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Sample records for ableitung von abwaessern

  1. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun with Dr. Eberhard Rees and R.W. Cook at a press conference concerning Dr. Von Braun's assignment to NASA headquarters and Dr. Rees' subsequent assignment as Marshall Center director.

  2. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun (left) and Fred W. Kelley examine a ST-100 Stellar Instrument Platform in the astrionics lab. Dr. Von Braun, then deputy associate administrator for planning, NASA, was visiting on the anniversary of the establishment of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun, stands in front of a Saturn IB Launch Vehicle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Dr. Von Braun was Marshall's first Center Director (1960-1970). Under his leadership Marshall was responsible for the development of the Saturn rockets, the Skylab project and getting the United States into Space and landing on the moon with the Apollo missions.

  4. Dr. Wernher von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Dr. von Braun is looking out from a 10th floor window of building 4200 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). He was the first Center Director and served as the Director from July 1960 through February 1970. Following World War II, Dr. von Braun and his German colleagues arrived in the United States under the Project Paperclip (American acquisition of German rocket experts) to continue their rocket development work. In 1950, von Braun and his German Rocket Team (also called the Peenemuende Team) were transferred from Ft. Bliss, Texas to Huntsville, Alabama to work for the Army's rocket program at Redstone Arsenal and later, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Under Dr. von Braun's leadership, MSFC developed the Saturn V launch vehicle, which placed the first men, two American astronauts, on the Moon. Wernher von Braun's life was dedicated to expanding man's knowledge through the exploration of space.

  5. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun (right), Deputy Associate Administrator for planning, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, inspects the mockup of the Saturn Workshop during a visit marking the 10th anniversary of the Marshall Center. Shown with Dr. Von Braun, from left to right, are Karl Heimburg, Director of the astronautics lab; Herman K. Weidner, Director of Science and Engineering, and George Hardy of the Astronautics lab.

  6. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun (right), Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, inspects the mockup of the Saturn Workshop during a visit marking the 10th anniversary of the Marshall Center. Shown with Dr. Von Braun, from left to right, are Karl Heimburg, Director of the Astronautics Lab; Herman K. Weidner, Director of Science and Engineering, and George Hardy of the Astronautics Lab.

  7. Programmierung von Werkzeugmaschinen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrberg, Rainer; Barfels, Lutz; Voss, Jürgen

    In den 1950-er Jahren wurde am Bostoner MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) die Grundlage der modernen CNC-Technik gelegt. Für die spanende Herstellung von Rotorprofilen für Hubschrauber auf Basis vorab berechneter Konturverläufe wurden erstmalig Steuerungen auf Basis diskreter elektronischer Bauelemente entwickelt. Mit der Einführung integrierter elektronischer Schaltkreise (ICs) begann diese Technologie schrittweise Einzug in die Werkzeugmaschinenindustrie zu halten. Neben der Entwicklung der Hardware wurde die Programmierung und die Entwicklung von entsprechenden Programmiersprachen ein für die Akzeptanz dieser Technologie entscheidende Größe.

  8. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A camerman catches Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, his son, Peter, and daughter, Martgrit, as they arrive at the employee picnic held to celebrate man's first landing on the moon 6 days earlier. In the foreground is David R. Newby, Director of Administration and Technical Services at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  9. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Shown viewing the Apollo telescope mockup are, from left to right, Charles Donlan, deputy associate administrator for manned space flight; Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Marshall Space Flight Center director; William Horton, astrionics lab; Dr. Thomas Paine, NASA deputy administrator; Warner Kuers, director of the ME lab.

  10. Analytik von Lebensmittelallergenen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmel, Anja; Hahn, Alexandra

    Ansonsten harmlose Lebensmittel oder deren Bestandteile können bei von Lebensmittelallergien betroffenen Personen Überempfindlichkeitsreaktionen auslösen. Hierbei kann es sich um immunvermittelte Lebensmittelallergien oder um Intoleranzen gegenüber bestimmten Lebensmittelbestandteilen handeln. Ein Beispiel für Letzteres ist die Laktoseintoleranz, welche durch einen Enzymdefekt hervorgerufen wird [1]. Im Gegensatz hierzu handelt es sich bei Lebensmittelallergien um Sofortreaktionen, die durch IgE-Antikörper gegen Antigene aus den Lebensmitteln hervorgerufen werden und zu verschiedenen körperlichen Beschwerden führen können. Bei den Antigenen, welche von den von Allergikern produzierten IgE-Antikörpern erkannt werden, handelt es sich vor allem um Proteine [2]. Symptome IgE-vermittelter Reaktionen können zum Beispiel Hautausschlag, eine Schwellung der Schleimhäute oder das sogenannte orale Allergiesyndrom mit allergischen Reaktionen an der Mundschleimhaut und im Magen-Darm-Trakt sein [3]. Die hierbei auftretenden Beschwerden reichen von einem Brennen im Mund und einer Schwellung der Lippen und der Zunge bis zu Atemnot verursachenden Schwellungen im Kehlkopfbereich. In besonders schlimmen Fällen können allergische Reaktionen zu einem anaphylaktischen Schock und zum Tod durch Kreislaufversagen führen [4]. Während klassische Nahrungsallergene häufig komplexe Reaktionen zur Folge haben, ist bei Pollen-assoziierten Nahrungsmittelallergien das orale Allergiesyndrom vorherrschend.

  11. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center director Wernher Von Braun and his family were honored with a series of events prior to his relocation to Washington, D.C. where he was assigned duties at NASA headquarters as deputy associate administrator for planning. Here he is shown with General Richard Drury and Hazel Toftoy, widow of General H.N. Toftoy.

  12. Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden: Anfallende Biomasse

  13. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, explains the purpose of a thermal curtain in the mockup of a Saturn I workshop to U.S. Representative Armistead Seldon of Alabama. The Congressman visited the Marshall Center on March 2, 1968 to tour the workshop and to visit Marshall Center facilities.

  14. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    U.S. Representative Armistead Seldon (D.-Al) inspects the food preparation area of the Saturn I workshop mockup during a visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center. Explaining the operation of the food preparation area to the congressman is Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Marshall Space Flight Center director.

  15. Dr. von Braun at 'Wernher von Braun Day' Celebration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    In 1970 Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Director Dr. Wernher von Braun (right) was reassigned to NASA Headquarters to serve as Deputy Associate Administrator for Plarning. Prior to his transfer, Dr. von Braun was honored for his career in Huntsville, Alabama, with the celebration of 'Wernher von Braun Day.' Among those participating were Alabama Governor Albert Brewer (left) and Alabama Senator John Sparkman (center). (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public library)

  16. Optimierung von Kommunikationsnetzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberspächer, Jörg; Kiese, Moritz; Wessäly, Roland

    Die weltweiten Telekommunikationsnetze (Telefon-, Mobilfunknetze, Internet) bilden heute das Nervensystem von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Durch den anhaltenden technologischen Fortschritt in der Elektronik, der Computer- und Kommunikationstechnik steigt nicht nur die Zahl der Teilnehmer in den Netzen ständig, sondern es entstehen auch laufend neue Anwendungen, wie Radio und Fernsehen im Internet, elektronischer Handel und interaktive Spiele im Internet. Auf den Kupfer- und Glasfaserkabeln sowie den Funkstrecken werden gigantische Informationsmengen transportiert. Das Verkehrs-wachstum ist nach wie vor exponentiell.

  17. Theodore von Karman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Dr. Theodore von Karman, co-founder of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Pasadena, California was an aeronautical theoretician. His contributions in the fields of aerodynamics and aeronautical engineering are well documented and well known to every aerospace engineer. He was the first winner of the prestigious U.S. Medal of Science presented to him by President John F. Kennedy. As well as being co-founder of JPL, he also was principal founder of a major rocket propulsion firm (Aerojet-General Corp.), the top science advisor to the U.S. Air Force during its transition to jet propulsion aircraft and the top science advisor to NATO. He was, during much of this time, the fountainhead of aerodynamic thought as head of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT) in Pasadena, California. In the May 1956 issue of the Journal of Aeronautical Sciences, it was said of him that 'No other man has had so great an impact on the development of aeronautical science in this country. Hundreds of young men became his students and scientific collaborators and were inspired to greater effort.' Dr. William H. Pickering, then director of JPL said in 1960 'We wouldn't have an aeronautical science as we know it today, if it weren't for Dr. Thoedore von Karman.' Under his guidance, Caltech's 10 foot wind tunnel was designed, built and operated. Industry firms such as Douglas, Northrop, Hughes, Lockheed, North American, Vultee and Consolidated all tested new aeronautical designs and concepts in GALCIT's tunnel. Even Boeing's own high-speed wind tunnel was heavily influenced by suggestions from von Karman. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) became so concerned about GALCIT's growing influence over West coast aviation, it erected the Ames Laboratory in Sunnyvale, California in part to deter an ever widening aeronautical gap that had formed between NACA and GALCIT. From 1936 to 1940, Caltech stood alone as the only university

  18. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Thomas Paine, Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, examines an ordinary man's shoe outfitted for use in the Saturn I workshop. Pictured from the left in the Saturn I workshop mockup are William Brooksbank, propulsion and vehicle engineering laboratory; Dr. Paine; Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Marshall Center director; Colonel Clare F. Farley, Executive Officer in the Office Of The Administrator; and Charles J. Donlan, Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, Technical. the shoe Dr. Paine is holding has a unique fastener built into the sole to allow an astronaut to move about on the workshop floor and to remain in one position if he desires.

  19. Wolfgang von Ohnesorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Gareth H.; Renardy, Michael

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript got started when one of us (G.H.M.) presented a lecture at the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications at the University of Minnesota. The presentation included a photograph of Rayleigh and made frequent mention of the Ohnesorge number. When the other of us (M.R.) enquired about a picture of Ohnesorge, we found out that none were readily available on the web. Indeed, little about Ohnesorge is available from easily accessible public sources. A good part of the reason is certainly that, unlike other "numbermen" of fluid mechanics, Ohnesorge did not pursue an academic career. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap and shed some light on the life of Wolfgang von Ohnesorge. We shall discuss the highlights of his biography, his scientific contributions, their physical significance, and their impact today.

  20. Von Hippel-Lindau Disease.

    PubMed

    Findeis-Hosey, Jennifer J; McMahon, Kelly Q; Findeis, Sarah K

    2016-06-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease is an autosomal dominant syndrome which occurs secondary to germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene, located on chromosome 3. Clinically von Hippel-Lindau disease is characterized by an increased risk of developing simple visceral cysts, most commonly in the pancreas and kidneys, in addition to an increased risk of developing neoplasms, often with clear cell features, in a multitude of organ systems. The most common neoplasms are cerebellar and retinal hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, clear cell renal cell carcinomas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, pancreatic serous cystadenomas, and endolymphatic sac tumors. These lesions most commonly present during adulthood; however, screening and surveillance for the development of these lesions should begin in the pediatric years for patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. In this review article, the genetics and most common neoplasms of von Hippel-Lindau disease are reviewed, with an eye towards implications for the pediatric patient. PMID:27617152

  1. Pregnancy and von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Farber, M; Knuppel, R A; Binkiewicz, A; Kennison, R D

    1976-02-01

    A detailed description of the course of pregnancy in a patient with von Gierke's disease is presented. Careful dietary control together with proper management of the hematologic complications of the disease led to a successful outcome. PMID:1061911

  2. von Braun and German Publisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Guenter Ogger of Capitol Magazine, West Germany, greets Marshall Space Flight Center Director, Dr. Wernher von Braun. Mr. Ogger interviewed the famous rocket scientist for his magazine.

  3. Von Karman and JATO Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    Dr. Theodore von Karman (black coat) sketches out a plan on the wing of an airplane as his JATO engineering team looks on. From left to right: Dr. Clark B. Millikan, Dr.Martin Summerfield, Dr. Theodore von Karman, Dr. Frank J. Malina and pilot, Capt. Homer Boushey. Captain Boushey would become the first American to pilot an airplane that used JATO (Jet Assisted Take-Off) solid propellent rockets.

  4. Richard von Volkmann

    PubMed Central

    Willy, Christian; Schneider, Peter; Engelhardt, Michael; Hargens, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Richard von Volkmann (1830–1889), one of the most important surgeons of the 19th century, is regarded as one of the fathers of orthopaedic surgery. He was a contemporary of Langenbeck, Esmarch, Lister, Billroth, Kocher, and Trendelenburg. He was head of the Department of Surgery at the University of Halle, Germany (1867–1889). His popularity attracted doctors and patients from all over the world. He was the lead physician for the German military during two wars. From this experience, he compared the mortality of civilian and war injuries and investigated the general poor hygienic conditions in civilian hospitals. This led him to introduce the “antiseptic technique” to Germany that was developed by Lister. His powers of observation and creativity led him to findings and achievements that to this day bear his name: Volkmann’s contracture and the Hueter-Volkmann law. Additionally, he was a gifted writer; he published not only scientific literature but also books of children’s fairy tales and poems under the pen name of Richard Leander, assuring him a permanent place in the world of literature as well as orthopaedics. PMID:18196438

  5. von Willebrand Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Type 2A or Type 2B. People with Type 3 (and some with Type 2A and 2B) will need treatment with Humate-P, an intravenous medication derived from human plasma that contains factor VIII and von Willebrand factor. ...

  6. Dr. von Braun Briefing Walt Disney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. von Braun began his association with Walt Disney in the 1950s when the rocket scientist appeared in three Disney television productions related to the exploration of space. Years later, Dr. von Braun invited Disney and his associates to tour the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. This photograph is dated April 13, 1965. From left are R.J. Schwinghamer from the MSFC, Disney, B.J. Bernight, and Dr. von Braun.

  7. Reflexionseigenschaften von Windenergieanlagen im Funkfeld von Funknavigations- und Radarsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, S.; Divanbeigi, S.; Garbe, H.

    2015-11-01

    Die hier behandelte Untersuchung befasst sich mit den Störungen des elektrischen Feldes einer Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range Navigationsanlage (DVOR) in der Gegenwart von Windenergieanlagen (WEA). Hierfür wird die Feldstärke auf 25 konzentrischen Kreisbahnen, sog. Orbit Flights verschiedener Höhen und mit verschiedenen Radien rund um die DVOR-Anlage numerisch simuliert. Insbesondere werden die Einflüsse diverser Parameter der WEA wie deren Anzahl, Position, Rotorwinkel, Turmhöhe und Rotordurchmesser auf die Feldverteilung herausgestellt, sowie die Anwendbarkeit der Simulationsmethode Physical Optics (PO) durch Vergleich der Simulationsergebnisse mit denen der Multi Level Fast Multipol Method (MLFMM) untersucht.

  8. Dr. Wernher Von Braun greeting dignitaries.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun, left, greets vice president Spiro T. Agnew in the Launch Control Center for the Apollo 14 mission. Between Dr. Von Braun and Mr. Agnew are their Royal Highnesses, The Prince and Princess of Spain. The royal visitors greeted the launch control team in th enter after the launch of Apollo 14.

  9. Dr. Wernher Von Braun at a picnic.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun, director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, stakes claim to a table for the picnic celebrating man's first lunar landing. With Dr. Von Braun are his wife, Maria (seated, right), and son, Peter (back to camera). His daughter, Margrit, was also present, but is hidden from view by friends in this view.

  10. Walt Disney and Dr. Wernher von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    Dr. Werhner von Braun, then Chief, Guided Missile Development Operation Division at Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, was visited by Walt Disney in 1954. In the 1950's, von Braun worked with Disney Studio as a technical director, making three films about space exploration for television. A model of the V-2 rocket is in background.

  11. Ludwig von Mises: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David

    A 117-item annotated bibliography of books, articles, essays, lectures, and reviews by economist Ludwig von Mises is presented. The bibliography is arranged chronologicaly, and is followed by an alphabetical listing of the citations, excluding books. An index and information on the Ludwig von Mises Institute at Auburn University (Alabama) are…

  12. Dr. Wernher von Braun Laid to Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun served as Marshall Space Flight Center's first director from July 1, 1960 until January 27, 1970, when he was appointed NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning. Following World War II, Dr. von Braun and his German colleagues arrived in the United States under Project Paper Clip to continue their rocket development work. In 1950, von Braun and his rocket team were transferred from Ft. Bliss, Texas to Huntsville, Alabama to work for the Army's rocket program at Redstone Arsenal and later, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Under von Braun's leadership, Marshall developed the Saturn V launch vehicle which took Apollo astronauts to the moon. Dr. von Braun died in Alexandria, Va., on June 16, 1977, seven years after his NASA appointment. This photo was taken at the site where he was laid to rest.

  13. Dr. Wernher von Braun In His Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun served as Marshall Space Flight Center's first director from July 1, 1960 until January 27, 1970, when he was appointed NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning. Following World War II, Dr. von Braun and his German colleagues arrived in the United States under Project Paperclip to continue their rocket development work. In 1950, von Braun and his rocket team were transferred from Ft. Bliss, Texas to Huntsville, Alabama to work for the Army's rocket program at Redstone Arsenal and later, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Under von Braun's leadership, Marshall developed the Saturn V launch vehicle which took Apollo astronauts to the moon. This photo depicts von Braun in his office at MSFC.

  14. [Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reich, H; Hollwich, F

    1984-06-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition that comprises, apart from angiomas of the retina, the cerebellum, the spinal cord, and the cerebrum, also cystic and blastomatous dysplasias resulting from maldevelopment, namely cystic kidney and pancreas, hypernephroma, and pheochromocytoma. Early observers of the syndrome were the English neurologist John Hughlings Jackson (1872) and the German ophthalmologist Hugo Magnus (1874). The typical association of angiomas of the retina with the cerebellum was first described in 1905 by the Prague ophthalmologist Wilhelm Czermak, long before Lindau (1926). The fact that hypernephromas and pheochromocytomas may form parts of it characterizes the syndrome as a polyneoplastic hereditary disease and the sufferers as members of families at risk. Since the ophthalmologist is often the first to recognize this disease by direct inspection of the fundi, he is responsible for ensuring proper medical care for the affected person and his or her entire family.

  15. Renaturierung und Management von Heiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; van Diggelen, Rudy; von Oheimb, Goddert

    Heiden zählen zu den ältesten und besonders reizvollen Kulturlandschaften Nordwesteuropas. Sie sind bezeichnend für nährstoffarme Böden in wintermilden Gebieten mit hohen Sommerniederschlägen. Während Heiden vor wenigen Jahrhunderten noch weit verbreitet und für manche Landschaften sogar prägend waren, hat sich ihr Areal heute auf wenige, meist in Naturschutzgebieten gelegene Restbestände verkleinert. Zu diesem Rückgang haben maßgeblich Änderungen der Landnutzung, aber auch Nährstoffeinträge aus umgebenden Agrarflächen und atmogene Depositionen beigetragen. In den meisten Ländern der Europäischen Union sind Heiden heute gesetzlich geschützte Ökosysteme, da diese, neben ihrem Erholungswert für den Menschen, Pflanzen- und Tierarten beherbergen, die außerhalb von Heiden nicht oder kaum überlebensfähig sind.

  16. Wally Schirra Greets Dr. Wernher von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 7 Commander Walter M. Schirra, Jr., left, greets Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Director, Marshall Space Flight Center and Dr. Kurt Debus, Right, KSC Director, during a prelaunch mission briefing held at the Florida Spaceport.

  17. Von Hippel-Lindau Disease (VHL)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Von Hippel-Lindau ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  18. Dr. von Braun With German Rocket Experimenters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Dr. von Braun was among a famous group of rocket experimenters in Germany in the 1930s. This photograph is believed to be made on the occasion of Herman Oberth's Kegelduese liquid rocket engine being certified as to performance during firing. From left to right are R. Nebel, Dr. Ritter, Mr. Baermueller, Kurt Heinish, Herman Oberth, Klaus Riedel, Wernher von Braun, and an unidentified person.

  19. Renaturierung von Tagebaufolgeflächen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischew, Sabine

    Der Abbau von Rohstoffen im Tagebauverfahren bedingt einen tief greifenden Landschafts- und Strukturwandel in den betroffenen Regionen. In der Abbauphase hat vor allem der Braunkohleabbau mit den tagebauübergreifenden Grundwasserabsenkungstrichtern, der Zerstörung oder Beeinträchtigung von ausgedehnten naturnahen Auenökosystemen sowie Wäldern und Elementen der Kulturlandschaft aus der Sicht des Naturschutzes überwiegend negative landschaftsökologische Folgen. Vor allem der Eingriff in Ökosysteme mit langen Entwicklungszeiten (alte Wälder, Moore) oder in die Dynamik von Auensystemen ist nicht oder nur in sehr langen Zeiträumen wieder ausgleichbar. Für letztere ist auch langfristig die Durchgängigkeit für viele Tierarten (Arten der Fließgewässer) nicht wieder vollständig herstellbar. Oft ist es zudem schwierig, traditionelle Landnutzungen (z. B. Wanderschäferei, Nutzung von Streuobstwiesen) nach der langen Abbauphase wieder aufzugreifen. Es ist deshalb eine wichtige Aufgabe, nach dem Abbauprozess auf der Grundlage der vorhandenen Potenziale eine nachhaltige Entwicklung der Bergbaufolgelandschaft zu unterstützen und von den Betreibern des Abbaus und von den Sanierungsgesellschaften auch einzufordern (z. B. Bauer 1998).

  20. Dr. Wernher Von Braun with Dr. Christian Barnard.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Christian Barnard Tours Marshall Space Flight Center. Shown in Dr. Von Braun's office are (left to right): Dr. Ernst Sthulinger, a representative from General Electric, Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Dr. Christian Barnard, and Dr. Eberhard Rees.

  1. von Braun 1952 Space Station Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1952-01-01

    This is a von Braun 1952 space station concept. In a 1952 series of articles written in Collier's, Dr. Wernher von Braun, then Technical Director of the Army Ordnance Guided Missiles Development Group at Redstone Arsenal, wrote of a large wheel-like space station in a 1,075-mile orbit. This station, made of flexible nylon, would be carried into space by a fully reusable three-stage launch vehicle. Once in space, the station's collapsible nylon body would be inflated much like an automobile tire. The 250-foot-wide wheel would rotate to provide artificial gravity, an important consideration at the time because little was known about the effects of prolonged zero-gravity on humans. Von Braun's wheel was slated for a number of important missions: a way station for space exploration, a meteorological observatory and a navigation aid. This concept was illustrated by artist Chesley Bonestell.

  2. Dr. Wernher Von Braun talkes with George Hardy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    George Hardy of the Marshall Space Flight center's Astronautics Laboratory, talks with Dr. Wernher Von Braun (right), deputy associate administrator for planning. Dr. Von Braun was inspecting the mockup of the Saturn workshop during a visit to the Marshall Center. The visit coincided with the 10th anniversary celebration of the center of which Dr. Von Braun was director until March 1, 1970.

  3. Bewertung von Fahrzeuggeräuschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Fiebig, André; Haverkamp, Michael

    Bei der Wahrnehmung und Beurteilung eines Automobils sind unzählige Merkmale und Eigenschaften von Bedeutung. Dabei können Merkmale objektiv-technisch beschrieben werden, wie Angaben zur Motorisierung, Höchstgeschwindigkeit, Drehmoment, zulässige Zuladung, Verbrauch usw. Daneben sind weitere Eigenschaften von Bedeutung, die sich einer einfachen objektiv-technischen Beschreibung entziehen. Hier sind Begriffe zu nennen, wie Sicherheit, allgemeine Qualitätsanmutung, Design, Ergonomie, Komfort, Haptik, Fahrdynamik, Zuverlässigkeit, die deutlich schwieriger objektiv erfassbar und beschreibbar sind (Abb. 4.1).

  4. Chest wall angiolipoma complicating von Recklinghausen disease.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Teruya; Takahashi, Koji; Fujinaga, Takuji

    2013-09-01

    We present the case of an 18-year-old man with chest wall angiolipoma and a medical history of von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. The chest wall tumor was originally detected during an evaluation for chest pain. For diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, video-assisted thoracoscopic resection was performed, and the tumor was histopathologically confirmed to be an angiolipoma. Chest wall angiolipoma is exceptionally rare. Only two cases have been reported in the English literature, with no reports regarding chest wall angiolipoma in a patient with von Recklinghausen disease.

  5. Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung von Satellitengalaxien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Björn

    2002-01-01

    Gleichgewichtsmodelle ein- und zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien werden erzeugt und die Gezeiteneinwirkungen der als starres äußeres Potential angenommenen Milchstraße auf sie betrachtet. Eine erste Reihe von Simulationen mit anfänglich kugelsymmetrischen einkomponentigen Satelliten zeigt, daß sich nach elliptischer Deformation ein Balken und Schweife ungleicher Länge ausbilden, deren Aussehen sich periodisch ändert. Mithilfe von Vergleichssimulationen wurden folgende Phänomene am Satelliten entdeckt: (1) Hochdichtebereiche in den Schweifen, (2) Niedrigdichtebereiche um den Kern bzw. Balken und (3) ein oft verdeckter Balken. Analysiert wird das Erscheinungsbild in Zeitabhängigkeit. Die Teilchen gehen dem Kern über den Balken verloren und bewegen sich entlang gewisser stets gleich aussehender charakteristischer Strukturen in die Schweife. Nach einer Herleitung allgemeiner Größen des mehrkomponentigen Kingprofils werden drei stabile Standardmodelle zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien mit Massenverhältnis 1:10 (baryonische zu dunkle Materie) und unterschiedlicher Verteilung der dunklen und sichtbaren Materie gefunden. Ohne die Allgemeinheit der Ergebnisse zu beeinträchtigen, wurde dabei die Große Magellanische Wolke als Grundlage der Modelle genommen. Nach geeigneter Wahl der Bahn, zu der der Gezeitenradius des verwendeten dreikomponentigen Milchstraßenpotentials sowohl analytisch als auch numerisch berechnet wird, werden Simulationen der Modelle analysiert. Hauptaugenmerk ist das unterschiedliche Verhalten der Komponenten. Hauptergebnisse: (1) Es ist möglich, große Anteile dunkler, jedoch nur geringe sichtbarer Materie abzulösen. Dunkle und sichtbare Materie können unterschiedliche morphologische Strukturen bilden. (2) Je nach Konzentration der Komponenten ist die Eigengravitation der Teilchen mehr oder weniger für das Aussehen bestimmend. (3) Die Kernauflösung des Satelliten findet im Perigalaktikum (PG), sein Zerfall aber erst im

  6. Alexander von Humboldt: a revolutionary explorer.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    After he returned from his five-year expedition to the New World, Alexander von Humboldt promoted himself as a Romantic explorer. Although this image pervades British perceptions, political movements have fashioned different heroic versions of Humboldt in Germany and South America.

  7. Dr. von Braun Visits Huntsville Boys Club

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Dr. von Braun, Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and chairman of this year's United Givers Fund (UGF) drive at MSFC, takes time out from the problems of sending a man to the Moon to talk baseball with 11-year-old Randy Smith at the Huntsville Boys Club.

  8. Dr. Wernher Von Braun presents a certificate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun (left), director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, presents a humorous certificate to Major General Charles W. Eifler, commanding general of Redstone Arsenal, at the close of a farewell luncheon for the general prior to General Eifler moving to a new European duty station.

  9. Dr. von Braun Discusses 'Bottle Suit' Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun (center), then Chief of the Guided Missile Development Division at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, discusses a 'bottle suit' model with Dr. Heinz Haber (left), an expert on aviation medicine, and Willey Ley, a science writer on rocketry and space exploration. The three men were at the Disney studios appearing in the motion picture, entitled 'Man in Space.'

  10. Von Gierke's disease: report of case.

    PubMed

    Cudzinowski, L

    1979-01-01

    Von Gierke's disease, or hepatorenal glycogenesis, type I, presents an interesting challenge to the dental practitioner. Showing an incidence of 1/400,000, it is a fairly rare occurrence. It indicates the importance of proper medical consultation in treating these children, and proper dental treatment and preventive programs to alleviate what could be dangerous for these patients. PMID:289662

  11. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  12. A note on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras

    PubMed Central

    Kadison, Richard V.; Liu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A Murray–von Neumann algebra is the algebra of operators affiliated with a finite von Neumann algebra. In this article, we first present a brief introduction to the theory of derivations of operator algebras from both the physical and mathematical points of view. We then describe our recent work on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras. We show that the “extended derivations” of a Murray–von Neumann algebra, those that map the associated finite von Neumann algebra into itself, are inner. In particular, we prove that the only derivation that maps a Murray–von Neumann algebra associated with a factor of type II1 into that factor is 0. Those results are extensions of Singer’s seminal result answering a question of Kaplansky, as applied to von Neumann algebras: The algebra may be noncommutative and may even contain unbounded elements. PMID:24469831

  13. From the classical to the generalized von Karman and Marguerre-von Karman equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarlet, Philippe G.; Gratie, Liliana

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we describe and analyze two models that were recently proposed for modeling generalized von Karman plates and generalized Marguerre-von Karman shallow shells.First, we briefly review the "classical" von Karman and Marguerre-von Karman equations, their physical meaning, and their mathematical justification. We then consider the more general situation where only a portion of the lateral face of a nonlinearly elastic plate or shallow shell is subjected to boundary conditions of von Karman type, while the remaining portion is free. Using techniques from formal asymptotic analysis, we obtain in each case a two-dimensional boundary value problem that is analogous to, but is more general than, the classical equations.In particular, it is remarkable that the boundary conditions for the Airy function can still be determined on the entire boundary of the nonlinearly elastic plate or shallow shell solely from the data.Following recent joint works, we then reduce these more general equations to a single "cubic" operator equation, which generalizes an equation introduced by Berger and Fife, and whose sole unknown is the vertical displacement of the shell. We next adapt an elegant compactness method due to Lions for establishing the existence of a solution to this operator equation.

  14. Inattentional blindness and the von Restorff effect.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2015-02-01

    Sometimes we fail to notice distinctive or unusual items (inattentional blindness), while other times we remember distinctive items more than expected items (the von Restorff effect). A three-factor framework is presented and tested in two experiments in an attempt to reconcile these seemingly contradictory phenomena. Memory for different types of unexpected stimuli was tested after an easy or difficult Stroop color-naming task. Highly arousing taboo words were well remembered even when the difficult Stroop task limited attentional resources. However, a conceptual isolation effect was only observed when the nature of the category change was highlighted by the Stroop task, the Stroop task was easy, and/or the isolated targets enjoyed a retrieval advantage relative to comparison targets. As proposed in the three-factor framework, the arousing qualities of the stimuli, the attentional demands of the primary task, and the relevance of isolated features at encoding and retrieval combine to produce inattentional blindness and the von Restorff effect.

  15. Epithelial cells and Von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Negishi, H; Benke, P J

    1977-08-01

    Epithelial cells and not fibroblasts from human liver and amniotic fluid contain inducible glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity. The diagnosis of Von Gierke's disease has been made in a patient with hepatomegaly utilizing cultured epithelial cells grown from a liver biopsy. G-6-Pase activity in epithelial cells from this patient could not be induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline. This is the first use of epithelial cells for diagnosis of a metabolic disease. G-6-Pase activity in cloned epithelial cells from amniotic fluid increases 2- to 3-fold after 24-hr exposure to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline. The prenatal diagnosis of Von Gierke's disease may be possible in a laboratory experienced with these techniques if epithelial cell growth is obtained from amniotic fluid. PMID:196249

  16. The von Nardroff Color Mixing Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2005-12-01

    Ernest von Nardroff gave his name to the color mixing apparatus shown in Fig. 1. The basic idea behind this demonstration is to produce three beams of colored light that may be projected onto a white surface. If beams of red, blue, and green are overlapped to produce a figure like a three leaf clover or a Venn diagram, the region of complete overlap will appear white, and the three regions of overlap of two colors produce the three false primaries: yellow, magenta, and cyan. A straightforward technique is to use three slide projectors, each with a colored filter. Von Nardroff's apparatus, displayed at the educational exhibit of Erasmus Hall High School at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis in 1904, permits the use of only one projector.

  17. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  18. Portrait of Dr. Von Braun with Walt Disney, 1954.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    Marshall Center Director Dr. Wernher Von Braun is pictured with Walt Disney during a visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center in 1954. In the 1950s, Dr. Von Braun while working in California on the Saturn project, also worked with Disney studios as a technical director in making three films about Space Exploration for television. Disney's tour of Marshall in 1965 was Von Braun's hope for a renewed public interest in the future of the Space Program at NASA.

  19. Victor or Villain? Wernher von Braun and the Space Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Jason L.; Sears, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    Set during the Cold War and space race, this historical role-play focuses on Wernher von Braun's involvement in and culpability for the use of slave laborers to produce V-2 rockets for Nazi Germany. Students will grapple with two central questions. Should von Braun have been allowed to emigrate to the United States given his affiliation with the…

  20. Group Theoretical Interpretation of von Neumann's Theorem on Composite Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergia, S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Shows that von Neumann's mathematical theorem on composite systems acquires a transparent physical meaning with reference to a suitable physical example; a composite system in a state of definite angular momentum. Gives an outline of the theorem, and the results are restated in Dirac's notation, thus generalizing von Neumann's results which were…

  1. DEBUS, KURT H. AND WERNHER VON BRAUN IN SATURN BLOCKHOUSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Cape Kennedy - Dr. Wernher von Braun, director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center, points to a television screen in the Saturn blockhouse. The screen showed Saturn I vehicle, carrying Pegasus satellite into orbit, during launch. Dr. Kurt Debus, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center, is seated at Dr. von Braun's right.

  2. Key contributors: Ernst von Glasersfeld's radical constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2007-07-01

    This article reviews the significance of the contributions of Ernst von Glasersfeld to research in science education, especially through his theoretical contributions on radical constructivism. As a field shaper, Glasersfeld's subversive ideas catalyzed debate in the science education community and fuelled transformation of many facets including research methods, ways of thinking about teaching and learning, curriculum, and science teacher education. Perturbations emanating from the debates on constructivism forged new pathways that led to the development and use of many of the sociocultural frameworks employed by authors in Cultural Studies of Science Education.

  3. Approximating incompatible von Neumann measurements simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Jivulescu, Maria Anastasia; Reitzner, Daniel; Ziman, Mario

    2010-09-15

    We study the problem of performing orthogonal qubit measurements simultaneously. Since these measurements are incompatible, one has to accept additional imprecision. An optimal joint measurement is the one with the least possible imprecision. All earlier considerations of this problem have concerned only joint measurability of observables, while in this work we also take into account conditional state transformations (i.e., instruments). We characterize the optimal joint instrument for two orthogonal von Neumann instruments as being the Lueders instrument of the optimal joint observable.

  4. Renaturierung von Waldökosystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbe, Stefan

    Wälder sind neben der Landwirtschaft und den urban-industriellen Siedlungsflächen flächenmäßig die Hauptnutzungstypen in Mitteleuropa und stellen heute multifunktionale ökosysteme dar. Zusätzlich zur Holzproduktion kommt ihnen eine Regulations-(z.B.Wasserhaushalt), Schutz (z.B. von Biodiversität und gegen Erosion, Lawinen, Immissionen und Lärm) und Erholungsfunktion zu. Zudem haben Wälder als Kohlenstoffsenken auch eine besondere Bedeutung für den Klimaschutz.

  5. Wernher von Braun and Saturn IB on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun stands in front of a Saturn IB launch vehicle at Kennedy Space Flight Center. Dr. von Braun led a team of German rocket scientists, called the Rocket Team, to the United States, first to Fort Bliss/White Sands, later being transferred to the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. They were further transferred to the newly established NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama in 1960, and Dr. von Braun became the first Center Director. Under von Braun's direction, MSFC developed the Mercury-Redstone, which put the first American in space; and later the Saturn rockets, Saturn I, Saturn IB, and Saturn V. The Saturn V launch vehicle put the first human on the surface of the Moon, and a modified Saturn V vehicle placed Skylab, the first United States' experimental space station, into Earth orbit. Dr. von Braun was MSFC Director from July 1960 to February 1970.

  6. Report on von Willebrand Disease in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Saad, Arman Zaharil Mat; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Karim, Faraizah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is an inherited hemostatic disorder that affects the hemostasis pathway. The worldwide prevalence of vWD is estimated to be 1% of the general population but only 0.002% in Malaysia. AIM: Our present paper has been written to disclose the statistical counts on the number of vWD cases reported from 2011 to 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article is based on sociodemographic data, diagnoses and laboratory findings of vWD in Malaysia. A total of 92 patients were reported to have vWD in Malaysia from 2011 to 2013. RESULTS: Sociodemographic-analysis revealed that 60% were females, 63% were of the Malay ethnicity, 41.3% were in the 19-44 year old age group and 15.2% were from Sabah, with the East region having the highest registered number of vWD cases. In Malaysia, most patients are predominately affected by vWD type 1 (77.2%). Factor 8, von Willebrand factor: Antigen and vWF: Collagen-Binding was the strongest determinants in the laboratory profiles of vWD. CONCLUSION: This report has been done with great interest to provide an immense contribution from Malaysia, by revealing the statistical counts on vWD from 2011-2013. PMID:27275342

  7. Quantenphysik Interferometrie von C70-Molekülen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Thomas

    2002-05-01

    Interferenzversuche mit Neutronen und schweren Atomen stellen kein großes Problem mehr dar, selbst die Welleneigenschaften von C60-und C70-Molekülen wurden bereits nachgewiesen. Allerdings stößt man bei der Realisation immer feinerer Gitter mit Gitterkonstanten von etwa 100 nm im Fall dieser Moleküle auf technische Probleme. Wissenschaftlern der Universität Wien ist es jüngst gelungen, ein so genanntes Talbot-Lau-Interferometer zu realisieren und die Welleneigenschaften von C70 mit einer bislang unerreichten Qualität nachzuweisen [1].

  8. Von Neumann's growth model: Statistical mechanics and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martino, A.; Marinari, E.; Romualdi, A.

    2012-09-01

    We review recent work on the statistical mechanics of Von Neumann's growth model and discuss its application to cellular metabolic networks. In this context, we present a detailed analysis of the physiological scenario underlying optimality à la Von Neumann in the metabolism of the bacterium E. coli, showing that optimal solutions are characterized by a considerable microscopic flexibility accompanied by a robust emergent picture for the key physiological functions. This suggests that the ideas behind optimal economic growth in Von Neumann's model can be helpful in uncovering functional organization principles of cell energetics.

  9. A von Bertalanffy growth model with a seasonally varying coefficient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.; Nichols, Frederic H.

    1978-01-01

    The von Bertalanffy model of body growth is inappropriate for organisms whose growth is restricted to a seasonal period because it assumes that growth rate is invariant with time. Incorporation of a time-varying coefficient significantly improves the capability of the von Bertalanffy equation to describe changing body size of both the bivalve mollusc Macoma balthicain San Francisco Bay and the flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon, in Washington state. This simple modification of the von Bertalanffy model should offer improved predictions of body growth for a variety of other aquatic animals.

  10. Hermann von Helmholtz and the empiricist vision.

    PubMed

    Turner, R S

    1977-01-01

    The philosophical convictions of Hermann von Helmholtz and the empiricist psychology he developed have been extensively discussed in historical literature. This literature has not usually emphasized the tacti assumptions about human physiology that underlaid these convictions nor the way in which Helmholtz's epistemology served as a methodological directive in his research. Helmholtz assumed nerve transmission between sense organs and the mind to be a passive process. Distortion in stimulus patterns occurs physically in the sense organs, which can therefore be treated through mechanical analogies. Stimuli become converted to the perceptions of consciousness through mental processes that are essentially analogous to conscious, inductive inference and that are therefore susceptible, in principle, to introspective investigation. This view of mental function reflected Helmholtz's intellectual debt to German idealism, especially to the philosophical views of J.G. Fichte.

  11. Hermann von Helmholtz and his students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Joseph F.

    1989-01-01

    During the years 1871-1888, when Hermann von Helmholtz was professor of physics at the University of Berlin, physicists from all over the world flocked to Berlin to study and do research with him. Among these were the German physicists Max Planck, Heinrich Kayser, Eugen Goldstein, Wilhelm Wien, and Heinrich Hertz, and Americans Henry Rowland, A. A. Michelson, and Michael Pupin. Examples of Helmholtz's scientific and personal interactions with these students and research associates show why he is justly considered the outstanding physics mentor of the 19th century. Both his ideas and his students played a major role in the development of physics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  12. Director von Braun Presents General Medaris With Golf Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center Director Wernher von Braun presents General J.B. Medaris with a new golf bag. General Medaris, (left) was a Commander of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama during 1955 to 1958.

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July 1965 BARRACKS (West), Left - BARRACKS (East), Right (Combined into New Barn) - Fort Larned, Barracks (West), Larned, Pawnee County, KS

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July 1965 BARRACKS (West), Left - BARRACKS (East), Right (Combined into New Barn) - Fort Larned, Barracks (East), Larned, Pawnee County, KS

  15. A proof of von Neumann's postulate in Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Conte, Elio

    2010-05-04

    A Clifford algebraic analysis is explained. It gives proof of von Neumann's postulate on quantum measurement. It is of basic significance to explain the problem of quantum wave function reduction in quantum mechanics.

  16. 33. HISTORIC VIEW OF WERNHER VON BRAUN LOOKS THROUGH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC VIEW OF WERNHER VON BRAUN LOOKS THROUGH THE PERISCOPE FROM THE CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND NO. 1, PEENEMUENDE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Dr. Wernher Von Braun examines a ruby crystal.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun (right), director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, and Dr. Eberhard Rees (left), deputy director, technical, examine a ruby crystal used in laser experiments in the Marshall Center's Space Sciences Laboratory.

  18. Computed tomography of the liver in von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Biondetti, P R; Fiore, D; Muzzio, P C

    1980-10-01

    The computed tomography findings in the liver of a patient with von Gierke's disease are presented. Precontrast scans demonstrated diffuse decreased density throughout the liver. In the postcontrast scans, a focal right sided hyperdense area was visualized. PMID:6931833

  19. Dr. von Braun Escorts President Kennedy and Vice President Johnson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center Director Dr. Wernher von Braun explains a detail from a Saturn IB mockup and engine to President John F. Kennedy, Vice President Lyndon Johnson and other guests, September 11, 1962.

  20. Wernher von Braun with German Officers and Others

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1942-01-01

    General Erich Fellgiebel, head of the German Army Information Service during World War II, congratulates members of the von Braun rocket team from Peenemunde for their October 3, 1942 A4 flight. Pictured front center is General Erich Fellgiebel. Shaking hands are General Walter Dornberger (left) and General Janssen, commanding officer of Peenemuende with Rudolph Hermarn to their right. Picture left to right in the back row are Wernher von Braun, Captain Stoelzel, Luftwaffe, and Dr. Gerhard Reisig.

  1. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  2. Neurological Management of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Trent S; Nielsen, Sarah M; Lesniak, Maciej S; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-09-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease is a genetic condition due to mutation of the Von Hippel-Lindau gene, which leads to an increased risk in the development of hemangioblastomas of the brain and spinal cord. The pathophysiology of disease and its clinical manifestations, as they pertain to the general neurologist, are discussed. Therapeutic management of central nervous system hemangioblastomas ranging from neurosurgical resection, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies is reviewed. PMID:27564075

  3. [Determination of von Willebrand factor multimers in Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Zavala-Hernández, Cesar; Viveros-Sandoval, Martha Eva; Ochoa-Rico, Angeles; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de von Willebrand es un padecimiento hereditario en el que la estructura, función y concentración del factor de von Willebrand están alteradas y, en consecuencia, también la interacción plaqueta-factor de von Willebrand-endotelio. En México no hay registros epidemiológicos de la enfermedad, sólo se han efectuado algunos estudios aislados desde el punto de vista clínico y hematológico. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo efectuado en 155 mexicanos mestizos, 75 de ellos con diagnóstico presuntivo de enfermedad de von Willebrand, 15 con sospecha de hemofilia A y 65 donadores sanos (testigos). Se realizaron pruebas: básicas de coagulación, especiales y de clasificación: análisis de la composición multimérica. Resultados: 15 pacientes se diagnosticaron con hemofilia A; de los 75 sujetos con sospecha de enfermedad de von Willebrand se diagnosticaron 50 de la manera siguiente: tipo 1 (62%), tipo 2 (22%) [subtipos: 2A (14%), 2B (2%) y 2N (6%)] y tipo 3 (16%). Conclusión: el análisis de los multímeros del factor de von Willebrand es un método que cumple con las características adecuadas para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad de von Willebrand, por lo que es necesario implementar esta metodología para su estudio y mejorar su diagnóstico específico.

  4. von Willebrand disease in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Alok

    2005-01-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD) is considered to be the most common inherited bleeding disorder. Data on its epidemiology and impact in developing countries are limited. The biologic heterogeneity and variable presentation of VWD make diagnosis difficult. Although there is no accurate estimate of the prevalence of VWD in developing countries, available data suggest that the proportion of diagnosed cases is lower than the expected number, often accounting for only 6% to 13% of patients with hereditary bleeding disorders. Although accurate subtyping is often not possible, the number with severe disease tends to be much higher, particularly in those parts of the world where consanguinity is common. Agents used to treat patients with VWD range from plasma to purified factor concentrates. Desmopressin (DDAVP) is commonly used. Preliminary data on molecular genetics suggests that there are significant population differences. There is inadequate awareness of this condition and lack of support for these patients from the health care system in many developing countries. Concerted efforts are needed at the scientific and social levels to improve this situation. PMID:15662614

  5. The von Neumann Triple Point Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Richard; Tesdall, Allen M.

    We describe the problem of weak shock reflection off a wedge and discuss the triple point paradox that arises. When the shock is sufficiently weak and the wedge is thin, Mach reflection appears to be observed but is impossible according to what von Neumann originally showed in 1943. We summarize some recent numerical results for weak shock reflection problems for the unsteady transonic small disturbance equations, the nonlinear wave system, and the Euler equations. Rather than finding a standard but mathematically inadmissible Mach reflection with a shock triple point, the solutions contain a complex structure: there is a sequence of triple points and supersonic patches in a tiny region behind the leading triple point, with an expansion fan originating at each triple point. The sequence of patches may be infinite, and we refer to this structure as Guderley Mach reflection. The presence of the expansion fans at the triple points resolves the paradox. We describe some recent experimental evidence which is consistent with these numerical findings.

  6. Richard von Volkmann: surgeon and Renaissance man.

    PubMed

    Willy, Christian; Schneider, Peter; Engelhardt, Michael; Hargens, Alan R; Mubarak, Scott J

    2008-02-01

    Richard von Volkmann (1830-1889), one of the most important surgeons of the 19(th) century, is regarded as one of the fathers of orthopaedic surgery. He was a contemporary of Langenbeck, Esmarch, Lister, Billroth, Kocher, and Trendelenburg. He was head of the Department of Surgery at the University of Halle, Germany (1867-1889). His popularity attracted doctors and patients from all over the world. He was the lead physician for the German military during two wars. From this experience, he compared the mortality of civilian and war injuries and investigated the general poor hygienic conditions in civilian hospitals. This led him to introduce the "antiseptic technique" to Germany that was developed by Lister. His powers of observation and creativity led him to findings and achievements that to this day bear his name: Volkmann's contracture and the Hueter-Volkmann law. Additionally, he was a gifted writer; he published not only scientific literature but also books of children's fairy tales and poems under the pen name of Richard Leander, assuring him a permanent place in the world of literature as well as orthopaedics.

  7. Richard von Volkmann: surgeon and Renaissance man.

    PubMed

    Willy, Christian; Schneider, Peter; Engelhardt, Michael; Hargens, Alan R; Mubarak, Scott J

    2008-02-01

    Richard von Volkmann (1830-1889), one of the most important surgeons of the 19(th) century, is regarded as one of the fathers of orthopaedic surgery. He was a contemporary of Langenbeck, Esmarch, Lister, Billroth, Kocher, and Trendelenburg. He was head of the Department of Surgery at the University of Halle, Germany (1867-1889). His popularity attracted doctors and patients from all over the world. He was the lead physician for the German military during two wars. From this experience, he compared the mortality of civilian and war injuries and investigated the general poor hygienic conditions in civilian hospitals. This led him to introduce the "antiseptic technique" to Germany that was developed by Lister. His powers of observation and creativity led him to findings and achievements that to this day bear his name: Volkmann's contracture and the Hueter-Volkmann law. Additionally, he was a gifted writer; he published not only scientific literature but also books of children's fairy tales and poems under the pen name of Richard Leander, assuring him a permanent place in the world of literature as well as orthopaedics. PMID:18196438

  8. Exponential Size Distribution of von Willebrand Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lippok, Svenja; Obser, Tobias; Müller, Jochen P.; Stierle, Valentin K.; Benoit, Martin; Budde, Ulrich; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Rädler, Joachim O.

    2013-01-01

    Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is a multimeric protein crucial for hemostasis. Under shear flow, it acts as a mechanosensor responding with a size-dependent globule-stretch transition to increasing shear rates. Here, we quantify for the first time, to our knowledge, the size distribution of recombinant VWF and VWF-eGFP using a multilateral approach that involves quantitative gel analysis, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We find an exponentially decaying size distribution of multimers for recombinant VWF as well as for VWF derived from blood samples in accordance with the notion of a step-growth polymerization process during VWF biosynthesis. The distribution is solely described by the extent of polymerization, which was found to be reduced in the case of the pathologically relevant mutant VWF-IIC. The VWF-specific protease ADAMTS13 systematically shifts the VWF size distribution toward smaller sizes. This dynamic evolution is monitored using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and compared to a computer simulation of a random cleavage process relating ADAMTS13 concentration to the degree of VWF breakdown. Quantitative assessment of VWF size distribution in terms of an exponential might prove to be useful both as a valuable biophysical characterization and as a possible disease indicator for clinical applications. PMID:24010664

  9. Diagnostic Value of Measuring Platelet Von Willebrand Factor in Von Willebrand Disease

    PubMed Central

    Casonato, Alessandra; Cattini, Maria Grazia; Daidone, Viviana; Pontara, Elena; Bertomoro, Antonella; Prandoni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) may be caused by an impaired von Willebrand factor (VWF) synthesis, its increased clearance or abnormal function, or combinations of these factors. It may be difficult to recognize the different contributions of these anomalies. Here we demonstrate that VWD diagnostics gains from measuring platelet VWF, which can reveal a defective VWF synthesis. Measuring platelet VWF revealed that: severe type 1 VWD always coincided with significantly lower platelet and plasma VWF levels, whereas mild forms revealed low plasma VWF levels associated with low or normal platelet VWF levels, and the latter were associated with a slightly shorter VWF survival; type Vicenza (the archetype VWD caused by a reduced VWF survival) featured normal platelet VWF levels despite significantly reduced plasma VWF levels; type 2B patients could have either normal platelet VWF levels associated with abnormal multimer patterns, or reduced platelet VWF levels associated with normal multimer patterns; type 2A patients could have reduced or normal platelet VWF levels, the former associated mainly with type 2A-I, the latter with type 2A-II; plasma and platelet VWF levels were normal in type 2N, except when the defect was associated with a quantitative VWF mutation. Our findings show that measuring platelet VWF helps to characterize VWD, especially the ambiguous phenotypes, shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the disorder. PMID:27532107

  10. Characterization of aberrant splicing of von Willebrand factor in von Willebrand disease: an underrecognized mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hawke, Lindsey; Bowman, Mackenzie L; Poon, Man-Chiu; Scully, Mary-Frances; Rivard, Georges-Etienne; James, Paula D

    2016-07-28

    Approximately 10% of von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene mutations are thought to alter messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing through disruption of consensus splice sites. This mechanism is likely underrecognized and affected by mutations outside consensus splice sites. During VWF synthesis, splicing abnormalities lead to qualitative defects or quantitative deficiencies in VWF. This study investigated the pathologic mechanism acting in 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD) families with putative splicing mutations using patient-derived blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) and a heterologous human embryonic kidney (HEK 293(T)) cell model. The exonic mutation c.3538G>A causes 3 in-frame splicing variants (23del, 26del, and 23/26del) which cannot bind platelets, blood coagulation factor VIII, or collagen, causing VWD through dominant-negative intracellular retention of coexpressed wild-type (WT) VWF, and increased trafficking to lysosomes. Individuals heterozygous for the c.5842+1G>C mutation produce exon 33 skipping, exons 33-34 skipping, and WT VWF transcripts. Pathogenic intracellular retention of VWF lacking exons 33-34 causes their VWD. The branch site mutation c.6599-20A>T causes type 1 VWD through mRNA degradation of exon 38 skipping transcripts. Splicing ratios of aberrant transcripts and coexpressed WT were altered in the BOECs with exposure to shear stress. This study provides evidence of mutations outside consensus splice sites disrupting splicing and introduces the concept that VWF splicing is affected by shear stress on endothelial cells. PMID:27317792

  11. Locally Compact Quantum Groups. A von Neumann Algebra Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Daele, Alfons

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we give an alternative approach to the theory of locally compact quantum groups, as developed by Kustermans and Vaes. We start with a von Neumann algebra and a comultiplication on this von Neumann algebra. We assume that there exist faithful left and right Haar weights. Then we develop the theory within this von Neumann algebra setting. In [Math. Scand. 92 (2003), 68-92] locally compact quantum groups are also studied in the von Neumann algebraic context. This approach is independent of the original C^*-algebraic approach in the sense that the earlier results are not used. However, this paper is not really independent because for many proofs, the reader is referred to the original paper where the C^*-version is developed. In this paper, we give a completely self-contained approach. Moreover, at various points, we do things differently. We have a different treatment of the antipode. It is similar to the original treatment in [Ann. Sci. & #201;cole Norm. Sup. (4) 33 (2000), 837-934]. But together with the fact that we work in the von Neumann algebra framework, it allows us to use an idea from [Rev. Roumaine Math. Pures Appl. 21 (1976), 1411-1449] to obtain the uniqueness of the Haar weights in an early stage. We take advantage of this fact when deriving the other main results in the theory. We also give a slightly different approach to duality. Finally, we collect, in a systematic way, several important formulas. In an appendix, we indicate very briefly how the C^*-approach and the von Neumann algebra approach eventually yield the same objects. The passage from the von Neumann algebra setting to the C^*-algebra setting is more or less standard. For the other direction, we use a new method. It is based on the observation that the Haar weights on the C^*-algebra extend to weights on the double dual with central support and that all these supports are the same. Of course, we get the von Neumann algebra by cutting down the double dual with this unique

  12. Entwicklungsperspektiven von Social Software und dem Web 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Alexander

    Der Artikel beschäftigt sich zunächst mit dem derzeitigen und zukünftigen Einsatz von Social Software in Unternehmen. Nach dem großen Erfolg von Social Software im Web beginnen viele Unternehmen eigene Social Software-Initiativen zu entwickeln. Der Artikel zeigt die derzeit wahrgenommenen Einsatzmöglichkeiten von Social Software im Unternehmen auf, erörtert Erfolgsfaktoren für die Einführung und präsentiert mögliche Wege für die Zukunft. Nach der Diskussion des Spezialfalles Social Software in Unternehmen werden anschließend die globalen Trends und Zukunftsperspektiven des Web 2.0 in ihren technischen, wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Dimensionen dargestellt. Wie aus den besprochenen Haupttrends hervorgeht, wird die Masse an digital im Web verfügbaren Informationen stetig weiterwachsen. So stellt sich die Frage, wie es in Zukunft möglich sein wird, die Qualität der Informationssuche und der Wissensgenerierung zu verbessern. Mit dem Einsatz von semantischen Technologien im Web wird hier eine revolutionäre Möglichkeit geboten, Informationen zu filtern und intelligente, gewissermaßen verstehende" Anwendungen zu entwerfen. Auf dem Weg zu einem intelligenten Web werden sich das Semantic Web und Social Software annähern: Anwendungen wie Semantic Wikis, Semantic Weblogs, lightweight Semantic Web-Sprachen wie Microformats oder auch kommerzielle Angebote wie Freebase von Metaweb werden die ersten Vorzeichen einer dritten Generation des Webs sein.

  13. Biographical sketch: Georg Hermann von Meyer (1815-1892).

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Brand, Richard A

    2011-11-01

    This biographical sketch on Georg Hermann von Meyer highlights the interactions in the 1860s that von Meyer, a famous anatomist, had with Karl Culmann, a famous structural engineer and mathematician. The published papers from this interaction caught the attention of Julius Wolff and stimulated his development of the trajectorial hypothesis of bone adaptation--now called "Wolff's Law." The corresponding translations are provided: (1) von Meyer's 1867 paper that highlights the regularity of arched trabecular patterns in various human bones, and his discussions with Culmann about their possible mechanical relevance; and (2) Wolff's 1869 paper that first mentions the correspondence of stress trajectories in a solid, crane-like structure to the arched trabecular patterns in the proximal human femur. This biographical sketch on Georg Hermann von Meyer corresponds to the historic texts, The Classic: The Architecture of the Trabecular bone (by von Meyer), and The Classic: On the Significance of the Architecture of the Spongy Substance for the Question of Bone Growth. A preliminary publication (by Wolff) available at DOIs 10.1007/s11999-011-2041-5 , 10.1007/s11999-011-2042-4 . PMID:21901583

  14. Gunther von Hagens' BODY WORLDS: selling beautiful education.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawrence

    2007-04-01

    In the BODY WORLDS exhibitions currently touring the United States, Gunther von Hagens displays human cadavers preserved through plastination. Whole bodies are playfully posed and exposed to educate the public. However, the educational aims are ambiguous, and some aspects of the exhibit violate human dignity. In particular, the signature cards attached to the whole-body plastinates that bear the title, the signature of Gunther von Hagens, and the date of creation mark the plastinates as artwork and von Hagens as the artist in a gesture that strips the personal dignity from the donors. I conclude that the educational use of cadavers is compatible with respect for dignity if: 1) the utility of such use is great enough; 2) there are no other ways of achieving these ends; and 3) every effort is made to honor the dignity of the donors.

  15. Renaturierung von subalpinen und alpinen Ökosystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautzer, B.; Klug, Brigitte

    Die große Vielfalt an alpinen und subalpinen Ökosystemen auf waldfreien Standorten stellt besonders hohe Anforderungen an Planung und Durchführung von Renaturierungsmaßnahmen. Zunehmende Meereshöhe, starke Hangneigungen und extreme klimatische Verhältnisse im Gebirge bedingen zudem seit jeher natürliche Erosionsprozesse. Die zahllosen menschlichen Aktivitäten der letzten Jahrzehnte, gepaart mit unzureichenden Begrünungsmaßnahmen, erhöhen dieses Risiko noch um ein Vielfaches: Geländekorrekturen im Zuge von Skipistenbauten, Almrevitalisierungen, Forst- und Almwegebauten, Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der touristischen Infrastruktur oder Wildbach- und Lawinenverbauungen. Nur durch Verwendung von hochwertigem, dem Standort angepasstem Pflanzen-oder Saatgutmaterial in Kombination mit der passenden Begrünungstechnik kann dieser Bedrohung dauerhaft entgegengewirkt werden. Dabei sind folgende limitierende Faktoren besonders zu beachten.

  16. Asymptotic structure of free product von Neumann algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdayer, Cyril; Ueda, Yoshimichi

    2016-11-01

    Let $(M, \\varphi) = (M_1, \\varphi_1) \\ast (M_2, \\varphi_2)$ be the free product of any $\\sigma$-finite von Neumann algebras endowed with any faithful normal states. We show that whenever $Q \\subset M$ is a von Neumann subalgebra with separable predual such that both $Q$ and $Q \\cap M_1$ are the ranges of faithful normal conditional expectations and such that both the intersection $Q \\cap M_1$ and the central sequence algebra $Q' \\cap M^\\omega$ are diffuse (e.g. $Q$ is amenable), then $Q$ must sit inside $M_1$. This result generalizes the previous results of the first named author in [Ho14] and moreover completely settles the questions of maximal amenability and maximal property Gamma of the inclusion $M_1 \\subset M$ in arbitrary free product von Neumann algebras.

  17. Einblicke in die Dynamik von Quantensystemen: Elektrostatische Speicherringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Carsten P.

    2005-03-01

    Elektrostatische Speicherringe kombinieren die Vorteile elektrostatischer Fallen und klassischer magnetischer Speicherringe. Kompaktheit, gute Zugänglichkeit sämtlicher Elemente, hohe Flexibilität in der Wahl möglicher Experimente und die Eigenschaft, alle Teilchen unabhängig von ihrer Masse über einen weiten Geschwindigkeitsbereich zu speichern, bieten Zugang zu einem weiten experimentellen Spektrum. Insbesondere das Potenzial, das in neuartigen, energievariablen Maschinen in Kombination mit Elektronenkühlung, internen Targets und hochauflösenden Reaktionsmikroskopen steckt, verspricht hochinteressante Ergebnisse mit den unterschiedlichsten Teilchen - von exotischen Antiprotonen oder schweren radioaktiven Ionen bis hin zu einfachen und komplexen Molekülen oder Biosystemen.

  18. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  19. Henry Cavendish, Johann von Soldner, and the deflection of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.

    1988-05-01

    The gravitational deflection of light based on Newtonian theory and the corpuscular model of light was calculated, but never published, around 1784 by Henry Cavendish, almost 20 years earlier than the first published calculation by Johann Georg von Soldner. The two results are slightly different because, while Cavendish treated a light ray emitted from infinity, von Soldner treated a light ray emitted from the surface of the gravitating body. At the first order of approximation, they agree with each other; both are one-half the value predicted by general relativity and confirmed by experiment.

  20. Renaturierung von Fließgewässern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüderitz, Volker; Jüpner, Robert

    Beim Umgang mit den Gewässern wurde der wasserbaulichen Durchsetzung bestimmter Nutzungsansprüche, vor allem der Landwirtschaft, dem Hochwasserschutz, der Wassergewinnung, der Schifffahrt und der Energiegewinnung über Jahrhunderte absoluter Vorrang vor den Belangen des ökologischen Zustandes der Gewässer selbst und damit auch ihrer multifunktionalen Nutzbarkeit eingeräumt. Die daraus resultierenden Umweltauswirkungen wurden oft billigend in Kauf genommen. Gezielte Verbesserungen der ökologischen Situation von Gewässern bzw. Gewässerabschnitten, wie z.B. der Einsatz ingenieurbiologischer Bauweisen oder der Einbau von Fischwanderhilfen an Mühlenstauen, blieben auf Ausnahmen beschränkt.

  1. An Accurate von Neumann's Law for Three-Dimensional Foams

    SciTech Connect

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kraynik, Andrew M.; Koehler, Stephan A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2001-03-19

    The diffusive coarsening of 2D soap froths is governed by von Neumann's law. A statistical version of this law for dry 3D foams has long been conjectured. A new derivation, based on a theorem by Minkowski, yields an explicit analytical von Neumann's law in 3D which is in very good agreement with detailed simulations and experiments. The average growth rate of a bubble with F faces is shown to be proportional to F{sup 1/2} for large F , in contrast to the conjectured linear dependence. Accounting for foam disorder in the model further improves the agreement with data.

  2. Pseudotumour of the Mandible Associated with von Willebrand's Disease.

    PubMed

    Daniel Sathiya, S S; Pari Selvakumar, P; Singh, Mandeep; Abraham, Aby; Koshy, Santosh

    2015-03-01

    Patients with bleeding disorders may occasionally present with pseudotumours. Most commonly these occur in the soft tissues and long bones, and are very rare in the maxillofacial region. We present the clinical details and management of a pseudotumour of the mandible in a 12-year-old girl with von Willebrand's disease.

  3. Treasure in the Library Attic: Von Ranke at Syracuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coville, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Traces history of private library of German scholar, Leopold von Ranke, which was purchased by Syracuse University in 1888. Efforts of librarian Charles W. Bennett in 1870s and Professor James Powell beginning in late 1960s, and restoration and cataloging of collection are highlighted. Items from the collection are noted. (EJS)

  4. Dr. Wernher Von Braun near the mobile launcher.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. George Mueller, NASA associate administrator for manned space flight, and Dr. Wernher Von Braun (right), director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, are seen near the mobile launcher carrying a 363 foot tall Saturn V space launch vehicle as the rocket is rolled from the vehicle assembly building at KSC for its three mile trip to the launch pad.

  5. Dr. Wernher Von Braun with Congressman Gerald R. fod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On a visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center in April, 1964, Congressman Gerald R. Ford, Jr. Republican of Michigan, was warmly greeted by Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Marshall Space Flight Center director. Ford, along with two other congressmen, visited the center for a briefing on the Saturn program and for a tour of the facilities.

  6. Dr. von Braun With a Model of a Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Dr. von Braun stands beside a model of the upper stage (Earth-returnable stage) of the three-stage launch vehicle built for the series of the motion picture productions of space flight produced by Walt Disney in the mid-1950's.

  7. Anaesthesia in Von Gierke's disease. Current approach to management.

    PubMed

    Bevan, J C

    1980-07-01

    A case report of a patient with Von Gierke's (glycogen storage disease Cori type (1)1 disease who required femoral osteotomy is presented. Current techniques of management of this condition which are likely to improve the outcome of general anaesthesia and surgery are discussed. PMID:6933867

  8. Von Kármán between Aachen and Pasadena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Egon; Kalkmann, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    In the Introduction the reader is referred back to the academic ceremonials held after Theodore von Kármán's death in Aachen in May 1963. His work as the first director of the Aerodynamisches Institut (Institute of Aerodynamics) of the RWTH Aachen University of Technology from 1913 on and his initiative to re-establish international cooperation after World War I, resulting in the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM), are commented on. The following chapter describes von Kármán's relation to his former teacher Ludwig Prandtl. Some of von Kármán's scientific contributions during his time in Aachen are briefly reviewed. Thereafter, his first contacts to the California Institute of Technology are covered. Finally, the scientific and political circumstances, which led to von Kármán's decision to leave Germany in the early thirties, are elucidated in some detail. The English translation of the titles of the Aachen papers is given in Appendix I.

  9. Renaturierung von Sandökosystemen im Binnenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabe-Kratochwil, Angelika; Kratochwil, Anselm

    Das Vorkommen von Sandökosystemen im Binnenland (Flugsand- und Decksandfelder, Dünen) ist vor allem an Sand-Akkumulationen der vorletzten Eiszeit (in Nordeuropa: Saaleeiszeit und Sand-Ablagerungen an größeren Flüssen gebunden. So finden wir die Verbreitungsschwerpunkte von binnenländischen Sandökosystemen in Mitteleuropa einerseits vor allem im Bereich der flächenhaften saalezeitlichen Ablagerungen in den Niederlanden und in Norddeutschland (Castel et al. 1989), andererseits kommen Sandökosysteme des Binnenlandes linear in den Flussgebieten z.B. von Maas, Rhein, Ems, Elbe, Oder und Regnitz vor. In Niederösterreich fanden sich einst großflächige Dünen- und Flugsandgebiete im Marchfeld östlich von Wien (Wiesbauer et al. 1997). Die Flugsandbildung setzte bereits im Spätglazial ca. 11000 v. Chr. ein, als eine den Sand fixierende Vegetation noch fehlte. Es bildeten sich im norddeutschen Raum aus den leicht verwehbaren Talsanden bereits um 9000 v. Chr.

  10. The education of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (1651-1708).

    PubMed

    Adler, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, mathematician, inventor, and correspondent of Spinoza, is often thought to have studied medicine at Leiden, though documentation of this fact has been lacking. Tschirnhaus' medical education is here documented, along with the nature of his medical practice. PMID:24585587

  11. Ernst von Glasersfeld's Radical Constructivism and Truth as Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Clarence Joldersma explores radical constructivism through the work of its most well-known advocate, Ernst von Glasersfeld, who combines a sophisticated philosophical discussion of knowledge and truth with educational practices. Joldersma uses Joseph Rouse's work in philosophy of science to criticize the antirealism inherent in…

  12. Wernher von Braun: Reflections on His Contributions to Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    In 1950, Dr. Wernher von Braun and approximately 100 of his team members came to Huntsville, Alabama, to begin work with the Army on what would later become America's historic space program. He would later serve as the first director of the Marshall Space Flight Center and led the development of the Saturn V launch vehicle that launched seven crewed American mission to the moon, as well as America s first space station, Skylab. Von Braun is best known for his team s technical achievements. He realized his dream of exploring outer space by helping place humans on the moon. His engineering and managerial talent during the Apollo era had contributed to a technological revolution. He was by all accounts a good engineer, but he was only one among many. What set Von Braun apart were his charisma, his vision, and his leadership skills. He inspired loyalty and dedication in the people around him. He understood the importance of communicating his vision to his team, to political and business leaders and the public. Today, the Marshall Center continues his vision by pursuing engineering and scientific projects that will continue to open space to exploration. This presentation will discuss Von Braun's impact on Huntsville, the Marshall Center, the nation and the world and look at his contributions in context of where world space exploration is today.

  13. The education of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (1651-1708).

    PubMed

    Adler, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, mathematician, inventor, and correspondent of Spinoza, is often thought to have studied medicine at Leiden, though documentation of this fact has been lacking. Tschirnhaus' medical education is here documented, along with the nature of his medical practice.

  14. Expression of abnormal von Willebrand factor by endothelial cells from a patient with type IIA von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed Central

    Levene, R B; Booyse, F M; Chediak, J; Zimmerman, T S; Livingston, D M; Lynch, D C

    1987-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the biosynthesis of von Willebrand factor (vWf) by cultured endothelial cells (EC) derived from the umbilical vein of a patient with type IIA von Willebrand disease. The patient's EC, compared with those from normal individuals, produced vWf that had decreased amounts of large multimers and an increase in rapidly migrating satellite species, features characteristic of plasma vWf from patients with type IIA von Willebrand disease. The type IIA EC did produce a full spectrum of vWf multimers in both cell lysates and postculture medium, although the relative amounts of the largest species were decreased. The large multimers were degraded in conjunction with the appearance of rapidly migrating satellites that contained approximately equal to 170-kDa proteolytic fragments, suggesting that this patient's functional defect is due to abnormal proteolysis and not to a primary failure of vWf subunit oligomerization. Moreover, the observed degradation appears to result from an abnormal vWf molecule and not elevated protease levels. These results suggest that this patient's von Willebrand disease phenotype is caused by increased proteolytic sensitivity of his vWf protein. Images PMID:3306682

  15. Hemostatic efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a recombinant von Willebrand factor in severe von Willebrand disease

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Joan C.; Castaman, Giancarlo; Windyga, Jerzy; Kouides, Peter; Ragni, Margaret; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Obermann-Slupetzky, Ortrun; Chapman, Miranda; Fritsch, Sandor; Pavlova, Borislava G.; Presch, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    This phase 3 trial evaluated the safety and hemostatic efficacy of a recombinant von Willebrand factor (rVWF) for treatment of bleeds in severe von Willebrand disease (VWD). rVWF was initially administered together with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) and subsequently alone, as long as hemostatic factor VIII activity (FVIII:C) levels were maintained. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated in a randomized cross-over design (rVWF vs rVWF:rFVIII at 50 IU VWF:ristocetin cofactor activity [RCo]/kg). Bleed control for all treated bleeds (N = 192 bleeds in 22 subjects) was rated good or excellent (96.9% excellent; 119 of 122 minor, 59 of 61 moderate, and 6 of 7 major bleeds) on a 4-point scale (4 = none to 1 = excellent). A single infusion was effective in 81.8% of bleeds. Treatment success, defined as the number of subjects with a mean efficacy rating of <2.5, was 100%. The PK profile of rVWF was not influenced by rFVIII (mean VWF:RCo terminal half-life: 21.9 hours for rVWF and 19.6 hours for rVWF:rFVIII). FVIII:C levels increased rapidly after rVWF alone, with hemostatic levels achieved within 6 hours and sustained through 72 hours after infusion. Eight adverse events (AEs; 6 nonserious AEs in 4 subjects and 2 serious AEs [chest discomfort and increased heart rate, without cardiac symptomatology] concurrently in 1 subject) were associated with rVWF. There were no thrombotic events or severe allergic reactions. No VWF or FVIII inhibitors, anti-VWF binding antibodies, or antibodies against host cell proteins were detected. These results show that rVWF was safe and effective in treating bleeds in VWD patients and stabilizes endogenous FVIII:C, which may eliminate the need for rFVIII after the first infusion. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01410227. PMID:26239086

  16. Bleeding in renal failure: is von Willebrand factor implicated?

    PubMed Central

    Remuzzi, G; Livio, M; Roncaglioni, M C; Mecca, G; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G

    1977-01-01

    Normal or increased concentrations of factor VIII procoagulant activity (VIIIC), factor VIII-related antigen (VIIIRA), and factor VIII-von Willebrand activity (VIIIVWF) were found in the predialysis plasma of 10 out of 11 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). All patients had a bleeding time longer than 15 minutes and platelet retention to glass beads lower than 40%. The only patient who had reduced concentrations of all three factor VIII complex components was subsequently shown to have von Willebrand's disease. In four patients with CRF, very low platelet retention, and slightly prolonged bleeding time none of the three factor VIII COMPLEX COMPONENTS WERE SELECTIVely modified in predialysis samples. These findings suggest that the bleeding tendency common in CRF is not necessarily linked to defective plasma factor VIII-related activities. PMID:302134

  17. Marshall-Stickler phenotype associated with von Willebrand disease

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M.R.; Baker, K.S.; Schaefer, G.B.

    1997-01-20

    We report on 6 individuals from three different kindreds with Marshall-Stickler (MS) phenotype, with characteristic orofacial abnormalities, arthropathy, deafness, and eye findings, all of whom were discovered to have a mild bleeding diathesis and coagulation-study findings consistent with mild von Willebrand disease (vWD). MS syndrome has been linked in some cases to the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1) on chromosome 12q, and to the collagen XI gene (COL11A2) on chromosome 6. The von Willebrand factor (vWF) is encoded by a 180-Kb gene located on the short arm of chromosome 12. This is the first reported association of these two disorders. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Lipid storage myopathy in von Gierke's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Santa, T; Inoue, K; Omae, T

    1978-09-01

    An 18-year-old girl with von Gierke's disease associated with a lipid storage myopathy is reported. The diagnosis of von Gierke's disease was made from decreased activity in glucose-6-phosphatase in the jejunal biopsy specimen. Neurologically she showed generalized hypotonia of the muscles, atrophy of bilateral proximal muscles of the lower extremities, weakness in neck flexors, deltoid and lumbar girdle muscles, and a positive Gower's sign. Muscle biopsy from flexor femoris muscle revealed fatty deposition in type 1 fibers and atrophy of type 2 fibers and the diagnosis of an accompanying lipid storage myopathy was made. This case also had a ventricular septal defect confirmed by right cardiac catheterization. PMID:213538

  19. Water Experiments Related To The "Von Karman Sodium" Dynamo Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, L.; Bourgoin, M.; Petrelis, F.; Roy, J.; Burguete, J.; Chiffaudel, A.; Daviaud, F.; Fauve, S.; Odier, P.; Pinton, J.-F.

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the "Von Karman Sodium" (V.K.S.) experiment is to study the "Dynamo Effect," namely the spontaneous generation of magnetic field in a flow of electrically conducting fluid. The device has been built at CEA / Cadarache, in collaboration with CEA / Saclay, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon and Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris. It consists of a cylindrical vessel, filled with liquid Sodium, in which two coaxial rotating disks induce a Von-Karman type flow. Several experimental runs have taken place since June 2000. In order to optimize the V.K.S. set-up, a half-scale water prototype has also been built. It has allowed us to measure mean velocity profiles, as well as pressure fluctuations and mechanical power dissipation. We have observed that under certain circumstances the mean component of the turbulent flow can undergo a global bifurcation.

  20. Von eingebetteten Systemen zu Cyber-Physical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedde, Rorst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; Rehtanz, Christian; Krause, Olav

    Das Hauptanliegen des Papiers ist, ein Paradigma für Probleme mit neuartigen Integrationsanforderungen für Forschung und Entwicklung in verteilten eingebetteten Echtzeitsystemen zu motivieren und vorzustellen, nämlich den Begriff Cyber-Physical Systems. Bei einer in letzter Zeit stark zunehmenden Anzahl von Realzeitanwendungen können ohne die Berücksichtigung solcher Forderungen keine praktisch brauchbaren Lösungen erwartet werden. Einige Anwendungsfelder werden angesprochen. Im Einzelnen werden dann für Elektroautos, die mit erneuerbaren Energien betrieben werden sollen, einerseits die Management-, verteilte Verhandlungs- und Verteilungsprobleme der benötigten Energie in einem bottom-up Ansatz gelöst. Andererseits wird als Teil unserer Projektarbeit die Bereitstellung von Reserveenergie für den allgemeinen Bedarf durch Autobatterien vorgestellt. Es zeigt sich, dass dies effizienter und wesentlich kurzfristiger in unserem verteilten Vorgehen geschehen kann als in traditionellen Verfahren.

  1. Dr. von Braun In Front of a Display of Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    In this photo, Director of the US Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) Development Operations Division, Dr. Wernher von Braun, is standing before a display of Army missiles celebrating ABMA's Fourth Open House. The missiles in the background include (left to right) a satellite on a Juno II shroud with a Nike Ajax pointing left in front of a Jupiter missile. The Lacrosse is in front of the Juno II. The Nike Hercules points skyward in front of the Juno II and the Redstone.

  2. Dr. Wernher Von Braun at the launch of Apollo 11.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mission officials relax, all smiles, a few moments after the successful launch of the Apollo 11 spacecraft by Saturn V vehicle AS-506. Relieved of the tension of waiting through the countdown are (left to right) Charles W. Matthews, NASA deputy associate administrator for manned space flight; Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center; Dr. George E. Meuller, NASA associate administrator for manned spaceflight, and Lt. General Samuel C. Phillips, director of the Apollo program.

  3. Von Gierke's disease adopts an orphan (and its partner).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alan; Saltiel, Alan R

    2009-01-01

    The enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase is critical for maintaining fasting blood sugar levels by increasing hepatic glucose production. Its absence in patients with von Gierke's disease leads to severe hypoglycemia and abnormal accumulation of glycogen (glycogenosis) in the liver. New players that control the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase have been identified that may provide insight into this metabolic disorder, as well as type 2 diabetes. PMID:19224896

  4. Von Humboldt bis Einstein. Berlin als Weltzentrum der exakten Wissenschaften.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschkowski, H.

    Contents: 1. Die Anfänge. 2. Die Ära Dirichlet-Jacobi. 3. Der Ausbau der experimentellen Naturwissenschaften. 4. Alexander von Humboldt. 5. Berlin wird "Weltzentrum" der Mathematik. 6. Die Ära Helmholtz. 7. Neue Arbeitsweisen der Astronomie. 8. Chemie: Forschung und Industrie. 9. Max Planck. 10. Ins technische Zeitalter. 11. Zur Mathematik der zwanziger Jahre. 12. Albert Einstein. 13. Fortschritte der Grundlagenforschung. 14. Erwin Schrödinger: Physiker, Philosoph und Poet. 15. Zum Schluß.

  5. Baron von Zach's business relations with the Munich entrepreneur Joseph von Utzschneider (German Title: Geschäftsbeziehungen des Barons von Zach zu dem Münchner Unternehmer Joseph von Utzschneider)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Ivo

    The relationship between the astronomer von Zach on the one side and the entrepreneur Joseph von Utzschneider and his partner Georg von Reichenbach on the other dates presumably from the year 1807 when Zach spent two months in Munich. Already in the same year Zach had ordered an instrument for himself and began to solicit business for the institute of Reichenbach, Utzschneider, and Liebherr, which was founded in 1804. One of the clients canvassed by Zach was the director of the observatory in Naples Zuccari. Zuccari had ordered the whole equipment for the new observatory from this institute in 1813. The instruments for Naples, which were completed in 1814, were sent accompanied by Reichenbach by land and sea to their destination where Reichenbach supervised their setup. At that time Reichenbach had separated from Utzschneider who kept the optical institute in Benediktbeuern with his new partner Joseph von Fraunhofer whereas Reichenbach became owner of the mathematical-mechanical institute in Munich. For personal and economical reasons Utzschneider began soon after to produce not only optical glass but also optical devices similar to those offered by Reichenbach. As soon as two institutes in Munich competed against each other on the market for sophisticated geodetical and astronomical instruments Zach sided with Utzschneider. Zach's main professional argument for this decision was that both competitors got the optical glass for their instruments from Utzschneider's optical institute in Benediktbeuern. This meant that Utzschneider had first choice and so the optical part of his instruments could be considered as better than that of Reichenbach`s instruments. Zach's role as an agent in Italy and France for the sale of products coming from Utzschneider's manufactories is highlighted by three of Zach's letters to Utzschneider from 1817 and 1818, two of which are reproduced here for the first time.

  6. Interpolatability distinguishes LOCC from separable von Neumann measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Andrew M.; Leung, Debbie; Mančinska, Laura; Ozols, Maris

    2013-11-15

    Local operations with classical communication (LOCC) and separable operations are two classes of quantum operations that play key roles in the study of quantum entanglement. Separable operations are strictly more powerful than LOCC, but no simple explanation of this phenomenon is known. We show that, in the case of von Neumann measurements, the ability to interpolate measurements is an operational principle that sets apart LOCC and separable operations.

  7. Canary Island Group and von Karman Cloud Vortices.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Tis image shows a part of the Canary Island Group (28.0N, 16.0W) located just west of the NW coast of Africa. Low level stratus clouds often form here and become trapped in vertical movement because of an overlaying temperature inversion. The islands create a disturbance in the wind flow, generally from the north or northeast, that create distinctive cloud swirls known as von Karman Cloud Vortices on the downstream side of the island.

  8. von Braun and Buckbee View Demonstration at Space Science Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    Edward O. Buckbee, the first Director of the Alabama Space Science Center (left), and Dr. Wernher von Braun (right) view a demonstration of a simulated spacecraft which uses an actual hybrid rocket engine for liftoff, hover, and landing. The display was presented to the Alabama Space Science Center, later renamed the U.S. Space and Rocket Center, by United Technology Center, a division of United Aircraft.

  9. The British Interplanetary Society - Val Cleaver and Wernher von Braun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willhite, I. P.

    This article is concerned with the early relationship between Wernher von Braun and the British Interplanetary Society (BIS). The BIS/Wernher von Braun/Val Cleaver correspondence files located here at the US Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama are unparalleled. As one reads the stimulating comments between Cleaver and von Braun, the need to share their thoughts prevails. Following is an excerpt from one letter that whets ones appetite for more. 10 June 1951 Cleaver writes, “I'm so glad you enjoyed my last letter, and look forward to your promised further contribution to our discussion of the ethics of science in general and astronautics in particu- lar. As regards the one particular point on which you found yourself unable to hold your fire, I should say there are really two distinct issues at stake:. . .” This article attempts to represent the best of the letters as they goad each other on scientific principles, means to prevent wars, and other philosophic ideas.

  10. 78 FR 61948 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Franz von Stuck”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-07

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Franz von Stuck'' SUMMARY: Notice is..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Franz von Stuck,'' imported... objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners or custodians. I also...

  11. 76 FR 36166 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Gabriel von Max: Be...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: ``Gabriel von Max: Be-Tailed Cousins... the exhibition ``Gabriel von Max: Be-Tailed Cousins and Phantasms of the Soul,'' imported from...

  12. The Fate of Western Civilization: G. H. von Wright's Reflections on Science, Technology, and Global Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkero, Topi

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the central ideas of G. H. von Wright's cultural philosophy concerning the techno-scientific form of life. Georg Henrik von Wright (1916-2003) was best known for his achievements in the field of modal logic and for his association with Ludwig Wittgenstein. However, his work also included a critical analysis of science and…

  13. Spin torque oscillator neuroanalog of von Neumann's microwave computer.

    PubMed

    Hoppensteadt, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Frequency and phase of neural activity play important roles in the behaving brain. The emerging understanding of these roles has been informed by the design of analog devices that have been important to neuroscience, among them the neuroanalog computer developed by O. Schmitt and A. Hodgkin in the 1930s. Later J. von Neumann, in a search for high performance computing using microwaves, invented a logic machine based on crystal diodes that can perform logic functions including binary arithmetic. Described here is an embodiment of his machine using nano-magnetics. Electrical currents through point contacts on a ferromagnetic thin film can create oscillations in the magnetization of the film. Under natural conditions these properties of a ferromagnetic thin film may be described by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the film's magnetization. Radiating solutions of this system are referred to as spin waves, and communication within the film may be by spin waves or by directed graphs of electrical connections. It is shown here how to formulate a STO logic machine, and by computer simulation how this machine can perform several computations simultaneously using multiplexing of inputs, that this system can evaluate iterated logic functions, and that spin waves may communicate frequency, phase and binary information. Neural tissue and the Schmitt-Hodgkin, von Neumann and STO devices share a common bifurcation structure, although these systems operate on vastly different space and time scales; namely, all may exhibit Andronov-Hopf bifurcations. This suggests that neural circuits may be capable of the computational functionality as described by von Neumann.

  14. Orthopaedic surgery in patients with von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Siboni, S M; Biguzzi, E; Solimeno, L P; Pasta, G; Mistretta, C; Mannucci, P M; Peyvandi, F

    2014-01-01

    Patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) may need orthopaedic surgery because of disabling chronic arthropathy due to recurrent joint bleeding. They may also require this surgery independently of their haemostasis disorder. Knowledge regarding the management of orthopaedic surgery in VWD is limited. Description of management of orthopaedic surgery in patients with VWD, based upon retrospective data collection and analysis of 32 orthopaedic procedures carried out over a period of 33 years in 23 patients was the aim of this study. Of 32 procedures, six were minor (three hand surgery, one foot surgery, two others) and 26 were major (seven joint replacements, nine arthroscopic procedures, two foot surgery, eight others). Twenty-two procedures were performed using replacement therapy with plasma-derived concentrates containing both factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Two procedures in patients with acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AWVS) were performed using FVIII-VWF concentrates associated with intravenous immunoglobulins, or desmopressin plus tranexamic acid. Seven procedures were performed using desmopressin alone and one using intravenous immunoglobulins in AVWS. Bleeding complications occurred in seven procedures (22%). In one patient, an anti-VWF antibody was diagnosed after surgery. Anticoagulant prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism was implemented in four cases only and in two instances there was excessive bleeding. In conclusion, control of surgical haemostasis was achieved in most patients with VWD undergoing orthopaedic surgery. The control of haemostasis combined with an adequate surgical technique and early post-operative rehabilitation are warranted for the successful performance of orthopaedic surgery in VWD, which requires the involvement of specialized haemophilia centres.

  15. Von Willebrand factor regulates complement on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Noone, Damien G; Riedl, Magdalena; Pluthero, Fred G; Bowman, Mackenzie L; Liszewski, M Kathryn; Lu, Lily; Quan, Yi; Balgobin, Steve; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Schneppenheim, Sonja; Budde, Ulrich; James, Paula; Atkinson, John P; Palaniyar, Nades; Kahr, Walter H A; Licht, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura have traditionally been considered separate entities. Defects in the regulation of the complement alternative pathway occur in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and defects in the cleavage of von Willebrand factor (VWF)-multimers arise in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. However, recent studies suggest that both entities are related as defects in the disease-causing pathways overlap or show functional interactions. Here we investigate the possible functional link of VWF-multimers and the complement system on endothelial cells. Blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) were obtained from 3 healthy individuals and 2 patients with Type 3 von Willebrand disease lacking VWF. Cells were exposed to a standardized complement challenge via the combination of classical and alternative pathway activation and 50% normal human serum resulting in complement fixation to the endothelial surface. Under these conditions we found the expected release of VWF-multimers causing platelet adhesion onto BOECs from healthy individuals. Importantly, in BOECs derived from patients with von Willebrand disease complement C3c deposition and cytotoxicity were more pronounced than on BOECs derived from normal individuals. This is of particular importance as primary glomerular endothelial cells display a heterogeneous expression pattern of VWF with overall reduced VWF abundance. Thus, our results support a mechanistic link between VWF-multimers and the complement system. However, our findings also identify VWF as a new complement regulator on vascular endothelial cells and suggest that VWF has a protective effect on endothelial cells and complement-mediated injury. PMID:27236750

  16. Spin torque oscillator neuroanalog of von Neumann's microwave computer.

    PubMed

    Hoppensteadt, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Frequency and phase of neural activity play important roles in the behaving brain. The emerging understanding of these roles has been informed by the design of analog devices that have been important to neuroscience, among them the neuroanalog computer developed by O. Schmitt and A. Hodgkin in the 1930s. Later J. von Neumann, in a search for high performance computing using microwaves, invented a logic machine based on crystal diodes that can perform logic functions including binary arithmetic. Described here is an embodiment of his machine using nano-magnetics. Electrical currents through point contacts on a ferromagnetic thin film can create oscillations in the magnetization of the film. Under natural conditions these properties of a ferromagnetic thin film may be described by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the film's magnetization. Radiating solutions of this system are referred to as spin waves, and communication within the film may be by spin waves or by directed graphs of electrical connections. It is shown here how to formulate a STO logic machine, and by computer simulation how this machine can perform several computations simultaneously using multiplexing of inputs, that this system can evaluate iterated logic functions, and that spin waves may communicate frequency, phase and binary information. Neural tissue and the Schmitt-Hodgkin, von Neumann and STO devices share a common bifurcation structure, although these systems operate on vastly different space and time scales; namely, all may exhibit Andronov-Hopf bifurcations. This suggests that neural circuits may be capable of the computational functionality as described by von Neumann. PMID:26135205

  17. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  18. Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) and evolution.

    PubMed

    Brauckmann, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The research program of Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) intended to enhance the comparative approach of animal classification by demonstrating vertebrate affinities (homology). Baer visualized his ideas on development and evolution with an unpublished figure of a branching tree. To buttress his reflections on how species-specific embryogenesis produces a branching tree, he worked out a cladogram-like chart, depicting the ontogeny and phylogeny of vertebrate embryos. For Baer, changes in development were responsible for changes in phenotype. I will offer a new interpretation of Baer's ideas about evolution showing that he believed in the transformation of species and announced such views publicly. PMID:23319342

  19. [Heinrich von Kleist and the true nature of man].

    PubMed

    Larsen, O

    1998-12-10

    In short-stories, novels and plays, the artist's interpretation of human nature may render the reader valuable insights into the basics of human behaviour. This article is a discussion of a short-story about a fictitious earthquake in Chile, written in 1807 by Heinrich von Kleist (1777-1811). The writer shows how feelings of warmth, friendliness and solidarity come out when a catastrophe reduces the relative importance of man-made rules and regulations. But more sombre sides of human nature also come to the surface in the wake of the disaster, and the writer indicates that even the apparently virtuous Christian morality contains severe traits of cruelty and repressiveness.

  20. Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) and evolution.

    PubMed

    Brauckmann, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The research program of Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) intended to enhance the comparative approach of animal classification by demonstrating vertebrate affinities (homology). Baer visualized his ideas on development and evolution with an unpublished figure of a branching tree. To buttress his reflections on how species-specific embryogenesis produces a branching tree, he worked out a cladogram-like chart, depicting the ontogeny and phylogeny of vertebrate embryos. For Baer, changes in development were responsible for changes in phenotype. I will offer a new interpretation of Baer's ideas about evolution showing that he believed in the transformation of species and announced such views publicly.

  1. Karl ernst von Baer's 'Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere II' and its unpublished drawings.

    PubMed

    Tammiksaar, Erki; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    In 1828 Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) published his seminal Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. Beobachtung und Reflexion. In the preface he announced that a second volume with one copper plate would be finished 'in a few weeks'. However, it took nine years until the unfinished second volume was released, with four copperplates. In his 'Autobiography', von Baer did not clarify the reasons why he did not finish his research program of comparative embryology. The paper attempts to elucidate them, furnished by archival documents and von Baer's unpublished embryological drawings. Our sketch of a few figures will show that (1) von Baer searched for 'analogies' (homologies) as a unifying principle and (2) explained the mechanisms of embryogenesis by physiological reasoning (electromagnetism). The main objective is to show that technical problems in illustrating and conceptual difficulties impeded von Baer's ambitious research program. PMID:16302690

  2. von Baer's law for the ages: lost and found principles of developmental evolution.

    PubMed

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2013-12-01

    In 1828, Karl Ernst von Baer formulated a series of empirically defined rules, which became widely known as the 'Law of Development' or 'von Baer's law of embryology'. This was one the most significant attempts to define the principles that connected morphological complexity and embryonic development. Understanding this relation is central to both evolutionary biology and developmental genetics. Von Baer's ideas have been both a source of inspiration to generations of biologists and a target of continuous criticism over many years. With advances in multiple fields, including paleontology, cladistics, phylogenetics, genomics, and cell and developmental biology, it is now possible to examine carefully the significance of von Baer's law and its predictions. In this review, I argue that, 185 years after von Baer's law was first formulated, its main concepts after proper refurbishing remain surprisingly relevant in revealing the fundamentals of the evolution-development connection, and suggest that their explanation should become the focus of renewed research. PMID:24120296

  3. Karl ernst von Baer's 'Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere II' and its unpublished drawings.

    PubMed

    Tammiksaar, Erki; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    In 1828 Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) published his seminal Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. Beobachtung und Reflexion. In the preface he announced that a second volume with one copper plate would be finished 'in a few weeks'. However, it took nine years until the unfinished second volume was released, with four copperplates. In his 'Autobiography', von Baer did not clarify the reasons why he did not finish his research program of comparative embryology. The paper attempts to elucidate them, furnished by archival documents and von Baer's unpublished embryological drawings. Our sketch of a few figures will show that (1) von Baer searched for 'analogies' (homologies) as a unifying principle and (2) explained the mechanisms of embryogenesis by physiological reasoning (electromagnetism). The main objective is to show that technical problems in illustrating and conceptual difficulties impeded von Baer's ambitious research program.

  4. von Baer's law for the ages: lost and found principles of developmental evolution.

    PubMed

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2013-12-01

    In 1828, Karl Ernst von Baer formulated a series of empirically defined rules, which became widely known as the 'Law of Development' or 'von Baer's law of embryology'. This was one the most significant attempts to define the principles that connected morphological complexity and embryonic development. Understanding this relation is central to both evolutionary biology and developmental genetics. Von Baer's ideas have been both a source of inspiration to generations of biologists and a target of continuous criticism over many years. With advances in multiple fields, including paleontology, cladistics, phylogenetics, genomics, and cell and developmental biology, it is now possible to examine carefully the significance of von Baer's law and its predictions. In this review, I argue that, 185 years after von Baer's law was first formulated, its main concepts after proper refurbishing remain surprisingly relevant in revealing the fundamentals of the evolution-development connection, and suggest that their explanation should become the focus of renewed research.

  5. Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth

    Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.

  6. Comparison between von Willebrand factor (VWF) and VWF antigen II in normal individuals and patients with von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    de Romeuf, C; Mazurier, C

    1998-07-01

    Von Willebrand disease is characterised by a quantitative (type 1) or qualitative (type 2) decrease in von Willebrand factor (vWF) a multimeric glycoprotein involved in primary haemostasis. The propeptide of von Willebrand, also named vWF antigen II (vWF:AgII), is released from platelets and endothelial cells and circulates in plasma as a glycoprotein of 100 kD. In the present study, we attempted to determine whether vWF:AgII level may provide information on the synthesis of vWF, specially in patients with von Willebrand disease (vWD). To elucidate that point, we developed an ELISA and quantify the vWF:AgII in normal individuals and in various vWD patients. The propeptide molar concentration was found to be 5 nM as compared to 31 nM for mature vWF. In normal individuals, the level of vWF:AgII was significantly decreased in females from O and A blood groups. In type 2 vWD patients the level of plasma vWF:AgII appears normal in the patients with normal level of platelet vWF. In type 2 B vWD characterised by increased affinity of mature vWF for platelet glycoprotein Ib, the vWF:AgII in contrast to the vWF antigen (vWF:Ag) was not decreased. In type 2A vWD patients the level of vWF:AgII was decreased in patients with absence of high molecular weight vWF in platelets and plasma but normal in patients with increased sensitivity to proteolysis. Finally, in type 1 vWD, some studied patients have a parallel decrease in vWF:AgII and vWF:Ag whereas in others, the vWF:Ag levels were much more affected than corresponding vWF:AgII levels, as observed in some type 2 vWD patients. Thus, in contrast to that already described, the plasma vWF:AgII level cannot discriminate type 1 from type 2 vWD patients. We conclude that the vWF:AgII measurement provides additional information on the mechanisms responsible for vWD and might also contribute to the classification of vWD patients. PMID:9684782

  7. Von Braun Rocket Team at Fort Bliss, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    The German Rocket Team, also known as the Von Braun Rocket Team, poses for a group photograph at Fort Bliss, Texas. After World War II ended in 1945, Dr. Wernher von Braun led some 120 of his Peenemuende Colleagues, who developed the V-2 rocket for the German military during the War, to the United Sttes under a contract to the U.S. Army Corps as part of Operation Paperclip. During the following five years the team worked on high altitude firings of the captured V-2 rockets at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, and a guided missile development unit at Fort Bliss, Texas. In April 1950, the group was transferred to the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, and continued to work on the development of the guided missiles for the U.S. Army until transferring to a newly established field center of the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  8. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome associated with left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Angelo; Neelamegham, Sriram; Frazier, O H; Moake, Joel L; Dong, Jing-Fei

    2016-06-23

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) provide cardiac support for patients with end-stage heart disease as either bridge or destination therapy, and have significantly improved the survival of these patients. Whereas earlier models were designed to mimic the human heart by producing a pulsatile flow in parallel with the patient's heart, newer devices, which are smaller and more durable, provide continuous blood flow along an axial path using an internal rotor in the blood. However, device-related hemostatic complications remain common and have negatively affected patients' recovery and quality of life. In most patients, the von Willebrand factor (VWF) rapidly loses large multimers and binds poorly to platelets and subendothelial collagen upon LVAD implantation, leading to the term acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). These changes in VWF structure and adhesive activity recover quickly upon LVAD explantation and are not observed in patients with heart transplant. The VWF defects are believed to be caused by excessive cleavage of large VWF multimers by the metalloprotease ADAMTS-13 in an LVAD-driven circulation. However, evidence that this mechanism could be the primary cause for the loss of large VWF multimers and LVAD-associated bleeding remains circumstantial. This review discusses changes in VWF reactivity found in patients on LVAD support. It specifically focuses on impacts of LVAD-related mechanical stress on VWF structural stability and adhesive reactivity in exploring multiple causes of AVWS and LVAD-associated hemostatic complications. PMID:27143258

  9. A visit paid to Jung by Alwine von Keller.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Riccardo; Quaglino, Gian Piero; Romano, Augusto

    2011-04-01

    In the winter of 1943-1944, Jung had suffered a coronary thrombosis which almost cost him his life. During his illness, Jung experienced a series of visions, described in his Memories, Dreams, Reflections, which were also to influence significantly the development of his theoretical thinking. On 27(th) September 1944, Alwine von Keller (1878-1965) paid a visit to Jung, while he was still convalescing, in Zurich and documented her meeting with him in a series of notes, recently discovered, which testify to the fact that, at the time of their meeting, Jung was engaged in writing the 'Salt' chapter of Mysterium coniunctionis and investigating the alchemistic symbolism of the 'sea'. This theme seems to testify to a continuity of interests on Jung's part with the seminar he held at Eranos the previous year on the cartographic art of Opicinus de Canistris (1296-c.1352). With its addition of many unpublished details, Alwine von Keller's notes supplement the report which Jung made of his visions experienced during his sickness in MDR. In particular, these attest to the fact that Jung had attributed the terrible experience which he had endured to the problem of the conjunctio, which was confronting him from the theoretical point of view in his writing of Mysterium coniunctionis.

  10. Attractors and Long Time Behavior of von Karman Thermoelastic Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Chueshov, Igor Lasiecka, Irena

    2008-10-15

    This paper undertakes a study of asymptotic behavior of solutions corresponding to von Karman thermoelastic plates. A distinct feature of the work is that the model considered has no added dissipation-particularly mechanical dissipation typically added to plate equation when long time-behavior is considered. Thus, the model consists of undamped oscillatory plate equation strongly coupled with heat equation. Nevertheless we are able to show that the ultimate (asymptotic) behavior of the von Karman evolution is described by finite dimensional global attractor. In addition, the obtained estimate for the dimension and the size of the attractor are independent of the rotational inertia parameter {gamma} and heat/thermal capacity {kappa}, where the former is known to change the character of dynamics from hyperbolic ({gamma}>0) to parabolic like ({gamma}=0). Other properties of attractors such as additional smoothness and upper-semicontinuity with respect to parameters {gamma} and {kappa} are also established. The main ingredients of the proofs are (i) sharp regularity of Airy's stress function, and (ii) newly developed (Chueshov and Lasiecka in Memoirs of AMS, in press) 'compensated' compactness methods applicable to non-compact dynamics.

  11. The von Neumann model of measurement in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, Pier A.

    2014-01-08

    We describe how to obtain information on a quantum-mechanical system by coupling it to a probe and detecting some property of the latter, using a model introduced by von Neumann, which describes the interaction of the system proper with the probe in a dynamical way. We first discuss single measurements, where the system proper is coupled to one probe with arbitrary coupling strength. The goal is to obtain information on the system detecting the probe position. We find the reduced density operator of the system, and show how Lüders rule emerges as the limiting case of strong coupling. The von Neumann model is then generalized to two probes that interact successively with the system proper. Now we find information on the system by detecting the position-position and momentum-position correlations of the two probes. The so-called 'Wigner's formula' emerges in the strong-coupling limit, while 'Kirkwood's quasi-probability distribution' is found as the weak-coupling limit of the above formalism. We show that successive measurements can be used to develop a state-reconstruction scheme. Finally, we find a generalized transform of the state and the observables based on the notion of successive measurements.

  12. Superfluid high REynolds von Kármán experiment.

    PubMed

    Rousset, B; Bonnay, P; Diribarne, P; Girard, A; Poncet, J M; Herbert, E; Salort, J; Baudet, C; Castaing, B; Chevillard, L; Daviaud, F; Dubrulle, B; Gagne, Y; Gibert, M; Hébral, B; Lehner, Th; Roche, P-E; Saint-Michel, B; Bon Mardion, M

    2014-10-01

    The Superfluid High REynolds von Kármán experiment facility exploits the capacities of a high cooling power refrigerator (400 W at 1.8 K) for a large dimension von Kármán flow (inner diameter 0.78 m), which can work with gaseous or subcooled liquid (He-I or He-II) from room temperature down to 1.6 K. The flow is produced between two counter-rotating or co-rotating disks. The large size of the experiment allows exploration of ultra high Reynolds numbers based on Taylor microscale and rms velocity [S. B. Pope, Turbulent Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2000)] (Rλ > 10000) or resolution of the dissipative scale for lower Re. This article presents the design and first performance of this apparatus. Measurements carried out in the first runs of the facility address the global flow behavior: calorimetric measurement of the dissipation, torque and velocity measurements on the two turbines. Moreover first local measurements (micro-Pitot, hot wire,…) have been installed and are presented. PMID:25362417

  13. Renaturierung von Ökosystemen in urban-industriellen Landschaften

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebele, Franz

    Die Urbanisierung ist ein weltweit stattfindender Prozess mit weitreichenden Auswirkungen auf Mensch und Natur. In Mitteleuropa leben heute etwa 80% aller Bewohner in Städten. Urban-industrielle Landschaften gehören deshalb zur unmittelbaren Lebensumwelt der meisten Menschen. Allein in Deutschland wird heute täglich eine Fläche von 120 ha neu für Siedlungs- und Verkehrszwecke in Anspruch genommen. Zu den Siedlungs- und Verkehrsflächen zählen Gebäude-und gebäudebezogene Freiflächen, Verkehrsflächen, Erholungsflächen und Friedhöfe sowie Betriebsflächen für Industrie und Gewerbe. Nicht enthalten sind Tagebauflächen zum Abbau von Bodenschätzen (Kapitel 13). In Deutschland liegt der Anteil der Siedlungs- und Verkehrsflächen an der Gesamtfläche derzeit bei ca. 13%, in Österreich bei 5 % und in der Schweiz bei knapp 7 %. Charakteristisch für die heutige Entwicklung in Mitteleuropa ist, dass die Prozesse der Urbanisierung und der Flächeninanspruchnahme für Siedlung und Verkehr nicht ursächlich mit einem Bevölkerungswachstum verbunden sind, d. h. dass Freiflächen auch bei stagnierender oder in manchen Regionen sogar bei sinkender Einwohnerzahl bebaut werden.

  14. von Willebrand factor, Jedi knight of the bloodstream.

    PubMed

    Springer, Timothy A

    2014-08-28

    When blood vessels are cut, the forces in the bloodstream increase and change character. The dark side of these forces causes hemorrhage and death. However, von Willebrand factor (VWF), with help from our circulatory system and platelets, harnesses the same forces to form a hemostatic plug. Force and VWF function are so closely intertwined that, like members of the Jedi Order in the movie Star Wars who learn to use "the Force" to do good, VWF may be considered the Jedi knight of the bloodstream. The long length of VWF enables responsiveness to flow. The shape of VWF is predicted to alter from irregularly coiled to extended thread-like in the transition from shear to elongational flow at sites of hemostasis and thrombosis. Elongational force propagated through the length of VWF in its thread-like shape exposes its monomers for multimeric binding to platelets and subendothelium and likely also increases affinity of the A1 domain for platelets. Specialized domains concatenate and compact VWF during biosynthesis. A2 domain unfolding by hydrodynamic force enables postsecretion regulation of VWF length. Mutations in VWF in von Willebrand disease contribute to and are illuminated by VWF biology. I attempt to integrate classic studies on the physiology of hemostatic plug formation into modern molecular understanding, and point out what remains to be learned.

  15. Contemporary issues in the management of von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Federici, Augusto B; Königs, Christoph; James, Andra H

    2016-08-31

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. Bleeding scores in VWD, focused in particular on mucosal bleeding, can be very useful in the diagnosis and validation of different types of treatment. The results of an extended prospective study with a large amount of information on clinical phenotype and implications in treatment are reviewed in this article. Treatment of mucosal and joint bleeding in severe VWD remains difficult in some patients. Due to the lack of data on the use of prophylaxis in these patients it is difficult to establish optimal treatment regimens. An overview of the literature, with a focus on the ongoing PRO.WILL study, is provided here. Furthermore, understanding the changes in von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels during pregnancy is very important for establishing the optimal management strategy for pregnancy and delivery in women with VWD. A recently published prospective observational cohort study in women with and without VWD during the postpartum period provides important data that should allow the improvement of postpartum treatment protocols.

  16. Superfluid high REynolds von Kármán experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Diribarne, P.; Girard, A.; Poncet, J. M.; Herbert, E.; Salort, J.; Baudet, C.; Castaing, B.; Chevillard, L.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Gagne, Y.; Gibert, M.; Hébral, B.; Lehner, Th.; Roche, P.-E.; Saint-Michel, B.; Bon Mardion, M.

    2014-10-01

    The Superfluid High REynolds von Kármán experiment facility exploits the capacities of a high cooling power refrigerator (400 W at 1.8 K) for a large dimension von Kármán flow (inner diameter 0.78 m), which can work with gaseous or subcooled liquid (He-I or He-II) from room temperature down to 1.6 K. The flow is produced between two counter-rotating or co-rotating disks. The large size of the experiment allows exploration of ultra high Reynolds numbers based on Taylor microscale and rms velocity [S. B. Pope, Turbulent Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2000)] (Rλ > 10000) or resolution of the dissipative scale for lower Re. This article presents the design and first performance of this apparatus. Measurements carried out in the first runs of the facility address the global flow behavior: calorimetric measurement of the dissipation, torque and velocity measurements on the two turbines. Moreover first local measurements (micro-Pitot, hot wire,…) have been installed and are presented.

  17. Mutations in the D1 domain of von Willebrand factor impair their propeptide-dependent multimerization, intracellular trafficking and secretion.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Ma, Zhenni; Su, Jian; Wang, Jiong-Wei; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Ling, Jing; Bai, Xia; Ouyang, Wanyan; Wang, Zhaoyue; Yu, Ziqiang; Ruan, Changgeng

    2015-01-01

    We identified three novel mutations (p.Gly39Arg, p.Lys157Glu, p.Cys379Gly) and one previously known mutation (p.Asp141Asn) in the von Willebrand factor propeptide from three von Willebrand disease patients. All four mutations impaired multimerization of von Willebrand factor, due to reduced oxidoreductase activity of isomeric propeptide. These mutations resulted in the endothelial reticulum retention and impaired basal and stimulated secretions of von Willebrand factor. Our results support that the mutations in the D1 domain lead to defective multimerization, intracellular trafficking, and secretion of von Willebrand factor and result in bleeding of patients. PMID:26088471

  18. [Structure and function of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex].

    PubMed

    Müller, G

    1990-03-01

    In the blood plasma factor VIII is bound to the von Willebrand factor. The primary structure of the two proteins were clarified by gene clonation. Factor VIII descends from a precursor protein with 2,351 amino acids by splitting of 19 amino acid residues and is activated by partial proteolysis. In the blood coagulation factor VIII acts as co-factor for the activation of factor X by factor IX in the presence of phospholipids and Ca++ within the intrinsic coagulation system. The formation of the von Willebrand factor takes place by splitting of 22 and 741 amino acid residues, respectively, from pre-pro-von Willebrand factor via pro-von Willebrand factor. The subunits of the von Willebrand factor consist od 2,050 amino acid residues. In the blood plasma the von Willebrand factor is existing as a mixture of multimeres. Receptors of the von Willebrand factor on the thrombocytic membrane are the glycoproteins GPIb and GPIIb/GPIIIa, by means of which the adhesion of thrombocytes at the subendoethelium of the vascular wall and the aggregation of thrombocytes are mediated. PMID:2159676

  19. von Willebrand factor binds to the surface of dendritic cells and modulates peptide presentation of factor VIII.

    PubMed

    Sorvillo, Nicoletta; Hartholt, Robin B; Bloem, Esther; Sedek, Magdalena; ten Brinke, Anja; van der Zwaan, Carmen; van Alphen, Floris P; Meijer, Alexander B; Voorberg, Jan

    2016-03-01

    It has been proposed that von Willebrand factor might affect factor VIII immunogenicity by reducing factor VIII uptake by antigen presenting cells. Here we investigate the interaction of recombinant von Willebrand factor with immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Surprisingly, von Willebrand factor was not internalized by immature dendritic cells, but remained bound to the cell surface. As von Willebrand factor reduces the uptake of factor VIII, we investigated the repertoire of factor VIII presented peptides when in complex with von Willebrand factor. Interestingly, factor VIII-derived peptides were still abundantly presented on major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, even though a reduction of factor VIII uptake by immature dendritic cells was observed. Inspection of peptide profiles from 5 different donors showed that different core factor VIII peptide sequences were presented upon incubation with factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex when compared to factor VIII alone. No von Willebrand factor peptides were detected when immature dendritic cells were pulsed with different concentrations of von Willebrand factor, confirming lack of von Willebrand factor endocytosis. Several von Willebrand factor derived peptides were recovered when cells were pulsed with von Willebrand factor/factor VIII complex, suggesting that factor VIII promotes endocytosis of small amounts of von Willebrand factor by immature dendritic cells. Taken together, our results establish that von Willebrand factor is poorly internalized by immature dendritic cells. We also show that von Willebrand factor modulates the internalization and presentation of factor VIII-derived peptides on major histocompatibility complex class II. PMID:26635035

  20. von Willebrand factor binds to the surface of dendritic cells and modulates peptide presentation of factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, Nicoletta; Hartholt, Robin B.; Bloem, Esther; Sedek, Magdalena; Brinke, Anja ten; van der Zwaan, Carmen; van Alphen, Floris P.; Meijer, Alexander B.; Voorberg, Jan

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that von Willebrand factor might affect factor VIII immunogenicity by reducing factor VIII uptake by antigen presenting cells. Here we investigate the interaction of recombinant von Willebrand factor with immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Surprisingly, von Willebrand factor was not internalized by immature dendritic cells, but remained bound to the cell surface. As von Willebrand factor reduces the uptake of factor VIII, we investigated the repertoire of factor VIII presented peptides when in complex with von Willebrand factor. Interestingly, factor VIII-derived peptides were still abundantly presented on major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, even though a reduction of factor VIII uptake by immature dendritic cells was observed. Inspection of peptide profiles from 5 different donors showed that different core factor VIII peptide sequences were presented upon incubation with factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex when compared to factor VIII alone. No von Willebrand factor peptides were detected when immature dendritic cells were pulsed with different concentrations of von Willebrand factor, confirming lack of von Willebrand factor endocytosis. Several von Willebrand factor derived peptides were recovered when cells were pulsed with von Willebrand factor/factor VIII complex, suggesting that factor VIII promotes endocytosis of small amounts of von Willebrand factor by immature dendritic cells. Taken together, our results establish that von Willebrand factor is poorly internalized by immature dendritic cells. We also show that von Willebrand factor modulates the internalization and presentation of factor VIII-derived peptides on major histocompatibility complex class II. PMID:26635035

  1. Ein stochastisches Modell zur Beschreibung von Signalen in digitalen Schaltungen basierend auf quadratischer Optimierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeberger, V. B.; Maier, P.; Schlichtmann, U.

    2013-07-01

    Die kontinuierlich fortschreitende Miniaturisierung in integrierten Schaltungen führt zu einem erhöhten Modellierungsbedarf verschiedenster Effekte, wie z.B. Alterung oder Stromverbrauch. Diese hängen von den auftretenden Signalen innerhalb der Schaltung ab, wodurch deren statistische Modellierung ein zentrales Problem darstellt. Dieser Beitrag stellt eine neue Methode zur stochastischen Signalmodellierung basierend auf quadratischer Optimierung vor. Die Methode wird mit Hilfe von realen Daten mit existierenden Ansätzen verglichen. Die Testergebnisse zeigen hierbei im vorgestellten Modell einen Genauigkeitszuwachs von bis zu einem Faktor 10 im Vergleich zu bereits existierenden Modellen.

  2. [Scientific theoretical founding of medicine as a natural science by Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)].

    PubMed

    Neumann, J N

    1994-01-01

    In this study an attempt will be made to discuss the epistemological problems in the theory and practice of modern technical medicine in the writings of Hermann von Helmholz. An inquiry into the relationship between von Helmholtz' thinking and the critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant is followed by the characteristics of von Helmholtz' philosophy of science which he himself called "empirical theory". The question of medicine as a science finally leads to the main problem of medical epistemology, viz., the relationship between theoretical knowledge and practice in medicine. In this context the anthropological dimension is brought into consideration.

  3. [Ernst von der Porten : looking for facts before and after forced emigration].

    PubMed

    Goerig, M; Bruijn, L

    2014-10-01

    The Ernst von der Porten medal has been awarded for many years to exceptional personalities by the Alliance of German Anesthesiologists to honor the outstanding achievements of the physician Ernst von der Porten from Hamburg in the development of anesthesiology as an autonomous discipline Only recent access to hitherto inaccessible documents enabled the reconstruction of his final years. He was persecuted and excluded by the National Socialist (NS) regime due to his Jewish roots and finally forced to emigrate. Records revealed that even in the so-called safe exile, degrading treatment and humiliation continued for Ernst von der Porten and his family. He eventually evaded this situation by committing suicide.

  4. Two different anesthetic managements of a patient with von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, I-Ren; Jean, Wei-Horng; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chan; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chuang, Yueh-Hsun; Sun, Wei-Zen

    2006-03-01

    Von Gierke's disease, a form of glycogen storage disturbance, is a rare metabolic disorder with important implications for anesthesiologists. It is caused by the lack of the glucose-6-phosphatase, which is necessary for the liver to convert glycogen to glucose. To avoid severe hypoglycemia, it is crucial to keep oral feeding at intervals 2-3 hr for maintaining a normal blood sugar level. The metabolic derangements of von Gierke's disease may result in serious complications in patients undergoing surgery and anesthesia. We report the anesthetic managements of a patient with von Gierke's disease in two operations with different encounters. PMID:16623410

  5. On conjugate families and Jeffreys priors for von Mises–Fisher distributions

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses characteristics of standard conjugate priors and their induced posteriors in Bayesian inference for von Mises–Fisher distributions, using either the canonical natural exponential family or the more commonly employed polar coordinate parameterizations. We analyze when standard conjugate priors as well as posteriors are proper, and investigate the Jeffreys prior for the von Mises–Fisher family. Finally, we characterize the proper distributions in the standard conjugate family of the (matrix-valued) von Mises–Fisher distributions on Stiefel manifolds. PMID:23805026

  6. The von Restorff effect in rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Reed, P; Richards, A

    1996-06-01

    Two experiments examined the functional equivalence of memory in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) with memory in humans for serially presented items. Memory was assayed with an 8-arm radial maze, in which rats were allowed access to 5 arms of the maze and were then removed. Following a retention interval of 16 min, the rats were replaced in the maze and allowed to retrieve pellets from the 3 unvisited arms. The errors in reentering previously visited arms were noted. Both primacy and recency effects were found as with humans. Presenting a stimulus change after entry to 1 of the maze arms improved recall for that arm relative to when no change occurred. This effect was found using both handling and tone cues, and irrespective of whether the change consisted of presentation or nonpresentation of the cue. These results suggest that rats are subject to a von Restorff-like effect similar to that in humans.

  7. A Powerful Friendship: Theodore von Karman and Hugh L. Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorn, Michael

    2003-01-01

    During their long personal friendship and professional association, Theodore von Karman (1882-1963) and Hugh L. Dryden (1898-1965) exercised a pivotal if somewhat elusive influence over American aeronautics and spaceflight. Both decisive figures in organizing scientists and engineers at home and abroad, both men of undisputed eminence in their technical fields, their range of contacts in government, academia, the armed forces, industry, and professional societies spanned the globe to an extent unparalleled then as now. Moreover, because they coordinated their activities closely, their combined influence far exceeded the sum of each one s individual contributions. This paper illustrates their personal origins as well as the foundations of their friendship, how their relationship became a professional alliance, and their joint impact on the world of aeronautics and astronautics during the twentieth century.

  8. Voluntarism in early psychology: the case of Hermann von Helmholtz.

    PubMed

    De Kock, Liesbet

    2014-05-01

    The failure to recognize the programmatic similarity between (post-)Kantian German philosophy and early psychology has impoverished psychology's historical self-understanding to a great extent. This article aims to contribute to recent efforts to overcome the gaps in the historiography of contemporary psychology, which are the result of an empiricist bias. To this end, we present an analysis of the way in which Hermann von Helmholtz's theory of perception resonates with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Ego-doctrine. It will be argued that this indebtedness is particularly clear when focusing on the foundation of the differential awareness of subject and object in perception. In doing so, the widespread reception of Helmholtz's work as proto-positivist or strictly empiricist is challenged, in favor of the claim that important elements of his theorizing can only be understood properly against the background of Fichte's Ego-doctrine.

  9. Franz von Leydig (1821-1908), pioneer of comparative histology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marlon R

    2012-05-01

    Franz von Leydig, a German histologist and zoologist, is known to every student of human or animal anatomy because of the testicular testosterone-producing cells carrying his name. However, he made many contributions to our knowledge of the fine structure of animal tissues, including more than 200 scientific articles and several books. His most important work, the book Lehrbuch der Histologie des Menschen und der Thiere, established him as a pioneer if not the founder of comparative histology. Leydig taught at three different universities (Würzburg, Tübingen and Bonn) and received many honours from scientific organizations worldwide, including the Royal Society. He died in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, the town of his birth, aged 86 years.

  10. ADAMTS13 and von Willebrand Factor in Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, X. Long

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenesis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) was a mystery for over half a century until the discovery of ADAMTS13. ADAMTS13 is primarily synthesized in the liver, and its main function is to cleave von Willebrand factor (VWF) anchored on the endothelial surface, in circulation, and at the sites of vascular injury. Deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity (<10%) resulting from mutations of the ADAMTS13 gene or autoantibodies against ADAMTS13 causes hereditary or acquired (idiopathic) TTP. ADAMTS13 activity is usually normal or modestly reduced (>20%) in other forms of thrombotic microangiopathy secondary to hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation, infection, and disseminated malignancy or in hemolytic uremic syndrome. Plasma infusion or exchange remains the initial treatment of choice to date, but novel therapeutics such as recombinant ADAMTS13 and gene therapy are under development. Moreover, ADAMTS13 deficiency has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction, stroke, cerebral malaria, and preeclampsia. PMID:25587650

  11. Immunogold labelling of human von Willebrand factor adsorbed to collagen.

    PubMed

    Furlan, M; Robles, R; Lämmle, B; Zimmermann, J; Hunziker, E

    1991-06-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) mediates adhesion of platelets to the exposed subendothelium at sites of vascular injury. This function is expressed through binding of vWF to both collagen and receptors on the platelet membrane. We have developed a new method using immunogold staining and electron microscopy, permitting visualization of human vWF adsorbed to collagen fibrils. The electron micrographs revealed strings of gold beads reflecting the polymeric structure of vWF. Our data showed dramatic differences in the binding of vWF to collagens of different sources: high binding density was observed using a collagen preparation isolated from aortic tissue whereas colloidal gold was virtually absent from tendon collagen. Using the immunogold labelling method we demonstrated that high shear rate enhanced vWF binding to aortic collagen.

  12. Alexander von Humboldt's perceptions of colonial Spanish America.

    PubMed

    Rebok, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an in-depth analysis of Alexander von Humboldt's descriptions and critical comments on the colonial society of the different regions he visited during his well-known expedition through the Americas (1799-1804). The criticisms of colonialism that he expressed, reflecting his personal convictions, have already been the focal point of many studies, but Humboldt also was able to offer a more differentiated assessment through comparisons of regional and local traditions and developments. This essay focuses on his personal diaries, which offer many interesting comments on colonial societies. These considerations and impressions made during the expedition are of particular scholarly value since they were not subject to censorship of any kind. PMID:19852391

  13. Alexander von Humboldt's perceptions of colonial Spanish America.

    PubMed

    Rebok, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an in-depth analysis of Alexander von Humboldt's descriptions and critical comments on the colonial society of the different regions he visited during his well-known expedition through the Americas (1799-1804). The criticisms of colonialism that he expressed, reflecting his personal convictions, have already been the focal point of many studies, but Humboldt also was able to offer a more differentiated assessment through comparisons of regional and local traditions and developments. This essay focuses on his personal diaries, which offer many interesting comments on colonial societies. These considerations and impressions made during the expedition are of particular scholarly value since they were not subject to censorship of any kind.

  14. Ludwig von Bertalanffy's organismic view on the theory of evolution.

    PubMed

    Drack, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Ludwig von Bertalanffy was a key figure in the advancement of theoretical biology. His early considerations already led him to recognize the necessity of considering the organism as a system, as an organization of parts and processes. He termed the resulting research program organismic biology, which he extended to all basic questions of biology and almost all areas of biology, hence also to the theory of evolution. This article begins by outlining the rather unknown (because often written in German) research of Bertalanffy in the field of theoretical biology. The basics of the organismic approach are then described. This is followed by Bertalanffy's considerations on the theory of evolution, in which he used methods from theoretical biology and then introduced his own, organismic, view on evolution, leading to the demand for finding laws of evolution. Finally, his view on the concept of homology is presented.

  15. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  16. SNAP23 Regulates Endothelial Exocytosis of von Willebrand Factor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiuyu; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Lowenstein, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial exocytosis regulates vascular thrombosis and inflammation. The trafficking and release of endothelial vesicles is mediated by SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment protein REceptors) molecules, but the exact identity of endothelial SNAREs has been unclear. Three SNARE molecules form a ternary complex, including isoforms of the syntaxin (STX), vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP), and synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP) families. We now identify SNAP23 as the predominant endothelial SNAP isoform that mediates endothelial exocytosis of von Willebrand Factor (VWF). SNAP23 was localized to the plasma membrane. Knockdown of SNAP23 decreased endothelial exocytosis, suggesting it is important for endothelial exocytosis. SNAP23 interacted with the endothelial exocytic machinery, and formed complexes with other known endothelial SNARE molecules. Taken together, these data suggest that SNAP23 is a key component of the endothelial SNARE machinery that mediates endothelial exocytosis. PMID:26266817

  17. John von Neumann and Klaus Fuchs: an Unlikely Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2010-03-01

    I discuss the origin of the idea of making a fusion (hydrogen) bomb and the physics involved in it, and then turn to the design proposed for one by the unlikely collaborators John von Neumann and Klaus Fuchs in a patent application they filed at Los Alamos in May 1946, which Fuchs passed on to the Russians in March 1948, and which with substantial modifications was tested on the island of Eberiru on the Eniwetok atoll in the South Pacific on May 8, 1951. This test showed that the fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei could be ignited, but that the ignition would not propagate because the heat produced was rapidly radiated away. Meanwhile, Stanislaw Ulam and C.J. Everett had shown that Edward Teller’s Classical Super could not work, and at the end of December 1950, Ulam had conceived the idea of super compression, using the energy of a fission bomb to compress the fusion fuel to such a high density that it would be opaque to the radiation produced. Once Teller understood this, he invented a greatly improved, new method of compression using radiation, which then became the heart of the Ulam-Teller bomb design, which was tested, also in the South Pacific, on November 1, 1952. The Russians have freely acknowledged that Fuchs gave them the fission bomb, but they have insisted that no one gave them the fusion bomb, which grew out of design involving a fission bomb surrounded by alternating layers of fusion and fission fuels, and which they tested on November 22, 1955. Part of the irony of this story is that neither the American nor the Russian hydrogen-bomb programs made any use of the brilliant design that von Neumann and Fuchs had conceived as early as 1946, which could have changed the entire course of development of both programs.

  18. Dynamics of Diffusion Flames in von Karman Swirling Flows Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.

    2002-01-01

    Von Karman swirling flow is generated by the viscous pumping action of a solid disk spinning in a quiescent fluid media. When this spinning disk is ignited in an oxidizing environment, a flat diffusion flame is established adjacent to the disk, embedded in the boundary layer (see the preceding illustration). For this geometry, the conservation equations reduce to a system of ordinary differential equations, enabling researchers to carry out detailed theoretical models to study the effects of varying strain on the dynamics of diffusion flames. Experimentally, the spinning disk burner provides an ideal configuration to precisely control the strain rates over a wide range. Our original motivation at the NASA Glenn Research Center to study these flames arose from a need to understand the flammability characteristics of solid fuels in microgravity where slow, subbuoyant flows can exist, producing very small strain rates. In a recent work (ref. 1), we showed that the flammability boundaries are wider and the minimum oxygen index (below which flames cannot be sustained) is lower for the von Karman flow configuration in comparison to a stagnation-point flow. Adding a small forced convection to the swirling flow pushes the flame into regions of higher strain and, thereby, decreases the range of flammable strain rates. Experiments using downward facing, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) disks spinning in air revealed that, close to the extinction boundaries, the flat diffusion flame breaks up into rotating spiral flames (refs. 2 and 3). Remarkably, the dynamics of these spiral flame edges exhibit a number of similarities to spirals observed in biological systems, such as the electric pulses in cardiac muscles and the aggregation of slime-mold amoeba. The tail of the spiral rotates rigidly while the tip executes a compound, meandering motion sometimes observed in Belousov-Zhabotinskii reactions.

  19. von Neumann's Law: Theoretical and Microgravity Experimental Comparison for Coarsening Diffusion in Bubble Lattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gravity in influencing the theoretical limit for bubble lattice coarsening and aging behavior, otherwise called von Neumann's law, is examined theoretically and experimentally. Preliminary microgravity results will be discussed.

  20. Successful Aortic Aneurysm Repair in a Woman with Severe von Willebrand (Type 3) Disease

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Victoria; Marriott, Kevin; Stanbridge, Rex; Shlebak, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    von Willebrand disease type 3 (VWD3) is a rare but the most severe form of von Willebrand disease; it is due to almost complete lack of von Willebrand factor activity (VWF:RCo). It is inherited as autosomal recessive trait; whilst heterozygote carriers have mild, or no symptoms, patients with VWD3 show severe bleeding symptoms. In the laboratory, this is characterised by undetectable VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, and reduced levels of factor VIII < 0.02 IU/dL. The bleeding is managed with von Willebrand/FVIII factor concentrate replacement therapy. In this rare but challenging case we report on the successful excision and repair of an ascending aortic aneurysm following adequate VWF/FVIII factor concentrate replacement using Haemate-P. PMID:25960895

  1. Alexander von Humboldt's charts of the Earth's magnetic field: an assessment based on modern models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, M.; Korte, M.; Soloviev, A.; Gvishiani, A.

    2010-11-01

    The 19th century witnessed a resurgence of interest in Earth's magnetic field. Both observational and theoretical aspects were involved, and one of the emblematic figures of this period was Alexander von Humboldt. Throughout a long life he maintained a strong interest in a broad area of subjects, however, here we are interested in his role in geomagnetism, and particularly in his pioneering contributions to charting the geomagnetic field. Alexander von Humboldt efforts in measuring and charting the Earth's magnetic field are recounted and the maps of declination, inclination and total intensity he had prepared are compared, favorably, with maps for the same epoch based on a modern model of the geomagnetic field, gufm1. This modern assessment of the accuracy of von Humboldt's geomagnetic charts illustrates the importance of his work, being also our homage to the 150th anniversary of the death of Alexander von Humboldt.

  2. President Kennedy, Vice President Johnson and Dr. von Braun at Redstone Airfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President John F. Kennedy, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson and Marshall Space Flight Center Director Dr. Wernher von Braun at the Redstone Arsenal Airfield, September 11, 1962. Kennedy and Johnson visited the Marshall Center to tour national space facilities.

  3. Wilhelm Julius Foerster und die "Vereinigung von Freunden der Astronomie und kosmischen Physik" (1891 bis 1914).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, K.-H.

    Am 19. Mai 1891 wurde ins Leben gerufen die "Vereinigung von Freunden der Astronomie und der kosmischen Physik (nachfolg.: V.A.P.) - eine der beiden institutionellen Vorläufer der sich 1953 konstituierenden "Vereinigung der Sternfreunde".

  4. APOLLO 14 DR. WERNHER VON BRAUN WATCHES FROM FIRING ROOM 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, the NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Future Programs, uses binoculars to monitor data on closed- circuit television screens in Firing Room 2 of the Launch Control Center during final Apollo 14 launch preparations today.

  5. Dr. Wernher Von Braun leads a tour of the S-IC checkout area.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Eberhard Rees, Charles Schultze, James Webb, Elmer Staats, Comptroller General of the United States, and Dr. Wernher Von Braun tour the S-IC checkout area in the Marshall Space Flight Center quality lab.

  6. Postpartum von Willebrand factor levels in women with and without von Willebrand disease and implications for prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    James, A H; Konkle, B A; Kouides, P; Ragni, M V; Thames, B; Gupta, S; Sood, S; Fletcher, S K; Philipp, C S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the fall in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII activity (FVIII) after childbirth in women with and without von Willebrand disease (VWD). VWF:RCo, VWF:Ag, and FVIII were obtained in the third trimester of pregnancy, on admission for childbirth, and 10 times postpartum. Specimens were processed within 4 h and analysed centrally. Means were calculated at each time point. Forty women (40 pregnancies) without VWD and 32 women (35 pregnancies) with VWD were enrolled. 15/32 with VWD were treated (30% of those with type 1 and all of those with type 2) in 17 pregnancies. Treatments prior to delivery consisted of desmopressin (2/17), VWF concentrate (15/17) and after delivery VWF concentrate (16/17). Duration of treatment was 0-21 days (median 6). VWF levels peaked at 250% of baseline--4 h postpartum in women with VWD and 12 h postpartum in women without VWD. Thereafter, VWF levels fell rapidly, approached baseline at 1 week and reached baseline at 3 weeks. Except immediately postpartum, when the levels among treated cases were higher, levels among women with VWD appeared to parallel, but were lower than those among women without VWD. Levels were lowest among those who received treatment. VWF levels fall rapidly after childbirth. Except immediately postpartum, current treatment strategies do not raise VWF levels to the levels of women without VWD or even to the levels of women with milder, untreated VWD. Consequently, women with VWD may be at risk of postpartum haemorrhage despite treatment.

  7. In memory of Eugene (Jenő) von Gothard: a pioneering nineteenth century Hungarian astrophysicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincze, Ildikő J.; Jankovics, István

    2012-07-01

    Eugene von Gothard was a Hungarian engineer/scientist, instrument-maker and astrophysicist who founded the Herény Astrophysical Observatory in 1881 and carried out pioneering work in astronomical photography and spectroscopy. In this paper we provide biographical material about von Gothard and describe his observatory, before discussing his astronomical observations and the contribution that hemade to the early development of astrophysics.

  8. Neuere Untersuchungen zur Prädiktion von EEG-Signalen bei Epilepsie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederhöfer, C.; Tetzlaff, R.

    2007-06-01

    Seit einigen Jahren ist die Analyse von EEG-Signalen bei Epilepsie Gegenstand zahlreicher wissenschaftlicher Arbeiten; Zielvorstellung ist dabei die Entwicklung von Verfahren zur Erkennung eines möglichen Voranfallszustandes. Im Vordergrund steht beispielsweise die Approximation einer so genannten effektiven Korrelationsdimension, die Bestimmung der maximalen Lyapunov-Exponenten, Detektionsverfahren für Muster bei Zellularen Nichtlinearen Netzwerken, die Bestimmung der mittleren Phasenkohärenz und Verfahren zur nichtlinearen Prädiktion von EEG-Signalen. Trotz umfangreicher Bemühungen kann bis heute eine Erkennung von Anfallsvorboten mit einer Sensitivität und Spezifität, die eine automatisierte Anfallsvorhersage ermöglichen würde, noch nicht durchgeführt werden. In diesem Beitrag werden neue Ergebnisse zur Prädiktion von EEG-Signalen bei Epilepsie vorgestellt. Dabei werden Signale, welche mittels intrakranieller electrocorticographischer (ECoG) und stereoelectroencephalographischer (SEEG) Ableitungen registriert wurden, segmentweise analysiert. Unter der Annahme, dass sich Änderungen des Systems ,,Gehirn" als Änderungen im Prädiktor, d.h. in seinen Systemparametern widerspiegeln, könnte eine nähere Betrachtung der Prädiktoreigenschaften zu einer Erkennung von Anfallsvorboten führen.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor-10 signals development of von Brunn's nests in the exstrophic bladder.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Rocky; Leaf, Elizabeth M; Zhang, Dianzhong; True, Lawrence D; Sweet, Robert M; Seidel, Kristy; Siebert, Joseph R; Grady, Richard; Mitchell, Michael E; Bassuk, James A

    2010-11-01

    von Brunn's nests have long been recognized as precursors of benign lesions of the urinary bladder mucosa. We report here that von Brunn's nests are especially prevalent in the exstrophic bladder, a birth defect that predisposes the patient to formation of bladder cancer. Cells of von Brunn's nest were found to coalesce into a stratified, polarized epithelium which surrounds itself with a capsule-like structure rich in types I, III, and IV collagen. Histocytochemical analysis and keratin profiling demonstrated that nested cells exhibited a phenotype similar, but not identical, to that of urothelial cells of transitional epithelium. Immunostaining and in situ hybridization analysis of exstrophic tissue demonstrated that the FGF-10 receptor is synthesized and retained by cells of von Brunn's nest. In contrast, FGF-10 is synthesized and secreted by mesenchymal fibroblasts via a paracrine pathway that targets basal epithelial cells of von Brunn's nests. Small clusters of 10pRp cells, positive for both FGF-10 and its receptor, were observed both proximal to and inside blood vessels in the lamina propria. The collective evidence points to a mechanism where von Brunn's nests develop under the control of the FGF-10 signal transduction system and suggests that 10pRp cells may be the original source of nested cells.

  10. Bayesian estimation of slip distribution based on von Karman autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, A. J.; Bekaert, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Geodetic observations from techniques such as InSAR and GNSS are routinely used to invert for earthquake fault slip distributions. However, in order to regularize the inversions, extra arbitrary assumptions about the smoothness of the slip distribution are usually included. In previous work we explored a new approach for constraining the slip distribution based on a random vector model following a von Karman autocorrelation function, which has empirical support from a stochastic analysis of seismic finite-source slip inversions. We implemented the random vector constraint in a Bayesian fashion and used a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to derive the posterior joint probability distribution for each of the slipping patches. The von Karman function depends on two parameters: correlation length and Hurst number (related to fractal dimension). In our inversions we used the empirically derived maximum likelihood values for these two parameters, which differ in along-strike and down-dip directions, and with fault mechanism. However, the inversion results depend strongly on the chosen values for correlation length and Hurst number, and the empirically derived histograms show that there is in fact quite some variation between earthquakes with the same mechanism. In our extended approach we treat these two parameters as hyperparameters, with the prior probability distribution constrained by the empirical histograms. The values are thus also allowed to vary in our Bayesian inversion scheme. In this way, the uncertainty in the parameters that define the autocorrelation function is also included in the posterior probability distribution for the slipping patches. To ensure that our MCMC algorithm converges rapidly, we have implemented a variation to the usual MCMC approach, in which the maximum step size for each of the model parameters is initially updated regularly, until optimal values are achieved. In comparisons between our new approach and a more standard

  11. Edge-Flames in Von Karman Swirling Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.

    1999-01-01

    Classical understanding of diffusion flames dictates that they, unlike the premixed flames, do not possess a characteristic propagation velocity and are constrained by stoichiometric requirements at the flame surface. However, it has been commonly observed that when local extinction occurs within a diffusion flame sheet, the edges that are formed propagate with distinct speeds. In general, the propagation speed of these edges depend on their geometrical shape (concave, convex, or straight) among other factors. Recently, Buckmaster investigated the dynamics of straight diffusion flame edges separating burning and quenched regions using simplified one-dimensional models. He showed that these flame edges can have positive, negative, or zero velocity depending on the Damkoehler number of the equilibrium diffusion flame that support them. It was also shown that this unsteady flame-edge behavior is intrinsically linked to S-curve behavior of the diffusion flame with varying Damkoehler number. When the system Damkoehler number lies between the extinction and ignition limits, flame edges can propagate as an "ignition wave" or as a "failure wave," and for a critical Damkoehler number remain as a stationary flame-edge. We have extend Buckmaster's 1-d model to more general edge-flame configurations where the edges appear as "flame holes" or as "flame disks". These two configurations along with the straight-edge case cover the entire range of possible edge-flame geometry observable in planar diffusion-flame sheets. A generalized map of edge-flame propagation velocities as a function of the system Damkoehler number and the edge-flame radius is presented. Experimentally we show that edge flames can be created using diffusion flames embedded in von Karman boundary layers. In a von Karman boundary layer, the flow is generated by spinning a solid (fuel) disk in a quiescent ambient gas. Under normal gravity we were able to produce "flame disks" over a range of fuel-disk rotational

  12. Schirmwirkung von Hochfrequenz (HF)-Schutzkleidung: Untersuchung verschiedener Konstruktionsmerkmale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arps, V.; Scheibe, K.

    2005-05-01

    Die Messverfahren zur Bestimmung der Schutzwirkung von HF-Schutzkleidung sind in der Norm DIN 32780-100 festgelegt. Entsprechend diesen Anforderungen wird die elektrische und magnetische Schirmdämpfung bestimmt und daraus als Maß für die Schutzwirkung die elektromagnetische Schirmdämpfung berechnet. Diese ist eine der SAR vergleichbare Größe. In diesem Beitrag werden die Einflüsse verschiedener Konstruktionsmerkmale von HF-Schutzanzügen auf die elektromagnetische Schirmdämpfung untersucht. Zu diesen gehören die nach MIL STD 285 vermessene elektrische Schirmdämpfung der verwendeten Gewebe. Weiter werden verschiedene Teilbereiche der HF-Schutzkleidung auf ihre Schutzwirkung untersucht. Der Schwerpunkt liegt hierbei auf der Fragestellung inwieweit Verschlüsse, Reißverschlüsse oder leitfähiges Klettband, die Schutzwirkung beeinträchtigen. Zu diesem Zweck werden zwei Schutzanzüge unterschiedlicher Konstruktion vergleichend vermessen. Es handelt sich dabei um einen bereits im Handel befindlichen und entsprechend der Norm zertifizierten Anzug und einen neuen Prototyp, welcher nach verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten optimiert wurde. Schwachstellen der Konstruktion werden herausgearbeitet und Ansatzpunkte für weitere Verbesserungen erarbeitet. The measuring methods for determining the shielding effectiveness of radiofrequency (RF)-protective clothing are defined in German Standard DIN 32780-100. According to this standard, both the electric and the magnetic shielding effectiveness are measured in order to calculate the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. The electromagnetic shielding effectiveness is an adequate quality criterion for the degree of protection and also compares well with the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). In this article, the impact of different design features on the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness is analyzed. The electric shielding effectiveness of the used shielding materials is measured according to MIL STD 285 and thereupon

  13. Developmentally arrested structures preceding cerebellar tumors in von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed

    Shively, Sharon B; Falke, Eric A; Li, Jie; Tran, Maxine G B; Thompson, Eli R; Maxwell, Patrick H; Roessler, Erich; Oldfield, Edward H; Lonser, Russell R; Vortmeyer, Alexander O

    2011-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that suggests that knockout of tumor-suppressor gene function causes developmental arrest and protraction of cellular differentiation. In the peripheral nervous system of patients with the tumor-suppressor gene disorder, von Hippel-Lindau disease, we have demonstrated developmentally arrested structural elements composed of hemangioblast progenitor cells. Some developmentally arrested structural elements progress to a frank tumor, hemangioblastoma. However, in von Hippel-Lindau disease, hemangioblastomas are frequently observed in the cerebellum, suggesting an origin in the central nervous system. We performed a structural and topographic analysis of cerebellar tissues obtained from von Hippel-Lindau disease patients to identify and characterize developmentally arrested structural elements in the central nervous system. We examined the entire cerebella of five tumor-free von Hippel-Lindau disease patients and of three non-von Hippel-Lindau disease controls. In all, 9 cerebellar developmentally arrested structural elements were detected and topographically mapped in 385 blocks of von Hippel-Lindau disease cerebella. No developmentally arrested structural elements were seen in 214 blocks from control cerebella. Developmentally arrested structural elements are composed of poorly differentiated cells that express hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)2α, but not HIF1α or brachyury, and preferentially involve the molecular layer of the dorsum cerebelli. For the first time, we identify and characterize developmentally arrested structural elements in the central nervous system of von Hippel-Lindau patients. We provide evidence that developmentally arrested structural elements in the cerebellum are composed of developmentally arrested hemangioblast progenitor cells in the molecular layer of the dorsum cerebelli.

  14. Distinguishability of countable quantum states and von Neumann lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    The condition for distinguishability of a countably infinite number of pure states by a single measurement is given. Distinguishability is to be understood as the possibility of an unambiguous measurement. For a finite number of states, it is known that the necessary and sufficient condition of distinguishability is that the states are linearly independent. For an infinite number of states, several natural classes of distinguishability can be defined. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a system of pure states to be distinguishable. It turns out that each level of distinguishability naturally corresponds to one of the generalizations of linear independence to families of infinite vectors. As an important example, we apply the general theory to von Neumann’s lattice, a subsystem of coherent states which corresponds to a lattice in the classical phase space. We prove that the condition for distinguishability is that the area of the fundamental region of the lattice is greater than the Planck constant, and also find subtle behavior on the threshold. These facts reveal the measurement theoretical meaning of the Planck constant and give a justification for the interpretation that it is the smallest unit of area in the phase space. The cases of uncountably many states and of mixed states are also discussed.

  15. Scaling of Von Neumann Entropy at the Anderson Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Sudip

    Extensive body of work has shown that for the model of a non-interacting electron in a random potential there is a quantum critical point for dimensions greater than two — a metal-insulator transition. This model also plays an important role in the plateau-to-plateu transition in the integer quantum Hall effect, which is also correctly captured by a scaling theory. Yet, in neither of these cases the ground state energy shows any non-analyticity as a function of a suitable tuning parameter, typically considered to be a hallmark of a quantum phase transition, similar to the non-analyticity of the free energy in a classical phase transition. Here we show that von Neumann entropy (entanglement entropy) is non-analytic at these phase transitions and can track the fundamental changes in the internal correlations of the ground state wave function. In particular, it summarizes the spatially wildly fluctuating intensities of the wave function close to the criticality of the Anderson transition. It is likely that all quantum phase transitions can be similarly described.

  16. Empathy and identification in Von Donnersmarck's The Lives of Others.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Diana

    2008-09-01

    Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck's The Lives of Others, set in the German Democratic Republic in 1984, five years before the fall of the Berlin Wall, has been called the first accurate depiction of the psychological terror wielded by the Stasi, the East German secret police, who safeguarded the dictatorship of the proletariat. The film is about the psychological and political transformation of a Stasi officer, Wiesler, who undertakes the surveillance of a prominent playwright and his actress lover. The mechanisms through which Wiesler comes to empathize and identify with the subjects of his investigation, as he observes and listens in on the rich blend of passion, poetry, and politics that characterizes their lives, are explored in depth. Wiesler's transformation is based in part on the capacity to form implicit models of the behavior and experiences of others, based on the mirror neuron system, that Gallese and his colleagues call "embodied simulation." Underpinning the processes of empathy and identification so central to this film, embodied simulation is an unconscious and prereflexive mechanism through which the actions, emotions, and sensations we observe activate internal representations of the bodily and mental states of the other. Embodied simulation also expands our understanding of the power of the primal scene, which has long been identified as a major organizer of unconscious fantasies and conflicts throughout life, and which forms the central metaphor of the film. Embodied simulation scaffolds our aesthetic response to art, music, and literature, underlies the dynamics of spectatorship, and potentially catalyzes resistance to totalitarian mass movements. PMID:18802131

  17. Von recklinghausen disease: one patient – various problems

    PubMed Central

    Miziołek, B; Brzezińska-Wcisło, L

    2016-01-01

    Abstract von Recklinghausen disease (vRD), more widely known as neurofibromatosis type 1, belongs to a group of genetic disorders and it is considered to be the most common genodermatosis. The disease has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance that involves mutations within the NF1 gene located on chromosome 17 in locus q11.2. The product of the NF1 gene is neurofibromin and the protein is well known to be a tumor suppressor factor. This counteracts possible overactivity of RAS (protein)/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and RAS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR (phoshatydyloinositol-3-kinase/V-akt murine thy-moma viral oncogene homologue/mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling transduction pathways, preventing from uncontrolled cell proliferation and subsequent tumor formation. A loss of proper functioning of this protein leads to a development of vRD; however, a large variability in a phenotype of the disease and the onset of cutaneous findings, not necessarily in childhood, may provide a clinical diagnosis of the disease late in adulthood. We present a 52-year-old male in whom the diagnosis of vRD was proposed in the sixth decade of life, despite of multiple nodular lesions disseminated over the skin of the whole body and different neurological disturbances, not considered for a long time as manifestations of genodermatosis.

  18. Front End Schaltung zur Online Auswertung von EKG-Signalen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, E.; Tielert, R.

    2007-06-01

    Ein mobiles EKG-System zur Online Auswertung von EKG-Signalen wird dargestellt. Die Auswertung beruht auf ein energiesparendes Verfahren, das den Vorteil einer zulässigen Unterabtastung des Signals bietet und eine Interaktion zwischen der messenden Elektronik und dem funkgebundenen Auswertungsrechner ermöglicht. Diese Interaktion besteht darin, sowohl die Front End Schaltung im EKG-Sensor als auch den im ATmega8L eingebetteten A/D-Wandler vom Auswertungsrechner zu steuern und den Datenbedarf des Rechners dynamisch an die Erfordernisse des Analyseprogramms anzupassen. Das entwickelte EKG-System liefert erfolgreiche Charakterisierungen erfasster Elektrokardiogramme. A mobile ecg-system for an online analysis of electrocardiogram signals is presented. The analysis is based on an energy-saving procedure, which offers the advantage of an acceptable undersampling of the signal, and which allows an interaction between the measuring electronic and the radio-bound analysis-computer. In this interaction both the front-end circuit in the ecg-sensor and the A/D converter, which is embedded in the ATmega8L, are steered by the analysis computer. The data requirement of the computer is also dynamically adapted to the requirements of the analysis-program. The developed ecg-system supplies successful characterisations of measured electrocardiograms.

  19. [Hermann von Helmholtz and Carl Stumpf on consonance and dissonance].

    PubMed

    Kursell, Julia

    2008-06-01

    The article juxtaposes Hermann von Helmholtz's work in the experimental physiology of hearing and Carl Stumpf's tone psychology, focusing on the problem of consonance and dissonance in music. It argues that the experimental set-up plays a major role in the approaches to hearing of both Helmholtz and Stumpf, shaping their redefinition of the musical concepts of consonance and dissonance. Helmholtz, however, explains dissonance as resulting from the beats that are heard when sound waves interfere, while Stumpf explains consonance from the fusion (Verschmelzung) of sounds, noting that two tones, depending on their distance cannot always be recognized as two but are heard as one single tone. Helmholtz's definition of dissonance eventually threatens his own theory of hearing, which is based on the mechanical principle of resonance and considers sound to be composed of sinusoidal waves. Both the physical and the mathematical tools he uses cannot easily be brought into accordance with his experimental findings on beats, which ask for a discrimination of fast changes in intensity. Dissonance thus becomes "unrecomendable" for Helmholtz, because it overstrains the ear. Stumpf's research, in contrast, has its point of departure in the historically given set of intervals and tries to find a principle that would explain this choice. His tests with experimental subjects who have no conscious knowledge of musical harmony and prove incapable to follow or reproduce music reveals to him a difference between the unity and multiplicity of tones.

  20. Cooperation within von Willebrand factors enhances adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Maziar; Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2015-08-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a naturally collapsed protein that participates in primary haemostasis and coagulation events. The clotting process is triggered by the adsorption and conformational changes of the plasma VWFs localized to the collagen fibres found near the site of injury. We develop coarse-grained models to simulate the adsorption dynamics of VWF flowing near the adhesive collagen fibres at different shear rates and investigate the effect of factors such as interaction and cooperativity of VWFs on the success of adsorption events. The adsorption probability of a flowing VWF confined to the receptor field is enhanced when it encounters an adhered VWF in proximity to the collagen receptors. This enhancement is observed within a wide range of shear rates and is mostly controlled by the attractive van der Waals interactions rather than the hydrodynamic interactions among VWF monomers. The cooperativity between the VWFs acts as an effective mechanism for enhancing VWF adsorption to the collagen fibres. Additionally, this implies that the adsorption of such molecules is nonlinearly dependent on the density of flowing VWFs. These findings are important for studies of primary haemostasis as well as general adsorption dynamics processes in polymer physics.

  1. Multiple von Neumann computers: an evolutionary approach to functional emergence.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H

    1997-01-01

    A novel system composed of multiple von Neumann computers and an appropriate problem environment is proposed and simulated. Each computer has a memory to store the machine instruction program, and when a program is executed, a series of machine codes in the memory is sequentially decoded, leading to register operations in the central processing unit (CPU). By means of these operations, the computer not only can handle its generally used registers but also can read and write the environmental database. Simulation is driven by genetic algorithms (GAs) performed on the population of program memories. Mutation and crossover create program diversity in the memory, and selection facilitates the reproduction of appropriate programs. Through these evolutionary operations, advantageous combinations of machine codes are created and fixed in the population one by one, and the higher function, which enables the computer to calculate an appropriate number from the environment, finally emerges in the program memory. In the latter half of the article, the performance of GAs on this system is studied. Under different sets of parameters, the evolutionary speed, which is determined by the time until the domination of the final program, is examined and the conditions for faster evolution are clarified. At an intermediate mutation rate and at an intermediate population size, crossover helps create novel advantageous sets of machine codes and evidently accelerates optimization by GAs.

  2. [Hans von Hattingberg between psychoanalysis and National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Keifenheim, Katharina Eva

    2011-01-01

    Hans von Hattingberg (1879-1944) worked as a neurologist and psychoanalyst in Munich and Berlin from about 1910 to 1944. He was a prolific writer, but met with increasing disapproval from Freud and his circle. An advocate of the union of different psychotherapeutic schools, he was initially a marginal figure in the professional field. With Hitler's rise to power his career prospered: He was offered the position of a lecturer for psychotherapy and became head of the research department at the "Göring Institute". He came to prominence with his writings on the "Neue deutsche Seelenheilkunde" despite the fact that this was never his preferred topic. The main themes of his publications were marriage, love and female emancipation. Those works contain only little of the standard Nazi ideology of the time. Not only was Hattingberg never a member of the NSDAP (the ruling party), but in some respects he could conceivably be considered a member of the resistance. The article outlines the most important stages of Hattingberg's life and focuses on the question of how he positioned himself after 1933, when it became vital for him to reconcile psychoanalysis and National Socialism.

  3. Empathy and identification in Von Donnersmarck's The Lives of Others.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Diana

    2008-09-01

    Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck's The Lives of Others, set in the German Democratic Republic in 1984, five years before the fall of the Berlin Wall, has been called the first accurate depiction of the psychological terror wielded by the Stasi, the East German secret police, who safeguarded the dictatorship of the proletariat. The film is about the psychological and political transformation of a Stasi officer, Wiesler, who undertakes the surveillance of a prominent playwright and his actress lover. The mechanisms through which Wiesler comes to empathize and identify with the subjects of his investigation, as he observes and listens in on the rich blend of passion, poetry, and politics that characterizes their lives, are explored in depth. Wiesler's transformation is based in part on the capacity to form implicit models of the behavior and experiences of others, based on the mirror neuron system, that Gallese and his colleagues call "embodied simulation." Underpinning the processes of empathy and identification so central to this film, embodied simulation is an unconscious and prereflexive mechanism through which the actions, emotions, and sensations we observe activate internal representations of the bodily and mental states of the other. Embodied simulation also expands our understanding of the power of the primal scene, which has long been identified as a major organizer of unconscious fantasies and conflicts throughout life, and which forms the central metaphor of the film. Embodied simulation scaffolds our aesthetic response to art, music, and literature, underlies the dynamics of spectatorship, and potentially catalyzes resistance to totalitarian mass movements.

  4. Ludwig von Bertalanffy's Organismic View on the Theory of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Drack, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Ludwig von Bertalanffy was a key figure in the advancement of theoretical biology. His early considerations already led him to recognize the necessity of considering the organism as a system, as an organization of parts and processes. He termed the resulting research program organismic biology, which he extended to all basic questions of biology and almost all areas of biology, hence also to the theory of evolution. This article begins by outlining the rather unknown (because often written in German) research of Bertalanffy in the field of theoretical biology. The basics of the organismic approach are then described. This is followed by Bertalanffy's considerations on the theory of evolution, in which he used methods from theoretical biology and then introduced his own, organismic, view on evolution, leading to the demand for finding laws of evolution. Finally, his view on the concept of homology is presented. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 77–90, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25727202

  5. VASCULOGENESIS IN VON HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE ASSOCIATED TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Lonser, Russell R.; Frerich, Jason; Huntoon, Kristin; Yang, Chunzhang; Merrill, Marsha; Abdullaev, Ziedulla; Pack, Svetlana; Shively, Sharon; Stamp, Gordon; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging data indicate that von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) associated tumors arise from embryologic hemangioblasts that can form vessels (endothelial cells) and blood cells. Nevertheless, the origin of VHL-associated vasculature is not known. To determine the origin of VHL-associated tumor vasculature, we investigated the neoplastic vasculature from VHL patients. METHODS: Microdissected VHL-associated tumor (compared to control non-VHL tissues) vascular features were examined using immunohistochemical staining for CA9, HIF-2a, HIF-1a, CD31 and Factor VIIIa. Origin of tumor vascular elements (tumor versus non-tumor) was assessed by LOH and FISH analysis. Intratumoral vasculogenesis was assessed in vivo using the VHL-deficient UMRC6 renal carcinoma murine xenograft model. RESULTS: We demonstrate that isolated vascular structures and blood vessels within VHL-associated neoplasms (including hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinoma and pancreatic tumors) are a result of tumor-derived vasculogenesis. Further, similar to hemangioblastomas, other VHL-associated neoplasms possess vascular tissue of tumor origin. Similarly, tumor-derived endothelial cells emerge within implanted VHL deficient UMRC6 renal cell carcinoma murine xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: These findings further establish the embryologic, developmentally arrested, hemangioblast as the tumor cell of origin for VHL-associated hemangioblastomas and indicate that it is also the progenitor cell for other VHL-associated tumors. SECONDARY CATEGORY: Neuropathology & Tumor Biomarkers.

  6. [Heinrich von Kleist--crisis and creative overcoming].

    PubMed

    Schlimme, J

    2001-07-01

    Heinrich von Kleist's life was shaken repeatedly by negative life-events, finally he committed suicide in his last life-crisis (1811). His work was mostly understood as descriptions of negative life-events and failed-being. In this article it will be shown that in at least two "crises" Kleist's work can be understood as a creative overcome of those. Kleist shows in his "Essay to Find a Sure Way to Happiness" (1799) his way of solving his "Soldier-Crisis" (1798), a depressive episode. In "The Broken Jug" (1802 - 1805) he shows the implications of a philosophical problem experienced in his "Kant-Crisis" (1801) and offers chances to overcome this particular crisis, which still seems to be an actual problem of ourselves. Though his crises must be understood as depressive episodes, at least the "Kant-Crisis" with its connections to philosophical and artistical matters seems to be more complicated than a simple depressive syndrome. Kleist formulates his basic life-experience, to be repeatedly shaken by "crises" respectively depressive episodes and the necessity to overcome each in a new way of living.

  7. Emperor Ashoka: Did he suffer from von Recklinghausen's diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Wig, N. N.; Sharma, Sheetal

    2015-01-01

    Emperor Ashoka is widely regarded as one of the greatest rulers of India. This paper mainly deals with his medical condition as recorded in the Buddhist texts of Sri Lanka as well as in the Buddhist texts of North India and Nepal. These sources mention his skin disorder which is described as very rough and unpleasant to touch. He is also known to have episodes of loss of consciousness at various times in his life. One of the earliest representations of Ashoka, about 100 years after his death at one of the gates of Sanchi Stupa, shows Ashoka fainting when visiting the Bodhi tree and being held by his queens. In this sculpture, Emperor Ashoka is shown as a man of short height, large head and a paunchy abdomen. In this paper, it is speculated that Emperor Ashoka was probably suffering from von Recklinghausen disease (Neurofibromatosis Type 1), which could explain his skin condition, episodes of loss of consciousness (probably epilepsy) and other bodily deformities. PMID:25657467

  8. Minimal Coupling in Koopman-von Neumann Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozzi, E.; Mauro, D.

    2002-03-01

    Classical mechanics (CM), like quantum mechanics (QM), can have an operatorial formulation. This was pioneered by Koopman and von Neumann (KvN) in the 1930s. They basically formalized, via the introduction of a classical Hilbert space, earlier work of Liouville who had shown that the classical time evolution can take place via an operator, nowadays known as the Liouville operator. In this paper we study how to perform the coupling of a point particle to a gauge field in the KvN version of CM. So we basically implement at the classical operatorial level the analog of the minimal coupling of QM. We show that, differently than in QM, not only the momenta but also other variables have to be coupled to the gauge field. We also analyze in detail how the gauge invariance manifests itself in the Hilbert space of KvN and indicate the differences with QM. As an application of the KvN method we study the Landau problem proving that there are many more degeneracies at the classical operatorial level than at the quantum one. As a second example we go through the Aharonov-Bohm phenomenon showing that, at the quantum level, this phenomenon manifests its effects on the spectrum of the quantum Hamiltonian while at the classical level there is no effect whatsoever on the spectrum of the Liouville operator.

  9. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker - physicist and philosopher].

    PubMed

    Drieschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the philosopher Carl Friedrich von weizsäcker, especially under the aspect of the relation between physics and philosophy in his works. The decisive role of time in physics as well as in philosophy is described, and thereof is derived the comprehension of probability as a predicted relative frequency. Consequently quantum mechanics is interpreted as a theory of probability that uses "quantum logic" instead of classical propositional logic that is used in "normal" probability. The philosophical fruit of that is the interpretation of potentiality as the modality of the future. Weizsäcker's proposals for a justification of physics a priori are dealt with as well as his approach to a theory of "ur-objects", which are atoms in the strictest sense: q-bits.--Questions of Weizsäcker's personality are addressed: His role in the development of the nuclear reactor and atomic bomb in Nazi time, his enthusiasm and his religiousness as well as his efforts towards world peace.

  10. Early turbulence in von Karman swirling flow of polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We present quantitative experimental results on the transition to early turbulence in von Karman swirling flow of water- and water-sugar-based polymer solutions compared to the transition to turbulence in their Newtonian solvents by measurements of solely global quantities as torque Γ(t) and pressure p(t) with large statistics as a function of Re. For the first time the transition values of Re_c\\textit{turb} to fully developed turbulence and turbulent drag reduction regime Re_c\\textit{TDR} are obtained as functions of elasticity El by using the solvents with different viscosities and polymer concentrations ϕ. Two scaling regions for fundamental turbulent characteristics are identified and they correspond to the turbulent and TDR regimes. Both Re_c\\textit{turb} and Re_c\\textit{TDR} are found via the dependence of the friction coefficient Cf and Cp, defined through scaled average torque \\barΓ and rms pressure fluctuations p\\textit{rms} , respectively, on Re for different El and ϕ and via the limits of the two scaling regions.

  11. von Willebrand factor binds to platelets and induces aggregation in platelet-type but not type IIB von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J L; Kupinski, J M; Castella, A; Ruggeri, Z M

    1983-01-01

    Platelet-type von Willebrand disease (vWD) and pseudo-vWD are two recently described intrinsic platelet defects characterized by enhanced ristocetin-induced agglutination in platelet-rich plasma. A similar finding is also typical of type IIB vWD, where it has been related to a von Willebrand factor (vWF) rather than a platelet abnormality. Platelet aggregation induced by unmodified human vWF in the absence of other stimuli has been reported in pseudo-vWD. In this study we demonstrate that vWF induces aggregation in platelet-type but not type IIB vWD. Aggregation is observed when normal plasma cryoprecipitate or purified vWF are added to platelet-rich plasma. Cryoprecipitate also aggregates washed platelets, although at higher concentrations than required for platelet-rich plasma. Purified vWF, however, induces significant aggregation of washed platelets only when plasma is added. EDTA inhibits vWF-induced aggregation. Its effect can be overcome by calcium but much less effectively by magnesium ions. Unstimulated platelets in platelet-rich plasma from patients with platelet-type but not type IIB vWD bind 125I-vWF in a specific and saturable manner. All different sized multimers of vWF become associated with platelets. Both aggregation and binding exhibit a similar vWF concentration dependence, suggesting that a correlation exists between these two events. Removal of ADP by appropriate consuming systems is without effect upon such binding or upon vWF-induced aggregation. Thrombin-induced 125I-vWF binding to washed platelets is normal in platelet-type as well as type IIB vWD. These results demonstrate that a specific binding site for unmodified human vWF is exposed on unstimulated platelets in platelet-type vWD. The relatively high vWF concentrations required for aggregation and binding may explain the lack of significant in vivo aggregation and thrombocytopenia in these patients. Moreover, these studies provide additional evidence that platelet-type and type IIB v

  12. Test of Von Baer's law of the conservation of early development.

    PubMed

    Poe, Steven

    2006-11-01

    One of the oldest and most pervasive ideas in comparative embryology is the perceived evolutionary conservation of early ontogeny relative to late ontogeny. Karl Von Baer first noted the similarity of early ontogeny across taxa, and Ernst Haeckel and Charles Darwin gave evolutionary interpretation to this phenomenon. In spite of a resurgence of interest in comparative embryology and the development of mechanistic explanations for Von Baer's law, the pattern itself has been largely untested. Here, I use statistical phylogenetic approaches to show that Von Baer's law is an unnecessarily complex explanation of the patterns of ontogenetic timing in several clades of vertebrates. Von Baer's law suggests a positive correlation between ontogenetic time and amount of evolutionary change. I compare ranked position in ontogeny to frequency of evolutionary change in rank for developmental events and find that these measures are not correlated, thus failing to support Von Baer's model. An alternative model that postulates that small changes in ontogenetic rank are evolutionarily easier than large changes is tentatively supported. PMID:17236417

  13. [A case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy concomitant with acquired von Willebrand syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Maki; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Tateishi, Takahisa; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) concomitant with acquired von Willebrand syndrome. A 33-year-old man developed motor and sensory polyneuropathy with electrophysiological conduction slowing. At this time, M-protein was absent He was diagnosed with CIDP and received intravenous immunoglobulin and subsequent oral corticosteroids, which resulted in almost complete remission for over 10 years. At the age of 44, he presented with chronic anemia. Laboratory tests and colonoscopy revealed that he had acquired von Willebrand syndrome with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgG lambda type) and colon cancer. Bleeding symptoms were.resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin, but not with supplementation of factor VIII. Shortly after successful excision of the cancer, CIDP and acquired von Willebrand syndrome simultaneously recurred. Intravenous immunoglobulin produced rapid improvement of both neurological and hematological abnormalities. Concurring CIDP and acquired von Willebrand syndrome in the present case may indicate that the conditions have a partly common immunological background including monoclonal gammopathy and a potential common autoantibody-mediated mechanism. Alternatively, dysfunction of von Willebrand factor may increase blood-nerve barrier permeability, inducing the recurrence of CIDP.

  14. Test of Von Baer's law of the conservation of early development.

    PubMed

    Poe, Steven

    2006-11-01

    One of the oldest and most pervasive ideas in comparative embryology is the perceived evolutionary conservation of early ontogeny relative to late ontogeny. Karl Von Baer first noted the similarity of early ontogeny across taxa, and Ernst Haeckel and Charles Darwin gave evolutionary interpretation to this phenomenon. In spite of a resurgence of interest in comparative embryology and the development of mechanistic explanations for Von Baer's law, the pattern itself has been largely untested. Here, I use statistical phylogenetic approaches to show that Von Baer's law is an unnecessarily complex explanation of the patterns of ontogenetic timing in several clades of vertebrates. Von Baer's law suggests a positive correlation between ontogenetic time and amount of evolutionary change. I compare ranked position in ontogeny to frequency of evolutionary change in rank for developmental events and find that these measures are not correlated, thus failing to support Von Baer's model. An alternative model that postulates that small changes in ontogenetic rank are evolutionarily easier than large changes is tentatively supported.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Meilensteine der Astronomie - Von Aristoteles bis Hawking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, J.

    2006-12-01

    A writer, more specific a writer on the history of astronomy, might from time to time look at the collected document folders with all the research material and reprints, and might wonder: has this been all? Especially at a time when recycling is in vogue? And, perhaps with a request or an invitation to submit something, he or she might consider re-using the material before its definitive disposal. Well, such are my feelings when I looked at Jurgen Hamel's new book Milestones of Astronomy - From Aristoteles to Hawking . A slight chance for survival of medium-sized publishers like Kosmos is to offer popular books, and a title must attract potential buyers: Aristoteles means the "old" times, and as concerns the "mad scientist" of modern times, Stephen Hawking has by now dethroned Einstein. In 1998, Hamel had published a Geschichte der Astronomie - Von den Anfangen bis zur Gegenwart (History of astronomy, from the beginnings to the present), which, of course, he could not simply copy. This time, he selected some stones from his research areas - milestones, touchstones, stumbling blocks in the long road of astronomical evolution - and put them between the covers of his new book. So let us look at these (mile)stones . The reader is informed about Aristoteles on 2 pages, but his medieval interpreter Johannes de Sacrobosco gets 8 pages! Copernicus' life and achievements are described on 9 pages, closely followed by his devotee and translator Rothmann with 8 pages; Copernicus' contemporary, Peter Apian, however, gets about 13! Bessel's and Herschel's lifes and works are described on well-deserved 13 and 15 pages, while the achievements of the two Lucasian professors, Isaac Newton and Stephen Hawking, are just outlined in a single paragraph! Thus, importance is sometimes inversely proportional to text length... But let us become serious now. Why should an active historian outline, for the hundreth time, the life of Copernicus, while there are so many interesting, and often

  16. Relating sensation seeking and the von Restorff Isolation Effect.

    PubMed

    Cimbalo, Richard S; Clark, Douglas; Matayev, Aleksandr I

    2003-06-01

    Sensation seeking was examined in a short-term memory task involving the serial recall of a 10-item list of consonants with (isolated) and without (non-isolated) a distinctively larger item in the fifth position. 126 students were given the Sensation Seeking Scale Form-V and 32 10-item lists to memorize in a 1 by 3 mixed design. Sensation seeking was a between-subject factor and Blocks (Trials 1-16 and 17-32), Isolation (isolated and nonisolated), and Duration (2 sec. and 10 sec.) were within-subject factors. Generally nonisolated lists and the larger letters (the von Restorff Isolation Effect) were better recalled, with the latter being stronger at the shorter duration. Only the high sensation-seeking group showed a Blocks effect for lists with an isolated item such that there was a greater number of items correct per list in Block 1 than in Block 2. This finding is consistent with the argument that higher scores on sensation seeking are associated with greater cortical arousal and better memory for newness and change. Students with high sensation-seeking scores showed superior memory for the isolated list when it contained an isolate if allowed more processing time. It is argued that high sensation-seeking scores were associated with more effective transfer of items from shorter to longer-term memory. A rapid nontime-dependent perceptual process was used to explain the isolation effect. The poorer overall list performance for the lists with the isolate was explained in terms of the intense nature of the isolate.

  17. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V.; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines—generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89–174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11–2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE. PMID:27224245

  18. Effect of von Willebrand factor on clot structure and lysis.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Rita; Rojas, Héctor

    2015-07-01

    Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) is constitutively secreted by the endothelium and incorporated in the fibrin clots under slow clotting conditions. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of vWF on clot structure and lysis. Purified fibrinogen was mixed with vWF or Tris-buffered saline and clotted with thrombin - activated factor XIII. Fibrin polymerization was followed by turbidity at 350 nm during 2.5 h. After this time, plasmin was added on the top of the clots, and the optical density (OD) was read until baseline values. vWF effect on network[Combining Acute Accent]s porosity was evaluated by permeation using the same clotting conditions as for fibrin polymerization. Clot structure was visualized and analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The rate of fibrin polymerization was 1.47 mOD/s in the presence of vWF and 0.5 mOD/s when vWF was not added (P < 0.05). The fibrin lysis rate was approximately four times faster when vWF was added to fibrinogen. The fibrin network porosity was (20.4 ± 1.6) × 10 cm with vWF and (8.3 ± 1.2) × 10 cm without external vWF (P < 0.05). The analysis of LSCM images showed that vWF increased fibrin fibers diameter and the networks[Combining Acute Accent] pores size. In conclusion, vWF covalently crosslinked to fibrin modify its structure (increases fibrin diameter and the pores filling space of the meshwork) that accelerates the fibrin lysis rate.

  19. Philipp Frank, Richard von Mises, and the Frank-Mises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund-Schultze, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    The theoretical physicist Philipp Frank (1884 1966) and the applied mathematician Richard von Mises (1883 1953) both received their university education in Vienna shortly after 1900 and became friends at the latest during the Great War.They were attached to the Vienna Circle of Logical Positivists and wrote an influential two-part work on the differential and integral equations of mechanics and physics, the Frank-Mises, of 1925 and 1927, with its second edition following in 1930 and 1935.This work originated in the lectures that the mathematician Bernhard Riemann (1826 1866) delivered on partial differential equations and their applications to physical questions at the University of Göttingen between 1854 and 1862, which were edited and published posthumously in1869 by the physicist Karl Hattendorff (1834 1882).The immediate precursor of the Frank-Mises, however, was the extensive revision of Hattendorff’s edition of Riemann’s lectures that the mathematician Heinrich Weber (1842 1913) published in two volumes, the Riemann-Weber, of 1900 and 1901, with its second edition following in 1910 and 1912. I trace this historical lineage, explore the nature and contents of the Frank-Mises, and discuss its complementary relationship to the first volume of the text that the mathematicians Richard Courant (1888 1972) and David Hilbert (1862 1943) published on the methods of mathematical physics in 1924, the Courant-Hilbert,which, when it and its second volume of 1937 were translated into English and extensively revised in 1953 and 1961, eclipsed the classic Frank-Mises.

  20. Von Willebrand factor in the outcome of temporal arteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Cid, M C; Monteagudo, J; Oristrell, J; Vilaseca, J; Pallarés, L; Cervera, R; Font, C; Font, J; Ingelmo, M; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine fluctuation in circulating von Willebrand factor (vWF) in the outcome of patients with temporal arteritis. METHODS: Plasma vWF antigen concentrations were measured in 65 patients with biopsy proven temporal arteritis at different disease activity stages, in 12 with isolated polymyalgia rheumatica, and in 16 controls. Fourteen temporal arteritis patients underwent serial determinations during the course of their disease. RESULTS: vWF concentrations were significantly raised in temporal arteritis (mean 220 [arbitrary units], range 96 to 720) and in polymyalgia rheumatica (mean 196, range 103 to 266) compared with healthy controls (mean 98, range 75 to 137) (P < 0.05). Although vWF values tended to be higher in temporal arteritis, no significant differences were found between temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica patients nor between temporal arteritis patients with ischaemic complications (mean 269, range 130 to 720) and those who presented with polymyalgia rheumatica or constitutional symptoms only (mean 179, range 140 to 220). The highest levels were obtained in patients with associated, mainly infectious, diseases (mean 631, range 240 to 1680). Raised vWF values found in active temporal arteritis patients (mean 220, range 96 to 720) persisted within the first two years after the beginning of treatment (mean 244, range 102 to 510) but tended to normalise in patients in long term remission (mean 143, range 50 to 260). CONCLUSIONS: Persistent elevation of vWF during early remission of temporal arteritis might represent an endothelial activation status induced by a remaining inflammatory microenvironment rather than a marker of endothelial cell injury. In long term remission, decreasing vWF concentrations might reflect progression of inflammatory lesions to a healing stage. PMID:9014589

  1. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Nada; Bereczky-Veress, Biborka; Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines-generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89-174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11-2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE.

  2. Evaluation of von Willebrand factor in COPD patients*

    PubMed Central

    Bártholo, Thiago Prudente; da Costa, Cláudia Henrique; Rufino, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the absolute serum von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels and relative serum vWF activity in patients with clinically stable COPD, smokers without airway obstruction, and healthy never-smokers. METHODS: The study included 57 subjects, in three groups: COPD (n = 36); smoker (n = 12); and control (n = 9). During the selection phase, all participants underwent chest X-rays, spirometry, and blood testing. Absolute serum vWF levels and relative serum vWF activity were obtained by turbidimetry and ELISA, respectively. The modified Medical Research Council scale (cut-off score = 2) was used in order to classify COPD patients as symptomatic or mildly symptomatic/asymptomatic. RESULTS: Absolute vWF levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the smoker and COPD groups: 989 ± 436 pg/mL vs. 2,220 ± 746 pg/mL (p < 0.001) and 1,865 ± 592 pg/mL (p < 0.01). Relative serum vWF activity was significantly higher in the COPD group than in the smoker group (136.7 ± 46.0% vs. 92.8 ± 34.0%; p < 0.05), as well as being significantly higher in the symptomatic COPD subgroup than in the mildly symptomatic/asymptomatic COPD subgroup (154 ± 48% vs. 119 ± 8%; p < 0.05). In all three groups, there was a negative correlation between FEV1 (% of predicted) and relative serum vWF activity (r2 = −0.13; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that increases in vWF levels and activity contribute to the persistence of systemic inflammation, as well as increasing cardiovascular risk, in COPD patients. PMID:25210959

  3. "'And They Lived Happily Ever After": The Fairy Tale of Radical Constructivism and Von Glasersfeld's Ethical Disengagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agnese, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    Is von Glasersfeld's constructivism actually radical? In this article, I respond to this question by analyzing von Glasersfeld's main works. I argue that the essential theoretical move of radical constructivism--namely the assertion that reality is the construction of a human mind that only responds to the subjective perception of "what…

  4. Estimating the probability distribution of von Mises stress for structures undergoing random excitation. Part 1: Derivation

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.; Reese, G.

    1998-09-01

    The von Mises stress is often used as the metric for evaluating design margins, particularly for structures made of ductile materials. For deterministic loads, both static and dynamic, the calculation of von Mises stress is straightforward, as is the resulting calculation of reliability. For loads modeled as random processes, the task is different; the response to such loads is itself a random process and its properties must be determined in terms of those of both the loads and the system. This has been done in the past by Monte Carlo sampling of numerical realizations that reproduce the second order statistics of the problem. Here, the authors present a method that provides analytic expressions for the probability distributions of von Mises stress which can be evaluated efficiently and with good precision numerically. Further, this new approach has the important advantage of providing the asymptotic properties of the probability distribution.

  5. An Alternative to Von Glasersfeld's Subjectivism in Science Education: Deweyan Social Constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Jim

    An influential view of constructivism in science and mathematics educational research and practice is that of Ernst von Glasersfeld. It is a peculiarly subjectivist form of constructivism that should not be attractive to science and mathematics educators concerned with retaining some sort of realism that leaves room for objectivity. The subjectivist constructivism of von Glasersfeld also becomes entangled in untenable mind/body and subject/object dualisms. Finally, these dualisms are unnecessary for social constructivism. I will provide one example of a social constructivist alternative to social constructivism, that of the pragmatic philosopher John Dewey. In presenting Dewey's position I will appeal to Ockham's razor, that is, the admonition not to multiply entities beyond necessity, to shave off the needless mentalistic and psychic entities that lead von Glasersfeld into his subjectivism and dualism.

  6. [Viktor Borisovich von Gyubbenet--a military physician, a surgeon and a social activist].

    PubMed

    Ishutin, O S

    2015-02-01

    The current article is dedicated to a talented surgeon, an organizer of military health care, an extraordinary personality and a public figure--Doctor of Medicine, a privy councilor Victor Borisovich von Guebbenet. A talent of von Gyubbenea as a doctor-surgeon and an organizer of the surgical help on theater of war was especially brightly shown during two big military conflicts of the beginning of the XX century--the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and the First World War I (1914-1918). In the first case doctor von Gyubbenet, being a surgeon of the 3rd Siberian corps successfully manage the activity of military-medical divisions and establishments of Port Arthur garrison. In the second military conflict Victor Borisovich as a doctor and an organizer headed sanitary part of armies of the Western front and successfully directed a medical support of armies of the front since 1915 and until the end of war. PMID:25920178

  7. The use of recombinant activated factor VII in congenital and acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2006-11-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven), a novel hemostatic agent originally developed for the treatment of bleeding episodes in hemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors, has been recently employed with benefit for the management of hemorrhages in other nonhemophilic congenital and acquired hemostatic abnormalities. This review focuses on the use of this drug in acquired and congenital von Willebrand disease. The analysis of the literature data shows that recombinant activated factor VII is an effective agent for the treatment of refractory bleeding in von Willebrand disease patients and for the treatment or prevention of bleeding in those patients with alloantibodies or autoantibodies against von Willebrand factor. Further studies are needed, however, to assess its safety and to optimize the dosages and regimens of therapy in such patients.

  8. Hemophilia And Von Willebrand Disease In Children: Emergency Department Evaluation And Management.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Kevin R; Rubinstein, Max

    2015-09-01

    Hemophilia and von Willebrand disease are the most common inherited bleeding disorders encountered in the emergency department. Evidence suggests that the management of bleeding disorders in the emergency department is currently suboptimal, and literature to guide evaluation and management in this setting is limited, though some guidelines do exist. The emergency clinician must have a high index of suspicion for new diagnoses, particularly in young patients with unprovoked bleeding and children with multiple or severe bleeds. The foundation of hemophilia treatment is urgent clotting factor replacement, with replacement goals guided by the presenting complaint. Bleeding in von Willebrand disease may be treated with products containing von Willebrand factor or with desmopressin. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, common presentations, evaluation strategies, and emergency management of these bleeding disorders.

  9. IntegraTUM Teilprojekt E-Mail: Rezentralisierung von E-Mail-Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehn, Max; Haarer, Ado; Schreiner, Alexander; Storz, Michael

    Das Teilprojekt E-Mail hatte ursprünglich die Aufgabe einen zentralen Mailservice mit verteilter Administration der Mailadressen für die TUM aufzubauen und diesen durch Anti-Spam- und Anti-Viren-Maßnahmen zu schützen. Auf diesen Mailservice sollten sowohl die am LRZ gehosteten Maildomains als auch die vielen lokal betriebenen Mailserver - soweit von deren Betreibern gewünscht - migriert werden. Neben einigen Rückschlägen und Hindernissen kam es im Laufe des Projektes auch zu einer Änderung der Anforderungen, sodass zum Ende des Projektes statt eines reinen Mailsystems ein Doppelsystem mit "shared SMTP address space" bestehend aus einem klassischen Message-Store mit POP/IMAP-Zugriff auf Basis von Postfix + Dovecot und einem Groupware-System auf Basis von Microsoft Exchange in Produktion ging, wobei jeder Mitarbeiter und Student der TUM wählen kann, auf welchem der beiden Systeme sich seine Mailbox befindet.

  10. Systems genetic and pharmacological analysis identifies candidate genes underlying mechanosensation in the von Frey test.

    PubMed

    Young, E E; Bryant, C D; Lee, S E; Peng, X; Cook, B; Nair, H K; Dreher, K J; Zhang, X; Palmer, A A; Chung, J M; Mogil, J S; Chesler, E J; Lariviere, W R

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical sensitivity is commonly affected in chronic pain and other neurological disorders. To discover mechanisms of individual differences in punctate mechanosensation, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of the response to von Frey monofilament stimulation in BXD recombinant inbred (BXD) mice. Significant loci were detected on mouse chromosome (Chr) 5 and 15, indicating the location of underlying polymorphisms that cause heritable variation in von Frey response. Convergent evidence from public gene expression data implicates candidate genes within the loci: von Frey thresholds were strongly correlated with baseline expression of Cacna2d1, Ift27 and Csnk1e in multiple brain regions of BXD strains. Systemic gabapentin and PF-670462, which target the protein products of Cacna2d1 and Csnk1e, respectively, significantly increased von Frey thresholds in a genotype-dependent manner in progenitors and BXD strains. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed differential expression of Cacna2d1 and Csnk1e in multiple brain regions in progenitors and showed differential expression of Cacna2d1 and Csnk1e in the dorsal root ganglia of the progenitors and BXD strains grouped by QTL genotype. Thus, linkage mapping, transcript covariance and pharmacological testing suggest that genetic variation affecting Cacna2d1 and Csnk1e may contribute to individual differences in von Frey filament response. This study implicates Cacna2d1 and Ift27 in basal mechanosensation in line with their previously suspected role in mechanical hypersensitivity. Csnk1e is implicated for von Frey response for the first time. Further investigation is warranted to identify the specific polymorphisms involved and assess the relevance of these findings to clinical conditions of disturbed mechanosensation. PMID:27231153

  11. (Never) Mind your p's and q's: Von Neumann versus Jordan on the foundations of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, A.; Janssen, M.

    2013-03-01

    In 1927, in two papers entitled "On a new foundation [Neue Begründung] of quantum mechanics," Pascual Jordan presented his version of what came to be known as the Dirac-Jordan statistical transformation theory. Jordan and Paul Dirac arrived at essentially the same theory independently of one another at around the same time. Later in 1927, partly in response to Jordan and Dirac and avoiding the mathematical difficulties facing their approach, John von Neumann developed the modern Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics. We focus on Jordan and von Neumann. Central to the formalisms of both are expressions for conditional probabilities of finding some value for one quantity given the value of another. Beyond that Jordan and von Neumann had very different views about the appropriate formulation of problems in quantum mechanics. For Jordan, unable to let go of the analogy to classical mechanics, the solution of such problems required the identification of sets of canonically conjugate variables, i.e., p's and q's. For von Neumann, not constrained by the analogy to classical mechanics, it required only the identification of a maximal set of commuting operators with simultaneous eigenstates. He had no need for p's and q's. Jordan and von Neumann also stated the characteristic new rules for probabilities in quantum mechanics somewhat differently. Jordan and Dirac were the first to state those rules in full generality. Von Neumann rephrased them and, in a paper published a few months later, sought to derive them from more basic considerations. In this paper we reconstruct the central arguments of these 1927 papers by Jordan and von Neumann and of a paper on Jordan's approach by Hilbert, von Neumann, and Nordheim. We highlight those elements in these papers that bring out the gradual loosening of the ties between the new quantum formalism and classical mechanics. This paper was written as part of a joint project in the history of quantum physics of the Max Planck

  12. Von Donuts und Zucker: Mit Neutronen biologische Makromoleküle erforschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Roland P.

    2003-05-01

    Für die Erforschung von Biomolekülen bieten Neutronen einzigartige Eigenschaften. Vor allem ihre unterschiedliche Wechselwirkung mit dem natürlichen Wasserstoff und seinem schweren Isotop Deuterium ermöglicht tiefe Einblicke in Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik von Proteinen, Nukleinsäuren und Biomembranen. Bei vielen Fragestellungen zur Strukturaufklärung gibt es kaum oder keine Alternative zum Neutron. Das Institut Laue-Langevin trägt Bahnbrechendes zum Erfolg der Neutronen-Methoden in der Biologie bei.

  13. On the history of Ludwig von Bertalanffy's "general systemology", and on its relationship to cybernetics - Part II: Contexts and developments of the systemological hermeneutics instigated by von Bertalanffy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouvreau, David

    2014-02-01

    The history of "general system theory" is investigated in order to clarify its meanings, vocations, foundations and achievements. It is characterized as the project of a science of the systemic interpretation of the "real", renamed here "general systemology". The contexts and modes of its elaboration, publication and implementation are discussed. The paper mostly focuses on the works of its instigator: Ludwig von Bertalanffy. However, general systemology was a collective project: the main contributions of other "systemologists", from the 1950s until the 1970s, are hence also considered. Its solidarity with the history of the Society for General Systems Research is notably discussed. A reconstruction of the systemological hermeneutics is undertaken on this basis. It finds out the potential systematic unity underlying the diversity of the contributions to this both scientific and philosophical project. Light is thus shed on the actual scope of von Bertalanffy's works.

  14. Human von Willebrand factor/factor VIII concentrates in the management of pediatric patients with von Willebrand disease/hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Castaman, Giancarlo; Linari, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Several plasma-derived intermediate and high-purity concentrates containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) are currently available. The main role of these products in the management of the pediatric population is represented by the replacement therapy in patients with severe or intermediate forms of von Willebrand disease, in whom other treatments are ineffective or contraindicated. Another important role of VWF/FVIII concentrates in children may be their use in immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocols. ITI is particularly recommended for hemophilia A children who have developed an inhibitor against FVIII, currently the most serious complication of substitutive treatment in hemophilia. Although recombinant concentrates may represent the preferred option in children with hemophilia A, VWF/FVIII concentrates may offer an advantage in rescuing patients who failed previous ITI. PMID:27445481

  15. Human von Willebrand factor/factor VIII concentrates in the management of pediatric patients with von Willebrand disease/hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Castaman, Giancarlo; Linari, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Several plasma-derived intermediate and high-purity concentrates containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) are currently available. The main role of these products in the management of the pediatric population is represented by the replacement therapy in patients with severe or intermediate forms of von Willebrand disease, in whom other treatments are ineffective or contraindicated. Another important role of VWF/FVIII concentrates in children may be their use in immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocols. ITI is particularly recommended for hemophilia A children who have developed an inhibitor against FVIII, currently the most serious complication of substitutive treatment in hemophilia. Although recombinant concentrates may represent the preferred option in children with hemophilia A, VWF/FVIII concentrates may offer an advantage in rescuing patients who failed previous ITI. PMID:27445481

  16. Platelet deposition on von Willebrand factor-deficient vessels. Extracorporeal perfusion studies in swine with von Willebrand's disease using native and heparinized blood.

    PubMed

    Badimon, L; Badimon, J J; Rand, J; Turitto, V T; Fuster, V

    1987-11-01

    Native (nonanticoagulated) and heparinized blood from both normal swine and swine with von Willebrand's disease was exposed to de-endothelialized thoracic aorta from normal pigs under controlled flow conditions. We have shown that these normal de-endothelialized vessel segments do not contain von Willebrand factor (vWF) in the subendothelial surface; thus, the vascular model that we are using here is representative of the conditions in severe von Willebrand's disease. The blood was recirculated for selected periods of time through an extracorporeal circuit (carotid-jugular shunt), containing a tubular perfusion chamber that held the vessel segment. Flow rates and chamber diameters were selected such that the wall shear rates at the vascular segment were 212 to 3380 sec-1. Platelets were labeled with indium 111 and their total deposition determined by a gamma counter; selected areas were also observed by electron microscopy. When native blood was perfused, the deposition of platelets depended on platelet-plasma vWF only at high wall shear rates (1690 sec-1 or greater) typical of the microcirculation, but not at the lower shear rates (212 and 424 sec-1), more characteristic of the larger arteries and veins. In contrast, when heparinized blood was perfused, platelet deposition on the vascular segments depended on the presence of vWF over the entire range of shear conditions studied. These findings demonstrate in an extracorporeal perfusion system that the defect in platelet-vessel wall interaction in swine with von Willebrand's disease is influenced by both the local flow conditions and the level of activation of the coagulation system. In the presence of an intact coagulation system a synergistic interaction between procoagulant moieties and vWF was observed at high shear rates.

  17. "The captain and canon" C. W. A. von Wahl (1760-1846) (German Title: "Der Hauptmann und Kanonikus" C. W. A. von Wahl (1760-1846) )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosche, Peter

    Von Wahl was an active member of the group of independent scholars, who were working in the German states within Goethe's time, and who performed astrometric and geodetic observations and calculations. Here we present some cornerstones of his life; longer intervals of it took place in Allstedt south of the Harz and in Halberstadt. Small scientific assets have been preserved at the Universitäts-Sternwarte Bonn. Therein, a lecture on secular variations of the ecliptic is of singular nature.

  18. Function of von Willebrand factor after crossed bone marrow transplantation between normal and von Willebrand disease pigs: effect on arterial thrombosis in chimeras.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, T C; Samama, C M; Bellinger, D A; Roussi, J; Reddick, R L; Bonneau, M; Read, M S; Bailliart, O; Koch, G G; Vaiman, M

    1995-01-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is essential for the induction of occlusive thrombosis in stenosed and injured pig arteries and for normal hemostasis. To separate the relative contribution of plasma and platelet vWF to arterial thrombosis, we produced chimeric normal and von Willebrand disease pigs by crossed bone marrow transplantation; von Willebrand disease (vWD) pigs were engrafted with normal pig bone marrow and normal pigs were engrafted with vWD bone marrow. Thrombosis developed in the chimeric normal pigs that showed normal levels of plasma vWF and an absence of platelet vWF; but no thrombosis occurred in the chimeric vWD pigs that demonstrated normal platelet vWF and an absence of plasma vWF. The ear bleeding times of the chimeric pigs were partially corrected by endogenous plasma vWF but not by platelet vWF. Our animal model demonstrated that vWF in the plasma compartment is essential for the development of arterial thrombosis and that it also contributes to the maintenance of bleeding time and hemostasis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7708664

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Meilensteine der Astronomie - Von Aristoteles bis Hawking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, J.

    2006-12-01

    A writer, more specific a writer on the history of astronomy, might from time to time look at the collected document folders with all the research material and reprints, and might wonder: has this been all? Especially at a time when recycling is in vogue? And, perhaps with a request or an invitation to submit something, he or she might consider re-using the material before its definitive disposal. Well, such are my feelings when I looked at Jurgen Hamel's new book Milestones of Astronomy - From Aristoteles to Hawking . A slight chance for survival of medium-sized publishers like Kosmos is to offer popular books, and a title must attract potential buyers: Aristoteles means the "old" times, and as concerns the "mad scientist" of modern times, Stephen Hawking has by now dethroned Einstein. In 1998, Hamel had published a Geschichte der Astronomie - Von den Anfangen bis zur Gegenwart (History of astronomy, from the beginnings to the present), which, of course, he could not simply copy. This time, he selected some stones from his research areas - milestones, touchstones, stumbling blocks in the long road of astronomical evolution - and put them between the covers of his new book. So let us look at these (mile)stones . The reader is informed about Aristoteles on 2 pages, but his medieval interpreter Johannes de Sacrobosco gets 8 pages! Copernicus' life and achievements are described on 9 pages, closely followed by his devotee and translator Rothmann with 8 pages; Copernicus' contemporary, Peter Apian, however, gets about 13! Bessel's and Herschel's lifes and works are described on well-deserved 13 and 15 pages, while the achievements of the two Lucasian professors, Isaac Newton and Stephen Hawking, are just outlined in a single paragraph! Thus, importance is sometimes inversely proportional to text length... But let us become serious now. Why should an active historian outline, for the hundreth time, the life of Copernicus, while there are so many interesting, and often

  20. Physical Realization of von Neumann Lattices in Rotating Bose Gases with Dipole Interatomic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions.

  1. [Correspondence between Winkler and Von Monakow. 2. Developments in psychiatry and neurology (1900-1930)].

    PubMed

    Koehler, P J; Jagella, C

    2001-12-22

    In this second article Winkler's and Von Monakow's views on the evolution of psychiatry and neurology (1900-1930) are described. They discussed a number of scientific subjects in their correspondence, such as the localisation of functions in the central nervous system and in particular Von Monakow's concept of 'diaschisis'. This concept explained the phenomenon that symptoms during the acute phase of central nervous system disorders are more extensive and of a different nature than those during the chronic phase. The controversy between the neuron theory and the reticular theory was also discussed in the correspondence. One of the reasons for the correspondence and meetings was the plan to compile an atlas of the brain although due to the outbreak of World War I this did not come to fruition. Finally there was an extensive correspondence concerning the psychoanalytic movement within the psychiatry, of which Winkler and Von Monakow, as biologically orientated neuropsychiatrists, were highly critical. German language neuropsychiatry has had a considerable influence in the Netherlands and this is in part due to the relationship Winkler had with German neuropsychiatrists and Von Monakow in particular.

  2. Physical Realization of von Neumann Lattices in Rotating Bose Gases with Dipole Interatomic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446

  3. Dr. Wernher Von Braun greeting dignitaries at the Redstone Arsenal airfield.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. George E. Mueller, center, associate administrator for manned space flight, is flanked by Dr. Wernher Von Braun, left, and Dr. Eberhard Rees at the Redstone Arsenal airstrip. the associate adminstrator was making his annual staff visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. Dr. Wernher Von Braun on Tour With U.S. congressman Armistead Seldon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    U.S. representative Armistead Seldon (D.-Al) tries on an astronaut maneuvering unit mockup during a tour of the Saturn I workshop at the Marshall Space Flight center. Explaining the unit and the workshop to Representative Seldon is Dr. Wernher Von Braun, director of the Marshall Center.

  5. Dr. Wernher Von Braun at the Marshall Space Flight Center's neutral buoyancy simulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Marshall Space Flight Center director, points and asks a question about the operation of the center's neutral buoyancy facility in the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory. The facility was used to test and evaluate hardware and operations hat were planned for Apollo applications program flights.

  6. The signalling contributions of Constantin von Economo to basic, clinical and evolutionary neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2006-04-14

    The study, and the companion article that follows, reviews the entire spectrum of the epoch-making contributions of Constantin von Economo (1876-1931) to basic, clinical and evolutionary Neuroscience. An astute observer and avid writer, von Economo left marks of brilliance on fundamental areas of brain research through an exuberant record of publications dating from 1899 to 1932. His ingenious medical career began with the histological study of the developing pigeon and chick hypophysis, and culminated with bold propositions about the neuroanatomy of talent and the future evolution of the human brain. On the way, he made the seminal discovery of encephalitis lethargica ('von Economo disease'), and produced, with Georg N. Koskinas (1885-1975), one of the masterpieces of brain science, the 1925 Cytoarchitectonics of the Adult Human Cerebral Cortex, defining 107 cortical areas on the basis of cytoarchitectonic criteria. His untimely death at age 55, barely 5.5 months after inaugurating his new Brain Research Institute in Vienna, deprived the Neuroscience world of one of its brightest protagonists during the 20th century. An annotated total of 139 scientific works by von Economo have been identified. The present study covers the 76 works on brain structure, evolution and intelligence, and general works on nervous and mental pathology, with the complete bibliographic information. The companion article covers the remaining 63 works on encephalitis lethargica and sleep regulation.

  7. Zuverlässigkeit digitaler Schaltungen unter Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeberger, V. B.; Schlichtmann, U.

    2011-08-01

    Die kontinuierlich fortschreitende Miniaturisierung in integrierten Schaltungen führt zu einem Anstieg des intrinsischen Rauschens. Um den Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen auf die Zuverlässigkeit zukünftiger digitaler Schaltungen analysieren zu können, werden Methoden benötigt, die auf CAD-Verfahren wie Analogsimulation statt auf abschätzenden Berechnungen beruhen. Dieser Beitrag stellt eine neue Methode vor, die den Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen in digitalen Schaltungen für eine gegebene Prozesstechnologie analysieren kann. Die Amplituden von thermischen, 1/f und Schrotrauschen werden mit Hilfe eines SPICE Simulators bestimmt. Anschließend wird der Einfluss des Rauschens auf die Schaltungszuverlässigkeit durch Simulation analysiert. Zusätzlich zur Analyse werden Möglichkeiten aufgezeigt, wie die durch Rauschen hervorgerufenen Effekte im Schaltungsentwurf mit berücksichtigt werden können. Im Gegensatz zum Stand der Technik kann die vorgestellte Methode auf beliebige Logikimplementierungen und Prozesstechnologien angewendet werden. Zusätzlich wird gezeigt, dass bisherige Ansätze den Einfluss von Rauschen bis um das Vierfache überschätzen.

  8. Displacements Of Brownian Particles In Terms Of Marian Von Smoluchowski's Heuristic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Hermann; Woermann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein's theory of the Brownian motion, Marian von Smoluchowski's heuristic model, and Perrin's experimental results helped to bring the concept of molecules from a state of being a useful hypothesis in chemistry to objects existing in reality. Central to the theory of Brownian motion is the relation between mean particle displacement and…

  9. Space: The Long-Range Future: An Interview with Jesco von Puttkamer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Andrew

    1985-01-01

    Jesco von Puttkamer manages long-range planning in NASA's Office of Space Flight. He believes that space offers the opportunity to ease global tensions, help the developing world, and create a new global culture off the planet. (Author/RM)

  10. Citizenship Ceremony for Dr. von Braun and German-Born Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    In a swearing-in ceremony held at Huntsville High School, one hundred and three German-born scientists and engineers, along with family members, took the oath of citizenship to become United States citizens. Among those taking the oath was Dr. Wernher von Braun, located in the second row, right side, third from the end.

  11. Dr. Wernher von Braun and Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger Sign Citizenship Certificates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    The members of the Peenemuende team and their family members were awarded the United States citizenship on April 14, 1955. Pictured here is Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger (middle) and Dr. Wernher von Braun signing U.S. citizenship certificates. Martin Schilling is at left.

  12. Untersuchung der Störwirkung von LTE auf SRD Anwendungen bei 868 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welpot, M.; Wunderlich, S.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    Moderne Hausautomatisierungssysteme, Alarmanlagen oder auch Funk-Zugangssysteme in Haus und Automobil setzen auf frei nutzbare Frequenzen in ISM/SRD-Bändern. Die rasante Zunahme an privaten und kommerziell genutzten Applikationen im SRD-Band bei 868 MHz und der Ausbau der LTE-Mobilfunknetze im Frequenzbereich unterhalb von 1 GHz ("Digital Dividend") wirft zunehmend die Frage nach der Funkverträglichkeit dieser Systeme untereinander auf. Während die SRD-Funkmodule auf eine geringe Sendeleistung von ~ +14 dBm beschränkt sind (Ralf and Thomas, 2009), beträgt die maximale LTE-Sendeleistung im Uplink nach (ETSI-Norm, 2011) +23 dBm. Zusammen mit der Einführung von LTE im Frequenzbereich unterhalb 1 GHz als DSL-Ersatz vor allem in ländlichen Gebieten, ergibt sich damit als mögliches Störszenario, dass durch die Aussendung des LTE-Endgerätes im Bereich von ca. 850 MHz die SRD-Funkverbindungen bei 868 MHz insbesondere dann gestört werden, wenn die Antennen beider Funksysteme räumlich nahe zueinander angeordnet sind und folglich nur eine geringe zusätzliche Entkopplung der Systeme bieten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das LTE-Störpotential auf SRD-Empfänger praxisnah untersucht.

  13. Beyond victimhood. The struggle of Munich anatomist Titus von Lanz during National Socialism.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Mathias; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian

    2015-09-01

    The article analyzes the life and career of the anatomist Titus von Lanz (1897-1967) of Munich focusing on the period of National Socialism (NS). Von Lanz lost his position as an associate professor at the Anatomical Institute of Munich University because of his marriage to a "half-Jewish" woman in 1938. In contrast to most of his colleagues affected by National Socialist measures, von Lanz had opportunities to save his career and made extensive use of them. His story is that of a complicated struggle for the continuation of his work, involving a wide range of supporters from prestigious physicians to high-ranking National Socialist officials as well as the alienation of his colleagues at the Munich department of anatomy. The article tries to clarify these developments through the presentation of his social background, his supporters, his enemies, the research he conducted during NS and von Lanz' own remembrance of these developments from the post-war period. It aims at laying out a critical appreciation of his motives and actions, thereby contributing to the understanding of individual behavior of anatomists under NS.

  14. Identifikationsverfahren zur Analyse von EEG-Signalen bei Epilepsie mit Reaktions-Diffusions Netzwerken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollas, F.; Tetzlaff, R.

    2007-06-01

    Partielle Differentialgleichungen des Reaktions-Diffusions-Typs beschreiben Phänomene wie Musterbildung, nichtlineare Wellenausbreitung und deterministisches Chaos und werden oft zur Untersuchung komplexer Vorgänge auf den Gebieten der Biologie, Chemie und Physik herangezogen. Zellulare Nichtlineare Netzwerke (CNN) sind eine räumliche Anordnung vergleichsweise einfacher dynamischer Systeme, die eine lokale Kopplung untereinander aufweisen. Durch eine Diskretisierung der Ortsvariablen können Reaktions-Diffusions-Gleichungen häufig auf CNN mit nichtlinearen Gewichtsfunktionen abgebildet werden. Die resultierenden Reaktions-Diffusions-CNN (RD-CNN) weisen dann in ihrer Dynamik näherungsweise gleiches Verhalten wie die zugrunde gelegten Reaktions-Diffusions-Systeme auf. Werden RD-CNN zur Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen herangezogen, so besteht die Möglichkeit festzustellen, ob das gefundene Netzwerk lokale Aktivität aufweist. Die von Chua eingeführte Theorie der lokalen Aktivität Chua (1998); Dogaru und Chua (1998) liefert eine notwendige Bedingung für das Auftreten von emergentem Verhalten in zellularen Netzwerken. Änderungen in den Parametern bestimmter RD-CNN könnten auf bevorstehende epileptische Anfälle hinweisen. In diesem Beitrag steht die Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen durch Reaktions-Diffusions-Netzwerke im Vordergrund der dargestellten Untersuchungen. In der Ergebnisdiskussion wird insbesondere auch die Frage nach einer geeigneten Netzwerkstruktur mit minimaler Komplexität behandelt.

  15. On the Relation of Von Mises Equation with Acoustic Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Christian; Filippi, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    In this article a discussion of Analogue Gravity is presented in relation with its recently discovered relation, valid at any perturbative order, with the nonlinear Von Mises wave equation of fluid dynamics. A discussion of the role of the acoustic metric at nonlinear level is presented.

  16. Wilhelm von Humboldt and the "Orient": On Edward W. Said's Remarks on Humboldt's Orientalist Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messling, Markus

    2008-01-01

    From an epistemological perspective, Wilhelm von Humboldt's studies on the Oriental and East Asian languages and writing systems (Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, Chinese, Polynesian) raise the question of his position in the Orientalist discourse of his time. Said [Said, E.W., 1978. "Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient, fourth ed."…

  17. Theoretical justification of the von Weimarn law under homogeneous condensation in the free-molecular regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurasov, V. B.

    2016-08-01

    The von Weimarn (Weymarn) law establishes the power dependence for the radius of formed droplets on vapor supersaturation initially created in the system. A theoretical derivation of this law is presented based on the classical Volmer-Becker-Döring-Zel'dovich-Frenkel approach. Analytical expressions have been obtained for all coefficients in this law.

  18. Charles Darwin and other great men in correspondence with Carl Wilhelm von Naegeli.

    PubMed

    Naegeli, W; Wiedemann, H R

    1993-04-15

    The great Swiss-German botanist Carl Wilhelm von Naegeli (1817-1891) was a student of Lorenz Oken, A.P. de Candolle, and Matthias Jacob Schleiden and became a key figure in "genetic" (i.e., evolutionary-developmental) biology in the mid-late 19th century. He was an expert on the hawk-weed, Hieracium and also made important contributions to microbiology. One of his many outstanding students was Carl Correns, one of the 3 rediscoverers of Mendel's work. Naegeli was an early proponent and defender of Darwin. The correspondence preserved in the Naegeli family contains many important letters between Naegeli and his contemporaries. Those from Mendel to Naegeli have passed out of the Naegeli family and were published by Correns earlier in the century. However, exceptionally notable items still in the archives of the Naegeli family include 4 surviving letters from Darwin, 2 letters from Virchow, and 10 from Justus von Liebig. In spite of a lack of appreciation of Mendel's work, we call attention to the importance of those surviving documents from an era in which very few of the greatest naturalists and founders of modern biology--including Goethe, Darwin, Galton, Agassiz, von Humboldt, von Baer--were without "blind spots."

  19. A newborn with very rare von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Basudev; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome is a part of a group of syndromes with radial and hematologic abnormalities, and until now approximately ten cases have been reported in the literature. This syndrome is characterized by a triad of radial ray defects, occipital encephalocele, and urogenital abnormalities. Case presentation We report a neonate from Indian ethnicity who was diagnosed with von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome. The neonate had radial ray defect, occipital encephalocele, tetralogy of Fallot, and bilateral agenesis of kidney, ureter, and bladder. The neonate was suspected to have von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome on the basis of clinical features, which was further confirmed by fibroblast analysis showing somatic mosaicism for del(13q). Conclusion von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome is a very rare syndrome that can be suspected on the basis of typical clinical features and confirmed by fibroblast analysis showing somatic mosaicism for del(13q). This adds a second case of this chromosome anomaly described in this syndrome. PMID:27499650

  20. Beyond victimhood. The struggle of Munich anatomist Titus von Lanz during National Socialism.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Mathias; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian

    2015-09-01

    The article analyzes the life and career of the anatomist Titus von Lanz (1897-1967) of Munich focusing on the period of National Socialism (NS). Von Lanz lost his position as an associate professor at the Anatomical Institute of Munich University because of his marriage to a "half-Jewish" woman in 1938. In contrast to most of his colleagues affected by National Socialist measures, von Lanz had opportunities to save his career and made extensive use of them. His story is that of a complicated struggle for the continuation of his work, involving a wide range of supporters from prestigious physicians to high-ranking National Socialist officials as well as the alienation of his colleagues at the Munich department of anatomy. The article tries to clarify these developments through the presentation of his social background, his supporters, his enemies, the research he conducted during NS and von Lanz' own remembrance of these developments from the post-war period. It aims at laying out a critical appreciation of his motives and actions, thereby contributing to the understanding of individual behavior of anatomists under NS. PMID:26208340

  1. Einheit von Forschung und Lehre: Implications for State Funding of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolich, Nicoline; Coate, Kelly; Mignot-Gerard, Stephanie; Knill, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The Humboldtian educational ideal is based on the idea of the unity of teaching and research in universities ("Einheit von Forschung und Lehre"). The role of the state, according to Humboldt, was to fund universities in such a way that their autonomy was maintained. Much has changed in the funding mechanisms of higher education systems since the…

  2. Charles Darwin and other great men in correspondence with Carl Wilhelm von Naegeli.

    PubMed

    Naegeli, W; Wiedemann, H R

    1993-04-15

    The great Swiss-German botanist Carl Wilhelm von Naegeli (1817-1891) was a student of Lorenz Oken, A.P. de Candolle, and Matthias Jacob Schleiden and became a key figure in "genetic" (i.e., evolutionary-developmental) biology in the mid-late 19th century. He was an expert on the hawk-weed, Hieracium and also made important contributions to microbiology. One of his many outstanding students was Carl Correns, one of the 3 rediscoverers of Mendel's work. Naegeli was an early proponent and defender of Darwin. The correspondence preserved in the Naegeli family contains many important letters between Naegeli and his contemporaries. Those from Mendel to Naegeli have passed out of the Naegeli family and were published by Correns earlier in the century. However, exceptionally notable items still in the archives of the Naegeli family include 4 surviving letters from Darwin, 2 letters from Virchow, and 10 from Justus von Liebig. In spite of a lack of appreciation of Mendel's work, we call attention to the importance of those surviving documents from an era in which very few of the greatest naturalists and founders of modern biology--including Goethe, Darwin, Galton, Agassiz, von Humboldt, von Baer--were without "blind spots." PMID:8484417

  3. Physical Realization of von Neumann Lattices in Rotating Bose Gases with Dipole Interatomic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446

  4. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  5. Perfecting the Individual: Wilhelm von Humboldt's Concept of Anthropology, "Bildung" and Mimesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    In the works of Wilhelm von Humboldt education took on a new quality, focusing firmly on the importance of the individual. "Bildung" was to become the principal task with a view to preparing the individual for the requirements of future life. In this article, the author investigates two aspects relating to the "Bildung" of the individual. First,…

  6. The natural history of occult or angiodysplastic gastrointestinal bleeding in von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Makris, M; Federici, A B; Mannucci, P M; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Yee, T T; Abshire, T; Berntorp, E

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most challenging complications encountered in the management of patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD). The commonest cause is angiodysplasia, but often no cause is identified due to the difficulty in making the diagnosis. The optimal treatment to prevent recurrences remains unknown. We performed a retrospective study of VWD patients with occult or angiodysplastic bleeding within the setting of the von Willebrand Disease Prophylaxis Network (VWD PN) to describe diagnostic and treatment strategies. Centres participating in the VWD PN recruited subjects under their care with a history of congenital VWD and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to angiodysplasia, or cases in which the cause was not identified despite investigation. Patients with acquired von Willebrand syndrome or those for whom the GI bleeding was due to another cause were excluded. Forty-eight patients from 18 centres in 10 countries were recruited. Seven individuals had a family history of GI bleeding and all VWD types except 2N were represented. Angiodysplasia was confirmed in 38%, with video capsule endoscopy and GI tract endoscopies being the most common methods of making the diagnosis. Recurrent GI bleeding in VWD is associated with significant morbidity and required hospital admission on up to 30 occasions. Patients were treated with multiple pharmacological agents with prophylactic von Willebrand factor concentrate being the most efficient in preventing recurrence of the GI bleeding. The diagnosis and treatment of recurrent GI bleeding in congenital VWD remains challenging and is associated with significant morbidity. Prophylactic treatment with von Willebrand factor concentrate was the most effective method of preventing recurrent bleeding but its efficacy remains to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  7. [Richard von Volkmann and the Surgical School of Halle in 1867 to 1889].

    PubMed

    Hach, W; Hach, V

    2001-10-01

    Richard von Volkmann (1830-1889) was appointed senior consultant of the University Surgical Hospital in Halle at the young age of 36. On returning home from the war of 1870/1871, he saw traumatic fever rampant in his hospital. He became a rigorous advocate of Lister's method of antisepsis. There were a large number of very serious accidents in the up-coming industrial town of Halle. Acute and chronic inflammation of the joint led to severe disfigurements. By invention of large reconstructive operations von Volkmann was able to obtain impressive results. He was the founder of traumatology and orthopaedic surgery. Tuberculosis was regarded at that time as the most common cause of death. By means of surgery certain forms of the illness could be cured. Tuberculous coxitis and gonarthritis were the most common indications for orthopaedic surgery. Von Volkmann used his distraction method for tuberculous spondylitis.Many terms used in medical practice derive from Richard von Volkmann. He described Volkmann's triangle, ischaemic muscle contractures and resorption fever. He developed a whole range of new methods of surgical procedures and the concept of wound drainage. His name is associated with Volkmann's splint, Volkmann's "sharp spoon" and several other inventions. Richard von Volkmann was one of the founders of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chirurgie (German Surgical Society). His famous Träumereien an französischen Kaminen ("Reveries at French Firesides"), an anthology of fairy-tales for his children, played an important role in his life's work. PMID:11727197

  8. The natural history of occult or angiodysplastic gastrointestinal bleeding in von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Makris, M; Federici, A B; Mannucci, P M; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Yee, T T; Abshire, T; Berntorp, E

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most challenging complications encountered in the management of patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD). The commonest cause is angiodysplasia, but often no cause is identified due to the difficulty in making the diagnosis. The optimal treatment to prevent recurrences remains unknown. We performed a retrospective study of VWD patients with occult or angiodysplastic bleeding within the setting of the von Willebrand Disease Prophylaxis Network (VWD PN) to describe diagnostic and treatment strategies. Centres participating in the VWD PN recruited subjects under their care with a history of congenital VWD and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to angiodysplasia, or cases in which the cause was not identified despite investigation. Patients with acquired von Willebrand syndrome or those for whom the GI bleeding was due to another cause were excluded. Forty-eight patients from 18 centres in 10 countries were recruited. Seven individuals had a family history of GI bleeding and all VWD types except 2N were represented. Angiodysplasia was confirmed in 38%, with video capsule endoscopy and GI tract endoscopies being the most common methods of making the diagnosis. Recurrent GI bleeding in VWD is associated with significant morbidity and required hospital admission on up to 30 occasions. Patients were treated with multiple pharmacological agents with prophylactic von Willebrand factor concentrate being the most efficient in preventing recurrence of the GI bleeding. The diagnosis and treatment of recurrent GI bleeding in congenital VWD remains challenging and is associated with significant morbidity. Prophylactic treatment with von Willebrand factor concentrate was the most effective method of preventing recurrent bleeding but its efficacy remains to be confirmed in a prospective study. PMID:25381842

  9. Zelltyp-spezifische Mikroanalyse von Arabidopsis thaliana-Blättern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Stephan Peter

    2002-04-01

    Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wurden Strategien zur Analyse von Transkripten erarbeitet. Die ersten Versuche zielten darauf ab, in mit Glaskapillaren genommenen Einzelzellproben verschiedener Gewebeschichten RT-PCR durchzuführen, um spezifische Transkripte nachweisen zu können. Dies gelang für eine Reihe von Genen aus verschiedenen Pflanzenspezies. Dabei konnten sowohl Transkripte stark wie auch schwach exprimierter Gene nachgewiesen werden. Für die Erstellung von Gewebe-spezifischen Expressionsprofilen war es notwendig, die in vereinigten Zellproben enthaltene mRNA zunächst zu amplifizieren, um eine ausreichende Menge für Arrayhybridisierungen zu erhalten. Vor der Vermehrung wurde die mRNA revers transkribiert. Es wurden daran anschließend verschiedene Amplifikationsstrategien getestet: Die neben Tailing, Adapterligation und anderen PCR-basierenden Protokollen getestete Arbitrary-PCR hat sich in dieser Arbeit als einfache und einzige Methode herausgestellt, die mit so geringen cDNA-Mengen reproduzierbar arbeitet. Durch Gewebe-spezifische Array-hybridisierungen mit der so amplifizierten RNA konnten schon bekannte Expressionsmuster verschiedener Gene, vornehmlich solcher, die an der Photosynthese beteiligt sind, beobachtet werden. Es wurden aber auch eine ganze Reihe neuer offensichtlich Gewebe-spezifisch exprimierter Gene gefunden. Exemplarisch für die differentiell exprimierten Gene konnte das durch Arrayhybridisierungen gefundene Expressionsmuster der kleinen Untereinheit von Rubisco verifiziert werden. Hierzu wurden Methoden zum Gewebe-spezifischen Northernblot sowie semiquantitativer und Echtzeit-Einzelzell-RT-PCR entwickelt. Im zweiten Teil der Arbeit wurden Methoden zur Analyse von Metaboliten einschließlich anorganischer Ionen verwendet. Es stellte sich heraus, daß die multiparallele Methode der Gaschromatographie-Massenspektrometrie keine geeignete Methode für die Analyse selbst vieler vereinigter Zellinhalte ist. Daher wurde auf

  10. Die nuklearen Anlagen von Hanford (1943-1987) Eine Fallstudie über die Schnittstellen von Physik, Biologie und die US-amerikanische Gesellschaft zur Zeit des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macuglia, Daniele

    Die Geschichte des Kalten Krieges eröffnet viele Möglichkeiten, sich näher mit den Schnittstellen von Physik und Biologie während des 20. Jahrhunderts zu befassen. Nicht nur das Unglück in Tschernobyl aus dem Jahr 1986, auch das Beispiel der nuklearen Anlagen in Hanford in den Vereinigten Staaten zeigt die biologischen Folgen von nuklearer Physik.

  11. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  12. Der vollständige Brief Brahes an Sørensen über das Erscheinen des Kometen von 1577

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Stefan

    Es ist erstaunlich, daß sowohl Friis als auch Dreyer in ihrer Ausgabe der Briefe Tycho Brahes den Brief vom 14. November 1577 an Peter Sørensen, die erste bekannte Nachricht Brahes von seiner Entdeckung des Kometen von 1577, nur unvollständig, und zwar ohne den astronomischen Inhalt, ediert haben. Der Brief, dessen Original sehr wahrscheinlich nicht mehr existiert, wurde von dem Kieler Arzt und Medizinprofessor Johann Daniel Major (1634 - 1693) in Kopenhagen in sein Reisetagebuch kopiert. Das Original des Majorschen Reisetagebuches ist verschollen, doch es existieren zwei Abschriften davon (Kopenhagen, Königl. Bibl., Ny Kgl. Sml., 365, Fol. u. Ledreborg, 410, Fol.). Im folgenden wird nach einer kurzen Beschreibung des Stellenwerts, den der Komet von 1577 für Brahe besaß, der Brief nach diesen beiden Abschriften kritisch ediert, mit einer deutschen Übersetzung versehen und kurz kommentiert.

  13. Georg von Bekesy, Nobel Laureate in Physiology, Experimental Physicist and Art Collector Was Born 100 Years Ago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Laszlo

    2001-01-01

    Describes the life and accomplishments of Georg von Bekesy. Discusses his educational background and research career, and describes his extensive work on the ear, particularly the inner ear or cochlea. (SAH)

  14. Versuche zur Gewinnung von katalytischen Antikörpern zur Hydrolyse von Arylcarbamaten und Arylharnstoffen. (English Title: Attempts to produce catalytic antibodies for hydrolysis of arylcarbamates and arylureas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Deljana

    2002-05-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit gelang es, katalytische Antikörper zur Hydrolyse von Benzylphenylcarbamaten sowie zahlreiche monoklonale Antikörper gegen Haptene herzustellen. Es wurden verschiedene Hapten-Protein-Konjugate unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Kopplungsmethoden hergestellt und charakterisiert. Zur Generierung der hydrolytisch aktiven Antikörper wurden Inzuchtmäuse mit KLH-Konjugaten von 4 Übergangszustandsanaloga (ÜZA) immunisiert. Mit Hilfe der Hybridomtechnik wurden verschiedene monoklonale Antikörper gegen diese ÜZA gewonnen. Dabei wurden sowohl verschiedene Immunisierungsschemata als auch verschiedene Inzuchtmausstämme und Fusionstechniken verwendet. Insgesamt wurden 32 monoklonale Antikörper gegen die verwendeten ÜZA selektiert. Diese Antikörper wurden in groen Mengen hergestellt und gereinigt. Zum Nachweis der Antikörper-vermittelten Katalyse wurden verschiedene Methoden entwickelt und eingesetzt, darunter immunologische Nachweismethoden mit Anti-Substrat- und Anti-Produkt-Antikörpern und eine photometrische Methode mit Dimethylaminozimtaldehyd. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität gelang mit Hilfe eines Enzymsensors, basierend auf immobilisierter Tyrosinase. Die Antikörper N1-BC1-D11, N1-FA7-C4, N1-FA7-D12 und R3-LG2-F9 hydrolysierten die Benzylphenylcarbamate POCc18, POCc19 und Substanz 27. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität dieser Antikörper gelang auch mit Hilfe der HPLC. Der katalytische Antikörper N1-BC1-D11 wurde kinetisch und thermodynamisch untersucht. Es wurde eine Michaelis-Menten-Kinetik mit Km von 210 µM, vmax von 3 mM/min und kcat von 222 min-1 beobachtet. Diese Werte korrelieren mit den Werten der wenigen bekannten Diphenylcarbamat-spaltenden Abzyme. Die Beschleunigungsrate des Antikörpers N1-BC1-D11 betrug 10. Das ÜZA Hei3 hemmte die hydrolytische Aktivität. Dies beweist, dass die Hydrolyse in der Antigenbindungsstelle stattfindet. Weiter wurde zwischen der Antikörperkonzentration und der

  15. Determining the von Mises stress power spectral density for frequency domain fatigue analysis including out-of-phase stress components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonte, M. H. A.; de Boer, A.; Liebregts, R.

    2007-04-01

    This paper provides a new formula to take into account phase differences in the determination of an equivalent von Mises stress power spectral density (PSD) from multiple random inputs. The obtained von Mises PSD can subsequently be used for fatigue analysis. The formula was derived for use in the commercial vehicle business and was implemented in combination with Finite Element software to predict and analyse fatigue failure in the frequency domain.

  16. Platelet interaction with von Willebrand factor is enhanced by shear-induced clustering of glycoprotein Ibα

    PubMed Central

    Gitz, Eelo; Koopman, Charlotte D.; Giannas, Alèkos; Koekman, Cornelis A; van den Heuvel, Dave J.; Deckmyn, Hans; Akkerman, Jan-Willem N.; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Urbanus, Rolf T.

    2013-01-01

    Initial platelet arrest at the exposed arterial vessel wall is mediated through glycoprotein Ibα binding to the A1 domain of von Willebrand factor. This interaction occurs at sites of elevated shear force, and strengthens upon increasing hydrodynamic drag. The increased interaction requires shear-dependent exposure of the von Willebrand factor A1 domain, but the contribution of glycoprotein Ibα remains ill defined. We have previously found that glycoprotein Ibα forms clusters upon platelet cooling and hypothesized that such a property enhances the interaction with von Willebrand factor under physiological conditions. We analyzed the distribution of glycoprotein Ibα with Förster resonance energy transfer using time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Perfusion at a shear rate of 1,600 s−1 induced glycoprotein Ibα clusters on platelets adhered to von Willebrand factor, while clustering did not require von Willebrand factor contact at 10,000 s−1. Shear-induced clustering was reversible, not accompanied by granule release or αIIbβ3 activation and improved glycoprotein Ibα-dependent platelet interaction with von Willebrand factor. Clustering required glycoprotein Ibα translocation to lipid rafts and critically depended on arachidonic acid-mediated binding of 14-3-3ζ to its cytoplasmic tail. This newly identified mechanism emphasizes the ability of platelets to respond to mechanical force and provides new insights into how changes in hemodynamics influence arterial thrombus formation. PMID:23753027

  17. [Urology and National Socialism: the fate of Alexander von Lichtenberg 1880-1949].

    PubMed

    Moll, F H; Krischel, M; Rathert, P; Fangerau, H

    2010-09-01

    Alexander von Lichtenberg (1880-1949) was one of the famous members of the German Urological Society (DGU) in pre-war Germany. He introduced excretion urography and a special TURP Instrument. In 1928 he was president of the 8th meeting held in the German capital Berlin. His Handbook of Urology, released by Ferdinand Springer publishing house, was a trendsetter in establishing urology as a specialty in Germany and bringing together the whole wisdom of all aspects of urology. He was the founder of the famous Maximilian Nitze Award of the DGU. As a Jew he-like many others-was forced to leave Nazi Germany after 1933. Even in Hungary, his native country, he again had to resist anti-Semitic hostility. Later on he lived in Mexico. Alexander von Lichtenberg has to be remembered with special focus on the exodus of German Jewish scientists during the Nazi time.

  18. [On the Awarding of the First Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine to Emil von Behring].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Enke, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    In his will of 1895, the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel laid the foundation for prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace to those who had "conferred the greatest benefit on mankind" during the last year. The Nobel Prize is today widely considered as the most prestigious international symbol of scientific excellence, but it still is an exciting research question how it gained such prestige. Drawing on files from the Emil von Behring Archive in Marburg, Germany, and the Archive of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine in Stockholm this essay aims at shedding light on why the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1901 was awarded the German immunologist Emil von Behring, and how this decision was viewed at that time. This study is part of a research project that explores mechanisms leading to scientific recognition by using the example of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

  19. Absence of the SRC-2 coactivator results in a glycogenopathy resembling Von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Atul R; Louet, Jean-Francois; Saha, Pradip; An, Jie; Demayo, Franco; Xu, Jianming; York, Brian; Karpen, Saul; Finegold, Milton; Moore, David; Chan, Lawrence; Newgard, Christopher B; O'Malley, Bert W

    2008-11-28

    Hepatic glucose production is critical for basal brain function and survival when dietary glucose is unavailable. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) is an essential, rate-limiting enzyme that serves as a terminal gatekeeper for hepatic glucose release into the plasma. Mutations in G6Pase result in Von Gierke's disease (glycogen storage disease-1a), a potentially fatal genetic disorder. We have identified the transcriptional coactivator SRC-2 as a regulator of fasting hepatic glucose release, a function that SRC-2 performs by controlling the expression of hepatic G6Pase. SRC-2 modulates G6Pase expression directly by acting as a coactivator with the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha. In addition, SRC-2 ablation, in both a whole-body and liver-specific manner, resulted in a Von Gierke's disease phenotype in mice. Our results position SRC-2 as a critical regulator of mammalian glucose production. PMID:19039140

  20. Pathologic studies of the osteoporosis of Von Gierke's disease (glycogenosis 1a).

    PubMed

    Soejima, K; Landing, B H; Roe, T F; Swanson, V L

    1985-01-01

    Pathologic and point count-morphometric studies of ribs, vertebrae, and iliac crests of 7 patients with Von Gierke's glycogenesis type Ia aged 5 months to 30 years were performed. The bone lesion is a pure osteoporosis (reduction in mass of bone matrix) with no evidences of significant physeal cartilage abnormality or of osteitis fibrosa or osteomalacia (reduced mineralization of bone matrix). The osteoporosis was already marked in the youngest patient studied (5 months). The discrepancy between normal and glycogen storage disease (GSD) bones increased progressively with age for ribs and was less severe for vertebrae. Available biochemical data give no indication of primary disturbance of calcium or phosphate metabolism, of parathyroid activity, or of vitamin D metabolism. Clinical data suggest that the osteoporosis of Von Gierke's disease is due to hypoglycemia or a metabolic sequela thereof, such as insulinopenia, but pathologic study of patients treated by newer techniques of maintaining euglycemia in GSD is needed. PMID:3867867

  1. Instrumentation for Studies of Cochlear Mechanics: From von Békésy forward

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Alfred L; Fridberger, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Georg von Békésy designed the instruments needed for his research. He also created physical models of the cochlea allowing him to manipulate the parameters (such as volume elasticity) that could be involved in controlling traveling waves. This review is about the specific devices that he used to study the motion of the basilar membrane thus allowing the analysis that lead to his Nobel Prize Award. The review moves forward in time mentioning the subsequent use of von Békésy’s methods and later technologies important for motion studies of the organ of Corti. Some of the seminal findings and the controversies of cochlear mechanics are mentioned in relation to the technical developments. PMID:22975360

  2. A Case of Acute Generalized Pustular Psoriasis of von Zumbusch Triggered by Hypocalcemia.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro de Moura, Carlos Antônio Gusmão; de Assis, Luiz Henrique; Góes, Paulo; Rosa, Fabiana; Nunes, Victor; Gusmão, Ítalo Magalhães; Cruz, Constança Margarida Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease triggered by different conditions in genetically susceptible people. It is characterized by variable cutaneous manifestations including localized or disseminated pustules. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) has two main clinical forms: von Zumbusch psoriasis, characterized by severe erythrodermia and scaling skin after the resolution of pustules, and the annular form. GPP may also present severe extracutaneous manifestations including pneumonitis, heart failure and hepatitis. Old reports showed a relationship between hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia as triggers for GPP highlighting the importance of adequate workup of the patient and possible therapeutic changes in acute situations. Here, we present a case of severe von Zumbusch psoriasis with life-threatening complications triggered by severe hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism successfully treated with aggressive calcium reposition. PMID:26955330

  3. A Case of Acute Generalized Pustular Psoriasis of von Zumbusch Triggered by Hypocalcemia

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro de Moura, Carlos Antônio Gusmão; de Assis, Luiz Henrique; Góes, Paulo; Rosa, Fabiana; Nunes, Victor; Gusmão, Ítalo Magalhães; Cruz, Constança Margarida Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease triggered by different conditions in genetically susceptible people. It is characterized by variable cutaneous manifestations including localized or disseminated pustules. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) has two main clinical forms: von Zumbusch psoriasis, characterized by severe erythrodermia and scaling skin after the resolution of pustules, and the annular form. GPP may also present severe extracutaneous manifestations including pneumonitis, heart failure and hepatitis. Old reports showed a relationship between hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia as triggers for GPP highlighting the importance of adequate workup of the patient and possible therapeutic changes in acute situations. Here, we present a case of severe von Zumbusch psoriasis with life-threatening complications triggered by severe hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism successfully treated with aggressive calcium reposition. PMID:26955330

  4. L'atteinte vésicale au cours de la neurofibromatose de Von Recklinghausen

    PubMed Central

    Benazzouz, Mohamed Hicham; Hajjad, Tilila; Essatara, Younes; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2014-01-01

    La neurofibromatose de type 1 ou maladie de Von Recklinghausen est une maladie génétique autosomique dominante en rapport avec des mutations dans le gène suppresseur de tumeur NF1. L'atteinte uro-génitale au cours de cette maladie est rare et moins de 80 cas ont été rapportés à ce jour dans la littérature mondiale. Les auteurs rapportent un nouveau cas d'atteinte vésicale découverte fortuitement au cours du suivi d'une patiente atteinte de la maladie de Von Recklinghausen. A travers cette observation et une revue de la littérature les auteurs discutent également les difficultés diagnostiques, thérapeutiques ainsi que les modalités de suivi dans cette maladie. PMID:25328590

  5. Jahre Entwicklung der Instandhaltung - von der ausfallorientierten Instandhaltung zum gemeinsamen TPM und RCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iske, Friedhelm

    Zur Einleitung meines Beitrages möchte ich von einem Gespräch mit einem Mitarbeiter berichten, das ich als junger Vorgesetzter einer Instandhaltungsgruppe 1988 führte. Der engagierte Mitarbeiter feierte damals sein vierzigjähriges Dienstjubiläum und war stolz auf das von ihm Geleistete sowie auf den besonderen Einsatz seiner Altersgruppe, die nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg das Werk wieder aufgebaut hatte. Auf meine Frage, was denn damals die erste Aufgabe in der Firma war, bekam ich kurz und knapp und mit einer Selbstverständlichkeit die selbstbewusste Antwort: "Unser Pferd füttern und mit dem Pferd die innerbetrieblichen Transporte erledigen“. Als junger, technisch orientierter Vorgesetzter war ich über diese Antwort sehr überrascht. Gedanklich weit entfernt war die Vorstellung, dass in der Vergangenheit Transporte mit einem Pferd erledigt wurden.

  6. [On the Awarding of the First Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine to Emil von Behring].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Enke, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    In his will of 1895, the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel laid the foundation for prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace to those who had "conferred the greatest benefit on mankind" during the last year. The Nobel Prize is today widely considered as the most prestigious international symbol of scientific excellence, but it still is an exciting research question how it gained such prestige. Drawing on files from the Emil von Behring Archive in Marburg, Germany, and the Archive of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine in Stockholm this essay aims at shedding light on why the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1901 was awarded the German immunologist Emil von Behring, and how this decision was viewed at that time. This study is part of a research project that explores mechanisms leading to scientific recognition by using the example of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. PMID:26676474

  7. An efficient method for calculating RMS von Mises stress in a random vibration environment

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Fulcher, C.W.G.; Reese, G.M.; Field, R.V. Jr.

    1998-02-01

    An efficient method is presented for calculation of RMS von Mises stresses from stress component transfer functions and the Fourier representation of random input forces. An efficient implementation of the method calculates the RMS stresses directly from the linear stress and displacement modes. The key relation presented is one suggested in past literature, but does not appear to have been previously exploited in this manner.

  8. An efficient method for calculating RMS von Mises stress in a random vibration environment

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Fulcher, C.W.G.; Reese, G.M.; Field, R.V. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    An efficient method is presented for calculation of RMS von Mises stresses from stress component transfer functions and the Fourier representation of random input forces. An efficient implementation of the method calculates the RMS stresses directly from the linear stress and displacement modes. The key relation presented is one suggested in past literature, but does not appear to have been previously exploited in this manner.

  9. Finite element approximation of an optimal control problem for the von Karman equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, L. Steven; Turner, James C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with optimal control problems for the von Karman equations with distributed controls. We first show that optimal solutions exist. We then show that Lagrange multipliers may be used to enforce the constraints and derive an optimality system from which optimal states and controls may be deduced. Finally we define finite element approximations of solutions for the optimality system and derive error estimates for the approximations.

  10. A note on the numerical solution of the von Karman small disturbance equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, M. S.

    1985-09-01

    In this short note, the von Karman small disturbance equation is derived from the full potential equation of gas dynamics through perturbation methods. Guderley (1962) and Germain (1964) have previously computed exact solutions, in similarity form, for the small disturbance equation. It is shown that these solutions can be computed efficiently by solving a single nonlinear second-order differential equation. The shock and entropy conditions are automatically satisfied, and a one-parameter family of solutions is recovered.

  11. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's philosophy of the mind].

    PubMed

    Lyre, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's position within the philosophy of mind. It turns out that Weizsäcker's ontology is based on an unorthodox conception both in the philosophy of physics and in the philosophy of mind. His quantum information theoretic reductionism is based on a subtle combination of atomism and holism, his philosophy of mind connected to this is a neutral monism, which proposes a bold intertwining of mind, matter, and space.

  12. The work of Rosa von Praunheim: tackling AIDS in Germany through film.

    PubMed

    Judell, B

    1996-10-01

    Rosa von Praunheim, a film maker, and the most famous (or infamous) homosexual in Germany, has spurred the creation of gay rights groups from Bavaria to Schleswig-Holstein. His AIDS comedy, A Virus Has No Morals, was one of the first films to confront the disease internationally. Other works, in both fictional and documentary formats, address AIDS activism, living with AIDS, and other social issues concerning AIDS and the gay community. PMID:11363912

  13. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's philosophy of the mind].

    PubMed

    Lyre, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's position within the philosophy of mind. It turns out that Weizsäcker's ontology is based on an unorthodox conception both in the philosophy of physics and in the philosophy of mind. His quantum information theoretic reductionism is based on a subtle combination of atomism and holism, his philosophy of mind connected to this is a neutral monism, which proposes a bold intertwining of mind, matter, and space. PMID:24974603

  14. Dr. von Braun and Dr. Stuhlinger With a Model of the Nuclear-Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, taken at the Walt Disney Studios in California, Dr. Wernher von Braun and Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger are shown discussing the concepts of nuclear-electric spaceships designed to undertake the mission to the planet Mars. As a part of the Disney 'Tomorrowland' series on the exploration of space, the nuclear-electric vehicles were shown in the last three television films, entitled 'Mars and Beyond,' which first aired in December 1957.

  15. Spontaneous recurrent hematuria and hematospermia: Unique manifestations of von Willebrand disease type I. Case report.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Daniele; Scortechini, Anna Rita; Milanese, Giulio; Leoni, Pietro; Muzzonigro, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    In this report we describe the case of a patient with unrecognized von Willebrand disease (vWD), in whom the only presenting symptoms were spontaneous and recurrent hematuria with bladder tamponade, associated with recurrent hematospermia. The diagnosis was made only after several admissions to the hospital. We suggest to include coagulopathies such as vWD as part of the evaluation in patients with unexplained genito-urinary bleeding. PMID:27072179

  16. Brain and aviation: on the 80th anniversary of Constantin von Economo's (1876-1931) death.

    PubMed

    Sak, Jarosław; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    2011 marks the 80th anniversary of the death of Constantin Alexander von Economo who conducted advanced research on the cytoarchitectonics of the brain. This Austrian neurologist and the pioneer of aviation described encephalitis lethargica, discovered the spindle neurons, and postulated the existence of the sleep and wakefulness centre in the brain. What is more he realized two of the biggest dreams of humankind: conquering space and getting to know the secrets of the human brain.

  17. Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker: A Fifty-Year Friendship*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper follows Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker during their fifty-year friendship from 1926, when they first met in Copenhagen, to Heisenberg's death in Munich in 1976. The relationship underwent profound changes during that period, as did physics, philosophy, and German society and politics, all of which exerted important influences on their lives, work, and interactions with each other. The nature of these developments and their impact are explored in this paper.

  18. ["Living with the bomb" - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's path from physics to politics].

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker spanned a spectrum from physics to politics, with philosophy in-between. This chapter surveys the most controversial part of his career, including his work on nuclear weapons and participation in cultural propaganda during the Second World War, his subsequent active political engagement during the postwar Federal German Republic, in particular the role of nuclear weapons, and his participation in myths surrounding Hitler's Bomb".

  19. A botanist for a continent: Ferdinand von Mueller (1825-96).

    PubMed

    Home, R W

    1998-01-01

    The botanist and explorer, Ferdinand von Mueller, was the most distinguished of the many German scientists who made important contributions to Australian science during the nineteenth century. This article explores the background to his going to Australia and the way in which he established a scientific career there, and outlines his principal contributions as Victoria's Government Botanist for over 40 years, from 1853 to 1896.

  20. Evaluation of commercial von Willebrand factor collagen binding assays to assist the discrimination of types 1 and 2 von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2010-11-01

    This study reports on the evaluation of seven commercial von Willebrand factor (VWF) collagen binding (VWF:CB) assays to potentially assist the discrimination of types 1 and 2 von Willebrand disease (VWD). Samples from 25 patients with type 1 VWD, of varying severity, were co-tested with 16 samples from patients with types 2A or 2B VWD, plus various control samples, using each commercial VWF:CB assay assessed against our standard (reference) in-house VWF:CB assay, as well as our in-house VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo) assays. Commercial VWF:CB assays varied in their ability to discriminate types 1 and 2A/2B VWD. The optimal VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratio at which optimal discrimination occurred also differed between assays, with some improvements observed with some (but not all) assays following a harmonisation process that aimed to correct for different calibrator effects. Assay variability also compromised assay utility in some test occasions. Future standardisation and improvements in some commercial VWF:CB assays are needed before the VWF:CB assay can be more fully and globally utilised for discrimination of VWD types in diagnostic laboratories.

  1. Identification of a point mutation in type IIB von Willebrand disease illustrating the regulation of von Willebrand factor affinity for the platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib-IX receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, J.; Dent, J.A.; Azuma, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiko; Kyrle, P.A.; Yoshioka, Akira; Ruggeri, Z.M. )

    1991-04-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) supports platelet adhesion on thrombogenic surfaces by binding to platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib in the GP Ib-IX receptor complex. This interaction is physiologically regulated so that it does not occur between circulating vWF and platelets but, rather, only at a site of vascular injury. The abnormal vWF found in type IIB von Willebrand disease, however, has a characteristically increased affinity for GP Ib and binds to circulating platelets. The authors have analyzed the molecular basis of this abnormality by sequence analysis of a type IIB vWF cDNA and have identified a single amino acid change, Trp{sup 550} to Cys{sup 550}, located in the GP IB-binding domain of the molecule comprising residues 449-728. Bacterial expression of recombinant fragments corresponding to this vWF domain yielded molecules that, whether containing a normal Trp{sup 550} or a mutant Cys{sup 550} residue, bound directly to GP Ib in the absence of modulators and with similar affinity. These results identify a region of vWF that, although not thought to be directly involved in binding to GP Ib, may modulate the interaction through conformational changes.

  2. An Alternative to Von Glasersfeld's Subjectivism in Science Education: Deweyan Social Constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Jim

    An influential view of constructivism in science and mathematics educational research and practice is that of Ernst von Glasersfeld. It is a peculiarly subjectivist form of constructivism that should not be attractive to science and mathematics educators concerned with retaining some sort of realism that leaves room for objectivity. The subjectivist constructivism of von Glasersfeld also becomes entangled in untenable mind/body and subject/object dualisms. Finally, these dualisms are unnecessary for social constructivism. I will provide one example of a social constructivist alternative to social constructivism, that of the pragmatic philosopher JohnDewey. In presenting Deweys position I will appeal to Ockhams razor, that is, the admonition not to multiply entities beyond necessity, to shave off the needless mentalistic and psychic entities that lead von Glasersfeld into his subjectivism and dualism.In outward forms, experimental science is infinitely varied. In principle, it is simple. We know an object when we knowhow it is made, and we know how it is made in the degree in which we ourselves make it.

  3. Invited commentary: The context and challenge of von Pettenkofer's contributions to epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Gerald M; Susser, Ezra

    2007-12-01

    Max von Pettenkofer is largely remembered for swallowing cholera vibrio, trying thereby to falsify the claim of his rival, the contagionist Robert Koch, that the bacillus he had isolated was cholera's sufficient cause. In this issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology, Alfredo Morabia reminds us that von Pettenkofer was more than this futile gesture. He was a 19th century public health leader whose multifactorial theory of cholera etiology deeply influenced the dominant anticontagionist school of disease transmission. His authority was undercut by the massive 1892 cholera epidemic in Hamburg, Germany. As it took off, the German government sent in Koch, who successfully contained the epidemic through interventions that von Pettenkofer regularly repudiated-quarantine, disinfection, and the boiling of water. The authors situate the antagonism between these two individuals within a broader scientific and political context that includes the evolution of miasma theory and debates over the role of governments confronted by epidemic disease. They also note that Koch's approach, which focused narrowly on the agent and its eradication, was missing key elements required for applying germ theory to public health. As scientists later incorporated biologic, host, and environmental factors into the germ theory paradigm, they reintroduced some of the complexity that had previously characterized the miasma model.

  4. From Mill via von Kries to Max Weber: Causality, Explanation, and Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidelberger, Michael

    In the second part of his "Critical studies in the logic of the cultural sciences" published in 1906, which carries the title "Objective possibility and adequate causation in historical explanation" (Weber 1906, 164-188/266-290)1 Max Weber (1864-1920) wrote that he feels "almost embarrassed in view of the extent to which here again, as in so much of the preceding argument, I am 'plundering' von Kries' ideas" (Weber 1906, 186/288).2 Weber thus admits a very strong influence on his approach by the physiologist, philosopher, and theoretician of probability, von Kries (1853-1928), who was for sometime his colleague in Freiburg in southwest Germany. Von Kries had suggested a legal criterion for attributing a deed to an agent that exerted a strong influence on German civil law and was also taken up by the legal system of other countries. This earned him the title of an honorary doctor of the law faculty of the University of Erlangen in 1897.

  5. von Willebrand factor in plasma: a novel risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction and death.

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, J H; Nilsson, T K; Johnson, O

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate as predictors of reinfarction and mortality tissue plasminogen activator antigen and activity before and after venous occlusion, plasminogen activator inhibitor, von Willebrand factor, and established risk factors. DESIGN--Prospective study with a mean observation time of 4.9 years. SETTING--Secondary referral centre, the Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Umeå. PATIENTS--123 consecutive survivors of myocardial infarction under the age of 70 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Reinfarction and deaths from all causes. RESULTS--23 patients died and 36 patients had at least one reinfarction. High concentrations of von Willebrand factor were independently associated with both reinfarction and mortality. A history of angina at entry into the study was also independently associated with reinfarction and mortality. Hypertension was independently associated with mortality but not with reinfarction. None of the fibrinolytic or lipid variables was associated with reinfarction or death. CONCLUSION--A high concentration of von Willebrand factor was a novel index of increased risk for reinfarction and mortality in survivors of myocardial infarction. PMID:1747294

  6. Linkage disequilibrium patterns vary with chromosomal location: A case study from the von Willebrand factor region

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W.S.; Zenger, R.; O'Brien, E.; Jorde, L.B. ); Nyman, D. ); Eriksson, A.W. ); Renlund, M.

    1994-08-01

    Linkage disequilibrium analysis has been used as a tool for analyzing marker order and locating disease genes. Under appropriate circumstances, disequilibrium patterns reflect recombination events that have occurred throughput a population's history. As a result, disequilibrium mapping may be useful in genomic regions of <1 cM where the number of informative meioses needed to detect recombinant individuals within pedigrees is exceptionally high. Its utility for refining target areas for candidate disease genes before initiating chromosomal walks and cloning experiments will be enhanced as the relationship between linkage disequilibrium and physical distance is better understood. To address this issue, the authors have characterized linkage disequilibrium in a 144-kb region of the von Willebrand factor gene on chromosome 12. Sixty CEPH and 12 von Willebrand disease families were genotypes for five PCR-based markers, which include two microsatellite repeats and three single-base-pair substitutions. Linkage disequilibrium and physical distance between polymorphisms are highly correlated (r[sub m] = -.76; P<.05) within this region. None of the five markers showed significant disequilibrium with the von Willebrand disease phenotype. The linkage disequilibrium/physical distance relationship was also analyzed as a function of chromosomal location for this and eight previously characterized regions. This analysis revealed a general trend in which linkage disequilibrium dissipates more rapidly with physical distance in telomeric regions than in centromeric regions. This trend is consistent with higher recombination rates near telomeres. 52 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Invited commentary: The context and challenge of von Pettenkofer's contributions to epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Gerald M; Susser, Ezra

    2007-12-01

    Max von Pettenkofer is largely remembered for swallowing cholera vibrio, trying thereby to falsify the claim of his rival, the contagionist Robert Koch, that the bacillus he had isolated was cholera's sufficient cause. In this issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology, Alfredo Morabia reminds us that von Pettenkofer was more than this futile gesture. He was a 19th century public health leader whose multifactorial theory of cholera etiology deeply influenced the dominant anticontagionist school of disease transmission. His authority was undercut by the massive 1892 cholera epidemic in Hamburg, Germany. As it took off, the German government sent in Koch, who successfully contained the epidemic through interventions that von Pettenkofer regularly repudiated-quarantine, disinfection, and the boiling of water. The authors situate the antagonism between these two individuals within a broader scientific and political context that includes the evolution of miasma theory and debates over the role of governments confronted by epidemic disease. They also note that Koch's approach, which focused narrowly on the agent and its eradication, was missing key elements required for applying germ theory to public health. As scientists later incorporated biologic, host, and environmental factors into the germ theory paradigm, they reintroduced some of the complexity that had previously characterized the miasma model. PMID:17934199

  8. Optimal spinneret layout in Von Koch curves of fractal theory based needleless electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenxiu; Liu, Yanbo; Zhang, Ligai; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yang; Yao, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Needleless electrospinning technology is considered as a better avenue to produce nanofibrous materials at large scale, and electric field intensity and its distribution play an important role in controlling nanofiber diameter and quality of the nanofibrous web during electrospinning. In the current study, a novel needleless electrospinning method was proposed based on Von Koch curves of Fractal configuration, simulation and analysis on electric field intensity and distribution in the new electrospinning process were performed with Finite element analysis software, Comsol Multiphysics 4.4, based on linear and nonlinear Von Koch fractal curves (hereafter called fractal models). The result of simulation and analysis indicated that Second level fractal structure is the optimal linear electrospinning spinneret in terms of field intensity and uniformity. Further simulation and analysis showed that the circular type of Fractal spinneret has better field intensity and distribution compared to spiral type of Fractal spinneret in the nonlinear Fractal electrospinning technology. The electrospinning apparatus with the optimal Von Koch fractal spinneret was set up to verify the theoretical analysis results from Comsol simulation, achieving more uniform electric field distribution and lower energy cost, compared to the current needle and needleless electrospinning technologies.

  9. Isoelectric focusing of human von Willebrand factor in urea-agarose gels

    SciTech Connect

    Fulcher, C.A.; Ruggeri, Z.M.; Zimmerman, T.S.

    1983-02-01

    An analytical technique has been developed for the isoelectric focusing (IEF) of plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) in agarose gels containing urea. Under these conditions, vWF freely enters the gel and focuses without artifact. The focused vWF is visualized by staining fixed gels with /sup 125/I-labeled affinity-purified heterologous antibody. Utilizing a pH gradient of 5.0-6.5, normal vWF in plasma or purified preparations focuses into at least three bands with apparent isoelectric points (pI) between pH 5.7 and 5.9. A reproducible difference in the IEF pattern of vWF has been established between normal plasmas and those of individuals with variant von Willebrand's disease (vWd) type IIA and type IIB. In type IIA, vWF has a distinctly lower pI than normal. This difference may be related to the presence of smaller vWF multimers in IIA plasma because forms of vWF of corresponding size contained in normal cryoprecipitate supernatant have a similar pI. Type IIB von Willebrand factor has a pI intermediate between normal and IIA. Neuraminidase treatment of plasma samples before IEF results in an increase in pI in normal, type IIA, and type IIB vWF. The data suggest that none of the 16 type IIA and 9 IIB plasmas studied here contain significantly decreased amounts of sialic acid.

  10. Neurological surgery in the nineteenth century: the principles and techniques of Ernst von Bergmann.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, W C; Ragen, W; Ludgera, M

    1992-05-01

    Born in Latvia in 1836, Ernst von Bergmann received his medical education and first academic position at the University of Dorpat in Russia. In 1866, he served as a military surgeon in the Prusso-Austrian War, followed by duty in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. He was appointed to the faculty of the University of Würzburg in 1878 and 4 years later moved to the University Clinic in Berlin. As a professor and chairman of surgery, he taught until his death in 1907. Von Bergmann practiced general surgery but devoted a large part of his career to the treatment of neurological diseases. Known for his development of aseptic technique, his early military experiences directed his attention to cranial trauma and, ultimately, neurosurgery. In 1880, he authored his first textbook, which described missile ballistics and animal experiments first demonstrating the physiological response later known as "the Cushing reflex" and advocated meticulous intracranial debridement with thorough closure after trauma. Twenty years later, as senior editor of the massive System of Practical Surgery, his contributions included pediatric neurosurgery, successful treatment of abscesses and tumors, diagnostic radiography, and cerebral localization using external landmarks and the neurological examination. Revered by his students and honored by his colleagues, von Bergmann became a proponent for aggressive neurosurgical treatment. His skilled techniques, developed in parallel with accurate experimental physiology, advanced 19th century surgical progression and formed a solid framework for the advances of neurosurgical specialists.

  11. [The search for "od." Karl Ludwig Freiheer von Reichenbach (1788-1869) and Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer (1806-1853), two joined against Justus von Liebig].

    PubMed

    Habacher, M

    1980-05-01

    The author describes the controversy between Justus von Liebig on one side and Reichenbach and Mayrhofer on the other side. It is a controversy about problems of science and medicine which are characteristic for the late 18th and the first half of the 19th century, when Mesmerism and similar ideas of occultic and comparative phenomenona were discussed and often refused as being "not scientific". Justus von Liebig and Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach were both chemists, both interested in scientific progress and working in this field. They were friends in the years 1830 to 1848. But later on this friendship ended when Reichenbach--who in the mean time moved to Vienna--became more and more interested in phenomenons seen by sensitive persons concerning effects of light. Although Reichenbach himself was not able to recognize the phenomenons he was sure that other persons had this ability. He had the impression that there is a special force floating through the universe, and this force he called "od". Liebig, who was not able to follow this theory and rejected it has speculation, turned against Reichenbach in 1852-3. So the controversy began and their old friendship came to an end. Reichenbach's theory of the "od", characteristic for the time of the romanticism and leading back to Mesmerism was accepted and supported by the Austrian physician Dr. Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer who had aroused his interest by describing similar phenomenos some of this patients had. The letters of both men, the chemist and the doctor, which are well preserved (Technical Museum of Vienna) and discussed here, give a good impression of Reichenbach's ideas concerning his theory of the "od" and his philosophical ideas. As Reichenbach tried to find a philosophy corresponding to his theory and as he meant to have found this in the philosophy of Friedrich Eduard Beneke his remarks in those letters give a good information about Beneke's discussion of Reichenbach's theory. Mayrhofer, on the other hand

  12. [The search for "od." Karl Ludwig Freiheer von Reichenbach (1788-1869) and Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer (1806-1853), two joined against Justus von Liebig].

    PubMed

    Habacher, M

    1980-05-01

    The author describes the controversy between Justus von Liebig on one side and Reichenbach and Mayrhofer on the other side. It is a controversy about problems of science and medicine which are characteristic for the late 18th and the first half of the 19th century, when Mesmerism and similar ideas of occultic and comparative phenomenona were discussed and often refused as being "not scientific". Justus von Liebig and Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach were both chemists, both interested in scientific progress and working in this field. They were friends in the years 1830 to 1848. But later on this friendship ended when Reichenbach--who in the mean time moved to Vienna--became more and more interested in phenomenons seen by sensitive persons concerning effects of light. Although Reichenbach himself was not able to recognize the phenomenons he was sure that other persons had this ability. He had the impression that there is a special force floating through the universe, and this force he called "od". Liebig, who was not able to follow this theory and rejected it has speculation, turned against Reichenbach in 1852-3. So the controversy began and their old friendship came to an end. Reichenbach's theory of the "od", characteristic for the time of the romanticism and leading back to Mesmerism was accepted and supported by the Austrian physician Dr. Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer who had aroused his interest by describing similar phenomenos some of this patients had. The letters of both men, the chemist and the doctor, which are well preserved (Technical Museum of Vienna) and discussed here, give a good impression of Reichenbach's ideas concerning his theory of the "od" and his philosophical ideas. As Reichenbach tried to find a philosophy corresponding to his theory and as he meant to have found this in the philosophy of Friedrich Eduard Beneke his remarks in those letters give a good information about Beneke's discussion of Reichenbach's theory. Mayrhofer, on the other hand

  13. The use of desmopressin in the management of two patients with von Willebrand's disease undergoing periodontal surgery. 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Petrover, M G; Cohen, C I

    1990-04-01

    Von Willebrand's disease is a genetic bleeding disorder characterized by either a reduced plasma concentration of von Willebrand's factor (vWF) or a qualitative deficiency in that vWF which is produced. Previous therapy consisted of injecting concentrates of vWF manufactured from the pooled plasma of multiple donors. With the increased incidence and risk of serum borne transmission of such diseases as hepatitis and AIDS, the advantages of an alternative mode of therapy was obvious. In the course of using 1-desamino-8-D-arginine (desmopressin or DDAVP, a synthetic analogue of 8-arginine vasopressin, a hormone secreted in the posterior pituitary gland) in the treatment of diabetes insipidus, it was discovered that this drug causes the release of bound vWF into the plasma. The elevation lasts for several hours and is effective in producing hemostasis in some types of mild to moderate von Willebrand's disease. In 1984, desmopressin was approved for this usage in the United States. This paper discusses the use of DDAVP in the management of von Willebrand's disease and present two case reports of patients with von Willebrand's disease and in need of periodontal surgery. PMID:2324924

  14. The Nachlass (estate) of Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), long-time secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), professor of anatomy in Breslau from 1922, was secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG) from 1919 until 1949 and also editor of the Anatomischer Anzeiger, today's Annals of Anatomy. His "Wissenschaftlicher Nachlass [scientific estate]" could recently be located in private hands and has now been made available at the archive of the AG held by the current secretary. It consists of 45 folders, mainly containing von Eggeling's national and international correspondence from 1919 to 1953. It thus covers the times of the Weimar republic and of the "Third Reich" as well as the post-war period, when the AG had been officially closed down by the Allied Control Council and was eventually re-founded in 1949. Von Eggeling preserved this material despite war destruction of his Berlin home, where he lived after his retirement in 1935, and his cramped post-war confines in a small town near Hannover. The estate also includes autobiographical manuscripts of von Eggeling and some material from his predecessor, the first secretary of the AG since 1886, Karl von Bardeleben (1849-1918). There is evidence that the correspondence is not complete, even if there are no significant time gaps. The contents suggest that letters deemed insignificant, like fee reminders or editorial decisions, were discarded at some point, but it remains unclear by whom. This estate fills a significant gap in the historical material related to the AG and will be an important source for any future historical investigation regarding the society.

  15. Identification and functional analysis of a novel von Willebrand factor mutation in a family with type 2A von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Shi, Sensen; Ma, Zhenni; Liu, Meng; Wu, Qingyu; Ruan, Changgeng; Dong, Ningzheng

    2012-01-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) is essential for normal hemostasis. VWF gene mutations cause the hemorrhagic von Willebrand disease (VWD). In this study, a 9-year-old boy was diagnosed as type 2A VWD, based on a history of abnormal bleeding, low plasma VWF antigen and activity, low plasma factor VIII activity, and lack of plasma high-molecular-weight (HMW) VWF multimers. Sequencing analysis detected a 6-bp deletion in exon 28 of his VWF gene, which created a mutant lacking D1529V1530 residues in VWF A2 domain. This mutation also existed in his family members with abnormal bleedings but not in >60 normal controls. In transfected HEK293 cells, recombinant VWF ΔD1529V1530 protein had markedly reduced levels in the conditioned medium (42±4% of wild-type (WT) VWF, p<0.01). The mutant VWF in the medium had less HMW multimers. In contrast, the intracellular levels of the mutant VWF in the transfected cells were significantly higher than that of WT (174±29%, p<0.05), indicating intracellular retention of the mutant VWF. In co-transfection experiments, the mutant reduced WT VWF secretion from the cells. By immunofluorescence staining, the retention of the mutant VWF was identified within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Together, we identified a unique VWF mutation responsible for the bleeding phenotype in a patient family with type 2A VWD. The mutation impaired VWF trafficking through the ER, thereby preventing VWF secretion from the cells. Our results illustrate the diversity of VWF gene mutations, which contributes to the wide spectrum of VWD. PMID:22479377

  16. Evaluation of a von Willebrand factor three test panel and chemiluminescent-based assay system for identification of, and therapy monitoring in, von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Mohammed, Soma

    2016-05-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD) is reportedly the most common bleeding disorder and arises from deficiency and/or defects of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Laboratory diagnosis and typing of VWD has important management implications and requires a wide range of tests, including VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and various activities, involving differential identification of qualitative vs quantitative VWF defects. We have assessed a new hemostasis instrument, the chemiluminescent assay based ACL AcuStar™, and an associated HemosIL AcuStar three test panel comprising VWF:Ag, VWF ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo) and VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB) (Instrumentation Laboratory, Bedford, Ma. USA) for ability to identify VWD, to help provisionally type VWD, and for potential use in therapy monitoring. This test system was compared to previously evaluated and validated test systems including VWF:RCo on CS-5100 and BCS analyzers, the new Siemens INNOVANCE assay (VWF Ac) on CS-5100, and VWF:Ag and VWF:CB assays performed by automated ELISA. We employed a large total sample test set (n=535) comprising plasma and platelet-lysate samples from individuals with and without VWD, some on treatment, normal plasmas, and normal and pathological controls. We also evaluated desmopressin (DDAVP) responsiveness, plus differential sensitivity to reduction in high molecular weight (HMW) VWF. The chemiluminescent test panel (VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, VWF:CB) showed good comparability to similar assays performed by alternate methods, and broadly similar data for identification of VWD, provisional VWD type identification, DDAVP and VWD therapy, and HMW VWF sensitivity, although some notable differences were evident. The chemiluminescent system showed best low level VWF sensitivity, and lowest inter-assay variability, compared to all other systems. In conclusion, we have validated theACL AcuStar and the chemiluminescent HemosIL AcuStar VWF test panel for use in VWD diagnostics, and have identified some favorable

  17. Type I von Willebrand disease, subtype 'platelet low': decreased platelet adhesion can be explained by low synthesis of von Willebrand factor in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Federici, A B; de Groot, P G; Moia, M; Ijsseldijk, M J; Sixma, J J; Mannucci, P M

    1993-01-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) were isolated from the umbilical vein of a newborn girl with type I 'platelet low' von Willebrand disease (I vWD) and endothelial localization and release and the ability of subendothelial von Willebrand factor (vWF) to support platelet adhesion were compared with those of normal EC. vWF was detectable by immunofluorescence in Weibel-Palade bodies, but the number of Weibel-Palade bodies positive for vWF was lower than in control EC. Patient EC released into the medium significantly smaller amount of vWF, both constitutively and after their stimulation. The vWF content of the extracellular matrix of patient EC was 38% that of control EC matrix. Platelet adhesion studies were performed under flow conditions with umbilical arteries and EC matrices of cultured EC. Using normal citrated whole blood as perfusate, platelet adhesion was lower in the umbilical artery of the patient (9 +/- 1% v 35 +/- 4% for the control) and in her EC matrix (7 +/- 1% v 21 +/- 2% of control). When patient EC matrix was perfused with vWF-deficient reconstituted blood, adhesion was 17 +/- 3% v 32 +/- 3% for control EC matrix; preincubation of patient EC matrix with 1 U/ml vWF increased the adhesion to 30 +/- 6%. These data establish that low contents of vWF in EC and subendothelium are important characteristics of type I vWD 'platelet low', and that such characteristics correlate with low platelet adhesion to the subendothelium. PMID:8435340

  18. Logo and Von Neumann Ideas [and] Towards a Humanistic Use of Computers in Education = Hacia una insercion humanista de las computadoras en la educacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reggini, Horacio C.

    The first article, "LOGO and von Neumann Ideas," deals with the creation of new procedures based on procedures defined and stored in memory as LOGO lists of lists. This representation, which enables LOGO procedures to construct, modify, and run other LOGO procedures, is compared with basic computer concepts first formulated by John von Neumann.…

  19. Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. A clinical and population study in south-east Wales.

    PubMed

    Huson, S M; Harper, P S; Compston, D A

    1988-12-01

    A population-based study in south-east Wales (population 668,100) identified 135 patients with von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (prevalence 20/10(5]. In addition to multiple café-au-lait spots and/or dermal neurofibromas, freckling was present in the axilla (67%), groin (44%) or submammary areas (29% of adult females). Although not a criterion for diagnosis, Lisch nodules were almost invariably present in the iris (93% of patients overall; 96% of those aged greater than or equal to 20 yrs). The complications of von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis in this cohort (n = 135 unless stated) were plexiform neurofibromas (40/125), severe mental retardation (1), epilepsy (6), optic glioma (2), spinal neurofibroma (2), aqueduct stenosis (2), meningioangiomatosis (1), scoliosis requiring surgery (6), pseudoarthrosis (3), delayed puberty (2), visceral and endocrine tumours (6), and congenital glaucoma (1). There were no cases of acoustic neuroma. Considering all living family members aged greater than or equal to 18 yrs, together with their deceased relatives, the frequency of CNS and malignant tumours related to the disease was 4.4-5.2%. Uncomplicated von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis is disfiguring but not a major cause of morbidity. The management of the disease relates to its complications which can be divided into three categories: those which occur in childhood and cause lifelong morbidity (moderate-severe mental handicap, facial plexiform neurofibromas, orthopaedic), those which can occur at any time but are 'treatable' (benign disorders of the nervous system, visceral and endocrine tumours, renal artery stenosis), and malignant or CNS tumours. The combined frequency for each category based on this survey was 12%, 16% and 4.4-5.2%, respectively. PMID:3145091

  20. Electrophysiological analysis of the role of novelty in the von Restorff effect

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Meeter, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    Items that are distinctive with respect to their context tend to be recalled better than nondistinctive items, a finding known as the von Restorff effect. The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of novelty in this effect. In two experiments, participants performed a dual task in which they had to study words presented visually while to-be ignored sounds were played over earphones. Sounds could be either standard or novel, and words could be presented in standard or novel font. Sounds were presented either simultaneously with the words (Experiment 1) or preceding them (Experiment 2). Electrophysiological correlates of novelty processing, the N2b and P3a ERP components, were recorded while the words were studied. It was seen that cued recall was better for words presented in novel fonts than for words in a standard font (the von Restorff effect). Words presented while novel sounds were played were remembered worse (Experiment 1) or equally well (Experiment 2) than those combined with standard sounds. Words presented in novel fonts elicited enhanced N2b, P3a, P3b, and N400 components; however, none of these components were specifically larger for subsequently recalled novel-font words. A larger N2b was found for recalled than for nonrecalled words, but this effect was not specific for words presented in novel font. We hypothesized that if novelty was beneficial for memory processing, the N2–P3 complex would be more enhanced for novel words that were later recalled than for those not recalled. The data showed otherwise. This suggests that novelty processing, as indexed by the N2–P3 novelty components, is not the main cause of the von Restorff effect. PMID:23531713

  1. Automatische Lokalisation und hämodynamische Charakterisierung von Gefäßstrukturen bei arteriovenösen Malformationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Fiehler, Jens; Illies, Till; Handels, Heinz

    Im Beitrag werden Verfahren zur automatischen Detektion des Kerns der Arteriovenösen Malformation (AVM) sowie der zuleitenden (Feeder), ableitenden (Drainagevenen) und en passge" Blutgef äße präsentiert. Als Eingabe hierfür dienen hochaufgelöste 3D- sowie zeitlich-räumliche 4D-MRT-Bildsequenzen. Durch eine kombinierte Analyse der Intensität, der Geschwindigkeit und des relativen Einflusszeitpunktes des Blutes werden Gefäßstrukturen automatisch charakterisiert. Die vorgestellte Methode zur Detektion des Kerns wurde anhand von manuellen Segmentierungen validiert und ergab eine mittlere Volumen- übereinstimmung von ca. 88%. Drainagevenen und Feeder konnten mit einer Genauigkeit von 95% detektiert werden.

  2. Herausforderungen und Best Practices bei der Speicherung von multi-valued Attributen in LDAP-basierten Verzeichnisdiensten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang; Pluta, Daniel

    LDAP-basierte Verzeichnisdienste unterscheiden sich von relationalen Datenbankmanagementsystemen unter anderem stark bezüglich der Datenmodellierung. Dieser Artikel vertieft eingangs die Herausforderungen bei der LDAP-spezifischen Abbildung von Relationen zwischen mehreren multivalued Attributen. Die Diskussion erfolgt vor dem Hintergrund, dass einerseits Verzeichnisdienste generell nur bedingt zur Speicherung von Relationen geeignet sind und dass andererseits multi-valued Attribute ein mächtiges LDAP-Instrument sind, zu dem es in relationalen Datenbanksystemen keine direkte Entsprechung gibt. Anschließend werden Lösungskonzepte vorgestellt und mögliche Weiterentwicklungen des IntegraTUM-LDAP-Schemas zu deren Umsetzung skizziert, eine exemplarische Implementierung präsentiert und die Ergebnisse der bisherigen Entwicklung des IntegraTUM-Schemas gegenübergestellt.

  3. Gesellschaft, Lebensgemeinschaft, Ökosystem - Über die Kongruenz von politischen und ökologischen Theorien der Entwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Annette

    Im Jahr 1859 veröffentlichte Charles Darwin "On the Origin of Species“. Seine Evolutionstheorie ist das wohl spektakulärste Beispiel einer naturwissenschaftlichen Theorie großer gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Ihre verschiedenen Facetten wurden in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert, unter anderem auch ihre Anwendung zur Erklärung von Zuständen und Prozessen menschlicher Gesellschaften. Zum Teil wurde die Seiensweise der Natur - scheinbar unabhängig von gesellschaftlichen Interessen - für die Erklärung und Legitimation gesellschaftlicher Zustände oder die Legitimation von politischen Ideologien herangezogen (Sozialdarwinismus). Denn Gesellschaft funktioniere ja so, wie Darwin die Natur erklärt habe: es herrsche z. B. Konkurrenzkampf, Auslese und Arbeitsteilung, Erfolg hätten diejenigen, die sich an die Bedingungen am Besten anpassten.

  4. [On natural history museums and their purpose. A lecture given by Leopold von Buch (1774-1853) in April 1838].

    PubMed

    Kröger, Björn

    2011-12-01

    A manuscript of a lecture by the Prussian geologist Leopold von Buch given at the Berlin Society of the Friends of the Humanity was discovered at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. The text is a raw version of a passionate plea for the formation of natural history collections as science places, with a partly biting humor. Based on until now unknown anecdotes about naturalists like Kaspar Maria Graf Sternberg (1761-1838) and Friedrich Wilhelm Hoeninghaus (1771-1854) Leopold von Buch argues with von Sternberg for the scientific value of natural history collections. The repeating references to the works of Goethe and an extensive addendum of various Dante translations into German are striking. The lecture manuscript complements our knowledge about the thinking of this important geologist, and provides new insights into the science policy of his time.

  5. Long period perturbations of earth satellite orbits. [Von Zeipel method and zonal harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    All the equations involved in extending the PS phi solution to include the long periodic and second order secular effects of the zonal harmonics are presented. Topics covered include DSphi elements and relations for their conconical transformation into the PS phi elements; the solution algorithm based on the Von Zeipel method; and the elimination of long periodic terms and analytical integration of primed variables. The equations were entered into the ASOP program, checked out, and verified. Comparisons with numerical integrations show the long period theory to be accurate within several meters after 800 revolutions.

  6. Ferdinand von Mueller's interactions with Charles Darwin and his response to Darwinism.

    PubMed

    Lucas, A M

    2010-01-01

    Although Ferdinand Mueller (later von Mueller), Government Botanist of Victoria, opposed Darwin's theories when "On the origin of species" was published, there has been little detailed study of the nature of Mueller's opposition from 1860, when he received a presentation copy of "Origin," to his death in 1896. Analysis of Mueller's correspondence and publications shows that he remained a theist and misunderstood key aspects of Darwin's theory. However, Mueller did come to accept that natural selection could operate within a species, although never accepting it could produce speciation. Despite these differences he retained a cordial relationship with Darwin. PMID:20480981

  7. Gravity Effects in Diffusive Coarsening of Bubble Lattices: von Neumann's Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann modelled the evolution of two-dimensional soap froths as a purely diffusive phenomenon; the area growth of a given cell was found to depend only on the geometry of the bubble lattice. In the model, hexagons are stable, pentagons shrink and heptagons grow. The simplest equivalent to the area growth law is / approximately t(sub beta). The result depends on assuming (1) an incompressible gas; (2) bubble walls which meet at 120 deg and (3) constant wall thickness and curvature. Each assumption is borne out in experiments except the last one: bubble wall thickness between connecting cells varies in unit gravity because of gravity drainage. The bottom part of the soap membrane is thickened, the top part is thinned, such that gas diffusion across the membrane shows a complex dependence on gravity. As a result, experimental tests of von Neumann's law have been influenced by effects of gravity; fluid behavior along cell borders can give non-uniform wall thicknesses and thus alter the effective area and gas diffusion rates between adjacent bubbles. For area plotted as a function of time, Glazier (J.A. Glazier, S.P. Gross, and I. Stavans, Phys. Rev. A. 36, 306 (1987); J. Stavans, J.A, Glazier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1318 (1989).) suggest that in some cases their failure to observe von Neumann's predicted growth exponent ((sup beta)theor(sup =1; beta)exp(sup =0.70 + 0.10)) may have been the result of such "fluid drainage onto the lower glass plate". Additional experiments which varied plate spacing gave different beta exponents in a fashion consistent with this suggestion. During preliminary long duration experiments (approximately 100 h) aboard Spacelab-J, a low-gravity test of froth coarsening has examined (1) power law scaling of von Neumann's law (beta values) in the appropriate diffusive limits; (2) new bubble lattice dynamics such as greater fluid wetting behavior on froth membranes in low gravity; and (3) explicit relations for the gravity

  8. The influence of Hermann von Helmholtz on Heinrich Hertz's contributions to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Joseph F.

    1987-08-01

    Heinrich Hertz, the discoverer of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, also made important contributions to our knowledge of the photoelectric effect, cathode rays, electromagnetic theory, classical mechanics, and meteorology. In 1878 Hertz enrolled at the University of Berlin to study physics under Professor Hermann von Helmholtz. For the rest of his life he maintained a very close personal and scientific relationship with his mentor. The influence of Helmholtz on Hertz's choice of research topics and on the kind of physicist Hertz became is documented from the writings of these two famous physicists.

  9. Bewertung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen mittels der Vehicle in the Loop-Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Thomas

    Mit der Vehicle in the Loop-Simulation hat Audi eine Test- und Simulationsumgebung für Fahrerassistenzsysteme entwickelt, welche die Vorzüge eines realen Versuchsfahrzeugs mit der Sicherheit und Reproduzierbarkeit von Fahrsimulatoren kombiniert. Virtueller Fremdverkehr, Straßenbegrenzungen oder sonstige simulierte Gegenstände werden durch ein "Optical see through Head Mounted Display“ während der Fahrt realitätsnah und kontaktanalog für den Fahrer eingeblendet. Besonders bei der Erprobung aktiver Fahrerassistenzsysteme eröffnen sich durch das Konzept des virtuellen Fremdverkehrs im realen Versuchsfahrzeug neue Möglichkeiten.

  10. Discriminating between Lüders and von Neumann measuring devices: An NMR investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer Kumar, C. S.; Shukla, Abhishek; Mahesh, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum state after measuring a degenerate observable is given by Lüders and von Neumann state update rules. While the former preserves superpositions, the latter does not. Even though both rules are valid and realizable, which rule a given measuring device ("Black Box") obeys, depends on its internal details. Recently Hegerfeldt and Mayato (2012) [5] had formulated a protocol to discriminate between the two kinds of measuring devices. Here we have reformulated this protocol for system and measuring qubits. We then experimentally investigated this protocol on an NMR spectrometer, and found that Lüders rule is favoured.

  11. von Kármán-Howarth equation for three-dimensional two-fluid plasmas.

    PubMed

    Andrés, N; Mininni, P D; Dmitruk, P; Gómez, D O

    2016-06-01

    We derive the von Kármán-Howarth equation for a full three-dimensional incompressible two-fluid plasma. In the long-time limit and for very large Reynolds numbers we obtain the equivalent of the hydrodynamic "four-fifths" law. This exact law predicts the scaling of the third-order two-point correlation functions, and puts a strong constraint on the plasma turbulent dynamics. Finally, we derive a simple expression for the 4/5 law in terms of third-order structure functions, which is appropriate for comparison with in situ measurements in the solar wind at different spatial ranges. PMID:27415372

  12. Paget-von Schroetter Syndrome: Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis after Continuous Lifting of Heavy Weight.

    PubMed

    Shiva, Charu; Saini, Meera

    2015-08-01

    Effort-induced axillary and/or subclavian vein thrombosis occurring in otherwise normal individuals is referred to as Paget-von Schroetter Syndrome (PVSS) or primary, effort-induced, upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT). A 42-year old right-handed male presented with complaints of swelling over the left shoulder and arm and dull aching pain in the left arm for two days following regular lifting of heavy LPG gas cylinders. Left upper limb venous Doppler study revealed partial thrombus in the distal axillary vein and near total thrombus in the subclavian and basilic vein. He was managed with anticoagulation therapy. PMID:27604444

  13. [Johannes Anton von Mikulicz-Radecki (1850-1905). His contributions to the development of urology].

    PubMed

    Zajaczkowski, T; Zamann, A M

    2010-02-01

    On June 14, 1905, Johann Anton von Mikulicz-Radecki, one of the most famous surgeons of the time, died. He was a disciple of famous Theodor Billroth of Vienna and the teacher of Ferdinand Sauerbruch in Breslau. Mikulicz-Radecki's merits in the field of the history of medicine are based on his achievements in developing the system of antisepsis and asepsis. He also devoted himself to urological surgery, and his name is linked with diseases, operations, and construction of new medical instruments. Mikulicz-Radecki created two surgical schools, one in Cracow and a second one in Breslau, where he worked for over 15 years until his death.

  14. An investigation of the 'von Restorff' phenomenon in post-test workload ratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The von Restorff effect in post-task ratings of task difficulty is examined. Nine subjects performed a hovercraft simulation task which combined elements of skill-based tracking and rule- and knowledge-based process control for five days of one hour sessions. The effects of isolated increases in workload on rating of task performance, and on the number of command errors and river band hits are analyzed. It is observed that the position of the workload increase affects the number of bank hits and command errors. The data reveal that factors not directly related to the task performance influence subjective rating, and post-task ratings of workload are biased.

  15. Stufenweise Integration von eLearning an der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, Sebastian; Graf, Stephan; Gergintchev, Ivan; Pongratz, Hans; Rathmayer, Sabine

    Der vorliegende Beitrag beschreibt als Best Practice Beispiel die stufenweise Integration eines Learning Management Systems (LMS) in die Infrastruktur von Information und Kommunikation (IuK) der Technischen Universität München (TUM). Dabei wird sowohl die Konsolidierung mehrfach angebotener Funktionalitäten und Dienste in den verschiedenen Portalen der Universität als auch die sukzessive Optimierung der Abläufe aufgezeigt. Gleichzeitig wird auf zukünftige weitere Entwicklungen hin zu einer vollständigen Integration der IuK, aber auch auf die Probleme in den unterschiedlichen Stadien der Entwicklung eingegangen.

  16. Aufbau von organisationsübergreifenden Fehlermanagementprozessen im Projekt IntegraTUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang; Knittl, Silvia

    Das Projekt IntegraTUM wird in enger Kooperation zwischen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) und dem Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) durchgeführt. In diesem Projekt werden Dienste gemeinsam entwickelt, die nachhaltig vom LRZ betrieben werden sollen. Die damit verbundene Rezentralisierung erfordert auch eine enge Kooperation im Falle von technischen Störungen und Fehlern im Betriebsablauf bei diesen Diensten über die Organisationsgrenzen hinweg. Unsere Aktivitäten in diesem organisationsübergreifenden Fehlermanagement werden hier beschrieben.

  17. Hydroxylation-Dependent Interaction of Substrates to the Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein (VHL).

    PubMed

    Heir, Pardeep; Ohh, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of critical proline residues, catalyzed by prolyl hydroxylase (PHD1-3) enzymes, is a crucial posttranslational modification (PTM) within the canonical hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-centric cellular oxygen-sensing pathway. Alteration of substrates in this way often leads to proteasomal degradation mediated by the von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor protein (VHL) containing E3-ubiquitin ligase complex known as ECV (Elongins B/C, CUL2, VHL). Here, we outline in vitro protocols to demonstrate the ability of VHL to bind to a prolyl-hydroxylated substrate. PMID:27581016

  18. von Kármán-Howarth equation for three-dimensional two-fluid plasmas.

    PubMed

    Andrés, N; Mininni, P D; Dmitruk, P; Gómez, D O

    2016-06-01

    We derive the von Kármán-Howarth equation for a full three-dimensional incompressible two-fluid plasma. In the long-time limit and for very large Reynolds numbers we obtain the equivalent of the hydrodynamic "four-fifths" law. This exact law predicts the scaling of the third-order two-point correlation functions, and puts a strong constraint on the plasma turbulent dynamics. Finally, we derive a simple expression for the 4/5 law in terms of third-order structure functions, which is appropriate for comparison with in situ measurements in the solar wind at different spatial ranges.

  19. Detection of heterozygotes in both parents of homozygous patients with Von Willebrand's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Y; Simeon, J; Caen, J P

    1975-01-01

    Three patients with severe Von Willebrand's disease are shown to be homozygotes. They were born from unaffected parents. New techniques using a factor-VIII-related antigen assay by the Laurell method and a ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation assay demonstrated abnormalities in these two tests in both parents of the probands. Factor-VIII-related of heterogotes could not be differentiated from normal factor-VIII-related antigen by the immunodiffusion technique, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and filtration on a sepharose 4b column. Images PMID:805164

  20. Congenital Type III von Willebrand's disease unmasked by hypothyroidism in a Shetland sheepdog.

    PubMed

    Scuderi, Margaret; Bessey, Lauren; Snead, Elisabeth; Burgess, Hilary; Carr, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    A 7-year-old, spayed female Shetland sheepdog had sudden onset of right-sided epistaxis. Diagnostic tests revealed Type III von Willebrand's disease and primary hypothyroidism leading to an acute hypothyroid crisis and acquired factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Levothyroxine therapy normalized the serum thyroxine and FVIII concentrations. The delayed onset of disease and the reversible FVIII deficiency that was corrected with levothyroxine therapy, support a role for hypothyroidism in the pathogenesis of this dog's sudden bleeding tendency as has been seen with hypothyroidism in humans. PMID:26347307

  1. Ion-induced x-ray studies with a high luminosity von Hamos crystal spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Vane, C.R.; Smith, M.; Raman, S.; Heard, J.; Walkiewicz, T.

    1986-01-01

    A high-resolution, high-efficiency, von Hamos geometry, Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer has been developed and mounted on a beamline at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of K and L x-rays emitted from a variety of targets and projectiles. Instrument performance characteristics are reported here along with spectra from fast projectile ions and very low intensity target emission - areas of measurement for which this spectrometer is especially suitable.

  2. Congenital Type III von Willebrand's disease unmasked by hypothyroidism in a Shetland sheepdog.

    PubMed

    Scuderi, Margaret; Bessey, Lauren; Snead, Elisabeth; Burgess, Hilary; Carr, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    A 7-year-old, spayed female Shetland sheepdog had sudden onset of right-sided epistaxis. Diagnostic tests revealed Type III von Willebrand's disease and primary hypothyroidism leading to an acute hypothyroid crisis and acquired factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Levothyroxine therapy normalized the serum thyroxine and FVIII concentrations. The delayed onset of disease and the reversible FVIII deficiency that was corrected with levothyroxine therapy, support a role for hypothyroidism in the pathogenesis of this dog's sudden bleeding tendency as has been seen with hypothyroidism in humans.

  3. On the von Staudt-Clausen theorem for q-Euler numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.

    2013-03-01

    The q-Euler numbers and polynomials were recently constructed [T. Kim, "The Modified q-Euler Numbers and Polynomials," Adv. Stud. Contemp. Math., 16, 161-170 (2008)]. These q-Euler numbers and polynomials have interesting properties. In this paper, we prove a theorem of the von Staudt-Clausen type for q-Euler numbers; namely, we prove that the q-Euler numbers are p-adic integers. Finally, we prove Kummer-type congruences for the q-Euler numbers.

  4. VON and Its Use in NASA's International Space Station Science Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Chamberlain, Jim

    1999-01-01

    This presentation will provide a brief overview of a International Space Station (ISS) remote user (scientist/experimenter) operation. Specifically, the presentation will show how Voice over IP (VoIP) is integrated into the ISS science payload operation and in the mission voice system. Included will be the details on how a scientist, using VON, will talk to the ISS onboard crew and ground based cadre from a scientist's home location (lab, office or garage) over tile public Internet and science nets. Benefit(s) to tile ISS Program (and taxpayer) and of VoIP versus other implementations also will be presented.

  5. Ferdinand von Mueller's interactions with Charles Darwin and his response to Darwinism.

    PubMed

    Lucas, A M

    2010-01-01

    Although Ferdinand Mueller (later von Mueller), Government Botanist of Victoria, opposed Darwin's theories when "On the origin of species" was published, there has been little detailed study of the nature of Mueller's opposition from 1860, when he received a presentation copy of "Origin," to his death in 1896. Analysis of Mueller's correspondence and publications shows that he remained a theist and misunderstood key aspects of Darwin's theory. However, Mueller did come to accept that natural selection could operate within a species, although never accepting it could produce speciation. Despite these differences he retained a cordial relationship with Darwin.

  6. Fifteen years of follow-up of a liver transplant recipient with glycogen storage disease type Ia (Von Gierke disease).

    PubMed

    Maya Aparicio, A C; Bernal Bellido, C; Tinoco González, J; Garcia Ruíz, S; Aguilar Romero, L; Marín Gómez, L M; Suárez Artacho, G; Alamo Martínez, J M; Serrano Díez-Canedo, J; Padillo Ruíz, F J; Gomez Bravo, M A

    2013-01-01

    Von Gierke's disease or glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is an infrequent metabolic disease caused by an atypical accumulation of glycogen. The principal cause of this pathology is deficiency of the glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme. Herein we have reported a case of a young man with a history of Von Gierke's disease (GSD-Ia) since childhood who developed hepatocellular adenomatosis brought to light by ultrasounds and TACs. The patient began to develop early chronic renal failure, necessitating simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation. Years later continuous reviews at the nephrology and hepatobiliopancreatic surgery services show he has a good quality of life and a normal hepatorenal profile. PMID:24314991

  7. On von Neumann's Hypothesis of collapse of the wave function and Quantum Zeno paradox in continuous measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongil

    The experiment performed by Itano, Heinzen, Bollinger and Wineland on the quantum Zeno effect is analyzed in detail through a quantum map derived by conventional quantum mechanics based on the Schr¨odinger equation. The analysis shows that a slight modification of their experiment leads to a significantly different result from the one that is predicted through von Neumann's hypothesis of collapse of the wave function in the quantum measurement theory. This may offer a possibility of an experimental test of von Neumann's quantum measurement theory.

  8. From von Graefe's clinic to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. The meteoric career of Richard Liebreich.

    PubMed

    Ravin, J G; Kenyon, C

    1992-01-01

    Richard Liebreich was a student of Helmholtz and took one of the first ophthalmoscopes to von Graefe's clinic. While von Graefe's assistant in Berlin, he created the first atlas of ophthalmoscopy. Liebreich moved to Paris, where he achieved great success, due in part to successful surgery on Emperor Napoleon III's mother-in-law. After the fall of Napoleon in 1870, Liebreich moved to London, where he became the head of ophthalmology at St. Thomas hospital and medical school. Following several personal attacks in the medical literature, Liebreich returned to Paris, where he gradually retired from practice, yet continued a creative life as a sculptor, painter, and researcher in artistic technique.

  9. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  10. The bleeding score predicts clinical outcomes and replacement therapy in adults with von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Federici, Augusto B; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Castaman, Giancarlo; Mazzucconi, Maria G; Morfini, Massimo; Rocino, Angiola; Schiavoni, Mario; Peyvandi, Flora; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2014-06-26

    Analyses of the bleeding tendency by means of the bleeding score (BS) have been proposed until now to confirm diagnosis but not to predict clinical outcomes in patients with inherited von Willebrand disease (VWD). We prospectively followed up, for 1 year, 796 Italian patients with different types of VWD to determine whether the previous BS of European VWD1 is useful to predict the occurrence of spontaneous bleeds severe enough to require replacement therapy with desmopressin (DDAVP) and/or von Willebrand factor (VWF)/factor VIII concentrates. Among the 796 patients included, 75 (9.4%) needed treatment of 232 spontaneous bleeding events. BS >10 and VWF:ristocetin cofactor activity <10 U/dL were associated with the risk of bleeding, but only a BS >10 remained highly associated in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model (adjusted hazard ratio: 7.27 [95% confidence interval, 3.83-13.83]). Although the bleeding event-free survival was different in VWD types, only a BS >10 could predict for each type which patient had bleeding events severe enough to require treatment with DDAVP and/or concentrates. Therefore, BS can be considered a simple predictor of clinical outcomes of VWD and may identify patients needing intensive therapeutic regimens.

  11. Wilate use in 47 children with von Willebrand disease: the North London paediatric haemophilia network experience.

    PubMed

    Khair, K; Batty, P; Riat, R; Bowles, L; Burgess, C; Chen, Y-H; Hart, D; Platton, S; Pasi, J; Liesner, R

    2015-01-01

    Children with von Willebrand disease (VWD) in whom DDAVP is ineffective or contraindicated require treatment with a coagulation factor concentrate containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII). The aim of this study was to monitor the safety, efficacy and tolerability of Wilate(®) (a VWF:FVIII concentrate with a 1:1 ratio) used across the North London Paediatric Haemophilia Network since May 2010. In total, 47 children (aged 0.0-17.0 years) with type 1 (n = 28), type 2 (n = 7), type 3 (n = 10) and acquired VWS (n = 2) have been treated for bleeds, surgery and/or prophylaxis using 260 000 IU Wilate(®). Analysis of dose and frequency of treatment show expected responses to treatment with mean doses of 55, 50 and 50 IU kg(-1) for bleeds, surgery and prophylaxis respectively. Most bleeds responded to a single treatment. Surgical procedures were covered with clinician approved dosing schedules with 95% (39/41) reported as having excellent or good efficacy. There was no accumulation of FVIII or VWF and no thromboembolic events. This case series confirms the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Wilate(®) in neonates, children and adolescents when used on-demand, prophylactically and in the surgical setting. PMID:25112927

  12. Patient-specific factors influence somatic variation patterns in von Hippel–Lindau disease renal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Suzanne S.; Mitchell, Asia D.; Heskett, Michael B.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Ricketts, Christopher J.; Peto, Myron; Wang, Nicholas J.; Sönmez, Kemal; Linehan, W. Marston; Spellman, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer development is presumed to be an evolutionary process that is influenced by genetic background and environment. In laboratory animals, genetics and environment are variables that can largely be held constant. In humans, it is possible to compare independent tumours that have developed in the same patient, effectively constraining genetic and environmental variation and leaving only stochastic processes. Patients affected with von Hippel–Lindau disease are at risk of developing multiple independent clear cell renal carcinomas. Here we perform whole-genome sequencing on 40 tumours from six von Hippel-Lindau patients. We confirm that the tumours are clonally independent, having distinct somatic single-nucleotide variants. Although tumours from the same patient show many differences, within-patient patterns are discernible. Single-nucleotide substitution type rates are significantly different between patients and show biases in trinucleotide mutation context. We also observe biases in chromosome copy number aberrations. These results show that genetic background and/or environment can influence the types of mutations that occur. PMID:27174753

  13. A diffusion process to model generalized von Bertalanffy growth patterns: fitting to real data.

    PubMed

    Román-Román, Patricia; Romero, Desirée; Torres-Ruiz, Francisco

    2010-03-01

    The von Bertalanffy growth curve has been commonly used for modeling animal growth (particularly fish). Both deterministic and stochastic models exist in association with this curve, the latter allowing for the inclusion of fluctuations or disturbances that might exist in the system under consideration which are not always quantifiable or may even be unknown. This curve is mainly used for modeling the length variable whereas a generalized version, including a new parameter b > or = 1, allows for modeling both length and weight for some animal species in both isometric (b = 3) and allometric (b not = 3) situations. In this paper a stochastic model related to the generalized von Bertalanffy growth curve is proposed. This model allows to investigate the time evolution of growth variables associated both with individual behaviors and mean population behavior. Also, with the purpose of fitting the above-mentioned model to real data and so be able to forecast and analyze particular characteristics, we study the maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of the model. In addition, and regarding the numerical problems posed by solving the likelihood equations, a strategy is developed for obtaining initial solutions for the usual numerical procedures. Such strategy is validated by means of simulated examples. Finally, an application to real data of mean weight of swordfish is presented.

  14. [Von Hippel-Lindau disease type 2-related pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and adrenal myelolipoma].

    PubMed

    Dolzhansky, O V; Morozova, M M; Korostelev, S A; Kanivets, I V; Chardarov, N K; Shatveryan, G A; Pal'tseva, E M; Fedorov, D N

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a case of von Hippel--Lindau-related pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and adrenal myelolipoma in a 44-year-old woman. The pancreatic tumor and a left retroperitoneal mass were removed in the women in July 2014 and May 2015. Histological examination of the pancreatic tumor revealed that the latter consisted of clear cells forming tubular and tubercular structures showing the expression of chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and cytokeratins 18 and 19 and a negative response to CD10 and RCC. The adrenal medullary mass presented as clear-cell alveolar structures with inclusions of adipose tissue mixed with erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid cells. The clear-cell component of the adrenal gland expressed neuroendocrine markers with a negative response to cytokeratins, CD10, and RCC. Molecular genetic examination yielded a signal corresponding to two copies of the VHL gene. No deletions or amplifications of the gene were detected. Cases of von Hippel--Lindau disease concurrent with adrenal pheochromocytoma and myelolipoma and simultaneous pancreatic involvement were not found in the literature. PMID:26978235

  15. Total number and volume of Von Economo neurons in the cerebral cortex of cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Butti, Camilla; Sherwood, Chet C; Hakeem, Atiya Y; Allman, John M; Hof, Patrick R

    2009-07-10

    Von Economo neurons (VENs) are a type of large, layer V spindle-shaped neurons that were previously described in humans, great apes, elephants, and some large-brained cetaceans. Here we report the presence of Von Economo neurons in the anterior cingulate (ACC), anterior insular (AI), and frontopolar (FP) cortices of small odontocetes, including the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), and the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). The total number and volume of VENs and the volume of neighboring layer V pyramidal neurons and layer VI fusiform neurons were obtained by using a design-based stereologic approach. Two humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) brains were investigated for comparative purposes as representatives of the suborder Mysticeti. Our results show that the distribution of VENs in these cetacean species is comparable to that reported in humans, great apes, and elephants. The number of VENs in these cetaceans is also comparable to data available from great apes, and stereologic estimates indicate that VEN volume follows in these cetacean species a pattern similar to that in hominids, the VENs being larger than neighboring layer V pyramidal cells and conspicuously larger than fusiform neurons of layer VI. The fact that VENs are found in species representative of both cetacean suborders in addition to hominids and elephants suggests that these particular neurons have appeared convergently in phylogenetically unrelated groups of mammals possibly under the influence of comparable selective pressures that influenced specifically the evolution of cortical domains involved in complex cognitive and social/emotional processes. PMID:19412956

  16. Energy analysis of the Von Schlippe tyre model with application to shimmy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Shenhai; Besselink, I. J. M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2015-12-01

    Shimmy is an engineering example of self-excited vibrations. Much research on shimmy has considered the tyre as a positive feedback or negative damping to introduce instability of the entire system. In this context, we focus on the behaviour of the tyre under periodic excitations. The Von Schlippe tyre model is selected and the energy flow method is applied to illustrate the energy transfer by the tyre during shimmy. The energy flow method evaluates the tyre performance with a prescribed sinusoidal motion and provides a novel evaluation method for tyre models. With the help of straight contact line assumption in the Von Schlippe tyre model, the relative motion between the contact line and the wheel centre is studied to understand the path dependency of the energy transfer. It turns out that the tyre is extracting energy from the forward motion to induce unstable lateral and yaw vibrations when the motion or orientation of the contact line has a phase lead with respect to the wheel centre.

  17. Heterogeneous distribution of Weibel-Palade bodies and von Willebrand factor along the porcine vascular tree.

    PubMed Central

    Gebrane-Younès, J.; Drouet, L.; Caen, J. P.; Orcel, L.

    1991-01-01

    Vessels obtained from different levels of pig vascular tree were examined by transmission electron microscope, with the aim of determining whether or not their endothelial cells contain Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB). As these organelles are known to store the von Willebrand factor (vWF), a two-step immunogold labeling of this protein also was performed. Our results showed for the first time a heterogeneous distribution of WPB along the vascular tree of the normal pig: These structures were absent from the thoracic aorta, rare in the abdominal aorta, present in myocardial capillaries, and numerous in the inferior vena cava and pulmonary artery. Atypical WPB devoid of tubules were seen in all endothelial cells. The ultrastructural labeling of vWF demonstrated its presence only in the WPB, being absent in the subendothelium, and showed the same variation in its distribution along the vascular tree as for its storage organelle. Pigs homozygous for the von Willebrand disease were found to have only the atypical WPB, and do not express the vWF. Images Figure 1 p1474-b Figure 2 p1474-d Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:1750513

  18. [Beweggründe von Krebspatienten für und gegen die Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie].

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Holmberg, Christine; Weis, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Misteltherapie ist im deutschsprachigen Raum ein häufig angewandtes komplementärmedizinisches Verfahren (KM) in der Onkologie. Diese Studie hatte das Ziel, die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu untersuchen und Themenfeldern zuzuordnen. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden qualitative leitfadengestützte Interviews mit Krebspatienten geführt. Der Interviewleitfaden fragte nach der Inanspruchnahme von KM, der Motivation zur Inanspruchnahme, Informationsverhalten und -bedürfnissen zu KM sowie nach der Krebserkrankung. Um die Beweggründe für die Inanspruchnahme oder Nichtinanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu verstehen, wurden die Interviews inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden Interviews mit 88 Krebspatienten geführt, davon nutzen 18 (20,5%) die Misteltherapie. Die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie ließen sich den 2 Themenfeldern «Wahrgenommene Indikation» und «Abwägungen bei der Entscheidungsfindung» zuordnen. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der Misteltherapie wird sowohl ein Einfluss auf das Tumorwachstum als auch eine supportive Wirkung assoziiert. Anwender sehen die Misteltherapie als sicheres Verfahren; Nichtnutzer befürchten eher Neben- oder Wechselwirkungen. Die Empfehlung von Fachpersonal spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Inanspruchnahme. Zum Teil waren die Nichtnutzer interessiert an der Anwendung der Misteltherapie, befanden sich jedoch noch im Klärungsprozess.

  19. Gunther von Hagens and Body Worlds part 2: The anatomist as priest and prophet.

    PubMed

    Moore, Charleen M; Brown, C Mackenzie

    2004-03-01

    Part 1 of this two-part series highlighted tensions between the anatomical quest for scientific knowledge about the human interior and artistic representations of the anatomized body, contrasting the roles of Goethe's scientific Prosektor and humanistic Proplastiker-roles disturbingly fused in Gunther von Hagens. Part 2 first examines religious interpretations of the human body that fuel the tensions manifest in anatomy art. The body in Western cultures is a sacred text amenable to interpretation as handiwork of God, habitation for the soul, and vehicle for resurrection. As handiwork of God the body beckons the anatomist's scalpel, helping establish dissection as the hallmark of Western medicine. The body as divinely designed machine encompasses the idea of an indwelling soul expressing its will in actions mediated through the intricate network of muscles-an understanding reflected in the oft occurring muscle men of early anatomical textbooks. Interconnections of body and soul in medieval somatic spirituality are examined with reference to ideas of resurrection and their impact on anatomical illustration. Part 2 concludes with consideration of von Hagens as priest and prophet, culminating in the Promethean impulse that recognizes not God but ourselves as proper owners and molders of our destiny, embodied in the plastinator's visionary quest to create the superhuman.

  20. [Anesthetic management of a child with moyamoya disease combined with von Gierke's disease].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nohmi, Toshihiro; Ichikawa, Makiko; Ohnishi, Yoshihiko

    2010-02-01

    We report on a child with moyamoya disease combined with von Gierke's disease. A 7-year-old girl with von Gierke's disease had a stroke associated with moyamoya disease. She had had many episodes of hypoglycemia and severe metabolic acidosis before surgery. General anesthesia was induced with midazolam 3 mg and fentanyl 100 microg followed by rocuronium 12 mg. After tracheal intubation, anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 2.5% in 33% oxygen and 66% nitrous oxide. We used mainly mixture of saline and glucose as intraoperative fluid instead of acetated Ringer solution, and controlled administration of glucose according to blood glucose levels. The patient's plasma lactate levels and base excess during operation showed changes compared with those before operation, because sodium bicarbonate was used during the surgery. The duration of anesthesia was 374 minutes. The patient woke up and spontaneous respiration returned, and the trachea was extubated in the operating room. We were able to manage this case safely without any complications. PMID:20169974

  1. Renaturierung von Feuchtgrünland, Auengrünland und mesophilem Grünland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Gert; Hölzel, Norbert

    Grünland stellt in Mitteleuropa fast ausschließlich eine Kulturformation dar, die in der Naturlandschaft abgesehen von extremen Trocken- und Nassstandorten sowie klimatisch ungünstigen Gebieten oberhalb der alpinen Waldgrenze nur kleinflächig vertreten war.Die natürlichen Standorte der heutigen Grünlandarten waren in Mitteleuropa bis in das Atlantikum hinein Wälder oder natürlicherweise waldfreie ökosysteme, wie z.B. Röhricht- und Ufervegetation sowie Biberwiesen in Flussauen, Niedermoore, Randlaggs von Regenmooren, Waldlichtungen oder Lawinenbahnen (Ellenberg 1952, 1996). Die Naturlandschaft der heutigen Grünlandstandorte war durch die natürliche Dynamik der vorherrschenden Waldökosysteme mit ihren Entwicklungsstadien und natürlichen Störungsereignissen (Stürme, überschwemmungen etc.) geprägt. Der Flächenanteil des Grünlandes vergrößerte sich erst durch Beweidung und Heumahd durch den Menschen und seine Haustiere.

  2. Numerical simulation of laminar plasma dynamos in a cylindrical von Karman flow

    SciTech Connect

    Khalzov, I. V.; Brown, B. P.; Schnack, D. D.; Forest, C. B.; Ebrahimi, F.

    2011-03-15

    The results of a numerical study of the magnetic dynamo effect in cylindrical von Karman plasma flow are presented with parameters relevant to the Madison Plasma Couette Experiment. This experiment is designed to investigate a broad class of phenomena in flowing plasmas. In a plasma, the magnetic Prandtl number Pm can be of order unity (i.e., the fluid Reynolds number Re is comparable to the magnetic Reynolds number Rm). This is in contrast to liquid metal experiments, where Pm is small (so, Re>>Rm) and the flows are always turbulent. We explore dynamo action through simulations using the extended magnetohydrodynamic NIMROD code for an isothermal and compressible plasma model. We also study two-fluid effects in simulations by including the Hall term in Ohm's law. We find that the counter-rotating von Karman flow results in sustained dynamo action and the self-generation of magnetic field when the magnetic Reynolds number exceeds a critical value. For the plasma parameters of the experiment, this field saturates at an amplitude corresponding to a new stable equilibrium (a laminar dynamo). We show that compressibility in the plasma results in an increase of the critical magnetic Reynolds number, while inclusion of the Hall term in Ohm's law changes the amplitude of the saturated dynamo field but not the critical value for the onset of dynamo action.

  3. Mutational Constraints on Local Unfolding Inhibit the Rheological Adaptation of von Willebrand Factor.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Alexander; Campbell, James C; Machha, Venkata R; Moon-Tasson, Laurie; Benson, Linda M; Sankaran, Banumathi; Kim, Choel; Auton, Matthew

    2016-02-19

    Unusually large von Willebrand factor (VWF), the first responder to vascular injury in primary hemostasis, is designed to capture platelets under the high shear stress of rheological blood flow. In type 2M von Willebrand disease, two rare mutations (G1324A and G1324S) within the platelet GPIbα binding interface of the VWF A1 domain impair the hemostatic function of VWF. We investigate structural and conformational effects of these mutations on the A1 domain's efficacy to bind collagen and adhere platelets under shear flow. These mutations enhance the thermodynamic stability, reduce the rate of unfolding, and enhance the A1 domain's resistance to limited proteolysis. Collagen binding affinity is not significantly affected indicating that the primary stabilizing effect of these mutations is to diminish the platelet binding efficiency under shear flow. The enhanced stability stems from the steric consequences of adding a side chain (G1324A) and additionally a hydrogen bond (G1324S) to His(1322) across the β2-β3 hairpin in the GPIbα binding interface, which restrains the conformational degrees of freedom and the overall flexibility of the native state. These studies reveal a novel rheological strategy in which the incorporation of a single glycine within the GPIbα binding interface of normal VWF enhances the probability of local unfolding that enables the A1 domain to conformationally adapt to shear flow while maintaining its overall native structure. PMID:26677223

  4. Targeted therapy for genetic cancer syndromes: Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Cowden syndrome, and Proteus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rishi; Liebe, Sarah; Turski, Michelle L; Vidwans, Smruti J; Janku, Filip; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Munoz, Javier; Schwab, Richard; Rodon, Jordi; Kurzrock, Razelle; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-02-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Cowden syndrome, and Proteus syndrome are cancer syndromes which affect multiple organs and lead to significant decline in quality of life in affected patients. These syndromes are rare and typically affect the adolescent and young adult population, resulting in greater cumulative years of life lost. Improved understanding of the underpinnings of the genetic pathways underlying these syndromes and the rapid evolution of targeted therapies in general have made it possible to develop therapeutic options for these patients and other genetic cancer syndromes. Targeted therapies especially antiangiogenics and inhibitors of the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway have shown activity in selected group of patients affected by these syndromes or in patients harboring specific sporadic mutations which are otherwise characteristic of these syndromes. Unfortunately due to the rare nature, patients with these syndromes are not the focus of clinical trials and unique results seen in these patients can easily go unnoticed. Most of the data suggesting benefits of targeted therapies are either case reports or small case series. Thus, a literature review was indicated. In this review we explore the use of molecularly targeted therapy options in Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Cowden syndrome, and Proteus syndrome. PMID:25725225

  5. Evaluation of a modified thromboelastography assay for the screening of von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Topf, H-G; Weiss, D; Lischetzki, G; Strasser, E; Rascher, W; Rauh, M

    2011-06-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) has been shown to be a valuable point-of-care device for the rapid diagnosis of various bleeding disorders. However, TEG has thus far not been used for the screening for von Willebrand disease (VWD). We evaluated the performance of a modified TEG assay for the laboratory screening of VWD. Three hundred twenty-eight patients (148 male, 180 female, median age 8.4 years, range 0.1 - 72.7 years) were included in the study. The diagnosis and classification of patients was based on personal and familial case history, von Willebrand factor antigen, ristocetin cofactor levels, collagen binding assay, factor VIII coagulant activity and multimer analysis. The ratio of clot strength after preincubation with ristocetin, and without ristocetin, represents the component of clot strength that is formed by cross-linked fibrin fibres and is dependent on the agglutinated platelet fraction. The decrease of the maximum amplitude is a function of the ristocetin concentration and provides a diagnostic parameter able to differentiate between healthy individuals and patients having VWD. Based on a preliminary cut-off value of 25% for the area under the curve (AUC) ratio, the sensitivity varied from 53% to 100% for the different VWD patient groups. The test is suitable for use as a screening test using whole blood and has the additional benefit of being suitable as a point of care test. It appears also useful for monitoring responses to desmopressin (DDAVP) and infusion therapy.

  6. Real-space finite difference scheme for the von Neumann equation with the Dirac Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreilechner, Magdalena; Pötz, Walter

    2016-07-01

    A finite difference scheme for the numerical treatment of the von Neumann equation for the (2+1)D Dirac Hamiltonian is presented. It is based on a sequential left-right (ket-bra) application of a staggered space-time scheme for the pure-state Dirac equation and offers a numerical treatment of the general mixed-state dynamics of an isolated quantum system within the von Neumann equation. Thereby this direct scheme inherits all the favorable features of the finite-difference scheme for the pure-state Dirac equation, such as the single-cone energy-momentum dispersion, convergence conditions, and scaling behavior. A conserved functional is identified. Moreover this scheme is shown to conserve both Hermiticity and positivity. Numerical tests comprise a numerical analysis of stability, as well as the simulation of a mixed-state time-evolution of Gaussian wave functions, illustrating Zitterbewegung and transverse current oscillations. Imaginary-potential absorbing boundary conditions and parameters which pertain to topological insulator surface states were used in the numerical simulations.

  7. Towards personalised therapy for von Willebrand disease: a future role for recombinant products

    PubMed Central

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J.

    2016-01-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD) is reportedly the most common bleeding disorder and is caused by deficiencies and/or defects in the adhesive plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). Functionally, normal VWF prevents bleeding by promoting both primary and secondary haemostasis. In respect to primary haemostasis, VWF binds to both platelets and sub-endothelial matrix components, especially collagen, to anchor platelets to damaged vascular tissue and promote thrombus formation. VWF also stabilises and protects factor VIII in the circulation, delivering FVIII to the site of injury, which then facilitates secondary haemostasis and fibrin formation/thrombus stabilisation. As a result of this, patients with VWD suffer a bleeding diathesis reflective of a primary defect caused by defective/deficient VWF, which in some patients is compounded by a reduction in FVIII. Management of VWD, therefore, chiefly entails replacement of VWF, and sometimes also FVIII, to protect against bleeding. The current report principally focuses on the future potential for “personalised” management of VWD, given the emerging options in recombinant therapies. Recombinant VWF has been developed and is undergoing clinical trials, and this promising therapy may soon change the way in which VWD is managed. In particular, we can envisage a personalised treatment approach using recombinant VWF, with or without recombinant FVIII, depending on the type of VWD, the extent of deficiencies, and the period and duration of treatment. PMID:27136426

  8. [Acute epidural hematoma of the posterior fossa in a case of von Willebrand's disease].

    PubMed

    Takenaka, N; Mine, T; Ikeda, E; Iwai, H; Kusano, S

    1988-01-01

    A rare case of acute epidural hematoma of the posterior fossa associated with von Willebrand's disease is reported. A 9-year-old boy fell down and hit his occipital region against a floor. Soon after he came home and slept, but three hours later he began to vomit and became drowsiness. He visited our hospital and his Glasgow Coma Scale showed 13 points. CT scan on admission showed acute epidural hematoma of left posterior fossa and contusional hematoma in the right temporal lobe. The bleeding time was over 18 minutes. He had been suspected to be suffering from von Willebrand's disease two years ago. Then fresh blood, fresh frozen plasma and anti-hemophilic globulin were prepared. Ten hours after injury, the operation was begun. Fresh epidural hematoma existed as a clot beyond transverse sinus. During the procedure of dural tenting suture, diffuse bleeding from bone, muscle, subcutaneous tissue and dura occurred and it was difficult to stop the bleeding. By using fresh blood and anti-hemophilic globulin, the bleeding was controlled, and then the operation was achieved. In the postoperative course a new epidural hematoma was found in the left temporal region and a new but asymptomatic retinal hemorrhage was found in his right eye. He was discharged without any neurological deficits 25 days after operation.

  9. Exercise induced release of von Willebrand factor: evidence for hypoxic reperfusion microvascular injury in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, A J; Williams, R B; Stevens, C R; Lawrie, A S; Cox, N L; Blake, D R

    1992-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that rheumatoid synovitis may be perpetuated by the generation of reactive oxygen species during hypoxic reperfusion injury. The latter occurs because increased intra-articular pressure during exercise exceeds synovial capillary perfusion pressure, impairing blood flow. The object of this study was to establish a marker for and the mechanism of synovial hypoxic reperfusion injury. Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is only released from endothelial cells and platelets and is an in vivo and in vitro marker of endothelial injury. In vivo exercise induced changes in plasma vWF were therefore investigated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with controls and in vitro vWF release by human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to hypoxia reperfusion. Pre-exercise plasma vWF levels were 1001 and 817 IU/l, increasing after exercise to 1658 and 845 IU/l in patients with RA and controls respectively. Von Willebrand factor release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells followed a biphasic pattern, occurring during both hypoxia and reperfusion. Hypoxia reperfusion induced vWF release by human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro suggests that exercise induced vWF release in patients with RA is best explained by synovial hypoxic reperfusion injury. This study supports evidence that generation of reactive oxygen species plays a principal part in synovial hypoxic reperfusion injury and suggests vWF as a useful marker of this phenomenon. Images PMID:1444624

  10. Tissue factor: A potent stimulator of Von Willebrand factor synthesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Meiring, Muriel; Allers, W.; Le Roux, E.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and dysfunction of endothelial cells are thought to be triggers for the secretion of Von Willebrand factor. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the coagulation factors, tissue factor and thrombin on the release and cleavage potential of ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) and its cleavage protease by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were treated with IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, tissue factor (TF) and thrombin, and combinations thereof for 24 hours under static conditions. The cells were then exposed to shear stress after which the VWF-propeptide levels and the VWF cleavage protease, ADAMTS13 content were measured. All treatments and their combinations, excluding IL-6, significantly stimulated the secretion of VWF from HUVEC. The VWF secretion from the HUVEC was stimulated most by the combination of TF with TNF-α. Slightly lower levels of ADAMTS13 secretion were found with all treatments. This may explain the thrombogenicity of patients with inflammation where extremely high VWF levels and slightly lower ADAMTS13 levels are present. PMID:27766025

  11. Symmetries and solutions of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Maureen P.; Anderssen, Robert S.

    2015-05-01

    For growth in a closed environment, which is indicative of the situation in laboratory experiments, autonomous ODE models do not necessarily capture the dynamics under investigation. The importance and impact of a closed environment arise when the question under examination relates, for example, to the number of the surviving microbes, such as in a study of the spoilage and contamination of food, the gene silencing activity of fungi or the production of a chemical compound by bacteria or fungi. Autonomous ODE models are inappropriate as they assume that only the current size of the population controls the growth-decay dynamics. This is reflected in the fact that, asymptotically, their solutions can only grow or decay monotonically or asymptote. Non-autonomous ODE models are not so constrained. A natural strategy for the choice of non-autonomous ODEs is to take appropriate autonomous ones and change them to be non-autonomous through the introduction of relevant non-autonomous terms. This is the approach in this paper with the focus being the von Bertalanffy equation. Since this equation has independent importance in relation to practical applications in growth modelling, it is natural to explore the deeper relationships between the introduced non-autonomous terms through a symmetry analysis, which is the purpose and goal of the current paper. Infinitesimals are derived which allow particular forms of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation to be transformed into autonomous forms for which some new analytic solutions have been found.

  12. [Treatment with desmopressin before epidural anesthesia in a patient with type I von Willebrand disease].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Barrero, P; Gil, L; Martínez, C; Bueno, A B; Casado, A I; Oro, J

    2003-12-01

    A 33-year-old primipara with von Willebrand disease type I was admitted in labor at 37 weeks, requesting epidural analgesia. The consultant hematologist advised treating with desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) before inserting an epidural catheter. Desmopressin at a dose of 0.3 microgram/Kg was administered intravenously and the catheter was inserted to L3-L4 to infuse 0.1% bupivacaine with 2 micrograms/mL of fentanyl at a rate of 12 mL/h. Four hours later the patient was brought to the operating room for forceps delivery of a healthy boy. One hour later, she had recovered normal motor tone followed by normal sensitivity in the lower extremities. The catheter was then withdrawn with no signs of bleeding. A woman with von Willebrand's disease can receive an epidural block for analgesia during childbirth. The decision to perform the block should be individualized, based on coagulation tests. DDAVP may play a role in improving hemostasis.

  13. Dr. Wernher von Braun With the Apollo 11 Saturn V Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight center (MSFC), talks with news reporters while paused in front of the mobile launcher and base of the Saturn V rocket (AS-506) being readied for the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The Saturn V vehicle was developed by MSFC under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the KSC in Florida via the MSFC developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  14. Dr. Wernher von Braun With the Apollo 11 Saturn V Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight center (MSFC), appears proud as he pauses in front of the mobile launcher and base of the Saturn V rocket (AS-506) being readied for the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The Saturn V vehicle was developed by MSFC under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC in Florida via the MSFC developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  15. Technical note: comparing von Luschan skin color tiles and modern spectrophotometry for measuring human skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Swiatoniowski, Anna K; Quillen, Ellen E; Shriver, Mark D; Jablonski, Nina G

    2013-06-01

    Prior to the introduction of reflectance spectrophotometry into anthropological field research during the 1950s, human skin color was most commonly classified by visual skin color matching using the von Luschan tiles, a set of 36 standardized, opaque glass tiles arranged in a chromatic scale. Our goal was to establish a conversion formula between the tile-based color matching method and modern reflectance spectrophotometry to make historical and contemporary data comparable. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the forehead, inner upper arms, and backs of the hands using both the tiles and a spectrophotometer on 246 participants showing a broad range of skin pigmentation. From these data, a second-order polynomial conversion formula was derived by jackknife analysis to estimate melanin index (M-index) based on tile values. This conversion formula provides a means for comparing modern data to von Luschan tile measurements recorded in historical reports. This is particularly important for populations now extinct, extirpated, or admixed for which tile-based measures of skin pigmentation are the only data available.

  16. Misfolding of vWF to pathologically disordered conformations impacts the severity of von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Alexander; Madde, Pranathi; Moon-Tasson, Laurie; Auton, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The primary hemostatic von Willebrand factor (vWF) functions to sequester platelets from rheological blood flow and mediates their adhesion to damaged subendothelium at sites of vascular injury. We have surveyed the effect of 16 disease-causing mutations identified in patients diagnosed with the bleeding diathesis disorder, von Willebrand disease (vWD), on the structure and rheology of vWF A1 domain adhesiveness to the platelet GPIbα receptor. These mutations have a dynamic phenotypical range of bleeding from lack of platelet adhesion to severe thrombocytopenia. Using new rheological tools in combination with classical thermodynamic, biophysical, and spectroscopic metrics, we establish a high propensity of the A1 domain to misfold to pathological molten globule conformations that differentially alter the strength of platelet adhesion under shear flow. Rheodynamic analysis establishes a quantitative rank order between shear-rate-dependent platelet-translocation pause times that linearly correlate with clinically reported measures of patient platelet counts and the severity of thrombocytopenia. These results suggest that specific secondary structure elements remaining in these pathological conformations of the A1 domain regulate GPIbα binding and the strength of vWF-platelet interactions, which affects the vWD functional phenotype and the severity of thrombocytopenia. PMID:25185554

  17. Structural origins of misfolding propensity in the platelet adhesive von Willebrand factor A1 domain.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael T; Tischer, Alexander; Whitten, Steven T; Auton, Matthew

    2015-07-21

    The von Willebrand factor (VWF) A1 and A3 domains are structurally isomorphic yet exhibit distinct mechanisms of unfolding. The A1 domain, responsible for platelet adhesion to VWF in hemostasis, unfolds through a molten globule intermediate in an apparent three-state mechanism, while A3 unfolds by a classical two-state mechanism. Inspection of the sequences or structures alone does not elucidate the source of this thermodynamic conundrum; however, the three-state character of the A1 domain suggests that it has more than one cooperative substructure yielding two separate unfolding transitions not present in A3. We investigate the extent to which structural elements contributing to intermediate conformations can be identified using a residue-specific implementation of the structure-energy-equivalence-of-domains algorithm (SEED), which parses proteins of known structure into their constituent thermodynamically cooperative components using protein-group-specific, transfer free energies. The structural elements computed to contribute to the non-two-state character coincide with regions where Von Willebrand disease mutations induce misfolded molten globule conformations of the A1 domain. This suggests a mechanism for the regulation of rheological platelet adhesion to A1 based on cooperative flexibility of the α2 and α3 helices flanking the platelet GPIbα receptor binding interface. PMID:26200876

  18. Structural Origins of Misfolding Propensity in the Platelet Adhesive Von Willebrand Factor A1 Domain

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Michael T.; Tischer, Alexander; Whitten, Steven T.; Auton, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The von Willebrand factor (VWF) A1 and A3 domains are structurally isomorphic yet exhibit distinct mechanisms of unfolding. The A1 domain, responsible for platelet adhesion to VWF in hemostasis, unfolds through a molten globule intermediate in an apparent three-state mechanism, while A3 unfolds by a classical two-state mechanism. Inspection of the sequences or structures alone does not elucidate the source of this thermodynamic conundrum; however, the three-state character of the A1 domain suggests that it has more than one cooperative substructure yielding two separate unfolding transitions not present in A3. We investigate the extent to which structural elements contributing to intermediate conformations can be identified using a residue-specific implementation of the structure-energy-equivalence-of-domains algorithm (SEED), which parses proteins of known structure into their constituent thermodynamically cooperative components using protein-group-specific, transfer free energies. The structural elements computed to contribute to the non-two-state character coincide with regions where Von Willebrand disease mutations induce misfolded molten globule conformations of the A1 domain. This suggests a mechanism for the regulation of rheological platelet adhesion to A1 based on cooperative flexibility of the α2 and α3 helices flanking the platelet GPIbα receptor binding interface. PMID:26200876

  19. [Beweggründe von Krebspatienten für und gegen die Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie].

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Holmberg, Christine; Weis, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Misteltherapie ist im deutschsprachigen Raum ein häufig angewandtes komplementärmedizinisches Verfahren (KM) in der Onkologie. Diese Studie hatte das Ziel, die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu untersuchen und Themenfeldern zuzuordnen. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden qualitative leitfadengestützte Interviews mit Krebspatienten geführt. Der Interviewleitfaden fragte nach der Inanspruchnahme von KM, der Motivation zur Inanspruchnahme, Informationsverhalten und -bedürfnissen zu KM sowie nach der Krebserkrankung. Um die Beweggründe für die Inanspruchnahme oder Nichtinanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu verstehen, wurden die Interviews inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden Interviews mit 88 Krebspatienten geführt, davon nutzen 18 (20,5%) die Misteltherapie. Die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie ließen sich den 2 Themenfeldern «Wahrgenommene Indikation» und «Abwägungen bei der Entscheidungsfindung» zuordnen. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der Misteltherapie wird sowohl ein Einfluss auf das Tumorwachstum als auch eine supportive Wirkung assoziiert. Anwender sehen die Misteltherapie als sicheres Verfahren; Nichtnutzer befürchten eher Neben- oder Wechselwirkungen. Die Empfehlung von Fachpersonal spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Inanspruchnahme. Zum Teil waren die Nichtnutzer interessiert an der Anwendung der Misteltherapie, befanden sich jedoch noch im Klärungsprozess. PMID:27606463

  20. Learning through Expeditions: The Need for Method as Well as Opportunity--A Response to Allison and Von Wald (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Mark; Collins, Dave; Hathaway, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Allison and Von Wald (2010) highlight the substantial opportunities presented by expeditions to address the crucial topic of personal and social development. The present paper wishes to address the apparent oversight of transfer within such learning experiences. Issues that need to be addressed if the impact of transfer is to be optimised are…

  1. Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy in a Patient of Von Hippel Lindau Syndrome with Ventriculo-Peritoneal Shunt-Anaesthetic management

    PubMed Central

    Mungasuvalli, Nagaraj Channappa; Chinnappa, Jithendra; Iyer, Sadasivan Shanker; Thammanna, Prathima Padavarahalli

    2014-01-01

    Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) syndrome has a predilection to manifest multiple haemangioblastomas in the retina and central nervous system. We report a rare case of raised intracranial pressure during bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma in a patient of VHL syndrome who had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. PMID:25386452

  2. Von Willebrand factor in patients on mechanical circulatory support – a double-edged sword between bleeding and thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarski, Jacek; Pacholewicz, Jerzy; Zakliczynski, Michal; Gasior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is an umbrella term describing the various technologies used in both short- and long-term management of patients with either end-stage chronic heart failure (HF) or acute HF. Most often, MCS has emerged as a bridge to transplantation, but more recently it is also used as a destination therapy. Mechanical circulatory support includes left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or bi-ventricular assist device (Bi-VAD). Currently, 2- to 3-year survival in carefully selected patients is much better than with medical therapy. However, MCS therapy is hampered by sometimes life-threatening complications including bleeding and device thrombosis. Von Willebrand factor (vWF) has two major functions in haemostasis. First, it plays a crucial role in platelet-subendothelium adhesion and platelet-platelet interactions (aggregation). Second, it is the carrier of factor VIII (FVIII) in plasma. Von Willebrand factor prolongs FVIII half-time by protecting it from proteolytic degradation. It delivers FVIII to the site of vascular injury thus enhancing haemostatic process. On one hand, high plasma levels of vWF have been associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. On the other, defects or deficiencies of vWF underlie the inherited von Willebrand disease or acquired von Willebrand syndrome. Here we review the pathophysiology of thrombosis and bleeding associated with vWF. PMID:26702279

  3. Generalization of von Neumann analysis for a model of two discrete half-spaces: The acoustic case

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating the performance of finite-difference algorithms typically uses a technique known as von Neumann analysis. For a given algorithm, application of the technique yields both a dispersion relation valid for the discrete time-space grid and a mathematical condition for stability. In practice, a major shortcoming of conventional von Neumann analysis is that it can be applied only to an idealized numerical model - that of an infinite, homogeneous whole space. Experience has shown that numerical instabilities often arise in finite-difference simulations of wave propagation at interfaces with strong material contrasts. These interface instabilities occur even though the conventional von Neumann stability criterion may be satisfied at each point of the numerical model. To address this issue, I generalize von Neumann analysis for a model of two half-spaces. I perform the analysis for the case of acoustic wave propagation using a standard staggered-grid finite-difference numerical scheme. By deriving expressions for the discrete reflection and transmission coefficients, I study under what conditions the discrete reflection and transmission coefficients become unbounded. I find that instabilities encountered in numerical modeling near interfaces with strong material contrasts are linked to these cases and develop a modified stability criterion that takes into account the resulting instabilities. I test and verify the stability criterion by executing a finite-difference algorithm under conditions predicted to be stable and unstable. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  4. Zum Ausgleich von generativer und energetischer Sprachbetrachtung (A Comparison of the "Generative" and "Energetic" Views of Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Leo

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of two basic conceptions: Wilhelm von Humboldt's idea of language as energeia'' existing within and without man, and Noam Chomsky's idea of language generated by the speaker according to an innate apparatus. Revised version of lectures presented at the University of Bonn, West Germany in August 1971. (RS)

  5. Avoiding Interpersonal Misunderstandings in an Educational Game, Simulation or Workshop: The Four Ears Perspective of Schultz von Thun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryer, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Presents a model based on work by Schultz von Thun that helps to explain how to avoid misunderstandings in interpersonal communication. The model is then applied to interpersonal interactions in educational games, simulations, and workshops, and the insights it provides into how unnecessary and unintentional conflict may be avoided are discussed.…

  6. 78 FR 34090 - Lois Von Morganroth; Shiloh Warm Springs Ranch, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lois Von Morganroth; Shiloh Warm Springs Ranch, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On April 29, 2013, Lois...

  7. [Was the expert medical opinion rendered by B. von Gudden regarding King Ludwig II of Bavaria correct?].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H; Sommer, F

    2011-05-01

    Even today the deaths of King Ludwig II of Bavaria and the Munich-based psychiatrist Bernhard von Gudden on 13 June 1886 remain something of a mystery. In his psychiatric expertise von Gudden had rated Ludwig as insane and incapable of governing. Ludwig was placed under tutelage, deposed and interned under the supervision of guards. After the catastrophe witnesses and the press were silenced by strict censorship under threat of heavy penalties. Even today obstacles to free information still exist, aiding and abetting the birth of legends and the preservation of leading traditional views. We report on the results of a 5-year research project conducted at the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities and based on information derived from private and public archives in Germany and abroad. Reference is made to comparable analyses. Neither von Gudden's expertise nor Ludwig's behaviour provide reliable cues to his alleged insanity. The reasons and motives behind the king's deposition are discussed. Apart from von Gudden's tragic death, this was not a singular case of a psychiatric expertise commissioned in the monarchist culture of the nineteenth and the early twentieth century.

  8. Diagnosis of congenital von Willebrand disease during a preoperative assessment in a multiple myeloma patient without bleeding history.

    PubMed

    El Ouaaliti, Malika; Li, Rong; Gobin, Delphine; Bron, Dominique; Cantinieaux, Brigitte

    2016-07-01

    We report a rare case of type 2M von Willebrand disease diagnosed in an elderly multiple myeloma patient who had no personal and family bleeding history. This case report emphasis the importance to not systematically exclude a congenital vWD in adult patients when coagulation screening tests indicate toward a vWD. PMID:27386134

  9. [Was the expert medical opinion rendered by B. von Gudden regarding King Ludwig II of Bavaria correct?].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H; Sommer, F

    2011-05-01

    Even today the deaths of King Ludwig II of Bavaria and the Munich-based psychiatrist Bernhard von Gudden on 13 June 1886 remain something of a mystery. In his psychiatric expertise von Gudden had rated Ludwig as insane and incapable of governing. Ludwig was placed under tutelage, deposed and interned under the supervision of guards. After the catastrophe witnesses and the press were silenced by strict censorship under threat of heavy penalties. Even today obstacles to free information still exist, aiding and abetting the birth of legends and the preservation of leading traditional views. We report on the results of a 5-year research project conducted at the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities and based on information derived from private and public archives in Germany and abroad. Reference is made to comparable analyses. Neither von Gudden's expertise nor Ludwig's behaviour provide reliable cues to his alleged insanity. The reasons and motives behind the king's deposition are discussed. Apart from von Gudden's tragic death, this was not a singular case of a psychiatric expertise commissioned in the monarchist culture of the nineteenth and the early twentieth century. PMID:21528419

  10. Albert Einstein and Wernher von Braun - the two great German-American physicists seen in a historical perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2008-04-01

    It was Albert Einstein who for the first time changed our view of the universe to be a non-euclidean curved space-time. And it was Wernher von Braun who blazed the trail to take us into this universe, leaving for the first time the gravitational field of our planet earth, with the landing a man on the moon the greatest event in human history. Both these great physicists did this on the shoulders of giants. Albert Einstein on the shoulders of his landsman, the mathematician Bernhard Riemann, and Wernher von Braun on the shoulders of Goddard and Oberth. Both Einstein and von Braun made a Faustian pact with the devil, von Braun by accepting research funds from Hitler, and Einstein by urging Roosvelt to build the atom bomb (against Hitler). Both of these great men later regretted the use of their work for the killing of innocent bystanders, even though in the end the invention of nuclear energy and space flight is for the benefit of man. Their example serves as a warning for all of us. It can be formulated as follows: ``Can I in good conscience accept research funds from the military to advance scientific knowledge, for weapons developed against an abstract enemy I never have met in person?'' Weapons if used do not differentiate between the scientist, who invented these weapons, and the non-scientist.

  11. Fehler begehen - Mathematik verstehen Über die Bedeutung von Fehlern für das Verstehen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käser, Udo

    Auch wenn eine historisch oder systematisch umfassende Darstellung zur Fehlerthematik bislang nicht vorliegt, ist die Idee, einer Fehleranalyse unter der Leitfrage, welche Fehler von Schülerinnen und Schülern aufgrund welcher epistemologischen Überzeugungen begangen werden, zentralen Raum für die Betrachtung von Verstehensprozessen einzuräumen, nicht neu. So ist es geradezu ein Charakteristikum einer modernen konstruktivistischen Didaktik, die eigenen Fehler von Lernenden als ihre individuellen Lerngelegenheiten zu begreifen, die einen wichtigen Motor für den subjektiven Lernfortschritt bilden. Diese Sichtweise wurzelt aus psychologischer Perspektive in Analysen in der Tradition Piagets, der in Abkehr von einer quantitativen, psychometrischen Beschreibung kognitiver Prozesse, wie sie sich zum Beispiel in Intelligenztheorien nach Binet findet, qualitativ zu beschreiben versuchte, in welcher Weise Kinder und Jugendliche denken und urteilen. Doch auch schon in der klassischen Philosophie sind entsprechende Ansätze zu finden. Prominente Beispiele hierfür sind die Idolenlehre Bacons und die Ideenlehre Platons.

  12. PREFACE: EmerQuM 11: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2011 (Heinz von Foerster Congress)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grössing, Gerhard

    2012-05-01

    These proceedings comprise the plenary lectures and poster contributions of the 'Heinz von Foerster Conference 2011' on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmerQuM11), which was held at the University of Vienna, 11-13 November 2011. With the 5th International Heinz von Foerster Conference convened at the occasion of von Foerster's 100th birthday, the organizers opted for a twin conference to take place at the Large and Small Ceremonial Halls of the University's main building, respectively. The overall topic was chosen as 'Self-Organization and Emergence', a topic to which von Foerster was an early contributor. While the first conference ('Self-Organization and Emergence in Nature and Society') addressed a more general audience, the second one ('Emergent Quantum Mechanics') was intended as a specialist meeting with a contemporary topic that could both serve as an illustration of von Foerster's intellectual heritage and, more generally, point towards future directions in physics. We thus intended to bring together many of those physicists who are interested in or are working on attempts to understand quantum mechanics as emerging from a suitable classical (or, more generally, deeper level) physics. EmerQuM11 was organized by the Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies (AINS), with essential support from the Wiener Institute for Social Science Documentation and Methodology (WISDOM), the Department of Contemporary History at the University of Vienna, and the Heinz von Foerster-Gesellschaft. There were a number of individuals who contributed to the smooth course of our meeting and whom I would like to sincerely thank: Christian Bischof, Thomas Elze, Marianne Ertl, Gertrud Hafner, Werner Korn, Angelika Krawanja, Florian Krug and his team, Sonja Lang, Albert Müller, Ilse Müller, Irene Müller, Karl Müller, Armin Reautschnig, Marion Schirrmacher, Anton Staudinger, Roman Zlabinger, and, last but not least, my AINS colleagues Siegfried Fussy, Herbert Schwabl and Johannes Mesa

  13. Zelltyp-spezifische Mikroanalyse von Arabidopsis thaliana-Blättern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Stephan Peter

    2002-04-01

    Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wurden Strategien zur Analyse von Transkripten erarbeitet. Die ersten Versuche zielten darauf ab, in mit Glaskapillaren genommenen Einzelzellproben verschiedener Gewebeschichten RT-PCR durchzuführen, um spezifische Transkripte nachweisen zu können. Dies gelang für eine Reihe von Genen aus verschiedenen Pflanzenspezies. Dabei konnten sowohl Transkripte stark wie auch schwach exprimierter Gene nachgewiesen werden. Für die Erstellung von Gewebe-spezifischen Expressionsprofilen war es notwendig, die in vereinigten Zellproben enthaltene mRNA zunächst zu amplifizieren, um eine ausreichende Menge für Arrayhybridisierungen zu erhalten. Vor der Vermehrung wurde die mRNA revers transkribiert. Es wurden daran anschließend verschiedene Amplifikationsstrategien getestet: Die neben Tailing, Adapterligation und anderen PCR-basierenden Protokollen getestete Arbitrary-PCR hat sich in dieser Arbeit als einfache und einzige Methode herausgestellt, die mit so geringen cDNA-Mengen reproduzierbar arbeitet. Durch Gewebe-spezifische Array-hybridisierungen mit der so amplifizierten RNA konnten schon bekannte Expressionsmuster verschiedener Gene, vornehmlich solcher, die an der Photosynthese beteiligt sind, beobachtet werden. Es wurden aber auch eine ganze Reihe neuer offensichtlich Gewebe-spezifisch exprimierter Gene gefunden. Exemplarisch für die differentiell exprimierten Gene konnte das durch Arrayhybridisierungen gefundene Expressionsmuster der kleinen Untereinheit von Rubisco verifiziert werden. Hierzu wurden Methoden zum Gewebe-spezifischen Northernblot sowie semiquantitativer und Echtzeit-Einzelzell-RT-PCR entwickelt. Im zweiten Teil der Arbeit wurden Methoden zur Analyse von Metaboliten einschließlich anorganischer Ionen verwendet. Es stellte sich heraus, daß die multiparallele Methode der Gaschromatographie-Massenspektrometrie keine geeignete Methode für die Analyse selbst vieler vereinigter Zellinhalte ist. Daher wurde auf

  14. The Nachlass (estate) of Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), long-time secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), professor of anatomy in Breslau from 1922, was secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG) from 1919 until 1949 and also editor of the Anatomischer Anzeiger, today's Annals of Anatomy. His "Wissenschaftlicher Nachlass [scientific estate]" could recently be located in private hands and has now been made available at the archive of the AG held by the current secretary. It consists of 45 folders, mainly containing von Eggeling's national and international correspondence from 1919 to 1953. It thus covers the times of the Weimar republic and of the "Third Reich" as well as the post-war period, when the AG had been officially closed down by the Allied Control Council and was eventually re-founded in 1949. Von Eggeling preserved this material despite war destruction of his Berlin home, where he lived after his retirement in 1935, and his cramped post-war confines in a small town near Hannover. The estate also includes autobiographical manuscripts of von Eggeling and some material from his predecessor, the first secretary of the AG since 1886, Karl von Bardeleben (1849-1918). There is evidence that the correspondence is not complete, even if there are no significant time gaps. The contents suggest that letters deemed insignificant, like fee reminders or editorial decisions, were discarded at some point, but it remains unclear by whom. This estate fills a significant gap in the historical material related to the AG and will be an important source for any future historical investigation regarding the society. PMID:26143371

  15. Diagnose und Therapie einer Depression im höheren Lebensalter – Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen

    PubMed Central

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Bönte, Markus; Siegrist, Johannes; Marceau, Lisa; Link, Carol; McKinlay, John

    2013-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Studienergebnissee aus dem englischsprachigen Raum zeigen, dass diagnostische und therapeutische Entscheidungen von Hausärzten bei der Versorgung von depressiven Patienten systematischen Einflüssen unterliegen, und dass sowohl Merkmale des Arztes als auch des Patienten unabhängig vom Krankheitsbild Einfluss auf diese Entscheidungen haben. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Ergebnisse einer deutschen Studie präsentiert, in der die Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen auf diagnostische und therapeutische ärztliche Entscheidungen bei einer Depression untersucht wurden. Unter Anwendung eines faktoriellen Experimentaldesigns spielten professionelle Schauspieler in Videofilmen die Rolle von Patienten, die Symptome für eine depressive Erkrankung äußern. In den Videofilmen, die alle auf einem identischen Skript basieren, wurden systematisch die Patientenmerkmale Alter (55 vs. 75 Jahre), Geschlecht und sozialer Status (Hausmeister vs. Lehrer) variiert. Die randomisierte Ärztestichprobe wurde nach dem Arztgeschlecht und professioneller Erfahrung (< 5 vs. > 15 Jahre) geschichtet. Der Videofilm wurde insgesamt 128 niedergelassenen Ärzten für Allgemeinmedizin und hausärztlich tätigen Internisten in ihrer Praxis vorgespielt. Danach wurden die Ärzte zu unterschiedlichen Aspekten von Diagnose und Therapie befragt. Es wurde erhoben, ob der Arzt dem Patienten über das gezeigte Gespräch hinausgehende Fragen stellen würde, welche Diagnosen er für wahrscheinlich hält, wie sicher er sich mit seiner Diagnose ist, welche diagnostischen Tests er anordnen würde, ob er den Patienten überweisen würde oder ob er Medikamente verordnen oder ihm Empfehlungen zur Änderung seines Lebensstils geben würde. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass sowohl die Diagnose als auch die Therapie einer Depression durch niedergelassene Hausärzte in Deutschland nur geringfügig durch die untersuchten Merkmale der Patienten und der behandelnden Ärzte beeinflusst wird

  16. A novel ELISA-based diagnosis of acquired von Willebrand disease with increased VWF proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Antoine; Caron, Claudine; Vincent, Flavien; Jeanpierre, Emmanuelle; Ternisien, Catherine; Boisseau, Pierre; Zawadzki, Christophe; Fressinaud, Edith; Borel-Derlon, Annie; Hermoire, Sylvie; Paris, Camille; Lavenu-Bombled, Cécile; Veyradier, Agnès; Ung, Alexandre; Vincentelli, André; van Belle, Eric; Lenting, Peter J; Goudemand, Jenny; Susen, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Von Willebrand disease-type 2A (VWD-2A) and acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) due to aortic stenosis (AS) or left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are associated with an increased proteolysis of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Analysis of VWF multimeric profile is the most sensitive way to assess such increased VWF-proteolysis. However, several technical aspects hamper a large diffusion among routine diagnosis laboratories. This makes early diagnosis and early appropriate care of increased proteolysis challenging. In this context of unmet medical need, we developed a new ELISA aiming a quick, easy and reliable assessment of VWF-proteolysis. This ELISA was assessed successively in a LVAD-model, healthy subjects (n=39), acquired TTP-patients (n=4), VWD-patients (including VWD-2A(IIA), n=22; VWD-2B, n=26; VWD-2A(IIE), n=21; and VWD-1C, n=8) and in AVWS-patients (AS, n=9; LVAD, n=9; and MGUS, n=8). A standard of VWF-proteolysis was specifically developed. Extent of VWF-proteolysis was expressed as relative percentage and as VWF proteolysis/VWF:Ag ratio. A speed-dependent increase in VWF-proteolysis was assessed in the LVAD model whereas no proteolysis was observed in TTP-patients. In VWD-patients, VWF-proteolysis was significantly increased in VWD-2A(IIA) and VWD-2B and significantly decreased in VWD-2A(IIE) versus controls (p< 0.0001). In AVWS-patients, VWF-proteolysis was significantly increased in AS- and LVAD-patients compared to controls (p< 0.0001) and not detectable in MGUS-patients. A significant increase in VWF-proteolysis was detected as soon as three hours after LVAD implantation (p< 0.01). In conclusion, we describe a new ELISA allowing a rapid and accurate diagnosis of VWF-proteolysis validated in three different clinical situations. This assay represents a helpful alternative to electrophoresis-based assay in the diagnosis and management of AVWS with increased VWF-proteolysis. PMID:26791163

  17. Unsteady interaction of a viscous fluid with an elastic shell modeled by full von Karman equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chueshov, Igor; Ryzhkova, Iryna

    We study well-posedness and asymptotic dynamics of a coupled system consisting of linearized 3D Navier-Stokes equations in a bounded domain and a classical (nonlinear) full von Karman shallow shell equation that accounts for both transversal and lateral displacements on a flexible part of the boundary. We also take into account rotational inertia of filaments of the shell. Our main result shows that the problem generates a semiflow in an appropriate phase space. The regularity provided by viscous dissipation in the fluid allows us to consider simultaneously both cases of presence inertia in the lateral displacements and its absence. Our second result states the existence of a compact global attractor for this semiflow in the case of presence of (rotational) damping in the transversal component and a particular structure of external forces.

  18. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's design of a unity of physics].

    PubMed

    Görnitz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As I learned in many conversations with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, he saw his place in the history of science deriving from his "Theory of Urs". This theory will establish the unity of science on the basis of quantum bits. Any attempts to find some "fundamental bricks"--of whatever kind--must fail because of the antinomies of atomism. An abstract quantum bit is a structure quantum that cannot be conceived as a particle in space and time. However, it is clear, solely for logical reasons, that a quantum bit is an ultimate and indecomposable entity. Weizsäcker's revolutionary goal was--already 50 years ago--to unite quantum theory with cosmology and, on these grounds, proceed to a theory of elementary particles. The article gives a short overview of Weizsäcker's approach to the unity of physics, ending with a brief summary of what has been achieved in that endeavour up to now.

  19. Medieval orthopaedic history in Germany: Hieronymus Brunschwig and Hans von Gersdorff.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Hans von Gerssdorff and Hieronymus Brunschwig, who flourished in Germany in the latter half of the fifteenth century, have both left early printed treatises on Surgery which give excellent woodcuts showing pictures of instruments, operations, and costumes, at the end of the medieval period. Hieronymus Brunschwig or Hieronymus Brunschwygk (ca. 1450 - ca. 1512), was a German surgeon (wundartzot), alchemist and botanist. He was notable for his methods of treatment of gunshot wounds. His most influential book was the Buch der Cirurgia. Gersdorff(1455-1529) was a military surgeon who gained wide experience during 40 years of campaigning and was an expert in the treatment of battlefield injuries. His work covers anatomy, surgery, leprosy, and glossaries of anatomical terms, diseases, and medications.

  20. Modulare LDAP-Server-, -Protokoll und - Funktionserweiterungen am Beispiel von OpenLDAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluta, Daniel

    In diesem Artikel wird ein Standardisierungsvorschlag für eine LDAP-Protokollerweiterung und deren Referenzimplementierung in Form einer modularen Erweiterung für die LDAP-Software-Suite des OpenLDAPProjektes vorgestellt. Nach einer Einführung in und einem Überblick über die wichtigsten OpenLDAP-Komponenten stellen wir unseren Lösungsansatz vor und gehen auf seine technischen Details ein. Ziel dieses Overlays ist die Implementierung einer neuen Funktionalität, die vom LDAP-Protokoll bisher nicht vorgesehen ist: Der Umfang der Suchergebnismenge soll serverseitig, dezentral und in der Granularität ganzer Objekte in Abhängigkeit von der aktuellen Serverzeit (konfigurierbar) eingeschränkt werden.

  1. Kosteneffiziente Honbearbeitung durch intelligente und flexible Verknüpfung von autarken Honzentren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Günther

    Die Planungsabteilungen in der Automobilindustrie werden vor immer größere Herausforderungen gestsellt. Der zur Verfügung stehende Zeitraum zu einer seriensicheren Umsetzung der entwicklungs- und produktionstechnischen Forderungen wird von Projekt zu Projekt kürzer. Aufgrund des hohen Wettbewerbsdrucks und daraus resultierenden erforderlichen Kostenoptimierungen, die schnelleren Timeto-market-und Innovationszyklen und die vermeintlich zur Kundenbindung erforderlichen, kaum mehr überschaubaren Diversifizierungen in den Modellpaletten lassen den Planungshorizont immer kürzer werden. Die zu beschaffenden Fertigungsanlagen sollen aber in den nächsten 8-12 Jahren all die Varianten produzieren können, die heute nur teilweise oder noch gar nicht bekannt sind.

  2. Acute cerebrovascular accident in an 18-year-old male with von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Novick, Andrew; McGrann, Sean; Lamfers, Randall

    2014-05-01

    Compared to the older populations, stroke is an infrequent occurrence in children, adolescents, and young adults. Furthermore, individuals who have hypocoagulability disorders, such as von Willebrand disease (vWD), appear to possess a degree of protection against thrombotic events. Here, we describe an 18-year-old male with a history of vWD who presented to the emergency department with left sided hemiparesis that occurred shortly after being placed in a headlock while wrestling. MRI revealed a right paramedian pontine stroke. The relationship between vWD and stroke is discussed as well as the role of neck trauma in vertebral artery injury. While vWD does appear to decrease the incidence of thrombotic events, such patients are still at risk, especially in the context of common inciting events such as neck trauma.

  3. Bragg-von Laue diffraction generalized to twisted X-rays.

    PubMed

    Jüstel, Dominik; Friesecke, Gero; James, Richard D

    2016-03-01

    A pervasive limitation of nearly all practical X-ray methods for the determination of the atomic scale structure of matter is the need to crystallize the molecule, compound or alloy in a sufficiently large (∼ 10 × 10 × 10 µm) periodic array. In this paper an X-ray method applicable to structure determination of some important noncrystalline structures is proposed. It is designed according to a strict mathematical analog of von Laue's method, but replacing the translation group by another symmetry group, and simultaneously replacing plane waves by different exact closed-form solutions of Maxwell's equations. Details are presented for helical structures like carbon nanotubes or filamentous viruses. In computer simulations the accuracy of the determination of structure is shown to be comparable to the periodic case. PMID:26919370

  4. Life and Achievement of Otto von Guericke as a Pioneer of Vacuum Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Akira

    Scientific achievement of Otto von Guericke was very remarkable, but it was not introduced in detail in Japan. This was due to his demonstrating experiment with Magdeburug hemisphere using horses was too famous. Therefore, the author wrote in chapter 1, a brief overview of the literature already published in Japan about Guericke and the time he lived in. Chapter 2 will describe his entire life including administrative and political contributions to the city of Magdeburg. Chapter 3 will be used to provide the reader with information on Guericke's activities as physicist, drawing materials from his book. In chapter 4, the author concludes to remark the work to be done in future to obtain clearer description.

  5. [1400 hours of analysis with Freud: Viktor von Dirsztay. A biographical sketch].

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of mostly unpublished sources, the author reconstructs the life of the Hungarian writer Viktor von Dirsztay (1884?-1935) who was personally acquainted with many expressionist artists and writers, e. g. with Karl Kraus, Oskar Kokoschka, Herwarth Walden, Walter Hasenclever, Hermann Broch and Arthur Schnitzler. This association puts Freud into closer proximity with the cultural avantgarde of his times than previously realized. Between 1910 and 1920 Dirsztay underwent several phases of analysis with Freud; then he was treated by Theodor Reik. The overall length of his analysis with Freud is almost unparalleled. The article discusses whether and in which way Dirsztay's writings might have been influenced by his analyses and how Freud and Reik might have drawn upon their experiences with this patient. It is argued that likely references can be discovered in both authors' theories of masochism. There is an intriguing late remark of Dirsztay's that he was "ruined by analysis".

  6. Bragg-von Laue diffraction generalized to twisted X-rays.

    PubMed

    Jüstel, Dominik; Friesecke, Gero; James, Richard D

    2016-03-01

    A pervasive limitation of nearly all practical X-ray methods for the determination of the atomic scale structure of matter is the need to crystallize the molecule, compound or alloy in a sufficiently large (∼ 10 × 10 × 10 µm) periodic array. In this paper an X-ray method applicable to structure determination of some important noncrystalline structures is proposed. It is designed according to a strict mathematical analog of von Laue's method, but replacing the translation group by another symmetry group, and simultaneously replacing plane waves by different exact closed-form solutions of Maxwell's equations. Details are presented for helical structures like carbon nanotubes or filamentous viruses. In computer simulations the accuracy of the determination of structure is shown to be comparable to the periodic case.

  7. Anti-endothelial cell antibody, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed Central

    Salojin, K V; Bordron, A; Nassonov, E L; Shtutman, V Z; Guseva, N G; Baranov, A A; Targoff, I N; Youinou, P

    1997-01-01

    Sera from 19 patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) were examined for the presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) by an immunoglobulin G-specific cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean binding index of AECA was found to be 37.7% +/- 26.5% for the patients, compared with a mean of 7.2% +/- 2.7% for normal controls (P < 0.04). Levels of thrombomodulin, von Willebrand factor antigen, and serum creatine kinase were also shown to be augmented. Interestingly, positive correlations between AECA on the one hand and Raynaud's phenomenon and interstitial lung disease on the other were demonstrated. Given that the pathogenesis of IIM remains uncertain, these findings may be of importance. PMID:9302198

  8. [1400 hours of analysis with Freud: Viktor von Dirsztay. A biographical sketch].

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of mostly unpublished sources, the author reconstructs the life of the Hungarian writer Viktor von Dirsztay (1884?-1935) who was personally acquainted with many expressionist artists and writers, e. g. with Karl Kraus, Oskar Kokoschka, Herwarth Walden, Walter Hasenclever, Hermann Broch and Arthur Schnitzler. This association puts Freud into closer proximity with the cultural avantgarde of his times than previously realized. Between 1910 and 1920 Dirsztay underwent several phases of analysis with Freud; then he was treated by Theodor Reik. The overall length of his analysis with Freud is almost unparalleled. The article discusses whether and in which way Dirsztay's writings might have been influenced by his analyses and how Freud and Reik might have drawn upon their experiences with this patient. It is argued that likely references can be discovered in both authors' theories of masochism. There is an intriguing late remark of Dirsztay's that he was "ruined by analysis". PMID:20503772

  9. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and the Bethe-Weizsäcker cycle].

    PubMed

    Wiescher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Carbon- or Bethe-Weizsäcker Cycle plays an important role in astrophysics as one of the most important energy sources for a quiescent and explosive hydrogen burning in stars. This paper presents the historical background and the contributions by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Hans Bethe who provided the first predictions of the cycle. Furthermore, it discussed the experimental verification of the predicted process in the following decades. Also discussed is the extension of the initial Carbon cycle to the CNO multi-cycles and the hot CNO cycles which followed from the detailed experimental studies of the associated nuclear reactions. Finally discussed is the impact of the experimental and theoretical results on our present understanding of hydrogen burning in different stellar environments and on our understanding of the chemical evolution of our universe. PMID:24974598

  10. Flow dynamics and magnetic induction in the von-Kármán plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plihon, N.; Bousselin, G.; Palermo, F.; Morales, J.; Bos, W. J. T.; Godeferd, F.; Bourgoin, M.; Pinton, J.-F.; Moulin, M.; Aanesland, A.

    2015-01-01

    The von-Kármán plasma experiment is a novel versatile experimental device designed to explore the dynamics of basic magnetic induction processes and the dynamics of flows driven in weakly magnetized plasmas. A high-density plasma column (1016-1019 particles. m-3) is created by two radio-frequency plasma sources located at each end of a 1 m long linear device. Flows are driven through J × B azimuthal torques created from independently controlled emissive cathodes. The device has been designed such that magnetic induction processes and turbulent plasma dynamics can be studied from a variety of time-averaged axisymmetric flows in a cylinder. MHD simulations implementing volume-penalization support the experimental development to design the most efficient flow-driving schemes and understand the flow dynamics. Preliminary experimental results show that a rotating motion of up to nearly 1 km/s is controlled by the J × B azimuthal torque.

  11. Pancreatic manifestations in von Hippel–Lindau disease: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ayloo, Subhashini; Molinari, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic manifestations in Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease can present as a multitude of forms, and their management can be challenging. Presentation of the case A 66-year-old woman presented with increasing abdominal girth without other associated symptoms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weight-loss, and jaundice. Her medical and surgical histories were significant for type II diabetes, cerebral tumor resection, bilateral nephrectomies, and laser photocoagulation of retinal hemangiomas. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a massive multi-cystic lesion in the pancreas and the patient was referred to our hepatopancreatic biliary center. Discussion The findings on the subsequent cross-sectional MRI imaging signified pancreatic manifestations in VHL disease. Conclusion The management of VHL disease-associated benign pancreatic cystic lesions involves interval monitoring with cross-sectional imaging for malignant changes/development. PMID:26945487

  12. Von Economo neurons are present in the dorsolateral (dysgranular) prefrontal cortex of humans.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, C; Escobar, M I; Buriticá, E; Arteaga, G; Umbarila, J; Casanova, M F; Pimienta, H

    2008-04-25

    Von Economo neurons (VENs), also known as spindle cells, have been described in layer V of the anterior cingulate (BA 24) and frontoinsular cortex (FI) of humans and other great apes. In the present study we used immunohistochemistry against two specific neuronal markers (NeuN and MAP2) in order to establish the presence of these cell types in Brodmann area 9 (BA 9) of the human prefrontal cortex. We evaluated tissue samples of eight human postmortem brains (age range 26-50) from BAs 9, 24, 4, 46, 45, 10 and 17. We identified a group of cells with similar morphology to that previously described for VENs in all specimens of BA 9 examined, albeit less frequently than in BA 24. This is the first description of this cell type in a human brain area with well developed granular layers (BA 9).

  13. Pathological Changes of von Economo Neuron and Fork Neuron in Neuropsychiatric Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-ning; Arzberger, Thomas; Zhu, Ming-wei

    2016-02-01

    von Economo neuron (VEN) is a bipolar neuron characterized by a large spindle-shaped soma. VEN is generally distributed in the layer V of anterior insular lobe and anterior cingulate cortex. Fork neuron is another featured bipolar neuron. In recent years,many studies have illustrated that VEN and fork neurons are correlated with complicated cognition such as self-consciousness and social emotion. Studies in the development and morpholigies of these two neurons as well as their pathological changes in various neurological and psychiatric disorders have found that the abnormal number and functions of VEN can cause corresponding dysfunctions in social recognition and emotions both during the neuro-developmental stages of childhood and during the nerve degeneration in old age stage. Therefore, more attentions should be paid on the research of VEN and fork neurons in neuropsychiatric diseases.

  14. Jean-Jacques Rousseau's copy of Albrecht von Haller's Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae inchoata (1768).

    PubMed

    Cook, A

    2003-04-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau sold his botanical texts to Daniel Malthus (father of Thomas Malthus) about 1775. Two of these are now in the Old Library, Jesus College, Cambridge, but all the rest have long been thought lost. However, a copy of Albrecht von Haller's Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae inchoata (1768) in the Lindley Library, Royal Horticultural Society, London, bears Rousseau's name and seems to have been annotated by him. The volume contains the bookplate of Jane Dalton, a cousin to whom Malthus willed "all[his] Botanical Books in which the name of Rousseau is written". Haller was well-known to Rousseau, who while in exile in the Swiss Jura (1763-1765), studied under one of Haller's collaborators, Abraham Gagnebin. Rousseau cited Haller's entry 762 when describing a species of Seseli to the Duchess of Portland.

  15. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and the Bethe-Weizsäcker cycle].

    PubMed

    Wiescher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Carbon- or Bethe-Weizsäcker Cycle plays an important role in astrophysics as one of the most important energy sources for a quiescent and explosive hydrogen burning in stars. This paper presents the historical background and the contributions by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Hans Bethe who provided the first predictions of the cycle. Furthermore, it discussed the experimental verification of the predicted process in the following decades. Also discussed is the extension of the initial Carbon cycle to the CNO multi-cycles and the hot CNO cycles which followed from the detailed experimental studies of the associated nuclear reactions. Finally discussed is the impact of the experimental and theoretical results on our present understanding of hydrogen burning in different stellar environments and on our understanding of the chemical evolution of our universe.

  16. A novel von Hamos spectrometer for efficient X-ray emission spectroscopy in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Anklamm, Lars Schlesiger, Christopher; Malzer, Wolfgang; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Kanngießer, Birgit

    2014-05-15

    We present a novel, highly efficient von Hamos spectrometer for X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) in the laboratory using highly annealed pyrolitic graphite crystals as the dispersive element. The spectrometer covers an energy range from 2.5 keV to 15 keV giving access to chemical speciation and information about the electronic configuration of 3d transition metals by means of the Kβ multiplet. XES spectra of Ti compounds are presented to demonstrate the speciation capabilities of the instrument. A spectral resolving power of E/ΔE = 2000 at 8 keV was achieved. Typical acquisition times range from 10 min for bulk material to hours for thin samples below 1 μm.

  17. Renaturierung von Salzgrasländern bzw. Salzwiesen der Küsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiberling, Stefan; Stock, Martin

    Die deutschen Meeresküsten werden im übergang vom Land zum Meer weitgehend von zwei ökosystemtypen geprägt. Auf die augenfälligeren, die Dünen, gehen wir hier nicht ein (siehe v. a.Grootjans et al. 2001, 2002, Rozé und Lemauviel 2004, Ketner-Oostra et al. 2006, Aptroot et al. 2007, Bossuyt et al. 2007). Gegenstand dieses Kapitels sind vielmehr die Salzwiesen, die im Wattenmeer der Nordsee als natürlicher Lebensraum auftreten und an der Ostseeküste — hier werden sie Salzgrasländer genannt — zu den ältesten Bestandteilen der Kulturlandschaft zählen. Naturnahe Küstensalzwiesen sind nicht nur Lebensraum für speziell angepasste Pflanzenund Tierarten, sondern tragen auch zur Regulation des marinen Stoffhaushalts und zum Küstenschutz bei.

  18. Dr. Arvid Lindau and discovery of von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed

    Huntoon, Kristin; Oldfield, Edward H; Lonser, Russell R

    2015-10-01

    Arvid Lindau, MD, PhD, consolidated the disparate array of benign and malignant visceral and nervous system lesions into the neoplastic syndrome known as von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Based on this pioneering work, Dr. Lindau was awarded both a Rockefeller fellowship to work in Dr. Harvey Cushing's laboratory in Boston, Massachusetts, and the Lennmalm Prize. While working in Dr. Cushing's laboratory, Dr. Lindau continued his study of CNS hemangioblastomas. His work with Dr. Cushing led to their lifelong friendship and scientific collaboration. In this paper the authors describe Arvid Lindau's pioneering work in nervous system tumor pathology, his relationship to Dr. Cushing, and his role in advancing neurological surgery and research in Europe. PMID:25748307

  19. [Von Meyenburg complex or liver metastasis? Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Inês; Mota, Fernando; Ferreira, João Pedro; Dias, Renata; Leuschner, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic lesions represent a common finding in clinical practice. Bile ducts hamartomas, also known as Von Meyenburg complex, are benign hepatic malformations composed of small dilated cystic bile ducts lined by fibrous stroma. They represent a rare and asymptomatic clinic-pathological entity. Imagiological findings are variable, and may present as multiple small scattered lesions, or rarely as a single nodule. These findings may resemble secondary lesions and, although benign, there are cases of progression to colangiocarcinoma. Thus it is important to include this complex in the differential diagnoses of focal hepatic lesions, being necessary a detailed investigation for their differentiation. This case represents an atypical presentation of a rare and not frequently considered entity in clinical practice.

  20. Hypertrichotic Giant Nevus Spilus Tardivus and Neurofibroma of the Tongue in Sporadic von Recklinghausen's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Sylvester, Vijay; Vengalath, Janisha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2014-01-01

    Solitary neurofibromas are rare, benign tumours of nonodontogenic origin. The presentation of a solitary neurofibroma on the tongue is an uncommon occurrence and we present such a case here which was discovered in concomitance with multiple neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen's disease). Such a rare presentation seen in this case is a diagnostic challenge and often clinched only with the aid of histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. This work also discusses the various differential diagnoses that can be considered in similar cases. The presence of a hypertrichotic “giant” nevus spilus tardivus (Becker's nevus) is also a rare finding in this particular case. We present such a case which will be of interest to the budding dental practitioner. The lesion was excised and the patient followed up without any evidence of malignant transformation. PMID:25478247

  1. Wernher von Braun Takes a Close Look at Apollo 15 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    During the Apollo 15 launch activities in the launch control center's firing room 1 at Kennedy Space Center, Dr. Wernher von Braun, NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator for planning, takes a closer look at the launch pad through binoculars. The fifth manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 15 (SA-510), carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission commander David R. Scott, Lunar Module pilot James B. Irwin, and Command Module pilot Alfred M. Worden Jr., lifted off on July 26, 1971. Astronauts Scott and Irwin were the first to use a wheeled surface vehicle, the Lunar Roving Vehicle, or the Rover, which was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, and built by the Boeing Company. Astronauts spent 13 days, nearly 67 hours, on the Moon's surface to inspect a wide variety of its geological features.

  2. Laboratory von Hámos X-ray spectroscopy for routine sample characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Zoltán; Szlachetko, Jakub; Bajnóczi, Éva G.; Vankó, György

    2016-10-01

    High energy resolution, hard X-ray spectroscopies are powerful element selective probes of the electronic and local structure of matter, with diverse applications in chemistry, physics, biology, and materials science. The routine application of these techniques is hindered by the complicated and slow access to synchrotron radiation facilities. Here we propose a new, economic, easily operated laboratory high resolution von Hámos type X-ray spectrometer, which offers rapid transmission experiments for X-ray absorption and is also capable of recording X-ray emission spectra. The use of a cylindrical analyzer crystal and a position sensitive detector enabled us to build a robust, flexible setup with low operational costs, while delivering synchrotron grade signal to noise measurements in reasonable acquisition times. We demonstrate the proof of principle and give examples for both measurement types. Finally, tracking of a several day long chemical transformation, a case better suited for laboratory than synchrotron investigation, is also presented.

  3. Small bowel volvulus as a complication of von Recklinghausen’s disease: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Thomas Artur; Kröpil, Feride; Schoppe, Martin Olaf; Kröpil, Patric; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Krieg, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old male with Neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1), who presented at the time of admission with clinical findings of an acute abdomen caused by a mechanical obstruction. Computerized tomography showed a volvulus of the terminal ileum with mesenteric swirling as the cause of the patient’s symptoms. Consecutive exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis and 70 cm of the small intestine was resected due to an affection of the mesentery by multiple neurofibromas. The gastrointestinal tract is affected in approximately 10% of patients with NF-1, however the mesentery is almost always spared. Here we describe the unique case of a patient with a volvulus caused by mesenteric manifestation of von Recklinghausen’s disease, emphasizing the role of surgery in a team of multidisciplinary specialists to treat this multiorganic disease. PMID:24976735

  4. Technological advances in diagnostic testing for von Willebrand disease: new approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hayward, C P M; Moffat, K A; Graf, L

    2014-06-01

    Diagnostic tests for von Willebrand disease (VWD) are important for the assessment of VWD, which is a commonly encountered bleeding disorder worldwide. Technical innovations have been applied to improve the precision and lower limit of detection of von Willebrand factor (VWF) assays, including the ristocetin cofactor activity assay (VWF:RCo) that uses the antibiotic ristocetin to induce plasma VWF binding to glycoprotein (GP) IbIXV on target platelets. VWF-collagen-binding assays, depending on the type of collagen used, can improve the detection of forms of VWD with high molecular weight VWF multimer loss, although the best method is debatable. A number of innovations have been applied to VWF:RCo (which is commonly performed on an aggregometer), including replacing the target platelets with immobilized GPIbα, and quantification by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoturbidimetric, or chemiluminescent end-point. Some common polymorphisms in the VWF gene that do not cause bleeding are associated with falsely low VWF activity by ristocetin-dependent methods. To overcome the need for ristocetin, some new VWF activity assays use gain-of-function GPIbα mutants that bind VWF without the need for ristocetin, with an improved precision and lower limit of detection than measuring VWF:RCo by aggregometry. ELISA of VWF binding to mutated GPIbα shows promise as a method to identify gain-of-function defects from type 2B VWD. The performance characteristics of many new VWF activity assays suggest that the detection of VWD, and monitoring of VWD therapy, by clinical laboratories could be improved through adopting newer generation VWF assays.

  5. Radiometric Trouble with Rough Surfaces? ... The von Neumann Series can Help!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. B.

    2004-05-01

    Operational retrieval methods used in surface remote sensing will generally assume that the interrogated terrain is uniform as well as flat (if not outright horizontal) at least at sub-pixel scales. Both assumptions are highly questionable. There are spectral techniques (linear un-mixing, end-members, etc.) designed to address the non-uniformity issue and adjacency effects (nonlinear mixing) near large gradients in surface albedo can be unraveled with techniques using the Green function of the aerosol atmosphere. But strong deviations from local flatness define a challenging problem in three-dimensional radiative transfer; this is especially true when the terrain has a very rough fractal shape with height variability over a wide range of scales. The source of the problem is the multiple reflections between surface elements in view of each other and is mathematically akin to the problem of multiple scattering in heterogeneous turbid media like clouds. The fundamental solution to the multiple scattering/reflection problem in transport theory is called ``successive orders-of-scattering/reflection'' by physicists and a ``von Neumann expansion'' by mathematicians. I have applied this method to the analysis of two remote sensing problems that appear to be vastly different: (1) angular dependence of effective emissivity in thermal remote sensing, and (2) biases in fine laser altimetry (such as attempted by NASA's present GLAS mission which focuses on polar ice caps). The thermal problem can be reduced to a question of mean aspect ratio in the macro-roughness of the surface. The altimetry problem calls furthermore for a roughness scale. In both cases, corrections can be made to obtain the surface property of interest: actual emissivity, and actual altitude. In both cases, Monte Carlo simulation ---another seminal contribution of John von Neumann, with others--- was the key to first inspiring and then validating the proposed analytical models with one or two free parameters

  6. Postpartum Hemorrhage in Women with Von Willebrand Disease – A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Löfgren, Signe; Chaireti, Roza; Holmström, Margareta; Bremme, Katarina; Mints, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a hereditary bleeding disorder, caused by a deficiency in the levels and/or function of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Women with VWD appear to be at increased risk of experiencing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), though the levels of VWF increase during pregnancy. There is limited knowledge of how PPH is associated with the subtype of VWD, plasma levels of other coagulations factors than VWF and given hemostatic treatment. Aims The aims were to investigate the incidence of PPH in women with VWD and to analyse the correlation between PPH and: (1) type of VWD, (2) laboratory monitoring of VWF and FVIII and (3) hemostatic drug treatment. Methods This was a retrospective observational study. The study participants (n = 34) were recruited from the Coagulation Unit, Karolinska University hospital. Fifty-nine deliveries, which occurred in 14 different obstetrics units (years 1995–2012) were included in the study. Results The incidence of primary PPH was 44%, severe primary PPH 20% and secondary PPH 12%. VWD type 3 was associated with a higher risk of experiencing severe primary PPH compared to other subtypes. FVIII:C in pregnancy was inversely correlated to blood loss during delivery. There was a significantly higher incidence of secondary PPH when the VWD diagnosis was unknown at time of delivery. Conclusions The women with VWD are at higher risk of PPH, especially those with type 3 VWD or when diagnosis is unknown prior to delivery. Identification of pregnant women with undiagnosed VWD may be of importance in order to prevent PPH. PMID:27780267

  7. LIM kinase/cofilin dysregulation promotes macrothrombocytopenia in severe von Willebrand disease-type 2B

    PubMed Central

    Poirault-Chassac, Sonia; Adam, Frédéric; Muczynski, Vincent; Aymé, Gabriel; Casari, Caterina; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Soukaseum, Christelle; Rothschild, Chantal; Proulle, Valérie; Pietrzyk-Nivau, Audrey; Berrou, Eliane; Christophe, Olivier D.; Rosa, Jean-Philippe; Lenting, Peter J.; Bryckaert, Marijke; Baruch, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    von Willebrand disease type 2B (VWD-type 2B) is characterized by gain-of-function mutations of von Willebrand factor (vWF) that enhance its binding to platelet glycoprotein Ibα and alter the protein’s multimeric structure. Patients with VWD-type 2B display variable extents of bleeding associated with macrothrombocytopenia and sometimes with thrombopathy. Here, we addressed the molecular mechanism underlying the severe macrothrombocytopenia both in a knockin murine model for VWD-type 2B by introducing the p.V1316M mutation in the murine Vwf gene and in a patient bearing this mutation. We provide evidence of a profound defect in megakaryocyte (MK) function since: (a) the extent of proplatelet formation was drastically decreased in 2B MKs, with thick proplatelet extensions and large swellings; and (b) 2B MKs presented actin disorganization that was controlled by upregulation of the RhoA/LIM kinase (LIMK)/cofilin pathway. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of the LIMK/cofilin signaling pathway rescued actin turnover and restored normal proplatelet formation, platelet count, and platelet size. These data indicate, to our knowledge for the first time, that the severe macrothrombocytopenia in VWD-type 2B p.V1316M is due to an MK dysfunction that originates from a constitutive activation of the RhoA/LIMK/cofilin pathway and actin disorganization. This suggests a potentially new function of vWF during platelet formation that involves regulation of actin dynamics. PMID:27734030

  8. Distinct mechanisms account for acquired von Willebrand syndrome in plasma cell dyscrasias.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Christina; Schneppenheim, Sonja; Holstein, Katharina; Spath, Brigitte; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Dittmer, Rita; Budde, Ulrich; Langer, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder that may cause life-threatening hemorrhages in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs). Early diagnosis and treatment require a thorough understanding of its underlying pathophysiology. Two patients with IgG MGUS presented with dramatically decreased plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) and a severe type-1 pattern on multimer analysis. A prompt response to intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), but not to VWF/FVIII, was consistent with accelerated immunologic clearance of plasma VWF. Another IgG MGUS patient showed a type-2 pattern and a less pronounced response to IVIG, suggesting that additional mechanism(s) contributed to AVWS evolution. In a patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and severe depletion of plasma VWF, multimer analysis indicated association of the IgM paraprotein with VWF before, but not after plasmapheresis, resulting in destruction of the agarose gel and a characteristically distorted band structure of VWF multimers. A type-2 pattern with highly abnormal VWF triplets and laboratory evidence of excessive fibrinolytic activity suggested that plasmin-mediated VWF degradation contributed to AVWS in a patient with multiple myeloma (MM) and AL amyloidosis. Finally, in a patient with IgG MM, maximally prolonged PFA-100® closure times and a specific defect in ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, both of which resolved after remission induction, indicated interference of the paraprotein with VWF binding to platelet GPIb. Importantly, in none of the six patients, circulating autoantibodies to VWF were detected by a specific in-house ELISA. In summary, when evaluating PCD patients with severe bleeding symptoms, AVWS due to various pathogenic mechanisms should be considered. PMID:27040683

  9. Bleeding symptoms and laboratory correlation in patients with severe von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Metjian, A D; Wang, C; Sood, S L; Cuker, A; Peterson, S M; Soucie, J M; Konkle, B A

    2009-07-01

    Type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a rare bleeding disorder with markedly decreased or absent von Willebrand factor (VWF) protein, accompanied by a parallel decrease in VWF function and factor VIII (FVIII) activity. The goal of this study was to describe the population of patients enrolled in the USA Centers for Disease Control Universal Data Collection (UDC) study with type 3 VWD, defined as a VWF:Ag of <10%, and to correlate bleeding symptoms with VWF and FVIII levels. Data on 150 patients were analysed. Almost all patients experienced bleeding episodes (98%) and required blood and/or factor product treatment (92%). While oral mucosal bleeding (the site of first bleed in 54%) was most common, subsequent muscle and joint bleeds were also seen (28%, 45%, respectively), and intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 8% of individuals. Mean age of first bleed was lower in those with either a FVIII < or =5% or a VWF:Ag <1%. Univariate marginal model analysis showed lower levels of FVIII and VWF:Ag both predicted a higher risk of joint bleeding. Longitudinal multivariate analysis found a lower FVIII level (P = 0.03), increasing age (P < 0.0001), history of joint bleeding (P = 0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.0001), and use of home infusion (P = 0.02) were all negatively associated with joint mobility. Low levels of VWF:Ag (P = 0.003) and male sex (P = 0.007) were also negatively associated with joint function. This study documents the strong bleeding phenotype in severe VWD and provides data to help target therapy, including prophylaxis, for patients most at risk of bleeding complications.

  10. Analysis of Hydrogen Tunneling in an Enzyme Active Site using von Neumann Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

    2010-01-01

    We build on our earlier quantum wavepacket study of hydrogen transfer in the biological enzyme, soybean lipoxygenase-1, by using von Neumann quantum measurement theory to gain qualitative insights into the transfer event. We treat the enzyme active site as a measurement device which acts on the tunneling hydrogen nucleus via the potential it exerts at each configuration. A series of changing active site geometries during the tunneling process effects a sequential projection of the initial, reactant state onto the final, product state. We study this process using several different kinds of von Neumann measurements and show how a discrete sequence of such measurements not only progressively increases the projection of the hydrogen nuclear wavepacket onto the product side but also favors proton over deuteron transfer. Several qualitative features of the hydrogen tunneling problem found in wavepacket dynamics studies are also recovered here. These include the shift in the “transition state” towards the reactant as a result of nuclear quantization, greater participation of excited states in the case of deuterium, and presence of critical points along the reaction coordinate that facilitate hydrogen and deuterium transfer and coincide with surface crossings. To further “tailor” the dynamics, we construct a perturbation to the sequence of measurements, that is a perturbation to the dynamical sequence of active site geometry evolution, which leads us to insight on the existence of sensitive regions of the reaction profile where subtle changes to the dynamics of the active site can have an effect on the hydrogen and deuterium transfer process. PMID:22933858

  11. Max von Pettenkofer (1818-1901) as a pioneer of modern hygiene and preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Locher, Wolfgang Gerhard

    2007-11-01

    Max von Pettenkofer (1818-1901) belonged to the scientific elite of the 19th century. With his stringent search for the laws of nature and his fight for scientific truth, Pettenkofer was the prototype of a modern researcher. In the field of hygiene, he sought ways and means of preserving health and preventing sickness. With his consistent application of the experimental method to the field of public health, Pettenkofer helped the discipline of hygiene to provide precise and reliable answers to sanitary questions. In his experimental work on hygiene, Pettenkofer sought an answer to every imaginable question concerning the connection between the human organism and its environment.To proceed in this direction, Pettenkofer combined medical expertise with physics, chemistry, technique and statistics. This even today modern "crossover-thinking" made hygiene to the first interdisciplinary medical field. With his Institute of Hygiene, Pettenkofer established 1879 the first centre of competence for hygiene and environment in the world, opening a new era of environmental observation.In the framework of hygiene, Pettenkofer turned also to questions of nutrition and the quality of foodstuff. The science of hygiene owes to Max von Pettenkofer not only its development and cartography, but also its introduction as an academic discipline. Finally he regarded hygiene also as an economic and cultural feature. His idea about a clean soil in the cities and his promotion of adequate water supply and sufficient sewage networks are linked to his theory of the cholera. Pettenkofer believed that a battle against this epidemic could be won. PMID:21432069

  12. Numerical study of impeller-driven von Kármán flows via a volume penalization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzahler, S.; Schulz, D.; Homann, H.; Ponty, Y.; Grauer, R.

    2014-10-01

    Studying strongly turbulent flows is still a major challenge in fluid dynamics. It is highly desirable to have comparable experiments to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms generating turbulence. The von Kármán flow apparatus is one of those experiments that has been used in various turbulence studies by different experimental groups over the last two decades. The von Kármán flow apparatus produces a highly turbulent flow inside a cylinder vessel driven by two counter-rotating impellers. The studies cover a broad range of physical systems including incompressible flows, especially water and air, magnetohydrodynamic systems using liquid metal for understanding the important topic of the dynamo instability, particle tracking to study Lagrangian type turbulence and recently quantum turbulence in super-fluid helium. Therefore, accompanying numerical studies of the von Kármán flow that compare quantitatively data with those from experiments are of high importance for understanding the mechanism producing the characteristic flow patterns. We present a direct numerical simulation (DNS) version the von Kármán flow, forced by two rotating impellers. The cylinder geometry and the rotating objects are modelled via a penalization method and implemented in a massive parallel pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. From the wide range of different impellers used in von Kármán water and sodium experiments we choose a special configuration (TM28), in order to compare our simulations with the according set of well documented water experiments. Though this configuration is different from the one in the final VKS experiment (TM73), using our method it is quite easy to change the impeller shape to the one actually used in VKS. The decomposition into poloidal and toroidal components and the mean velocity field from our simulations are in good agreement with experimental results. In addition, we analysed the flow structure close to the impeller blades, a region

  13. Microbial anaerobic methane cycling in the subseafloor at the Von Damm hydrothermal vent field, Mid-Cayman Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, J. A.; Reveillaud, J. C.; Stepanauskas, R.; McDermott, J. M.; Sylva, S. P.; Seewald, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) is Earth's deepest and slowest spreading mid-ocean ridge located in the western Caribbean. With an axial rift valley floor at a depth of ~4200-6500 m, it represents one of the deepest sections of ridge crest worldwide. In 2009, the world's deepest hydrothermal vents (Piccard at 4960 m) and an ultramafic-influenced system only 20 km away on top of an oceanic core complex (Von Damm at 2350 m) were discovered along the MCR. Each site is hosted in a distinct geologic setting with different thermal and chemical regimes. The Von Damm site is a particularly interesting location to examine chemolithoautotrophic subseafloor microbial communities due to the abundant hydrogen, methane, and organic compounds in the venting fluids. Here, we used a combination of stable isotope tracing, next-generation sequencing, and single cell techniques to determine the identity, activity, and genomic repertoire of subseafloor anaerobic archaea involved in methane cycling in hydrothermal fluids venting at the Von Damm site. Molecular sequencing of phylogenetic marker genes revealed the presence of diverse archaea that both generate and consume methane across a geochemical and thermal spectrum of vents. Stable isotope tracing experiments were used to detect biological utilization of formate and dissolved inorganic carbon, and methane generation at 70 °C under anaerobic conditions. Results indicate that methanogenesis with formate as a substrate is occurring at 70 °C at two Von Damm sites, Ginger Castle and the Main Orifice. The results are consistent with thermodynamic predictions for carbon speciation at the temperatures encountered at the ultramafic-hosted Von Damm, where formate is predicted to be thermodynamically stable, and may thus serve as a an important source of carbon. Diverse thermophilic methanogenic archaea belonging to the genera Methanothermococcus were detected at all vent sites with both 16S rRNA tag sequencing and single cell sorting. Other

  14. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  15. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  16. An Application of the Von Karman-millikan Laminar Boundary-layer Theory and Comparison with Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Doenhoff, Albert E

    1935-01-01

    The von Karman-Millikan theory of laminar boundary layers presented in NACA Technical Report No. 504 is applied to the laminar boundary layer about an elliptic cylinder on which boundary-layer and pressure-distribution measurements were made. An outline of the procedure of the von Karman-Millikan method is given. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated and experimental results, indicating that the method may be applied generally to the laminar boundary layer about any body provided that an experimentally determined pressure distribution is available. It appears that for all Reynolds Number above 24,000 the separation point for the elliptic cylinder should occur at a constant distance behind the point of minimum pressure, provided that the boundary layer does not become turbulent.

  17. Experimental determination of the von Kármán constant in turbulent two dimensional soap film flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldburg, Walter; Larkin, Jason; Prescott, Alisia; Kellay, Hamid; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2008-11-01

    We report measurements in both the viscous layer and in the log region of a two dimensional (2D) flowing soap film. The turbulence is created by a horizontal grid (a comb) and decays downstream where measurements are made. We report a sequence of measurements at film width Reynolds numbers of 10^4 -10^5, and fit our velocity profile data to a putative law of the wall form which is a reasonable representation of our data at the higher Reynolds numbers studied. We report our results for the von Kármán constant, and compare with calculations from theory and numerical simulation. Our findings indicate that the von Kármán constant in 2D is less than the accepted value in 3D.

  18. Single molecule force spectroscopy data and BD- and MD simulations on the blood protein von Willebrand factor.

    PubMed

    Posch, Sandra; Aponte-Santamaría, Camilo; Schwarzl, Richard; Karner, Andreas; Radtke, Matthias; Gräter, Frauke; Obser, Tobias; König, Gesa; Brehm, Maria A; Gruber, Hermann J; Netz, Roland R; Baldauf, Carsten; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Tampé, Robert; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2016-09-01

    We here give information for a deeper understanding of single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) data through the example of the blood protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). It is also shown, how fitting of rupture forces versus loading rate profiles in the molecular dynamics (MD) loading-rate range can be used to demonstrate the qualitative agreement between SMFS and MD simulations. The recently developed model by Bullerjahn, Sturm, and Kroy (BSK) was used for this demonstration. Further, Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations, which can be utilized to estimate the lifetimes of intramolecular VWF interactions under physiological shear, are described. For interpretation and discussion of the methods and data presented here, we would like to directly point the reader to the related research paper, "Mutual A domain interactions in the force sensing protein von Willebrand Factor" (Posch et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27508268

  19. Single molecule force spectroscopy data and BD- and MD simulations on the blood protein von Willebrand factor.

    PubMed

    Posch, Sandra; Aponte-Santamaría, Camilo; Schwarzl, Richard; Karner, Andreas; Radtke, Matthias; Gräter, Frauke; Obser, Tobias; König, Gesa; Brehm, Maria A; Gruber, Hermann J; Netz, Roland R; Baldauf, Carsten; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Tampé, Robert; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2016-09-01

    We here give information for a deeper understanding of single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) data through the example of the blood protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). It is also shown, how fitting of rupture forces versus loading rate profiles in the molecular dynamics (MD) loading-rate range can be used to demonstrate the qualitative agreement between SMFS and MD simulations. The recently developed model by Bullerjahn, Sturm, and Kroy (BSK) was used for this demonstration. Further, Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations, which can be utilized to estimate the lifetimes of intramolecular VWF interactions under physiological shear, are described. For interpretation and discussion of the methods and data presented here, we would like to directly point the reader to the related research paper, "Mutual A domain interactions in the force sensing protein von Willebrand Factor" (Posch et al., 2016) [1].

  20. [On the 100th anniversary of Clemens von Pirquet "Allergie", Muenchener medizinische Wochenschrift; 53, 1457-1458].

    PubMed

    Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2006-05-01

    One hundred years ago Clemens von Pirquet's paper Allergie was published in Muencher medizinische Wochenschrift (vol. 53, 1457-1458). It was the first attempt ever made to define the term "allergy", currently considered a mile-stone in the development of contemporary allergology. The following paper presents the historical background of the event, including earlier descriptions of the diseases that later became considered allergic, as well as not-always-successful, sometimes naive, attempts to explain their causes. It also shows von Pirquet's profile, his scientific and medical achievements, especially the results of the research on reactions to second injections of antiserums and vaccines, which became the base for the presented conception of allergy, understood as body's changed reactivity. The paper describes the further evolution of this concept as well as the arisen controversy, which led to the contemporary way of understanding of this term.

  1. A Theory of the von Weimarn Rules Governing the Average Size of Crystals Precipitated from a Supersaturated Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Douglas A.; Baird, James K.; Su, Ching-Hua

    2003-01-01

    More than 75 years ago, von Weimarn summarized his observations of the dependence of the average crystal size on the initial relative concentration supersaturation prevailing in a solution from which crystals were growing. Since then, his empirically derived rules have become part of the lore of crystal growth. The first of these rules asserts that the average crystal size measured at the end of a crystallization increases as the initial value of the relative supersaturation decreases. The second rule states that for a given crystallization time, the average crystal size passes through a maximum as a function of the initial relative supersaturation. Using a theory of nucleation and growth due to Buyevich and Mansurov, we calculate the average crystal size as a function of the initial relative supersaturation. We confirm the von Weimarn rules for the case where the nucleation rate is proportional to the third power or higher of the relative supersaturation.

  2. [Complementarity and Gestalt circle--Viktor von Weizsäcker and the importance of a general theory of illness].

    PubMed

    Küppers, B

    1992-05-01

    Two developments have led to the elaboration of a complementarity theory in modern natural science--the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and Viktor von Weizsäckers introduction of the subject into biology. The revolutionary implications of these developments are discernible in modern literature. The author seeks to show that a paradigm shift in positivistic clinical medicine is necessitated by the history and theory of science.

  3. Asymptotic behavior to a von Kármán equations of memory type with acoustic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jum-Ran

    2016-06-01

    We study the stability of solutions to a von Kármán plate model of memory type with acoustic boundary conditions. We establish the general decay rate result, using some properties of the convex functions. Our result is obtained without imposing any restrictive assumptions on the behavior of the relaxation function at infinity. These general decay estimates extend and improve on some earlier results-exponential or polynomial decay rates.

  4. ["... my friend Leopold was percussing her through her bodice...". Leopold von Auenbrugger in Sigmund Freud's dream of Irma's injection].

    PubMed

    Reicheneder, Johann Georg

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a psychoanalytic interpretation of an element in the Irma dream that Freud had ignored in his own interpretation. The allusion to Leopold von Auenbrugger, the originator of percussion as a method of clinical investigation, which appears in the manifest dream reflects Freud's hopes and fears about how his Interpretation of Dreams and the new human science established there would be received by his medical colleagues.

  5. Molecular and clinical profile of von Willebrand disease in Spain (PCM-EVW-ES): Proposal for a new diagnostic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Batlle, Javier; Pérez-Rodríguez, Almudena; Corrales, Irene; López-Fernández, Maria Fernanda; Rodríguez-Trillo, Ángela; Lourés, Esther; Cid, Ana Rosa; Bonanad, Santiago; Cabrera, Noelia; Moret, Andrés; Parra, Rafael; Mingot-Castellano, María Eva; Balda, Ignacia; Altisent, Carmen; Pérez-Montes, Rocío; Fisac, Rosa María; Iruín, Gemma; Herrero, Sonia; Soto, Inmaculada; de Rueda, Beatriz; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Alonso, Nieves; Vilariño, Dolores; Arija, Olga; Campos, Rosa; Paloma, María José; Bermejo, Nuria; Toll, Teresa; Mateo, José; Arribalzaga, Karmele; Marco, Pascual; Palomo, Ángeles; Sarmiento, Lizheidy; Iñigo, Belén; Nieto, María del Mar; Vidal, Rosa; Martínez, María Paz; Aguinaco, Reyes; César, Jesús María; Ferreiro, María; García-Frade, Javier; Rodríguez-Huerta, Ana María; Cuesta, Jorge; Rodríguez-González, Ramón; García-Candel, Faustino; Cornudella, Rosa; Aguilar, Carlos; Borràs, Nina; Vidal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD) remains difficult in a significant proportion of patients. A Spanish multicentre study investigated a cohort of 556 patients from 330 families who were analysed centrally. VWD was confirmed in 480. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of the whole coding VWF was carried out in all recruited patients, compared with the phenotype, and a final diagnosis established. A total of 238 different VWF mutations were found, 154 were not included in the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD). Of the patients, 463 were found to have VWF mutation/s. A good phenotypic/genotypic association was estimated in 96.5% of the patients. One hundred seventy-four patients had two or more mutations. Occasionally a predominant phenotype masked the presence of a second abnormality. One hundred sixteen patients presented with mutations that had previously been associated with increased von Willebrand factor (VWF) clearance. RIPA unavailability, central phenotypic results disagreement and difficult distinction between severe type 1 and type 3 VWD prevented a clear diagnosis in 70 patients. The NGS study facilitated an appropriate classification in 63 of them. The remaining seven patients presented with a VWF novel mutation pending further investigation. In five patients with a type 3 and two with a type 2A or 2B phenotype with no mutation, an acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) was suspected/confirmed. These data seem to support NGS as a first line efficient and faster paradigm in VWD diagnosis.

  6. von Liebig's law of the minimum and plankton ecology (1899 1991)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baar, H. J. W.

    The Law of the Minimum was originally formulated by Justus von Liebig, as one of the 50 interlinked laws concerned with agriculture. The original writings of J. von Liebig often were misinterpreted by his successors. BRANDT (1899) took this one law out of its context and proposed that limitation by nitrogen is a dominant factor in plankton ecology, far beyond its original application to agriculture. This was opposed by NATHANSOHN (1908) who suggested instead a dynamic balance of growth and loss terms. Towards validating, or eventually falsifying Brandt's hypothesis, Atkins, Harvey, Cooper and others developed the chemical methods necessary for re-defining ocean nutrient cycling and growth limitation. The major exception to these modern perspectives was the Antarctic Paradox of high nutrients and low chlorophyll which inspired Gran, Atkins, Harvey and Cooper to pioneer the concept of iron limitation. An exhaustive overview is given of efforts to define Fe in seawater and its controlling effect on in situ plankton growth, for the 1920-1984 period. Somewhat parallel work in the laboratory on single species of algae in chelation-controlled media has provided much insight, but is sketched only briefly. Martin and contemporaries developed the chemical methods necessary for defining the ocean chemistry of Fe and its role for in situ growth. These developments are sketched for the 1982-1991 period. Once again the Law of the Minimum and associated bold hypotheses served, albeit briefly, to bring a nutrient element in the forefront of research. This, and the recent awareness of CO 2 as rate limiting factor, underline the conclusion that advances in sciences often hinge on advances in technology, confirming KUHN (1962). In this case the new analytical techniques developed by Atkins, Harvey, Cooper, Martin and their associates have proven revolutionary for plankton ecology. Some observations in plankton ecology may be reminiscent of the agricultural Law of the Minimum, but

  7. Soft iron and axisymetric eigenmodes in the von-Karman-Sodium dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.

    2012-04-01

    In the Cadarache von-Karman-Sodium (VKS) dynamo experiment magnetic field excitation is generated by a turbulent flow of liquid sodium. In the experiment this so called von-Karman-like flow is driven by two counter-rotating impellers that are located close to the end-caps of a cylindrical vessel. Despite of extensive numerical and experimental efforts the very nature of the VKS dynamo and its surprising properties still remain unclear. Firstly, dynamo action is obtained only when (at least one of) the flow driving impellers are made of soft iron with a relative permeability around 65. Moreover, and in apparent contradiction with Cowling's anti-dynamo theorem, the geometric structure of the observed magnetic field is dominated by an axisymmetric field. Our kinematic simulations of an axisymmetric model of the Cadarache dynamo show a close connection between the exclusive occurrence of dynamo action with soft iron impellers and the axisymmetry of the magnetic field. We observe two distinct classes of axisymmetric eigenmodes, a purely toroidal mode that is amplified by paramagnetic pumping at the fluid-disk interface and a mixed mode consisting of a poloidal and a toroidal contribution that is rather insensitive to the disk permeability. In the limit of large permeability, the purely toroidal mode is close to the onset of dynamo action with a growth-rate that is rather independent of the flow field. This mode is located near to and in the high permeability disks and becomes the leading mode when the disk permeability exceeds a critical value. However, since in our axisymmetric configuration the purely toroidal mode is decoupled from any poloidal field component no dynamo action can be expected from this mode. The purely toroidal mode and its strong amplification by paramagnetic pumping at the fluid-disks interface can be obtained only by explicitly considering the internal permeability distribution. This mode does not exist in case of highly conducting disks or in

  8. Evaluation of Pediatric Bleeding Questionnaire in Turkish Children With Von Willebrand Disease and Platelet Function Disorders.

    PubMed

    Belen, Burcu; Kocak, Ulker; Isik, Melek; Keskin, Ebru Yilmaz; Oner, Nergiz; Sal, Ertan; Kaya, Zuhre; Yenicesu, Idil; Gursel, Turkiz

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis of mild bleeding disorders is not easy as most of the "healthy" individuals also report bleeding symptoms. In order to get a precise bleeding history, Pediatric Bleeding Questionnaire (PBQ) has been developed. In our study, Turkish children diagnosed with Von Willebrand disease (VWD), platelet function defect (PFD), and healthy children without any symptoms (control group 1) and healthy children with symptoms but found hemostatically normal (control group 2) were analyzed with PBQ. The cut off level for "positive bleeding score" was found to be ≥2 (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.785, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.718-0.852). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PBQ to define VWD versus control group 1 was 100%, 97.4%, 96.4%, and 100%; VWD versus control group 2 was 100%, 53.1%, 64.3%, and 100%; PFD versus control group 1 was 93.3%, 53.1%, 73.7%, and 85%; and PFD versus control group 2 was 93.3%, 53.1%, 73.7%, and 85%, respectively.

  9. Mechanism of platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor and microparticle formation under high shear stress

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Armin J.; Heijnen, Harry F. G.; Schumann, Hannah; Specht, Hanno M.; Schramm, Wolfgang; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.

    2006-01-01

    We describe here the mechanism of platelet adhesion to immobilized von Willebrand factor (VWF) and subsequent formation of platelet-derived microparticles mediated by glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) under high shear stress. As visualized in whole blood perfused in a flow chamber, platelet attachment to VWF involved one or few membrane areas of 0.05 to 0.1 μm2 that formed discrete adhesion points (DAPs) capable of resisting force in excess of 160 pN. Under the influence of hydrodynamic drag, membrane tethers developed between the moving platelet body and DAPs firmly adherent to immobilized VWF. Continued stretching eventually caused the separation of many such tethers, leaving on the surface tube-shaped or spherical microparticles with a diameter as low as 50 to 100 nm. Adhesion receptors (GPIbα, αIIbβ3) and phosphatidylserine were expressed on the surface of these microparticles, which were procoagulant. Shearing platelet-rich plasma at the rate of 10 000 s–1 in a cone-and-plate viscosimeter increased microparticle counts up to 55-fold above baseline. Blocking the GPIb-VWF interaction abolished microparticle generation in both experimental conditions. Thus, a biomechanical process mediated by GPIbα-VWF bonds in rapidly flowing blood may not only initiate platelet arrest onto reactive vascular surfaces but also generate procoagulant microparticles that further enhance thrombus formation. PMID:16449527

  10. Von Willebrand factor restores impaired platelet thrombogenesis in copper-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Lominadze, D; Saari, J T; Miller, F N; Catalfamo, J L; Schuschke, D A

    1997-07-01

    Dietary copper restriction reduces microvascular thrombogenesis. We have now examined the roles of shear forces and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in in vivo thrombus formation in the cremaster microcirculation of copper-deficient rats. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed purified diets that were either copper-adequate (6.3 mg Cu/kg) or copper-deficient (0.3 mg Cu/kg) for 4 wk. Intravascular fluorescein isothiocyanate tagged to bovine serum albumin was activated with 450-490 nm light to induce thrombus formation in microvessels. Thrombus initiation time was significantly prolonged in copper-deficient rats; after thrombus appearance, however, vessel occlusion was significantly accelerated. The greater shear rates of arterioles compared with venules significantly increased the thrombus initiation time in both groups. However, vessel occlusion time and thrombus growth time were independent of shear rate. Intravascular vWF (0.2 u/100 g body wt) decreased thrombus initiation time in the CuD group without affecting thrombus growth time. The data suggest that decreased thrombogenesis in copper-deficient rats is not a result of altered rheological factors or arteriolar-venular differences, but appears to result from decreased platelet-to-endothelial cell adhesion.

  11. The role of the frontal cortex in memory: an investigation of the Von Restorff effect

    PubMed Central

    Elhalal, Anat; Davelaar, Eddy J.; Usher, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from neuropsychology and neuroimaging indicate that the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in human memory. Although frontal patients are able to form new memories, these memories appear qualitatively different from those of controls by lacking distinctiveness. Neuroimaging studies of memory indicate activation in the PFC under deep encoding conditions, and under conditions of semantic elaboration. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the PFC enhances memory by extracting differences and commonalities in the studied material. To test this hypothesis, we carried out an experimental investigation to test the relationship between the PFC-dependent factors and semantic factors associated with common and specific features of words. These experiments were performed using Free-Recall of word lists with healthy adults, exploiting the correlation between PFC function and fluid intelligence. As predicted, a correlation was found between fluid intelligence and the Von-Restorff effect (better memory for semantic isolates, e.g., isolate “cat” within category members of “fruit”). Moreover, memory for the semantic isolate was found to depend on the isolate's serial position. The isolate item tends to be recalled first, in comparison to non-isolates, suggesting that the process interacts with short term memory. These results are captured within a computational model of free recall, which includes a PFC mechanism that is sensitive to both commonality and distinctiveness, sustaining a trade-off between the two. PMID:25018721

  12. Von Zeipel's theorem for a magnetized circular flow around a compact object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, O.; Pugliese, D.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze a class of physical properties, forming the content of the so-called von Zeipel theorem, which characterizes stationary, axisymmetric, non-selfgravitating perfect fluids in circular motion in the gravitational field of a compact object. We consider the extension of the theorem to the magnetohydrodynamic regime, under the assumption of an infinitely conductive fluid, both in the Newtonian and in the relativistic framework. When the magnetic field is toroidal, the conditions required by the theorem are equivalent to integrability conditions, as it is the case for purely hydrodynamic flows. When the magnetic field is poloidal, the analysis for the relativistic regime is substantially different with respect to the Newtonian case and additional constraints, in the form of PDEs, must be imposed on the magnetic field in order to guarantee that the angular velocity depends only on the specific angular momentum . In order to deduce such physical constraints, it is crucial to adopt special coordinates, which are adapted to the surfaces. The physical significance of these results is briefly discussed.

  13. von Willebrand factor contributes to poor outcome in a mouse model of intracerebral haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ximin; Cao, Yongliang; Wei, Lixiang; Cai, Ping; Xu, Haochen; Luo, Haiyu; Bai, Xiaofei; Lu, Lu; Liu, Jian-Ren; Fan, Wenying; Zhao, Bing-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating stroke subtype and has no proven treatment. von Willebrand factor (VWF) has recently been demonstrated to promote inflammation processes. The present study investigated the pathophysiological role of VWF after experimental ICH. Functional outcomes, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, cerebral inflammation and levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were measured in a mouse model of ICH induced by autologous blood injection. We show that VWF were increased in the plasma and was accumulated in the perihematomal regions of mice subjected to ICH. Injection of VWF resulted in incerased expression of proinflammatory mediators and activation of ICAM-1 and MMP-9, associated with elevated myeloperoxidase, recruitment of neutrophils and microglia. Moreover, mice treated with VWF showed dramatically decreased pericyte coverage, more severe BBB damage and edema formation, and neuronal injury was increased compared with controls. In contrast, blocking antibodies against VWF reduced BBB damage and edema formation and improved neurological function. Together, these data identify a critical role for VWF in cerebral inflammation and BBB damage after ICH. The therapeutic interventions targeting VWF may be a novel strategy to reduce ICH-related injury. PMID:27782211

  14. Sexual Modernity in the Works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Albert Moll

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhuis, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The modern notion of sexuality took shape at the end of the nineteenth century, especially in the works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Albert Moll. This modernisation of sexuality was closely linked to the recognition of sexual diversity, as it was articulated in the medical–psychiatric understanding of what, at that time, was labelled as perversion. From around 1870, psychiatrists shifted the focus from immoral acts, a temporary deviation of the norm, to an innate morbid condition. In the late nineteenth century, several psychiatrists, collecting and publishing more and more case histories, classified and explained the wide range of deviant sexual behaviours they traced. The emergence of medical sexology meant that perversions could be diagnosed and discussed. Against this background both Krafft-Ebing and Moll articulated a new perspective, not only on perversion, but also on sexuality in general. Krafft-Ebing initiated and Moll elaborated a shift from a psychiatric perspective in which deviant sexuality was explained as a derived, episodic and more or less singular symptom of a more fundamental mental disorder, to a consideration of perversion as an integral part of a more general, autonomous and continuous sexual instinct. Before Sigmund Freud and others had expressed similar views, it was primarily through the writings of Krafft-Ebing and Moll that a new understanding of human sexuality emerged. PMID:23002290

  15. Reduced anterior insula, enlarged amygdala in alcoholism and associated depleted von Economo neurons.

    PubMed

    Senatorov, Vladimir V; Damadzic, Ruslan; Mann, Claire L; Schwandt, Melanie L; George, David T; Hommer, Daniel W; Heilig, Markus; Momenan, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The insula, a structure involved in higher order representation of interoceptive states, has recently been implicated in drug craving and social stress. Here, we performed brain magnetic resonance imaging to measure volumes of the insula and amygdala, a structure with reciprocal insular connections, in 26 alcohol-dependent patients and 24 healthy volunteers (aged 22-56 years, nine females in each group). We used an established morphometry method to quantify total and regional insular volumes. Volumetric measurements of the amygdala were obtained using a model-based segmentation/registration tool. In alcohol-dependent patients, anterior insula volumes were bilaterally reduced compared to healthy volunteers (left by 10%, right by 11%, normalized to total brain volumes). Furthermore, alcohol-dependent patients, compared with healthy volunteers, had bilaterally increased amygdala volumes. The left amygdala was increased by 28% and the right by 29%, normalized to total brain volumes. Post-mortem studies of the anterior insula showed that the reduced anterior insular volume may be associated with a population of von Economo neurons, which were 60% diminished in subjects with a history of alcoholism (n = 6) as compared to subjects without a history of alcoholism (n = 6) (aged 32-56 years, all males). The pattern of neuroanatomical change observed in our alcohol-dependent patients might result in a loss of top-down control of amygdala function, potentially contributing to impaired social cognition as well as an inability to control negatively reinforced alcohol seeking and use.

  16. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's language, rhetoric and habitus].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was not only an exceptional physicist, philosopher and peace scholar, but also a skilled and articulate speaker and a highly successful author. Dozens of his books were published in tens of thousands of copies despite their highly nontrivial content. This wide impact was only possible--this at least is one of the claims made in this paper--because of his sophisticated style and rhetorics. The analysis here is based on hand-picked samples from all kinds of Weizsäcker texts (talks, scientific and popular papers and books, poems and Limericks). Strangely enough, this interesting stylistic and rhetorical facet of his oeuvre has hitherto not been analyzed in any detail despite its crucial importance in the broad impact on his multifarious audience. My paper starts out from a collection of striking features of his language and structural specialties in his published talks and speeches, and explore findings from sound recordings and film tapes which offer further insight into his manner of emphasis, usage of pauses and intonation. On the basis of these stylistic traits and their often subcutaneous, but nevertheless clever rhetorics, I close with a few remarks on the habitus of this scholar and his positioning within the ensemble of German-speaking physicists of that generation.

  17. Auto-validating von Neumann rejection sampling from small phylogenetic tree spaces

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In phylogenetic inference one is interested in obtaining samples from the posterior distribution over the tree space on the basis of some observed DNA sequence data. One of the simplest sampling methods is the rejection sampler due to von Neumann. Here we introduce an auto-validating version of the rejection sampler, via interval analysis, to rigorously draw samples from posterior distributions over small phylogenetic tree spaces. Results The posterior samples from the auto-validating sampler are used to rigorously (i) estimate posterior probabilities for different rooted topologies based on mitochondrial DNA from human, chimpanzee and gorilla, (ii) conduct a non-parametric test of rate variation between protein-coding and tRNA-coding sites from three primates and (iii) obtain a posterior estimate of the human-neanderthal divergence time. Conclusion This solves the open problem of rigorously drawing independent and identically distributed samples from the posterior distribution over rooted and unrooted small tree spaces (3 or 4 taxa) based on any multiply-aligned sequence data. PMID:19128477

  18. Approach to kinetic energy density functionals: Nonlocal terms with the structure of the von Weizsaecker functional

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Aldea, David; Alvarellos, J. E.

    2008-02-15

    We propose a kinetic energy density functional scheme with nonlocal terms based on the von Weizsaecker functional, instead of the more traditional approach where the nonlocal terms have the structure of the Thomas-Fermi functional. The proposed functionals recover the exact kinetic energy and reproduce the linear response function of homogeneous electron systems. In order to assess their quality, we have tested the total kinetic energies as well as the kinetic energy density for atoms. The results show that these nonlocal functionals give as good results as the most sophisticated functionals in the literature. The proposed scheme for constructing the functionals means a step ahead in the field of fully nonlocal kinetic energy functionals, because they are capable of giving better local behavior than the semilocal functionals, yielding at the same time accurate results for total kinetic energies. Moreover, the functionals enjoy the possibility of being evaluated as a single integral in momentum space if an adequate reference density is defined, and then quasilinear scaling for the computational cost can be achieved.

  19. Molecular evolution of the nuclear von Willebrand factor gene in mammals and the phylogeny of rodents.

    PubMed

    Huchon, D; Catzeflis, F M; Douzery, E J

    1999-05-01

    Nucleotide sequences of exon 28 of the von Willebrand Factor (vWF) were analyzed for a representative sampling of rodent families and eutherian orders, with one marsupial sequence as outgroup. The aim of this study was to test if inclusion of an increased taxonomic diversity in molecular analyses would shed light on three uncertainties concerning rodent phylogeny: (1) relationships between rodent families, (2) Rodentia monophyly, and (3) the sister group relationship of rodents and lagomorphs. The results did not give evidence of any particular rodent pattern of molecular evolution relative to a general eutherian pattern. Base compositions and rates of evolution of vWF sequences of rodents were in the range of placental variation. The 10 rodent families studied here cluster in five clades: Hystricognathi, Sciuridae and Aplodontidae (Sciuroidea), Muridae, Dipodidae, and Gliridae. Among hystricognaths, the following conclusions are drawn: a single colonization event in South America by Caviomorpha, a paraphyly of Old World and New World porcupines, and an African origin for Old World porcupines. Despite a broader taxonomic sampling diversity, we did not obtain a robust answer to the question of Rodentia monophyly, but in the absence of any other alternative, we cannot reject the hypothesis of a single origin of rodents. Moreover, the phylogenetic position of Lagomorpha remains totally unsettled.

  20. Single-molecule force measurements of the polymerizing dimeric subunit of von Willebrand factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeratne, Sithara S.; Li, Jingqiang; Yeh, Hui-Chun; Nolasco, Leticia; Zhou, Zhou; Bergeron, Angela; Frey, Eric W.; Moake, Joel L.; Dong, Jing-fei; Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers are large adhesive proteins that are essential to the initiation of hemostatic plugs at sites of vascular injury. The binding of VWF multimers to platelets, as well as VWF proteolysis, is regulated by shear stresses that alter VWF multimeric conformation. We used single molecule manipulation with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the effect of high fluid shear stress on soluble dimeric and multimeric forms of VWF. VWF dimers are the smallest unit that polymerizes to construct large VWF multimers. The resistance to mechanical unfolding with or without exposure to shear stress was used to evaluate VWF conformational forms. Our data indicate that, unlike recombinant VWF multimers (RVWF), recombinant dimeric VWF (RDVWF) unfolding force is not altered by high shear stress (100 dynes/cm2 for 3 min at 37°C ). We conclude that under the shear conditions used (100 dynes/cm2 for 3 min at 37°C ) , VWF dimers do not self-associate into a conformation analogous to that attained by sheared large VWF multimers.

  1. Intracellular trafficking of factor VIII to von Willebrand factor storage granules.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, J B; Foster, P A; Kaufman, R J; Vokac, E A; Moussalli, M; Kroner, P A; Montgomery, R R

    1998-01-01

    In plasma, von Willebrand factor (vWf) associates with Factor VIII (FVIII); however, the site at which these proteins first interact has not been defined. Administration of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) causes a rapid, concomitant elevation in plasma levels of both vWf and FVIII, suggesting the existence of a DDAVP-releasable storage pool for both proteins. To determine whether vWf and FVIII can associate intracellularly and colocalize to storage vesicles, we transfected AtT-20 cells with vWf and FVIII expression plasmids. FVIII alone was not detectable within storage granules; however, transfection of vWf cDNA into the same cell caused FVIII to alter its intracellular trafficking and to undergo granular storage, colocalizing to the vWf-containing granules. In contrast, colocalization of FVIII was not observed when these cells were transfected with plasmids encoding defective FVIII-binding vWf mutants. Transfection of bovine endothelial cells with FVIII further demonstrated vesicular storage of FVIII with vWf in Weibel-Palade bodies. Since gene therapy of hemophilia A may ultimately target endothelium or hematopoietic stem cells, the interaction between vWf and FVIII within a secretory cell is important. Thus, vWf can alter the intracellular trafficking of FVIII from a constitutive to a regulated secretory pathway, thereby producing an intracellular storage pool of both proteins. PMID:9449695

  2. Spontaneous intramural duodenal hematoma in type 2B von Willebrand disease

    PubMed Central

    Eichele, Derrick D; Ross, Meredith; Tang, Patrick; Hutchins, Grant F; Mailliard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Intramural duodenal hematoma is a rare cause of a proximal gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Presentation of intramural duodenal hematoma most often occurs following blunt abdominal trauma in children, but spontaneous non-traumatic cases have been linked to anticoagulant therapy, pancreatitis, malignancy, vasculitis and endoscopy. We report an unusual case of spontaneous intramural duodenal hematoma presenting as an intestinal obstruction associated with acute pancreatitis in a patient with established von Willebrand disease, type 2B. The patient presented with abrupt onset of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography imaging identified an intramural duodenal mass consistent with blood measuring 4.7 cm × 8.7 cm in the second portion of the duodenum abutting on the head of the pancreas. Serum lipase was 3828 units/L. Patient was managed conservatively with bowel rest, continuous nasogastric decompression, total parenteral nutrition, recombinant factor VIII (humateP) and transfusion. Symptoms resolved over the course of the hospitalization. This case highlights an important complication of an inherited coagulopathy. PMID:24222967

  3. Pif97, a von Willebrand and Peritrophin Biomineralization Protein, Organizes Mineral Nanoparticles and Creates Intracrystalline Nanochambers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric P; Evans, John Spencer

    2015-09-01

    The formation of the mollusk nacre layer involves the assembly and organization of mineral nanoparticles into fracture-toughened mesoscale-sized aragonite tablets that possess intracrystalline nanoporosities. At least one nacre protein family, known as the framework proteome, is strategically located as part of a macromolecular coating around each nacre tablet and is believed to participate in tablet formation. Here, we report new studies of a recombinant form (rPif97) of a unique Japanese pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) nacre framework biomineralization protein, Pif97. This unique protein possesses both a von Willlebrand factor type A domain (vWA, F23-Y161) and a Peritrophin A chitin-binding domain (PAC, E234-D298). rPif97 self-associates or aggregates to form amorphous protein phases that organize both amorphous and single-crystal calcium carbonate nanoparticles in vitro. Further, in the presence of nucleating calcite crystals, rPif97 protein phases deposit onto these crystals and become occluded over time, forming nanochambers within the crystal interior. The formation of these mineral-modifying amorphous protein phases is linked to the presence of intrinsic disorder and amyloid-like cross-β-strand aggregation-prone regions, and three-dimensional modeling indicates that both the vWA and PAC domains are accessible for intermolecular interactions. Thus, the vWA- and PAC-containing Pif97 protein exhibits key functionalities that would allow its participation in mollusk nacre layer tablet assembly and porosity formation. PMID:26258941

  4. Dr. von Braun on top of the Deep-Sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This photograph depicts Dr. von Braun (at right, showing his back) and other NASA officials surveying the deep-sea research submarine 'Ben Franklin.' Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effects of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  5. Dr. von Braun on Top of the Deep-Sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This photograph depicts Dr. von Braun (fourth from far right) and other NASA officials surveying the deep-sea research submarine 'Ben Franklin.' Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effects of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  6. Seeking the constant in what is transient: Karl Ernst von Baer's vision of organic formation.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Florence

    2015-03-01

    A well-established narrative in the history of science has it that the years around 1800 saw the end of a purely descriptive, classificatory and static natural history. The emergence of a temporal understanding of nature and the new developmental-history approach, it is thought, permitted the formation of modern biology. This paper questions that historical narrative by closely analysing the concepts of development, history and time set out in Karl Ernst von Baer's study of the mammalian egg (1827). I show that Baer's research on embryogenesis aimed not simply to explain temporal changes, but to inscribe the formation of new individual organisms into a continuous, unending organic process. I confront Baer's views with other explanations of embryogenesis arising in the 1820s and 1830s, especially those of Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Jean-Louis Prévost and of Theodor Schwann. By highlighting divergences between these scientists, especially as to their view of the role of gender differences in reproduction, I argue that biology evolved not from a homogeneous concept of developmental history but out of various, even opposing, views and research programmes. Thus, the birth of biology did not imply the end of all natural history's thought models. PMID:26013434

  7. Personalized Medicine for Nervous System Manifestations of von Hippel–Lindau Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schunemann, Victoria; Huntoon, Kristin; Lonser, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL) is a familial neoplasia syndrome associated with multisystem tumor development. Depending on tumor type and location, current treatments for VHL-associated tumors can include a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or surgery. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of VHL include craniospinal hemangioblastomas and endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs). While the first-line treatment for both types of VHL-associated CNS tumors is surgery, the indications for treatment are patient specific and different for each tumor type. Although early sign/symptom formation is the primary indication for resection of craniospinal hemangioblastomas, radiographic discovery (asymptomatic and symptomatic) of ELSTs can be an indication for resection of ELSTs in VHL patients. Recently, research has revealed that specific VHL germline mutations may permit targeted medical treatments of not only CNS manifestations of VHL-associated tumors but also visceral tumors. Specifically, missense mutations can result in the translation of functional VHL protein (pVHL) that is rapidly degraded resulting in functional loss of the pVHL, and inhibitors of pVHL degradation may slow protein degradation and restore pVHL function. Emerging research will investigate the safety and practicality of using potential targeted therapies. PMID:27446927

  8. Irradiance scintillation index for Gaussian beam based on the generalized anisotropic von Karman spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Linyan

    2016-07-01

    Experiments and theoretical investigations have shown that the atmosphere turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. In this paper, based on the anisotropic generalized von Karman spectrum and the Rytov approximation theory, new expression for the irradiance scintillation index of optical waves is derived for Gaussian beam propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Compared with previously published results, it considers simultaneously the asymmetry property of turbulence cells or eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane, the general spectral power law in the range 3-4 instead of constant value of 11/3 for the Kolmogorov turbulence, and the finite turbulence inner and outer scales. Two anisotropic factors are introduced to parameterize the anisotropy of turbulence cells or eddies in horizontal and vertical directions. In the special cases of these two anisotropic factors equaling one and the finite turbulence inner and outer scales equaling separately zero and infinite, the derived expression can reduce correctly to the previously published results. Calculations are performed to analyze the derived results.

  9. von Hippel-Lindau gene plays a role during zebrafish pronephros development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yau-Hung; Chang, Chiung-Fang; Lai, Yen-Yu; Sun, Chiao-Yin; Ding, Yu-Ju; Tsai, Jen-Ning

    2015-11-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL)-mediated ubiquitination of HIF-1α plays a central role in the cellular responses to changes in oxygen availability. In the present study, using zebrafish as a model, we showed that specific knockdown of endogenous vhl leads to pronephros malformation and renal failure. Knockdown of vhl resulted in abnormal kidney development, including curved and cystic pronephric tubule or/and cystic and atrophic glomerulus. Co-injecting capped vhl messenger RNA (mRNA) partially rescued pronephros morphant phenotype, confirming the specificity of the morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-induced pronephric defects. In keeping with the pronephros phenotype, renal function was affected as well in vhl morphants. Dextran clearance abilities of vhl morphants were significantly reduced as compared with those of control embryos. Further analysis indicated that glomerular integrity is impaired in vhl morphants, while the organization of pronephric duct was minimally affected. Vhl morphants display global increased vegf signaling and angiogenesis. In addition, we found that vhl morphants displayed elevated expression of vegfa in podocytes and increased angiogenesis at pronephric glomerulus and the nearby vessels. Treatment of vegf inducer to embryos also caused pronephros phenotype resembling vhl morphants, further supporting that increased vegfa signaling contribute to the pronephros morphant phenotype. Our study establishes the zebrafish as an alternative vertebrate model system for studying Vhl function during kidney development.

  10. Germline mutation screening and predictive testing in families with von Hippel-Lindau disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brauch, H.; Glavac, D.; Pausch, F.

    1994-09-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal inheritable disease that predisposes gene carriers to develop tumors in the eyes, central nervous system, kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas and epididymis. VHL type 1 is without phenochromocytoma (P); VHL type 2 is with P. Screening for germline mutations and preclinical diagnosis in families with VHL disease has become feasible since the VHL gene was isolated. We applied Southern blotting and hybridization with g7cDNA to detect rearrangements, PCR-SSCP and sequencing to detect missense, nonsense and splice mutations, and primer-specified restriction map modification to detect a P-specific missense mutation. In 48 apparently unrelated VHL families mainly from Germany, we identified 20/48 (42%) VHL mutations: 7 (14.5%) rearrangements, 9/48 (19%) missense mutations affecting nt505, 1/48 (2%) splice site mutation, 2/48 (4%) other missense mutations, and 1/48 (2%) nonsense mutation. The predominance of the nt505 mutation in 9 German families with VHL type 2 suggests that this genotype expresses the VHL/P disease pattern. Predictive testing for VHL gene carriers in families with specific mutations identified 7 asymptomatic gene carriers. VHL manifestations have been confirmed by clinical examination in two individuals. Early molecular diagnosis may result in a successful management of VHL disease and prolong survival of VHL patients.

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome in a young athlete with von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Khadavi, Michael J; Alm, John C; Emerson, Jane-Anne

    2014-06-01

    A 17-year-old female with type 1 Von Willebrand Disease (vWD) developed left medial calf pain while running track. Over the next 6 months, orthopedic surgery, sports medicine, vascular surgery, and neurology treated her under various working diagnoses; however, the pain, allodynia, coldness, and pale skin color worsened. She was admitted to a tertiary pediatric hospital for intractable pain where PM&R diagnosed her with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1, began gabapentin, and initiated an aggressive inpatient rehabilitation program. During her 3 weeks of inpatient rehabilitation, passive range of motion of knee extension improved from 40° from extension to full extension, and ankle dorsiflexion improved from 15° from neutral to a consistent range of motion beyond neutral. Additional outcome measures were distance of ambulation and assistive device usage; from admission to inpatient rehabilitation to 2 months postdischarge, her weight-bearing tolerance progressed from nonweight-bearing to partial weight-bearing, and ambulation improved from 20 feet with a three-point crutch gait to unlimited distances with a four-point crutch gait. This is the first known case of a bleeding disorder as the likely underlying microvascular pathology associated with CRPS, a theory exposed in 2010.

  12. Pazopanib therapy for cerebellar hemangioblastomas in von Hippel–Lindau disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Betty Y. S.; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-01-01

    von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease is a genetically acquired multisystem tumor syndrome of the viscera and central nervous system (CNS). The most common tumors associated with this disease are histologically benign, slow-growing CNS hemangioblastomas affecting the retina, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord or nerve roots. With mean age at diagnosis of 30 years, CNS hemangioblastomas are usually the first manifestation of the disease. Ongoing clinical and radiological surveillance is required, with symptomatic lesions necessitating treatment. As tumor growth is inevitable during the lifetime of most VHL patients, and the multiplicity of tumors may preclude surgical cure, the search for effective therapies is ongoing. Here we provide the first report demonstrating clinical and radiological anti-tumor response using pazopanib, a small molecule multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in a patient with treatment-refractory VHL-associated CNS hemangioblastoma. Treatment initiation with daily oral pazopanib (800 mg/day) resulted in significant neurologic improvement and radiologic tumor volume reduction. PMID:22374327

  13. Flow and delta-P dictate where thrombin, fibrin, and von Willebrand Factor will be found.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Scott L

    2016-05-01

    Hemostasis occurs in two different topological scenarios: complete severing of a vessel or disruption of the vessel wall. Either to meet the daily rigors of active life or during an acute trauma, hemostasis involves the regulated and self-limiting production of thrombin to stop bleeding. In contrast, arterial and venous thrombosis typically involves the unregulated, intraluminal growth of a clot, in the absence of bleeding. For either hemostasis or thrombosis, the presence of flow and pressure gradients (delta-P, ΔP) dictates when and where thrombin and fibrin are located and in what quantity. For hemostatic clots, fibrin formation helped limit clot growth. We found that γ'-fibrinogen had a role in limiting clot growth via anti-thrombin activity at venous, but not arterial conditions. For hemophilic blood, severe factor deficiency (<1% healthy) led to a defect in both platelet and fibrin deposition under flow. However, moderate deficiency, which is associated with a less severe bleeding phenotype, had normalized platelet function but still lacked fibrin production. We conclude signaling levels of thrombin can be generated during moderate hemophilia to sufficiently activate platelets to achieve primary hemostasis, even if fibrin formation remains defective. Finally, as a clot grows, shear stresses can become sufficiently extreme in diseased arteries to drive von Willebrand Factor self-association into massive fibers, potentially the final burst of clot growth towards full thrombotic occlusion. PMID:27207416

  14. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and the interpretations of quantum theory].

    PubMed

    Stöckler, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    What are 'interpretations' of quantum theory? What are the differences between Carl Friedrich von Weizsäkcker's approach and contemporary views? The various interpretations of quantum mechanics give diverse answers to questions concerning the relation between measuring process and standard time development, the embedding of quantum objects in space ('wave-particle-dualism'), and the reference of state vectors. Does the wave function describe states in the real world or does it refer to our knowledge about nature? First, some relevant conceptions in Weizsäcker's book The Structure of Physics (Der Aufbau der Physik, 1985) are introduced. In a second step I point out why his approach is not any longer present in contemporary debates. One reason is that Weizsäcker is mainly affected by classical philosophy (Platon, Aristoteles, Kant). He could not esteem the philosophy of science that was developed in the spirit of logical empiricism. So he lost interest in disputes with Anglo-Saxon philosophy of quantum mechanics. Especially his interpretation of probability and his analysis of the collapse of the state function as change in knowledge differ from contemporary standard views. In recent years, however, epistemic interpretations of quantum mechanics are proposed that share some of Weizsäcker's intuitions.

  15. On the Periodicity of Atmospheric von Kármán Vortex Streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunalee, Christopher; Basu, Sukanta

    2013-11-01

    For over one hundred years, a similarity relationship between Strouhal number (Sr), a non-dimensional metric for vortex shedding frequency (N), and Reynolds number (Re) has been aggressively pursued in the context of von Kármán vortex streets (VKVSs). In this study, we document the Sr - Re relationship of atmospheric VKVSs (i.e., in the extremely high Re regime) in order to gain new insight into a regime of the similarity theory which has never before been investigated. Through quasi-idealized numerical simulations of realistic atmospheric VKVS events, we observe a range of Re in which mesoscale VKVSs are clearly present yet Sr remains in a steady range of 0.15 - 0.22 (irrespective of Re). This relationship resembles what has been observed for VKVSs in the much lower 102 < Re <104 regime suggesting eddy viscosity as a proxy for molecular viscosity with regards to Sr - Re similarity theory at high- Re . In addition, we find the dominant length scale dictating the Sr - Re relationship in the atmosphere to be the cross-stream mountain diameter, specifically at the height of the boundary layer thermal inversion. The authors acknowledge financial support received from the Department of Defense AFSOR grant under award number (FA9550-12-1-0449).

  16. A mathematical framework for group analysis of von Willebrand factor multimeric composition following luminography.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A A; Soares, R P S; Maeda, N Y

    2002-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish a method for quantitative analysis of von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimeric composition using a mathematical framework based on curve fitting. Plasma vWF multimers from 15 healthy subjects and 13 patients with advanced pulmonary vascular disease were analyzed by Western immunoblotting followed by luminography. Quantitative analysis of luminographs was carried out by calculating the relative densities of low, intermediate and high molecular weight fractions using laser densitometry. For each densitometric peak (representing a given fraction of vWF multimers) a mean area value was obtained using data from all group subjects (patients and normal individuals) and plotted against the distance between the peak and IgM (950 kDa). Curves were constructed for each group using nonlinear fitting. Results indicated that highly accurate curves could be obtained for healthy controls and patients, with respective coefficients of determination (r2) of 0.9898 and 0.9778. Differences were observed between patients and normal subjects regarding curve shape, coefficients and the region of highest protein concentration. We conclude that the method provides accurate quantitative information on the composition of vWF multimers and may be useful for comparisons between groups and possibly treatments.

  17. A case of von Willebrand disease discovered during treatment of a sacral pressure ulcer.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masahiro; Fukaya, Sumiko; Furuya, Masaichi; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2010-12-01

    A sacral pressure ulcer developed in a patient hospitalized for cerebral infarction. Each time necrotic tissue was debrided from the ulcer, pressure hemostasis was necessary to stop the bleeding. As treatment continued, the pressure required to stop the bleeding caused the ulcer to worsen, leading to a downward spiral in the patient's condition. While trying to determine the cause of this problem, we discovered that the patient had von Willebrand disease. Medication controlled the bleeding, and the pressure ulcer began to heal at the same time. It was clear to us that conservative treatment would lead to a complete cure but that the healing process would take a long time and require continued administration of an expensive drug. We decided, therefore, to close the wound with a fasciocutaneous flap so that the patient could be quickly transferred to a rehabilitation hospital. About 1 month after surgery, epithelialization was complete, we were able to discontinue medication, and the patient was discharged. This experience demonstrates the importance of determining the cause of any deviation from the normal course of healing in pressure ulcers. It also indicates that the use of fasciocutaneous flaps, which involve little intraoperative bleeding in short surgeries, is appropriate in cases like this one.

  18. ["Memories of my sick hands": life and medical history of the painter Alexej von Jawlensky].

    PubMed

    Zeidler, H

    2011-06-01

    Alexej von Jawlensky (1864-1941), one of the most important expressionist painters and a member the artist group "The Blue Four", suffered from severe rheumatoid arthritis. He was the first painter in the twentieth century to create extensive series of paintings especially of human faces. The medical history of Jawlensky as documented in his letters, is a harrowing document of a great artist who suffered from rheumatoid arthritis at a time when medical treatment was limited to physical therapy, pain medication and other relatively ineffective modalities, including the unnecessary extraction of teeth. Jawlensky's disease was characterized by a rapidly progressive course with severe pain, rapid onset of disability and ending up with complete immobilization and paralysis for several years until his death.The artistic processing and sublimation of his illness and suffering resulting in a series of over 1,000 small format meditations are the impressive and touching example of creative coping with rheumatoid arthritis. The meditations are unique in the history of art and often compared with icons. However, knowing the medical condition of Jawlensky these paintings can also be seen as metaphors of suffering and in each image the great physical and mental effort is reflected in the artistic details. Therefore, his art agent Galka E. Scheyer formulated in a letter to him: "You are the painter of the human soul. I know of no other modern painter of the human soul."

  19. The role of the frontal cortex in memory: an investigation of the Von Restorff effect.

    PubMed

    Elhalal, Anat; Davelaar, Eddy J; Usher, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from neuropsychology and neuroimaging indicate that the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in human memory. Although frontal patients are able to form new memories, these memories appear qualitatively different from those of controls by lacking distinctiveness. Neuroimaging studies of memory indicate activation in the PFC under deep encoding conditions, and under conditions of semantic elaboration. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the PFC enhances memory by extracting differences and commonalities in the studied material. To test this hypothesis, we carried out an experimental investigation to test the relationship between the PFC-dependent factors and semantic factors associated with common and specific features of words. These experiments were performed using Free-Recall of word lists with healthy adults, exploiting the correlation between PFC function and fluid intelligence. As predicted, a correlation was found between fluid intelligence and the Von-Restorff effect (better memory for semantic isolates, e.g., isolate "cat" within category members of "fruit"). Moreover, memory for the semantic isolate was found to depend on the isolate's serial position. The isolate item tends to be recalled first, in comparison to non-isolates, suggesting that the process interacts with short term memory. These results are captured within a computational model of free recall, which includes a PFC mechanism that is sensitive to both commonality and distinctiveness, sustaining a trade-off between the two.

  20. Flow and delta-P dictate where thrombin, fibrin, and von Willebrand Factor will be found.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Scott L

    2016-05-01

    Hemostasis occurs in two different topological scenarios: complete severing of a vessel or disruption of the vessel wall. Either to meet the daily rigors of active life or during an acute trauma, hemostasis involves the regulated and self-limiting production of thrombin to stop bleeding. In contrast, arterial and venous thrombosis typically involves the unregulated, intraluminal growth of a clot, in the absence of bleeding. For either hemostasis or thrombosis, the presence of flow and pressure gradients (delta-P, ΔP) dictates when and where thrombin and fibrin are located and in what quantity. For hemostatic clots, fibrin formation helped limit clot growth. We found that γ'-fibrinogen had a role in limiting clot growth via anti-thrombin activity at venous, but not arterial conditions. For hemophilic blood, severe factor deficiency (<1% healthy) led to a defect in both platelet and fibrin deposition under flow. However, moderate deficiency, which is associated with a less severe bleeding phenotype, had normalized platelet function but still lacked fibrin production. We conclude signaling levels of thrombin can be generated during moderate hemophilia to sufficiently activate platelets to achieve primary hemostasis, even if fibrin formation remains defective. Finally, as a clot grows, shear stresses can become sufficiently extreme in diseased arteries to drive von Willebrand Factor self-association into massive fibers, potentially the final burst of clot growth towards full thrombotic occlusion.

  1. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Suicide in Psychosis: The Possible Role of von Economo Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Schöbel, Andreas; Karau, Ramona; Faustmann, Pedro M.; Dermietzel, Rolf; Juckel, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is the most important incident in psychiatric disorders. Psychological pain and empathy to pain involves a neural network that involves the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the anterior insula (AI). At the neuronal level, little is known about how complex emotions such as shame, guilt, self-derogation and social isolation, all of which feature suicidal behavior, are represented in the brain. Based on the observation that the ACC and the AI contain a large spindle-shaped cell type, referred to as von Economo neuron (VEN), which has dramatically increased in density during human evolution, and on growing evidence that VENs play a role in the pathophysiology of various neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, psychosis and dementia, we examined the density of VENs in the ACC of suicide victims. The density of VENs was determined using cresyl violet-stained sections of the ACC of 39 individuals with psychosis (20 cases with schizophrenia, 19 with bipolar disorder). Nine subjects had died from suicide. Twenty specimen were available from the right, 19 from the left ACC. The density of VENs was significantly greater in the ACC of suicide victims with psychotic disorders compared with psychotic individuals who died from other causes. This effect was restricted to the right ACC. VEN density in the ACC seems to be increased in suicide victims with psychosis. This finding may support the assumption that VEN have a special role in emotion processing and self-evaluation, including negative self-appraisal. PMID:21731632

  2. Three consecutive pregnancies in a patient with glycogen storage disease type IA (von Gierke's disease).

    PubMed

    Ryan, I P; Havel, R J; Laros, R K

    1994-06-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IA is associated with metabolic abnormalities that can compromise fetal outcome. Normal outcome can be achieved by maintaining euglycemia throughout gestation. We report three consecutive pregnancies in a patient with glycogen storage disease type IA. The patient, a 35-year-old woman, has been maintained on a regimen of nightly nasogastric or cornstarch feedings for the past 12 years with improving metabolic control, reduced liver size, and no progression of multiple hepatic adenomas. On confirmation of each pregnancy, early in the first trimester nightly feeding was changed from cornstarch ingestion to Polycose by nasogastric intubation, with good metabolic control. During the last trimester of each pregnancy metabolic control showed further improvement, with lowering of lactate, urate, and triglyceride levels. During the first pregnancy unexpected fetal death occurred at 33 weeks. During the last two pregnancies, the patient was admitted at 33 and 34 weeks, respectively, for closer supervision of metabolic status and fetal monitoring. She underwent a cesarean section at 35 weeks 4 days of gestation and was delivered of a girl. She underwent a repeat cesarean section at 35 weeks 2 days for the subsequent gestation and was delivered of a boy. Both infants are healthy and appear to be unaffected by von Gierke's disease. Hepatic adenomas did not enlarge during the pregnancies. Meticulous management resulted in normal pregnancy outcomes in two consecutive gestations. Rapid fetal growth late in the third trimester may require particularly careful supervision to maintain euglycemia. PMID:8203427

  3. First principle nonlinear quantum dynamics using a correlation-based von Neumann entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westermann, Till; Manthe, Uwe

    2012-05-01

    A new concept to describe the quantum dynamics in complex systems is suggested. It extends established schemes based on the Dirac-Frenkel variation principle, e.g., the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach. The concept is based on a correlation-based von Neumann entropy (CvN-entropy) definition measuring the complexity of the wavefunction. Equations of motion are derived using a CvN-entropy constraint in the variational principle and result in a generally applicable effective Hamiltonian. It consists of the standard Hamilton operator and an additional nonlinear operator which limits the complexity of the wavefunction. Effectively, this nonlinear operator absorbs complex structures which are emerging in the wavefunction and allows one to introduce non-norm conserving equations of motion. Important aspects of the new concept are outlined studying the wave packet propagation on the diabatic B2 potential energy surfaces of NO2. First, it is demonstrated that during standard wave packet propagation the CvN-entropy increases strongly with time roughly independent of the coordinate systems employed. Second, one finds that employing CvN-entropy constrained MCTDH propagation yields improved wave function accuracy on longer time scales while compromising on the short time accuracy. Third, the loss of the wavefunction's norm is directly related to the overlap with the exact wavefunction. This provides an error estimate available without knowing an exact reference.

  4. First principle nonlinear quantum dynamics using a correlation-based von Neumann entropy.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Till; Manthe, Uwe

    2012-05-28

    A new concept to describe the quantum dynamics in complex systems is suggested. It extends established schemes based on the Dirac-Frenkel variation principle, e.g., the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach. The concept is based on a correlation-based von Neumann entropy (CvN-entropy) definition measuring the complexity of the wavefunction. Equations of motion are derived using a CvN-entropy constraint in the variational principle and result in a generally applicable effective Hamiltonian. It consists of the standard Hamilton operator and an additional nonlinear operator which limits the complexity of the wavefunction. Effectively, this nonlinear operator absorbs complex structures which are emerging in the wavefunction and allows one to introduce non-norm conserving equations of motion. Important aspects of the new concept are outlined studying the wave packet propagation on the diabatic B(2) potential energy surfaces of NO(2). First, it is demonstrated that during standard wave packet propagation the CvN-entropy increases strongly with time roughly independent of the coordinate systems employed. Second, one finds that employing CvN-entropy constrained MCTDH propagation yields improved wave function accuracy on longer time scales while compromising on the short time accuracy. Third, the loss of the wavefunction's norm is directly related to the overlap with the exact wavefunction. This provides an error estimate available without knowing an exact reference. PMID:22667549

  5. Tumor derived vasculogenesis in von Hippel-Lindau disease-associated tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhengping; Frerich, Jason M.; Huntoon, Kristin; Yang, Chunzhang; Merrill, Marsha J.; Abdullaev, Ziedulla; Pack, Svetlana D.; Shively, Sharon B.; Stamp, Gordon; Lonser, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) patients develop highly vascular tumors, including central nervous system hemangioblastomas. It has been hypothesized that the vascular nature of these tumors is the product of reactive angiogenesis. However, recent data indicate that VHL-associated hemangioblastoma neoplastic cells originate from embryologically-arrested hemangioblasts capable of blood and endothelial cell differentiation. To determine the origin of tumor vasculature in VHL-associated hemangioblastomas, we analyzed the vascular elements in tumors from VHL patients. We demonstrate that isolated vascular structures and blood vessels within VHL-associated hemangioblastomas are a result of tumor-derived vasculogenesis. Further, similar to hemangioblastomas, we demonstrate that other VHL-associated lesions possess vascular tissue of tumor origin and that tumor-derived endothelial cells emerge within implanted VHL deficient UMRC6 RCC murine xenografts. These findings further establish the embryologic, developmentally arrested, hemangioblast as the tumor cell of origin for VHL-associated hemangioblastomas and indicate that it is also the progenitor cell for other VHL-associated tumors. PMID:24531117

  6. Evaluation of plasma von Willebrand factor as a biomarker for acute arterial damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Newsholme, S J; Thudium, D T; Gossett, K A; Watson, E S; Schwartz, L W

    2000-01-01

    Plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) was evaluated as a potential biomarker of acute arterial damage in rats after a vasotoxic dose of the dopaminergic vasodilator, fenoldopam (FP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given FP or isotonic saline by subcutaneous injection, and plasma vWF was measured at 2, 6, and 24 hours after challenge. Mean plasma vWF values increased in FP-treated rats compared to controls at 2 hours (167 vs 122%; p < 0.05) and 6 hours postdose (172 vs 130%; p < 0.01) but were comparable to control values after 24 hours. Mesenteric arterial lesions were observed microscopically in all FP-treated rats 24 hours postdose but were not present in rats at 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 hours after FP challenge. Further, plasma vWF concentrations increased in saline-treated rats after only the minimal perturbation of repeated venipuncture. These results indicate an early, minimal, and transient release of vWF that precedes the onset of morphologically evident vascular damage. The minimal increases in plasma vWF concentrations were of limited predictive value, may be more reflective of an acute-phase reactant response, and were not considered a reliable biomarker of acute FP-induced arterial damage in the rat.

  7. VHLdb: A database of von Hippel-Lindau protein interactors and mutations.

    PubMed

    Tabaro, Francesco; Minervini, Giovanni; Sundus, Faiza; Quaglia, Federica; Leonardi, Emanuela; Piovesan, Damiano; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) predispose to develop tumors affecting specific target organs, such as the retina, epididymis, adrenal glands, pancreas and kidneys. Currently, more than 400 pVHL interacting proteins are either described in the literature or predicted in public databases. This data is scattered among several different sources, slowing down the comprehension of pVHL's biological role. Here we present VHLdb, a novel database collecting available interaction and mutation data on pVHL to provide novel integrated annotations. In VHLdb, pVHL interactors are organized according to two annotation levels, manual and automatic. Mutation data are easily accessible and a novel visualization tool has been implemented. A user-friendly feedback function to improve database content through community-driven curation is also provided. VHLdb presently contains 478 interactors, of which 117 have been manually curated, and 1,074 mutations. This makes it the largest available database for pVHL-related information. VHLdb is available from URL: http://vhldb.bio.unipd.it/. PMID:27511743

  8. Von Willebrand Factor-Cleaving Protease Activity in Thrombotic Microangiopathy: First Report From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Mohammadreza; Rezaeifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a rare but devastating small vessels disorder that is characterized by intravascular platelet thrombi, thrombocytopenia, and various degrees of organ ischemia and anemia, which is due to erythrocyte fragmentation in microcirculation. Objectives: The Aim of this study was to determine the von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (ADAMTS13) activity during the acute phase of TMA. We also investigated inhibiting antibodies against ADAMTS13 in these patients. Patients and Methods: In a collaborative work with Mario-Negro institute of pharmacological research in Bergamo-Italy, we registered the clinical and laboratory data, collected the serum samples, and transferred the samples to the laboratories. Serum samples were taken before the start of plasmapheresis or at least 15 days after the final exchange. Results: We recruited 40 patients (14 males and 26 females) with the mean age of 46.12 ± 17.26 years. The mean activity of ADAMTS13 was 34.58% ± 21.83%. Two patients had inhibitory antibodies against ADAMTS13 with profound deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity (< 6%). Infectious diseases were the most common underlying condition, followed by systemic lupus erythematous. Conclusions: Majority of patients had an underlying condition and had various ADAMTS13 activity. The presence of inhibiting antibodies and accompanied complete deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity is an indicator of severity. PMID:25738110

  9. Symmetry and couplings in stationary Von Kármán sodium dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, J.; Aumaitre, S.; Bonnefoy, N.; Bourgoin, M.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Odier, Ph; Pinton, J.-F.; Plihon, N.; Verhille, G.

    2012-01-01

    We study different types of stationary dynamos observed in the Von Kármán sodium (VKS) experiment when varying the electromagnetic boundary conditions on (and in) the impellers. The flow is driven with two impellers made of soft iron (Monchaux et al 2007 Phys Rev. Lett. 98 044502) or using one soft-iron impeller and one stainless steel impeller. The magnetic field is mapped using 40 three-dimensional probes distributed within the flow and its surroundings. Symmetry and coupling properties are then retrieved from direct probe measurements and/or from the field structure as reconstructed using the inversion procedure described by Boisson and Dubrulle (2011 New J. Phys. 13 023037). Several salient results are obtained: (i) dynamo action is not achieved unless at least one iron impeller is rotating, at a frequency larger than 15 Hz (ii) the resulting dynamo is a dipolar, mostly axisymmetric structure; and (iii) the self-sustained magnetic field properties depend on the sodium flow structure between the two impellers. We propose to interpret the stationary dynamos generation as the (constructive or destructive) superposition of two one-impeller fluid dynamos generated close to the soft-iron impellers, nonlinearly coupled through the turbulent flow, as suggested by Verhille et al (2010 New J. Phys. 12 033006). The normal form equation describing this coupling is similar to the one obtained in a theoretical model (Pétrélis et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 144503).

  10. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor stabilizes novel plant homeodomain protein Jade-1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mina I; Wang, Hongmei; Ross, Jonathan J; Kuzmin, Igor; Xu, Chengen; Cohen, Herbert T

    2002-10-18

    The von Hippel-Lindau disease gene (VHL) is the causative gene for most adult renal cancers. However, the mechanism by which VHL protein functions as a renal tumor suppressor remains largely unknown. To identify low occupancy VHL protein partners with potential relevance to renal cancer, we screened a human kidney library against human VHL p30 using a yeast two-hybrid approach. Jade-1 (gene for Apoptosis and Differentiation in Epithelia) encodes a previously uncharacterized 64-kDa protein that interacts strongly with VHL protein and is most highly expressed in kidney. Jade-1 protein is short-lived and contains a candidate destabilizing (PEST) motif and plant homeodomains that are not required for the VHL interaction. Jade-1 is abundant in proximal tubule cells, which are clear-cell renal cancer precursors, and expression increases with differentiation. Jade-1 is expressed in cytoplasm and the nucleus diffusely and in speckles, where it partly colocalizes with VHL. VHL reintroduction into renal cancer cells increases endogenous Jade-1 protein abundance up to 10-fold. Furthermore, VHL increases Jade-1 protein half-life up to 3-fold. Thus, direct protein stabilization is identified as a new VHL function. Moreover, Jade-1 protein represents a novel candidate regulatory factor in VHL-mediated renal tumor suppression.

  11. Enhanced von Weizsäcker Wang-Govind-Carter kinetic energy density functional for semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Ilgyou; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-05-01

    We propose a new form of orbital-free (OF) kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) for semiconductors that is based on the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC99) nonlocal KEDF. We enhance within the latter the semi-local von Weizsäcker KEDF term, which is exact for a single orbital. The enhancement factor we introduce is related to the extent to which the electron density is localized. The accuracy of the new KEDF is benchmarked against Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) by comparing predicted energy differences between phases, equilibrium volumes, and bulk moduli for various semiconductors, along with metal-insulator phase transition pressures. We also compare point defect and (100) surface energies in silicon for a broad test of its applicability. This new KEDF accurately reproduces the exact non-interacting kinetic energy of KSDFT with only one additional adjustable parameter beyond the three parameters in the WGC99 KEDF; it exhibits good transferability between semiconducting to metallic silicon phases and between various III-V semiconductors without parameter adjustment. Overall, this KEDF is more accurate than previously proposed OF KEDFs (e.g., the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF) for semiconductors, while the computational efficiency remains at the level of the WGC99 KEDF (several hundred times faster than the HC KEDF). This accurate, fast, and transferable new KEDF holds considerable promise for large-scale OFDFT simulations of metallic through semiconducting materials.

  12. Memory recall in arousing situations – an emotional von Restorff effect?

    PubMed Central

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Hasselbach, Simone; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Results Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Conclusion Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed. PMID:16863589

  13. Policing Epistemic Deviance: Albert von Schrenck-Notzing and Albert Moll1

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Shortly after the death of Albert von Schrenck-Notzing (1862–1929), the doyen of early twentieth century German para psychology, his former colleague in hypnotism and sexology Albert Moll (1862–1939) published a treatise on the psychology and pathology of parapsychologists, with Schrenck-Notzing serving as a prototype of a scientist suffering from an ‘occult complex’. Moll’s analysis concluded that parapsychologists vouching for the reality of supernormal phenomena, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, telekinesis and materialisations, suffered from a morbid will to believe, which paralysed their critical faculties and made them cover obvious mediumistic fraud. Using Moll’s treatment of Schrenck-Notzing as an historical case study of boundary disputes in science and medicine, this essay traces the career of Schrenck-Notzing as a researcher in hypnotism, sexology and parapsychology; discusses the relationship between Moll and Schrenck-Notzing; and problematises the pathologisation and defamation strategies of deviant epistemologies by authors such as Moll. PMID:23002296

  14. Seeking the constant in what is transient: Karl Ernst von Baer's vision of organic formation.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Florence

    2015-03-01

    A well-established narrative in the history of science has it that the years around 1800 saw the end of a purely descriptive, classificatory and static natural history. The emergence of a temporal understanding of nature and the new developmental-history approach, it is thought, permitted the formation of modern biology. This paper questions that historical narrative by closely analysing the concepts of development, history and time set out in Karl Ernst von Baer's study of the mammalian egg (1827). I show that Baer's research on embryogenesis aimed not simply to explain temporal changes, but to inscribe the formation of new individual organisms into a continuous, unending organic process. I confront Baer's views with other explanations of embryogenesis arising in the 1820s and 1830s, especially those of Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Jean-Louis Prévost and of Theodor Schwann. By highlighting divergences between these scientists, especially as to their view of the role of gender differences in reproduction, I argue that biology evolved not from a homogeneous concept of developmental history but out of various, even opposing, views and research programmes. Thus, the birth of biology did not imply the end of all natural history's thought models.

  15. Pif97, a von Willebrand and Peritrophin Biomineralization Protein, Organizes Mineral Nanoparticles and Creates Intracrystalline Nanochambers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric P; Evans, John Spencer

    2015-09-01

    The formation of the mollusk nacre layer involves the assembly and organization of mineral nanoparticles into fracture-toughened mesoscale-sized aragonite tablets that possess intracrystalline nanoporosities. At least one nacre protein family, known as the framework proteome, is strategically located as part of a macromolecular coating around each nacre tablet and is believed to participate in tablet formation. Here, we report new studies of a recombinant form (rPif97) of a unique Japanese pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) nacre framework biomineralization protein, Pif97. This unique protein possesses both a von Willlebrand factor type A domain (vWA, F23-Y161) and a Peritrophin A chitin-binding domain (PAC, E234-D298). rPif97 self-associates or aggregates to form amorphous protein phases that organize both amorphous and single-crystal calcium carbonate nanoparticles in vitro. Further, in the presence of nucleating calcite crystals, rPif97 protein phases deposit onto these crystals and become occluded over time, forming nanochambers within the crystal interior. The formation of these mineral-modifying amorphous protein phases is linked to the presence of intrinsic disorder and amyloid-like cross-β-strand aggregation-prone regions, and three-dimensional modeling indicates that both the vWA and PAC domains are accessible for intermolecular interactions. Thus, the vWA- and PAC-containing Pif97 protein exhibits key functionalities that would allow its participation in mollusk nacre layer tablet assembly and porosity formation.

  16. From Wilhelm von Humboldt to Hitler-are prominent people more prone to have Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne

    2000-10-01

    We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism. PMID:10900395

  17. Loss of Quiescence in von Hippel-Lindau Hemangioblastomas is Associated with Erythropoietin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michael J.; Sizdahkhani, Saman; Edwards, Nancy A.; Merrill, Marsha J.; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lonser, Russell R.; Oldfield, Edward H.; Chittiboina, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) patients develop multiple central nervous system hemangioblastomas (HB). Some HBs become symptomatic with exponential growth or cyst formation following long periods of quiescence. Understanding the factors underlying growth in hemangioblastoma may lead to better strategies to arrest or prevent tumor growth. In 5 VHL patients, we resected quiescent hemangioblastomas (Q-HB) that were en-route during surgical access to symptomatic hemangioblastomas (S-HB), for matched tumor analysis. Quantitative reverse transcriptase analysis demonstrated a 2-fold increase in EPO expression in all S-HB, while 4/5 showed either Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α or 2α upregulation. Additionally, all S-HB had increased phosphorylated erythropoietin (EPO) receptor and phosphorylated STAT-5 relative to matched Q-HB, with increased phosphorylated JAK-2 largely confined to the stromal cells in clusters within the tumors. These findings suggest that Q-HB to S-HB conversion may be associated with an erythropoietin-signaling loop. Furthermore, we found that EPO is detectable in cyst fluid from S-HB (n = 14), while absent in CSF (n = 1). Additionally, S-HB presentation or S-HB resection does not result in discernible change in serum EPO or hemoglobin (n = 60). These observations suggest that the altered erythropoietin signaling is focal and suggests that studying modulation of erythropoietin receptor pathway may lead to strategies in preventing HB growth. PMID:27748427

  18. From Wilhelm von Humboldt to Hitler-are prominent people more prone to have Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne

    2000-10-01

    We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism.

  19. Tubular von Hippel-Lindau Knockout Protects against Rhabdomyolysis-Induced AKI

    PubMed Central

    Fähling, Michael; Mathia, Susanne; Paliege, Alexander; Koesters, Robert; Mrowka, Ralf; Peters, Harm; Persson, Pontus Börje; Neumayer, Hans-Hellmut; Bachmann, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Renal hypoxia occurs in AKI of various etiologies, but adaptation to hypoxia, mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), is incomplete in these conditions. Preconditional HIF activation protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, yet the mechanisms involved are largely unknown, and HIF-mediated renoprotection has not been examined in other causes of AKI. Here, we show that selective activation of HIF in renal tubules, through Pax8-rtTA–based inducible knockout of von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL-KO), protects from rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. In this model, HIF activation correlated inversely with tubular injury. Specifically, VHL deletion attenuated the increased levels of serum creatinine/urea, caspase-3 protein, and tubular necrosis induced by rhabdomyolysis in wild-type mice. Moreover, HIF activation in nephron segments at risk for injury occurred only in VHL-KO animals. At day 1 after rhabdomyolysis, when tubular injury may be reversible, the HIF-mediated renoprotection in VHL-KO mice was associated with activated glycolysis, cellular glucose uptake and utilization, autophagy, vasodilation, and proton removal, as demonstrated by quantitative PCR, pathway enrichment analysis, and immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, a HIF-mediated shift toward improved energy supply may protect against acute tubular injury in various forms of AKI. PMID:23970125

  20. Genetic and functional analysis of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene promoter

    PubMed Central

    Zatyka, M; Morrissey, C; Kuzmin, I; Lerman, M; Latif, F; Richards, F; Maher, E

    2002-01-01

    The VHL gatekeeper tumour suppressor gene is inactivated in the familial cancer syndrome von Hippel-Lindau disease and in most sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Recently the VHL gene product has been identified as a specific component of a SCF-like complex, which regulates proteolytic degradation of the hypoxia inducible transcription factors HIF-1 and HIF-2. pVHL is critical for normal development and mRNA expression studies suggest a role in nephrogenesis. Despite the importance of VHL in oncogenesis and development, little is known about the regulation of VHL expression. To investigate VHL promoter activity, we performed comparative sequence analysis of human, primate, and rodent 5‘ VHL sequences. We then proceeded to deletion analysis of regions showing significant evolutionary conservation between human and rat promoter sequences, and defined two positive and one negative regulatory regions. Analysis of specific putative transcription factor binding sites identified a functional Sp1 site, which was shown to be a regulatory element. Overlapping Sp1/AP2 sites were also identified and candidate E2F1 binding sites evaluated. Three binding sites for as yet unidentified transcription factors were mapped also. These investigations provide a basis for elucidating the regulation of VHL expression in development, the molecular pathology of epigenetic silencing of VHL in tumourigenesis, and suggest a possible link between Sp1, VHL, and nephrogenesis. PMID:12114475