controls were studied in an environmental chamber at two or more temperatures between 19 and 33 C with vapor pressure constant at 11.88 mm Hg. All burn patients were hypermetabolic at all temperatures studied and their core and mean skin temperatures were significantly elevated above control values. Between 25 and 33 C ambient, metabolism was unchanged in controls and burns of less than 40% total body surface (48.9 ± 4.6 Kcal/m2/hr vs. 48.9 ± 4.5), but metabolic rate decreased in larger burns in the warmer environment (72.0 ± 1.9 vs. 65.8 ± 1.7, p < 0.001). At 21 C, metabolism and catecholamines increased, except in four nonsurvivors who became hypothermic with decreased catechol elaboration. Metabolic rate in ten patients with bacteremia was below predicted levels while catecholamines were markedly elevated suggesting interference with tissue uptake of the neurohormonal transmitters. Feeding burn patients or administering glucose and insulin improved nitrogen retention and altered substrate flow but did not significantly reduce urinary catecholamines or metabolic rate. Burned patients are internally warm, not externally cold, and catecholamines appear to mediate their increased heat production. Hypermetabolism may be modified by ambient temperature, infection, and pharmacologic means. Alterations in hypothalamic function due to injury, resulting in increased catecholamine elaboration, would explain the metabolic response to thermal injury. PMID:4412350

  11. Thermal response of rigid and flexible insulations and reflective coating in an aeroconvective heating environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Chiu, S. A.; Iverson, D. J.; Lowe, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the thermal performance of rigid and flexible thermal protection systems considered for potential use in future Aeroassist Space Transfer Vehicles. The thermal response of these materials subjected to aeroconvective heating from a plasma arc is described. Properties that were measured included the thermal conductivity of both rigid and flexible insulations at various temperatures and pressures and the emissivity of the fabrics used in the flexible insulations. The results from computerized thermal analysis models describing the thermal response of these materials subjected to flight conditions are included.

  12. Osteoid Osteoma: Experience with Laser- and Radiofrequency-Induced Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Gebauer, Bernhard Tunn, Per-Ulf; Gaffke, Gunnar; Melcher, Ingo; Felix, Roland; Stroszczynski, Christian

    2006-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome of osteoid osteoma treated by thermal ablation after drill opening. A total of 17 patients and 20 procedures were included. All patients had typical clinical features (age, pain) and a typical radiograph showing a nidus. In 5 cases, additional histological specimens were acquired. After drill opening of the osteoid osteoma nidus, 12 thermal ablations were induced by laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) (9F Power-Laser-Set; Somatex, Germany) and 8 ablations by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) (RITA; StarBurst, USA). Initial clinical success with pain relief has been achieved in all patients after the first ablation. Three patients had an osteoid osteoma recurrence after 3, 9, and 10 months and were successfully re-treated by thermal ablation. No major complication and one minor complication (sensible defect) were recorded. Thermal ablation is a safe and minimally invasive therapy option for osteoid osteoma. Although the groups are too small for a comparative analysis, we determined no difference between laser- and radiofrequency-induced ablation in clinical outcome after ablation.

  13. Research study: Thermal curtain permeability and thermal response test for SRB reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. E.; Levie, J. K., III; Powell, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    Nine inch diameter samples of the material which will provide thermal and acoustic protection between the nozzle and outer skirt on the space shuttle solid rocket boosters were subjected to heating tests to determine the porosity of the material and the thermal response to a step change in heating. For the porosity measurements a steady state flow of air at 70 F, 500 F, and 1000 F was passed through a sample of the curtain material and measurements of the flow rates were made at different pressure drops across the sample. For the transient measurements, a sample of the curtain material was subjected to a step change in temperature as air was passed through the sample. Measurements of the heat flow through the sample were made as a function of time after the input of the heat pulse. The sample consisted of three layers of curtain panels. Each panel was made of combinations of quartz and fiberglass cloth between which a fiberfrax filler material had been stitched. The hardware design and test procedures were described. Data are provided in engineering units for the flow conditions and and temperatures at which measurements were conducted.

  14. Ultrasound ablation enhances drug accumulation and survival in mammary carcinoma models

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Andrew W.; Fite, Brett Z.; Liu, Yu; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Seo, Jai W.; Watson, Katherine D.; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Tam, Sarah M.; Zhang, Hua; Foiret, Josquin; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) facilitates noninvasive image-guided conformal thermal therapy of cancer. Yet in many scenarios, the sensitive tissues surrounding the tumor constrain the margins of ablation; therefore, augmentation of MRgFUS with chemotherapy may be required to destroy remaining tumor. Here, we used 64Cu-PET-CT, MRI, autoradiography, and fluorescence imaging to track the kinetics of long-circulating liposomes in immunocompetent mammary carcinoma–bearing FVB/n and BALB/c mice. We observed a 5-fold and 50-fold enhancement of liposome and drug concentration, respectively, within MRgFUS thermal ablation–treated tumors along with dense accumulation within the surrounding tissue rim. Ultrasound-enhanced drug accumulation was rapid and durable and greatly increased total tumor drug exposure over time. In addition, we found that the small molecule gadoteridol accumulates around and within ablated tissue. We further demonstrated that dilated vasculature, loss of vascular integrity resulting in extravasation of blood cells, stromal inflammation, and loss of cell-cell adhesion and tissue architecture all contribute to the enhanced accumulation of the liposomes and small molecule probe. The locally enhanced liposome accumulation was preserved even after a multiweek protocol of doxorubicin-loaded liposomes and partial ablation. Finally, by supplementing ablation with concurrent liposomal drug therapy, a complete and durable response was obtained using protocols for which a sub-mm rim of tumor remained after ablation. PMID:26595815

  15. Non-thermal modification of heat-loss responses during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Koga, Shunsaku

    2010-10-01

    This review focuses on the characteristics of heat-loss responses during exercise with respect to non-thermal factors. In addition, the effects of physical training on non-thermal heat-loss responses are discussed. When a subject is already sweating the sweating rate increases at the onset of dynamic exercise without changes in core temperature, while cutaneous vascular conductance (skin blood flow) is temporarily decreased. Although exercise per se does not affect the threshold for the onset of sweating, it is possible that an increase in exercise intensity induces a higher sensitivity of the sweating response. Exercise increases the threshold for cutaneous vasodilation, and at higher exercise intensities, the sensitivity of the skin-blood-flow response decreases. Facilitation of the sweating response with increased exercise intensity may be due to central command, peripheral reflexes in the exercising muscle, and mental stimuli, whereas the attenuation of skin-blood-flow responses with decreased cutaneous vasodilation is related to many non-thermal factors. Most non-thermal factors have negative effects on magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation; however, several of these factors have positive effects on the sweating response. Moreover, thermal and non-thermal factors interact in controlling heat-loss responses, with non-thermal factors having a greater impact until core temperature elevations become significant, after which core temperature primarily would control heat loss. Finally, as with thermally induced sweating responses, physical training seems to also affect sweating responses governed by non-thermal factors.

  16. Percutaneous ablation of malignant thoracic tumors.

    PubMed

    Ghaye, B

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death related to cancer. Fifteen to thirty percent of patients with a localized lung cancer are actually inoperable as they present with poor general condition, limited cardiopulmonary function, or a too high surgical risk. Therefore, minimally invasive treatments are needed and percutaneous ablation seems an attractive option. Thermal ablation can be performed by delivering heat (radiofrequency, microwave, laser) or cold (cryotherapy) through a needle inserted into the tumor under CT guidance. The ideal lesion is less than 2 or 3 cm in diameter. Success of percutaneous thermal ablation appears to be close to those of surgery for localized lung cancer. Nevertheless studies are still needed to definitely assess the role of ablation compared to other emerging techniques, as stereotactic radiotherapy as well as potential synergy with other treatments.

  17. Combined treatment of tyrosine kinase inhibitor labeled gold nanorod encapsulated albumin with laser thermal ablation in a renal cell carcinoma model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript served to characterize and evaluate Human Serum Albumin-encapsulated Nanoparticles (NPs) for drug delivery of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor combined with induction of photothermal ablation (PTA) combination therapy of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC). RCC is the most common type of kidney c...

  18. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  19. Nanosecond laser ablation of gold nanoparticle films

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Seung H.; Choi, Yeonho; Hwang, David J.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Chung, Jaewon; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2006-10-02

    Ablation of self-assembled monolayer protected gold nanoparticle films on polyimide was explored using a nanosecond laser. When the nanoparticle film was ablated and subsequently thermally sintered to a continuous film, the elevated rim structure by the expulsion of molten pool could be avoided and the ablation threshold fluence was reduced to a value at least ten times lower than the reported threshold for the gold film. This could be explained by the unusual properties of nanoparticle film such as low melting temperature, weak bonding between nanoparticles, efficient laser energy deposition, and reduced heat loss. Finally, submicron lines were demonstrated.

  20. Diamond Ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, J; Mirkarimi, P B; Tringe, J W; Baker, S L; Wang, Y M; Kucheyev, S O; Teslich, N E; Wu, K J; Hamza, A V; Wild, C; Woerner, E; Koidl, P; Bruehne, K; Fecht, H

    2005-06-21

    Diamond has a unique combination of physical properties for the inertial confinement fusion ablator application, such as appropriate optical properties, high atomic density, high yield strength, and high thermal conductivity. Here, we present a feasible concept to fabricate diamond ablator shells. The fabrication of diamond capsules is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on silicon mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removing of the silicon mandrel by an etch process. We also discuss the pros and cons of coarse-grained optical quality and nanocrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond films for the ablator application.

  1. Ablation of pulmonary malignancy: current status.

    PubMed

    Pua, Bradley B; Thornton, Raymond H; Solomon, Stephen B

    2010-08-01

    Since the first reported use of radiofrequency ablation of the lung in 2000, the field of image-guided lung ablation has received a considerable amount of attention. Survival studies have demonstrated the potential utility of thermal ablation in the treatment of patients with early-stage primary and limited secondary pulmonary tumors with promising results. Diagnostic imaging studies have advanced the understanding of the expected immediate postablation appearance of treated lesions, leading the way for early detection of local tumor progression. These survival studies and the expected imaging follow-up of these patients are reviewed herein.

  2. The Thermal Response of TATB-Based PBXs

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Peter; Parker, Gary Robert; Rae, Philip John

    2015-01-21

    In the design mode of operation, TATB-­based PBXs, such as PBX 9502 or LX-­17, are promptly initiated by a detonator and booster system. In abnormal situations, such as accidents, a wide variety of non-­design-­mode insults can arise and it is desirable that these do not produce detonation but rather that, at most, they lead to a low chemical energy release. The most significant abnormal hazard is the direct shock initiation threat arising from high-­velocity fragment impact. This is quite well defined and may result in a detonative response if the fragment is large enough and fast enough. However, it is of considerably greater significance to the safety envelope of these explosives whether they are at all capable of DDT (deflagration-­to-­detonation transition), either at ambient or elevated temperatures since accidental insults to the explosive, either mechanical or thermal, that may produce local burning are both more numerous and more likely than shock loading. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate, based on the accumulated body of conservative experimental testing, that in explosive geometries and masses relevant to the Weapons Program, TATB-­based PBXs do not present a deflagration-­to-­detonation transition (DDT) hazard at any temperature. This is a significant statement since it removes detonative outcome concerns from the majority of insult scenarios on TATB-­based charges. It does not address the response of included detonator and booster assemblies, the response of which must be considered separately.

  3. Thermal shifts and intermittent linear response of aging systems.

    PubMed

    Sibani, Paolo; Christiansen, Simon

    2008-04-01

    At time t after an initial quench, an aging system responds to a perturbation turned on at time twresponse on the ratio t/tw . Further insight is obtained imposing small temperature steps, so-called T shifts. The average response as a function of t/tw,eff , where tw,eff is the effective age, is similar to the response of a system aged isothermally at the final temperature. Using an Ising model with plaquette interactions, the applicability of analytic formulas for the average isothermal magnetization is confirmed. The T -shifted aging behavior of the model is approximately described using effective ages. Large positive shifts nearly reset the effective age. Negative T shifts offer a more detailed probe of the dynamics. Assuming the marginal stability of the "current" attractor against thermal noise fluctuations, the scaling form tw,eff=tw x and the dependence of the exponent x on the aging temperatures before and after the shift are theoretically available. The predicted form of x has no adjustable parameters. Both the algebraic scaling of the effective age and the form of the exponent reasonably agree with the data. The present simulations thus confirm the crucial role of marginal stability in glassy relaxation.

  4. An evaluation of ablative materials for a lunar transfer vehicle aerobrake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. G.; Salmassy, O. K.

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation of the utility of an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) for use on a lunar mission return aerobrake has been completed. Requirements are established and criteria developed specifically for the ablator application. A quantitative and qualitative multi-attribute utility analysis is employed to establish a relative ranking among candidates and a performance threshold. A review of the applicable existing ablator material database is made and appropriate thermochemical/melting ablation analysis is employed to evaluate thermal performance. Ablatives are shown to be potentially both performance capable and cost effective in single-use roles. Reusable surface insulation is also shown to be competitive as an ablator with certain modifications.

  5. Effects of Nonequilibrium Chemistry and Darcy-Forchheimer Pyrolysis Flow for Charring Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Milos, Frank S.

    2013-01-01

    The fully implicit ablation and thermal response code simulates pyrolysis and ablation of thermal protection materials and systems. The governing equations, which include energy conservation, a three-component decomposition model, and a surface energy balance, are solved with a moving grid.This work describes new modeling capabilities that are added to a special version of code. These capabilities include a time-dependent pyrolysis gas flow momentum equation with Darcy-Forchheimer terms and pyrolysis gas species conservation equations with finite rate homogeneous chemical reactions. The total energy conservation equation is also enhanced for consistency with these new additions. Two groups of parametric studies of the phenolic impregnated carbon ablator are performed. In the first group, an Orion flight environment for a proposed lunar-return trajectory is considered. In the second group, various test conditions for arcjet models are examined. The central focus of these parametric studies is to understand the effect of pyrolysis gas momentum transfer on material in-depth thermal responses with finite-rate, equilibrium, or frozen homogeneous gas chemistry. Results indicate that the presence of chemical nonequilibrium pyrolysis gas flow does not significantly alter the in-depth thermal response performance predicted using the chemical equilibrium gas model.

  6. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Liver Tumors Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a treatment that ... of Liver Tumors? What is Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, sometimes referred to as RFA, ...

  7. Dynamic response analysis of an aircraft structure under thermal-acoustic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.; Li, H. B.; Zhang, W.; Wu, Z. Q.; Liu, B. R.

    2016-09-01

    Future hypersonic aircraft will be exposed to extreme combined environments includes large magnitude thermal and acoustic loads. It presents a significant challenge for the integrity of these vehicles. Thermal-acoustic test is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to combined loads. In this research, the numerical simulation process for the thermal acoustic test is presented, and the effects of thermal loads on vibro-acoustic response are investigated. To simulate the radiation heating system, Monte Carlo theory and thermal network theory was used to calculate the temperature distribution. Considering the thermal stress, the high temperature modal parameters are obtained with structural finite element methods. Based on acoustic finite element, modal-based vibro-acoustic analysis is carried out to compute structural responses. These researches are very vital to optimum thermal-acoustic test and structure designs for future hypersonic vehicles structure

  8. Thermal responses in the body during snowmobile driving.

    PubMed

    Virokannas, H; Anttonen, H

    1994-01-01

    Thermal responses were examined in 12 healthy men during snowmobile driving (tests for 1 1/2-2 1/2 hours) in mild winter conditions. Ambient temperature ranged from -1 to -13 degrees C and average wind chill index from 1,050 to 1,520 kcal*m2/h. The subjects (23-49 years old) wore their ordinary winter clothing (insulation 1.7 - 2.4 clo). Work rate during the driving was 280-350 W. Rectal temperature increased slightly during driving, and mean skin temperature decreased quickly and fluctuated afterwards at a level 2-3 degrees C lower. Mean body temperature decreased by 1.2 degrees C in the most extreme case. Local cooling on the face and on the peripheral area of the extremities was considered the most serious problem: those temperatures were often below the limit of performance degradation and indicated occasionally the risk of frostbite. The winter conditions were mild in the present study, and on colder days cooling problems will be more severe, as the high incidence of frost injuries reported earlier indicates.

  9. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  10. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-10-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  11. Arcjet Testing of Advanced Conformal Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Beck, Robin; Agrawal, Parul

    2014-01-01

    A conformable TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials (such as tiled Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) system on MSL. The compliant (high strain to failure) nature of the conformable ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. In May of 2013 the CA250 project executed an arcjet test series in the Ames IHF facility to evaluate a phenolic-based conformal system (named Conformal-PICA) over a range of test conditions from 40-400Wcm2. The test series consisted of four runs in the 13-inch diameter nozzle. Test models were based on SPRITE configuration (a 55-deg sphere cone), as it was able to provide a combination of required heat flux, pressure and shear within a single entry. The preliminary in-depth TC data acquired during that test series allowed a mid-fidelity thermal response model for conformal-PICA to be created while testing of seam models began to address TPS attachment and joining of multiple segments for future fabrication of large-scale aeroshells. Discussed in this paper are the results.

  12. Specificity and timing of neocortical transcriptome changes in response to BDNF gene ablation during embryogenesis or adulthood.

    PubMed

    Glorioso, C; Sabatini, M; Unger, T; Hashimoto, T; Monteggia, L M; Lewis, D A; Mirnics, K

    2006-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to be critical for the development of cortical inhibitory neurons. However, the effect of BDNF on the expression of transcripts whose protein products are involved in gamma amino butric acid (GABA) neurotransmission has not been assessed. In this study, gene expression profiling using oligonucleotide microarrays was performed in prefrontal cortical tissue from mice with inducible deletions of BDNF. Both embryonic and adulthood ablation of BDNF gave rise to many shared transcriptome changes. BDNF appeared to be required to maintain gene expression in the SST-NPY-TAC1 subclass of GABA neurons, although the absence of BDNF did not alter their general phenotype as inhibitory neurons. Furthermore, we observed expression alterations in genes encoding early-immediate genes (ARC, EGR1, EGR2, FOS, DUSP1, DUSP6) and critical cellular signaling systems (CDKN1c, CCND2, CAMK1g, RGS4). These BDNF-dependent gene expression changes may illuminate the biological basis for transcriptome changes observed in certain human brain disorders.

  13. Performance of Conformable Ablators in Aerothermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, J.; Fan, W.; Skokova, K.; Stackpoole, M.; Beck, R.; Chavez-Garcia, J.

    2012-01-01

    Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICAs performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.

  14. Micromachined hot-wire thermal conductivity probe for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ming; Panchawagh, Hrishikesh V; Podhajsky, Ronald J; Mahajan, Roop L

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, numerical simulation, and experimental validation of a micromachined probe that measures thermal conductivity of biological tissues. The probe consists of a pair of resistive line heating elements and resistance temperature detector sensors, which were fabricated by using planar photolithography on a glass substrate. The numerical analysis revealed that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity can be determined by the temperature response induced by the uniform heat flux in the heating elements. After calibrating the probe using a material (agar gel) of known thermal conductivity, the probe was deployed to calculate the thermal conductivity of Crisco. The measured value is in agreement with that determined by the macro-hot-wire probe method to within 3%. Finally, the micro thermal probe was used to investigate the change of thermal conductivity of pig liver before and after RF ablation treatment. The results show an increase in thermal conductivity of liver after the RF ablation.

  15. Photo-, thermally, and pH-responsive microgels.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Antonio; Marquez, Manuel; Cai, Tong; Rosario, Rohit; Hu, Zhibing; Gust, Devens; Hayes, Mark; Vail, Sean A; Park, Choong-Do

    2007-01-02

    Microgels with photo-, thermally, and pH-responsive properties in aqueous suspension have been synthesized and characterized using dynamic light scattering and UV-visible spectroscopy. The new route involved first preparing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-allylamine copolymer microgels and a spiropyran photochrome (SP) bearing a carboxylic acid group. Then the functionalized spiropyran was coupled to the microgel via an amide bond. The dark-equilibrated gel particles feature spiropyran molecules in the polar, merocyanine form. After irradiation of visible light, the particle size becomes smaller because spiropyran changes to the relatively nonpolar, closed spiro form. The PNIPAM-SP microgels undergo a volume phase transition in water from a swollen state to a collapsed state with increasing temperature under all light conditions. However, the transition temperature range of the PNIPAM-SP is much broader than that for the PNIPAM without SP. The PNIPAM-SP microgels are monodisperse and self-assemble into a crystalline lattice while in suspension. The UV-visible spectra of an aqueous suspension of PNIPAM-SP microgel in the dark-adapted, merocyanine form showed both an absorption peak around 512 nm due to the merocyanine (giving a reddish color to the suspension) and two sharp peaks from Bragg diffraction of colloidal crystallites. Upon visible irradiation, the 512-nm band bleached significantly due to spiropyran photoisomerization. The spiropyran photoisomerization and accompanying color changes of the suspension were reversible upon alternating dark, UV, and visible light irradiation. Due to the residues of amine groups, the swelling capability of PNIPAM-SP microgels reduces as the pH value is changed from 7 to 10.

  16. Physical processes of laser tissue ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furzikov, Nickolay P.

    1991-05-01

    The revised ablation model applicable to homogeneous tissues is presented. It is based on the thermal mechanism and involves the instability of the laserinduced evaporation (thermodestruction) front the growth of the surface ripple structure the interference of the laser wave and of the surface wave arising by diffraction on the ripples Beer''s law violation the pulsed thermodestruction of the organic structural component the tissue water boiling and gas dynamic expansion of the resulting products into the surrounding medium which is followed by the shock wave formation. The UV and IR ablation schemes were implemented and compared to the corneal ablation experiments. The initial ablation pressure and temperature are given restored from the timeofflight measurements of the supersonic expansion of the product. 1.

  17. [Clinical effect of ultrasound-guided injection of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Fe3O4 in situ implant for magnetic thermal ablation in treatment of nude mice with human liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells].

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Zuo, G Q; Zheng, Y Y; He, S; Zuo, D Y

    2016-12-20

    monitored by ultrasound and CT. The detachment and incrustation of the tumor started at 2 days after treatment, the wound started to heal 15 days later, and the tumor tissue disappeared completely. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided injection of biodegradable Fe3O4-PLGA in situ implant combined with magnetic thermal ablation can effectively treat human liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells in nude mice.

  18. Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ramlawi, Basel; Abu Saleh, Walid K

    2015-01-01

    The Cox-maze procedure for the restoration of normal sinus rhythm, initially developed by Dr. James Cox, underwent several iterations over the years. The main concept consists of creating a series of transmural lesions in the right and left atria that disrupt re-entrant circuits responsible for propagating the abnormal atrial fibrillation rhythm. The left atrial appendage is excluded as a component of the Maze procedure. For the first three iterations of the Cox- maze procedure, these lesions were performed using a surgical cut-and-sew approach that ensured transmurality. The Cox-Maze IV is the most currently accepted iteration. It achieves the same lesion set of the Cox- maze III but uses alternative energy sources to create the transmural lesions, potentially in a minimally invasive approach on the beating heart. High-frequency ultrasound, microwave, and laser energy have all been used with varying success in the past. Today, bipolar radiofrequency heat or cryotherapy cooling are the most accepted sources for creating linear lesions with consistent safety and transmurality. The robust and reliable nature of these energy delivery methods has yielded a success rate reaching 90% freedom from atrial fibrillation at 12 months. Such approaches offer a significant long-term advantage over catheter-based ablation, especially in patients having longstanding, persistent atrial fibrillation with characteristics such as dilated left atrial dimensions, poor ejection fraction, and failed catheter ablation. Based on these improved results, there currently is significant interest in developing a hybrid ablation strategy that incorporates the superior transmural robust lesions of surgical ablation, the reliable stroke prevention potential of epicardial left atrial appendage exclusion, and sophisticated mapping and confirmatory catheter-based ablation technology. Such a minimally invasive hybrid strategy for ablation may lead to the development of multidisciplinary "Afib teams" to

  19. Pulsed infrared laser ablation and clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kin Foong

    Sufficient light energy deposited in tissue can result in ablation and excessive thermal and mechanical damage to adjacent tissues. The goals of this research are to investigate the mechanisms of pulsed infrared laser ablation of tissue, to optimize laser parameters for minimizing unnecessary damage to healthy tissue, and to explore the potential of using pulsed infrared lasers for clinical applications, especially laser lithotripsy. A dual-channel optical low coherence reflectometer was implemented to measure the expansion and collapse velocities of a Q-switched Ho:YAG (λ = 2.12 μm) laser-induced cavitation in water. Cavitation wall velocities up to 11 m/s were measured with this technique, and the results were in fair agreement with those calculated from fast-flash photographic images. The dependence of ablation threshold fluence on calculus absorption was examined. Preliminary results indicated that the product of optical absorption and ablation threshold fluence, which is the heat of ablation, remained constant for a given urinary calculus type and laser pulse duration. An extended study examined the influence of optical absorption on pulsed infrared laser ablation. An analytical photothermal ablation model was applied and compared to experimental ablation results using an infrared free-electron laser at selected wavelengths between 2.12 μm and 6.45 μm Results were in good agreement with the model, and the ablation depths of urinary calculi were highly dependent upon the calculus optical absorption as well as light attenuation within the intrapulse ablation plume. An efficient wavelength for ablation corresponded to the wavelength of the Er:YAG laser (λ = 2.94 μm) suggested this laser should be examined for laser lithotripsy. Schlieren flash photography, acoustic transient measurements with a piezoelectric polyvinylidene-fluoride needle-hydrophone, mass loss measurements, and chemical analyses were employed to study the ablation mechanisms of the free

  20. Selective ablation of lung epithelial IKK2 impairs pulmonary Th17 responses and delays the clearance of Pneumocystis.

    PubMed

    Perez-Nazario, Nelissa; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; O'Reilly, Michael A; Pasparakis, Manolis; Gigliotti, Francis; Wright, Terry W

    2013-11-01

    Pneumocystis is an atypical fungal pathogen that causes severe, often fatal pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Healthy humans and animals also encounter this pathogen, but they generate a protective CD4(+) T cell-dependent immune response that clears the pathogen with little evidence of disease. Pneumocystis organisms attach tightly to respiratory epithelial cells, and in vitro studies have demonstrated that this interaction triggers NF-κB-dependent epithelial cell responses. However, the contribution of respiratory epithelial cells to the normal host response to Pneumocystis remains unknown. IκB kinase 2 (IKK2) is the upstream kinase that is critical for inducible NF-κB activation. To determine whether IKK2-dependent lung epithelial cell (LEC) responses contribute to the anti-Pneumocystis immune response in vivo, transgenic mice with LEC-specific deletion of IKK2 (IKK2(ΔLEC)) were generated. Compared to wild-type mice, IKK2(ΔLEC) mice exhibited a delayed onset of Th17 and B cell responses in the lung and delayed fungal clearance. Importantly, delayed Pneumocystis clearance in IKK2(ΔLEC) mice was associated with an exacerbated immune response, impaired pulmonary function, and altered lung histology. These data demonstrate that IKK2-dependent LEC responses are important regulators of pulmonary adaptive immune responses and are required for optimal host defense against Pneumocystis infection. LECs likely set the threshold for initiation of the pulmonary immune response and serve to prevent exacerbated lung inflammation by promoting the rapid control of respiratory fungal infection.

  1. Tangle-Free Finite Element Mesh Motion for Ablation Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Droba, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Mesh motion is the process by which a computational domain is updated in time to reflect physical changes in the material the domain represents. Such a technique is needed in the study of the thermal response of ablative materials, which erode when strong heating is applied to the boundary. Traditionally, the thermal solver is coupled with a linear elastic or biharmonic system whose sole purpose is to update mesh node locations in response to altering boundary heating. Simple mesh motion algorithms rely on boundary surface normals. In such schemes, evolution in time will eventually cause the mesh to intersect and "tangle" with itself, causing failure. Furthermore, such schemes are greatly limited in the problems geometries on which they will be successful. This paper presents a comprehensive and sophisticated scheme that tailors the directions of motion based on context. By choosing directions for each node smartly, the inevitable tangle can be completely avoided and mesh motion on complex geometries can be modeled accurately.

  2. A Theoretical Study of Stagnation-Point Ablation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Leonard

    1959-01-01

    A simplified analysis is made of ablation cooling near the stagnation point of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric body which occurs as the body vaporizes directly from the solid state. The automatic shielding mechanism Is discussed and the important thermal properties required by a good ablation material are given. The results of the analysis are given in terms of dimensionless parameters.

  3. X-ray Micro-Tomography of Ablative Heat Shield Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panerai, Francesco; Ferguson, Joseph; Borner, Arnaud; Mansour, Nagi N.; Barnard, Harold S.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray micro-tomography is a non-destructive characterization technique that allows imaging of materials structures with voxel sizes in the micrometer range. This level of resolution makes the technique very attractive for imaging porous ablators used in hypersonic entry systems. Besides providing a high fidelity description of the material architecture, micro-tomography enables computations of bulk material properties and simulations of micro-scale phenomena. This presentation provides an overview of a collaborative effort between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, aimed at developing micro-tomography experiments and simulations for porous ablative materials. Measurements are carried using x-rays from the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley Lab on different classes of ablative materials used in NASA entry systems. Challenges, strengths and limitations of the technique for imaging materials such as lightweight carbon-phenolic systems and woven textiles are discussed. Computational tools developed to perform numerical simulations based on micro-tomography are described. These enable computations of material properties such as permeability, thermal and radiative conductivity, tortuosity and other parameters that are used in ablator response models. Finally, we present the design of environmental cells that enable imaging materials under simulated operational conditions, such as high temperature, mechanical loads and oxidizing atmospheres.Keywords: Micro-tomography, Porous media, Ablation

  4. Evaluation of corneal ablation by an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) at 2.94 μm and an Er:YAG laser and comparison to ablation by a 193-nm excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telfair, William B.; Hoffman, Hanna J.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Eiferman, Richard A.

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: This study first evaluated the corneal ablation characteristics of (1) an Nd:YAG pumped OPO (Optical Parametric Oscillator) at 2.94 microns and (2) a short pulse Er:YAG laser. Secondly, it compared the histopathology and surface quality of these ablations with (3) a 193 nm excimer laser. Finally, the healing characteristics over 4 months of cat eyes treated with the OPO were evaluated. Methods: Custom designed Nd:YAG/OPO and Er:YAG lasers were integrated with a new scanning delivery system to perform PRK myopic correction procedures. After initial ablation studies to determine ablation thresholds and rates, human cadaver eyes and in-vivo cat eyes were treated with (1) a 6.0 mm Dia, 30 micron deep PTK ablation and (2) a 6.0 mm Dia, -5.0 Diopter PRK ablation. Cadaver eyes were also treated with a 5.0 mm Dia, -5.0 Diopter LASIK ablation. Finally, cats were treated with the OPO in a 4 month healing study. Results: Ablation thresholds below 100 mJ/cm2 and ablation rates comparable to the excimer were demonstrated for both infrared systems. Light Microscopy (LM) showed no thermal damage for low fluence treatments, but noticeable thermal damage at higher fluences. SEM and TEM revealed morphologically similar surfaces for low fluence OPO and excimer samples with a smooth base and no evidence of collagen shrinkage. The Er:YAG and higher fluence OPO treated samples revealed more damage along with visible collagen coagulation and shrinkage in some cases. Healing was remarkably unremarkable. All eyes had a mild healing response with no stromal haze and showed topographic flattening. LM demonstrated nothing except a moderate increase in keratocyte activity in the upper third of the stroma. TEM confirmed this along with irregular basement membranes. Conclusions: A non- thermal ablation process called photospallation is demonstrated for the first time using short pulse infrared lasers yielding damage zones comparable to the excimer and healing which is also comparable to

  5. Fracture in Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Pham, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel technique to understand the failure mechanisms inside thermal protection materials. The focus of this research is on the class of materials known as phenolic impregnated carbon ablators. It has successfully flown on the Stardust spacecraft and is the thermal protection system material chosen for the Mars Science Laboratory and SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. Although it has good thermal properties, structurally, it is a weak material. To understand failure mechanisms in carbon ablators, fracture tests were performed on FiberForm(Registered TradeMark) (precursor), virgin, and charred ablator materials. Several samples of these materials were tested to investigate failure mechanisms at a microstructural scale. Stress-strain data were obtained simultaneously to estimate the tensile strength and toughness. It was observed that cracks initiated and grew in the FiberForm when a critical stress limit was reached such that the carbon fibers separated from the binder. However, both for virgin and charred carbon ablators, crack initiation and growth occurred in the matrix (phenolic) phase. Both virgin and charred carbon ablators showed greater strength values compared with FiberForm samples, confirming that the presence of the porous matrix helps in absorbing the fracture energy.

  6. Thermal stress and predation risk trigger distinct transcriptomic responses in the intertidal snail Nucella lapillus.

    PubMed

    Chu, Nathaniel D; Miller, Luke P; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Trussell, Geoffrey C; Vollmer, Steven V

    2014-12-01

    Thermal stress and predation risk have profound effects on rocky shore organisms, triggering changes in their feeding behaviour, morphology and metabolism. Studies of thermal stress have shown that underpinning such changes in several intertidal species are specific shifts in gene and protein expression (e.g. upregulation of heat-shock proteins). But relatively few studies have examined genetic responses to predation risk. Here, we use next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to examine the transcriptomic (mRNA) response of the snail Nucella lapillus to thermal stress and predation risk. We found that like other intertidal species, N. lapillus displays a pronounced genetic response to thermal stress by upregulating many heat-shock proteins and other molecular chaperones. In contrast, the presence of a crab predator (Carcinus maenas) triggered few significant changes in gene expression in our experiment, and this response showed no significant overlap with the snail's response to thermal stress. These different gene expression profiles suggest that thermal stress and predation risk could pose distinct and potentially additive challenges for N. lapillus and that genetic responses to biotic stresses such as predation risk might be more complex and less uniform across species than genetic responses to abiotic stresses such as thermal stress.

  7. Procedure to Determine Thermal Characteristics and Groundwater Influence in Heterogeneous Subsoil by an Enhanced Thermal Response Test and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranzabal, Nordin; Martos, Julio; Montero, Álvaro; Monreal, Llúcia; Soret, Jesús; Torres, José; García-Olcina, Raimundo

    2016-04-01

    Ground thermal conductivity and borehole thermal resistance are indispensable parameters for the optimal design of subsoil thermal processes and energy storage characterization. The standard method to determine these parameters is the Thermal Response Test (TRT) which results are evaluated by models considering the ground being homogeneous and isotropic. This method obtains an effective ground thermal conductivity which represents an average of the thermal conductivity along the different layers crossed by perforation. In order to obtain a ground thermal conductivity profile as a function of depth two additional key factors are required, first, a new significant data set: a temperature profile along the borehole; and second, a new analysis procedure to extract ground heterogeneity from the recorded data. This research work presents the results of an analysis procedure, complementing the standard TRT analysis, which allows to estimate the thermal conductivity profile from a temperature profile measured along the borehole during a TRT. In the analysis procedure, a 3D Finite Element Model (FEM) is used to fit simulation results with experimental data, by a set of iterative simulations. This methodology is applied to a data set obtained throughout a TRT of 1kW heat power injection in a 30m depth Borehole Heat Exchange (BHE) facility. A highly conductive layer have been detected and located at 25 m depth. In addition, a novel automated device to obtain temperature profiles along geothermal pipes with or without fluid flow is presented. This sensor system is intended to improve the standard TRT and it allows the collection of depth depending thermal characteristics of the subsoil geological structure. Currently, some studies are being conducted in double U-pipe borehole installations in order to improve previously introduced analysis procedure. From a numerical model simulation that takes into account advective effects is pretended to estimate underground water velocity

  8. Combined Treatment of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Labeled Gold Nanorod Encapsulated Albumin With Laser Thermal Ablation in a Renal Cell Carcinoma Model.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Cameron; Peralta, Donna; Liu, James; Mandava, Sree Harsha; Maddox, Michael; Dash, Srikanta; Tarr, Matthew A; Lee, Benjamin R

    2016-01-01

    To characterize and evaluate human serum albumin-encapsulated nanoparticles for drug delivery of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor combined with induction of photothermal ablation combination therapy of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), nanoparticles of varying preparations and concentrations were characterized via zeta potential, drug loading, and release profile. Cytotoxicity and uptake trials were also studied using clear cell RCC cell line RCC 786-0, a human metastatic carcinoma. Target temperatures of >50°C were consistently attained by 0.1 and 0.05 μM concentrations of irradiated human serum albumin nanoparticle-gold nanorods (HSAP-AuNRs). Irradiated trials of HSAP-AuNRs demonstrated significantly decreased cell viabilities compared with nonirradiated "dark" controls (p < 0.01). Increasing loaded masses of sorafenib (SRF) also significantly decreased relative cell viability of RCC (p < 0.05). Photothermal ablation using HSAP-AuNRs is capable of inducing significant hyperthermia while the loading of SRF further enhances cytotoxicity relative to treatment with HSAP-AuNRs alone. HSAP-AuNR-SRFs have the potential to be an effective, novel combination treatment for advanced RCC.

  9. Prediction of the thermal environment and thermal response of simple panels exposed to radiant heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    A method of predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a bank of tubular quartz heaters was applied to a radiant system consisting of a single unreflected lamp irradiating a flat metallic incident surface. In this manner, the method was experimentally verified for various radiant system parameter settings and used as a source of input for a finite element thermal analysis. Two finite element thermal analyses were applied to a thermal system consisting of a thin metallic panel exposed to radiant surface heating. A two-dimensional steady-state finite element thermal analysis algorithm, based on Galerkin's Method of Weighted Residuals (GFE), was formulated specifically for this problem and was used in comparison to the thermal analyzers of the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL). Both analyses allow conduction, convection, and radiation boundary conditions. Differences in the respective finite element formulation are discussed in terms of their accuracy and resulting comparison discrepancies. The thermal analyses are shown to perform well for the comparisons presented here with some important precautions about the various boundary condition models. A description of the experiment, corresponding analytical modeling, and resulting comparisons are presented.

  10. Thermal response of Space Shuttle wing during reentry heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, L.; Ko, W. L.; Quinn, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite element thermal analysis computer program was used in the heat transfer analysis of the space shuttle orbiter that was subjected to reentry aerodynamic heatings. One wing segment of the right wing (WS 240) and the whole left wing were selected for the thermal analysis. Results showed that the predicted thermal protection system (TPS) temperatures were in good agreement with the space transportation system, trajectory 5 (STS-5) flight-measured temperatures. In addition, calculated aluminum structural temperatures were in fairly good agreement with the flight data up to the point of touchdown. Results also showed that the internal free convection had a considerable effect on the change of structural temperatures after touchdown.

  11. Enhanced coupling of optical energy during liquid-confined metal ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Welch, Ashley J.

    2015-10-21

    Liquid-confined laser ablation was investigated with various metals of indium, aluminum, and nickel. Ablation threshold and rate were characterized in terms of surface deformation, transient acoustic responses, and plasma emissions. The surface condition affected the degree of ablation dynamics due to variations in reflectance. The liquid confinement yielded up to an order of larger ablation crater along with stronger acoustic transients than dry ablation. Enhanced ablation performance resulted possibly from effective coupling of optical energy at the interface during explosive vaporization, plasma confinement, and cavitation. The deposition of a liquid layer can induce more efficient ablation for laser metal processing.

  12. Thermal response model of polymer matrix composites under laser irradiating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guo-liang; Zhang, Xiang-hua; Du, Tai-jiao

    2015-05-01

    A numerical study is conducted to determine which model could be used to compute temperature fields of polymer matrix composites under laser irradiating. By using the local thermal non-equilibrium model, solid and gas temperature on surfaces of materials with different volume convection coefficients have been computed and compared under different heat flux. The results show that the assumption of local thermal equilibrium is not reasonable until the heat flux applied to composites is low enough and the volume convection coefficient is big enough. And the gas may be not important for solid temperature when the volume convection coefficient is small.

  13. Development of a 3-D Tree Thermal Response Model for Energy Budget and Scene Simulation Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-15

    from a leaf occurs as a process of water vapor dif- fusion from the saturated inner cells through the leaf stomata and across the leaf boundary layer...trees is being developed to understand the thermal properties of trees. The model is being developed for leafed (deciduous) and leafless conditions...thermal response model for individual trees. The model can be used for leafed and leafless trees. The thermal balance for woody material is

  14. Quick-Response Thermal Actuator for Use as a Heat Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepeda-Rizo, Juan

    2010-01-01

    This work improves the performance of a heat switch, or a thermal actuator, by delivering heat to the actuator in a more efficient manner. The method uses a heat pipe as the plunger or plug instead of just using a solid piece of metal. The heat pipe could be one tailored for fast transient thermal response.

  15. Tangle-Free Mesh Motion for Ablation Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Droba, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Problems involving mesh motion-which should not be mistakenly associated with moving mesh methods, a class of adaptive mesh redistribution techniques-are of critical importance in numerical simulations of the thermal response of melting and ablative materials. Ablation is the process by which material vaporizes or otherwise erodes due to strong heating. Accurate modeling of such materials is of the utmost importance in design of passive thermal protection systems ("heatshields") for spacecraft, the layer of the vehicle that ensures survival of crew and craft during re-entry. In an explicit mesh motion approach, a complete thermal solve is first performed. Afterwards, the thermal response is used to determine surface recession rates. These values are then used to generate boundary conditions for an a posteriori correction designed to update the location of the mesh nodes. Most often, linear elastic or biharmonic equations are used to model this material response, traditionally in a finite element framework so that complex geometries can be simulated. A simple scheme for moving the boundary nodes involves receding along the surface normals. However, for all but the simplest problem geometries, evolution in time following such a scheme will eventually bring the mesh to intersect and "tangle" with itself, inducing failure. This presentation demonstrates a comprehensive and sophisticated scheme that analyzes the local geometry of each node with help from user-provided clues to eliminate the tangle and enable simulations on a wide-class of difficult problem geometries. The method developed is demonstrated for linear elastic equations but is general enough that it may be adapted to other modeling equations. The presentation will explicate the inner workings of the tangle-free mesh motion algorithm for both two and three-dimensional meshes. It will show abstract examples of the method's success, including a verification problem that demonstrates its accuracy and

  16. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-07-22

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C(-1) for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures.

  17. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C−1 for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures. PMID:27455273

  18. A study of thermal response of concrete towers employing linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi, Mehdi; Zarbaf, Seyed Ehsan Haji Agha Mohammad; Dalvi, Aditi; Hunt, Victor; Helmicki, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    It has been shown that the variations of structural properties due to changing environmental conditions such as temperature can be as significant as those caused by structural damage and even liveload. Therefore, tracking changes that are correlated with environmental variations is a necessary step in order to detect and assess structural damage in addition to the normal structural response to traffic. In this paper, daily measurement data that is collected from the concrete towers of the Ironton-Russell Bridge will be presented and correlation of the collected measurement data and temperature will be overviewed. Variation of the daily thermal response of tower concrete walls will be compared with the daily thermal responses of the steel box within the tower and finally, thermal coefficient for compensating the thermal induced responses will be estimated.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Effective Ablated Volume following High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Brett Z.; Wong, Andrew; Liu, Yu; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Tam, Sarah M.; Aina, Olulanu; Hubbard, Neil E.; Borowsky, Alexander; Cardiff, Robert D.; Dumont, Erik; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2015-01-01

    Under magnetic resonance (MR) guidance, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is capable of precise and accurate delivery of thermal dose to tissues. Given the excellent soft tissue imaging capabilities of MRI, but the lack of data on the correlation of MRI findings to histology following HIFU, we sought to examine tumor response to HIFU ablation to determine whether there was a correlation between histological findings and common MR imaging protocols in the assessment of the extent of thermal damage. Female FVB mice (n = 34), bearing bilateral neu deletion tumors, were unilaterally insonated under MR guidance, with the contralateral tumor as a control. Between one and five spots (focal size 0.5 × 0.5 × 2.5 mm3) were insonated per tumor with each spot receiving approximately 74.2 J of acoustic energy over a period of 7 seconds. Animals were then imaged on a 7T MR scanner with several protocols. T1 weighted images (with and without gadolinium contrast) were collected in addition to a series of T2 weighted and diffusion weighted images (for later reconstruction into T2 and apparent diffusion coefficient maps), immediately following ablation and at 6, 24, and 48 hours post treatment. Animals were sacrificed at each time point and both insonated/treated and contralateral tumors removed and stained for NADH-diaphorase, caspase 3, or with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). We found the area of non-enhancement on contrast enhanced T1 weighted imaging immediately post ablation correlated with the region of tissue receiving a thermal dose CEM43 ≥ 240 min. Moreover, while both tumor T2 and apparent diffusion coefficient values changed from pre-ablation values, contrast enhanced T1 weighted images appeared to be more senstive to changes in tissue viability following HIFU ablation. PMID:25785992

  20. Pulsed HF laser ablation of dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiakoumou, Eirini I.; Papadopoulos, Dimitris N.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan G.; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2005-03-01

    The interaction of a TEA (Transversally Excited Atmospheric pressure) corona preionized oscillator double amplifier HF (hydrogen fluoride) laser beam with dentin tissue is reported. Pulses of 39 ns in the wavelength range of 2.65-3.35 μm and output energies in the range of 10-45 mJ, in a predominantly TEM00 beam were used to interact with dentin tissue. Ablation experiments were conducted with the laser beam directly focused on the tissue. Several samples of freshly extracted human teeth were used, cut longitudinally in facets of about 1mm thick and stored in phosphate buffered saline after being cleaned from the soft tissue remains. The experimental data (ablation thresholds, ablation rates) are discussed with respect to the ablation mechanism(s). Adequate tissue removal was observed and the ablation behavior was, in the greates part of the available fluences, almost linear. From the microscopic examination of teh samples, in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the irradiated surfaces displayed oval craters (reflecting the laser beam shape) with absence of any melting or carbonization zone. It is suggested that the specific laser removes hard tissue by a combined photothermal and plasma mediated ablation mechanism, leaving a surface free from thermal damage and with a well-shaped crater.

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation of Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Marc; Mikityansky, Igor; Kam, Anthony; Libutti, Steven K.; Walther, McClellan M.; Neeman, Ziv; Locklin, Julia K.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2004-09-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been used for over 18 years for treatment of nerve-related chronic pain and cardiac arrhythmias. In the last 10 years, technical developments have increased ablation volumes in a controllable, versatile, and relatively inexpensive manner. The host of clinical applications for RFA have similarly expanded. Current RFA equipment, techniques, applications, results, complications, and research avenues for local tumor ablation are summarized.

  2. Influence of water environment on holmium laser ablation performance for hard tissues.

    PubMed

    Lü, Tao; Xiao, Qing; Li, Zhengjia

    2012-05-01

    This study clarifies the ablation differences in air and in water for hard biological tissues, which are irradiated by fiber-guided long-pulsed holmium lasers. High-speed photography is used to record the dynamic characteristics of ablation plumes and vaporization bubbles induced by pulsed holmium lasers. The ablation morphologies and depth of hard tissues are quantitatively measured by optical coherence microscopy. Explosive vaporization effects in water play a positive role in the contact ablation process and are directly responsible for significant ablation enhancement. Furthermore, water layer depth can also contribute to ablation performance. Under the same laser parameters for fiber-tissue contact ablation in air and water, ablation performances are comparable for a single-laser pulse, but for more laser pulses the ablation performances in water are better than those in air. Comprehensive knowledge of ablation differences under various environments is important, especially in medical procedures that are performed in a liquid environment.

  3. Nozzle designs with pitch precursor ablatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, H. R.; Bedard, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in carbon phenolic ablatives for solid rocket motor nozzles have yielded a pitch precursor carbon fiber offering significant raw material availability and cost saving advantages as compared to conventional rayon precursor material. This paper discusses the results of an experimental program conducted to assess the thermal performance and characterize the thermal properties of pitch precursor carbon phenolic ablatives. The end result of this program is the complete thermal characterization of pitch fabric, pitch mat, hybrid pitch/rayon fabric and pitch mat molding compound. With these properties determined an analytic capability now exists for predicting the thermal performance of these materials in rocket nozzle liner applications. Further planned efforts to verify material performance and analytical prediction procedures through actual rocket motor firings are also discussed.

  4. Tumor Ablation with Irreversible Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sakere, Bassim; André, Franck; Bernat, Claire; Connault, Elisabeth; Opolon, Paule; Davalos, Rafael V.; Rubinsky, Boris; Mir, Lluis M.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first successful use of irreversible electroporation for the minimally invasive treatment of aggressive cutaneous tumors implanted in mice. Irreversible electroporation is a newly developed non-thermal tissue ablation technique in which certain short duration electrical fields are used to permanently permeabilize the cell membrane, presumably through the formation of nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. Mathematical models of the electrical and thermal fields that develop during the application of the pulses were used to design an efficient treatment protocol with minimal heating of the tissue. Tumor regression was confirmed by histological studies which also revealed that it occurred as a direct result of irreversible cell membrane permeabilization. Parametric studies show that the successful outcome of the procedure is related to the applied electric field strength, the total pulse duration as well as the temporal mode of delivery of the pulses. Our best results were obtained using plate electrodes to deliver across the tumor 80 pulses of 100 µs at 0.3 Hz with an electrical field magnitude of 2500 V/cm. These conditions induced complete regression in 12 out of 13 treated tumors, (92%), in the absence of tissue heating. Irreversible electroporation is thus a new effective modality for non-thermal tumor ablation. PMID:17989772

  5. Lung Ablation: Whats New?

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lillian; Dupuy, Damian E

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer had an estimated incidence of 221,200 in 2015, making up 13% of all cancer diagnoses. Tumor ablation is an important treatment option for nonsurgical lung cancer and pulmonary metastatic patients. Radiofrequency ablation has been used for over a decade with newer modalities, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation presenting as additional and possibly improved treatment options for patients. This minimally invasive therapy is best for small primary lesions or favorably located metastatic tumors. These technologies can offer palliation and sometimes cure of thoracic malignancies. This article discusses the current available technologies and techniques available for tumor ablation.

  6. Thermal response of transparent silver nanowire/PEDOT:PSS film heaters.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shulin; He, Weiwei; Wang, Ke; Ran, Yunxia; Ye, Changhui

    2014-12-10

    Thermal response behavior of transparent silver nanowire/PEDOT:PSS film heaters are intensively studied for manipulating heating temperature, response time, and power consumption. Influences of substrate heat capacity, heat transfer coefficient between air and heater, sheet resistance and dimension of Ag nanowire film, on the thermal response are investigated from thermodynamic analysis. Suggestion is given for practical applications that if other parameters are fixed, Ag nanowire coverage can be utilized as an effective parameter to adjust the thermal response. The heat transfer coefficient plays opposite roles on thermal response speed and achievable steady temperature. A value of ≈32 W m(-2) K(-1) is obtained from transient process analysis after correcting it by considering heater resistance variation during heating tests. Guidance of designing heaters with a given response time is provided by forming Ag nanowire film with a suitable sheet resistance on substrate of appropriate material and a certain thickness. Thermal response tests of designed Ag heaters are performed to show higher heating temperature, shorter response time, and lower power consumption (179 °C cm(2) W(-1)) than ITO/FTO heaters, as well as homogeneous temperature distribution and stability for repeated use. Potential applications of the Ag heaters in window defogging, sensing and thermochromism are manifested.

  7. Flexible Ablators: Applications and Arcjet Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin A S.; Mcguire, Kathy; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Gorbunov, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Flexible ablators were conceived in 2009 to meet the technology pull for large, human Mars Exploration Class, 23 m diameter hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerators. As described elsewhere, they have been recently undergoing initial technical readiness (TRL) advancement by NASA. The performance limits of flexible ablators in terms of maximum heat rates, pressure and shear remain to be defined. Further, it is hoped that this emerging technology will vastly expand the capability of future NASA missions involving atmospheric entry systems. This paper considers four topics of relevance to flexible ablators: (1) Their potential applications to near/far term human and robotic missions (2) Brief consideration of the balance between heat shield diameter, flexible ablator performance limits, entry vehicle controllability and aft-body shear layer impingement of interest to designers of very large entry vehicles, (3) The approach for developing bonding processes of flexible ablators for use on rigid entry bodies and (4) Design of large arcjet test articles that will enable the testing of flexible ablators in flight-like, combined environments (heat flux, pressure, shear and structural tensile loading). Based on a review of thermal protection system performance requirements for future entry vehicles, it is concluded that flexible ablators have broad applications to conventional, rigid entry body systems and are enabling to large deployable (both inflatable and mechanical) heat shields. Because of the game-changing nature of flexible ablators, it appears that NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) will fund a focused, 3-year TRL advancement of the new materials capable of performance in heat fluxes in the range of 200-600 W/sq. cm. This support will enable the manufacture and use of the large-scale arcjet test designs that will be a key element of this OCT funded activity.

  8. Material Based Structure Design: Numerical Analysis Thermodynamic Response of Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite /Al Sandwich Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxia; Yan, Shilin; Yu, Dingshan

    2016-12-01

    Amine-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based thermally conductive adhesive (TCA) was studied in the previous paper and applied here in thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG)/Al radiator due to its high thermal conductivity, toughness and cohesiveness. In this paper, in an attempt to confirm the application of TCA to TPG/Al sandwich radiator, the thermodynamic response in TPG/Al sandwich composites associated with key material properties and structural design was investigated using finite element simulation with commercial available ANSYS software. The induced thermal stress in TCA layer is substantial due to the thermal expansion mismatch between Al plate and TPG. The maximum thermal stress is located near the edge of TCA layer with the von Mises stress value of 4.02 MPa and the shear stress value of 1.66 MPa. The reasonable adjustment of physical-mechanical properties including thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young,s modulus and the thickness of TCA layer, Al plate and TPG are beneficial for reducing the temperature of the top surface of the upper skin and their effects on the reduction of thermal structural response in some ways. These findings will highlight the structural optimization of TPG/Al radiator for future application.

  9. A simplified model to predict the thermal response of PLG and its influence on BLEVE.

    PubMed

    Gong, Y W; Lin, W S; Gu, A Z; Lu, X S

    2004-04-30

    A simplified model has been developed to describe the thermal response of pressure liquefied gas (PLG) tanks subjected to fire. The development of the stratification layer is considered in this model. Comparison of results with available experimental data shows that our proposed model can reasonably predict the thermal response. The effect of stratification on the liquid energy is also summarized. Results show that the pressure in the tank rises faster as a result of thermal stratification, and for the same tank pressure the energy in the liquid is less when the liquid is stratified. Stratification can reduce the severity of hazards of boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).

  10. Microwave ablation versus laser ablation in occluding lateral veins in goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-hong; Wang, Xiao-ping; Su, Wen-juan; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Increasing number of endovenous techniques are available for the treatment of saphenous vein reflux and endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is a frequently used method. A newly developed alternative, based on thermal therapy, is endovenous microwave ablation (EMA). This study evaluated the effect of the two procedures, in terms of coagulation and histological changes, in occluding lateral veins in goats. Twelve animals were randomized into two group, with 6 treated with EMA (EMA group), and the rest 6 with EVLA (EVLA group). Results of coagulation, including coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet activation, were assessed at three or four different time points: before, immediately after, 24 h (and 48 h) after ablation. The diameter change, a measure of efficacy, was ultrasonographically measured before and 1 month after the ablation. Histological changes were grossly and microscopically evaluated immediately, 1 and 3 month(s) after the ablation. The length of the ablated vein and preoperative average diameter were comparable between the two groups. In both EMA and EVLA groups, several coagulation parameters, fibrinolysis and platelet activation parameters only underwent slight changes. Ultrasound imaging displayed that the diameter reduction of the veins treated by EMA was significantly larger than by EVLA, in consistent with the results of macroscopic examination. Microscopic examination revealed necrosis and thickening of the vein wall, and occlusion of the lumen within 3 months after ablation in both EMA and EVLA groups. It is concluded that EMA is a minimally invasive therapy, which appears to be safe and effective for treatment of lateral veins in goats.

  11. In vitro corrosion behaviour and osteoblast response of thermally oxidised Ti6Al4V alloy.

    PubMed

    García-Alonso, M C; Saldaña, L; Vallés, G; González-Carrasco, J L; González-Cabrero, J; Martínez, M E; Gil-Garay, E; Munuera, L

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the influence of thermal oxidation treatments of Ti6Al4V at 500 degrees C and 700 degrees C for 1 h on the in vitro corrosion behaviour and osteoblast response is studied. The potential of these treatments, aimed to improve the wear surface performance as biomaterial, relies in the formation of an outer "ceramic" layer of rutile. The corrosion behaviour was evaluated in simulated human fluids by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic polarisation tests. The effect of these thermal oxidation treatments on osteoblastic behaviour was studied in primary cultures of human osteoblastic cells. Results show that thermal oxidation treatments do not decrease the high in vitro corrosion resistance of the Ti6Al4V alloy. Osteoblast adhesion studies indicate that thermal oxidation treatments do not impair the material biocompatibility. Moreover, the thermal oxidation at 700 degrees C enhances the in vitro osteoblastic cell attachment compared to the thermal oxidation at 500 degrees C.

  12. Coupled Ablation, Heat Conduction, Pyrolysis, Shape Change and Spallation of the Galileo Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Y.-K.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Galileo probe enters the atmosphere of Jupiter in December 1995. This paper presents numerical methodology and detailed results of our final pre-impact calculations for the heat shield response. The calculations are performed using a highly modified version of a viscous shock layer code with massive radiation coupled with a surface thermochemical ablation and spallation model and with the transient in-depth thermal response of the charring and ablating heat shield. The flowfield is quasi-steady along the trajectory, but the heat shield thermal response is dynamic. Each surface node of the VSL grid is coupled with a one-dimensional thermal response calculation. The thermal solver includes heat conduction, pyrolysis, and grid movement owing to surface recession. Initial conditions for the heat shield temperature and density were obtained from the high altitude rarefied-flow calculations of Haas and Milos. Galileo probe surface temperature, shape, mass flux, and element flux are all determined as functions of time along the trajectory with spallation varied parametrically. The calculations also estimate the in-depth density and temperature profiles for the heat shield. All this information is required to determine the time-dependent vehicle mass and drag coefficient which are necessary inputs for the atmospheric reconstruction experiment on board the probe.

  13. Response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from different thermal environments to increased water temperature.

    PubMed

    Mulhollem, Joshua J; Suski, Cory D; Wahl, David H

    2015-08-01

    Due to concerns of global climate change, additional research is needed to quantify the thermal tolerance of species, and how organisms are able to adapt to changes in thermal regime. We quantified the thermal tolerance and thermal stress response of a temperate sportfish from two different thermal environments. One group of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabited thermally enhanced reservoirs (used for power plant cooling), with water temperatures typically 2-5°C warmer than nearby reservoirs. We tested fish for chronic thermal maxima and reaction to an 8°C heat shock using three common physiological indices of stress. We observed no evidence of differences between groups in thermal maxima. We observed no differences in thermal maxima between fish from artificially warmed and natural systems. Our results disagree with research, suggesting differences due to adaptation to different thermal environments. We speculate that behavioral modifications, lack of adequate time for genetic divergence, or the robust genetic plasticity of largemouth bass explain the lack of difference between treatment groups.

  14. On a computational model of building thermal dynamic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarošová, Petra; Vala, Jiří

    2016-07-01

    Development and exploitation of advanced materials, structures and technologies in civil engineering, both for buildings with carefully controlled interior temperature and for common residential houses, together with new European and national directives and technical standards, stimulate the development of rather complex and robust, but sufficiently simple and inexpensive computational tools, supporting their design and optimization of energy consumption. This paper demonstrates the possibility of consideration of such seemingly contradictory requirements, using the simplified non-stationary thermal model of a building, motivated by the analogy with the analysis of electric circuits; certain semi-analytical forms of solutions come from the method of lines.

  15. Hard tissue ablation with a spray-assisted mid-IR laser.

    PubMed

    Kang, H W; Rizoiu, I; Welch, A J

    2007-12-21

    The objective of this study was to understand the dominant mechanism(s) for dental enamel ablation with the application of water spray. A free-running Er,Cr:YSGG (yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet) laser was used to ablate human enamel tissue at various radiant exposures. During dental ablation, distilled water was sprayed on the sample surface, and these results were compared to ablation without a spray (dry ablation). In order to identify dominant ablation mechanisms, transient acoustic waves were compared to ablation thresholds and the volume of material removed. The ablation profile and depth were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Irregular surface modification, charring and peripheral cracks were associated with dry ablation, whereas craters for spray samples were relatively clean without thermal damage. In spite of a 60% higher ablation threshold for spray associated irradiations owing to water absorption, acoustic peak pressures were six times higher and ablation volume was up to a factor of 2 larger compared to dry ablation. The enhanced pressure and ablation performance of the spray-assisted process was the result of rapid water vaporization, material ejection with recoil stress, interstitial water explosion and possibly liquid-jet formation. With water cooling and abrasive/disruptive mechanical effects, the spray ablation can be a safe and efficient modality for dental treatment.

  16. Thermal emittance and response time of a cesium antimonide photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan; Bartnik, Adam; Dunham, Bruce; Karkare, Siddharth; Merluzzi, Richard; Nichols, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of the intrinsic emittance and response time of a Cs3Sb photocathode are presented. The emittance is obtained with a solenoid scan technique using a high voltage dc photoemission gun. Photoemission response time is evaluated using a RF deflecting cavity synchronized to a picosecond laser pulse train. We find that Cs3Sb has both small mean transverse energy, 160 ± 10 meV at 532 nm laser wavelength, and a prompt response time (below the resolution of our measurement) making it a suitable material for high brightness electron photoinjectors.

  17. General Model for Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Marschall, Jochen; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A previous paper (AIAA 94-2042) presented equations and numerical procedures for modeling the thermochemical ablation and pyrolysis of thermal protection materials which contain multiple surface species. This work describes modifications and enhancements to the Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (MAT) theory and code for application to the general case which includes surface area constraints, rate limited surface reactions, and non-thermochemical mass loss (failure). Detailed results and comparisons with data are presented for the Shuttle Orbiter reinforced carbon-carbon oxidation protection system which contains a mixture of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), silica (SiO2), silicon carbide (SiC), and carbon (C).

  18. Sprayable lightweight ablative coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G. (Inventor); Sharpe, Max H. (Inventor); Hill, William E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved lightweight, ablative coating is disclosed that may be spray applied and cured without the development of appreciable shrinkage cracks. The ablative mixture consists essentially of phenolic microballoons, hollow glass spheres, glass fibers, ground cork, a flexibilized resin binder, and an activated colloidal clay.

  19. Measurement and Analysis of Thermal Energy Responses from Discrete Urban Surfaces Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Ridd, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    This study employs data from the airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) to measure thermal (i.e., longwave) energy responses, emitted or upwelling, from discrete surfaces that are typical of the city landscape within Salt Lake City, Utah, over a single diurnal time period (i.e., a single day, night-time sequence). These data are used to quantify the disposition of thermal energy for selected urban surfaces during the daytime and night-time, and the amount of change in thermal response or flux recorded between day and night. An analysis is presented on the thermal interrelationships observed for common urban materials for day, night, and flux, as identified from the TIMS data through the delineation of discrete surface type polygons. The results from the study illustrate that such factors as heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and the amount of soil moisture available have a profound impact on the magnitude of thermal energy emanating from a specific surface and on the dynamics of longwave energy response between day and night.

  20. Colitogenic role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptors in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid colitis: TNF-R1 ablation does not affect systemic inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Wang, H; Dou, Y; Wang, Y; Han, G; Wang, Renxi; Wang, L; Guo, R; Xiao, H; Li, X; Shen, B; Shi, Y; Chen, G; Li, Y

    2011-09-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of T helper type 1-mediated colitis such as Crohn's disease. However, the roles of its two receptors in mediating pathology remain largely unknown. In this study, trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce colitis in TNF-receptor single or double knock-out (DKO) BALB/c mice and in wild-type counterparts. TNF-R1(-/-) mice had significantly less weight loss, reduced mortality, colon shortening and oedema, colon histological damage and lower levels of colon myeloperoxidase compared with wild-type (WT) BALB/c mice. A similar manifestation was also observed in TNF-R2(-/-) and TNF-R1(-/-) TNF-R2(-/-) (TNF-R DKO) mice. Strikingly, systemic inflammatory response (including splenomegaly and monocyte expansion) was found in WT and TNF-R1(-/-) mice after TNBS, instead of TNF-R2(-/-) and TNF-R DKO mice. Attenuated pathology of colitis in TNF-R1(-/-) or TNF-R2(-/-) mice correlated with lower amounts of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, IL-12p70 and interferon (IFN)-γ production in the colons. Importantly, ablation of TNF-R1 or TNF-R2 reduced the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labelling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic epithelial cells in the affected colons compared with WT TNBS-instilled controls, which might be due to the heightened ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and reduced activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. These findings suggest that either TNF-R1 or TNF-R2 plays a pathogenic role in the pathology of colitis and TNF signalling via TNF-R1 or TNF-R2 alone is not sufficient for inducing mucosal damage.

  1. Linear Response Theory for Thermally Driven Quantum Open Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakšić, V.; Ogata, Y.; Pillet, C.-A.

    2006-05-01

    This note is a continuation of our recent paper [V. Jakšić Y. Ogata, and C.-A. Pillet, The Green-Kubo formula and Onsager reciprocity relations in quantum statistical mechanics. Commun. Math. Phys. in press.] where we have proven the Green-Kubo formula and the Onsager reciprocity relations for heat fluxes in thermally driven quantum open systems. In this note we extend the derivation of the Green-Kubo formula to heat and charge fluxes and discuss some other generalizations of the model and results of [V. Jakšić Y. Ogata and C.-A. Pillet, The Green-Kubo formula and Onsager reciprocity relations in quantum statistical mechanics. Commun. Math. Phys. in press.].

  2. Thermally-induced, geometrically nonlinear response of symmetrically laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, C. A.; Hyer, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the thermally-induced geometrically nonlinear response of symmetrically laminated composite plates. The plate response is due to a temperature increase that is uniform in the plane of the plate but has a slight gradient through the thickness. The case of a completely uniform temperature increase but with an initial out-of-plane imperfection in the plate is also considered. Because they are closely allied problems, thermal buckling and postbuckling are discussed. Using variational methods in conjunction with a Rayleigh-Ritz formulation, these responses are investigated for two laminates, a (+/- 45/0/90)s and a (+/- 45/02)s, under two different simple support conditions.

  3. Bone tissue heating and ablation by short and ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letfullin, Renat R.; Rice, Colin E. W.; George, Thomas F.

    2010-02-01

    Biological hard tissues, such as those found in bone and teeth, are complex tissues that build a strong mineral structure over an organic matrix framework. The laser-matter interaction for bone hard tissues holds great interest to laser surgery and laser dentistry; the use of short/ultrashort pulses, in particular, shows interesting behaviors not seen in continuous wave lasers. High laser energy densities in ultrashort pulses can be focused on a small irradiated surface (spot diameter is 10-50 μm) leading to rapid temperature rise and thermal ablation of the bone tissue. Ultrashort pulses, specifically those in the picosecond and femtosecond ranges, impose several challenges in modeling bone tissue response. In the present paper we perform time-dependent thermal simulations of short and ultrashort pulse laser-bone interactions in singlepulse and multipulse (set of ultrashort pulses) modes of laser heating. A comparative analysis for both radiation modes is discussed for laser heating of different types of the solid bone on the nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond time scales. It is shown that ultrashort laser pulses with high energy densities can ablate bone tissue without heating tissues bordering the ablation creator. This reaction is particularly desirable as heat accumulation and thermal damage are the main factors affecting tissue regrowth rates, and thus patient recovery times.

  4. Seasonal and latitudinal acclimatization of cardiac transcriptome responses to thermal stress in porcelain crabs, Petrolisthes cinctipes.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Tagmount, Abderrahmane

    2009-10-01

    Central predictions of climate warming models include increased climate variability and increased severity of heat waves. Physiological acclimatization in populations across large-scale ecological gradients in habitat temperature fluctuation is an important factor to consider in detecting responses to climate change related increases in thermal fluctuation. We measured in vivo cardiac thermal maxima and used microarrays to profile transcriptome heat and cold stress responses in cardiac tissue of intertidal zone porcelain crabs across biogeographic and seasonal gradients in habitat temperature fluctuation. We observed acclimatization dependent induction of heat shock proteins, as well as unknown genes with heat shock protein-like expression profiles. Thermal acclimatization had the largest effect on heat stress responses of extensin-like, beta tubulin, and unknown genes. For these genes, crabs acclimatized to thermally variable sites had higher constitutive expression than specimens from low variability sites, but heat stress dramatically induced expression in specimens from low variability sites and repressed expression in specimens from highly variable sites. Our application of ecological transcriptomics has yielded new biomarkers that may represent sensitive indicators of acclimatization to habitat temperature fluctuation. Our study also has identified novel genes whose further description may yield novel understanding of cellular responses to thermal acclimatization or thermal stress.

  5. X-ray ablation measurements and modeling for ICF applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Andrew Thomas

    1996-09-01

    X-ray ablation of material from the first wall and other components of an ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) chamber is a major threat to the laser final optics. Material condensing on these optics after a shot may cause damage with subsequent laser shots. To ensure the successful operation of the ICF facility, removal rates must be predicted accurately. The goal for this dissertation is to develop an experimentally validated x-ray response model, with particular application to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate knowledge of the x-ray and debris emissions from ICF targets is a critical first step in the process of predicting the performance of the target chamber system. A number of 1-D numerical simulations of NIF targets have been run to characterize target output in terms of energy, angular distribution, spectrum, and pulse shape. Scaling of output characteristics with variations of both target yield and hohlraum wall thickness are also described. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser on the effects of relevant x-ray fluences on various materials. The response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope instruments. Judgments were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material. Measurements of removal depths were made to provide data for the modeling. The finite difference ablation code developed here (ABLATOR) combines the thermomechanical response of materials to x-rays with models of various removal mechanisms. The former aspect refers to energy deposition in such small characteristic depths (~ micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion are significant effects on the nanosecond time scale. The material removal models use the resulting time histories of temperature and pressure-profiles, along with ancillary local conditions, to predict rates of surface vaporization and the onset of conditions that would lead to spallation.

  6. Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery Thermal Balance Testing and Heat Dissipation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be on the thermal balance testing for the Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery. The Standard Bus thermal design required that the battery be isolated from the bus itself. This required the battery to have its own thermal control, including heaters and a radiator surface. Since the battery was not ready for testing during the overall bus thermal balance testing, a separate test was conducted to verify the thermal design for the battery. This paper will discuss in detail, the test set up, test procedure, and results from this test. Additionally this paper will consider the methods taken to determine the heat dissipation of the battery during charge and discharge. It seems that the heat dissipation for Lithium Ion batteries is relatively unknown and hard to quantify. The methods used during test and the post test analysis to estimate the heat dissipation of the battery will be discussed.

  7. Thermal neutron response of a boron-coated GEM detector via GEANT4 Monte Carlo code.

    PubMed

    Jamil, M; Rhee, J T; Kim, H G; Ahmad, Farzana; Jeon, Y J

    2014-10-22

    In this work, we report the design configuration and the performance of the hybrid Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector. In order to make the detector sensitive to thermal neutrons, the forward electrode of the GEM has been coated with the enriched boron-10 material, which works as a neutron converter. A total of 5×5cm(2) configuration of GEM has been used for thermal neutron studies. The response of the detector has been estimated via using GEANT4 MC code with two different physics lists. Using the QGSP_BIC_HP physics list, the neutron detection efficiency was determined to be about 3%, while with QGSP_BERT_HP physics list the efficiency was around 2.5%, at the incident thermal neutron energies of 25meV. The higher response of the detector proves that GEM-coated with boron converter improves the efficiency for thermal neutrons detection.

  8. Skin blood flow response to locally applied mechanical and thermal stresses in the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yih-Kuen; Shen, Sa; Foreman, Robert D; Ennis, William J

    2013-09-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are one of the most common complications in diabetics, causing significant disabilities and decreasing the quality of life. Impaired microvascular reactivity contributes to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. However, underlying physiological mechanisms responsible for the impaired microvascular reactivity in response to extrinsic causative factors of foot ulcers such as mechanical and thermal stresses have not been well investigated. A total of 26 participants were recruited into this study, including 18 type 2 diabetics with peripheral neuropathy and 8 healthy controls. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure skin blood flow at the first metatarsal head in response to a mechanical stress at 300mmHg and a fast thermal stress at 42°C. Wavelet analysis of skin blood flow oscillations was used to assess metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic controls. Our results indicated that diabetics have significantly decreased metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic responses to thermal stress, especially in the neurogenic and myogenic controls during the first vasodilatory response and in the metabolic control during the second vasodilatory response. Diabetics have a significantly decreased myogenic response to mechanical stress during reactive hyperemia. Our findings demonstrate that locally applied mechanical and thermal stresses can be used to assess microvascular reactivity and risk of diabetic foot ulcers.

  9. Developing an open platform for evidence-based microwave ablation treatment planning and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshazer, Garron; Dupuy, Damian E.; Walsh, Edward; Prakash, Punit; Fairchild, Dillon; Glidden, David; Collins, Scott A.; Cook, Madeleine L.; Ryan, Thomas P.; Merck, Derek

    2015-03-01

    The clinical utility of current thermal ablation planning tools is severely limited by treatment variability. We discuss the development of an open platform for evidence-based thermal ablation treatment planning and validation. Improved predictive treatment modeling and consistent outcome analysis are crucial components for useful planning and guidance tools.

  10. Thermal Resistance Variations of Fly Ash Geopolymers: Foaming Responses

    PubMed Central

    Cheng-Yong, Heah; Yun-Ming, Liew; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the characteristic of unfoamed and foamed geopolymers after exposure to elevated temperatures (200–800 °C). Unfoamed geopolymers were produced with Class F fly ash and sodium hydroxide and liquid sodium silicate. Porous geopolymers were prepared by foaming with hydrogen peroxide. Unfoamed geopolymers possessed excellent strength of 44.2 MPa and degraded 34% to 15 MPa in foamed geopolymers. The strength of unfoamed geopolymers decreased to 5 MPa with increasing temperature up to 800 °C. Foamed geopolymers behaved differently whereby they deteriorated to 3 MPa at 400 °C and increased up to 11 MPa at 800 °C. Even so, the geopolymers could withstand high temperature without any disintegration and spalling up to 800 °C. The formation of crystalline phases at higher temperature was observed deteriorating the strength of unfoamed geopolymers but enhance the strength of foamed geopolymers. In comparison, foamed geopolymer had better thermal resistance than unfoamed geopolymers as pores provide rooms to counteract the internal damage. PMID:28345643

  11. Thermal response of ceramic components during electron beam brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Voth, T.E.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    Ceramics are being used increasingly in applications where high temperatures are encountered such as automobile and gas turbine engines. However, the use of ceramics is limited by a lack of methods capable of producing strong, high temperature joints. This is because most ceramic-ceramic joining techniques, such as brazing, require that the entire assembly be exposed to high temperatures in order to assure that the braze material melts. Alternatively, localized heating using high energy electron beams may be used to selectively heat the braze material. In this work, high energy electron beam brazing of a ceramic part is modeled numerically. The part considered consists of a ceramic cylinder and disk between which is sandwiched an annular washer of braze material. An electron beam impinges on the disk, melting the braze metal. The resulting coupled electron and thermal transport equations are solved using Monte Carlo and finite element techniques. Results indicate that increased electron beam current decreases time to melt as well as required cooling time. Vacuum furnace brazing was also simulated and predicted results indicate increased processing times relative to electron beam brazing.

  12. The transient thermal response of a tubular solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1976-01-01

    A special analytical solution is provided for the timewise response of the circulating fluid temperatures when a sudden step change of the input solar radiation is imposed and remains constant thereafter. An example which demonstrates the transient temperatures at the exit section of a single collector with two different flow patterns is presented. This study is used to supplement some numerical solutions to provide a fairly complete coverage for this type of solar collector.

  13. Thermal response in crystalline Ibeta cellulose: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Bergenstråhle, Malin; Berglund, Lars A; Mazeau, Karim

    2007-08-02

    The influence of temperature on structure and properties of the cellulose Ibeta crystal was studied by molecular dynamics simulations with the GROMOS 45a4 force-field. At 300 K, the modeled crystal agreed reasonably with several sets of experimental data, including crystal density, corresponding packing and crystal unit cell dimensions, chain conformation parameters, hydrogen bonds, Young's modulus, and thermal expansion coefficient at room temperature. At high-temperature (500 K), the cellulose chains remained in sheets, despite differences in the fine details compared to the room-temperature structure. The density decreased while the a and b cell parameters expanded by 7.4% and 6%, respectively, and the c parameter (chain axis) slightly contracted by 0.5%. Cell angles alpha and beta divided into two populations. The hydroxymethyl groups mainly adopted the gt orientation, and the hydrogen-bonding pattern thereby changed. One intrachain hydrogen bond, O2'H2'...O6, disappeared and consequently the Young's modulus decreased by 25%. A transition pathway between the low- and high-temperature structures has been proposed, with an initial step being an increased intersheet separation, which allowed every second cellulose chain to rotate around its helix axis by about 30 degrees . Second, all hydroxymethyl groups changed their orientations, from tg to gg (rotated chains) and from tg to gt (non-rotated chains). When temperature was further increased, the rotated chains returned to their original orientation and their hydroxymethyl groups again changed their conformation, from gg to gt. A transition temperature of about 450 K was suggested; however, the transition seems to be more gradual than sudden. The simulated data on temperature-induced changes in crystal unit cell dimensions and the hydrogen-bonding pattern also compared well with experimental results.

  14. Selective responses of benthic foraminifera to thermal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titelboim, Danna; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Herut, Barak; Kucera, Michal; Schmidt, Christiane; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Ovadia, Ofer; Abramovich, Sigal

    2016-04-01

    Predictions of future climate and recent observations point towards a trend of rising temperatures in the Middle East region. The temperature rise propagates into the marine environment, with shallow, coastal ecosystems being most affected. An ideal model system to study the effect of increased temperatures in coastal ecosystems is presented by benthic foraminifera. The persistent of thermohaline pollution at a site along the northern coast of Israel, attributed to a power and desalination plant, is used as a natural laboratory to evaluate the effects of rising temperature and salinity on benthic foraminifera living in shallow hard bottom habitats. Biomonitoring of the disturbed area and a control station shows that elevated temperature is a more significant stressor than salinity. The deleterious effect of extreme temperatures is indicated by a decrease in numerical abundances and reduced species richness, eventually leading to substantial changes in community composition. Critical temperature thresholds were observed at 30° C and 35° C, the latter observed by the most thermally tolerant species Pararotalia calcariformata, the only symbiont bearing species observed within the heated area. Common species of the shallow hard bottom habitats are almost absent from the most extreme site indicating that they presently live very close to their upper temperature threshold, and that excess warming will likely impede their future survival in the Eastern Mediterranean. Several of these species are either proven or suspected to be tropical Lessepsian. Thus, considering present models of expected north-western future expansion of Lessepsian species in the Mediterranean, our study show that it is important to consider excess warming as a major stressor that will limit their distribution.

  15. Observed ocean thermal response to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Patrick C.; Shay, Lynn K.; Brewster, Jodi K.; Jaimes, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The 2008 Atlantic hurricane season featured two hurricanes, Gustav and Ike, crossing the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) within a 2 week period. Over 400 airborne expendable bathythermographs (AXBTs) were deployed in a GOM field campaign before, during, and after the passage of Gustav and Ike to measure the evolving upper ocean thermal structure. AXBT and drifter deployments specifically targeted the Loop Current (LC) complex, which was undergoing an eddy-shedding event during the field campaign. Hurricane Gustav forced a 50 m deepening of the ocean mixed layer (OML), dramatically altering the prestorm ocean conditions for Hurricane Ike. Wind-forced entrainment of colder thermocline water into the OML caused sea surface temperatures to cool by over 5°C in GOM common water, but only 1-2°C in the LC complex. Ekman pumping and a near-inertial wake were identified by fluctuations in the 20°C isotherm field observed by AXBTs and drifters following Hurricane Ike. Satellite estimates of the 20° and 26°C isotherm depths and ocean heat content were derived using a two-layer model driven by sea surface height anomalies. Generally, the satellite estimates correctly characterized prestorm conditions, but the two-layer model inherently could not resolve wind-forced mixing of the OML. This study highlights the importance of a coordinated satellite and in situ measurement strategy to accurately characterize the ocean state before, during, and after hurricane passage, particularly in the case of two consecutive storms traveling through the same domain.

  16. A Ground-Nesting Galliform's Response to Thermal Heterogeneity: Implications for Ground-Dwelling Birds.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J Matthew; Davis, Craig A; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    The habitat selection choices that individuals make in response to thermal environments influence both survival and reproduction. Importantly, the way that organisms behaviorally respond to thermal environments depends on the availability and juxtaposition of sites affording tolerable or preferred microclimates. Although, ground nesting birds are especially susceptible to heat extremes across many reproductive stages (i.e., breeding, nesting, brood rearing), the mechanistic drivers of nest site selection for these species are not well established from a thermal perspective. Our goal was to assess nest site selection relative to the configuration of the thermal landscape by quantifying thermal environments available to a ground-nesting bird species inhabiting a climatically stressful environment. Using northern bobwhite (Colinus virginanus) as a model species, we measured black bulb temperature (Tbb) and vegetation parameters at 87 nests, 87 paired sites and 205 random landscape sites in Western Oklahoma during spring and summer 2013 and 2014. We found that thermal space within the study area exhibited differences in Tbb of up to 40°C during peak diurnal heating, resulting in a diverse thermal landscape available to ground-nesting birds. Within this thermally heterogeneous landscape, nest sites moderated Tbb by more than 12°C compared to random landscape sites. Furthermore, successful nests remained on average 6°C cooler than unsuccessful nests on days experiencing ambient temperatures ≥ 39°C. Models of future Tbb associated with 2080 climate change projections indicate that nesting bobwhites will face substantially greater Tbb throughout the landscape for longer durations, placing an even greater importance on thermal choices for nest sites in the future. These results highlight the capacity of landscape features to act as moderators of thermal extremes and demonstrate how thermal complexity at organism-specific scales can dictate habitat selection.

  17. Constitutive response of Rene 80 under thermal mechanical loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Cook, T. S.; Mcknight, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of a classical constitutive model for stress-strain analysis of a nickel base superalloy, Rene' 80, in the gas turbine thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) environment is examined. A variety of tests were conducted to generate basic material data and to investigate the material response under cyclic thermomechanical loading. Isothermal stress-strain data were acquired at a variety of strain rates over the TMF temperature range. Creep curves were examined at 2 temperature ranges, 871 to 982 C and 760 to 871 C. The results provide optimism on the ability of the classical constitutive model for high temperature applications.

  18. Dynamics of Laser Ablation in Superfluid ^4{He}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buelna, X.; Popov, E.; Eloranta, J.

    2017-02-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of metal targets immersed in superfluid ^4{He} is visualized by time-resolved shadowgraph photography and the products are analyzed by post-experiment atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The expansion dynamics of the gaseous ablation half-bubble on the target surface appears underdamped and follows the predicted behavior for the thermally induced bubble growth mechanism. An inherent instability of the ablation bubble appears near its maximum radius and no tightly focused cavity collapse or rebound events are observed. During the ablation bubble retreat phase, the presence of sharp edges in the target introduces flow patterns that lead to the creation of large classical vortex rings. Furthermore, on the nanometer scale, AFM data reveal that the metal nanoparticles created by laser ablation are trapped in spherical vortex tangles and quantized vortex rings present in the non-equilibrium liquid.

  19. Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of the cornea: photoacoustic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, R.; Dyer, P.E.; Braren, B.

    1987-01-01

    Wide bandwidth piezoelectric transducers made of thin (9 microns) polyvinylidene fluoride film have been used to make time-resolved measurements of the stress-wave generated by far-ultraviolet (193 nm) laser ablation in corneal tissue in vitro. At high fluence (approximately 250 mJ/cm2), ablation commences within 10 ns (+/- 5 ns) of the laser pulse and generates short acoustic impulses (approximately 30 ns). The time profile of the ablation, when coupled to the energy requirements for ablation from earlier work, allows the estimation of a temperature and a half-life for the thermal decomposition of the collagen in cornea. These values do not support a photothermal mechanism for the ablation under the experimental conditions.

  20. Pulsed Tm:YAG laser ablation of knee joint tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Qiang; Vari, Sandor G.; Duffy, J. T.; Miller, J. M.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1992-06-01

    We investigated the effect of a free-running 2.01 micron pulsed Tm:YAG laser on bovine knee joint tissues. Ablation rates of fresh fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and bone were measured in saline as a function of laser fluence (160 - 640 J/cm2) and fiber core size (400 and 600 microns). All tissues could be effectively ablated and the ablation rate increased linearly with the increasing fluence. Use of fibers of different core sizes, while maintaining constant energy fluence, did not result in significant difference in ablation rate. Histology analyses of the ablated tissue samples reveal average Tm:YAG radiation induced thermal damage (denatunalization) zones ranging between 130 and 540 microns, depending on the laser parameters and the tissue type.

  1. Electrical and thermal response of carbon nanotube composites under quasi-static and dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Christopher D.

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have attracted much interest due to their possible technical applications as conductive polymers and sensory materials. This study will consist of two major objectives: 1.) to investigate the thermal conductivity and thermal response of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites under quasi-static loading, and 2.) to investigate the electrical response of carboxyl-terminated butadiene (CTBN) rubber-reinforced MWCNT/Epoxy composites under quasi-static and dynamic loading. Similar studies have shown that the electrical conductivity of CNT/Epoxy composites dramatically increases with compressive strains up to 15%. Part 1 seeks to find out if thermal conductivity show a similar response to electrical conductivity under an applied load. Part 2 seeks to investigate how the addition of rubber affects the mechanical and electrical response of the composite subjected to quasi-static and dynamic loading. By knowing how thermal and electrical properties change under a given applied strain, we attempt to broaden the breadth of understanding of CNT/epoxy composites and inqure the microscopic interactions occurring between the two. Electrical experiments sought to investigate the electrical response of rubber-reinforced carbon nanotube epoxy composites under quasi-static and dynamic loading. Specimens were fabricated with CTBN rubber content of 10 parts per hundredth resin (phr), 20 phr, 30 phr and 0 phr for a basis comparison. Both quasi-static and dynamic mechanical response showed a consistent decrease in peak stress and Young's modulus with increasing rubber content. Trends in the electrical response between each case were clearly observed with peak resistance changes ranging from 58% to 73% and with each peak occurring at a higher value with increasing rubber content, with the exception of the rubber-free specimens. It was concluded that among the rubber-embedded specimens, the addition of rubber helped to delay micro-cracking and

  2. On-Line, Self-Learning, Predictive Tool for Determining Payload Thermal Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jen, Chian-Li; Tilwick, Leon

    2000-01-01

    This paper will present the results of a joint ManTech / Goddard R&D effort, currently under way, to develop and test a computer based, on-line, predictive simulation model for use by facility operators to predict the thermal response of a payload during thermal vacuum testing. Thermal response was identified as an area that could benefit from the algorithms developed by Dr. Jeri for complex computer simulations. Most thermal vacuum test setups are unique since no two payloads have the same thermal properties. This requires that the operators depend on their past experiences to conduct the test which requires time for them to learn how the payload responds while at the same time limiting any risk of exceeding hot or cold temperature limits. The predictive tool being developed is intended to be used with the new Thermal Vacuum Data System (TVDS) developed at Goddard for the Thermal Vacuum Test Operations group. This model can learn the thermal response of the payload by reading a few data points from the TVDS, accepting the payload's current temperature as the initial condition for prediction. The model can then be used as a predictive tool to estimate the future payload temperatures according to a predetermined shroud temperature profile. If the error of prediction is too big, the model can be asked to re-learn the new situation on-line in real-time and give a new prediction. Based on some preliminary tests, we feel this predictive model can forecast the payload temperature of the entire test cycle within 5 degrees Celsius after it has learned 3 times during the beginning of the test. The tool will allow the operator to play "what-if' experiments to decide what is his best shroud temperature set-point control strategy. This tool will save money by minimizing guess work and optimizing transitions as well as making the testing process safer and easier to conduct.

  3. Thermal response of superparamagnetic particles suspended in liquid and solid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Pengyun; Kline, Timothy L.; Wang, Jian-ping; Wiedmann, Timothy Scott

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the properties of coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNs) specifically for their use in thermal-responsive drug delivery systems. Coated, magnetite SPNs were prepared and dispersed in cyclohexane or cetyl alcohol, a solid lipid at the physiological temperatures of 37 °C. The induced temperature change as a function of SPN concentration and external magnetic field and frequency was consistent with theoretical predictions. SPNs dispersed in a solid lipid matrix underwent heating and the associated melting occurred at a temperature suitable for a thermal-responsive drug delivery system.

  4. An analysis of thermal response factors and how to reduce their computational time requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Te RESFAC2 version of the Thermal Response Factor Program (RESFAC) is the result of numerous modifications and additions to the original RESFAC. These modifications and additions have significantly reduced the program's computational time requirement. As a result of this work, the program is more efficient and its code is both readable and understandable. This report describes what a thermal response factor is; analyzes the original matrix algebra calculations and root finding techniques; presents a new root finding technique and streamlined matrix algebra; supplies ten validation cases and their results.

  5. Modeling thermally driven energetic response of high explosives in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Aro, C.; McCallen, R.C.; Neely, R.; Nichols, A.L. III; Sharp, R.

    1998-10-01

    The authors have improved their ability to model the response of energetic ma