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Sample records for abnormal head posture

  1. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures.

    PubMed

    Faulin, Evandro Francisco; Guedes, Carlos Gramani; Feltrin, Pedro Paulo; Joffiley, Cláudia Maria Mithie Suda Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO). Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III), followed by disk displacement (group II) and muscle disorders (group I). There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD.

  2. [Head posture in orthodontics: physiopathology and clinical aspects 2].

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, M; Verzi, P; Scire Scappuzzo, G

    1989-01-01

    The Authors review in orthodontic respects present knowledges about head posture involvement in craniofacial morphogenesis and pathology. Relationships between craniofacial morphology, craniocervical posture, craniomandibular posture, cervical spine curvature, hyoid bone position and posture of whole body in space are shown, in attempt to explain conditions such as "forward head posture", mouth breathing and some occlusal disorders. Main methods to evaluate craniocervical relations on lateral skull radiographs are analysed. Pathogenesis of pain syndromes associated with abnormal craniocervical and craniomandibular mechanics are also briefly treated.

  3. ANOMALOUS HEAD POSTURES IN STRABISMUS AND NYSTAGMUS - DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT -

    PubMed Central

    Teodorescu, Luminita

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal head positions are adopted in order to improve visual acuity, to avoid diplopia or to obtain a more comfortable binocular vision. The head can be turned or tilted toward right or left, with the chin rotated up or downwards or combination of these positions. The ophthalmologic examination including the assessment of versions leads to the diagnosis. When versions are free, the cause may be congenital nystagmus or strabismus with large angle. When versions are limited we suspect paralytic or restrictive strabismus. The head tilted to one shoulder suggests cyclotropia (IV Nerve Palsy) or congenital nystagmus. We present few of the above cases. An adequate surgical treatment can improve or correct the ocular deviation, diplopia and the abnormal head posture. Conclusions: The abnormal head posture must be assessed and treated early in order to correct the ocular position and head posture. All patient presenting abnormal head position HAD TO BE investigated by an ophthalmologist. PMID:26978880

  4. Postural abnormalities and contraversive pushing following right hemisphere brain damage.

    PubMed

    Lafosse, C; Kerckhofs, E; Vereeck, L; Troch, M; Van Hoydonck, G; Moeremans, M; Sneyers, C; Broeckx, J; Dereymaeker, L

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the presence of postural abnormalities in a consecutive sample of stroke patients, with either left or right brain damage, in relation to their perceived body position in space. The presence or absence of posture-related symptoms was judged by two trained therapists and subsequently analysed by hierarchical classes analysis (HICLAS). The subject classes resulting from the HICLAS model were further validated with respect to posture-related measurements, such as centre of gravity position and head position, as well as measurements related to the postural body scheme, such as the perception of postural and visual verticality. The results of the classification analysis clearly demonstrated a relation between the presence of right brain damage and abnormalities in body geometry. The HICLAS model revealed three classes of subjects: The first class contained almost all the patients without neglect and without any signs of contraversive pushing. They were mainly characterised by a normal body axis in any position. The second class were all neglect patients but predominantly without any contraversive pushing. The third class contained right brain damaged patients, all showing neglect and mostly exhibiting contraversive pushing. The patients in the third class showed a clear resistance to bringing the weight over to the ipsilesional side when the therapist attempted to make the subject achieve a vertical posture across the midline. The clear correspondence between abnormalities of the observed body geometry and the tilt of the subjective postural and visual vertical suggests that a patient's postural body geometry is characterised by leaning towards the side of space where he/she feels aligned with an altered postural body scheme. The presence of contraversive pushing after right brain damage points in to a spatial higher-order processing deficit underlying the higher frequency and severity of the axial postural abnormalities found after right brain lesions.

  5. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p < 0.05). If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  6. Head movements and postures as pain behavior

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2018-01-01

    Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153

  7. Kinematics of the human mandible for different head postures.

    PubMed

    Visscher, C M; Huddleston Slater, J J; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2000-04-01

    The influence of head posture on movement paths of the incisal point (IP) and of the mandibular condyles during free open-close movements was studied. Ten persons, without craniomandibular or cervical spine disorders, participated in the study. Open close mandibular movements were recorded with the head in five postures, viz., natural head posture, forward head posture, military posture, and lateroflexion to the right and to the left side, using the Oral Kinesiologic Analysis System (OKAS-3D). This study showed that in a military head posture, the opening movement path of the incisal point is shifted anteriorly relative to the path in a natural head posture. In a forward head posture, the movement path is shifted posteriorly whereas during lateroflexion, it deviates to the side the head has moved to. Moreover, the intra-articular distance in the temporomandibular joint during closing is smaller with the head in military posture and greater in forward head posture, as compared to the natural head posture. During lateroflexion, the intra-articular distance on the ipsilateral side is smaller. The influence of head posture upon the kinematics of the mandible is probably a manifestation of differences in mandibular loading in the different head postures.

  8. Evaluating the head posture of dentists with no neck pain.

    PubMed

    Mostamand, J; Lotfi, H; Safi, N

    2013-10-01

    Dentistry is one of the professions that requires a high degree of concentration during the treatment of patients. There are many predisposing factors, affecting dentists when working on the patient's teeth, including neck flexion, arm abduction and inflexible postural positions, which may put them at the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders related to the neck. Although dentists with long records of service show different levels of pain and discomfort in their necks, there is no evidence regarding whether younger dentists report neck pain before the onset of an abnormal condition in this region, including forward head posture (FHP). Discovering any alteration in the head posture of dentists might confirm one of the reasons for neck pain in this population. Forty one dentists with no neck pain and forty controls having jobs other than dentistry who had no risk factors related to head posture voluntarily participated in the present study. A standard method was used to measure the cervical curve in these two groups. There was no significant difference between the mean values of cervical curve in dentists and the control group (p > 0.05). There was also no significant difference between cervical curve values in dentists working for either 5-8 years or 8-12 years (p > 0.05). The only significant difference was observed in mean cervical curve values of men and women in the dentist group (p < 0.05). No alteration of cervical curve in the dentist group compared to controls might be due to absence of pain sensation in the dentists in the current study. In other words, this group might have not yet experienced sufficient change in head posture to experience significant pain in their neck region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Are automatic postural responses in patients with Parkinson's disease abnormal due to their stooped posture?

    PubMed

    Bloem, B R; Beckley, D J; van Dijk, J G

    1999-02-01

    Abnormal automatic postural responses are thought to contribute to balance impairment in Parkinson's disease. However, because postural responses are modifiable by stance, we have speculated that some postural abnormalities in patients with Parkinson's disease are secondary to their stooped stance. We have studied this assumption by assessing automatic postural responses in 30 healthy subjects who were instructed either to stand upright or to assume a typical parkinsonian posture. During both conditions, subjects received 20 serial 4 degrees 'toe-up' rotational perturbations from a supporting forceplate. We recorded short-latency (SL) and medium-latency (ML) responses from stretched gastrocnemius muscles and long-latency (LL) responses from shortened tibialis anterior muscles. We also assessed changes in the center of foot pressure (CFP) and the center of gravity (COG). The results were qualitatively compared to a previously described group of patients with Parkinson's disease who, under these circumstances, typically have large ML responses, small LL responses and insufficient voluntary postural corrections, accompanied by a slow rate of backward CFP displacement and an increased posterior COG displacement. The stooped posture resulted in unloading of medial gastrocnemius muscles and loading of tibialis anterior muscles. Onset latencies of stretch responses in gastrocnemius muscles were delayed in stooped subjects, but the onset of LL responses was markedly reduced. Amplitudes of both ML and LL responses were reduced in stooped subjects. Prestimulus COG and, to a lesser extent, CFP were shifted forwards in stooped subjects. Posterior COG displacement and the rate of backward CFP displacement were diminished in stooped subjects. Voluntary postural corrections were unchanged while standing stooped. These results indicate that some postural abnormalities of patients with Parkinson's disease (most notably the reduced LL responses) can be reproduced in healthy subjects

  10. Is there a relationship between head posture and craniomandibular pain?

    PubMed

    Visscher, C M; De Boer, W; Lobbezoo, F; Habets, L L M H; Naeije, M

    2002-11-01

    An often-suggested factor in the aetiology of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) is an anteroposition of the head. However, the results of clinical studies to the relationship between CMD and head posture are contradictory. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine differences in head posture between well-defined CMD pain patients with or without a painful cervical spine disorder and healthy controls. The second aim was to determine differences in head posture between myogenous and arthrogenous CMD pain patients and controls. Two hundred and fifty persons entered the study. From each person, a standardized oral history was taken and blind physical examinations of the masticatory system and of the neck were performed. The participants were only included into one of the subgroups when the presence or absence of their symptoms was confirmed by the results of the physical examination. Head posture was quantified using lateral photographs and a lateral radiograph of the head and the cervical spine. After correction for age and gender effects, no difference in head posture was found between any of the patient and non-patient groups (P > 0.27). Therefore, this study does not support the suggestion that painful craniomandibular disorders, with or without a painful cervical spine disorder, are related to head posture.

  11. Radiologic Assessment of Forward Head Posture and Its Relation to Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, An; Yeo, Han Gyeol; Kim, Tae Uk; Hyun, Jung Keun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess head posture using cervical spine X-rays to find out whether forward head posture is related to myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) in neck and shoulder. Methods Eighty-eight participants who were diagnosed with MPS in neck and shoulder were evaluated in this study. Four parameters (distance among head, cervical spines, and shoulder, and cervical angle) were measured from lateral view of cervical spine X-ray. The location and number of trigger points in the neck and shoulder and symptom duration were evaluated for each patient. Results Both horizontal distances between C1 vertebral body and C7 spinous process and between the earhole and C7 vertebral body were negatively correlated with cervical angle reflecting cervical lordosis (p<0.05). Younger patients had significantly (p<0.05) less cervical angle with more forward head posture. There was no relationship between MPS (presence, location, and number of trigger points) and radiologic assessments (distance parameters and the cervical angle). Conclusion Forward head posture and reduced cervical lordosis were seen more in younger patients with spontaneous neck pain. However, these abnormalities did not correlate with the location or the number of MPS. Further studies are needed to delineate the mechanism of neck pain in patients with forward head posture. PMID:25566482

  12. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  13. Validity and reliability of head posture measurement using Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Oh, Baek-Lok; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Jongshin; Hwang, Jeong-Min; Lee, Jehee

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the validity and reliability of Microsoft Kinect-based head tracker (KHT) for measuring head posture. Considering the cervical range of motion (CROM) as a reference, one-dimensional and three-dimensional (1D and 3D) head postures of 12 normal subjects (28-58 years of age; 6 women and 6 men) were obtained using the KHT. The KHT was validated by Pearson's correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficient. Test-retest reliability of the KHT was determined by its 95% limit of agreement (LoA) with the Bland-Altman plot. Face recognition success rate was evaluated for each head posture. Measurements of 1D and 3D head posture performed using the KHT were very close to those of the CROM with correlation coefficients of 0.99 and 0.97 (p<0.05), respectively, as well as with an ICC of >0.99 and 0.98, respectively. The reliability tests of the KHT in terms of 1D and 3D head postures had 95% LoA angles of approximately ±2.5° and ±6.5°, respectively. The KHT showed good agreement with the CROM and relatively favourable test-retest reliability. Considering its high performance, convenience and low cost, KHT could be clinically used as a head posture-measuring system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Head and cervical spine postures in complete denture wearers.

    PubMed

    Salonen, M A; Raustia, A M; Huggare, J

    1993-01-01

    Signs and symptoms in the stomatognathic system and head and cervical spine postures were evaluated in 10 edentulous patients prior to renewal of their dentures, as well as immediately and six months after insertion of new dentures. Natural head posture was recorded using the fluid-level method and measured from the roentgen cephalograms. It was shown that the variables duration of edentulousness and free-way space displayed positive correlations with the dysfunction symptoms. In addition, the patients who needed oral rehabilitation the most, who received the greatest reduction in their free-way space, were seen to have raised their heads more than average. There was also an inverse correlation between the reduction of clinical dysfunction index score and cervical spine postures.

  15. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    PubMed

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  16. Effects of Kinesio taping and exercise on forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsu-Sheng; Chen, Shu-Shi; Cheng, Su-Chun; Chang, Hsun-Wen; Wu, Pei-Rong; Yang, Jin-Shiou; Lee, Yi-Shuang; Tsou, Jui-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of Kinesio taping and therapeutic exercise on correcting forward head posture. To compare Kinesio taping versus therapeutic exercise for forward head posture on static posture, dynamic mobility and functional outcomes. Sixty subjects (31 women, 29 men) with forward head postures participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to either one of the three groups: (1) exercise group (n = 20), (2) taping group (n = 20), and (3) control groups (n = 20). The horizontal forward displacement (HFD) between ear lobe and acromion process, upper cervical and lower cervical angle (UCA, LCA), active range of motion (AROM) of cervical spine, and neck disability index (NDI) were measured before and after a 5-week intervention, and a 2-week follow-up. Data were analyzed by means of a mixed design repeated-measures ANOVA. Both taping and exercise groups showed significant improvements in HFD compared with the control group at post-treatment and follow-up. Compared with the control group, the exercise group exhibited significant improvements in the LCA and the side bending AROM at post-treatment. Both Kinesio taping and therapeutic exercise improve forward head posture after intervention and a 2-week follow-up. The effectiveness of therapeutic exercise is better than taping.

  17. Effect of different head-neck-jaw postures on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense.

    PubMed

    Zafar, H; Alghadir, A H; Iqbal, Z A

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck relocation error among healthy subjects. 30 healthy adult male subjects participated in this study. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense was measured while standing, habitual sitting, habitual sitting with clenched jaw and habitual sitting with forward head posture during right rotation, left rotation, flexion and extension using kinesthetic sensibility test. Head-neck relocation error was least while standing, followed by habitual sitting, habitual sitting with forward head posture and habitual sitting with jaw clenched. However, there was no significant difference in error between different tested postures during all the movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to see the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck position sense among healthy subjects. Assuming a posture for a short duration of time doesn't affect head-neck relocation error in normal healthy subjects.

  18. Dental occlusion, body posture and temporomandibular disorders: where we are now and where we are heading for.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, D; Castroflorio, T; Perinetti, G; Guarda-Nardini, L

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to perform a review of the literature dealing with the issue of relationships between dental occlusion, body posture and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A search of the available literature was performed to determine what the current evidence is regarding: (i) The physiology of the dental occlusion-body posture relationship, (ii) The relationship of these two topics with TMD and (iii) The validity of the available clinical and instrumental devices (surface electromyography, kinesiography and postural platforms) to measure the dental occlusion-body posture-TMD relationship. The available posturographic techniques and devices have not consistently found any association between body posture and dental occlusion. This outcome is most likely due to the many compensation mechanisms occurring within the neuromuscular system regulating body balance. Furthermore, the literature shows that TMD are not often related to specific occlusal conditions, and they also do not have any detectable relationships with head and body posture. The use of clinical and instrumental approaches for assessing body posture is not supported by the wide majority of the literature, mainly because of wide variations in the measurable variables of posture. In conclusion, there is no evidence for the existence of a predictable relationship between occlusal and postural features, and it is clear that the presence of TMD pain is not related with the existence of measurable occluso-postural abnormalities. Therefore, the use instruments and techniques aiming to measure purported occlusal, electromyographic, kinesiographic or posturographic abnormalities cannot be justified in the evidence-based TMD practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Head and cervical posture in patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Rappoport, Karen; Fuentes, Jorge; Gadotti, Inae Caroline; Major, Paul W; Warren, Sharon; Thie, Norman M R; Magee, David J

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether patients with myogenous or mixed (ie, myogeneous plus arthrogeneous) temporomandibular disorders (TMD) had different head and cervical posture measured through angles commonly used in clinical research settings when compared to healthy individuals. One hundred fifty-four persons participated in this study. Of these, 50 subjects were healthy, 55 subjects had myogenous TMD, and 49 subjects had mixed TMD (ie, arthrogenous plus myogenous TMD). A lateral photograph was taken with the head in the self-balanced position. Four angles were measured in the photographs: (1) Eye-Tragus-Horizontal, (2) Tragus-C7-Horizontal, (3) Pogonion-Tragus-C7, and (4) Tragus-C7-Shoulder. Alcimagen software specially designed to measure angles was used in this study. All of the measurements were performed by a single trained rater, a dental specialist in orthodontics, blinded to each subject's group status. The only angle that reached statistical significance among groups was the Eye-Tragus-Horizontal (F = 3.03, P = .040). Pairwise comparisons determined that a mean difference of 3.3 degrees (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.15, 6.41) existed when comparing subjects with myogenous TMD and healthy subjects (P = .036). Postural angles were not significantly related to neck disability, jaw disability, or pain intensity. Intrarater and interrater reliability of the measurements were excellent, with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values ranging between 0.996-0.998. The only statistically significant difference in craniocervical posture between patients with myogenous TMD and healthy subjects was for the Eye-Tragus-Horizontal angle, indicating a more extended position of the head. However, the difference was very small (3.3 degrees) and was judged not to be clinically significant.

  20. Kestenbaum procedure on the vertical rectus muscles with simultaneous compensation of the induced cyclodeviation for nystagmus patients with chin-up or chin-down head posture.

    PubMed

    Schild, A M; Fricke, J; Rüssmann, W; Neugebauer, A

    2009-10-01

    Kestenbaum surgery is performed for nystagmus-related abnormal head posture, and symmetrically changes the position of both eyes to shift the null point to the primary position. Most patients with infantile nystagmus have their null point zone in a lateral gaze position. Less frequently, surgery can be performed to reduce chin-up or chin-down head posture. We report indications for, and the results of eight consecutive interventions performed according to the Kestenbaum principle for the reduction of a chin-up or chin-down head posture. In a retrospective study, the clinical findings for eight patients who consecutively underwent treatment in the University Eye Hospital of Cologne between 2001 and 2007 were investigated. The patients were aged 6 to 16 years; median age was 6.5 years. For all patients, surgery was to correct a chin-up or chin-down head posture due to infantile nystagmus. Preoperatively, five patients showed a chin-down, three a chin-up head posture. All vertical rectus muscles were recessed or tucked between 6 and 7 mm; the resulting cyclodeviation was reduced by an intervention on the superior oblique muscles (6 to 8 mm tucking, in the case of chin-down, or recession in the case of chin-up head posture). Surgery was successful in seven of the eight patients, with a reduction of the vertical head posture to less than 10 degrees. In the cases of chin-down posture, head posture was reduced to between 0 degrees and a maximum of 20 degrees in one case postoperatively (before the operation 20 degrees to 35 degrees ); in the cases of chin-up posture, to less than 8 degrees (before the operation 25 degrees to 35 degrees). One case showed no postoperative improvement in chin-down posture but a head turn to the left of up to 20 degrees; another case had a remaining chin-up posture of 8 degrees with a right turn of 15 degrees . Binocular vision was better or the same in all cases after surgery. For nystagmus patients with chin-up or chin-down head posture

  1. Acute Effects of Posture Shirts on Rounded-Shoulder and Forward-Head Posture in College Students.

    PubMed

    Manor, John; Hibberd, Elizabeth; Petschauer, Meredith; Myers, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture can be contributing factors to shoulder pain. Corrective techniques such as manual therapy and exercise have been shown to improve these altered postures, but there is little evidence that corrective garments such as posture shirts can alter posture. To determine the acute effects of corrective postureshirt use on rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture in asymptomatic college students. Repeated-measures intervention study with counterbalanced conditions. Research laboratory. 24 members of the general student body of a university, 18-25 y old, with a forward shoulder angle (FSA) >52° and no history of upper-extremity surgery, scoliosis, active shoulder pain, or shoulder pain in the previous 3 mo that restricted participation for 3 consecutive days. Photographic posture assessment under a control condition, under a sham or treatment condition (counterbalanced), under another control condition, and treatment or sham. FSA and forward head angle (FHA) calculated from a lateral photograph. FSA decreased relative to the control condition while participants wore the sham shirt (P = .029) but not the corrective posture shirt (P = 1.00). FHA was unchanged between groups (P = .371). Application of a corrective posture shirt did not acutely alter FSA or FHA, while application of a sham shirt may decrease FSA at rest.

  2. Decorticate posture

    MedlinePlus

    Abnormal posturing - decorticate posture; Traumatic brain injury - decorticate posture ... Brain problem due to drugs, poisoning, or infection Traumatic brain injury Brain problem due to liver failure Increased pressure ...

  3. The relationship between forward head posture and temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, W Y; Okeson, J P; Lindroth, J

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between forward head posture and temporomandibular disorder symptoms. Thirty-three temporomandibular disorder patients with predominant complaints of masticatory muscle pain were compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Head position was measured from photographs taken with a plumb line drawn from the ceiling to the lateral malleolus of the ankle and with a horizontal plane that was perpendicular to the plumb line and that passed through the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra. The distances from the plumb line to the ear, to the seventh vertebra, and to the shoulder were measured. Two angles were also measured: (1) ear-seventh cervical vertebra-horizontal plane and (2) eye-ear-seventh cervical vertebra. The only measurement that revealed a statistically significant difference was angle ear-seventh cervical vertebra-horizontal plane. This angle was smaller in the patients with temporomandibular disorders than in the control subjects. In other words, when evaluating the ear position with respect to the seventh cervical vertebra, the head was positioned more forward in the group with temporomandibular disorders than in the control group (P < .05).

  4. Forward head posture: its structural and functional influence on the stomatognathic system, a conceptual study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, H E; Manns, A

    1996-01-01

    An extensive conceptual analysis to establish the primary role a forward head posture plays in the appearance of some craniomandibular dysfunctions and internal derangements of the temporomandibular joints, associated to craniocervical postural disturbances. The analysis is based on findings contributed by scientific investigations in the field of dentofacial orthopedics and dysfunction. Special emphasis has been put on the influence of forward head posture on the craniofacial growth as it can determine a morphoskeletal and neuromuscular pattern leading to a dysfunctional condition. A correlation is established between Class II Occlusion, forward head posture, and craniomandibular dysfunction. The concept of craniocervical postural position is defined, as well as its close relation to the mandibular postural position.

  5. Photographic measurement of head and cervical posture when viewing mobile phone: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaofei; Fan, Guoxin; Wu, Xinbo; Zeng, Ying; Su, Hang; Gu, Guangfei; Zhou, Qi; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    With the dramatic growth of mobile phone usage, concerns have been raised with regard to the adverse health effects of mobile phone on spinal posture. The aim of this study was to determine the head and cervical postures by photogrammetry when viewing the mobile phone screen, compared with those in neutral standing posture. A total of 186 subjects (81 females and 105 males) aged from 17 to 31 years old participated in this study. Subjects were instructed to stand neutrally and using mobile phone as in daily life. Using a photographic method, the sagittal head and cervical postures were assessed by head tilt angle, neck tilt angle, forward head shift and gaze angle. The photographic method showed a high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in measuring the sagittal posture of cervical spine and gaze angle (ICCs ranged from 0.80 to 0.99). When looking at mobile phone, the head tilt angle significantly increased (from 74.55° to 95.22°, p = 0.000) and the neck angle decreased (from 54.68° to 38.77°, p = 0.000). The forward head posture was also confirmed by the significantly increased head shift (from 10.90 to 13.85 cm, p = 0.000). The posture assumed in mobile phone use was significantly correlated with neutral posture (p < 0.05). Males displayed a more forward head posture than females (p < 0.05). The head tilt angle was positively correlated with the gaze angle (r = 0.616, p = 0.000), while the neck tilt angle was negatively correlated with the gaze angle (r = -0.628, p = 0.000). Photogrammetry is a reliable, quantitative method to evaluate the head and cervical posture during mobile phone use. Compared to neutral standing, subjects display a more forward head posture when viewing the mobile phone screen, which is correlated with neutral posture, gaze angle and gender. Future studies will be needed to investigate a dose-response relationship between mobile phone use and assumed posture.

  6. Effect of different head-neck-jaw postures on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Hamayun; Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck relocation error among healthy subjects. Methods: 30 healthy adult male subjects participated in this study. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense was measured while standing, habitual sitting, habitual sitting with clenched jaw and habitual sitting with forward head posture during right rotation, left rotation, flexion and extension using kinesthetic sensibility test. Results: Head-neck relocation error was least while standing, followed by habitual sitting, habitual sitting with forward head posture and habitual sitting with jaw clenched. However, there was no significant difference in error between different tested postures during all the movements. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to see the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck position sense among healthy subjects. Assuming a posture for a short duration of time doesn’t affect head-neck relocation error in normal healthy subjects. PMID:29199196

  7. Abnormal gastric myoelectrical activity in postural tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seligman, William H; Low, David A; Asahina, Masato; Mathias, Christopher J

    2013-04-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS) is an important cause of orthostatic intolerance resulting from cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. In addition to postural symptoms, PoTS patients may have allied features, including gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, which have not yet been thoroughly investigated. We evaluated gastric myoelectrical activity in PoTS patients. Using cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG), we recorded gastric myoelectrical activity before and after standard liquid meal ingestion in 15 PoTS patients (age 27 ± 4 years); including 7 with and 8 without GI symptoms, and in 11 healthy individuals (age 23 ± 7 years). We performed spectral analysis of EGG recordings to obtain the dominant frequency of gastric pacemaker rhythm (DF), instability coefficient of DF (ICDF), and low (LFR%), normal (NFR%), and high (HFR%) range power percentages of the total power. Instability coefficient of DF, an index of variability of gastric pacemaker rhythm, was significantly elevated both pre- and post-prandially (30-45 min after the meal) in the PoTS group (8.8 ± 6, 10.0 ± 8 %) compared with controls (4.0 ± 3, 4.0 ± 3 %; both p < 0.05). Patients with GI symptoms had significantly higher post-prandial ICDF (15.0 ± 5 %) than those without GI symptoms (5.6 ± 4 %; p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in DF, LFR%, NFR% and HFR% before and after the meal between the PoTS and control groups, or between PoTS patients with and without GI symptoms. Our study revealed increased variability of gastric pacemaker rhythm in PoTS, and these findings might be related to pathophysiology of functional GI symptoms in PoTS.

  8. Head posture measurements among work vehicle drivers and implications for work and workplace design.

    PubMed

    Eklund, J; Odenrick, P; Zettergren, S; Johansson, H

    1994-04-01

    An increased risk of musculoskeletal disorders, e.g. from the neck region, has been found among professional drivers of work vehicles. The purpose of this study was to identify causes of postural load and implications for vehicle design and work tasks. A second purpose was to develop the methods for measurement and analysis of head postures. Field measurements of head postures for drivers of fork lift trucks, forestry machines, and cranes were carried out. The equipment used was an electric goniometer measurement system, containing a mechanical transmission between the head and the upper trunk. Methods for data presentation and quantification were developed. The results showed that rotatable and movable driver cabins improved head postures and viewing angles substantially. Narrow window frame structures and large, optimally-placed windows were also advantageous. The steering wheel, controls, and a high backrest restricted shoulder rotation, which increased head rotation in unfavourable viewing angles. Improved workspace layouts and work organization factors such as job enlargement decreased the influence of strenuous postures. The results also showed that head postures should be analysed in two or three dimensions simultaneously, otherwise the postures taken will be underestimated in relation to the maximal voluntary movement.

  9. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O’Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11–15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals. PMID:27512253

  10. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O'Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11-15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals.

  11. The relationship of forward head posture and rounded shoulders with neck pain in Iranian office workers.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Parisa; Lotfian, Sara; Moezy, Azar; Moezy, Azar; Nejati, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Background Office workers spend a long period of time behind a computer during working hours. The relation between the posture of sitting during work with computer and neck pain is still debatable. Even though some researchers claim a significant difference in head posture between patients with neck pain and pain-free participants, the FHP (forward head posture) has not always been associated with neck pain in literature. So, the purpose of this study was to discover the relationship between neck pain and improper posture in the head, cervicothoracic spine and shoulders. This was a cross-sectional study to explore the relationships between neck pains, sagittal postures of cervical and thoracic spine and shoulders among office workers in two positions, straight looking forward and working position. 46 subjects without neck pain and 55 subjects with neck pain were evaluated using a photographic method. Thoracic and cervical postures were measured by the HT (High Thoracic), CV (Craniovertebral) angles respectively. Shoulder's posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane by the acromion protrusion. HT and CV angles were positively correlated with the presence of neck pain only in working position (p< 0.05). In straight looking forward position there was no significant difference between the two groups statistically (p>0.05). The difference of shoulder protrusion between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups was not significant. FHP and thoracic kyphosis were accompanied with neck pain. But shoulder posture was not correlated with neck pain.

  12. Resolution of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) by correcting a lateral head translation posture following previous failed traditional chiropractic therapy: a CBP® case report

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Jason O.; Oakley, Paul A.; Moore, Robert R.; Ruggeroli, Edward P.; Harrison, Deed E.

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To present the case of the resolution of right temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) following the correction of a right lateral head translation posture. [Subject and Methods] A 24 year old female reported facial pain and jaw clicking in the right TMJ. Radiography revealed a 19 mm right head (shift) translation posture. TMJ vibration analysis showed characteristic abnormalities for the right TMJ. The patient was treated with CBP® technique mirror image® left sided exercises, and traction methods as well as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). [Results] After 36 treatments over a 12-week time period, a complete correction of the lateral head posture was achieved corresponding with a complete resolution of jaw pain and clicking. TMJ vibration analysis demonstrated normal right side TMJ characteristics following treatment. [Conclusion] Abnormal head/neck postures, such as lateral head translation, may be an unrealized source of TMJD and may be explained through the ‘regional interdependence’ model or by how seemingly unrelated anatomy may be associated with a primary complaint. PMID:29410576

  13. Resolution of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) by correcting a lateral head translation posture following previous failed traditional chiropractic therapy: a CBP® case report.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Jason O; Oakley, Paul A; Moore, Robert R; Ruggeroli, Edward P; Harrison, Deed E

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To present the case of the resolution of right temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) following the correction of a right lateral head translation posture. [Subject and Methods] A 24 year old female reported facial pain and jaw clicking in the right TMJ. Radiography revealed a 19 mm right head (shift) translation posture. TMJ vibration analysis showed characteristic abnormalities for the right TMJ. The patient was treated with CBP ® technique mirror image ® left sided exercises, and traction methods as well as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). [Results] After 36 treatments over a 12-week time period, a complete correction of the lateral head posture was achieved corresponding with a complete resolution of jaw pain and clicking. TMJ vibration analysis demonstrated normal right side TMJ characteristics following treatment. [Conclusion] Abnormal head/neck postures, such as lateral head translation, may be an unrealized source of TMJD and may be explained through the 'regional interdependence' model or by how seemingly unrelated anatomy may be associated with a primary complaint.

  14. Mandibular deviations in TMD and non-TMD groups related to eye dominance and head posture.

    PubMed

    Pradham, N S; White, G E; Mehta, N; Forgione, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether eye-dominance affects head posture (rotation) and in turn, whether head posture is associated with mandibular frenum midline deviation, in both TMJ and control subjects. Eye dominance was determined using three tests: Porta, Hole, Point tests. Natural head posture was evaluated using the Arthrodial protractor. Mandibular frenum deviation was recorded as left, right or no deviation. Fifty female subjects were included in the study, 25 TMJ patients attending the Gelb Craniomandibular Pain Center and 25 non-TMJ control subjects. The findings indicate that eye dominance and direction of head rotation are strongly associated in both TMJ and control subjects. Further, in TMJ subjects mandibular deviation occurred in greater frequency than in controls and tends to occur in the contra lateral direction of head rotation.

  15. Neck muscle activation and head postures in common high performance aerial combat maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Netto, Kevin J; Burnett, Angus F

    2006-10-01

    Neck injuries are common in high performance combat pilots and have been attributed to high gravitational forces and the non-neutral head postures adopted during aerial combat maneuvers. There is still little known about the pathomechanics of these injuries. Six Royal Australian Air Force Hawk pilots flew a sortie that included combinations of three +Gz levels (1, 3, and 5) and four head postures (Neutral, Turn, Extension, and Check-6). Surface electromyography from neck and shoulder muscles was recorded in flight. Three-dimensional measures of head postures adopted in flight were estimated postflight with respect to end-range of the cervical spine using an electromagnetic tracking device. Mean muscle activation increased significantly with both increasing +Gz and non-neutral head postures. Check-6 at +5 Gz (mean activation of all muscles = 51% MVIC) elicited significantly greater muscle activation in most muscles when compared with Neutral, Extension, and Turn head postures. High levels of muscle co-contraction were evident in high acceleration and non-neutral head postures. Head kinematics showed Check-6 was closest to end-range in any movement plane (86% ROM in rotation) and produced the greatest magnitude of rotation in other planes. Turn and Extension showed a large magnitude of rotation with reference to end-range in the primary plane of motion but displayed smaller rotations in other planes. High levels of neck muscle activation and co-contraction due to high +Gz and head postures close to end range were evident in this study, suggesting the major influence of these factors on the pathomechanics of neck injuries in high performance combat pilots.

  16. Reliability and validity of the range of motion scale (ROMS) in patients with abnormal postures.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, Diana E; Lalli, Stefania; Marinus, Johan; Maihöfner, Christian; McCabe, Candida S; Munts, Alex G; van der Plas, Anton A; Tijssen, Marina A J; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Albanese, Alberto; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2015-03-01

    Sustained abnormal postures (i.e., fixed dystonia) are the most frequently reported motor abnormalities in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), but these symptoms may also develop after peripheral trauma without CRPS. Currently, there is no valid and reliable measurement instrument available to measure the severity and distribution of these postures. The range of motion scale (ROMS) was therefore developed to assess the severity based on the possible active range of motion of all joints (arms, legs, trunk, and neck), and the present study evaluates its reliability and validity. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of the ROMS was determined in 16 patients with abnormal sustained postures, who were videotaped following a standard video protocol in a university hospital. The recordings were rated by a panel of international experts. In addition, 30 patients were clinically tested with both the Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) scale as well as the ROMS to assess construct validity. Inter-rater reliability for total ROMS scores showed an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.85. The majority of the scores for the separate joints (13 out of 18) demonstrated an almost perfect agreement with ICCs ranging from 0.81 to 0.94; of the other items, one showed fair, one moderate, and three substantial agreement. The ICCs for the intra-rater reliability ranged from moderate to almost perfect (0.68-0.98). Spearman's correlation coefficients between corresponding body areas as measured with the ROMS or BFM were all above 0.82. The ROMS is a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the severity and distribution of sustained abnormal postures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Assisting people with multiple disabilities actively correct abnormal standing posture with a Nintendo Wii balance board through controlling environmental stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board functionality for standing posture correction (i.e., actively adjust abnormal standing posture) to assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to actively correct their standing posture by controlling their favorite stimulation on/off using a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture correcting program (SPCP). The study was performed according to an ABAB design, in which A represented baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that both participants significantly increased time duration of maintaining correct standing posture (TDMCSP) to activate the control system to produce environmental stimulation during the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings were discussed.

  18. Facial type and head posture of nasal and mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Souza, Juliana Alves; Boton, Luane de Moraes; Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo da; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    To verify the facial type and the head posture of nasal and mouth-breathing children from habitual and obstructive etiologies, as well as to correlate the morphological facial index to the head angulation position in the sagittal plane. Participants were 59 children with ages between 8 years and 11 years and 10 months. All subjects were undergone to speech-language pathology screening, otorhinolaryngologic evaluation, and nasopharyngoscopy, allowing the constitution of three groups: nasal breathers--15 children; mouth breathers from obstructive etiology--22 children; and habitual mouth breathers--22 children. In order to determine facial type and morphological facial index, the height and the width of the face were measured using a digital caliper. The head posture was assessed through physical examination and computerized photogrammetry. It was verified the predominance of short face in nasal breathers, and long face in mouth breathers. There was an association among facial type and breathing mode/mouth breathing etiology: the brachyfacial type was more frequent among nasal breathers, and less frequent in subjects with obstructive nasal breathing. Head posture was similar in all three groups. No correlation was found between morphological facial index and head posture. The brachyfacial type favors the nasal-breathing mode and the head posture is not influenced by breathing mode and by the etiology of mouth breathing, as well as it is not related to facial type.

  19. Surgical management of anomalous head posture because of horizontal gaze palsy or acquired vertical nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Campos, E C; Schiavi, C; Bellusci, C

    2003-07-01

    To confirm the effectiveness of the Kestenbaum-Anderson principle in the surgical management of compensatory head posture because of horizontal gaze palsy and acquired vertical nystagmus. Nine patients with anomalous head posture because of horizontal gaze palsy, and four patients with acquired vertical nystagmus and oscillopsia and compensatory torticollis underwent surgery according to the Kestenbaum-Anderson principle. As in the treatment of congenital nystagmus, the eyes have to be shifted in the orbits, in the direction of anomalous head posture. Homonymously based prisms were used preoperatively to assess the potential benefit of surgery. At the time of surgery, the clinical conditions of the patients had been stable for at least 1 year. After surgery, compensatory head posture and visual performances improved in all cases and the results remained stable for at least 2 years. Contrary to what is generally believed, the ocular condition of the patients with compensatory head posture secondary to neurological causes can be often improved with surgery. The aim of surgery is obviously not to modify ocular motility, but rather to improve the head position.

  20. Assessment of forward head posture in females: observational and photogrammetry methods.

    PubMed

    Salahzadeh, Zahra; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Behtash, Hamid; Razmjoo, Arash; Gohari, Mahmoud; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    There are different methods to assess forward head posture (FHP) but the accuracy and discrimination ability of these methods are not clear. Here, we want to compare three postural angles for FHP assessment and also study the discrimination accuracy of three photogrammetric methods to differentiate groups categorized based on observational method. All Seventy-eight healthy female participants (23 ± 2.63 years), were classified into three groups: moderate-severe FHP, slight FHP and non FHP based on observational postural assessment rules. Applying three photogrammetric methods - craniovertebral angle, head title angle and head position angle - to measure FHP objectively. One - way ANOVA test showed a significant difference in three categorized group's craniovertebral angle (P< 0.05, F=83.07). There was no dramatic difference in head tilt angle and head position angle methods in three groups. According to Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA) results, the canonical discriminant function (Wilks'Lambda) was 0.311 for craniovertebral angle with 79.5% of cross-validated grouped cases correctly classified. Our results showed that, craniovertebral angle method may discriminate the females with moderate-severe and non FHP more accurate than head position angle and head tilt angle. The photogrammetric method had excellent inter and intra rater reliability to assess the head and cervical posture.

  1. Posture, head stability, and orientation recovery during vestibular regeneration in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Dickman, J David; Lim, Insook

    2004-09-01

    Compensatory behavior such as oculomotor, gaze, and postural responses that occur during movement largely depend upon a functioning vestibular system. In the present study, the initial loss and subsequent recovery of postural and head stability in pigeons undergoing vestibular regeneration were examined. Adult pigeons were trained to manipulate a straight run chamber to peck an illuminated key for fluid reward. Six behavioral measures assessing performance, posture, and head stability were quantified. These included run latency, steps (walking), path negotiation (lane changes), gaze saccades, head bobs, and head shakes. Once normative values were obtained for four birds, complete lesion of all receptor cells and denervation of the epithelia in the vestibular endorgans were produced using a single intralabyrinthine application of streptomycin sulfate. Each bird was then tested at specific times during regeneration and the same behavioral measures examined. At 7 days post-streptomycin treatment (PST), all birds exhibited severe postural and head instability, with tremors, head shakes, staggering, and circling predominating. No normal trial runs, walking, gaze saccades, or head bobs were present. Many of these dysfunctions persisted through 3-4 weeks PST. Gradually, tremor and head shakes diminished and were replaced with an increasing number of normal head bobs during steps and gaze saccades. Beginning at 4 weeks PST, but largely inaccurate, was the observed initiation of directed steps, less staggering, and some successful path negotiation. As regeneration progressed, spatial orientation and navigation ability increased and, by 49 days PST, most trials were successful. By 70 days PST, all birds had recovered to pretreatment levels. Thus, it was observed that ataxia must subside, coincident with normalized head and postural stability prior to the recovery of spatial orientation and path navigation recovery. Parallels in recovery were drawn to hair cell regeneration

  2. Early intensive postural and movement training advances head control in very young infants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui-Min; Galloway, James Cole

    2012-07-01

    Daily experiences are thought to play an important role in motor development during infancy. There are limited studies on the effect of postural and movement experiences on head control. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of postural and movement experiences on head control through a comprehensive set of measurements beginning when infants were 1 month old. This was a prospective, longitudinal, 2-cohort study. Twenty-two full-term infants who were healthy were randomly assigned to either a training group or a control group. Infants were observed every other week from 1 to 4 months of age. Head control was assessed using a standardized developmental assessment tool, the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP), as well as behavioral coding and kinematics of infants' head postures and movements in a supported sitting position. Caregivers performed at least 20 minutes of daily postural and movement activities (training group), or social interaction (control group) for 4 weeks. The training group had higher TIMP scores on head control-related items during the training period and after training stopped compared with the control group. Starting from the during training phase, the training group infants had their heads in a vertical and midline position longer compared with the control group infants. After training stopped, the training group infants actively moved their heads forward more often and for larger distances. The experiences outside daily training were not monitored, and the results may be specific to the experimental setup for infants with typical development. Young infants are able to take advantage of postural and movement experiences to rapidly advance their head control as early as 4 to 6 weeks of postnatal life. Infant positioning, caregiver handling, and caregiver-infant interactions were likely contributing factors. This database of comprehensive measures may be useful in future trials focused on head control in infants with special

  3. The association between head and cervical posture and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Susan Armijo; Bravo, Jaime; Magee, David J; Thie, Norman M R; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    To carry out a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between head and cervical posture and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A search of Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted in all languages with the help of a health sciences librarian. Key words used in the search were posture, head posture, cervical spine or neck, vertebrae, cervical lordosis, craniomandibular disorders or temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular disorders, and orofacial pain or facial pain. Abstracts which appeared to fulfill the initial selection criteria were selected by consensus. The original articles were retrieved and evaluated to ensure they met the inclusion criteria. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles and their references were hand-searched for possible missing articles. Twelve studies met all inclusion criteria and were analyzed in detail for their methodology and information quality. Nine articles that analyzed the association between head posture and TMD included patients with mixed TMD diagnosis; 1 article differentiated among muscular, articular, and mixed symptomatology; and 3 articles analyzed information from patients with only articular problems. Finally, 2 studies evaluated the association between head posture and TMD in patients with muscular TMD. Several methodological defects were noted in the 12 studies. Since most of the studies included in this systematic review were of poor methodological quality, the findings of the studies should be interpreted with caution. The association between intra-articular and muscular TMD and head and cervical posture is still unclear, and better controlled studies with comprehensive TMD diagnoses, greater sample sizes, and objective posture evaluation are necessary.

  4. Nintendo Wii remote controllers for head posture measurement: accuracy, validity, and reliability of the infrared optical head tracker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongshin; Nam, Kyoung Won; Jang, Ik Gyu; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Kwang Gi; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the accuracy, validity, and reliability of a newly developed infrared optical head tracker (IOHT) using Nintendo Wii remote controllers (WiiMote; Nintendo Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) for measurement of the angle of head posture. The IOHT consists of two infrared (IR) receivers (WiiMote) that are fixed to a mechanical frame and connected to a monitoring computer via a Bluetooth communication channel and an IR beacon that consists of four IR light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With the use of the Cervical Range of Motion (CROM; Performance Attainment Associates, St. Paul, MN) as a reference, one- and three-dimensional (1- and 3-D) head postures of 20 normal adult subjects (20-37 years of age; 9 women and 11 men) were recorded with the IOHT. In comparison with the data from the CROM, the IOHT-derived results showed high consistency. The measurements of 1- and 3-D positions of the human head with the IOHT were very close to those of the CROM. The correlation coefficients of 1- and 3-D positions between the IOHT and the CROM were more than 0.99 and 0.96 (P < 0.05, Pearson's correlation test), respectively. Reliability tests of the IOHT for the normal adult subjects for 1- and 3-D positions of the human head had 95% limits of agreement angles of approximately ±4.5° and ±8.0°, respectively. The IOHT showed strong concordance with the CROM and relatively good test-retest reliability, thus proving its validity and reliability as a head-posture-measuring device. Considering its high performance, ease of use, and low cost, the IOHT has the potential to be widely used as a head-posture-measuring device in clinical practice.

  5. Head posture and cervicovertebral and craniofacial morphology in patients with craniomandibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Huggare, J A; Raustia, A M

    1992-07-01

    A relationship between particular characteristics of dental occlusion and craniomandibular disorders (CMD) has been reported, while less attention has been focused on the possible effect of dysfunction of the masticatory system on head posture or cervicovertebral and craniofacial morphology. Natural head position roentgen-cephalograms of 16 young adults with complete dentition taken before and after stomatognathic treatment displayed an extended head posture, smaller size of the uppermost cervical vertebrae, decreased posterior to anterior face height ratio, and a flattened cranial base as compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The lordosis of the cervical spine straightened after stomatognathic treatment. The results are an indication of the close interrelationship between the masticatory muscle system and the muscles supporting the head, and lead to speculation on the principles of treating craniomandibular disorders.

  6. Comparison of cervical muscle thickness between asymptomatic women with and without forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Bokaee, Fateme; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Manshadi, Farideh D; Naimi, Sedigheh S; Baghban, Alireza A; Azimi, Hadi

    Forward head posture (FHP) is a forward positioning of the head relative to the trunk in the sagittal plane. This posture is one of the most prevalent poor postures in patients with head and neck pain. Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) is a reliable method to objectively evaluate muscle thickness and function. To compare thickness of cervical muscles that control both head and neck posture between asymptomatic women with and without FHP. Seventy asymptomatic women aged between 20 and 40 years, with and without FHP (35 in each group), participated in the study. The thickness of the cervical muscles (rectus capitis posterior - RCP, oblique capitis superior - OCS, semispinalis capitis - SSC, sternocleidomastoid - SCM, and longus coli - LCo) was measured using RUSI and the data was compared between the two groups. The comparison of cervical muscle thickness between women with and without FHP revealed significant difference only with regard to the muscle thickness of the SCM muscle (mean difference: 0.7mm, 95% confidence interval of the difference: 0.14, 1.26mm, p value: 0.014). The thickness of this muscle was greater in women with FHP. Tonic contraction of the SCM muscle can lead to greater thickness of this muscle in subjects with FHP. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between head posture and dentofacial morphology in patients with TMJ osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Ioi, Hideki; Matsumoto, Ryusuke; Nishioka, Masato; Goto, Tazuko K; Nakata, Shunsuke; Nakasima, Akihiko; Counts, Amy L

    2008-01-01

    To test whether there is a relationship between head and cervical posture and dentofacial morphology in patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis (OA). The subjects consisted of 34 Japanese females with TMJ OA (aged 24.7 +/- 6.1 years). Six craniocervical angular measurements were constructed for head posture. Two angular and 6 linear measurements were constructed for the skeletal relationship, while 1 angular and 6 linear measurements were constructed for the dental relationship. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between head posture and dentofacial variables. In the skeletal relationship, increased craniocervical angulations were significantly associated with a more posterior position of the maxilla, a decreased Frankfort to mandibular plane angle, decreased mandibular length, and a decreased lower facial height. In the dental relationship, increased craniocervical angulations were significantly associated with more posterior positions of the anterior teeth to the basal bone and decreased alveolar height of the anterior-posterior teeth. The hypothesis was rejected. These results suggest that an association may exist between head and cervical posture and dentofacial morphology in patients with TMJ OA.

  8. Contribution of Head Position, Standing Surface, and Vision to Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Goldberg, Allon; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    Postural control requires the integration of sensorimotor information to maintain balance and to properly position and orient the body in response to external stimuli. Age-related declines in peripheral and central sensory and motor function contribute to postural instability and falls. This study investigated the contribution of head position, standing surface, and vision on postural sway in 26 community-dwelling older adults. Participants were asked to maintain a stable posture under conditions that varied standing surface, head position, and the availability of visual information. Significant main and interaction effects were found for all three factors. Findings from this study suggest that postural sway responses require the integration of available sources of sensory information. These results have important implications for fall risks in older adults and suggest that when standing with the head extended and eyes closed, older adults may place themselves at risk for postural disequilibrium and loss of balance. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  9. Unexplained head tilt following surgical treatment of congenital esotropia: a postural manifestation of dissociated vertical divergence

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, M C; Jenkins, R; Nucci, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Strabismus surgery for congenital esotropia can be complicated by the development of a postoperative head tilt. Purpose: To determine the pathophysiology of acquired head tilting following horizontal realignment of the eyes in children with congenital esotropia. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of nine children with congenital esotropia who developed unexplained head tilts following horizontal realignment of the eyes. Results: Shortly after strabismus surgery, each child developed a head tilt in association with asymmetrical dissociated vertical divergence (DVD). Five children maintained a head tilt toward the side of the fixing eye (group 1), which did not serve to control the DVD. Four children maintained a head tilt toward the side of the hyperdeviating eye, which served to control the DVD (group 2). Children in group 2 had earlier horizontal muscle surgery and developed better stereopsis than those in group 1, suggesting that the higher degree of single binocular vision and stereopsis in these children may have led to a compensatory torticollis to control an asymmetrical DVD. Conclusions: The onset of an unexpected head tilt after congenital esotropia surgery is usually a postural manifestation of asymmetrical DVD. In this setting, a head tilt toward the side of the fixing eye corresponds with a postural manifestation of the underlying central vestibular imbalance that produces DVD, while a head tilt toward the side of the hyperdeviating eye serves to counteract the hyperdeviation and stabilise binocular vision. PMID:14736789

  10. A Clinical Study to Examine the Effect of Complete Denture on Head Posture/Craniovertical Angle.

    PubMed

    Khare, Amit; Nandeeshwar, D B; Sangur, Rajashekar; Makkar, Sumit; Khare, Pooja; Chitumalla, Rajkiran; Prasad, Renuka

    2016-04-01

    Edentulous patients show some significant changes in ridge relationship caused by resorption of alveolar ridge. The changes are characterized by an upward rotation of mandible, increase in mandibular prognathism that ultimately results in change of natural head posture. This clinical study was planned to know the effect of complete denture on head posture in different age groups of Indian completely edentulous population, after placement of complete denture at various time intervals. The sample consisted of completely edentulous patients without previous experience of the dentures. They were divided into 2 age groups: Group A (45-60) and Group B (61-75). During placement of complete denture craniovertical angle was measured with the help of custom made ruler protector device. Readings were taken before denture placement, immediately after denture placement, 30 minutes, 24 hours and 30 days after dentures placement. The results of this study indicated that in most of the patients (90%) despite their age, change in head posture (extension) occurred immediately after the denture placement. Thereafter reading remains same for measurement at 30 minutes and 24 hours of denture placement. However after 30 days, observation revealed that all the patients showed reduced craniovertical angle (flexion). Even though the values of craniovertical angle remain higher than its baseline in both groups, significant changes were noticed only in Group A. Findings revealed that head posture was significantly altered by the placement of dentures in completely edentulous patients. Within the time interval of 30 minutes and 24 hours extension of head posture remained constant with slight variation. Although after 30 days, changes remained significant for group 'A', but no significant changes were observed in the subjects of group 'B'.

  11. Change in head posture and character of nystagmus in a patient with neurological upbeat nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Caleb; Seth, Rajeev K; Ramos-Esteban, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    To report a case of a patient with chin-up head posture and presumed congenital toxoplasmosis chorioretinal scars, who had a change in the character of the nystagmus and therefore the head posture following treatment for a neurological upbeat nystagmus. A 5 month old female presented with a chin up head posture and upbeat nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed an arachnoid cyst in the area of the pineal gland. Nine months after cyst-peritoneal shunt surgery, the upbeat nystagmus was dampened but change in character to a rotary nystagmus worse on the left gaze. The patient had assumed a left face turn, shifting the null point from the vertical to the horizontal plane. The left face turn was successfully corrected at age eight years with a Kestenbaum procedure. This case emphasizes the possibility of having two distinct types of nystagmus associated with two etiologies. In this case, an acquired upbeat nystagmus secondary to an arachnoid cyst, and a congenital left rotary nystagmus from the chorioretinal scars. Furthermore, there can be a change in head position and character of nystagmus after treating the cause of the central motility disorder, thereby affecting the choice and timing of surgical intervention to correct the head positioning.

  12. Vestibular ablation and a semicircular canal prosthesis affect postural stability during head turns

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Lara A.; Haburcakova, Csilla; Lewis, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    In our study, we examined postural stability during head turns for two rhesus monkeys: one, single animal study contrasted normal and mild bilateral vestibular ablation and a second animal study contrasted severe bilateral vestibular ablation with and without prosthetic stimulation. The monkeys freely stood, unrestrained on a balance platform and made voluntary head turns between visual targets. To quantify each animals’ posture, motions of the head and trunk, as well as torque about the body’s center-of-mass, were measured. In the mildly ablated animal, we observed less foretrunk sway in comparison to the normal state. When the canal prosthesis provided electric stimulation to the severely ablated animal, it showed a decrease in trunk sway during head turns. Because the rhesus monkey with severe bilateral vestibular loss exhibited a decrease in trunk sway when receiving vestibular prosthetic stimulation, we propose that the prosthetic electrical stimulation partially restored head velocity information. Our results provide an indication that a semicircular canal prosthesis may be an effective way to improve postural stability in patients with severe peripheral vestibular dysfunction. PMID:27405997

  13. The influence of gravity on regional lung blood flow in humans: SPECT in the upright and head-down posture.

    PubMed

    Ax, M; Sanchez-Crespo, A; Lindahl, S G E; Mure, M; Petersson, J

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that gravity has little influence on the distribution of lung blood flow while changing posture from supine to prone. This study aimed to evaluate the maximal influence of posture by comparison of regional lung blood flow in the upright and head-down posture in 8 healthy volunteers, using a tilt table. Regional lung blood flow was marked by intravenous injection of macroaggregates of human albumin labeled with 99m Tc or 113m In, in the upright and head-down posture, respectively, during tidal breathing. Both radiotracers remain fixed in the lung after administration. The distribution of radioactivity was mapped using quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) corrected for attenuation and scatter. All images were obtained supine during tidal breathing. A shift from upright to the head-down posture caused a clear redistribution of blood flow from basal to apical regions. We conclude that posture plays a role for the distribution of lung blood flow in upright humans, and that the influence of posture, and thereby gravity, is much greater in the upright and head-down posture than in horizontal postures. However, the results of the study demonstrate that lung structure is the main determinant of regional blood flow and gravity is a secondary contributor to the distribution of lung blood flow in the upright and head-down positions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using a dual-isotope quantitative SPECT method, we demonstrated that although a shift in posture redistributes blood flow in the direction of gravity, the results are also consistent with lung structure being a greater determinant of regional blood flow than gravity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use modern imaging methods to quantify the shift in regional lung blood flow in humans at a change between the upright and head-down postures. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. A link-segment model of upright human posture for analysis of head-trunk coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, S. C.; Doxey-Gasway, D. D.; Paloski, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Sensory-motor control of upright human posture may be organized in a top-down fashion such that certain head-trunk coordination strategies are employed to optimize visual and/or vestibular sensory inputs. Previous quantitative models of the biomechanics of human posture control have examined the simple case of ankle sway strategy, in which an inverted pendulum model is used, and the somewhat more complicated case of hip sway strategy, in which multisegment, articulated models are used. While these models can be used to quantify the gross dynamics of posture control, they are not sufficiently detailed to analyze head-trunk coordination strategies that may be crucial to understanding its underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we present a biomechanical model of upright human posture that extends an existing four mass, sagittal plane, link-segment model to a five mass model including an independent head link. The new model was developed to analyze segmental body movements during dynamic posturography experiments in order to study head-trunk coordination strategies and their influence on sensory inputs to balance control. It was designed specifically to analyze data collected on the EquiTest (NeuroCom International, Clackamas, OR) computerized dynamic posturography system, where the task of maintaining postural equilibrium may be challenged under conditions in which the visual surround, support surface, or both are in motion. The performance of the model was tested by comparing its estimated ground reaction forces to those measured directly by support surface force transducers. We conclude that this model will be a valuable analytical tool in the search for mechanisms of balance control.

  15. Head and cervical spine posture in behaving rats: implications for modeling human conditions involving the head and cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Griffin, C; Choong, W Y; Teh, W; Buxton, A J; Bolton, P S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the temporal and spatial (postural) characteristics of the head and cervical vertebral column (spine) of behaving rats in order to better understand their suitability as a model to study human conditions involving the head and neck. Time spent in each of four behavioral postures was determined from video tape recordings of rats (n = 10) in the absence and presence of an intruder rat. Plain film radiographic examination of a subset of these rats (n = 5) in each of these postures allowed measurement of head and cervical vertebral column positions adopted by the rats. When single they were quadruped or crouched most (∼80%) of the time and bipedal either supported or free standing for only ∼10% of the time. The introduction of an intruder significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the proportion of time rats spent quadruped (median, from 71% to 47%) and bipedal free standing (median, from 2.9% to 0.4%). The cervical spine was orientated (median, 25-75 percentile) near vertical (18.8°, 4.2°-30.9°) when quadruped, crouched (15.4°, 7.6°-69.3°) and bipedal supported (10.5°, 4.8°-22.6°) but tended to be less vertical oriented when bipedal free standing (25.9°, 7.7°-39.3°). The range of head positions relative to the cervical spine was largest when crouched (73.4°) and smallest when erect free standing (17.7°). This study indicates that, like humans, rats have near vertical orientated cervical vertebral columns but, in contrast to humans, they displace their head in space by movements at both the cervico-thoracic junction and the cranio-cervical regions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Does head posture have a significant effect on the hyoid bone position and sternocleidomastoid electromyographic activity in young adults?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Saúl; Miralles, Rodolfo; Ravera, María José; Zúñiga, Claudia; Santander, Hugo; Ferrer, Marcelo; Nakouzi, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between head posture (head extension, normal head posture, and head flexion) and anteroposterior head position, hyoid bone position, and the sternocleidomastoid integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity in a sample of young adults. The study included 50 individuals with natural dentition and bilateral molar support. A lateral craniocervical radiograph was taken for each subject and a cephalometric analysis was performed. Head posture was measured by means of the craniovertebral angle formed by the MacGregor plane and the odontoid plane. According to the value of this angle, the sample was divided into the following three groups: head extension (less than 95 degrees); normal head posture (between 95 degrees and 106 degrees); and head flexion (more than 106 degrees). The following cephalometric measurements were taken to compare the three groups: anteroposterior head position (true vertical plane/pterygoid distance), anteroposterior hyoid bone position (true vertical plane-Ha distance), vertical hyoid bone position (H-H' distance in the hyoid triangle), and CO-C2 distance. In the three groups, IEMG recordings at rest and during swallowing of saliva and maximal voluntary clenching were performed by placing bipolar surface electrodes on the right and left sternocleidomastoid muscles. In addition, the condition with/without craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD) in each group was also assessed. Head posture showed no significant association with anteroposterior head position, anteroposterior hyoid bone position, vertical hyoid bone position, or sternocleidomastoid IEMG activity. There was no association to head posture with/without the condition of CMD. Clinical relevance of the results is discussed.

  17. Postural responses of head and foot cutaneous microvascular flow and their sensitivity to bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aratow, Michael; Hargens, Alan R.; Meyer, J.-UWE; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1991-01-01

    To explore the mechanism for facial puffiness, headache, and nasal congestion associated with microgravity and cephalad fluid shifts, the postural responses of the cutaneous microcirculation (CMC) in the forehead and dorsum of the foot of eight healthy men were studied by changing body position on a tilt table and measuring blood flows with a laser Doppler flowmeter. Increasing arterial pressure in the feet by moving from a -6-deg head-down tilt to a 60-deg head-up posture decreased foot CMC by 46.5 + or - 12.0 percent. Raising arterial pressure in the head increased forehead CMC by 25.5 + or - 0.7 percent (p less than 0.05). To investigate the possibility that these opposite responses could be modified by simulated microgravity, tilt test were repeated after 7 d of -6-deg head-down-tilt bed rest. The responses were not significantly different from those recorded before bed rest. Therefore, CMC in the feet is well regulated to prevent edema when shifting to an upright position, whereas there is less regulation in the head CMC.

  18. Passenger head in impact with frontal airbag in OOP postures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovidiu Soica, Adrian; Toganel, George-Radu

    2017-10-01

    Road accidents represent an aspect of road traffic that may lead negative consequences. In order to solve the problems associated with such events, interdisciplinary knowledge is called for, complex teams of engineers, doctors, lawyers, experts working together in order to reduce the severity of such events. Road safety is a continuous concern for both experts and various government organizations with the aim of protecting the lives of the participants in traffic. It has been estimated that the costs of traffic accidents account for 1-3% of a country GDP, depending on the level of country development [26]. In this paper we analyze a particular class of cases of injuries caused to passengers caused by the inflation of the frontal airbag when they are with the passenger out of position. Head kinematics, accelerations, as well as the severity of injuries expressed by HIC, as related to the AIS scale have been analysed.

  19. The relationship between temporomandibular dysfunction and head and cervical posture.

    PubMed

    Matheus, Ricardo Alves; Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Menezes, Alynne Vieira; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; de Almeida, Solange Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of any correlation between disc displacement and parameters used for evaluation of skull positioning in relation to the cervical spine: craniocervical angle, suboccipital space between C0-C1, cervical curvature and position of the hyoid bone in individuals with and without symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction. The patients were evaluated following the guidelines set forth by RDC/TMD. Evaluation was performed by magnetic resonance imaging for establishment of disc positioning in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 30 volunteer patients without temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms and 30 patients with symptoms. Evaluation of skull positioning in relation to the cervical spine was performed on lateral cephalograms achieved with the individual in natural head position. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Fisher's exact test at 5% significance level. To measure the degree of reproducibility/agreements between surveys, the kappa (K) statistics was used. Significant differences were observed between C0-C1 measurement for both symptomatic (p=0.04) and asymptomatic (p=0.02). No statistical differences were observed regarding craniocervical angle, C1-C2 and hyoid bone position in relation to the TMJs with and without disc displacement. Although statistically significant difference was found in the C0-C1 space, no association between these and internal temporomandibular joint disorder can be considered. Based on the results observed in this study, no direct relationship could be determined between the presence of disc displacement and the variables assessed.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DYSFUNCTION AND HEAD AND CERVICAL POSTURE

    PubMed Central

    Matheus, Ricardo Alves; Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Menezes, Alynne Vieira; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter, Francisco; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; de Almeida, Solange Maria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of any correlation between disc displacement and parameters used for evaluation of skull positioning in relation to the cervical spine: craniocervical angle, suboccipital space between C0-C1, cervical curvature and position of the hyoid bone in individuals with and without symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction. Material and Methods: The patients were evaluated following the guidelines set forth by RDC/TMD. Evaluation was performed by magnetic resonance imaging for establishment of disc positioning in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 30 volunteer patients without temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms and 30 patients with symptoms. Evaluation of skull positioning in relation to the cervical spine was performed on lateral cephalograms achieved with the individual in natural head position. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Fisher's exact test at 5% significance level. To measure the degree of reproducibility/agreements between surveys, the kappa (K) statistics was used. Results: Significant differences were observed between C0-C1 measurement for both symptomatic (p=0.04) and asymptomatic (p=0.02). No statistical differences were observed regarding craniocervical angle, C1-C2 and hyoid bone position in relation to the TMJs with and without disc displacement. Although statistically significant difference was found in the C0-C1 space, no association between these and internal temporomandibular joint disorder can be considered. Conclusion: Based on the results observed in this study, no direct relationship could be determined between the presence of disc displacement and the variables assessed. PMID:19466252

  1. Is there relationship between temporomandibular disorders and head and cervical posture? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C P; Croci, C S; Caria, P H F

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to find sufficient evidence to deny or accept the association between the head and cervical posture and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), and thus assist health professionals in the evaluation and treatment of patients with TMDs. A search was conducted through all publications written in English about this topic using the databases from Medline, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, PubMed and Lilacs. The abstracts that fulfilled the initial guideline were retrieved and evaluated to ensure they met the inclusion criteria. To assess the methodological quality of the studies, we developed a questionnaire considering the following criteria: participant's eligibility, control group, diagnosis of TMDs, posture diagnosis and randomisation. Twenty-two studies were selected as potential studies based on their abstracts. Only seventeen studies actually fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The search provided information about the methodological quality of the studies, in which several methodological defects were found. The evidence presented in this systematic review shows that the relation between TMDs and the head and neck posture is still controversial and unclear. The insufficient number of articles considered of excellent methodological quality is a factor that hinders the acceptance or denial of this association. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Arterial Pressure Gradients during Upright Posture and 30 deg Head Down Tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, E. R; William, J. M.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gravity alters local blood pressure within the body so that arterial pressures in the head and foot are lower and higher, respectively, than that at heart level. Furthermore, vascular responses to local alterations of arterial pressure are probably important to maintain orthostatic tolerance upon return to the Earth after space flight. However, it has been difficult to evaluate the body's arterial pressure gradient due to the lack of noninvasive technology. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether finger arterial pressure (FAP), measured noninvasively, follows a normal hydrostatic pressure gradient above and below heart level during upright posture and 30 deg head down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy subjects gave informed consent and were 19 to 52 years old with a height range of 158 to 181 cm. A Finapres device measured arterial pressure at different levels of the body by moving the hand from 36 cm below heart level (BH) to 72 cm above heart level (AH) in upright posture and from 36 cm BH to 48 cm AH during HDT in increments of 12 cm. Mean FAP creased by 85 mmHg transitioning from BH to AH in upright posture, and the pressure gradient calculated from hydrostatic pressure difference (rho(gh)) was 84 mmHg. In HDT, mean FAP decreased by 65 mmHg from BH to AH, and the calculated pressure gradient was also 65 mmHg. There was no significant difference between the measured FAP gradient and the calculated pressure gradient, although a significant (p = 0.023) offset was seen for absolute arterial pressure in upright posture. These results indicate that arterial pressure at various levels can be obtained from the blood pressure at heart level by calculating rho(gh) + an offset. The offset equals the difference between heart level and the site of measurement. In summary, we conclude that local blood pressure gradients can be measured by noninvasive studies of FAP.

  3. Orientation and position of head posture, scapula and thoracic spine in mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Patrícia Dayrell; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Godinho, Ricardo

    2009-02-01

    Mouth-breathing is a common clinical condition among school-age children and some studies have correlated this condition with quality of life and postural alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the orientation and position of the scapula, thoracic spine and head posture among mouth-breathing (MB) children and nasal-breathing (NB) children. Twenty-one male MB children and 21 male NB children between 8 and 12 years of age participated in the study. Data were obtained through a stereophotogrammetry system that uses passive markers over anatomical landmarks to capture the position of the segments. Internal rotation, upward rotation, anterior tilt, scapular elevation and abduction were measured bilaterally as well as thoracic kyphosis, forward head position and shoulder protrusion. The MB children showed increased scapular superior position in relation to the NB group. No statistically significant differences were found between groups regarding the angular and linear measurements of the scapula. To verify reliability, three measurements were taken for each variable in the study. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed results above 0.8 for all the variables except for the internal rotation angle (I-Rot), below 0.5, probably due to uncertainty in the palpation of the inferior angle of the scapula. Ninety-five percent of the NB children and 58% among the MB children had been breastfed, this difference was statistically significant. There were statistically significant differences between groups regarding the domains of the Autoquestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Imagé (AUQEI) scale and body mass index, which was higher among the NB children. MB children increased scapular superior position in comparison to NB children due probably to the position of forward head, leading to an alteration in the positioning of the mandible. The absence of significantly difference in posture pattern between groups in the present study could

  4. Furniture dimensions and postural overload for schoolchildren's head, upper back and upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Batistão, Mariana Vieira; Sentanin, Anna Cláudia; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how the fixed furniture dimensions match with students' anthropometry and to describe head, upper back and upper limbs postures and movements. Evaluation was performed in 48 students from a Brazilian state school. Furniture dimensions were measured with metric tape, movements and postures by inclinometers (Logger Tecknologi, Åkarp, Sweden). Seat height was high for 21% and low for 36% of the students; seat length was short for 45% and long for 9% and table height was high for 53% and low for 28%. Regression analysis showed that seat/popliteal height quotient is explained by 90th percentile of upper back inclination (β=0.410) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=-0.293). For seat/thigh length quotient the significant variables were 90th percentile of upper back velocity (β=-0.282) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=0.410). This study showed a relationship between furniture mismatch and postural overload. When the seat height is low students increase upper back left inclination and right upper arm elevation; when the seat is short students decrease the upper back flexion velocity and increase right upper arm elevation.

  5. Postural control and head stability during natural gaze behaviour in 6- to 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Schärli, A M; van de Langenberg, R; Murer, K; Müller, R M

    2013-06-01

    We investigated how the influence of natural exploratory gaze behaviour on postural control develops from childhood into adulthood. In a cross-sectional design, we compared four age groups: 6-, 9-, 12-year-olds and young adults. Two experimental trials were performed: quiet stance with a fixed gaze (fixed) and quiet stance with natural exploratory gaze behaviour (exploratory). The latter was elicited by having participants watch an animated short film on a large screen in front of them. 3D head rotations in space and centre of pressure (COP) excursions on the ground plane were measured. Across conditions, both head rotation and COP displacement decreased with increasing age. Head movement was greater in the exploratory condition in all age groups. In all children-but not in adults-COP displacement was markedly greater in the exploratory condition. Bivariate correlations across groups showed highly significant positive correlations between COP displacement in ML direction and head rotation in yaw, roll, and pitch in both conditions. The regularity of COP displacements did not show a clear developmental trend, which indicates that COP dynamics were qualitatively similar across age groups. Together, the results suggest that the contribution of head movement to eye-head saccades decreases with age and that head instability-in part resulting from such gaze-related head movements-is an important limiting factor in children's postural control. The lack of head stabilisation might particularly affect children in everyday activities in which both postural control and visual exploration are required.

  6. Effects of neurofeedback training on the brain wave of adults with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Song, Gui-Bin

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of neurofeedback training on electroencephalogram changes in the cervical spine in adults with forward head posture through x-ray. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 40 college students with forward head posture, randomly divided into a neurofeedback training group (NFTG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). The neurofeedback training group performed six sessions of pottery and archery games, each for two minutes, three times per week for four weeks, while using the neurofeedback system. [Results] There were significant effects within and between groups in terms of the Delta wave, the Theta wave, the Alpha wave, the Beta wave, or the sensory motor rhythm. Especially, the Delta wave, Beta wave, and the sensory motor rhythm were showed significant effects between the groups. [Conclusion] It is thought that neurofeedback training, a training approach to self-regulate brain waves, enhances concentration and relaxation without stress, as well as an increase in attention, memory, and verbal cognitive performance. Therefore an effective intervention method to improve neck pain and daily activities.

  7. Effects of neurofeedback training on the brain wave of adults with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Song, Gui-Bin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of neurofeedback training on electroencephalogram changes in the cervical spine in adults with forward head posture through x-ray. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 40 college students with forward head posture, randomly divided into a neurofeedback training group (NFTG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). The neurofeedback training group performed six sessions of pottery and archery games, each for two minutes, three times per week for four weeks, while using the neurofeedback system. [Results] There were significant effects within and between groups in terms of the Delta wave, the Theta wave, the Alpha wave, the Beta wave, or the sensory motor rhythm. Especially, the Delta wave, Beta wave, and the sensory motor rhythm were showed significant effects between the groups. [Conclusion] It is thought that neurofeedback training, a training approach to self-regulate brain waves, enhances concentration and relaxation without stress, as well as an increase in attention, memory, and verbal cognitive performance. Therefore an effective intervention method to improve neck pain and daily activities. PMID:27821966

  8. The Evaluation of Head and Craniocervical Posture among Patients with and without Temporomandibular Joint Disorders- A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Saddu, Shweta Channavir; Dyasanoor, Sujatha; Valappila, Nidhin J; Ravi, Beena Varma

    2015-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most common non-dental cause of orofacial pain with a multifactorial aetiology. To evaluate the head and craniocervical posture between individuals with and without TMD and its sub types by photographic and radiographic method. Thirty four TMD patients diagnosed according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD's (RDC/TMD) and were divided into 2 groups: Group I (muscle disorder), Group II (disc displacement). Control group comprised of 34 age and sex matched subjects without TMD. Lateral view photographs were taken and the head posture angle was measured. Craniocervical posture was assessed on lateral skull radiograph with two angles (Craniocervical Angle, Cervical Curvature Angle) and two distances (Suboccipital Space, Atlas-Axis Distance). To compare the results, t-test was used with significance level of 0.05. Head posture showed no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05) between Group I, II and control group in both photographic and radiographic methods. The cervical curvature angle showed significant difference (p = 0.045) in Group I only. Atlas-Axis Distance was statistically significant in Group II (p = 0.001). The present study confirmed that there is a negative association of head posture and TMD whereas, cervical lordosis was present in Group I only.

  9. The Evaluation of Head and Craniocervical Posture among Patients with and without Temporomandibular Joint Disorders- A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Saddu, Shweta Channavir; Dyasanoor, Sujatha; Ravi, Beena Varma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most common non-dental cause of orofacial pain with a multifactorial aetiology. Aim To evaluate the head and craniocervical posture between individuals with and without TMD and its sub types by photographic and radiographic method. Materials and Methods Thirty four TMD patients diagnosed according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD’s (RDC/TMD) and were divided into 2 groups: Group I (muscle disorder), Group II (disc displacement). Control group comprised of 34 age and sex matched subjects without TMD. Lateral view photographs were taken and the head posture angle was measured. Craniocervical posture was assessed on lateral skull radiograph with two angles (Craniocervical Angle, Cervical Curvature Angle) and two distances (Suboccipital Space, Atlas-Axis Distance). To compare the results, t-test was used with significance level of 0.05. Results Head posture showed no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05) between Group I, II and control group in both photographic and radiographic methods. The cervical curvature angle showed significant difference (p = 0.045) in Group I only. Atlas-Axis Distance was statistically significant in Group II (p = 0.001). Conclusion The present study confirmed that there is a negative association of head posture and TMD whereas, cervical lordosis was present in Group I only. PMID:26436048

  10. [Abnormal head turn in a patient with Brown's syndrome].

    PubMed

    van Waveren, M; Krzizok, T; Besch, D

    2008-08-01

    We report on an eight-year-old boy, who was presented in our clinic because of head turn. The cause of the tortecollis (ocular or general) in this case was and still cannot be explained. Only by applying extensive prism adaptation tests it was possible to prove the ocular character of the head turn. An eight-year-old boy with Brown's syndrome was referred to us because of a head tilt to the left side. Six months previously surgery on the M. obl. superior of the right eye was performed in another clinic. No improvement of the head tilt could be observed after the operation. In addition, an exotropia became decompensated. Under a 3-day occlusion of one eye, no change of the head turn and the squint could be measured. No other cause of the head turn could be found by an orthopaedist and a paediatrist. Under a prism of 20 cm/m basis in and 10 cm/m basis against the positive vertical deviation, the head tilt decreased, so that we decided to do a second surgery. The head tilting had not resumed at one year after the surgery. Although the initial diagnostic findings ruled out an ocular cause, it was possible to lessen the head tilting with the aid of the prism adaptation test. This case study emphasises the usefulness of a prism adaptation test of several days duration in order to validate an ocular cause of head turn and to determine an adequate indication for surgery.

  11. Head posture and dental wear evaluation of bruxist children with primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Vélez, A L; Restrepo, C C; Peláez-Vargas, A; Gallego, G J; Alvarez, E; Tamayo, V; Tamayo, M

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the head position and dental wear of bruxist and non-bruxist children with primary dentition. All the subjects had complete primary dentition, dental and skeletal class I occlusion and were classified as bruxist or non-bruxist according to their anxiety level, bruxism described by their parents and signs of temporomandibular disorders. The dental wear was drawn in dental casts and processed in digital format. Physiotherapeutic evaluation and a cephalometric radiograph with natural head position were also performed for each child to evaluate the cranio-cervical position for the bruxist group (n = 33) and the control group (n = 20). The variables of the two groups were compared, using the Student t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. A more anterior and downward head tilt was found in the bruxist group, with statistically significant differences compared with the controls. More significant dental wear was observed in the bruxist children. Bruxism seems to be related to altered natural head posture and more intense dental wear. Further studies are necessary to explore bruxism mechanisms.

  12. Use of the Occivator for the correction of forward head posture, and the implications for temporomandibular disorders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Catherine; Makofsky, Howard W; Britt, Christina; Adomsky, Barbara; Deshler, Jennifer Matire; Ramirez, Paula; Douris, Peter

    2008-04-01

    Numerous studies suggest that temporomandibular disorders may be associated with forward head posture. The current study presents a need for an intervention that will effectively facilitate an ideal postural alignment of the head. The Occivator (Posteocentric Systems, Mastic Beach, NY) is an intervention speculated to improve forward head posture (FHP). However there has not been a randomized study to correlate use of the Occivator with improvement of FHP. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Occivator as a therapeutic intervention for the correction of FHP. Using a plumb line, twenty-nine (29) subjects were selected on the basis of having FHP. The CROM (cervical range of motion) device was used to determine measurement of forward head position for each group, pre and post an eight week period. The experimental group followed a specific protocol of 20 minutes of stretches and exercises on the Occivator, two times a week for eight weeks. The control group did not receive any intervention. The experimental group as compared to the control group, demonstrated significant improvement for forward head posture (p = .02). Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Occivator.

  13. A computerized photographic method to evaluate changes in head posture and scapular position following rapid palatal expansion: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cerruto, Carmen; Di Vece, Luca; Doldo, Tiziana; Giovannetti, Agostino; Polimeni, Antonella; Goracci, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    To assess the applicability of a computerized method to measure on digital photographs the changes in head and scapular posture following rapid palatal expansion (RPE) treatment. Randomized controlled trial. Twenty-three children (age 9.2 +/- 70.88 years) diagnosed with maxillary constriction were randomly divided into two groups: 1. Study group (n = 12): patients receiving RPE treatment; 2. Untreated controls (n = 11). Postural measurements were taken on frontal, lateral, and dorsal views of each subject. In the study group measurements were taken at T0 (the day orthodontic records were taken), T1 (end of RPE active phase), and T2 (RPE removal). In controls the same observations were conducted at T0 and T1(98.18 +/- 36.01 days after T0). Measurements were statistically analyzed (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, t-tests, Signed Rank test, One-Way Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, Tukey test; p < 0.05). In the study group a significant reduction in forward head posture (FHP) occurred between T0 and T1. Forward shoulder posture (FSP) decreased significantly between T1 and T2. At T1 treated patients exhibited significantly lower values of the measurements indicating FHP and FSP than controls. Changes in head and scapular posture following RPE treatment can be documented with computerized measurements on digital photographs.

  14. Repetitive head impacts do not affect postural control following a competitive athletic season.

    PubMed

    Murray, Nicholas G; Grimes, Katelyn E; Shiflett, Eric D; Munkasy, Barry A; D'Amico, Nathan R; Mormile, Megan E; Powell, Douglas W; Buckley, Thomas A

    2017-10-03

    Evidence suggests that Repetitive Head Impacts (RHI) directly influence the brain over the course of a single contact collision season yet do not significantly impact a player's performance on the standard clinical concussion assessment battery. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in static postural control after a season of RHI in Division I football athletes using more sensitive measures of postural control as compared to a non-head contact sports. Fourteen Division I football players (CON) (age=20.4±1.12years) and fourteen non-contact athletes (NON) (2 male, 11 female; age=19.85±1.21years) completed a single trial of two minutes of eyes open quiet upright stance on a force platform (1000Hz) prior to athletic participation (PRE) and at the end of the athletic season (POST). All CON athletes wore helmets outfitted with Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) sensors and total number of RHI and linear accelerations forces of each RHI were recorded. Center of pressure root mean square (RMS), peak excursion velocity (PEV), and sample entropy (SampEn) in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions were calculated. CON group experienced 649.5±496.8 mean number of impacts, 27.1±3.0 mean linear accelerations, with ≈1% of total player impacts exceeded 98g over the course of the season. There were no significant interactions for group x time RMS in the AP (p=0.434) and ML (p=0.114) directions, PEV in the AP (p=0.262) and ML (p=0.977) directions, and SampEn in the AP (p=0.499) and ML (p=0.984) directions. In addition, no significant interactions for group were observed for RMS in the AP (p=0.105) and ML (p=0.272) directions, PEV in the AP (p=0.081) and ML (p=0.143) directions, and SampEn in the AP (p=0.583) and ML (p=0.129) directions. These results suggest that over the course of a single competitive season, RHI do not negatively impact postural control even when measured with sensitive non-linear metrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Using Tri-Axial Accelerometers to Assess the Dynamic Control of Head Posture During Gait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, John H., III

    2003-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight is known to cause a variety of biomedical stressors to the astronaut. One of the more functionally destabilizing effects of spaceflight involves microgravity-induced changes in vestibular or balance control. Balance control requires the integration of the vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive systems. In the microgravity environment, the normal gravity vector present on Earth no longer serves as a reference for the balance control system. Therefore, adaptive changes occur to the vestibular system to affect control of body orientation with altered, or non-present, gravity and/or proprioceptive inputs. Upon return to a gravity environment, the vestibular system must re-incorporate the gravity vector and gravity-induced proprioceptive inputs into the balance control regime. The result is often a period of postural instability, which may also be associated with space motion sickness (oscillopsia, nausea, and vertigo). Previous studies by the JSC Neuroscience group have found that returning astronauts often employ alterations in gait mechanics to maintain postural control during gait. It is believed that these gait alterations are meant to decrease the transfer of heel strike shock energy to the head, thus limiting the contradictory head and eye movements that lead to gait instability and motion sickness symptoms. We analyzed pre- and post-spaceflight tri-axial accelerometer data from the NASA/MIR long duration spaceflight missions to assess the heel to head transfer of heel strike shock energy during locomotion. Up to seven gait sessions (three preflight, four postflight) of head and shank (lower leg) accelerometer data was previously collected from six astronauts who engaged in space flights of four to six months duration. In our analysis, the heel to head transmission of shock energy was compared using peak vertical acceleration (a), peak jerk (j) ratio, and relative kinetic energy (a). A host of generalized movement variables was produced

  16. Investigation of the Differential Contributions of Superficial and Deep Muscles on Cervical Spinal Loads with Changing Head Postures

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal loads are predominately influenced by activities of cervical muscles. However, the coordination between deep and superficial muscles and their influence on the spinal loads is not well understood. This study aims to document the changes of cervical spinal loads and the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles with varying head postures. Electromyography (EMG) of cervical muscles from seventeen healthy adults were measured during maximal isometric exertions for lateral flexion (at 10°, 20° and terminal position) as well as flexion/extension (at 10°, 20°, 30°, and terminal position) neck postures. An EMG-assisted optimization approach was used to estimate the muscle forces and subsequent spinal loads. The results showed that compressive and anterior-posterior shear loads increased significantly with neck flexion. In particular, deep muscle forces increased significantly with increasing flexion. It was also determined that in all different static head postures, the deep muscle forces were greater than those of the superficial muscle forces, however, such pattern was reversed during peak efforts where greater superficial muscle forces were identified with increasing angle of inclination. In summary, the identification of significantly increased spinal loads associated with increased deep muscle activation during flexion postures, implies higher risks in predisposing the neck to occupationally related disorders. The results also explicitly supported that deep muscles play a greater role in maintaining stable head postures where superficial muscles are responsible for peak exertions and reinforcing the spinal stability at terminal head postures. This study provided quantitative data of normal cervical spinal loads and revealed motor control strategies in coordinating the superficial and deep muscles during physical tasks. PMID:26938773

  17. Investigation of the Differential Contributions of Superficial and Deep Muscles on Cervical Spinal Loads with Changing Head Postures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal loads are predominately influenced by activities of cervical muscles. However, the coordination between deep and superficial muscles and their influence on the spinal loads is not well understood. This study aims to document the changes of cervical spinal loads and the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles with varying head postures. Electromyography (EMG) of cervical muscles from seventeen healthy adults were measured during maximal isometric exertions for lateral flexion (at 10°, 20° and terminal position) as well as flexion/extension (at 10°, 20°, 30°, and terminal position) neck postures. An EMG-assisted optimization approach was used to estimate the muscle forces and subsequent spinal loads. The results showed that compressive and anterior-posterior shear loads increased significantly with neck flexion. In particular, deep muscle forces increased significantly with increasing flexion. It was also determined that in all different static head postures, the deep muscle forces were greater than those of the superficial muscle forces, however, such pattern was reversed during peak efforts where greater superficial muscle forces were identified with increasing angle of inclination. In summary, the identification of significantly increased spinal loads associated with increased deep muscle activation during flexion postures, implies higher risks in predisposing the neck to occupationally related disorders. The results also explicitly supported that deep muscles play a greater role in maintaining stable head postures where superficial muscles are responsible for peak exertions and reinforcing the spinal stability at terminal head postures. This study provided quantitative data of normal cervical spinal loads and revealed motor control strategies in coordinating the superficial and deep muscles during physical tasks.

  18. Standard (head-down tilt) versus modified (without head-down tilt) postural drainage in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Diana A; Chaves, Gabriela Ss; Santino, Thayla A; Ribeiro, Cibele Td; Dias, Fernando Al; Guerra, Ricardo O; Mendonça, Karla Mpp

    2018-03-09

    Postural drainage is used primarily in infants with cystic fibrosis from diagnosis up to the moment when they are mature enough to actively participate in self-administered treatments. However, there is a risk of gastroesophageal reflux associated with this technique.This is an update of a review published in 2015. To compare the effects of standard postural drainage (15º to 45º head-down tilt) with modified postural drainage (15º to 30º head-up tilt) with regard to gastroesophageal reflux in infants and young children up to six years old with cystic fibrosis in terms of safety and efficacy. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Additional searches were conducted on ClinicalTrials.gov and on the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for any planned, ongoing and unpublished studies.The date of the most recent literature searches: 19 June 2017. We included randomised controlled studies that compared two postural drainage regimens (standard and modified postural drainage) with regard to gastroesophageal reflux in infants and young children (up to and including six years old) with cystic fibrosis. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently identified studies for inclusion, extracted outcome data and assessed risk of bias. We resolved disagreements by consensus or by involving a third review author. We contacted study authors to obtain missing or additional information. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Two studies, involving a total of 40 participants, were eligible for inclusion in the review. We included no new studies in the 2018 update. The included studies were different in terms of the age of participants, the angle of tilt, the reported outcomes, the number of sessions and the study duration. The following outcomes were measured

  19. Eye, head, and body coordination during large gaze shifts in rhesus monkeys: movement kinematics and the influence of posture.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Meaghan K; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2007-04-01

    Coordinated movements of the eye, head, and body are used to redirect the axis of gaze between objects of interest. However, previous studies of eye-head gaze shifts in head-unrestrained primates generally assumed the contribution of body movement to be negligible. Here we characterized eye-head-body coordination during horizontal gaze shifts made by trained rhesus monkeys to visual targets while they sat upright in a standard primate chair and assumed a more natural sitting posture in a custom-designed chair. In both postures, gaze shifts were characterized by the sequential onset of eye, head, and body movements, which could be described by predictable relationships. Body motion made a small but significant contribution to gaze shifts that were > or =40 degrees in amplitude. Furthermore, as gaze shift amplitude increased (40-120 degrees ), body contribution and velocity increased systematically. In contrast, peak eye and head velocities plateaued at velocities of approximately 250-300 degrees /s, and the rotation of the eye-in-orbit and head-on-body remained well within the physical limits of ocular and neck motility during large gaze shifts, saturating at approximately 35 and 60 degrees , respectively. Gaze shifts initiated with the eye more contralateral in the orbit were accompanied by smaller body as well as head movement amplitudes and velocities were greater when monkeys were seated in the more natural body posture. Taken together, our findings show that body movement makes a predictable contribution to gaze shifts that is systematically influenced by factors such as orbital position and posture. We conclude that body movements are part of a coordinated series of motor events that are used to voluntarily reorient gaze and that these movements can be significant even in a typical laboratory setting. Our results emphasize the need for caution in the interpretation of data from neurophysiological studies of the control of saccadic eye movements and/or eye-head

  20. Effective seat-to-head transmissibility in whole-body vibration: Effects of posture and arm position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmatalla, Salam; DeShaw, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    Seat-to-head transmissibility is a biomechanical measure that has been widely used for many decades to evaluate seat dynamics and human response to vibration. Traditionally, transmissibility has been used to correlate single-input or multiple-input with single-output motion; it has not been effectively used for multiple-input and multiple-output scenarios due to the complexity of dealing with the coupled motions caused by the cross-axis effect. This work presents a novel approach to use transmissibility effectively for single- and multiple-input and multiple-output whole-body vibrations. In this regard, the full transmissibility matrix is transformed into a single graph, such as those for single-input and single-output motions. Singular value decomposition and maximum distortion energy theory were used to achieve the latter goal. Seat-to-head transmissibility matrices for single-input/multiple-output in the fore-aft direction, single-input/multiple-output in the vertical direction, and multiple-input/multiple-output directions are investigated in this work. A total of ten subjects participated in this study. Discrete frequencies of 0.5-16 Hz were used for the fore-aft direction using supported and unsupported back postures. Random ride files from a dozer machine were used for the vertical and multiple-axis scenarios considering two arm postures: using the armrests or grasping the steering wheel. For single-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed method was very effective in showing the frequencies where the transmissibility is mostly sensitive for the two sitting postures and two arm positions. For multiple-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed effective transmissibility indicated higher values for the armrest-supported posture than for the steering-wheel-supported posture.

  1. Bilaterally Abnormal Head Impulse Tests Indicate a Large Cerebellopontine Angle Tumor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Ji Soo; Koo, Ja Won; Kim, Chae Yong; Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Jung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Tumors involving the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) pose a diagnostic challenge due to their diverse manifestations. Head impulse tests (HITs) have been used to evaluate vestibular function, but few studies have explored the head impulse gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in patients with a vestibular schwannoma. This study tested whether the head impulse gain of the VOR is an indicator of the size of a unilateral CPA tumor. Twenty-eight patients (21 women; age=64±12 years, mean±SD) with a unilateral CPA tumor underwent a recording of the HITs using a magnetic search coil technique. Patients were classified into non-compressing (T1-T3) and compressing (T4) groups according to the Hannover classification. Most (23/28, 82%) of the patients showed abnormal HITs for the semicircular canals on the lesion side. The bilateral abnormality in HITs was more common in the compressing group than the non-compressing group (80% vs. 8%, Pearson's chi-square test: p<0.001). The tumor size was inversely correlated with the head impulse gain of the VOR in either direction. Bilaterally abnormal HITs indicate that a patient has a large unilateral CPA tumor. The abnormal HITs in the contralesional direction may be explained either by adaptation or by compression and resultant dysfunction of the cerebellar and brainstem structures. The serial evaluation of HITs may provide information on tumor growth, and thereby reduce the number of costly brain scans required when following up patients with CPA tumors.

  2. Periodic upright posture negates the suppression of neuroendocrine response to head down bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Vernikos, J.; Evans, J.; Ohara, D.

    1992-01-01

    Head down bedrest (HDT) decreases plasma neurohormone levels, attaining a nadir within four hours. The present study evaluates the effect of periodic standing or exercises (+G(z)) on this acute suppression of plasma neurohormones. Methods: Nine male subjects (mean plus or minus SE age 37 plus or minus 2 yr; height 182 plus or minus 2 cm; weight 83 plus or minus 3 kg) were admitted to the Human Research Facility on three occasions separated by one month. Subjects were assigned to head down tilt (minus 6 degrees) or 15-minutes of standing or moderate exercise at the end of each hour. Initially during an ambulatory period, subjects were placed in a supine position for 45-min and a control blood sample obtained. The next day following 4 hours of HDT with or without standing or exercise a blood sample was taken 45-min (3 3/4 hours into HDT) after the preceding stand or exercise. Blood was withdrawn and all plasma samples frozen for determination of neurohormone levels within the same assay. Plasma aldosterone, Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) levels were measured by electrochemical detection following HPLC. Values were compared by ANOVA, P less than 0.05. Results: Control levels following 45-min supine were not different between treatments. HDT suppressed plasma aldosterone (13.9 plus or minus 3.7 to 6.6 plus or minus 0.7 ng/dl) and NE levels (299 plus or minus 35 to 217 plus or minus 23 pg/dl), E (69 plus or minus 15 to 65 plus or minus 21 pg/ml), and PRA (0.64 plus or minus 0.13 to 0.58 plus or minus 0.17 ngAl/m/hr) were not significantly altered. Standing or exercise negated the decrease in aldosterone and NE levels due to HDT. Conclusions: Periodic upright posture (+G(z)) with or without exercise for 15-min out of each hour negates the acute suppression of aldosterone and NE associated with HDT.

  3. Experimental procedure for measuring and comparing head-neck-trunk posture and movements caused by different progressive addition lens designs.

    PubMed

    Mateo, B; Porcar-Seder, R; Solaz, J S; Dürsteler, J C

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrates that appropriate measurement procedures can detect differences in head movement in a near reading task when using three different progressive addition lenses (PALs). The movements were measured using an anatomical reference system with a biomechanical rationale. This reference system was capable of representing rotations for comparing head flexion relative to trunk, head flexion relative to neck, head rotation relative to trunk and trunk flexion. The subject sample comprised 31 volunteers and three PAL designs with different viewing zones were selected. Significant differences were found between the lenses for three of the seven movement parameters examined. The differences occurred for both vertical and horizontal head movements and could be attributed to aspects of the PAL design. The measurement of the complete kinematic trunk-neck-head chain improved the number of differences that were found over those in previous studies. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The study proposes a methodology based on a biomechanical rationale able to differentiate head-neck-trunk posture and movements caused by different progressive addition lens designs with minimum invasiveness. This methodology could also be applied to analyse the ergonomics of other devices that restrict the user's field of view, such as helmets, personal protective equipment or helmet-mounted displays for pilots. This analysis will allow designers to optimise designs offering higher comfort and performance.

  4. Head circumference and height abnormalities in autism revisited: the role of pre- and perinatal risk factors.

    PubMed

    Schrieken, Margo; Visser, Janne; Oosterling, Iris; van Steijn, Daphne; Bons, Daniëlle; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan; Donders, Rogier; Rommelse, Nanda

    2013-01-01

    Pre/perinatal risk factors and body growth abnormalities have been studied frequently as early risk markers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet their interrelatedness in ASD has received very little research attention. This is surprising, given that pre/perinatal risk factors can have a substantial impact on growth trajectories in the first years of life. We aimed to determine which pre/perinatal factors were more prevalent in ASD children and if these factors differentially influenced body growth in ASD and control children. A total of 96 ASD and 163 control children matched for gender participated. Data of growth of head size and body length during the first 13 months of life were collected. Data on pre/perinatal risk factors were retrospectively collected through standardized questionnaires. Results indicated that after matching for SES, prematurity/low birth weight and being first born were more prevalent in the ASD versus the control group. In addition, with increasing age children with ASD tended to have a proportionally smaller head circumference compared to their height. However, the effect of prematurity/low birth weight on head growth corrected for height was significantly different in ASD and control children: premature/low birth weight control children showed a disproportionate larger head circumference in relation to height during their first year of life, whereas this effect was absent in premature/low birth weight ASD children. This may suggest that the etiology of abnormal growth is potentially different in ASD and control children: where abnormal growth in control children is related to suboptimal conditions in the uterus, abnormal growth in ASD may be more strongly related to the causal factors that also increase the risk for ASD. However, prospective studies measuring growth and ASD characteristics in both premature/low birth weight and a terme children are necessary to support this conclusion.

  5. Soccer Heading Is Associated with White Matter Microstructural and Cognitive Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namhee; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Kim, Mimi; Stewart, Walter F.; Branch, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of soccer heading with subclinical evidence of traumatic brain injury. Materials and Methods: With institutional review board approval and compliance with HIPAA guidelines, 37 amateur soccer players (mean age, 30.9 years; 78% [29] men, 22% [eight] women) gave written informed consent and completed a questionnaire to quantify heading in the prior 12 months and lifetime concussions. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.0 T was performed (32 directions; b value, 800 sec/mm2; 2 × 2 × 2-mm voxels). Cognitive function was measured by using a computerized battery of tests. Voxelwise linear regression (heading vs fractional anisotropy [FA]) was applied to identify significant regional associations. FA at each location and cognition were tested for a nonlinear relationship to heading by using an inverse logit model that incorporated demographic covariates and history of concussion. Results: Participants had headed 32–5400 times (median, 432 times) over the previous year. Heading was associated with lower FA at three locations in temporo-occipital white matter with a threshold that varied according to location (885–1550 headings per year) (P < .00001). Lower levels of FA were also associated with poorer memory scores (P < .00001), with a threshold of 1800 headings per year. Lifetime concussion history and demographic features were not significantly associated with either FA or cognitive performance. Conclusion: Heading is associated with abnormal white matter microstructure and with poorer neurocognitive performance. This relationship is not explained by a history of concussion. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:23757503

  6. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 2. Impacts of optic nerve head parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baniasadi, Neda; Wang, Mengyu; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qingying; Elze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians use retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an adjunct to glaucoma diagnosis. Ametropia is accompanied by changes to the optic nerve head (ONH), which may affect how OCT machines mark RNFLT measurements as abnormal. These changes in abnormality patterns may bias glaucoma diagnosis. Here, we investigate the relationship between OCT abnormality patterns and the following ONH-related and ametropia-associated parameters on 421 eyes of glaucoma patients: optic disc tilt and torsion, central retinal vessel trunk location (CRVTL), and nasal and temporal retinal curvature adjacent to ONH, quantified as nasal/temporal slopes of the inner limiting membrane. We applied multivariate logistic regression with abnormality marks as regressands to 40,401 locations of the peripapillary region and generated spatial maps of locations of false positive/negative abnormality marks independent of glaucoma severity. Effects of torsion and temporal slope were negligible. The effect of tilt could be explained by covariation with ametropia. For CRVTL/nasal slope, abnormality pattern shifts at 7.2%/23.5% of the peripapillary region were detected, respectively, independent of glaucoma severity and ametropia. Therefore, CRVTL and nasal curvature should be included in OCT RNFLT norms. Our spatial location maps may aid clinicians to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  7. Posture analysis on young women before and after 60 days of -6 degrees head down bed rest (Wise 2005).

    PubMed

    Viguier, Marion; Dupui, Philippe; Montoya, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Twenty-four women divided into three groups: control, exercise and nutrition, have been involved in a -6 degrees head down bed rest (HDBR) experiment for 60 days. The objective was to analyse the effects of microgravity on balance function regulation. Group comparisons assessed the efficiency of countermeasures (specific exercises and in particular diet) on the deleterious effects of simulated microgravity. Measurements of orthostatic and dynamic balance were taken 9 and 2 days prior to the experiment, on the first day of getting up, the following day and 4 and 10 days after, under two visual conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. The results confirmed that, as in any other test performed with ordinary subjects, the postural balance performances are better with eyes open than with eyes closed. The static and dynamic postural performances were impaired on the first day of recovery (R0) following HDBR. This impairment lasted up to 4 days after getting up and, afterwards the volunteers recovered their initial performances. The exercise group recovered static postural performances more quickly than the other groups whereas there were no differences in the recovery of the dynamic balance performances.

  8. Effect of a worktable position on head and shoulder posture and shoulder muscles in manual material handling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hee; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-06-05

    According to a recent research, manual working with high levels of static contraction, repetitive loads, or extreme working postures involving the neck and shoulder muscles causes an increased risk of neck and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders. We investigated the effects of the forwardly worktable position on head and shoulder angles and shoulder muscle activity in manual material handling tasks. The forward head and shoulder angles and the activity of upper trapezius, levator scapulae, and middle deltoid muscle activities of 15 workers were measured during performing of manual material handling in two tasks that required different forward head and shoulder angles. The second manual material task required a significantly increased forward head and shoulder angle. The upper trapezius and levator scapulae muscle activity in second manual material task was increased significantly compared with first manual material task. The middle deltoid muscle activity in second manual material task was not significantly different compared with first manual material task. Based on this result, the forward head and shoulder angles while performing manual work need to be considered in selection of the forward distance of a worktable form the body. The high level contractions of the neck and shoulder muscles correlated with neck and shoulder pain. Therefore, the forward distance of a worktable can be an important factor in preventing neck and shoulder pain in manual material handling workers.

  9. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Actively Correct Abnormal Standing Posture with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board…

  10. Analysis of abnormalities in pituitary gland in non-missile head injury: study of 100 consecutive cases.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, C G; Doyle, D; Adams, J H; Graham, D I

    1986-01-01

    Pituitary glands, obtained at necropsy from a consecutive series of 100 patients who had died as a result of non-missile head injuries, were examined to define the incidence and pathogenesis of abnormality. Images PMID:3734113

  11. Associations of Postural Knowledge and Basic Motor Skill with Dyspraxia in Autism: Implication for Abnormalities in Distributed Connectivity and Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Lauren R.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism often have difficulty performing skilled movements. Praxis performance requires basic motor skill, knowledge of representations of the movement (mediated by parietal regions), and transcoding of these representations into movement plans (mediated by premotor circuits). The goals of this study were: (a) to determine whether dyspraxia in autism is associated with impaired representational (“postural”) knowledge, and (b) to examine the contributions of postural knowledge and basic motor skill to dyspraxia in autism. Thirty-seven children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 50 typically developing (TD) children, ages 8–13, completed: (a) an examination of basic motor skills, (b) a postural knowledge test assessing praxis discrimination, and (c) a praxis examination. Children with ASD showed worse basic motor skill and postural knowledge than controls. The ASD group continued to show significantly poorer praxis than controls after accounting for age, IQ, basic motor skill, and postural knowledge. Dyspraxia in autism appears to be associated with impaired formation of spatial representations, as well as transcoding and execution. Distributed abnormality across parietal, premotor, and motor circuitry, as well as anomalous connectivity may be implicated. PMID:19702410

  12. Abnormal hippocampal functioning and impaired spatial navigation in depressed individuals: evidence from whole-head magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Brian R; Salvadore, Giacomo; Colon-Rosario, Veronica; Latov, David R; Holroyd, Tom; Carver, Frederick W; Coppola, Richard; Manji, Husseini K; Zarate, Carlos A; Grillon, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Dysfunction of the hippocampus has long been suspected to be a key component of the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Despite evidence of hippocampal structural abnormalities in depressed patients, abnormal hippocampal functioning has not been demonstrated. The authors aimed to link spatial navigation deficits previously documented in depressed patients to abnormal hippocampal functioning using a virtual reality navigation task. Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were collected while participants (19 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 19 healthy subjects matched by gender and age) navigated a virtual Morris water maze to find a hidden platform; navigation to a visible platform served as a control condition. Behavioral measures were obtained to assess navigation performance. Theta oscillatory activity (4-8 Hz) was mapped across the brain on a voxel-wise basis using a spatial-filtering MEG source analysis technique. Depressed patients performed worse than healthy subjects in navigating to the hidden platform. Robust group differences in theta activity were observed in right medial temporal cortices during navigation, with patients exhibiting less engagement of the anterior hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices relative to comparison subjects. Left posterior hippocampal theta activity was positively correlated with individual performance within each group. Consistent with previous findings, depressed patients showed impaired spatial navigation. Dysfunction of right anterior hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices may underlie this deficit and stem from structural abnormalities commonly found in depressed patients.

  13. Effects of suboccipital release with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniocervical alignment and extrinsic cervical muscle activity in subjects with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Been; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2016-10-01

    Forward head posture is a head-on-trunk malalignment, which results in musculoskeletal dysfunction and neck pain. To improve forward head posture, both the craniocervical flexion exercise and the suboccipital release technique have been used. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis during craniocervical flexion exercise in subjects with forward head posture. In total, 19 subjects (7 males, 12 females) with forward head posture were recruited using G-power software. Each subject performed craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise in random order. After one intervention was performed, the subject took a 20min wash out period to minimize any carry-over effect between interventions. Craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were measured. A one-way, repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess differences between the effects of the craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise interventions in the same group. Craniovertebral angle (p<0.05), cervical flexion range of motion (p<0.05), and cervical extension range of motion (p<0.001) were significantly greater after suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise compared to craniocervical flexion exercise alone. The muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were significantly lower during suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise than during craniocervical flexion exercise alone across all craniocervical flexion

  14. A study on causes and types of abnormal increase in infants' head circumference in kashan/iran.

    PubMed

    Talebian, Ahmad; Soltani, Babak; Moravveji, Alireza; Salamati, Ladan; Davami, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Head circumference is a valuable index of brain growth and its disturbances can indicate different disorders of nervous system. Abnormal increased head circumference (macrocephaly) is common and observed in about 2% of infants. In this study, the causes and clinical types of abnormal increase in infants' head circumference were investigated in Kashan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed on 90 infants less than 2 years of age with abnormal increase in head circumference in Kashan, during 2009- 2011. The data were collected by history taking, physical examination, growth chart, and imaging. 65 (72%) cases out of 90 infants were male and 25 ( 28%) cases were female. Fifty-three (58.8%) cases had familial megalencephaly, 30 (33.4%) had hydrocephalus, and other causes were observed in 7 (7.8%) cases. Eighty-three percent of Infants with familial megalencephaly and 50% with hydrocephalus had normal fontanels. In 90.6% of cases with familial megalencephaly, family history for large head was positive. Motor development was normal in 100% of cases with familial megalencephaly and 76.7% of hydrocephalic infants. Familial megalencephaly was the most common cause of macrocephaly in the studied infants, and most of them had normal physical examination and development, so, parental head circumferences should be considered in the interpretation of infant's head circumference and in cases of abnormal physical examination or development, other diagnostic modalities, including brain imaging should be done.

  15. Patterns of Head Computed Tomography Abnormalities During Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Association With Outcomes.

    PubMed

    LaRovere, Kerri L; Vonberg, Frederick W; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Kapur, Kush; Harini, Chellamani; Garcia-Jacques, Rogelio; Chao, Jessica H; Akhondi-Asl, Aliresa; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Tasker, Robert C

    2017-08-01

    We sought to classify type and distribution of acute infarction and hemorrhage on head computed tomography (CT) during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We also analyzed the occurrence of seizures on electroencephalography and outcomes between those with and without CT abnormalities. We conducted a single center observational study in pediatric intensive care units. The medical records of 179 children who underwent ECMO between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed. No interventions were done. A total of 46% (82/179) of children underwent CT. Of these, 60% (49/82) had acute pathology. Cerebral infarction occurred in 55% (27/49) and hemorrhage in 41% (20/49). Infarction was arterial in 67% (18/27) with a preponderance in the middle cerebral artery territory (17 patients). Infarction was bilateral in 41% (11/27) and not specific to the side of cannulation in the rest. Sensitivity and specificity for head ultrasound in predicting infarction on CT were 100% and 53%, respectively. A total of 36% (65/179) underwent continuous encephalography monitoring; 22% (14/65) of these had electrographic seizures. Electrographic seizures were increased in those with infarction (odds ratio [OR], 6.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.98 to 23.43). Survival was reduced with both infarction (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.54) and hemorrhage (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.72). Children with CT abnormalities had more unfavorable outcomes (P = 0.01). Head ultrasound is insufficient to rule out infarction. Infarction is middle cerebral artery predominant and associated with an increased risk of electrographic seizures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Time-dependent heart rate variability in the head-up tilt test in children with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ran, Jing; Wang, Cheng; Zou, Run-Mei; Wu, Li-Jia; Lin, Ping; Li, Fang; Xu, Yi

    2015-10-01

    To study the time-dependent heart rate (HR) variability in the head-up tilt test (HUTT) in children with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and to explore the HR diagnostic criteria for POTS in children. A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 105 children diagnosed with POTS with HR≥120 beats per minute (bpm) within the first 10 minutes of HUTT between January 2007 and December 2014. Their HR variability within the first 10 minutes of HUTT was analyzed. The HR of children with POTS increased gradually from the supine position to a 60° head-up tilt position, and the increase in HR was 24±12 bpm at the beginning of HUTT, 30±14 bpm at 3 minutes of HUTT, 32±13 bpm at 5 minutes of HUTT, and 38±12 bpm at 10 minutes of HUTT. The average maximal HR increase within the first 10 minutes of HUTT was 43±10 bpm. In children with POTS, the HR variability gradually increases with time, and therefore, it is suggested that HR increase ≥40 bpm is more suitable for diagnosis of POTS in children.

  17. Incomplete development of human spermatozoa is associated with increased creatine phosphokinase concentration and abnormal head morphology.

    PubMed

    Huszar, G; Vigue, L

    1993-03-01

    Our previous creatine phosphokinase (CK) activity studies in human sperm revealed differences among men and among sperm populations within the same specimen. Samples with low sperm concentrations, high incidence of abnormal sperm morphology, and diminished fertility had higher per sperm CK activity. In the present work, we demonstrated, with 14C-FDNB covalent CK active site modification and with direct CK immunocytochemistry, that the higher CK activity is related to an increased content of CK and of other proteins in sperm. Also, sperm heads with higher CK content were significantly larger and rounder and showed a higher incidence of amorph configuration. We suggest that these biochemical and morphological irregularities are related and are due to a failure of spermatogenesis, more specifically, to a higher retention of cytoplasm, which in normal sperm development is lost to the Sertoli cells as residual bodies. Thus higher CK activity and larger or irregular head size in human sperm signify cellular immaturity and a failure to complete spermatogenesis.

  18. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Actively Keeping the Head in an Upright Position with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through the Control of an Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Chia-Ju; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology by applying the Nintendo Wii Remote Controller to the correction of hyperactive limb behavior. This study extended Wii Remote Controller functionality for improper head position (posture) correction (i.e. actively adjusting abnormal head posture) to assess whether two people with multiple…

  19. Forward head posture is associated with pressure pain threshold and neck pain duration in university students with subclinical neck pain.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Joana; Raimundo, João; Santos, Filipe; Ferreira, Mário; Lopes, Tiago; Ramos, Luis; Silva, Anabela G

    2018-06-08

    The aims of this study are to investigate the association between: (i) forward head posture (FHP) and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs); (ii) FHP and maladaptive cognitive processes; and (iii) FHP and neck pain characteristics in university students with subclinical neck pain. A total of 140 university students, 90 asymptomatic and 50 with subclinical neck pain, entered the study. Demographic data, anthropometric data, FHP, and PPTs were collected for both groups. In addition, pain characteristics, pain catastrophizing, and fear of movement were assessed for participants with neck pain. FHP was characterized by the angle between C7, the tragus of the ear, and the horizontal line. Correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted. Participants with subclinical neck pain showed significantly lower PPTs than participants without neck pain (p < .05), but similar FHP (p > .05). No significant association was found between FHP and PPTs in the asymptomatic group. In the group of participants with subclinical neck pain, PPTs at the right trapezius and neck pain duration explained 19% of the variance of FHP (R 2  = 0.23; adjusted R 2  = 0.19; p < .05). This study suggests that FHP is not associated with PPTs in asymptomatic university students. In university students with subclinical neck pain, increased FHP was associated with right trapezius hypoalgesia and with neck pain of shorter duration. These findings are in contrast with current assumptions on the association between neck pain and FHP.

  20. Postural Control Characteristics during Single Leg Standing of Individuals with a History of Ankle Sprain: Measurements Obtained Using a Gravicorder and Head and Foot Accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yota; Sugaya, Tomoaki; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to validate the postural control characteristics of individuals with a history of ankle sprain during single leg standing by using a gravicorder and head and foot accelerometry. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with and 23 subjects without a history of ankle sprain (sprain and control groups, respectively) participated. [Methods] The anteroposterior, mediolateral, and total path lengths, as well as root mean square (RMS) of each length, were calculated using the gravicorder. The anteroposterior, mediolateral, and resultant acceleration of the head and foot were measured using accelerometers and were evaluated as the ratio of the acceleration of the head to the foot. [Results] There was no significant difference between the two groups in path length or RMS acceleration of the head and foot. However, the ratios of the mediolateral and resultant components were significantly higher in the sprain group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that individuals with a history of ankle sprain have a higher head-to-foot acceleration ratio and different postural control characteristics than those of control subjects.

  1. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  2. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  3. X-y interactions underlie sperm head abnormality in hybrid male house mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Polly; Nachman, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in house mice is complex, highly polygenic, and strongly X linked. Previous work suggested that there might be interactions between the Mus musculus musculus X and the M. m. domesticus Y with a large negative effect on sperm head morphology in hybrid males with an F1 autosomal background. To test this, we introgressed the M. m. domesticus Y onto a M. m. musculus background and measured the change in sperm morphology, testis weight, and sperm count across early backcross generations and in 11th generation backcross males in which the opportunity for X-autosome incompatibilities is effectively eliminated. We found that abnormality in sperm morphology persists in M. m. domesticus Y introgression males, and that this phenotype is rescued by M. m. domesticus introgressions on the X chromosome. In contrast, the severe reductions in testis weight and sperm count that characterize F1 males were eliminated after one generation of backcrossing. These results indicate that X-Y incompatibilities contribute specifically to sperm morphology. In contrast, X-autosome incompatibilities contribute to low testis weight, low sperm count, and sperm morphology. Restoration of normal testis weight and sperm count in first generation backcross males suggests that a small number of complex incompatibilities between loci on the M. m. musculus X and the M. m. domesticus autosomes underlie F1 male sterility. Together, these results provide insight into the genetic architecture of F1 male sterility and help to explain genome-wide patterns of introgression across the house mouse hybrid zone.

  4. Direction-Specific Impairments in Cervical Range of Motion in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: Influence of Head Posture and Gravitationally Induced Torque.

    PubMed

    Rudolfsson, Thomas; Björklund, Martin; Svedmark, Åsa; Srinivasan, Divya; Djupsjöbacka, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Cervical range of motion (ROM) is commonly assessed in clinical practice and research. In a previous study we decomposed active cervical sagittal ROM into contributions from lower and upper levels of the cervical spine and found level- and direction-specific impairments in women with chronic non-specific neck pain. The present study aimed to validate these results and investigate if the specific impairments can be explained by the neutral posture (defining zero flexion/extension) or a movement strategy to avoid large gravitationally induced torques on the cervical spine. Kinematics of the head and thorax was assessed in sitting during maximal sagittal cervical flexion/extension (high torque condition) and maximal protraction (low torque condition) in 120 women with chronic non-specific neck pain and 40 controls. We derived the lower and upper cervical angles, and the head centre of mass (HCM), from a 3-segment kinematic model. Neutral head posture was assessed using a standardized procedure. Previous findings of level- and direction-specific impairments in neck pain were confirmed. Neutral head posture was equal between groups and did not explain the direction-specific impairments. The relative magnitude of group difference in HCM migration did not differ between high and low torques conditions, lending no support for our hypothesis that impairments in sagittal ROM are due to torque avoidance behaviour. The direction- and level-specific impairments in cervical sagittal ROM can be generalised to the population of women with non-specific neck pain. Further research is necessary to clarify if torque avoidance behaviour can explain the impairments.

  5. Direction-Specific Impairments in Cervical Range of Motion in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: Influence of Head Posture and Gravitationally Induced Torque

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, Martin; Svedmark, Åsa; Srinivasan, Divya; Djupsjöbacka, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical range of motion (ROM) is commonly assessed in clinical practice and research. In a previous study we decomposed active cervical sagittal ROM into contributions from lower and upper levels of the cervical spine and found level- and direction-specific impairments in women with chronic non-specific neck pain. The present study aimed to validate these results and investigate if the specific impairments can be explained by the neutral posture (defining zero flexion/extension) or a movement strategy to avoid large gravitationally induced torques on the cervical spine. Methods Kinematics of the head and thorax was assessed in sitting during maximal sagittal cervical flexion/extension (high torque condition) and maximal protraction (low torque condition) in 120 women with chronic non-specific neck pain and 40 controls. We derived the lower and upper cervical angles, and the head centre of mass (HCM), from a 3-segment kinematic model. Neutral head posture was assessed using a standardized procedure. Findings Previous findings of level- and direction-specific impairments in neck pain were confirmed. Neutral head posture was equal between groups and did not explain the direction-specific impairments. The relative magnitude of group difference in HCM migration did not differ between high and low torques conditions, lending no support for our hypothesis that impairments in sagittal ROM are due to torque avoidance behaviour. Interpretation The direction- and level-specific impairments in cervical sagittal ROM can be generalised to the population of women with non-specific neck pain. Further research is necessary to clarify if torque avoidance behaviour can explain the impairments. PMID:28099504

  6. Social Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  7. Mid-gestation brain Doppler and head biometry in fetuses with congenital heart disease predict abnormal brain development at birth.

    PubMed

    Masoller, N; Sanz-CortéS, M; Crispi, F; Gómez, O; Bennasar, M; Egaña-Ugrinovic, G; Bargalló, N; Martínez, J M; Gratacós, E

    2016-01-01

    Fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) show evidence of abnormal brain development before birth, which is thought to contribute to adverse neurodevelopment during childhood. Our aim was to evaluate whether brain development in late pregnancy can be predicted by fetal brain Doppler, head biometry and the clinical form of CHD at the time of diagnosis. This was a prospective cohort study including 58 fetuses with CHD, diagnosed at 20-24 weeks' gestation, and 58 normal control fetuses. At the time of diagnosis, we recorded fetal head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter, middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI), cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and brain perfusion by fractional moving blood volume. We classified cases into one of two clinical types defined by the expected levels (high or low) of placental (well-oxygenated) blood perfusion, according to the anatomical defect. All fetuses underwent subsequent 3T-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 36-38 weeks' gestation. Abnormal prenatal brain development was defined by a composite score including any of the following findings on MRI: total brain volume <  10(th) centile, parietoccipital or cingulate fissure depth <  10(th) centile or abnormal metabolic profile in the frontal lobe. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that MCA-PI (odds ratio (OR), 12.7; P = 0.01), CPR (OR, 8.7; P = 0.02) and HC (OR, 6.2; P = 0.02) were independent predictors of abnormal neurodevelopment; however, the clinical type of CHD was not. Fetal brain Doppler and head biometry at the time of CHD diagnosis are independent predictors of abnormal brain development at birth, and could be used in future algorithms to improve counseling and targeted interventions. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The effect of over-commitment and reward on trapezius muscle activity and shoulder, head, neck, and torso postures during computer use in the field

    PubMed Central

    Bruno Garza, Jennifer L.; Eijckelhof, Belinda H.W.; Huysmans, Maaike A.; Catalano, Paul J.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Johnson, Peter W.; van Dieen, Jaap H.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of reported associations of psychosocial factors and computer related musculoskeletal symptoms, we investigated the effects of a workplace psychosocial factor, reward, in the presence of over-commitment, on trapezius muscle activity and shoulder, head, neck, and torso postures during computer use. Methods We measured 120 office workers across four groups (lowest/highest reward/over-commitment), performing their own computer work at their own workstations over a 2 hour period. Results Median trapezius muscle activity (p=0.04) and median neck flexion (p=0.03) were largest for participants reporting simultaneously low reward and high over-commitment. No differences were observed for other muscle activities or postures. Conclusions These data suggest that the interaction of reward and over-commitment can affect upper extremity muscle activity and postures during computer use in the real work environment. This finding aligns with the hypothesized biomechanical pathway connecting workplace psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms of the neck and shoulder. PMID:23818000

  9. Comparison of isometric cervical flexor and isometric cervical extensor system exercises on patients with neuromuscular imbalance and cervical crossed syndrome associated forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaejin; Kim, Dohyeon; Yu, Kyunghoon; Cho, Youngki; You, Joshua H

    2018-01-01

    Isometric cervical flexor system exercise (ICF) and isometric cervical extensor system exercise (ICE) are cervical stabilization techniques that have been used to restore cervical crossed syndrome (CCS)-associated forward head posture. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying motor control mechanisms remain elusive. The purpose of present study was investigating the concurrent therapeutic effects of ICF and ICE on muscle size, muscle imbalance ratio, and muscle recruitment sequence using ultrasound imaging and electromyography. A total of 18 participants (7 females; age=24±4.0 years) with CCS associated with forward head posture underwent ICF and ICE. Paired t-test analysis was used for statistical analysis. Paired t-test analysis showed that sternocleidomastoid thickness was greater during ICF than ICE. Similarly, cross-sectional area and horizontal thickness of the longus colli were greater during ICE than ICF. The upper trapezius/lower trapezius muscle imbalance ratio and the pectoralis major/lower trapezius muscle imbalance ratio were significantly decreased during the application of ICE compared to ICF. These results provide compelling, mechanistic evidence as to how ICE is more beneficial for the restoration of neuromuscular imbalance than ICF in individuals with CCS.

  10. Postural disorders in mouth breathing children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Patricia Dayrell; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Mendes, Polyana Leite; Zabjek, Karl; Becker, Helena Gonçalves; Mathur, Sunita

    Mouth breathing syndrome can cause sleep disturbances that compromise the performance of children in school. It might also cause postural abnormalities involving the head and cervical spine; however, the association between postural abnormalities and mouth breathing in children is unclear. To assess the methodological quality of studies and determine if there is an association between mouth breathing and postural disorders in children. Databases comprised MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, LILACS, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials. Searches were until March 2016 and included studies that evaluated postural disorders in children diagnosed with mouth breathing. The Downs and Black checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the evidences. Ten studies were included totaling 417 children from 5 to 14 years. Two studies used the New York State Postural Rating Scale, seven used photography and one used motion capture to measure posture. The methods used to analyze the data included the Postural Analysis Software (SAPO), Fisiometer, ALCimagem and routines in MATLAB program. Quality assessment resulted in low scores (<14) for all the studies. The main areas of weakness were a clear description of the participants, of the methods used to access posture, of the principal confounders and lack of power analysis. External and internal validity were also threatened by the lack of a representative sample and blinding of the participants and assessors, respectively. The review provides low evidence that mouth-breathing pattern in children between the ages 5-14 years is associated with postural deviations. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.

  12. The value of HEAD-US system in detecting subclinical abnormalities in joints of patients with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    De la Corte-Rodriguez, Hortensia; Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos; Alvarez-Roman, M Teresa; Martin-Salces, Mónica; Martinoli, Carlo; Jimenez-Yuste, Víctor

    2018-03-01

    Prevention of hemarthrosis is the key factor in the adequate management of people with hemophilia (PWH). If hemarthrosis occurs, early diagnosis of joint damage is essential to make personalized treatments. This study is aimed at gaining an understanding of the ability of point-of-care ultrasound (US) using the `Hemophilia Early Arthropathy Detection with Ultrasound´ (HEAD-US) protocol to detect abnormalities in joints without history of hemarthrosis and clinically asymptomatic joints of PWH. The sample included 976 joints from 167 PWH (mean age 24.86 years). Data were collected from routine practice over a 3-year period and analyzed based on history of hemarthrosis and results of clinical (HJHS 2.1) and HEAD-US examinations. In our series, 14% of patients exhibited HEAD-US signs of incipient arthropathy in joints with no history of bleeding and with a HJHS 2.1 score of 0. The most severely involved joint was the right ankle. Synovitis, articular cartilage and subchondral bone damage scores in joints with subclinical findings were slower than in joints with previous hemarthroses or HJHS 2.1 > 1 Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that HEAD-US is better than hemarthrosis records and the HJHS 2.1 scale in detecting the early signs of joint damage in PWH.

  13. Liposomal treatment of xerostomia, odor, and taste abnormalities in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Clemens; Hofauer, Benedikt; Scherer, Elias; Schukraft, Johannes; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Smell and taste disorders, sicca symptoms, can be detected in patients with head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of local liposomal application in the treatment of patients with head and neck cancers. Ninety-eight patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. The groups were defined as: group 1 = only surgery; group 2 = surgery + adjuvant radiochemotherapy; and group 3 = primarily radiochemotherapy. All patients had finished cancer treatment and received liposomal sprays for the nose and mouth for 2 months (LipoNasal, LipoSaliva; Optima Pharmaceutical GmbH, Germany) and suffered from taste and smell disorders. We performed tests with "Sniffin' Sticks," "Taste Strips," and a xerostomia questionnaire before and after treatment. After application of liposomes, patients demonstrated a statistically significant increase in smell and taste, and reduced xerostomia. Our results demonstrate that using nonpharmaceutical liposomal sprays improve smell, taste, and symptoms of xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1232-E1237, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jennifer; Schultz, Rachel; Davis, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior. PMID:29305466

  15. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Lam, Jennifer; Schultz, Rachel; Davis, Melissa

    2018-01-05

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Decerebrate posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... posture; Decorticate posture - decerebrate posture References Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Neurologic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW, eds. ...

  17. Endocrine abnormalities in critical care patients with moderate-to-severe head trauma: incidence, pattern and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulou, Ioanna; Tsagarakis, Stylianos; Theodorakopoulou, Maria; Douka, Evangelia; Zervou, Maria; Kouyialis, Andreas T; Thalassinos, Nikolaos; Roussos, Charis

    2004-06-01

    To investigate the incidence and type of endocrine abnormalities in critical care patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to examine their relationships to possible predisposing factors. Prospective study. General intensive care unit in a university hospital. Thirty-four TBI patients (27 men, 7 women), having a mean age of 37+/-16 years, were studied after weaning from mechanical ventilation. Baseline endocrine assessment was carried out by measuring cortisol, corticotropin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free thyroxine, thyrotropin (TSH), testosterone, oestradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, prolactin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I. Dynamic evaluation was performed by human corticotropin releasing hormone and growth hormone releasing hormone in all patients. Male patients underwent additional investigation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Severity of neurological derangement was graded according to Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Marshall Computerized Tomographic Classification and intracranial pressure (ICP) levels. Eighteen of the 34 patients (53%) had an abnormal result in at least one hormonal axis tested, with cortisol hyporesponsiveness and gonadal dysfunction being equally common, affecting 24% of patients. Endocrine abnormalities were associated with a higher brain CT-scan classification score ( p=0.02). The GCS on admission correlated positively with baseline FSH (r=0.37, p=0.03), peak FSH (r=0.41, p=0.03), testosterone (r=0.44, p=0.02) and TSH (r=0.39, p=0.03). There were no relations between ICP(max) and any baseline or dynamic hormone measurements. Patients with TBI receiving critical care show changes in their neuroendocrine responses, which depend upon clinical and radiological measures of head injury severity. Most common abnormalities include cortisol hyporesponsiveness and hypogonadism.

  18. The vertical monitor position for presbyopic computer users with progressive lenses: how to reach clear vision and comfortable head posture.

    PubMed

    Weidling, Patrick; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    When presbyopic employees are wearing general-purpose progressive lenses, they have clear vision only with a lower gaze inclination to the computer monitor, given the head assumes a comfortable inclination. Therefore, in the present intervention field study the monitor position was lowered, also with the aim to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms. A comparison group comprised users of lenses that do not restrict the field of clear vision. The lower monitor positions led the participants to lower their head inclination, which was linearly associated with a significant reduction in musculoskeletal symptoms. However, for progressive lenses a lower head inclination means a lower zone of clear vision, so that clear vision of the complete monitor was not achieved, rather the monitor should have been placed even lower. The procedures of this study may be useful for optimising the individual monitor position depending on the comfortable head and gaze inclination and the vertical zone of clear vision of progressive lenses. For users of general-purpose progressive lenses, it is suggested that low monitor positions allow for clear vision at the monitor and for a physiologically favourable head inclination. Employees may improve their workplace using a flyer providing ergonomic-optometric information.

  19. Performance of the craniocervical flexion test, forward head posture, and headache clinical parameters in patients with chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-de-las-Peñas, César; Pérez-de-Heredia, Marta; Molero-Sánchez, Alberto; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2007-02-01

    Case-control, descriptive pilot study. To describe the differences in the performance of the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT) between individuals with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and healthy controls. To assess the relationship between the CCFT, forward head posture, and several clinical variables related to the intensity and temporal profile of headache. Musculoskeletal impairments of the craniocervical region might play an important role on the pathogenesis of CTTH. Deficits in the performance of the CCFT have been reported in patients with cervicogenic headache, nonspecific neck pain, and whiplash injury, but not in individuals with CTTH. Ten patients with CTTH and 10 comparable controls without headache were studied. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks to substantiate the diagnosis and to record the pain history. The CCFT was performed with the subject supine and required performing a gentle head-nodding action of craniocervical flexion. The activation pressure score (pressure that the subject can achieve and hold for 10 seconds), the performance pressure index (calculated by multiplying the activation pressure score by the number of successful repetitions), and the highest pressure score (the highest level that each subject was able to hold for 10 seconds from 20 to 30 mm Hg) were measured. Side-view pictures of each subject were taken in both sitting and standing positions to assess forward head posture (FHP) by measuring the craniovertebral angle. All measures were taken by an assessor blinded to the subject's condition. Patients with CTTH had significantly lower values in both active pressure score and performance pressure index (P < .001), but not in the highest pressure score (P = .057), compared to controls. Patients with CTTH had a smaller craniovertebral angle (mean +/- SD, 42.0 degrees +/- 6.6 degrees), indicating a more FHP than controls (48.8 degrees +/- 2.5 degrees), in the standing position (P < .01); but not in the sitting position

  20. Clinical manifestations that predict abnormal brain computed tomography (CT) in children with minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Alharthy, Nesrin; Al Queflie, Sulaiman; Alyousef, Khalid; Yunus, Faisel

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) used in pediatric pediatrics brain injury (TBI) to ascertain neurological manifestations. Nevertheless, this practice is associated with adverse effects. Reports in the literature suggest incidents of morbidity and mortality in children due to exposure to radiation. Hence, it is found imperative to search for a reliable alternative. The aim of this study is to find a reliable clinical alternative to detect an intracranial injury without resorting to the CT. Retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in patients (1-14 years) with blunt head injury and having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13-15 who had CT performed on them. Using statistical analysis, the correlation between clinical examination and positive CT manifestation is analyzed for different age-groups and various mechanisms of injury. No statistically significant association between parameteres such as Loss of Consciousness, 'fall' as mechanism of injury, motor vehicle accidents (MVA), more than two discrete episodes of vomiting and the CT finding of intracranial injury could be noted. Analyzed data have led to believe that GCS of 13 at presentation is the only important clinical predictor of intracranial injury. Retrospective data, small sample size and limited number of factors for assessing clinical manifestation might present constraints on the predictive rule that was derived from this review. Such limitations notwithstanding, the decision to determine which patients should undergo neuroimaging is encouraged to be based on clinical judgments. Further analysis with higher sample sizes may be required to authenticate and validate findings.

  1. [Stereovideographic evaluation of the postural geometry of healthy and scoliotic patients].

    PubMed

    De la Huerta, F; Leroux, M A; Zabjek, K F; Coillard, C; Rivard, C H

    1998-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis principally characterised by a deformation of the vertebral column can also be associated to postural abnormalities. The validity and reliability of current quantitative postural evaluations has not been thoroughly documented, frequently limited by a two dimensional view of the patient, and do not include the whole posture of the patient. The purpose of this study is to 1) quantify within and between-session reliability of a stereovideographic Postural Geometry (PG) evaluation and 2) to investigate the sensitivity of this technique for the postural evaluation of scoliosis patients. The PG of 14 control subjects and 9 untreated scoliosis patients were evaluated with 5 repeat trials, on two occasions. Postural geometry parameters that describe the position and orientation of the pelvis, trunk, scapular girdle and head were calculated based on the 3-dimensional co-ordinates of anatomical landmarks. The mean between and within-session variability across all parameters were 12.5 mm, 2.8 degrees and 5.4 mm and 1.4 degrees respectively. The patient group was heterogeneous with some noted pathological characteristics. This global stereovideographic postural geometry evaluation appears to demonstrate sufficient reliability and sensitivity to follow-up on the posture of scoliosis patients.

  2. Changes in superior sagittal sinus blood velocities due to postural alterations and pressure on the head of the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Cowan, F; Thoresen, M

    1985-06-01

    A pulsed Doppler bidirectional ultrasound system has been used to measure alterations in the blood velocities in the superior sagittal sinus of the healthy term newborn infant in response to unilateral and bilateral jugular venous occlusion. These maneuvers were performed with the baby lying in different positions: supine, prone, and on the side (both left and right), the neck flexed or extended, and with the head in the midline or turned 90 degrees to the side (both left and right). Transfontanel pressure was also measured in these positions during occlusions. Results show that turning the head effectively occludes the jugular vein on the side to which the head is turned and that occluding the other jugular vein does not force blood through this functional obstruction. The effect of different forms of external pressure to the head on the superior sagittal sinus velocities was also examined. Alterations in velocities were frequently profound although they varied considerably from baby to baby. This work shows how readily large fluctuations in cranial venous velocities and pressures can occur in the course of normal handling of babies.

  3. Metabolic abnormalities associated with weight loss during chemoirradiation of head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Alexander; Jabbari, Siavash; Worden, Francis P.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Weight loss caused by acute mucositis and dysphagia is common during concurrent chemoirradiation (chemo-RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. The metabolic consequences of weight loss during chemo-RT were investigated. Patients and Methods: Ninety-six patients with locally advanced HN cancer were treated from 1995 to 2001 on protocols that consisted of 1 to 2 cycles of induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil followed by irradiation (70 Gy over 7 weeks) concurrent with cisplatin (100 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks). Body weights and metabolic evaluations were obtained before and during induction chemotherapy and chemo-RT. Greatest percent changes in weight and in the laboratory values were calculatedmore » for each phase of therapy. Results: During induction chemotherapy, significant changes were found in BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, HCO{sub 3}, Mg, and albumin, but not in creatinine, Na, K, or weight. During chemo-RT, significant additional changes were observed in all parameters measured, including increases in BUN, creatinine, BUN: creatinine ratio, and HCO{sub 3} and decreases in Mg, albumin, Na, K, and weight. The magnitude of most of these changes was significantly greater during chemo-RT than during induction chemotherapy. During chemo-RT, 35% of the patients had more than 10% body weight loss and 6 patients had an increase in creatinine of more than 100%, including 5 patients with Grade 2 nephrotoxicity, all of whom had weight loss 10% or more. Significant correlations were found between weight loss and creatinine (p < 0.0001) or BUN (p = 0.0002) rises, but not with BUN:creatinine ratio or other metabolic changes. Age, gender, tobacco history, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: Weight loss during cisplatin-containing chemo-RT was found to be associated with reduced kidney function. These findings do not establish cause-effect relationships; however, they highlight the importance of intensive

  4. Postural control and the relation with cervical sensorimotor control in patients with idiopathic adult-onset cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, J; Mercelis, R; Hallemans, A; Van Gils, G; Truijen, S; Cras, P; De Hertogh, W

    2018-03-01

    Cervical dystonia (CD) is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions leading to an abnormal head posture or movements of the neck. Dysfunctions in somatosensory integration are present and previous data showed enlarged postural sway in stance. Postural control during quiet sitting and the correlation with cervical sensorimotor control were investigated. Postural control during quiet sitting was measured via body sway parameters in 23 patients with CD, regularly receiving botulinum toxin treatment and compared with 36 healthy controls. Amplitude and velocity of displacements of the center of pressure (CoP) were measured by two embedded force plates at 1000 Hz. Three samples of 30 s were recorded with the eyes open and closed. Disease-specific characteristics were obtained in all patients by the Tsui scale, Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58) and Toronto Western Spasmodic Rating Scale (TWSTRS). Cervical sensorimotor control was assessed with an infrared Vicon system during a head repositioning task. Body sway amplitude and velocity were increased in patients with CD compared to healthy controls. CoP displacements were doubled in patients without head tremor and tripled in patients with a dystonic head tremor. Impairments in cervical sensorimotor control were correlated with larger CoP displacements (r s ranged from 0.608 to 0.748). Postural control is impaired and correlates with dysfunction in cervical sensorimotor control in patients with CD. Treatment is currently focused on the cervical area. Further research towards the potential value of postural control exercises is recommended.

  5. Evaluation of cervical posture improvement of children with cerebral palsy after physical therapy based on head movements and serious games.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Miguel A; Raya, Rafael; Muzzioli, Luca; Morelli, Daniela; Otero, Abraham; Iosa, Marco; Cincotti, Febo; Rocon, Eduardo

    2017-08-18

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a novel rehabilitation therapy for cervical and trunk control of children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on serious videogames and physical exercise. The therapy is based on the use of the ENLAZA Interface, a head mouse based on inertial technology that will be used to control a set of serious videogames with movements of the head. Ten users with CP participated in the study. Whereas the control group (n = 5) followed traditional therapies, the experimental group (n = 5) complemented these therapies with a series of ten sessions of gaming with ENLAZA to exercise cervical flexion-extensions, rotations and inclinations in a controlled, engaging environment. The ten work sessions yielded improvements in head and trunk control that were higher in the experimental group for Visual Analogue Scale, Goal Attainment Scaling and Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS). Significant differences (27% vs. 2% of percentage improvement) were found between the experimental and control groups for TCMS (p < 0.05). The kinematic assessment shows that there were some improvements in the active and the passive range of motion. However, no significant differences were found pre- and post-intervention. Physical therapy that combines serious games with traditional rehabilitation could allow children with CP to achieve larger function improvements in the trunk and cervical regions. However, given the limited scope of this trial (n = 10) additional studies are needed to corroborate this hypothesis.

  6. Correlations among visual analogue scale, neck disability index, shoulder joint range of motion, and muscle strength in young women with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Jun; Kim, Won Hyo; Kim, Seong Gil

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the correlation between the neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS), which are indicators of neck pain, shoulder joint range of motion (ROM), and muscle strength in women with a slight forward head posture. This study was carried out on 42 female college students attending Uiduk University in Gyeongju, Korea. The neck pain and disability index for each subject was measured using VAS and NDI, respectively. Two physiotherapists measured the shoulder joint ROM and muscle strengths of the subjects using a goniometer and a dynamometer, respectively. External rotation, internal rotation, and abduction of the shoulder joint were measured for each subject. A significant negative correlation between neck pain and shoulder joint ROM in external rotation and the muscle strength of the shoulder joint in abduction was found in the subjects. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between ROM in external rotation and muscle strength in abduction. This study showed a significant negative correlation between neck pain and ROM in external rotation as well as between neck pain and the muscle strength in abduction.

  7. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Home About AAPOS Patient Info Resources Allied Health News & Events Meetings J AAPOS American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology ...

  8. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: effects of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, N.; Toth, B.B.; Hoar, R.E.

    1984-06-01

    Sixty-eight long-term survivors of childhood cancer were evaluated for dental and maxillofacial abnormalities. Forty-five patients had received maxillofacial radiation for lymphoma, leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and miscellaneous tumors. Forty-three of the 45 patients and the remaining 23 who had not received maxillofacial radiation also received chemotherapy. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities were detected in 37 of the 45 (82%) radiated patients. Dental abnormalities comprised foreshortening and blunting of roots, incomplete calcification, premature closure of apices, delayed or arrested tooth development, and caries. Maxillofacial abnormalities comprised trismus, abnormal occlusal relationships, and facial deformities. The abnormalities were more severe in those patients who received radiationmore » at an earlier age and at higher dosages. Possible chemotherapeutic effects in five of 23 patients who received treatment for tumors located outside the head and neck region comprised acquired amelogenesis imperfecta, microdontia of bicuspid teeth, and a tendency toward thinning of roots with an enlarged pulp chamber. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities should be recognized as a major consequence of maxillofacial radiation in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, and attempts to minimize or eliminate such sequelae should involve an effective interaction between radiation therapists, and medical and dental oncologists.« less

  9. Comparison of different parameters for recording sagittal maxillo mandibular relation using natural head posture: A cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashish Kumar; Ganeshkar, Sanjay V.; Mehrotra, Praveen; Bhagchandani, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Commonly used parameters for anteroposterior assessment of the jaw relationship includes several analyses such as ANB, NA-Pog, AB-NPog, Wits appraisal, Harvold's unit length difference, Beta angle. Considering the fact that there are several parameters (with different range and values) which account for sagittal relation, and still the published literature for comparisons and correlation of these measurements is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to correlate these values in subjects of Indian origin. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of fifty adult individuals (age group 18-26 years) with equal number of males and females. The selection criteria included subjects with no previous history of orthodontic and/or orthognathic surgical treatment; orthognathic facial profile; Angle's Class I molar relation; clinical Frankfort Mandibular plane angle FMA of 30±5° and no gross facial asymmetry. The cephalograms were taken in natural head position (NHP). Seven sagittal skeletal parameters were measured in the cephalograms and subjected to statistical evaluation with Wits reading on the true horizontal as reference. A correlation coefficient analysis was done to assess the significance of association between these variables. Results: ANB angle showed statistically significant correlation for the total sample, though the values were insignificant for the individual groups and therefore may not be very accurate. Wits appraisal was seen to have a significant correlation only in the female sample group. Conclusions: If cephalograms cannot be recorded in a NHP, then the best indicator for recording A-P skeletal dimension would be angle AB-NPog, followed by Harvold's unit length difference. However, considering biologic variability, more than one reading should necessarily be used to verify the same. PMID:24987638

  10. Association of a Guardian’s Report of a Child Acting Abnormally With Traumatic Brain Injury After Minor Blunt Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Daniel K.; Holmes, James F.; Dayan, Peter S.; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Increased use of computed tomography (CT) in children is concerning owing to the cancer risk from ionizing radiation, particularly in children younger than 2 years. A guardian report that a child is acting abnormally is a risk factor for clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) and may be a driving factor for CT use in the emergency department. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of ciTBIs and TBIs in children younger than 2 years with minor blunt head trauma and a guardian report of acting abnormally with (1) no other findings or (2) other concerning findings for TBI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Secondary analysis of a large, prospective, multicenter cohort study that included 43 399 children younger than 18 years with minor blunt head trauma evaluated in 25 emergency departments. The study was conducted on data obtained between June 2004 and September 2006. Data analysis was performed between August 21, 2014, and March 9, 2015. EXPOSURES A guardian report that the child was acting abnormally after minor blunt head trauma. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The prevalence of ciTBI (defined as death, neurosurgery, intubation for >24 hours, or hospitalization for ≥2 nights in association with TBI on CT imaging) and TBI on CT imaging in children with a guardian report of acting abnormally with (1) no other findings and (2) other concerning findings for TBI. RESULTS Of 43 399 children in the cohort study, a total of 1297 children had reports of acting abnormally, of whom 411 (31.7%) had this report as their only finding. Reported as percentage (95% CI), 1 of 411 (0.2% [0–1.3%]) had a ciTBI, and 4 TBIs were noted on the CT scans in 185 children who underwent imaging (2.2% [0.6%–5.4%]). In children with reports of acting abnormally and other concerning findings for TBI, 29 of 886 (3.3% [2.2%–4.7%]) had ciTBIs and 66 of 674 (9.8% [7.7%–12.3%]) had TBIs on CT. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Clinically important TBIs are very uncommon, and TBIs

  11. Head-down posture in glaucoma suspects induces changes in IOP, systemic pressure and PERG that predict future loss of optic nerve tissue

    PubMed Central

    Porciatti, Vittorio; Feuer, William J.; Monsalve, Pedro; Triolo, Giacinto; Vazquez, Luis; McSoley, John; Ventura, Lori M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To obtain pilot data on posture-induced changes of IOP, systemic pressure and pattern electroretinogram (PERG) predictive of future optic nerve tissue loss glaucoma suspects (GS). Methods Mean peripapillary retinal fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was measured with OCT two times/year in 28 GS aged 58 ± 8.9 years over 5.0 ± 0.73 years. All patients had a baseline PERG, IOP and brachial blood pressure measurements in the seated and – 10 degrees head-down-body-tilt position (HDT). Outcome measures were seated/HDT PERG amplitude and phase, IOP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and estimated ocular perfusion pressure (OPP). An additional group of 11 similarly-aged controls (SAC) aged 56.9 ± 13 years was tested for comparison. Results While all GS had initial RNFLT in the normal range, 9/28 of them developed significant (P < 0.05) loss of mean RNFLT (thinners, T) over the follow-up period as opposed to 19/28 who did not (non-thinners, NT). Significant (P<0.05) differences between SAC, NT and T were found in PERG amplitude, PERG phase, MAP, IOP, and OPP. A nominal logistic regression using baseline PERG and hemodynamic variables was able to distinguish T from NT with an AUROC of 0.89 (SE 0.07). Conclusions Baseline PERG, IOP, and systemic blood pressure, together with their changes upon HDT, may have predictive value for future loss of optic nerve tissue in GS. This study supports the rationale for a full-scale clinical trial to identify patients at high-risk of development of glaucoma. PMID:28263259

  12. Evaluation of posture and pain in persons with benign joint hypermobility syndrome.

    PubMed

    Booshanam, Divya S; Cherian, Binu; Joseph, Charles Premkumar A R; Mathew, John; Thomas, Raji

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare and quantify the postural differences and joint pain distribution between subjects with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) and the normal population. This observational, non-randomized, and controlled study was conducted at Rheumatology and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine Departments of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Subjects comprise 35 persons with diagnosis of BJHS, and the control group was matched for age and sex. Reedco's Posture score (RPS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were the outcome measures. The subjects were assessed for pain in ten major joints and rated on a VAS. A standard posture assessment was conducted using the Reedco's Posture score. The same procedure was executed for an age- and sex-matched control group. Mean RPS for the BJHS group was 55.29 ± 8.15 and for the normal group it was 67 ± 11.94. The most common postural deviances in subjects with BJHS were identified in the following areas of head, hip (Sagittal plane), upper back, trunk, and lower back (Coronal plane). Intensity of pain was found to be more in BJHS persons than that of the normal persons, and the knee joints were the most affected. The present study compared and quantified the postural abnormalities and the pain in BJHS persons. The need for postural re-education and specific assessment and training for the most affected joints are discussed. There is a significant difference in posture between subjects with BJHS and the normal population. BJHS persons need special attention to their posture re-education during physiotherapy sessions to reduce long-term detrimental effects on the musculoskeletal system.

  13. Neurological abnormalities in localized scleroderma of the face and head: a case series study for evaluation of imaging findings and clinical course.

    PubMed

    Lis-Święty, Anna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia; Arasiewicz, Hubert

    2017-09-01

    Localized scleroderma (LoS) of the face and head is often associated with neurological manifestations and/or imaging abnormalities in the central nervous system (CNS). We present an analysis of 20 cases of LoS affecting the face and head. The CNS symptoms and/or abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were observed in 12 patients (60%). In addition to the mild and unspecific disorders (e.g. headaches), serious neurological complications probably in the course of vasculitis were revealed: epilepsy (in two patients), epilepsy and pyramidal sings (in one patient). Neurological disorders and LoS occurred at the same time (in three patients) or at the course of the disease (nine patients) and no later than 29 years since the onset of the disease. No link between neurological disorders and the LoS clinical morphology, immunological and other laboratory parameters has been established. CNS involvement is not correlated with the clinical course of the facial and head LoS and may occur years after the disease initial symptomatology. Imaging follow-up is not required if there is not any emerging neurological symptom. In some cases, however, both HRCT and MRI are useful for monitoring disease evolution and addressing therapeutic choices.

  14. Assessment of musculoskeletal impairment in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ghiam, Michael K; Mannion, Kyle; Dietrich, Mary S; Stevens, Kristen L; Gilbert, Jill; Murphy, Barbara A

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to describe the types of musculoskeletal impairment in head and neck cancer survivors and to evaluate objective and subjective measures of musculoskeletal impairment and identify areas of need in future studies. This is a cross-sectional pilot study of 29 head and neck cancer patients who were treated with resection and reconstruction. Subjective measures of musculoskeletal impairment (Neck Disability Index, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey, General Symptom Survey) were collected and compared to objective measures (Cervical Range of Motion Device, Inter-incisal Distance). Digital photography was used to assess the severity of postural abnormalities. Findings were summarized using descriptive statistical and graphical methods. The majority of patients in this cohort suffered from neck disability (69%). Thirty-five percent of patients had shoulder pain and disability. Cervical range of motion deficits were observed in all directions. Inter-incisal distance averaged 33.4 mm and inversely correlated with self-reported jaw and trismus symptoms. Digital photography identified shoulder misalignment in 93% of subjects, head tilt in 89% of subjects, and postural deviation in 68% of subjects. Musculoskeletal impairment is a significant side effect in head and neck cancer survivors that results in chronic neck pain, shoulder disability, trismus, and postural deficits. Tools to describe postural deficits are needed.

  15. Oblique muscle surgery for treatment of nystagmus with head tilt.

    PubMed

    Lueder, Gregg T; Galli, Marlo

    2012-08-01

    Patients with nystagmus may adopt an abnormal head posture if they have a null zone in eccentric gaze. These patients uncommonly present with torticollis due to a null zone when the head is tilted. We describe the results of surgery on the oblique muscles to improve the abnormal head posture in this condition. This was a retrospective review of patients who had head tilts due to null zones of nystagmus. Surgery consisted of an anterior 50% tenectomy of the superior oblique tendon on one side and recession of the inferior oblique muscle to a position 6 mm posterior to the insertion of the inferior rectus muscle on the contralateral side. The patients' clinical histories and outcomes were reviewed. Six patients underwent the procedure. Of these, four had infantile nystagmus syndrome and two were born prematurely and had histories of intraventricular hemorrhages. Five of the patients had previous Kestenbaum surgery that corrected the horizontal component of their abnormal head postures. Age at time of surgery for the head tilt ranged from 3 to 13 years. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 1.5 to 3 years. The preoperative head tilts ranged from 25° to 45° (mean, 39°). The postoperative improvement ranged from 20° to 40° (mean, 28°). One of the patients with a history of intraventricular hemorrhage required additional surgery for strabismus unrelated to nystagmus. Anterior tenectomy of the superior oblique tendon combined with contralateral recession of the inferior oblique muscle improved head tilts related to a null zone of nystagmus. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New Phenomenon of Abnormal Auditory Perception Associated with Emotional and Head Trauma: Pathological Confirmation by SPECT Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephane, Massoud; Hill, Thomas; Matthew, Elizabeth; Folstein, Marshal

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of an immigrant who suffered from death threats and head trauma while a prisoner of war in Kuwait. Two months later, he began to hear conversations that had taken place previously. These perceptions occurred spontaneously or were induced by the patient's effortful concentration. The single photon emission computerized tomography…

  17. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  18. Validity of a small low-cost triaxial accelerometer with integrated logger for uncomplicated measurements of postures and movements of head, upper back and upper arms.

    PubMed

    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Forsman, Mikael

    2016-07-01

    Repetitive work and work in constrained postures are risk factors for developing musculoskeletal disorders. Low-cost, user-friendly technical methods to quantify these risks are needed. The aims were to validate inclination angles and velocities of one model of the new generation of accelerometers with integrated data loggers against a previously validated one, and to compare meaurements when using a plain reference posture with that of a standardized one. All mean (n = 12 subjects) angular RMS-differences in 4 work tasks and 4 body parts were <2.5° and all mean median angular velocity differences <5.0 °/s. The mean correlation between the inclination signal-pairs was 0.996. This model of the new generation of triaxial accelerometers proved to be comparable to the validated accelerometer using a data logger. This makes it well-suited, for both researchers and practitioners, to measure postures and movements during work. Further work is needed for validation of the plain reference posture for upper arms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Head Rotation and Head Tilt on Pharyngeal Pressure Events Using High Resolution Manometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol Ki; Ryu, Ju Seok; Song, Sun Hong; Koo, Jung Hoi; Lee, Kyung Duck; Park, Hee Sun; Oh, Yoongul; Min, Kyunghoon

    2015-06-01

    To observe changes in pharyngeal pressure during the swallowing process according to postures in normal individuals using high-resolution manometry (HRM). Ten healthy volunteers drank 5 mL of water twice while sitting in a neutral posture. Thereafter, they drank the same amount of water twice in the head rotation and head tilting postures. The pressure and time during the deglutition process for each posture were measured with HRM. The data obtained for these two postures were compared with those obtained from the neutral posture. The maximum pressure, area, rise time, and duration in velopharynx (VP) and tongue base (TB) were not affected by changes in posture. In comparison, the maximum pressure and the pre-upper esophageal sphincter (UES) maximum pressure of the lower pharynx in the counter-catheter head rotation posture were lower than those in the neutral posture. The lower pharynx pressure in the catheter head tilting posture was higher than that in the counter-catheter head tilting. The changes in the VP peak and epiglottis, VP and TB peaks, and the VP onset and post-UES time intervals were significant in head tilting and head rotation toward the catheter postures, as compared with neutral posture. The pharyngeal pressure and time parameter analysis using HRM determined the availability of head rotation as a compensatory technique for safe swallowing. Tilting the head smoothes the progress of food by increasing the pressure in the pharynx.

  20. Effects of Head Rotation and Head Tilt on Pharyngeal Pressure Events Using High Resolution Manometry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol Ki; Song, Sun Hong; Koo, Jung Hoi; Lee, Kyung Duck; Park, Hee Sun; Oh, Yoongul; Min, Kyunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe changes in pharyngeal pressure during the swallowing process according to postures in normal individuals using high-resolution manometry (HRM). Methods Ten healthy volunteers drank 5 mL of water twice while sitting in a neutral posture. Thereafter, they drank the same amount of water twice in the head rotation and head tilting postures. The pressure and time during the deglutition process for each posture were measured with HRM. The data obtained for these two postures were compared with those obtained from the neutral posture. Results The maximum pressure, area, rise time, and duration in velopharynx (VP) and tongue base (TB) were not affected by changes in posture. In comparison, the maximum pressure and the pre-upper esophageal sphincter (UES) maximum pressure of the lower pharynx in the counter-catheter head rotation posture were lower than those in the neutral posture. The lower pharynx pressure in the catheter head tilting posture was higher than that in the counter-catheter head tilting. The changes in the VP peak and epiglottis, VP and TB peaks, and the VP onset and post-UES time intervals were significant in head tilting and head rotation toward the catheter postures, as compared with neutral posture. Conclusion The pharyngeal pressure and time parameter analysis using HRM determined the availability of head rotation as a compensatory technique for safe swallowing. Tilting the head smoothes the progress of food by increasing the pressure in the pharynx. PMID:26161349

  1. The effect of a single massage based on the tensegrity principle on postural stability in young women.

    PubMed

    Cieślik, Błażej; Podsiadły, Ireneusz; Kuczyński, Michał; Ostrowska, Bożena

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of normalized muscle tension via tensegrity-based massage on postural stability in a sample of female young adults. Nineteen females aged 21.8 ± 1.9 years were recruited presenting abnormal tension at muscles adhering to any of the following structural sites: superior iliac spine, lateral sacropelvic surface, linea aspera at 1/2 of femur length, and superior nuchal line of the occiput. Balance and postural control were assessed during bipedal stance using a force platform in multiple conditions: hard surface or soft foam surface with the head in either a neutral posture or tilted backward. Baseline and 3-min and 15-min post-treatment measures were collected while barefoot and eyes closed. Main outcomes measures included center of pressure variability, range, radius, and velocity in the anteroposterior (AP) mediolateral (ML) dimensions. In the solid surface with neutral head posture condition only AP COP measures decreased significantly (p< 0.05). In the soft surface condition, significant differences were observed in the AP and ML dimensions among most measures (p< 0.05). A single application of tensegrity-based massage positively influenced postural control in young adult females, particularly in the AP direction.

  2. Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 Induces Hyper-γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidasemia without Abnormal Head Development and Schizophrenia-Relevant Behaviors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akiko; Ohba, Hisako; Sakaguchi, Toru; Honma, Yota; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Motoko; Watanabe, Kazutada; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as “the Japan Mouse Clinic”. No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-γ-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia. PMID:22242126

  3. Survey of faulty postures and associated factors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chiung-Yu

    2008-03-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of common faulty postures among adolescents and identify if significant relationships existed among the number of faulty postures, psychologic distress, and musculoskeletal symptoms. The Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and Chinese Health Questionnaire were randomly distributed to 300 high school students in the Tainan area. On-campus postural screening, which included digital photography, manual muscle tests, and flexibility tests, was also performed. Two hundred eighty-seven participants completed all of the evaluations. The most common faulty posture was uneven shoulder level (36%), followed by forward head posture (25%). There was a sex difference between groups. The incidence of forward head posture for the male students was higher than that of the female students (P < .0001). In addition, the high psychologic distress group tended to have a higher prevalence of uneven shoulder height than that of the low psychologic distress group (P < .0001). As for the correlation analysis, the researchers did not find a high correlation among the scores of the faulty posture, psychologic distress, and musculoskeletal symptoms. The results of this study show that the incidence of faulty posture was high for the adolescent group, especially for the uneven shoulder level. Subjects' awareness about being assessed might decrease the incidence for some faulty posture. However, the relationships among the number of faulty postures, psychologic distress, and musculoskeletal symptoms were low. We suggest that there are multiple factors that might contribute to musculoskeletal symptoms; faulty posture could be one important factor that causes symptoms.

  4. Postural control and perceptive configuration: influence of expertise in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Geoffroy; Thouvarecq, Régis; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate how postural adaptations to the perceptive configuration are modified by specific gymnastics experience. Two groups, one expert in gymnastics and the other non-expert, had to maintain the erected posture while optical flow was imposed as follows: 20s motionless, 30s approaching motion, and 20s motionless. The centre of pressure and head displacements were analysed. The postural adaptations were characterised by the variability of movements for the flow conditions and by the postural latencies for the flow transitions. The results showed that the gymnasts tended to minimise their body movements and were more stationary (head) but not more stable (COP) than the non-gymnasts. These results suggest that gymnastics experience develops a specific postural adaptability relative to the perceptive configuration. We conclude that a specific postural experience could be considered as an intrinsic constraint, which leads to modification in the patterns of functional adaptation in the perceptive motor space.

  5. Determining postural stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor); Lieberman, Erez (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  6. Effect of posture on oxygenation and respiratory muscle strength in convalescent infants

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriou, G; Greenough, A; Pink, L; McGhee, A; Hickey, A; Rafferty, G

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine if differences in respiratory muscle strength could explain any posture related effects on oxygenation in convalescent neonates. Methods: Infants were examined in three postures: supine, supine with head up tilt of 45°, and prone. A subsequent study was performed to determine the influence of head position in the supine posture. In each posture/head position, oxygen saturation (SaO2) was determined and respiratory muscle strength assessed by measurement of the maximum inspiratory pressure (PIMAX). Patients: Twenty infants, median gestational age 34.5 weeks (range 25–43), and 10 infants, median gestational age 33 weeks (range 30–36), were entered into the first and second study respectively. Results: Oxygenation was higher in the prone and supine with 45° head up tilt postures than in the supine posture (p<0.001), whereas PIMAX was higher in the supine and supine with head up tilt of 45° postures than in the prone posture (p<0.001). Head position did not influence the effect of posture on PIMAX or oxygenation. Conclusion: Superior oxygenation in the prone posture in convalescent infants was not explained by greater respiratory muscle strength, as this was superior in the supine posture. PMID:11978742

  7. Pathology and the posture of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, E

    1985-05-01

    The depiction of the Neandertals as incompletely erect was based primarily on Boule's (1911, 1912a, 1913) analysis of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 partial skeleton. The inaccurate aspects of Boule's postural reconstruction were corrected during the 1950s. However, it has come to be believed, following Straus and Cave (1957), that Boule's errors of reconstruction were due to the diseased condition of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 remains, rather than to Boule's misinterpretation of morphology. The abnormalities on the La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 postcranium include: lower cervical, upper thoracic, and lower thoracic intervertebral degenerative joint disease (DJD), a distal fracture of a mid-thoracic rib, extensive DJD of the left hip, DJD of the right fifth proximal interphalangeal articulation, bilateral humeral head eburnation, and minor exostosis formation on the right humerus, ulna, and radius. These were associated with extensive alveolar inflammation including apical abscesses and antemortem tooth loss, some temporomandibular DJD, bilateral auditory exostoses, and minimal occipital condyle DJD. None of these abnormalities significantly affected Boule's Neandertal postural reconstruction, and a review of his analysis indicates that early twentieth century interpretations of skeletal morphology (primarily of the cranium, cervical vertebrae, lumbar and sacral vertebrae, proximal femora and tibiae, posterior tarsals, and hallucial tarsometatarsal joint), combined with Boule's evolutionary preconceptions, were responsible for his mistaken view of Neandertal posture.

  8. Investigation of compensatory postures with videofluoromanometry in dysphagia patients

    PubMed Central

    Solazzo, Antonio; Monaco, Luigi; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Tamburrini, Stefania; Iacobellis, Francesca; Berritto, Daniela; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Reginelli, Alfonso; Di Martino, Natale; Grassi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of head compensatory postures to ensure safe oropharyngeal transit. METHODS: A total of 321 dysphagia patients were enrolled and assessed with videofluoromanometry (VFM). The dysphagia patients were classified as follows: safe transit; penetration without aspiration; aspiration before, during or after swallowing; multiple aspirations and no transit. The patients with aspiration or no transit were tested with VFM to determine whether compensatory postures could correct their swallowing disorder. RESULTS: VFM revealed penetration without aspiration in 71 patients (22.1%); aspiration before swallowing in 17 patients (5.3%); aspiration during swallowing in 32 patients (10%); aspiration after swallowing in 21 patients (6.5%); multiple aspirations in six patients (1.9%); no transit in five patients (1.6%); and safe transit in 169 patients (52.6%). Compensatory postures guaranteed a safe transit in 66/75 (88%) patients with aspiration or no transit. A chin-down posture achieved a safe swallow in 42/75 (56%) patients, a head-turned posture in 19/75 (25.3%) and a hyperextended head posture in 5/75 (6.7%). The compensatory postures were not effective in 9/75 (12%) cases. CONCLUSION: VFM allows the speech-language the-rapist to choose the most effective compensatory posture without a trial-and-error process and check the effectiveness of the posture. PMID:22736921

  9. Ergonomic strategies to improve radiographers' posture during mammography activities.

    PubMed

    Cernean, Nicolai; Serranheira, Florentino; Gonçalves, Pedro; Sá Dos Reis, Cláudia

    2017-08-01

    To identify alternatives for radiographers' postures while performing mammography that can contribute to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). Radiographers' postures to positioning craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated without any intervention for three scenarios: radiographer/patient with similar statures, radiographer smaller than patient and radiographer taller than patient. Actions were taken to modify the postures: seated radiographer; patient on a step; seated patient; radiographer on a step. All the postures were analysed using kinovea 0.8.15 software and the angles were measured twice and classified according to European standard EN1005-4: 2005. The non-acceptable angles were measured mainly during MLO positioning when radiographer was taller than the patient: 139° and 120° for arm-flexion and abduction, 72° for trunk and -24° for head/neck-flexion. The introduction of alternative postures (radiographer seated), allowed improvements in posture (60° and 99° for arm flexion and abduction, 14° for trunk and 0° for head/neck flexion), being classified as acceptable. The alternative postures simulated have the potential to reduce the risk of developing WRMSDs when radiographers and patients have different statures. • Radiographers' postures in mammography can contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorders • Non-acceptable posture was identified for MLO breast positioning (radiographer taller than patient) • Adapting posture to patient biotype reduces the WRMSD risk for radiographers.

  10. Relationship between craniomandibular disorders and poor posture.

    PubMed

    Nicolakis, P; Nicolakis, M; Piehslinger, E; Ebenbichler, G; Vachuda, M; Kirtley, C; Fialka-Moser, V

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to show that a relationship between craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and postural abnormalities has been repeatedly postulated, but still remains unproven. This study was intended to test this hypothesis. Twenty-five CMD patients (mean age 28.2 years) were compared with 25 gender and age matched controls (mean age 28.3 years) in a controlled, investigator-blinded trial. Twelve postural and ten muscle function parameters were examined. Measurements were separated into three subgroups, consisting of those variables associated with the cervical region, the trunk in the frontal plane, and the trunk in the sagittal plane. Within these subgroups, there was significantly more dysfunction in the patients, compared to control subjects (Mann-Whitney U test p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Postural and muscle function abnormalities appeared to be more common in the CMD group. Since there is evidence of the mutual influence of posture and the craniomandibular system, control of body posture in CMD patients is recommended, especially if they do not respond to splint therapy. Whether poor posture is the reason or the result of CMD cannot be distinguished by the data presented here.

  11. Changes in head and cervical-spine postures and EMG activities of masticatory muscles following treatment with complete upper and partial lower denture.

    PubMed

    Salonen, M A; Raustia, A M; Huggare, J A

    1994-10-01

    A clinical stomatognathic, cephalometric and electromyographic (EMG) study was performed in relation to 14 subjects (10 women, 4 men), each with an edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular dentition before and six months after treatment with complete upper and partial lower dentures. The mean age of the subjects was 54.4 years (range 43-64 years). The mean period of edentulousness and age of dentures were 22.5 years (range 15-33 years) and 14.1 (range 1.5-30 years), respectively. Natural head position was recorded (using a fluid-level method) and measured from cephalograms. EMG activity was measured in relation to masseter and temporal muscles. A decrease in clinical dysfunction index was noted in 12 of 14 subjects (86%). There was no change in cervical inclination, but a slight extension of the head was noted after treatment. Rapid recovery of the masticatory muscles was reflected in increased EMG activity, especially when biting in the maximal intercuspal position. In cases of edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular anterior dentition, treatment with a complete upper and lower partial denture had a favorable effect on craniomandibular disorders and masticatory-muscle function.

  12. Scapular Bracing and Alteration of Posture and Muscle Activity in Overhead Athletes With Poor Posture

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Ashley K; McGrath, Melanie L; Harrington, Shana E; Padua, Darin A; Rucinski, Terri J; Prentice, William E

    2013-01-01

    Context Overhead athletes commonly have poor posture. Commercial braces are used to improve posture and function, but few researchers have examined the effects of shoulder or scapular bracing on posture and scapular muscle activity. Objective To examine whether a scapular stabilization brace acutely alters posture and scapular muscle activity in healthy overhead athletes with forward-head, rounded-shoulder posture (FHRSP). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Applied biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight healthy overhead athletes with FHRSP. Intervention(s) Participants were assigned randomly to 2 groups: compression shirt with no strap tension (S) and compression shirt with the straps fully tensioned (S + T). Posture was measured using lateral-view photography with retroreflective markers. Electromyography (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) in the dominant upper extremity was measured during 4 exercises (scapular punches, W's, Y's, T's) and 2 glenohumeral motions (forward flexion, shoulder extension). Posture and exercise EMG measurements were taken with and without the brace applied. Main Outcome Measure(s) Head and shoulder angles were measured from lateral-view digital photographs. Normalized surface EMG was used to assess mean muscle activation of the UT, MT, LT, and SA. Results Application of the brace decreased forward shoulder angle in the S + T condition. Brace application also caused a small increase in LT EMG during forward flexion and Y's and a small decrease in UT and MT EMG during shoulder extension. Brace application in the S + T group decreased UT EMG during W's, whereas UT EMG increased during W's in the S group. Conclusions Application of the scapular brace improved shoulder posture and scapular muscle activity, but EMG changes were highly variable. Use of a scapular brace might improve shoulder posture and muscle activity in

  13. Postural orientation and equilibrium processes associated with increased postural sway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Hallac, Rami R; Conroy, Kaitlin C; White, Stormi P; Kane, Alex A; Collinsworth, Amy L; Sweeney, John A; Mosconi, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Increased postural sway has been repeatedly documented in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Characterizing the control processes underlying this deficit, including postural orientation and equilibrium, may provide key insights into neurophysiological mechanisms associated with ASD. Postural orientation refers to children's ability to actively align their trunk and head with respect to their base of support, while postural equilibrium is an active process whereby children coordinate ankle dorsi-/plantar-flexion and hip abduction/adduction movements to stabilize their upper body. Dynamic engagement of each of these control processes is important for maintaining postural stability, though neither postural orientation nor equilibrium has been studied in ASD. Twenty-two children with ASD and 21 age and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls completed three standing tests. During static stance, participants were instructed to stand as still as possible. During dynamic stances, participants swayed at a comfortable speed and magnitude in either anterior-posterior (AP) or mediolateral (ML) directions. The center of pressure (COP) standard deviation and trajectory length were examined to determine if children with ASD showed increased postural sway. Postural orientation was assessed using a novel virtual time-to-contact (VTC) approach that characterized spatiotemporal dimensions of children's postural sway (i.e., body alignment) relative to their postural limitation boundary, defined as the maximum extent to which each child could sway in each direction. Postural equilibrium was quantified by evaluating the amount of shared or mutual information of COP time series measured along the AP and ML directions. Consistent with prior studies, children with ASD showed increased postural sway during both static and dynamic stances relative to TD children. In regard to postural orientation processes, children with ASD demonstrated reduced spatial

  14. [Risks of awkward posture].

    PubMed

    Bazzini, G; Capodaglio, E; Panigazzi, M; Prestifilippo, E; Vercesi, C

    2010-01-01

    For posture we mean the position of the body in the space and the relationship with its segments. The correct posture is determined by neurophysiological, biomechanical, emotional, psychological and relation factors, enabling us to perform daily and working activities with the lowest energy expenditure. When possible we suggest during posture variation, a preventive measure where there are prolonged fixed activities.

  15. Conservative treatment of a patient with previously unresponsive whiplash-associated disorders using clinical biomechanics of posture rehabilitation methods.

    PubMed

    Ferrantelli, Joseph R; Harrison, Deed E; Harrison, Donald D; Stewart, Denis

    2005-01-01

    To describe the treatment of a patient with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) previously unresponsive to multiple physical therapy and chiropractic treatments, which resolved following Clinical Biomechanics of Posture (CBP) rehabilitation methods. A 40-year-old man involved in a high-speed rear-impact collision developed chronic WADs including cervicothoracic, shoulder, and arm pain and headache. The patient was diagnosed with a confirmed chip fracture of the C5 vertebra and cervical and thoracic disk herniations. He was treated with traditional chiropractic and physical therapy modalities but experienced only temporary symptomatic reduction and was later given a whole body permanent impairment rating of 33% by an orthopedic surgeon. The patient was treated with CBP mirror-image cervical spine adjustments, exercise, and traction to reduce forward head posture and cervical kyphosis. A presentation of abnormal head protrusion resolved and cervical kyphosis returned to lordosis posttreatment. His initial neck disability index was 46% and 0% at the end of care. Verbal pain rating scales also improved for neck pain (from 5/10 to 0/10). A patient with chronic WADs and abnormal head protrusion, cervical kyphosis, and disk herniation experienced an improvement in symptoms and function after the use of CBP rehabilitation protocols when other traditional chiropractic and physical therapy procedures showed little or no lasting improvement.

  16. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  17. Forearm Posture and Mobility in Quadrupedal Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    VanBuren, Collin S.; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy. PMID:24058633

  18. Computer users' postures and associations with workstation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gerr, F; Marcus, M; Ortiz, D; White, B; Jones, W; Cohen, S; Gentry, E; Edwards, A; Bauer, E

    2000-01-01

    This investigation tested the hypotheses that (1) physical workstation dimensions are important determinants of operator posture, (2) specific workstation characteristics systematically affect worker posture, and (3) computer operators assume "neutral" upper limb postures while keying. Operator head, neck, and upper extremity posture and selected workstation dimensions and characteristics were measured among 379 computer users. Operator postures were measured with manual goniometers, workstation characteristics were evaluated by observation, and workstation dimensions by direct measurement. Considerably greater variability in all postures was observed than was expected from application of basic geometric principles to measured workstation dimensions. Few strong correlations were observed between worker posture and workstation physical dimensions; findings suggest that preference is given to keyboard placement with respect to the eyes (r = 0.60 for association between keyboard height and seated elbow height) compared with monitor placement with respect to the eyes (r = 0.18 for association between monitor height and seated eye height). Wrist extension was weakly correlated with keyboard height (r = -0.24) and virtually not at all with keyboard thickness (r = 0.07). Use of a wrist rest was associated with decreased wrist flexion (21.9 versus 25.1 degrees, p < 0.01). Participants who had easily adjustable chairs had essentially the same neck and upper limb postures as did those with nonadjustable chairs. Sixty-one percent of computer operators were observed in nonneutral shoulder postures and 41% in nonneutral wrist postures. Findings suggest that (1) workstation dimensions are not strong determinants of at least several neck and upper extremity postures among computer operators, (2) only some workstation characteristics affect posture, and (3) contrary to common recommendations, a large proportion of computer users do not work in so-called neutral postures.

  19. Postural Complexity Differs Between Infant Born Full Term and Preterm During the Development of Early Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dusing, Stacey C; Izzo, Theresa A.; Thacker, Leroy R.; Galloway, James C

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Postural control differs between infants born preterm and full term at 1–3 weeks of age. It is unclear if differences persist or alter the development of early behaviors. The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare changes in postural control variability during development of head control and reaching in infants born preterm and full term. Methods Eighteen infants born preterm (mean gestational age 28.3±3.1 weeks) were included in this study and compared to existing data from 22 infants born full term. Postural variability was assessed longitudinally using root mean squared displacement and approximate entropy of the center of pressure displacement from birth to 6 months as measures of the magnitude of the variability and complexity of postural control. Behavioral coding was used to quantify development of head control and reaching. Results Group differences were identified in postural complexity during the development of head control and reaching. Infants born preterm used more repetitive and less adaptive postural control strategies than infants born full term. Both groups changed their postural complexity utilized during the development of head control and reaching. Discussion Early postural complexity was decreased in infants born preterm, compared to infants born full term. Commonly used clinical assessments did not identify these early differences in postural control. Altered postural control in infants born preterm influenced ongoing skill development in the first six months of life. PMID:24485170

  20. Quantitative Postural Analysis of Children With Congenital Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    de Pádua, Michelle; Sauer, Juliana F; João, Silvia M A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postural alignment of children with visual impairment with that of children without visual impairment. The sample studied was 74 children of both sexes ages 5 to 12 years. Of these, 34 had visual impairment and 40 were control children. Digital photos from the standing position were used to analyze posture. Postural variables, such as tilt of the head, shoulder position, scapula position, lateral deviation of the spine, ankle position in the frontal plane and head posture, angle of thoracic kyphosis, angle of lumbar lordosis, pelvis position, and knee position in the frontal and sagittal planes, were measured with the Postural Assessment Software 0.63, version 36 (SAPO, São Paulo, Brazil), with markers placed in predetermined bony landmarks. The main results of this study showed that children with visual impairment have increased head tilt (P < .001), shoulder deviation in frontal plane (P = .004), lateral deviation of the spine (P < .001), changes in scapula position (P = .012), higher thoracic kyphosis (P = .004), and lower lumbar lordosis (P < .001). Visual impairment influences postural alignment. Children with visual impairment had increased head tilt, uneven shoulders, greater lateral deviation of the spine, thoracic kyphosis, lower lumbar lordosis, and more severe valgus deformities on knees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The effect of neck torsion on postural stability in subjects with persistent whiplash.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-Ju; Stokell, Raina; Treleaven, Julia

    2011-08-01

    Dysfunction of cervical receptors in neck disorders has been shown to lead to disturbances in postural stability. The neck torsion manoeuvre used in the smooth pursuit neck torsion (SPNT) test is thought to be a specific measure of neck afferent dysfunction on eye movement in those with neck pain. This study aimed to determine whether neck torsion could change balance responses in those with persistent whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). Twenty subjects with persistent WAD and 20 healthy controls aged between 18 and 50 years stood on a computerised force plate with eyes closed in comfortable stance under 5 conditions: neutral head, head turned to left and right and neck torsion to left and right. Root mean square (rms) amplitude of sway was measured in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. The whiplash group had significantly greater rms amplitude in the AP direction following neck torsion compared to the control group (p < 0.03). The results show that the neck torsion manoeuvre may lead to greater postural deficits in individuals with persistent WAD and provides further evidence of neck torsion to identify abnormal cervical afferent input, as an underlying cause of balance disturbances in WAD. Further research is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Proteins associated with critical sperm functions and sperm head shape are differentially expressed in morphologically abnormal bovine sperm induced by scrotal insulation.

    PubMed

    Shojaei Saadi, Habib A; van Riemsdijk, Evine; Dance, Alysha L; Rajamanickam, Gayathri D; Kastelic, John P; Thundathil, Jacob C

    2013-04-26

    The objective was to investigate expression patterns of proteins in pyriform sperm, a common morphological abnormality in bull sperm. Ejaculates were collected from sexually mature Holstein bulls (n=3) twice weekly for 10 weeks (pre-thermal insult samples). Testicular temperature was elevated in all bulls by scrotal insulation for 72 consecutive hours during week 2. Total sperm proteins were extracted from pre- and post-thermal insult sperm samples and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Among the protein spots detected, 131 spots were significantly expressed (False Detection Rate <0.01) with ≥ 2 fold changes between normal and pyriform sperm. Among them, 25 spots with ≥ 4 fold difference in expression patterns were identified using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Expression of several proteins involved in sperm capacitation, sperm-egg interaction and sperm cytoskeletal structure was decreased in pyriform sperm, whereas proteins regulating antioxidant activity, apoptosis and metabolic activity were increased. Contents of reactive oxygen species and ubiquitinated proteins were higher in pyriform sperm. In addition to understanding the molecular basis of functional deficiencies in sperm with specific morphological abnormalities, comparing normal versus morphologically abnormal sperm appeared to be a suitable experimental model for identifying important sperm functional proteins. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on differential expression of proteins in pyriform bovine sperm versus morphologically normal sperm. We report that expression of several proteins involved in sperm capacitation, sperm-egg interaction and sperm cytoskeletal structure was decreased in pyriform sperm, whereas proteins which regulate antioxidant activity, apoptosis and metabolic activity were increased. Contents of reactive oxygen species and ubiquitinated proteins were higher in pyriform sperm. In addition to understanding

  3. Chosen postures during specific sitting activities.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Irene; Kilincsoy, Umit; Vink, Peter

    2011-11-01

    This research study analysed the interaction between people's postures and activities while in semi-public/leisure situations and during transportation (journey by train). In addition, the use of small electronic devices received particular emphasis. Video recordings in German trains and photographs in Dutch semi-public spaces were analysed using a variation of Branton and Grayson's (An evaluation of train seats by observation of sitting behaviour. Ergonomics, 10 (1), (1967), 35-51) postural targeting forms and photos. The analysis suggests a significant relationship between most activities and the position of the head, trunk and arms during transportation situations. The relationship during public situations is less straightforward. Watching, talking/discussing and reading were the most observed activities for the transportation and leisure situations combined. Surprisingly, differences in head, trunk, arm and leg postures were not significant when using small electronic devices. Important issues not considered in this study include the duration of the activities, the gender and age of observed subjects and the influence of the time of day. These are interesting issues to consider and include for future research. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study shows what activities people choose to carry out and their related postures when not forced to a specific task (e.g. driving). The results of this study can be used for designing comfortable seating in the transportation industry (car passenger, train, bus and aircraft seats) and semi-public/leisure spaces.

  4. The Prone Protected Posture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    5K 2. METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23I 4...2. METHODOLOGY The first step required in this study was to characterize the prone protected posture. Basically, a man in the prone posture differs...reduction in the presented area of target personnel. Reference 6 contains a concise discussion of the methodology used to generate the shielding functions

  5. Guide to Good Posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affect how well your joints move Affect your balance and increase your risk of falling Make it harder to digest your food Make it harder to breathe How can I improve my posture in general? Be mindful of your posture during everyday activities, ...

  6. Global Body Posture Evaluation in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eliza Tiemi; Akashi, Paula Marie Hanai; de Camargo Neves Sacco, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the relationship between anterior disc displacement and global posture (plantar arches, lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, vertebral spine, head and mandibles). Common signs and symptoms of anterior disc displacement were also identified. INTRODUCTION: Global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint. METHODS : Global posture evaluation was performed in a group of 10 female patients (20 to 30 years of age) with temporomandibular joint disc displacement and in a control group of 16 healthy female volunteers matched for age, weight and height. Anterior disc displacement signs, symptoms and the presence of parafunctional habits were also identified through interview. RESULTS: Patients with disc displacement showed a higher incidence of pain in the temporomandibular joint area, but there were no differences in parafunctional habits between the groups. In the disc displacement group, postural deviations were found in the pelvis (posterior rotation), lumbar spine (hyperlordosis), thoracic spine (rectification), head (deviation to the right) and mandibles (deviation to the left with open mouth). There were no differences in the longitudinal plantar arches between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder. Hence, postural evaluation could be an important component in the overall approach to providing accurate prevention and treatment in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorder. PMID:19142549

  7. Postural compensation for vestibular loss and implications for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Horak, Fay B

    2010-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the role of the vestibular system in postural control so that specific and effective rehabilitation can be designed that facilitates compensation for loss of vestibular function. Patients with bilateral or unilateral loss of peripheral vestibular function are exposed to surface perturbations to quantify automatic postural responses. Studies also evaluated the effects of audio- and vibrotactile-biofeedback to improve stability in stance and gait. The most important role of vestibular information for postural control is to control orientation of the head and trunk in space with respect to gravitoinertial forces, particularly when balancing on unstable surfaces. Vestibular sensory references are particularly important for postural control at high frequencies and velocities of self-motion, to reduce trunk drift and variability, to provide an external reference frame for the trunk and head in space; and to uncouple coordination of the trunk from the legs and the head-in-space from the body CoM. The goal of balance rehabilitation for patients with vestibular loss is to help patients 1) use remaining vestibular function, 2) depend upon surface somatosensory information as their primary postural sensory system, 3) learn to use stable visual references, and 4) identify efficient and effective postural movement strategies.

  8. Abnormal origins of the long head of the biceps tendon can lead to rotator cuff pathology: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Alan L; Gates, Cameron H; Link, Thomas M; Ma, C Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    Previous case reports have highlighted various anomalous origins of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) that do not originate from the superior glenoid labrum or supraglenoid tubercle. Yet, these cases were all reported as incidental findings and were not thought to cause any significant shoulder pathology. We present the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical treatment of two cases where aberrant intra-articular origins of the long head of the biceps tendon from the anterior edge of the supraspinatus tendon may have contributed to symptomatic rotator cuff pathology. Arthroscopy confirmed MR findings of partial articular-sided supraspinatus lesions in close proximity to the anomalous origins and treatment with tenodesis of the LHBT successfully relieved symptoms. Although rare occurrences with subtle and potentially misleading imaging findings, it is important to be aware of aberrant origins of the LHBT that may contribute to concomitant rotator cuff pathology.

  9. Should Ballet Dancers Vary Postures and Underfoot Surfaces When Practicing Postural Balance?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Karin, Janet; Tirosh, Oren

    2018-01-01

    Postural balance (PB) is an important component skill for professional dancers. However, the effects of different types of postures and different underfoot surfaces on PB have not adequately been addressed. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different conditions of footwear, surfaces, and standing positions on static and dynamic PB ability of young ballet dancers. A total of 36 male and female young professional ballet dancers (aged 14-19 years) completed static and dynamic balance testing, measured by head and lumbar accelerometers, while standing on one leg in the turnout position, under six different conditions: (1) "relaxed" posture; (2) "ballet" posture; (3) barefoot; (4) ballet shoes with textured insoles; (5) barefoot on a textured mat; and (6) barefoot on a spiky mat. A condition effect was found for static and dynamic PB. Static PB was reduced when dancers stood in the ballet posture compared with standing in the relaxed posture and when standing on a textured mat and on a spiky mat (p < .05), and static PB in the relaxed posture was significantly better than PB in all the other five conditions tested. Dynamic PB was significantly better while standing in ballet shoes with textured insoles and when standing on a spiky mat compared with all other conditions (p < .05). The practical implications derived from this study are that both male and female dancers should try to be relaxed in their postural muscles when practicing a ballet aligned position, including dance practice on different types of floors and on different types of textured/spiky materials may result in skill transfer to practice on normal floor surfaces, and both static and dynamic PB exercises should be assessed and generalized into practical dance routines.

  10. The internal representation of head orientation differs for conscious perception and balance control.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Brian H; Rasman, Brandon G; Inglis, J Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-04-15

    We tested perceived head-on-feet orientation and the direction of vestibular-evoked balance responses in passively and actively held head-turned postures. The direction of vestibular-evoked balance responses was not aligned with perceived head-on-feet orientation while maintaining prolonged passively held head-turned postures. Furthermore, static visual cues of head-on-feet orientation did not update the estimate of head posture for the balance controller. A prolonged actively held head-turned posture did not elicit a rotation in the direction of the vestibular-evoked balance response despite a significant rotation in perceived angular head posture. It is proposed that conscious perception of head posture and the transformation of vestibular signals for standing balance relying on this head posture are not dependent on the same internal representation. Rather, the balance system may operate under its own sensorimotor principles, which are partly independent from perception. Vestibular signals used for balance control must be integrated with other sensorimotor cues to allow transformation of descending signals according to an internal representation of body configuration. We explored two alternative models of sensorimotor integration that propose (1) a single internal representation of head-on-feet orientation is responsible for perceived postural orientation and standing balance or (2) conscious perception and balance control are driven by separate internal representations. During three experiments, participants stood quietly while passively or actively maintaining a prolonged head-turned posture (>10 min). Throughout the trials, participants intermittently reported their perceived head angular position, and subsequently electrical vestibular stimuli were delivered to elicit whole-body balance responses. Visual recalibration of head-on-feet posture was used to determine whether static visual cues are used to update the internal representation of body configuration

  11. The Relationship Between the Stomatognathic System and Body Posture

    PubMed Central

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system’s proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss. PMID:19142553

  12. Dizziness and Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Barber, H. O.

    1965-01-01

    Dizziness, whether vague or specifically rotational, is a common sequel to head injury, and is often postural. One hundred and sixty-five patients with this symptom were examined. The simple posture tests employed to detect positional nystagmus are described. This physical finding was present in one-quarter of the entire group, and in nearly one-half of cases of longitudinal fracture of temporal bone. In such cases, it is an objective finding that corresponds precisely to the patient's complaint of vertigo. Transverse fracture of temporal bone destroys the inner ear in both cochlear and vestibular parts. Longitudinal fracture is commoner and causes bleeding from the ear; inner-ear damage is usually minor. In the rare cases where persisting postural vertigo and positional nystagmus are disabling, relief of the symptom may be achieved by vestibular denervation of the affected side. PMID:14285289

  13. DIZZINESS AND HEAD INJURY.

    PubMed

    BARBER, H O

    1965-05-01

    Dizziness, whether vague or specifically rotational, is a common sequel to head injury, and is often postural. One hundred and sixty-five patients with this symptom were examined. The simple posture tests employed to detect positional nystagmus are described. This physical finding was present in one-quarter of the entire group, and in nearly one-half of cases of longitudinal fracture of temporal bone. In such cases, it is an objective finding that corresponds precisely to the patient's complaint of vertigo.Transverse fracture of temporal bone destroys the inner ear in both cochlear and vestibular parts. Longitudinal fracture is commoner and causes bleeding from the ear; inner-ear damage is usually minor.In the rare cases where persisting postural vertigo and positional nystagmus are disabling, relief of the symptom may be achieved by vestibular denervation of the affected side.

  14. Trunk Accelerometry Reveals Postural Instability in Untreated Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.; Zampieri, Cris; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Nutt, John G.; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    While several studies have shown that subjects with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit abnormalities in sway parameters during quiet standing, abnormalities of postural sway associated with untreated PD have not been reported. Although not clinically apparent, we hypothesized that spontaneous sway in quiet stance is abnormal in people with untreated PD. We examined 13 subjects, recently diagnosed with PD, who were not yet taking any anti-parkinsonian medications and 12 healthy, age-matched control subjects. Postural sway was measured with a linear accelerometer on the posterior trunk (L5 level) and compared with traditional forceplate measures of sway. Subjects stood for two minutes under two conditions: eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). One of the most discriminative measures of postural changes in subjects with untreated PD was the increased ‘JERK’ of lower trunk in the EO condition, measured with the accelerometer. Root mean square and the frequency dispersion of postural sway in the EO condition also discriminated sway in untreated PD subjects compared to controls subjects. We conclude that accelerometer-based sway metrics could be used as objective measures of postural instability in untreated PD. Accelerometer-based analysis of spontaneous sway may provide a powerful tool for early clinical trials and for monitoring the effects of treatment of balance disorders in subjects with PD. PMID:21641263

  15. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Assessment of postural instability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, J W; Orawiec, R; Duda-Kłodowska, D; Opala, G

    2007-10-01

    Postural instability is one of the most disabling features of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we focused on postural instability as the main factor predisposing parkinsonians to falls. For this purpose, changes in sway characteristics during quiet stance due to visual feedback exclusion were studied. We searched for postural sway measures that could be potential discriminators for an increased fall risk. A group of 110 subjects: 55 parkinsonians (Hoehn and Yahr: 1-3), and 55 age-matched healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. Their spontaneous sway characteristics while standing quiet with eyes open and eyes closed were analyzed. We found that an increased mediolateral sway and sway area while standing with eyes closed are characteristic of parkinsonian postural instability and may serve to quantify well a tendency to fall. These sway indices significantly correlated with disease severity rated both by the Hoehn and Yahr scale as well as by the Motor Section of the UPDRS. A forward shift of a mean COP position in parkinsonians which reflects their flexed posture was also significantly greater to compare with the elderly subjects and exhibited a high sensitivity to visual conditions. Both groups of postural sway abnormalities identified here may be used as accessible and reliable measures which allow for quantitative assessment of postural instability in Parkinson's disease.

  17. Human Energy Expenditure and Postural Coordination on the Mechanical Horse.

    PubMed

    Baillet, Héloïse; Thouvarecq, Régis; Vérin, Eric; Tourny, Claire; Benguigui, Nicolas; Komar, John; Leroy, David

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated and compared the energy expenditure and postural coordination of two groups of healthy subjects on a mechanical horse at 4 increasing oscillation frequencies. Energy expenditure was assessed from the oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, and heart rate values, and postural coordination was characterized by relative phase computations between subjects (elbow, head, trunk) and horse. The results showed that the postural coordination of the riders was better adapted (i.e., maintenance of in-phase and antiphase) than that of the nonriders, but the energy expenditure remains the same. Likewise, we observed an energy system shifting only for nonriders (from aerobic to lactic anaerobic mode). Finally, cross-correlations showed a link between energy expenditure and postural coordination in the riders (i.e., effectiveness).

  18. Reducing the risk of falls through proprioceptive dynamic posture training in osteoporotic women with kyphotic posturing: a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed; Lynn, Susan G

    2002-04-01

    To assess the effect of a proprioceptive dynamic posture training program on balance in osteoporotic women with kyphotic posture. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a proprioceptive dynamic posture training program or exercise only group. Anthropometric measurements, muscle strength, level of physical activity, computerized dynamic posturography, and spine radiography were performed at baseline and 1 mo. At the 1-mo follow-up, three groups were formed on the basis of the baseline computerized dynamic posturography results. In general, groups 1 and 2 had no significant change at 1 mo, whereas group 3 improved balance significantly at 1 mo. The subjects who had abnormal balance and used the proprioceptive dynamic posture training program had the most significant improvement in balance. Improved balance could reduce the risk of falls.

  19. Relationship between postural alignment in sitting by photogrammetry and seated postural control in post-stroke subjects.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Y R; Vijayakumar, K; Abraham, J M; Misri, Z K; Suresh, B V; Unnikrishnan, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was executed to find out correlation between postural alignment in sitting measured through photogrammetry and postural control in sitting following stroke. A cross-sectional study with convenient sampling consisting of 45 subjects with acute and sub-acute stroke. Postural alignment in sitting was measured through photogrammetry and relevant angles were obtained through software MB Ruler (version 5.0). Seated postural control was measured through Function in Sitting Test (FIST). Correlation was obtained using Spearman's Rank Correlation co-efficient in SPSS software (version 17.0). Moderate positive correlation (r = 0.385; p < 0.01) was found between angle of lordosis and angle between acromion, lateral epicondyle and point between radius and ulna. Strong negative correlation (r = -0.435; p < 0.01) was found between cranio-vertebral angle and kyphosis. FIST showed moderate positive correlation (r = 0.3446; p < 0.05) with cranio-vertebral angle and strong positive correlation (r = 0.4336; p < 0.01) with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in upper extremity. Degree of forward head posture in sitting correlates directly with seated postural control and inversely with degree of kyphosis in sitting post-stroke. Postural control in sitting post-stroke is directly related with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in affected upper extremity in sitting.

  20. Cytogenetic Abnormality in Exfoliated Cells of Buccal Mucosa in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in the Tunisian Population: Impact of Different Exposure Sources

    PubMed Central

    Khlifi, Rim; Trabelsi-Ksibi, Fatma; Chakroun, Amine; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome/DNA instability could be one of the primary causes of malignant cell transformation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the spontaneous genetic damages in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa of head and neck cancer (HNC) by counting micronucleus (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells frequencies. MN and BN frequencies were significantly increased in HNC patients compared with controls (5.53 ± 3.09/1000 cells, 5.63 ± 2.99/1000 cells versus 2.36 ± 2.11/1000 cells, 3.09 ± 1.82/1000 cells, P < 0.001). Regarding the gender and the age, the frequencies of the MN and BN were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.01). The evaluation of the MN and BN frequencies revealed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the cases in relation to the control group after controlling the risk factors (tobacco smoking and chewing and occupational exposure) of HNC. Moreover, MN and BN frequencies were significantly increased in smokers and chewers compared with nonsmokers and nonchewers among patients (P < 0.05). MN frequency was significantly (P = 0.014) different between patients occupationally exposed (6.99 ± 3.40/1000 cells) and nonexposed (4.70 ± 2.48/1000 cells) among HNC group. The logistic regression model illustrated that HNC was significantly associated with frequencies of MN (OR = 8.63, P < 0.0001) and BN (OR = 5.62, P = 0.001). Our results suggest that increased chromosome/DNA instabilities may be associated with HNC. PMID:23957010

  1. Pharmacological modulation of abnormal involuntary DOI-induced head twitch response movements in male DBA/2J mice: II. Effects of D3 dopamine receptor selective compounds.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Malik, Maninder; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2015-06-01

    We recently reported on the characterization of the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine's (DOI) ability to elicit a head twitch response (HTR) in DBA/2J mice and the ability of D2 vs. D3 dopamine receptor selective compounds to modulate that response. For these studies, the ability of D3 vs. D2 dopamine receptor selective compounds to attenuate the DOI-dependent HTR was examined. WC 10, a D3 dopamine receptor weak partial agonist with 40-fold binding selectivity for D3 vs. D2 dopamine receptors, produced a dose-dependent decrease in the DOI-induced HTR (IC50 = 3.7 mg/kg). WC 44, a D3 receptor selective full agonist, also inhibited the DOI-induced HTR (IC50 = 5.1 mg/kg). The effect of two D3 receptor selective partial agonists, LAX-4-136 and WW-III-55, were also evaluated. These analogs exhibit 150-fold and 800-fold D3 vs. D2 binding selectivity, respectively. Both compounds inhibited the HTR with similar potency but with different maximum efficacies. At 10 mg/kg WW-III-55 inhibited the HTR by 95%, while LAX-4-136 administration resulted in a 50% reduction. In addition, DOI (5 mg/kg) was administered at various times after LAX-4-136 or WW-III-55 administration to compare the duration of action. The homopiperazine analog LAX-4-136 exhibited greater stability. An assessment of our test compounds on motor performance and coordination was performed using a rotarod test. None of the D3 dopamine receptor selective compounds significantly altered latency to fall, suggesting that these compounds a) did not attenuate the DOI-dependent HTR due to sedative or adverse motor effects and b) may have antipsychotic/antihallucinogenic activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Autoimmune Basis for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-23

    Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome; Postural Tachycardia Syndrome; Tachycardia; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Autonomic Nervous System Diseases; Orthostatic Intolerance; Cardiovascular Diseases; Primary Dysautonomias

  3. Posture variation among office workers when using different information and communication technologies at work and away from work.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Marina; Straker, Leon; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Pollock, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Office workers perform tasks using different information and communication technologies (ICT) involving various postures. Adequate variation in postures and muscle activity is generally believed to protect against musculoskeletal complaints, but insufficient information exists regarding the effect on postural variation of using different ICT. Thus, this study among office workers aimed to determine and compare postures and postural variation associated with using distinct types of ICT. Upper arm, head and trunk postures of 24 office workers were measured with the Physiometer over a whole day in their natural work and away-from-work environments. Postural variation was quantified using two indices: APDF(90-10) and EVA(sd). Various ICT had different postural means and variation. Paper-based tasks had more non-neutral, yet also more variable postures. Electronics-based tasks had more neutral postures, with less postural variability. Tasks simultaneously using paper- and electronics-based ICT had least neutral and least variable postures. Tasks without ICT usually had the most posture variability. Interspersing tasks involving different ICT could increase overall exposure variation among office workers and may thus contribute to musculoskeletal risk reduction.

  4. Brain structural abnormalities and mental health sequelae in South Vietnamese ex-political detainees who survived traumatic head injury and torture.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Richard F; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Chernoff, Miriam C; Bui, Hoan X; Lavelle, James; Yoon, Sujung J; Kim, Jieun E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2009-11-01

    A pilot study of South Vietnamese ex-political detainees who had been incarcerated in Vietnamese reeducation camps and resettled in the United States disclosed significant mental health problems associated with torture and traumatic head injury (THI). To identify structural brain alterations associated with THI and to investigate whether these deficits are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Cross-sectional neuroimaging study. Massachusetts General Hospital and McLean Hospital. A subsample of Vietnamese ex-political detainees (n = 42) and comparison subjects (n = 16) selected from a community study of 337 ex-political detainees and 82 comparison subjects. Scores on the Vietnamese versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL) and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, respectively; cerebral regional cortical thickness; and manual volumetric morphometry of the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus. Ex-political detainees exposed to THI (n = 16) showed a higher rate of depression (odds ratio, 10.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-90.0) than those without THI exposure (n = 26). Ex-political detainees with THI had thinner prefrontotemporal cortices than those without THI exposure (P < .001 by the statistical difference brain map) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal and bilateral superior temporal cortices, controlling for age, handedness, and number of trauma/torture events (left superior frontal cortex [SFC], P = .006; left middle frontal cortex, P = .01; left superior temporal cortex [STC], P = .007; right STC, P = .01). Trauma/torture events were associated with bilateral amygdala volume loss (left, P = .045; right, P = .003). Cortical thinning associated with THI in the left SFC and bilateral STC was related to HSCL depression scores in THI-exposed (vs non-THI-exposed) ex-political detainees (left SFC, P for interaction = .007; left STC, P for interaction = .03; right STC, P for interaction = .02

  5. Cranio-cervical posture: a factor in the development and function of the dentofacial structures.

    PubMed

    Solow, Beni; Sandham, Andrew

    2002-10-01

    Many practitioners will recognize that subjects with a large mandibular plane inclination are characterized by an extended head posture and a forward inclined cervical column, i.e. an extended cranio-cervical posture. It is also typical that subjects with a short-face morphology often carry their heads somewhat lowered, and have a markedly backward-curved upper cervical spine, i.e. cervical lordosis. The aim of the paper is to link together the findings of a series of studies that attempt to clarify this relationship, and bring into focus cranio-cervical posture, which is a functional factor that seems to be involved in many clinical orthodontic problems. To provide a background for the article, the concept of standardized posture of the head and the cervical column is developed, and procedures for recording this posture, as well as categories of cephalometric variables that express the different postural relationships, are described. Findings that relate cranio-cervical posture to upper airway obstruction, to craniofacial morphology, and to malocclusion are surveyed, and a post-natal developmental mechanism that explains the findings and leads to further questions is discussed. Recent findings of a relationship between extended cranio-cervical posture and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders further emphasize the biological importance of this functional parameter.

  6. Postural asymmetries in young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet; Czuba, Tomasz; Hägglund, Gunnar; Westbom, Lena

    2013-11-01

    The purpose was to describe posture, ability to change position, and association between posture and contractures, hip dislocation, scoliosis, and pain in young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Cross-sectional data of 102 people (63 males, 39 females; age range 19-23 y, median 21 y) out of a total population with CP was analysed in relation to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I (n=38), II (n=21), III (n=13), IV (n=10), and V (n=20). The CP subtypes were unilateral spastic (n=26), bilateral spastic (n=45), ataxic (n=12), and dyskinetic CP (n=19). The Postural Ability Scale was used to assess posture. The relationship between posture and joint range of motion, hip dislocation, scoliosis, and pain was analysed using logistic regression and Spearman's correlation. At GMFCS levels I to II, head and trunk asymmetries were most common; at GMFCS levels III to V postural asymmetries varied with position. The odds ratios (OR) for severe postural asymmetries were significantly higher for those with scoliosis (OR=33 sitting), limited hip extension (OR=39 supine), or limited knee extension (OR=37 standing). Postural asymmetries correlated to hip dislocations: supine (r(s) =0.48), sitting (r(s) =0.40), standing (r(s) =0.41), and inability to change position: supine (r(s) =0.60), sitting (r(s) =0.73), and standing (r(s) =0.64). Postural asymmetries were associated with scoliosis, hip dislocations, hip and knee contractures, and inability to change position. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.

  7. Postural asymmetries in young adults with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet; Czuba, Tomasz; Hägglund, Gunnar; Westbom, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Aim The purpose was to describe posture, ability to change position, and association between posture and contractures, hip dislocation, scoliosis, and pain in young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Cross-sectional data of 102 people (63 males, 39 females; age range 19–23y, median 21y) out of a total population with CP was analysed in relation to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I (n=38), II (n=21), III (n=13), IV (n=10), and V (n=20). The CP subtypes were unilateral spastic (n=26), bilateral spastic (n=45), ataxic (n=12), and dyskinetic CP (n=19). The Postural Ability Scale was used to assess posture. The relationship between posture and joint range of motion, hip dislocation, scoliosis, and pain was analysed using logistic regression and Spearman’s correlation. Results At GMFCS levels I to II, head and trunk asymmetries were most common; at GMFCS levels III to V postural asymmetries varied with position. The odds ratios (OR) for severe postural asymmetries were significantly higher for those with scoliosis (OR=33 sitting), limited hip extension (OR=39 supine), or limited knee extension (OR=37 standing). Postural asymmetries correlated to hip dislocations: supine (rs=0.48), sitting (rs=0.40), standing (rs=0.41), and inability to change position: supine (rs=0.60), sitting (rs=0.73), and standing (rs=0.64). Conclusions Postural asymmetries were associated with scoliosis, hip dislocations, hip and knee contractures, and inability to change position. This article is commented on by Novak on page 974 of this issue. PMID:23834239

  8. Body posture modulates action perception.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Marius; Toni, Ivan; de Lange, Floris P

    2013-04-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cognitive and neural similarities between planning and perceiving actions. Given that action planning involves a simulation of potential action plans that depends on the actor's body posture, we reasoned that perceiving actions may also be influenced by one's body posture. Here, we test whether and how this influence occurs by measuring behavioral and cerebral (fMRI) responses in human participants predicting goals of observed actions, while manipulating postural congruency between their own body posture and postures of the observed agents. Behaviorally, predicting action goals is facilitated when the body posture of the observer matches the posture achieved by the observed agent at the end of his action (action's goal posture). Cerebrally, this perceptual postural congruency effect modulates activity in a portion of the left intraparietal sulcus that has previously been shown to be involved in updating neural representations of one's own limb posture during action planning. This intraparietal area showed stronger responses when the goal posture of the observed action did not match the current body posture of the observer. These results add two novel elements to the notion that perceiving actions relies on the same predictive mechanism as planning actions. First, the predictions implemented by this mechanism are based on the current physical configuration of the body. Second, during both action planning and action observation, these predictions pertain to the goal state of the action.

  9. [Orthostatic postural tachycardia: study of 8 patients].

    PubMed

    Santiago Pérez, S; Ferrer Gila, T

    1998-02-07

    The occurrence of syncopal episodes is a very frequent event. In the absence of a structural systemic or cardiac disease, syncope is resulting of an anomalous cardiovascular response neurally mediated by the autonomic nervous system. It is the final common manifestation of different abnormal mechanisms and is frequently precipitated by orthostatism. Orthostatic intolerance syndrome refers to the development of symptoms during the upright posture that disappear in supine position. Tachycardia may be one of the clinical features of the syndrome. During orthostatic stress a hyperadrenergic response, with maintained increment of heart rate and associated symptoms, is developed. Changes in blood pressure may be diverse and in some cases hypotension and syncope occurs. Eight patients with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance who underwent autonomic evaluation and were diagnosed from postural tachycardia are presented. In all the cases an abnormal increment of heart rate during tilting was found and it was associated to hyperadrenergic symptoms. Evidence of restricted sympathetic impairment was observed in six cases with distal reduction of sudomotor function and abnormal adrenergic response during Valsalva manoeuvre. Symptoms disappeared or mostly subsided with pharmacological (amitriptyline in one case, phenobarbital in another one and non-cardioselective beta-blockers in six patients) and non-pharmacological treatment. In further examinations heart rate and blood pressure were normal.

  10. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Maartje H; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C; van Campen, Jos P C M; Lems, Willem F; Beijnen, Jos H; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2014-02-01

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine postural control during walking in elderly patients with FP, and to investigate the relationship with geriatric phenomena that may cause FP, such as increased TK, VFs, frailty, polypharmacy and cognitive impairments. Fifty-six elderly patients (aged 80 ± 5.2 years; 70% female) walked 160 m at self-selected speed while trunk accelerations were recorded. Walking speed, mean stride time and coefficient of variation (CV) of stride time were recorded. In addition, postural control during walking was quantified by time-dependent variability measures derived from the theory of stochastic dynamics, indicating smoothness, degree of predictability, and local stability of trunk acceleration patterns. Twenty-five patients (45%) had FP and demonstrated a more variable and less structured gait pattern, and a more irregular trunk acceleration pattern than patients with normal posture. FP was significantly associated with an increased TK, but not with other geriatric phenomena. An increased TK may bring the body's centre of mass forward, which requires correcting responses, and reduces the ability to respond on perturbation, which was reflected by higher variation in the gait pattern in FP-patients. Impairments in postural control during walking are a major risk factor for falling: the results indicate that patients with FP have impaired postural control during walking and might therefore be at increased risk of falling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cybersickness without the wobble: Experimental results speak against postural instability theory.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Mark Stephen; D'Zmura, Michael

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that postural instability is necessary for cybersickness to occur. Seated and standing subjects used a head-mounted display to view a virtual tunnel that rotated about their line of sight. We found that the offset direction of perceived vertical settings matched the direction of the tunnel's rotation, so replicating earlier findings. Increasing rotation speed caused cybersickness to increase, but had no significant impact on perceived vertical settings. Postural sway during rotation was similar to postural sway during rest. While a minority of subjects exhibited postural sway in response to the onset of tunnel rotation, the majority did not. Furthermore, cybersickness increased with rotation speed similarly for the seated and standing conditions. Finally, subjects with greater levels of cybersickness exhibited less variation in postural sway. These results lead us to conclude that the link between postural instability and cybersickness is a weak one in the present experiment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Postural Recovery Following Short and Long Duration Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Fiedler, J.; Taylor, L. C.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Post-flight postural ataxia reflects adaptive changes to vestibulo-spinal reflexes and control strategies adopted for movement in weightlessness. Quantitative measures obtained during computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) from US and Russian programs provide insight into the effect of spaceflight duration in terms of both the initial decrements and recovery of postural stability. METHODS: CDP was obtained on 117 crewmembers following Shuttle flights lasting 4-17 days, and on 64 crewmembers following long-duration missions lasting 48-380 days. Although the number and timing of sessions varied, the goal was to characterize postural recovery pooling similar measures from different research and flight medicine programs. This report focuses on eyes closed, head erect conditions with either a fixed or sway-referenced base of support. A smaller subset of subjects repeated the sway-referenced condition while making pitch head movements (+/- 20deg at 0.33Hz). Equilibrium scores were derived from peak-to-peak anterior-posterior sway. Fall probability was modeled using Bayesian statistical methods to estimate parameters of a logit function. RESULTS: The standard Romberg condition was the least sensitive. Longer duration flights led to larger decrements in stability with sway-reference support during the first 1-2 days, although the timecourse of recovery was similar across flight duration with head erect. Head movements led to increased incidence of falls during the first week, with a significantly longer recovery following long duration flights. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic assessment of postural instability, and differences in the timecourse of postural recovery between short and long flight durations, are more pronounced during unstable support conditions requiring active head movements.

  13. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  14. Postural Control in Bilateral Vestibular Failure: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive, Vestibular, and Cognitive Input.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Andreas; Wojak, Jann F; Jandl, Nico M; Helmchen, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance. Between-group analysis revealed larger postural sway in BVF patients on eye closure; but with the eyes open, BVF did not differ from healthy controls (HCs). Head tilts and horizontal head shaking increased sway but did not differ between groups. In the dual task condition, BVF patients maintained posture indistinguishable from controls. On foam and tandem stance, postural sway was larger in BVF, even with the eyes open. The best predictor for the severity of bilateral vestibulopathy was standing on foam with eyes closed. Postural control of our BVF was indistinguishable from HCs once visual and proprioceptive feedback is provided. This distinguishes them from patients with vestibulo-cerebellar disorders or functional dizziness. It confirms previous reports and explains that postural unsteadiness of BVF patients can be missed easily if not examined by conditions of visual and/or proprioceptive deprivation. In fact, the best predictor for vestibular hypofunction (VOR gain) was examining patients standing on foam with the eyes closed. Postural sway in that condition increased with the severity of vestibular impairment but not with disease duration. In the absence of visual control, impaired otolith input destabilizes BVF with head retroflexion. Stimulating deficient SSC does not distinguish patients from controls possibly reflecting a shift of intersensory weighing toward proprioceptive-guided postural control. Accordingly, proprioceptive

  15. Postural Control in Bilateral Vestibular Failure: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive, Vestibular, and Cognitive Input

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Andreas; Wojak, Jann F.; Jandl, Nico M.; Helmchen, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance. Between-group analysis revealed larger postural sway in BVF patients on eye closure; but with the eyes open, BVF did not differ from healthy controls (HCs). Head tilts and horizontal head shaking increased sway but did not differ between groups. In the dual task condition, BVF patients maintained posture indistinguishable from controls. On foam and tandem stance, postural sway was larger in BVF, even with the eyes open. The best predictor for the severity of bilateral vestibulopathy was standing on foam with eyes closed. Postural control of our BVF was indistinguishable from HCs once visual and proprioceptive feedback is provided. This distinguishes them from patients with vestibulo-cerebellar disorders or functional dizziness. It confirms previous reports and explains that postural unsteadiness of BVF patients can be missed easily if not examined by conditions of visual and/or proprioceptive deprivation. In fact, the best predictor for vestibular hypofunction (VOR gain) was examining patients standing on foam with the eyes closed. Postural sway in that condition increased with the severity of vestibular impairment but not with disease duration. In the absence of visual control, impaired otolith input destabilizes BVF with head retroflexion. Stimulating deficient SSC does not distinguish patients from controls possibly reflecting a shift of intersensory weighing toward proprioceptive-guided postural control. Accordingly, proprioceptive

  16. Cervical posture analysis in dental students and its correlation with temporomandibular disorder.

    PubMed

    Câmara-Souza, Mariana Barbosa; Figueredo, Olívia Maria Costa; Maia, Paulo Raphael Leite; Dantas, Isabelle de Sousa; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and craniocervical posture in the sagittal plane measured from lateral radiographs of the head. The sample was comprised of 80 randomly selected students of dentistry at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte. Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) was used to evaluate the signs and symptoms of TMD. Lateral radiographs of each individual were used to measure the position of the hyoid bone, the craniocervical angle, and the occiput-atlas distance. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationships between craniocervical posture measures and TMD. No relationship was found between TMD and the craniocervical posture measured by the positioning of the hyoid bone, head rotation, and the extension/flexion of the head (p > 0.05). It can be concluded, therefore, that no relationship exists between cervical posture in the sagittal plane and TMD.

  17. Effect of body posture on involuntary swallow in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Shiino, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Shogo; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Ito, Kayoko; Tsukada, Tetsu; Inoue, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Clinically, reclining posture has been reported to reduce risk of aspiration. However, during involuntary swallow in reclining posture, changes in orofacial and pharyngeal movement before and during pharyngeal swallow should be considered. Further, the mechanisms underlying the effect of body posture on involuntary swallow remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of body posture on activity patterns of the suprahyoid muscles and on patterns of bolus transport during a natural involuntary swallow. Thirteen healthy male adults participated in a water infusion test and a chewing test. In the water infusion test, thickened water was delivered into the pharynx at a very slow rate until the first involuntary swallow was evoked. In the chewing test, subjects were asked to eat 10 g of gruel rice. In both tests, the recording was performed at four body postures between upright and supine positions. Results showed that reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow and prolonged onset latency of the swallowing initiation. Muscle burst duration and whiteout time measured by videoendoscopy significantly increased with body reclining and prolongation of the falling time. In the chewing test, reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow, and the frequency of bolus residue after the first swallow increased. Duration and area of EMG burst and whiteout time significantly increased with body reclining. These data suggest that body reclining may result in prolongation of pharyngeal swallow during involuntary swallow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stance Postural Strategies in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Missori, Paolo; Trompetto, Carlo; Fattapposta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polyneuropathy leads to postural instability and an increased risk of falling. We investigated how impaired motor impairment and proprioceptive input due to neuropathy influences postural strategies. Methods Platformless bisegmental posturography data were recorded in healthy subjects and patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Each subject stood on the floor, wore a head and a hip electromagnetic tracker. Sway amplitude and velocity were recorded and the mean direction difference (MDD) in the velocity vector between trackers was calculated as a flexibility index. Results Head and hip postural sway increased more in patients with CIDP than in healthy controls. MDD values reflecting hip strategies also increased more in patients than in controls. In the eyes closed condition MDD values in healthy subjects decreased but in patients remained unchanged. Discussion Sensori-motor impairment changes the balance between postural strategies that patients adopt to maintain upright quiet stance. Motor impairment leads to hip postural strategy overweight (eyes open), and prevents strategy re-balancing when the sensory context predominantly relies on proprioceptive input (eyes closed). PMID:26977594

  19. Fetal MRI: head and neck.

    PubMed

    Mirsky, David M; Shekdar, Karuna V; Bilaniuk, Larissa T

    2012-08-01

    Abnormalities of the fetal head and neck may be seen in isolation or in association with central nervous system abnormalities, chromosomal abnormalities, and syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in detecting associated abnormalities of the brain as well as in evaluating for airway obstruction that may impact prenatal management and delivery planning. This article provides an overview of the common indications for MRI of the fetal head and neck, including abnormalities of the fetal skull and face, masses of the face and neck, and fetal goiter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cervical vertebral realignment when voluntarily adopting a protective neck posture.

    PubMed

    Newell, Robyn S; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Street, John; Cripton, Peter A

    2014-07-01

    In vivo human volunteer study of the intervertebral postural changes and muscle activity levels while tensing the neck muscles. To determine if actively tensing the neck muscles changes the posture of the cervical spine and, because axial impact neck injury often occurs while inverted, whether these changes exist both upright and upside down. Rollover accidents are dynamic and complex events in which head contacts with the vehicle interior can cause catastrophic neck injuries. Computational modeling has suggested that active neck muscles may increase the risk of cervical spine fracture in a rollover crash. Cadaver testing has also demonstrated that overall neck alignment and curvature are key to understanding and preventing catastrophic neck injuries. Although muscle activity and neck posture affects the resulting injury, there are currently no in vivo data describing how tensing the neck muscles influences intervertebral posture. Eleven human subjects (6 females, 5 males) actively tensed their neck muscles while seated upright and inverted. Vertebral alignment was measured using fluoroscopy and muscle activity was recorded using surface and indwelling electrodes in 8 neck muscles. On average, tensed muscles increased cervical spine curvature and anterior motion of the cervical vertebrae relative to the torso. These changes, which were magnified by inversion, indicate that cervical intervertebral posture differs considerably between the relaxed and tensed states. Active muscle contraction can change the vertebral alignment in upright and inverted postures. This change in posture may alter the load path and injury mechanics during an axial head impact and may help explain the disparity between the neck injuries observed in real-world rollover accidents and ex vivo cadaver experiments. N/A.

  1. Medio-lateral postural instability in subjects with tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Vernet, Marine; Berbey, Nolwenn; Orssaud, Christophe; Londero, Alain; Bonfils, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration, and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor) and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus. Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right, and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40 cm for 51 s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40 Hz) for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx). This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx) and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory-tinnitus eye position and attention.

  2. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  3. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Improvement in automatic postural coordination following alexander technique lessons in a person with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, Timothy W; Horak, Fay B; Henry, Sharon M

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between abnormal postural coordination and back pain is unclear. The Alexander Technique (AT) aims to improve postural coordination by using conscious processes to alter automatic postural coordination and ongoing muscular activity, and it has been reported to reduce low back pain. This case report describes the use of the AT with a client with low back pain and the observed changes in automatic postural responses and back pain. The client was a 49-year-old woman with a 25-year history of left-sided, idiopathic, lumbrosacral back pain. Automatic postural coordination was measured using a force plate during horizontal platform translations and one-legged standing. The client was tested monthly for 4 months before AT lessons and for 3 months after lessons. Before lessons, she consistently had laterally asymmetric automatic postural responses to translations. After AT lessons, the magnitude and asymmetry of her responses and balance improved and her low back pain decreased. Further research is warranted to study whether AT lessons improve low back pain-associated abnormalities in automatic postural coordination and whether improving automatic postural coordination helps to reduce low back pain.

  6. Postural Instability Induced by Visual Motion Stimuli in Patients With Vestibular Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Soo; Lee, Ho-Won; Kim, Sung-Hee

    2018-01-01

    Patients with vestibular migraine are susceptible to motion sickness. This study aimed to determine whether the severity of posture instability is related to the susceptibility to motion sickness. We used a visual motion paradigm with two conditions of the stimulated retinal field and the head posture to quantify postural stability while maintaining a static stance in 18 patients with vestibular migraine and in 13 age-matched healthy subjects. Three parameters of postural stability showed differences between VM patients and controls: RMS velocity (0.34 ± 0.02 cm/s vs. 0.28 ± 0.02 cm/s), RMS acceleration (8.94 ± 0.74 cm/s2 vs. 6.69 ± 0.87 cm/s2), and sway area (1.77 ± 0.22 cm2 vs. 1.04 ± 0.25 cm2). Patients with vestibular migraine showed marked postural instability of the head and neck when visual stimuli were presented in the retinal periphery. The pseudo-Coriolis effect induced by head roll tilt was not responsible for the main differences in postural instability between patients and controls. Patients with vestibular migraine showed a higher visual dependency and low stability of the postural control system when maintaining quiet standing, which may be related to susceptibility to motion sickness. PMID:29930534

  7. Postural Instability Induced by Visual Motion Stimuli in Patients With Vestibular Migraine.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Soo; Lee, Ho-Won; Kim, Sung-Hee

    2018-01-01

    Patients with vestibular migraine are susceptible to motion sickness. This study aimed to determine whether the severity of posture instability is related to the susceptibility to motion sickness. We used a visual motion paradigm with two conditions of the stimulated retinal field and the head posture to quantify postural stability while maintaining a static stance in 18 patients with vestibular migraine and in 13 age-matched healthy subjects. Three parameters of postural stability showed differences between VM patients and controls: RMS velocity (0.34 ± 0.02 cm/s vs. 0.28 ± 0.02 cm/s), RMS acceleration (8.94 ± 0.74 cm/s 2 vs. 6.69 ± 0.87 cm/s 2 ), and sway area (1.77 ± 0.22 cm 2 vs. 1.04 ± 0.25 cm 2 ). Patients with vestibular migraine showed marked postural instability of the head and neck when visual stimuli were presented in the retinal periphery. The pseudo-Coriolis effect induced by head roll tilt was not responsible for the main differences in postural instability between patients and controls. Patients with vestibular migraine showed a higher visual dependency and low stability of the postural control system when maintaining quiet standing, which may be related to susceptibility to motion sickness.

  8. [Correlation analysis between position of head, cervical curvature classification and balance of cervical spine through lateral plain radiograph measurement].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuan; Deng, Zhen; Wang, Hui-Hao; Li, Zheng-Yan; Niu, Wen-Xin; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Ming-Cai; Yuan, Wei-An; Zhan, Hong-Sheng

    2017-05-25

    To analyze the relationship between position of head, cervical curvature type and associated cervical balance parameters in a neutral looking-forward posture. Cervical lateral X-rays of 60 patients with cervical spondylosis were selected from January to December 2015. There were 22 males and 38 females with an average age of (35.5±10.9) years old. The measured parameters included cervical curvature type, McGregor slope, C2 lower end plate slope, T1 slope, center of gravity to C7 sagittal vertical offset (CG-C7 SVA), and C2 to C7 sagittal vertical offset (C2-C7 SVA). The parameters were analyzed using Spearman correlation. The cervical curvature type was significantly correlated with C2 lower endplate slope, C0-C2 angle (total degree of C2 lower endplate slope plus McGregor slope), CG-C7 SVA and T1 slope ( P <0.05), but it was not significantly correlated McGregor slope ( P >0.05). C2 lower endplate slope and C2-C7 SVA (r=0.87) were significantly ( P <0.05) correlated with CG-C7 SVA ( P <0.05). There was certain some relationship among position of head, cervical curvature type and associated cervical balance parameters in a neutral looking-forward posture. The center of gravity of the head would backwards shift following faced upward. A position of extension with posterior-shifting of the head would suggest that it may be accompanied with a relatively normal lordosis of the cervical spine. Some patients with abnormal curvature showed slightly bended head in the natural posture. Health education toward these people would be meaningful to restore the balance of their neck.

  9. Assessment of postural balance function.

    PubMed

    Kostiukow, Anna; Rostkowska, Elzbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Postural balance is defined as the ability to stand unassisted without falling. Examination of the patient's postural balance function is a difficult diagnostic task. Most of the balance tests used in medicine provide incomplete information on this coordination ability of the human body. The aim of this study was to review methods of assessment of the patient's postural balance function, including various tests used in medical diagnostics centers.

  10. The association of foot arch posture and prior history of shoulder or elbow surgery in elite-level baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Luis A; Roach, Kathryn E; Kaplan, Lee D; Lesniak, Bryson; Cunningham, Sean

    2013-11-01

    Case-control. The specific aim of this study was to examine the association between abnormal foot arch postures and a history of shoulder or elbow surgery in baseball pitchers. Pitching a baseball generates forces throughout the musculoskeletal structures of the upper and lower limbs. Structures such as the longitudinal arch of the foot are adaptable to stresses over time. Repeated pitching-related stresses may contribute to acquiring abnormal foot arch postures. Inversely, congenitally abnormal foot arch posture may lead to altered stresses of the upper limb during pitching. A convenience sample of 77 pitchers was recruited from a Division I university team and a professional baseball franchise. Subjects who had a history of shoulder or elbow surgery to the pitching arm were classified as cases. Subjects who met the criteria for classification of pes planus or pes cavus based on longitudinal arch angle were classified as having abnormal foot arch posture. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the association between abnormal foot arch posture and pitching-arm injury requiring surgery. Twenty-three subjects were classified as cases. The odds of being a case were 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 9.6; P = .02) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot arch posture and 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 8.1; P = .04) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot posture on the lunge leg. Abnormal foot arch posture and a surgical history in the pitching shoulder or elbow may be associated. Because the foot and its arches are adaptable and change over time, the pathomechanics of this association should be further explored.

  11. Postural balance and the risk of falling during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Bulent; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Inanir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological process and many changes occur in a woman's body during pregnancy. These changes occur in all systems to varying degrees, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems. The hormonal, anatomical, and physiological changes occurring during pregnancy result in weight gain, decreased abdominal muscle strength and neuromuscular control, increased ligamentous laxity, and spinal lordosis. These alterations shift the centre of gravity of the body, altering the postural balance and increasing the risk of falls. Falls during pregnancy can cause maternal and foetal complications, such as maternal bone fractures, head injuries, internal haemorrhage, abruption placenta, rupture of the uterus and membranes, and occasionally maternal death or intrauterine foetal demise. Preventative strategies, such as physical exercise and the use of maternity support belts, can increase postural stability and reduce the risk of falls during pregnancy. This article reviews studies that have investigated changes in postural balance and risk of falling during pregnancy.

  12. Usefulness of posture training for patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Wright, E F; Domenech, M A; Fischer, J R

    2000-02-01

    Many practitioners have found that posture training has a positive impact on temporomandibular, or TMD, symptoms. The authors conducted a study to evaluate its effectiveness. Sixty patients with TMD and a primary muscle disorder were randomized into two groups: one group received posture training and TMD self-management instructions while the control group received TMD self-management instructions only. Four weeks after the study began, the authors reexamined the subjects for changes in symptoms, pain-free opening and pressure algometer pain thresholds. In addition, pretreatment and posttreatment posture measurements were recorded for subjects in the treatment group. Statistically significant improvement was demonstrated by the modified symptom severity index, maximum pain-free opening and pressure algometer threshold measurements, as well as by the subjects' perceived TMD and neck symptoms. Subjects in the treatment group reported having experienced a mean reduction in TMD and neck symptoms of 41.9 and 38.2 percent, respectively, while subjects in the control group reported a mean reduction in these symptoms of 8.1 and 9.3 percent. Within the treatment group, the authors found significant correlations between improvements in TMD symptoms and improvements in neck symptoms (P < .005) as well as between TMD symptom improvement and the difference between head and shoulder posture measurements at the outset of treatment (P < .05). Posture training and TMD self-management instructions are significantly more effective than TMD self-management instructions alone for patients with TMD who have a primary muscle disorder. Patients with TMD who hold their heads farther forward relative to the shoulders have a high probability of experiencing symptom improvement as a result of posture training and being provided with selfmanagement instructions.

  13. Evaluation of work posture and quantification of fatigue by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizkya, I.; Syahputri, K.; Sari, R. M.; Anizar; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), poor body postures, and low back injuries are the most common problems occurring in many industries including small-medium industries. This study presents assessment and evaluation of ergonomic postures of material handling worker. That evaluation was carried out using REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment). REBA is a technique to quantize the fatigue experienced by the worker while manually lifting loads. Fatigue due to abnormal work posture leads to complaints of labor-perceived pain. REBA methods were used to an assessment of working postures for the existing process by a procedural analysis of body postures involved. This study shows that parts of the body have a high risk of work are the back, neck, and upper arms with REBA score 9, so action should be taken as soon as possible. Controlling actions were implemented to those process with high risk then substantial risk reduction was achieved.

  14. Postural complexity influences development in infants born preterm with brain injury: relating perception-action theory to 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Dusing, Stacey C; Izzo, Theresa; Thacker, Leroy R; Galloway, James Cole

    2014-10-01

    Perception-action theory suggests a cyclical relationship between movement and perceptual information. In this case series, changes in postural complexity were used to quantify an infant's action and perception during the development of early motor behaviors. Three infants born preterm with periventricular white matter injury were included. Longitudinal changes in postural complexity (approximate entropy of the center of pressure), head control, reaching, and global development, measured with the Test of Infant Motor Performance and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, were assessed every 0.5 to 3 months during the first year of life. All 3 infants demonstrated altered postural complexity and developmental delays. However, the timing of the altered postural complexity and the type of delays varied among the infants. For infant 1, reduced postural complexity or limited action while learning to control her head in the midline position may have contributed to her motor delay. However, her ability to adapt her postural complexity eventually may have supported her ability to learn from her environment, as reflected in her relative cognitive strength. For infant 2, limited early postural complexity may have negatively affected his learning through action, resulting in cognitive delay. For infant 3, an increase in postural complexity above typical levels was associated with declining neurological status. Postural complexity is proposed as a measure of perception and action in the postural control system during the development of early behaviors. An optimal, intermediate level of postural complexity supports the use of a variety of postural control strategies and enhances the perception-action cycle. Either excessive or reduced postural complexity may contribute to developmental delays in infants born preterm with white matter injury. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  15. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  16. Decreased postural control in people with moderate hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ewan; Martines, Francesco; Bianco, Antonino; Messina, Giuseppe; Giustino, Valerio; Zangla, Daniele; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Balance is a complex process that involves multiple sensory integrations. The auditory, visual, and vestibular systems are the main contributors. Hearing loss or hearing impairment may induce inappropriate postural strategies that could affect balance and therefore increase the risk of falling. The aim of this study was to understand whether hearing loss could influence balance, cervical posture, and muscle activation in the cervical region. Thirteen patients (61 ± 13 years; 161.8 ± 11.0 cm; 70.5 ± 15.9 kg) with moderate hearing loss (Right ear −60 ± 21 dB; Left ear −61 ± 24 dB) underwent: an audiometric examination, a postural examination (with open and closed eyes) through a stabilometric platform, a cervical ROM examination through a head accelerometer, and a sternocleidomastoid electromyography (EMG) examination. A linear regression analysis has shown a regression coefficient (R2) 0.76 and 0.69 between hearing loss and the posturographic parameters, on the sagittal sway, with open and closed eyes, respectively. The combination of frontal and sagittal sway is able to explain up to 84% of the variance of the audiometric assessment. No differences were found between right and left hemibody between the audiometric, posturographic, cervical ROM parameters, and in EMG amplitude. ROM and EMG parameters have not shown any significant associations with hearing loss, for both right and left head rotation. Hearing loss is associated to increased posturographic measures, especially the sagittal sway, underlining a reduced postural control in people with hearing impairments. No association was found between the heads posture and neck activation with hearing loss. Hearing loss may be associated with an increased risk of falls. PMID:29620637

  17. Decreased postural control in people with moderate hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ewan; Martines, Francesco; Bianco, Antonino; Messina, Giuseppe; Giustino, Valerio; Zangla, Daniele; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Balance is a complex process that involves multiple sensory integrations. The auditory, visual, and vestibular systems are the main contributors. Hearing loss or hearing impairment may induce inappropriate postural strategies that could affect balance and therefore increase the risk of falling.The aim of this study was to understand whether hearing loss could influence balance, cervical posture, and muscle activation in the cervical region.Thirteen patients (61 ± 13 years; 161.8 ± 11.0 cm; 70.5 ± 15.9 kg) with moderate hearing loss (Right ear -60 ± 21 dB; Left ear -61 ± 24 dB) underwent: an audiometric examination, a postural examination (with open and closed eyes) through a stabilometric platform, a cervical ROM examination through a head accelerometer, and a sternocleidomastoid electromyography (EMG) examination.A linear regression analysis has shown a regression coefficient (R) 0.76 and 0.69 between hearing loss and the posturographic parameters, on the sagittal sway, with open and closed eyes, respectively. The combination of frontal and sagittal sway is able to explain up to 84% of the variance of the audiometric assessment. No differences were found between right and left hemibody between the audiometric, posturographic, cervical ROM parameters, and in EMG amplitude. ROM and EMG parameters have not shown any significant associations with hearing loss, for both right and left head rotation.Hearing loss is associated to increased posturographic measures, especially the sagittal sway, underlining a reduced postural control in people with hearing impairments. No association was found between the heads posture and neck activation with hearing loss. Hearing loss may be associated with an increased risk of falls.

  18. Evaluation of body posture in individuals with internal temporomandibular joint derangement.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, Wagner Cesar; Marques, Amélia Pasqual; de Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli

    2005-10-01

    Temporomandibular dysfunctions (TMD) comprise a great number of disruptions that may affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), the masticatory muscles, or both. TMJ internal derangement is a specific type of TMD, of which the etiology and physiopathology are broadly unknown, but have been suggested to be linked to head, neck, and body posture factors. This study aimed at verifying possible relationships between body posture and TMJ internal derangements (TMJ-id), by comparing 30 subjects presenting typical TMJ-id signs to 20 healthy subjects. Subjects' clinical evaluations included anamnesis, stomatognatic system evaluation, and plotting analysis on body posture photographs. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups. Results do not support the assertion that body posture plays a role in causing or enhancing TMD; however, these results should be cautiously considered because of the small number of subjects evaluated and the many posture variables submitted to statistical procedures that lead to high standard deviations.

  19. Chiropractic biophysics technique: a linear algebra approach to posture in chiropractic.

    PubMed

    Harrison, D D; Janik, T J; Harrison, G R; Troyanovich, S; Harrison, D E; Harrison, S O

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses linear algebra as applied to human posture in chiropractic, specifically chiropractic biophysics technique (CBP). Rotations, reflections and translations are geometric functions studied in vector spaces in linear algebra. These mathematical functions are termed rigid body transformations and are applied to segmental spinal movement in the literature. Review of the literature indicates that these linear algebra concepts have been used to describe vertebral motion. However, these rigid body movers are presented here as applying to the global postural movements of the head, thoracic cage and pelvis. The unique inverse functions of rotations, reflections and translations provide a theoretical basis for making postural corrections in neutral static resting posture. Chiropractic biophysics technique (CBP) uses these concepts in examination procedures, manual spinal manipulation, instrument assisted spinal manipulation, postural exercises, extension traction and clinical outcome measures.

  20. Pilot Study: Measuring the Effects of Center of Gravity Shift on Postural Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Times-Marshall, Chelsea; Reschke, Millard

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that astronauts returning from space often experience postural instability due to the stimulus rearrangement of the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. However, postural control may also be influenced by the head-ward shift in their center of gravity (CG) that occurs as a result of the expansion of their spinal column by as much as two inches during long duration space flight, as well as the CG shift that occurs from the Life Support Pack on the extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit. This study investigated the effect on postural stability after (1) an immediate shift in the CG towards the head, (2) a 30 minute adaptation to the shifted CG, and (3) immediate shift of the CG back to normal, accomplished by donning and removing a modified backpack. We hypothesized that at each immediate shift in CG, postural performance will be compromised.

  1. Fear of falling and postural reactivity in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Daga, Fábio B; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Boer, Erwin R; Gracitelli, Carolina P B; Abe, Ricardo Y; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between postural metrics obtained by dynamic visual stimulation in a virtual reality environment and the presence of fear of falling in glaucoma patients. This cross-sectional study included 35 glaucoma patients and 26 controls that underwent evaluation of postural balance by a force platform during presentation of static and dynamic visual stimuli with head-mounted goggles (Oculus Rift). In dynamic condition, a peripheral translational stimulus was used to induce vection and assess postural reactivity. Standard deviations of torque moments (SDTM) were calculated as indicative of postural stability. Fear of falling was assessed by a standardized questionnaire. The relationship between a summary score of fear of falling and postural metrics was investigated using linear regression models, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Subjects with glaucoma reported greater fear of falling compared to controls (-0.21 vs. 0.27; P = 0.039). In glaucoma patients, postural metrics during dynamic visual stimulus were more associated with fear of falling (R2 = 18.8%; P = 0.001) than static (R2 = 3.0%; P = 0.005) and dark field (R2 = 5.7%; P = 0.007) conditions. In the univariable model, fear of falling was not significantly associated with binocular standard perimetry mean sensitivity (P = 0.855). In the multivariable model, each 1 Nm larger SDTM in anteroposterior direction during dynamic stimulus was associated with a worsening of 0.42 units in the fear of falling questionnaire score (P = 0.001). In glaucoma patients, postural reactivity to a dynamic visual stimulus using a virtual reality environment was more strongly associated with fear of falling than visual field testing and traditional balance assessment.

  2. Fear of falling and postural reactivity in patients with glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Daga, Fábio B.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Boer, Erwin R.; Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Abe, Ricardo Y.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between postural metrics obtained by dynamic visual stimulation in a virtual reality environment and the presence of fear of falling in glaucoma patients. Methods This cross-sectional study included 35 glaucoma patients and 26 controls that underwent evaluation of postural balance by a force platform during presentation of static and dynamic visual stimuli with head-mounted goggles (Oculus Rift). In dynamic condition, a peripheral translational stimulus was used to induce vection and assess postural reactivity. Standard deviations of torque moments (SDTM) were calculated as indicative of postural stability. Fear of falling was assessed by a standardized questionnaire. The relationship between a summary score of fear of falling and postural metrics was investigated using linear regression models, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Results Subjects with glaucoma reported greater fear of falling compared to controls (-0.21 vs. 0.27; P = 0.039). In glaucoma patients, postural metrics during dynamic visual stimulus were more associated with fear of falling (R2 = 18.8%; P = 0.001) than static (R2 = 3.0%; P = 0.005) and dark field (R2 = 5.7%; P = 0.007) conditions. In the univariable model, fear of falling was not significantly associated with binocular standard perimetry mean sensitivity (P = 0.855). In the multivariable model, each 1 Nm larger SDTM in anteroposterior direction during dynamic stimulus was associated with a worsening of 0.42 units in the fear of falling questionnaire score (P = 0.001). Conclusion In glaucoma patients, postural reactivity to a dynamic visual stimulus using a virtual reality environment was more strongly associated with fear of falling than visual field testing and traditional balance assessment. PMID:29211742

  3. Relationship between antigravity control and postural control in young children.

    PubMed

    Sellers, J S

    1988-04-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the relationship between antigravity control (supine flexion and prone extension) and postural control (static and dynamic balance), 2) to determine the quality of antigravity and postural control, and 3) to determine whether sex and ethnic group differences correlate with differences in antigravity control and postural control in young children. I tested 107 black, Hispanic, and Caucasian children in a Head Start program, with a mean age of 61 months. The study results showed significant relationships between antigravity control and postural control. Subjects' supine flexion performance was significantly related to the quantity and quality of their static and dynamic balance performance, whereas prone extension performance was related only to the quality of dynamic balance performance. Quality scale measurements (r = .90) indicated that the children in this study had not yet developed full antigravity or postural control. The study results revealed differences between sexes in the quality of static balance and prone extension performance and ethnic differences in static balance, dynamic balance, and prone extension performance.

  4. The spinal posture of computing adolescents in a real-life setting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is assumed that good postural alignment is associated with the less likelihood of musculoskeletal pain symptoms. Encouraging good sitting postures have not reported consequent musculoskeletal pain reduction in school-based populations, possibly due to a lack of clear understanding of good posture. Therefore this paper describes the variability of postural angles in a cohort of asymptomatic high-school students whilst working on desk-top computers in a school computer classroom and to report on the relationship between the postural angles and age, gender, height, weight and computer use. Methods The baseline data from a 12 month longitudinal study is reported. The study was conducted in South African school computer classrooms. 194 Grade 10 high-school students, from randomly selected high-schools, aged 15–17 years, enrolled in Computer Application Technology for the first time, asymptomatic during the preceding month, and from whom written informed consent were obtained, participated in the study. The 3D Posture Analysis Tool captured five postural angles (head flexion, neck flexion, cranio-cervical angle, trunk flexion and head lateral bend) while the students were working on desk-top computers. Height, weight and computer use were also measured. Individual and combinations of postural angles were analysed. Results 944 Students were screened for eligibility of which the data of 194 students are reported. Trunk flexion was the most variable angle. Increased neck flexion and the combination of increased head flexion, neck flexion and trunk flexion were significantly associated with increased weight and BMI (p = 0.0001). Conclusions High-school students sit with greater ranges of trunk flexion (leaning forward or reclining) when using the classroom computer. Increased weight is significantly associated with increased sagittal plane postural angles. PMID:24950887

  5. Postural Consequences of Cervical Sagittal Imbalance: A Novel Laboratory Model.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Avinash G; Havey, Robert M; Khayatzadeh, Saeed; Muriuki, Muturi G; Voronov, Leonard I; Carandang, Gerard; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lam; Ghanayem, Alexander J; Schuit, Dale; Patel, Alpesh A; Smith, Zachary A; Sears, William

    2015-06-01

    A biomechanical study using human spine specimens. To study postural compensations in lordosis angles that are necessary to maintain horizontal gaze in the presence of forward head posture and increasing T1 sagittal tilt. Forward head posture relative to the shoulders, assessed radiographically using the horizontal offset distance between the C2 and C7 vertebral bodies (C2-C7 [sagittal vertical alignment] SVA), is a measure of global cervical imbalance. This may result from kyphotic alignment of cervical segments, muscle imbalance, as well as malalignment of thoracolumbar spine. Ten cadaveric cervical spines (occiput-T1) were tested. The T1 vertebra was anchored to a tilting and translating base. The occiput was free to move vertically but its angular orientation was constrained to ensure horizontal gaze regardless of sagittal imbalance. A 5-kg mass was attached to the occiput to mimic head weight. Forward head posture magnitude and T1 tilt were varied and motions of individual vertebrae were measured to calculate C2-C7 SVA and lordosis across C0-C2 and C2-C7. Increasing C2-C7 SVA caused flexion of lower cervical (C2-C7) segments and hyperextension of suboccipital (C0-C1-C2) segments to maintain horizontal gaze. Increasing kyphotic T1 tilt primarily increased lordosis across the C2-C7 segments. Regression models were developed to predict the compensatory C0-C2 and C2-C7 angulation needed to maintain horizontal gaze given values of C2-C7 SVA and T1 tilt. This study established predictive relationships between radiographical measures of forward head posture, T1 tilt, and postural compensations in the cervical lordosis angles needed to maintain horizontal gaze. The laboratory model predicted that normalization of C2-C7 SVA will reduce suboccipital (C0-C2) hyperextension, whereas T1 tilt reduction will reduce the hyperextension in the C2-C7 segments. The predictive relationships may help in planning corrective strategy in patients experiencing neck pain, which may be

  6. Advanced Techniques for Assessment of Postural and Locomotor Ataxia, Spatial Orientation, and Gaze Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad., III

    1999-01-01

    In addition to adapting to microgravity, major neurovestibular problems of space flight include postflight difficulties with standing, walking, turning corners, and other activities that require stable upright posture and gaze stability. These difficulties inhibit astronauts' ability to stand or escape from their vehicle during emergencies. The long-ter7n goal of the NSBRI is the development of countermeasures to ameliorate the effects of long duration space flight. These countermeasures must be tested with valid and reliable tools. This project aims to develop quantitative, parametric approaches for assessing gaze stability and spatial orientation during normal gait and when gait is perturbed. Two of this year's most important findings concern head fixation distance and ideal trajectory analysis. During a normal cycle of walking the head moves up and down linearly. A simultaneous angular pitching motion of the head keeps it aligned toward an imaginary point in space at a distance of about one meter in front of a subject and along the line of march. This distance is called the head fixation distance. Head fixation distance provides the fundamental framework necessary for understanding the functional significance of the vestibular reflexes that couple head motion to eye motion. This framework facilitates the intelligent design of counter-measures for the effects of exposure to microgravity upon the vestibular ocular reflexes. Ideal trajectory analysis is a simple candidate countermeasure based upon quantifying body sway during repeated up and down stair stepping. It provides one number that estimates the body sway deviation from an ideal sinusoidal body sway trajectory normalized on the subject's height. This concept has been developed with NSBRI funding in less than one year. These findings are explained in more detail below. Compared to assessments of the vestibuo-ocular reflex, analysis of vestibular effects on locomotor function is relatively less well developed

  7. Is there a relationship between foetal position and both preferred lying posture after birth and pattern of subsequent postural deformity in non-ambulant people with cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Porter, D; Michael, S; Kirkwood, C

    2010-09-01

    A pattern of postural deformity was observed in a previous study that included an association between direction of spinal curvature and direction of windsweeping with more windswept deformities occurring to the right and lateral spinal curvatures occurring convex to the left. The direction of this pattern was found to be associated with preferred lying posture in early life. The aim of this study was to test the association between foetal position and both the preferred lying posture after birth, and the direction of subsequent postural deformity in non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP). A retrospective cohort study was carried out involving 60 participants at level five on the gross motor function classification for CP. Foetal position during the last month of pregnancy was taken from antenatal records and parents were interviewed to identify preferred lying posture in the first year of life. At the time of the physical assessment ages ranged from 1 year and 1 month to 19 years with a median age of 13 years and 1 month. Foetal presentation was found to be associated with the preferred lying posture with participants carried in a left occipito-anterior/lateral position more likely to adopt a supine head right lying posture, and vice versa. An association was also observed between the foetal position and asymmetrical postural deformity occurring later in life with participants carried in a left occipito-anterior/lateral presentation more likely to have a convex left spinal curve, a lower left pelvic obliquity, and a windswept hip pattern to the right. Clinicians should be aware of the association between foetal presentation, asymmetrical lying posture, and the direction of subsequent postural deformity for severely disabled children. A hypothesis is described that might help to explain these findings.

  8. Differences in standing and sitting postures of youth with idiopathic scoliosis from quantitative analysis of digital photographs.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Carole; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie; Cheriet, Farida; Labelle, Hubert

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether differences in standing and sitting postures of youth with idiopathic scoliosis could be detected from quantitative analysis of digital photographs. Standing and sitting postures of 50 participants aged 10-20-years-old with idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle: 15° to 60°) were assessed from digital photographs using a posture evaluation software program. Based on the XY coordinates of markers, 13 angular and linear posture indices were calculated in both positions. Paired t-tests were used to compare values of standing and sitting posture indices. Significant differences between standing and sitting positions (p < 0.05) were found for head protraction, shoulder elevation, scapula asymmetry, trunk list, scoliosis angle, waist angles, and frontal and sagittal plane pelvic tilt. Quantitative analysis of digital photographs is a clinically feasible method to measure standing and sitting postures among youth with scoliosis and to assist in decisions on therapeutic interventions.

  9. Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls?

    PubMed

    Horak, Fay B

    2006-09-01

    Postural control is no longer considered simply a summation of static reflexes but, rather, a complex skill based on the interaction of dynamic sensorimotor processes. The two main functional goals of postural behaviour are postural orientation and postural equilibrium. Postural orientation involves the active alignment of the trunk and head with respect to gravity, support surfaces, the visual surround and internal references. Sensory information from somatosensory, vestibular and visual systems is integrated, and the relative weights placed on each of these inputs are dependent on the goals of the movement task and the environmental context. Postural equilibrium involves the coordination of movement strategies to stabilise the centre of body mass during both self-initiated and externally triggered disturbances of stability. The specific response strategy selected depends not only on the characteristics of the external postural displacement but also on the individual's expectations, goals and prior experience. Anticipatory postural adjustments, prior to voluntary limb movement, serve to maintain postural stability by compensating for destabilising forces associated with moving a limb. The amount of cognitive processing required for postural control depends both on the complexity of the postural task and on the capability of the subject's postural control system. The control of posture involves many different underlying physiological systems that can be affected by pathology or sub-clinical constraints. Damage to any of the underlying systems will result in different, context-specific instabilities. The effective rehabilitation of balance to improve mobility and to prevent falls requires a better understanding of the multiple mechanisms underlying postural control.

  10. Head lice

    MedlinePlus

    Pediculosis capitis - head lice ... Head lice infect hair on the head. Tiny eggs on the hair look like flakes of dandruff . However, ... flaking off the scalp, they stay in place. Head lice can live up to 30 days on a ...

  11. Implication of Posture Analysing Software to Evaluate the Postural Changes after Corrective Exercise Strategy on Subjects with Upper Body Dysfunction-A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakar, S; Porcelvan, S; Francis, T.G. Tilak; Rathnamala, D; Radhakrishnan, R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The postural adaptation is very common now a days in school going children, office desk oriented job, computer users and frequent mobile users, and in all major industrial workers. Several studies have documented a high incidence of postural abnormalities in a given population; however, methods of postural measurement were poorly defined. The implication of postural pro software to analyse the postural imbalance of upper body dysfunction is very rare and literature studies says that the kinematic changes in particular segment will produce pain/discomfort and thereby lesser productivity of subjects. Aim To evaluate the postural changes in subjects with upper body dysfunction after a corrective exercise strategy using postural analysis software and pectoralis minor muscle length testing. Materials and Methods After explaining the procedure and benefits, informed consent was taken from the participating subjects (age 25-55 years). Subjects with upper body dysfunction were randomly allocated into two groups (each group 30 subjects). The Group–A received the corrective exercise strategy and Group-B received the conventional exercise for eight weeks of study duration (15 reps each exercise, total duration of 40 min; four days/week. Pre and Post posture analysis were analysed using posture pro software along with flexibility of pectoralis minor was assessed using ruler scale method. Results After interpretation of data, both the group showed the postural alteration and pectoralis minor muscle length changes, p-value (p<0.01) of both group showed highly significant changes. But comparing the both groups, the subjects who received the corrective exercise strategy shown more percentage of improvement in posture alteration (56.25%), pectoralis minor muscle length changes (68.69%) than the conventional exercise received subjects in posture alteration (24.86%) and pectoralis minor muscle length changes (21.9%). Conclusion Altered postural changes and pectoralis

  12. Influence of dopaminergic medication on automatic postural responses and balance impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bloem, B R; Beckley, D J; van Dijk, J G; Zwinderman, A H; Remler, M P; Roos, R A

    1996-09-01

    It is still unclear why balance impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) often responds insufficiently to dopaminergic medication. We have studied this issue in 23 patients with idiopathic PD and 24 healthy controls. Our specific purposes were (a) to investigate the contribution of abnormal automatic postural responses to balance impairment in PD and (b) to assess the influence of dopaminergic medication on abnormal automatic postural responses and balance impairment. Standing subjects received 4 degrees "toe-up" rotational perturbations of a supporting forceplate. We bilaterally recorded posturally destabilizing medium latency (ML) responses from the stretched gastrocnemius muscles and functionally corrective long latency (LL) responses from the shortened tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. We also assessed changes in the center of foot pressure (CFP) and the center of gravity (COG). All patients were tested in the "off" and "on" phases. All controls were tested and retested after 1 h. During the off phase, we found enlarged ML amplitudes and diminished LL amplitudes in patients, together with a markedly increased posterior displacement of the COG. The abnormal ML and LL responses were partially responsible for the increased body sway in patients because the initial forward (destabilizing) displacement of the CFP was increased, while the subsequent backward displacement of the CFP (a measure of the corrective braking action of LL responses) was delayed. Abnormal late automatic or possibly more voluntary postural corrections also contributed substantially to the increased body sway. During the on phase, ML amplitudes were reduced in patients but remained increased compared with controls. LL amplitudes no longer differed between both groups due to a modest, possibly dopamine-related increase in patients and a simultaneous decrease in controls. The abnormal CFP displacement was only partially improved by dopaminergic medication. The later postural corrections were not

  13. First-Person Perspective Virtual Body Posture Influences Stress: A Virtual Reality Body Ownership Study

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Ilias; Kilteni, Konstantina; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    In immersive virtual reality (IVR) it is possible to replace a person’s real body by a life-sized virtual body that is seen from first person perspective to visually substitute their own. Multisensory feedback from the virtual to the real body (such as the correspondence of touch and also movement) can also be present. Under these conditions participants typically experience a subjective body ownership illusion (BOI) over the virtual body, even though they know that it is not their real one. In most studies and applications the posture of the real and virtual bodies are as similar as possible. Here we were interested in whether the BOI is diminished when there are gross discrepancies between the real and virtual body postures. We also explored whether a comfortable or uncomfortable virtual body posture would induce feelings and physiological responses commensurate with the posture. We carried out an experiment with 31 participants in IVR realized with a wide field-of-view head-mounted display. All participants were comfortably seated. Sixteen of them were embodied in a virtual body designed to be in a comfortable posture, and the remainder in an uncomfortable posture. The results suggest that the uncomfortable body posture led to lesser subjective BOI than the comfortable one, but that participants in the uncomfortable posture experienced greater awareness of their autonomic physiological responses. Moreover their heart rate, heart rate variability, and the number of mistakes in a cognitive task were associated with the strength of their BOI in the uncomfortable posture: greater heart rate, lower heart rate variability and more mistakes were associated with higher levels of the BOI. These findings point in a consistent direction—that the BOI over a body that is in an uncomfortable posture can lead to subjective, physiological and cognitive effects consistent with discomfort that do not occur with the BOI over a body in a comfortable posture. PMID:26828365

  14. Postural sway and regional cerebellar volume in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Michael J.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Biederman, Joseph; Li, Zhi; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Valera, Eve M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motor abnormalities, including impaired balance and increased postural sway, are commonly reported in children with ADHD, but have yet to be investigated in adults with ADHD. Furthermore, although these abnormalities are thought to stem from cerebellar deficits, evidence for an association between the cerebellum and these motor deficits has yet to be provided for either adults or children with ADHD. Method In this study, we measured postural sway in adults with ADHD and controls, examining the relationship between sway and regional cerebellar gray matter volume. Thirty-two ADHD and 28 control participants completed various standing-posture tasks on a Wii balance board. Results Postural sway was significantly higher for the ADHD group compared to the healthy controls. Higher sway was positively associated with regional gray matter volume in the right posterior cerebellum (lobule VIII/IX). Conclusion These findings show that sway abnormalities commonly reported in children with ADHD are also present in adults, and for the first time show a relationship between postural control atypicalities and the cerebellum in this group. Our findings extend the literature on motor abnormalities in ADHD and contribute to our knowledge of their neural substrate. PMID:26106567

  15. Destabilization of Human Balance Control by Static and Dynamic Head Tilts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Wood, Scott J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Black, F. Owen; Hwang, Emma Y.; Reschke, Millard F.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand the effects of varying head movement frequencies on human balance control, 12 healthy adult humans were studied during static and dynamic (0.14,0.33,0.6 Hz) head tilts of +/-30deg in the pitch and roll planes. Postural sway was measured during upright stance with eyes closed and altered somatosensory inputs provided by a computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) system. Subjects were able to maintain upright stance with static head tilts, although postural sway was increased during neck extension. Postural stability was decreased during dynamic head tilts, and the degree of destabilization varied directly with increasing frequency of head tilt. In the absence of vision and accurate foot support surface inputs, postural stability may be compromised during dynamic head tilts due to a decreased ability of the vestibular system to discern the orientation of gravity.

  16. Notebook computer use on a desk, lap and lap support: effects on posture, performance and comfort.

    PubMed

    Asundi, Krishna; Odell, Dan; Luce, Adam; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified postures of users working on a notebook computer situated in their lap and tested the effect of using a device designed to increase the height of the notebook when placed on the lap. A motion analysis system measured head, neck and upper extremity postures of 15 adults as they worked on a notebook computer placed on a desk (DESK), the lap (LAP) and a commercially available lapdesk (LAPDESK). Compared with the DESK, the LAP increased downwards head tilt 6 degrees and wrist extension 8 degrees . Shoulder flexion and ulnar deviation decreased 13 degrees and 9 degrees , respectively. Compared with the LAP, the LAPDESK decreased downwards head tilt 4 degrees , neck flexion 2 degrees , and wrist extension 9 degrees. Users reported less discomfort and difficulty in the DESK configuration. Use of the lapdesk improved postures compared with the lap; however, all configurations resulted in high values of wrist extension, wrist deviation and downwards head tilt. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study quantifies postures of users working with a notebook computer in typical portable configurations. A better understanding of the postures assumed during notebook computer use can improve usage guidelines to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injuries.

  17. Automatic recognition of postural allocations.

    PubMed

    Sazonov, Edward; Krishnamurthy, Vidya; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Browning, Ray; Schutz, Yves; Hill, James

    2007-01-01

    A significant part of daily energy expenditure may be attributed to non-exercise activity thermogenesis and exercise activity thermogenesis. Automatic recognition of postural allocations such as standing or sitting can be used in behavioral modification programs aimed at minimizing static postures. In this paper we propose a shoe-based device and related pattern recognition methodology for recognition of postural allocations. Inexpensive technology allows implementation of this methodology as a part of footwear. The experimental results suggest high efficiency and reliability of the proposed approach.

  18. Postural health in women: the role of physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Britnell, S J; Cole, J V; Isherwood, L; Sran, M M; Britnell, N; Burgi, S; Candido, G; Watson, L

    2005-05-01

    To advise obstetric and gynaecology care providers of the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. To outline the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence in women and to identify recommendations for referral to a physiotherapist. Knowledge of abnormal postures, contributing factors and recommendations for physiotherapy management. MEDLINE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library Search from 1992 to 2003 for English-language articles and references from current textbooks related to posture and women's health conditions that are managed by physiotherapists. The evidence collected was reviewed by the authors and quantified using the evaluation of evidence guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. 1. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent urinary incontinence during pregnancy and after delivery (I-A). 2. Core stability training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent and treat back and pelvic pain during and following pregnancy (I-B). 3. Physiotherapist-prescribed exercises are recommended for women to elicit positive changes in bone mass and to reduce fall and fracture risk (I-A). 4. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended for women with stress urinary incontinence (I-A). The Canadian Physiotherapy Association and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada have developed this joint policy statement regarding posture in women's health that highlights the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. This statement outlines the role of physiotherapy in the assessment and treatment of women's posture; outlines the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence; and identifies recommendations for referral to a

  19. Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

  20. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen

    2016-01-01

    Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do not improve gait and posture in PD. PMID:29213470

  1. Craniocervical Posture in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Piccin, Chaiane Facco; Pozzebon, Daniela; Scapini, Fabricio; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Objective  The objective of this study is to verify the craniofacial characteristics and craniocervical posture of OSA and healthy subjects, determining possible relationships with the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Methods  This case-control study evaluated 21 subjects with OSA, who comprised the OSA group (OSAG), and 21 healthy subjects, who constituted the control group (CG). Cephalometry analyzed head posture measurements, craniofacial measurements, and air space. Head posture was also assessed by means of photogrammetry. Results  The groups were homogeneous regarding gender (12 men and 9 women in each group), age (OSAG = 41.86 ± 11.26 years; GC = 41.19 ± 11.20 years), and body mass index (OSAG = 25.65 ± 2.46 kg/m2; CG = 24.72 ± 3.01 kg/m2). We found significant differences between the groups, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance between the hyoid bone and the mandibular plane in OSAG, when compared with CG. A positive correlation was found between higher head hyperextension and head anteriorization, with greater severity of OSA as assessed by AHI. Conclusion  OSAG subjects showed changes in craniofacial morphology, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane, as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, in OSA subjects, the greater the severity of OSA, the greater the head hyperextension and anteriorization. PMID:27413397

  2. Postural stability of sitting women.

    PubMed

    Nag, Pranab K; Vyas, Heer; Nag, Anjali; Pal, Swati

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the utility of stabilometric dimensions and explored whether the changes in sitting postures were manifested in functional measures of postural control. Eleven women participated in the study, which used 11 chair sitting postures: arms on laps or arms right angled; armrest at a height of 17, 20 and 23 cm; with or without backrest; slouch or straight back; legs right angled at knees or crossed legs. The backrest and armrest shifted 16.3% of body weight from a seat pan. The characteristics of stabilometric dimensions evaluated the influence of seat components and sitting behaviour on postural balance. The study attempted to evaluate stability and its application in human-seat interface design.

  3. Emergence of postural patterns as a function of vision and translation frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, J. J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Emergence of postural patterns as a function of vision and translation frequency. We examined the frequency characteristics of human postural coordination and the role of visual information in this coordination. Eight healthy adults maintained balance in stance during sinusoidal support surface translations (12 cm peak to peak) in the anterior-posterior direction at six different frequencies. Changes in kinematic and dynamic measures revealed that both sensory and biomechanical constraints limit postural coordination patterns as a function of translation frequency. At slow frequencies (0.1 and 0.25 Hz), subjects ride the platform (with the eyes open or closed). For fast frequencies (1.0 and 1.25 Hz) with the eyes open, subjects fix their head and upper trunk in space. With the eyes closed, large-amplitude, slow-sway motion of the head and trunk occurred for fast frequencies above 0.5 Hz. Visual information stabilized posture by reducing the variability of the head's position in space and the position of the center of mass (CoM) within the support surface defined by the feet for all but the slowest translation frequencies. When subjects rode the platform, there was little oscillatory joint motion, with muscle activity limited mostly to the ankles. To support the head fixed in space and slow-sway postural patterns, subjects produced stable interjoint hip and ankle joint coordination patterns. This increase in joint motion of the lower body dissipated the energy input by fast translation frequencies and facilitated the control of upper body motion. CoM amplitude decreased with increasing translation frequency, whereas the center of pressure amplitude increased with increasing translation frequency. Our results suggest that visual information was important to maintaining a fixed position of the head and trunk in space, whereas proprioceptive information was sufficient to produce stable coordinative patterns between the support surface and legs. The CNS organizes

  4. [Management of positional head deformity in 31 infants].

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei-Wei; Tong, Xiao-Mei

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of postural correction training and helmet therapy in the treatment of moderate-severe positional head deformity defined as asymmetric head shape in infants. A total of 31 infants who were diagnosed with moderate-severe plagiocephaly and/or brachiocephaly were enrolled. According to the different treatment methods, the infants were divided into helmet therapy group with 11 infants and postural correction training group with 20 infants. The cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI), cephalic ratio (CR), and head circumference growth were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Compared with the postural correction training group, the helmet therapy group had significantly lower CVAI and CR after treatment. The helmet therapy group had significantly better improvements in CVAI and CR after treatment compared with the postural correction training group (CVAI difference: 6.0±1.9 vs 0.7±0.8, P=0.001; CR difference: 0.047±0.009 vs 0.008±0.005, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in head circumference growth between the two groups (P=0.55). Helmet therapy has a significantly better effect in the treatment of moderate-severe positional head deformity than postural correction training in infants. Helmet therapy does not limit head circumference growth.

  5. Children's catching performance when the demands on the postural system is altered.

    PubMed

    Angelakopoulos, Georgios T; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George

    2014-07-01

    In many dynamic interceptive actions performers need to integrate activity of manual and postural subsystems for successful performance. Groups of different skill level (poor and good catchers), (mean age = 9.1 and 9.4 respectively) were required to perform one-handed catches under different postural constraints: standing; standing in contact with a postural support aid by their side (PSAS) or to the left of their trunk (PSAF); Tandem; and sitting (control). Results revealed that, for poor catchers, the number of successful catches increased and grasp errors decreased significantly when sitting and with both postural aids in comparison with standing alone and Tandem conditions. Kinematic analyses showed that the postural aid devices reduced head sway in the anterior-posterior direction, while the PSAF reduced lateral head sway. The poor catchers' performance benefited from an enlarged support surface, and reduction of lateral sway. Good catchers performed successfully under all task constraints, signifying the existence of a functional relationship between postural and grasping subsystems during performance. The results are discussed in the frame of Bernstein's (1967) and Newell's (1986) theory.

  6. A method to model anticipatory postural control in driver braking events.

    PubMed

    Östh, Jonas; Eliasson, Erik; Happee, Riender; Brolin, Karin

    2014-09-01

    Human body models (HBMs) for vehicle occupant simulations have recently been extended with active muscles and postural control strategies. Feedback control has been used to model occupant responses to autonomous braking interventions. However, driver postural responses during driver initiated braking differ greatly from autonomous braking. In the present study, an anticipatory postural response was hypothesized, modelled in a whole-body HBM with feedback controlled muscles, and validated using existing volunteer data. The anticipatory response was modelled as a time dependent change in the reference value for the feedback controllers, which generates correcting moments to counteract the braking deceleration. The results showed that, in 11 m/s(2) driver braking simulations, including the anticipatory postural response reduced the peak forward displacement of the head by 100mm, of the shoulder by 30 mm, while the peak head flexion rotation was reduced by 18°. The HBM kinematic response was within a one standard deviation corridor of corresponding test data from volunteers performing maximum braking. It was concluded that the hypothesized anticipatory responses can be modelled by changing the reference positions of the individual joint feedback controllers that regulate muscle activation levels. The addition of anticipatory postural control muscle activations appears to explain the difference in occupant kinematics between driver and autonomous braking. This method of modelling postural reactions can be applied to the simulation of other driver voluntary actions, such as emergency avoidance by steering. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

    PubMed Central

    Low, Phillip A.; Sandroni, Paola; Joyner, Michael; Shen, Win-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction POTS is defined as the development of orthostatic symptoms associated with a heart rate (HR) increment ≥30, usually to ≥120 bpm without orthostatic hypotension. Symptoms of orthostatic intolerance are those due to brain hypoperfusion and those due to sympathetic overaction. Methods We provide a review of POTS based primarily on work from the Mayo Clinic. Results Females predominate over males by 5:1. Mean age of onset in adults is about 30 years and most patients are between the ages of 20–40 years. Pathophysiologic mechanisms (not mutually exclusive) include peripheral denervation, hypovolemia, venous pooling, β-receptor supersensitivity, psychologic mechanisms, and presumed impairment of brain stem regulation. Prolonged deconditioning may also interact with these mechanisms to exacerbate symptoms. The evaluation of POTS requires a focused history and examination, followed by tests that should include HUT, some estimation of volume status and preferably some evaluation of peripheral denervation and hyperadrenergic state. All patients with POTS require a high salt diet, copious fluids, and postural training. Many require β-receptor antagonists in small doses and low-dose vasoconstrictors. Somatic hypervigilance and psychologic factors are involved in a significant proportion of patients. Conclusions POTS is heterogeneous in presentation and mechanisms. Major mechanisms are denervation, hypovolemia, deconditioning, and hyperadrenergic state. Most patients can benefit from a pathophysiologically based regimen of management. PMID:19207771

  8. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ming

    2014-01-17

    Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  9. Head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child's head circumference. Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months), based on values that experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads. Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

  10. The Effect of Body Posture on Brain Glymphatic Transport.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hedok; Xie, Lulu; Yu, Mei; Kang, Hongyi; Feng, Tian; Deane, Rashid; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene

    2015-08-05

    The glymphatic pathway expedites clearance of waste, including soluble amyloid β (Aβ) from the brain. Transport through this pathway is controlled by the brain's arousal level because, during sleep or anesthesia, the brain's interstitial space volume expands (compared with wakefulness), resulting in faster waste removal. Humans, as well as animals, exhibit different body postures during sleep, which may also affect waste removal. Therefore, not only the level of consciousness, but also body posture, might affect CSF-interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange efficiency. We used dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI and kinetic modeling to quantify CSF-ISF exchange rates in anesthetized rodents' brains in supine, prone, or lateral positions. To validate the MRI data and to assess specifically the influence of body posture on clearance of Aβ, we used fluorescence microscopy and radioactive tracers, respectively. The analysis showed that glymphatic transport was most efficient in the lateral position compared with the supine or prone positions. In the prone position, in which the rat's head was in the most upright position (mimicking posture during the awake state), transport was characterized by "retention" of the tracer, slower clearance, and more CSF efflux along larger caliber cervical vessels. The optical imaging and radiotracer studies confirmed that glymphatic transport and Aβ clearance were superior in the lateral and supine positions. We propose that the most popular sleep posture (lateral) has evolved to optimize waste removal during sleep and that posture must be considered in diagnostic imaging procedures developed in the future to assess CSF-ISF transport in humans. The rodent brain removes waste better during sleep or anesthesia compared with the awake state. Animals exhibit different body posture during the awake and sleep states, which might affect the brain's waste removal efficiency. We investigated the influence of body posture on brainwide transport of inert

  11. The Effect of Body Posture on Brain Glymphatic Transport

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hedok; Xie, Lulu; Yu, Mei; Kang, Hongyi; Feng, Tian; Deane, Rashid; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-01-01

    The glymphatic pathway expedites clearance of waste, including soluble amyloid β (Aβ) from the brain. Transport through this pathway is controlled by the brain's arousal level because, during sleep or anesthesia, the brain's interstitial space volume expands (compared with wakefulness), resulting in faster waste removal. Humans, as well as animals, exhibit different body postures during sleep, which may also affect waste removal. Therefore, not only the level of consciousness, but also body posture, might affect CSF–interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange efficiency. We used dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI and kinetic modeling to quantify CSF-ISF exchange rates in anesthetized rodents' brains in supine, prone, or lateral positions. To validate the MRI data and to assess specifically the influence of body posture on clearance of Aβ, we used fluorescence microscopy and radioactive tracers, respectively. The analysis showed that glymphatic transport was most efficient in the lateral position compared with the supine or prone positions. In the prone position, in which the rat's head was in the most upright position (mimicking posture during the awake state), transport was characterized by “retention” of the tracer, slower clearance, and more CSF efflux along larger caliber cervical vessels. The optical imaging and radiotracer studies confirmed that glymphatic transport and Aβ clearance were superior in the lateral and supine positions. We propose that the most popular sleep posture (lateral) has evolved to optimize waste removal during sleep and that posture must be considered in diagnostic imaging procedures developed in the future to assess CSF-ISF transport in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The rodent brain removes waste better during sleep or anesthesia compared with the awake state. Animals exhibit different body posture during the awake and sleep states, which might affect the brain's waste removal efficiency. We investigated the influence of body posture on

  12. The posture of adolescent male handball players: A two-year study.

    PubMed

    Grabara, Małgorzata

    2018-02-06

    Young athletes at the stage of growth acceleration tend to exhibit increased susceptibility to postural abnormalities, especially in the trunk region. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the posture in male adolescent handball players over two years of regular training sessions. The study group comprised 21 handball players. At the start of the study 15 participants were aged 14 and 6 participants were aged 15 (mean 14.25 ± 0.58). The measurements were repeated three times. Posture was assessed with a photogrammetric method based on the moiré phenomenon. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not reveal any significant differences between posture indicators obtained during the successive measurements. Sagittal plane posture indicators revealed significant changes in torso forward inclination angle and the shape of anteroposterior spinal curvatures. The latter consisted of significant deepening of the upper thoracic curve (angle α) and flattening of the lumbosacral curve (angle γ). A two-year period of handball training did not result in posture asymmetries in young male handball players. The observed changes in the shape of anteroposterior spinal curvatures might be related both to sports training and somatic parameters.

  13. INCIDENCE OF POSTURAL CHANGES AND TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS IN STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Paulo de Jesus; de Oliveira, Franceane Esther Moreira; Damázio, Laila Cristina Moreira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents . Methods: We selected 117 individuals aged 10-18 years from a state school in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais. The students were evaluated in four stages: assessment of body weight and height and calculation of body mass index; posture evaluation using a questionnaire developed by the researchers; application of a questionnaire recommended by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain to assess TMD; and, finally, application of the Fonseca anamnesis questionnaire . Results: Of our sample, 26.36% had no TMD, 50.9% had mild TMD, 21.8% moderate TMD, and 0.9% severe TMD. Of the participants with moderate or severe TMD (30.8%), about 56% had some kind of change in head positioning. We found that 88% of the children with moderate or severe TMD had changes in the shoulders . Conclusion: The postural changes found in the head and shoulders are related to the biomechanical adaptation of the muscles of mastication and consequent changes in the TMJ. Level Of Evidence Iii, Non-Consecutive Patient Study Without Gold Reference Standard Applied Uniformly. PMID:28955175

  14. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome and Vasovagal Syncope: A Hidden Case of Obstructive Cardiomyopathy without Severe Septal Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Natalie; Shields, Robert W.; Cremer, Paul; Rodriguez, L. Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    A 36-year-old female with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and syncope was diagnosed with vasovagal syncope on a tilt table test and with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) after a repeat tilt table test. However, an echocardiogram at our institution revealed obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy, with a striking increase in left ventricular outflow tract gradient from 7 mmHg at rest to 75 mmHg during Valsalva, with a septal thickness of only 1.3 cm. Cardiac MRI showed an apically displaced multiheaded posteromedial papillary muscle with suggestion of aberrant chordal attachments to the anterior mitral leaflet contributing to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. She underwent surgery with reorientation of the posterior medial papillary muscle head, resection of the tethering secondary chordae to the A1 segment of the mitral valve, chordal shortening and tacking of the chordae to the A1 and A2 segments of the mitral valve, and gentle septal myectomy. After surgery, she had significant improvement in her prior symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy with abnormalities in papillary muscle and chordal attachment, in a patient diagnosed with vasovagal syncope and POTS. PMID:29850268

  15. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome and Vasovagal Syncope: A Hidden Case of Obstructive Cardiomyopathy without Severe Septal Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mayuga, Kenneth A; Ho, Natalie; Shields, Robert W; Cremer, Paul; Rodriguez, L Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    A 36-year-old female with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and syncope was diagnosed with vasovagal syncope on a tilt table test and with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) after a repeat tilt table test. However, an echocardiogram at our institution revealed obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy, with a striking increase in left ventricular outflow tract gradient from 7 mmHg at rest to 75 mmHg during Valsalva, with a septal thickness of only 1.3 cm. Cardiac MRI showed an apically displaced multiheaded posteromedial papillary muscle with suggestion of aberrant chordal attachments to the anterior mitral leaflet contributing to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. She underwent surgery with reorientation of the posterior medial papillary muscle head, resection of the tethering secondary chordae to the A1 segment of the mitral valve, chordal shortening and tacking of the chordae to the A1 and A2 segments of the mitral valve, and gentle septal myectomy. After surgery, she had significant improvement in her prior symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy with abnormalities in papillary muscle and chordal attachment, in a patient diagnosed with vasovagal syncope and POTS.

  16. Interactions between posture and locomotion: motor patterns in humans walking with bent posture versus erect posture.

    PubMed

    Grasso, R; Zago, M; Lacquaniti, F

    2000-01-01

    Human erect locomotion is unique among living primates. Evolution selected specific biomechanical features that make human locomotion mechanically efficient. These features are matched by the motor patterns generated in the CNS. What happens when humans walk with bent postures? Are normal motor patterns of erect locomotion maintained or completely reorganized? Five healthy volunteers walked straight and forward at different speeds in three different postures (regular, knee-flexed, and knee- and trunk-flexed) while their motion, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded. The three postures imply large differences in the position of the center of body mass relative to the body segments. The elevation angles of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb segments relative to the vertical in the sagittal plane, the ground reaction forces and the rectified EMGs were analyzed over the gait cycle. The waveforms of the elevation angles along the gait cycle remained essentially unchanged irrespective of the adopted postures. The first two harmonics of these kinematic waveforms explain >95% of their variance. The phase shift but not the amplitude ratio between the first harmonic of the elevation angle waveforms of adjacent pairs was affected systematically by changes in posture. Thigh, shank, and foot angles covaried close to a plane in all conditions, but the plane orientation was systematically different in bent versus erect locomotion. This was explained by the changes in the temporal coupling among the three segments. For walking speeds >1 m s(-1), the plane orientation of bent locomotion indicates a much lower mechanical efficiency relative to erect locomotion. Ground reaction forces differed prominently in bent versus erect posture displaying characteristics intermediate between those typical of walking and those of running. Mean EMG activity was greater in bent postures for all recorded muscles independent of the functional role. The waveforms

  17. Classification of postural profiles among mouth-breathing children by learning vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F; Sousa, F S; Hummel, A D; Falcão, A E J; Yi, L C; Ortolani, C F; Sigulem, D; Pisa, I T

    2011-01-01

    Mouth breathing is a chronic syndrome that may bring about postural changes. Finding characteristic patterns of changes occurring in the complex musculoskeletal system of mouth-breathing children has been a challenge. Learning vector quantization (LVQ) is an artificial neural network model that can be applied for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to apply LVQ to determine the characteristic postural profiles shown by mouth-breathing children, in order to further understand abnormal posture among mouth breathers. Postural training data on 52 children (30 mouth breathers and 22 nose breathers) and postural validation data on 32 children (22 mouth breathers and 10 nose breathers) were used. The performance of LVQ and other classification models was compared in relation to self-organizing maps, back-propagation applied to multilayer perceptrons, Bayesian networks, naive Bayes, J48 decision trees, k, and k-nearest-neighbor classifiers. Classifier accuracy was assessed by means of leave-one-out cross-validation, area under ROC curve (AUC), and inter-rater agreement (Kappa statistics). By using the LVQ model, five postural profiles for mouth-breathing children could be determined. LVQ showed satisfactory results for mouth-breathing and nose-breathing classification: sensitivity and specificity rates of 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, when using the training dataset, and 0.95 and 0.90, respectively, when using the validation dataset. The five postural profiles for mouth-breathing children suggested by LVQ were incorporated into application software for classifying the severity of mouth breathers' abnormal posture.

  18. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  20. The head-mounted microscope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Cinerama sickness and postural instability.

    PubMed

    Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.

  2. Postural profile and falls of osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Karakasidou, Palina; Skordilis, Emmanouil K; Dontas, Ismene; Lyritis, George P

    2012-01-01

    1. To compare postural alignment in erect standing between osteoporotic fallers, osteoporotic non-fallers and healthy women. 2. To compare BMI, number of fractures and intensity of pain between osteoporotic fallers and non-fallers. Thirty-six osteoporotic women with vertebral fractures and 40 healthy women participated in the study. Spinal curvatures were assessed with a digital inclinometer. Photographic measurements of knee, hip, shoulder and head were carried out in sagittal plane. Significant differences were found between osteoporotic fallers and healthy women in the head (p=0.040), and thoracic angles (p=0.001). Significant differences were found between fallers and non-fallers in BMI (p=0.000), number of fractures (p=0.033) and pain (p=0.005), with fallers being heavier, with less fractures and pain than non-fallers. Osteoporotic fallers probably differ from osteoporotic non-fallers and healthy women. Researchers and clinicians may consider, in the future, the above differences when planning research and clinical intervention in this field. Replication studies are necessary to confirm the present findings.

  3. Gender difference in mobile phone use and the impact of digital device exposure on neck posture.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaofei; Fan, Guoxin; Chen, Zhengqi; Zeng, Ying; Zhang, Hailong; Hu, Annan; Gu, Guangfei; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; He, Shisheng

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify gender differences in the cervical postures when young adults were using mobile phones, as well as the correlations between the postures and the digital devices use (computer and mobile phone). Questionnaires regarding the habits of computer and mobile phone use were administrated to 429 subjects aged from 17 to 33 years old (19.75 ± 2.58 years old). Subjects were instructed to stand habitually and use a mobile phone as in daily life; the sagittal head and cervical postures were measured by head flexion, neck flexion angle and gaze angle. Male participants had a significantly larger head flexion angle (96.41° ± 12.23° vs. 93.57° ± 12.62°, p  =  0.018) and neck flexion angle (51.92°  ±  9.55° vs. 47.09° ± 9.45°, p  <  0.001) than females. There were significant differences in head (F  =  3.62, p  =  0.014) and neck flexion (F  =  3.99, p  =  0.009) between different amounts of computer use. Practitioner Summary: We investigated possible gender differences in head and neck postures of young adults using mobile phones, as well as the potential correlations between these postures and digital device use. We found that males displayed larger head and neck flexion angles than females, which were associated with the amount of computer use.

  4. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    What are head lice? Head lice are tiny insects that live on people's heads. Adult lice are about the size of sesame seeds. The eggs, called ... often at the neckline and behind the ears. Head lice are parasites, and they need to feed on ...

  5. Stimulus Control, Transfer and Maintenance of Upright Walking Posture with a Severely Retarded Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Robert H.

    Upright walking posture was successfully trained, maintained, and transferred to a new setting in a 28-year-old profoundly retarded adult. An apparatus in the S's cap and vest provided reinforcement (radio) when the S's head was up. The first four phases of the study demonstrated stimulus control in the training setting, while the next nine phases…

  6. Test-retest reliability of posture measurements in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Heitz, Pierre-Henri; Aubin-Fournier, Jean-François; Parent, Éric; Fortin, Carole

    2018-05-07

    Posture changes are a major consequence of IS (IS). Posture changes can lead to psychosocial and physical impairments in adolescents with IS. Therefore, it is important to assess posture but the test-retest reliability of posture measurements still remains unknown in this population. The primary objective was to determine the test-retest reliability of 25 head and trunk posture indices using the Clinical Photographic Postural Assessment Tool (CPPAT) in adolescents with IS. The secondary objective was to determine the standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change. This is a prospective test-retest reliability study carried out at two tertiary university hospital centers. Forty-one adolescents with IS, aged 10 to 16 years old with curves 10 to 45 o and treated non-operatively were recruited. Two posture assessments were done using the CPPAT five to 10 days apart following a standardized procedure. Photographs were analyzed with the CPPAT software by digitizing reference landmarks placed on the participant by a physiotherapist evaluator. Generalizability theory was used to obtain a coefficient of dependability, standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval. This project was supported by the Canadian Pediatric Spine Society (CPSS: 10000$). There is no study-specific conflicts of interest-associated biases. Fourteen of 25 posture indices had a good reliability (ϕ ≥ 0.78), ten of 25 had moderate reliability (ϕ = 0.55 to 0.74) and one had poor reliability (ϕ = 0.45). The most reliable posture indices were waist angles asymmetry (ϕ = 0.93), right waist angle (ϕ = 0.91) and frontal trunk list (ϕ = 0.92). Right sagittal trunk list was the least reliable posture index (ϕ = 0.45). The MDC 90 values ranged from 2.6 to 10.3° for angular measurements and from 8.4 to 35.1 mm for linear measurements. This study demonstrates that most posture indices, especially the trunk posture indices, are reproducible

  7. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  8. Age Related Decline in Postural Control Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmach, George E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied voluntary and reflexive mechanisms of postural control of young (N=8) and elderly (N=8) adults through measurement of reflexive reactions to large-fast and small-slow ankle rotation postural disturbances. Found reflexive mechanisms relatively intact for both groups although elderly appeared more disadvantaged when posture was under the…

  9. Evaluation of validity and reliability of a methodology for measuring human postural attitude and its relation to temporomandibular joint disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Ramón Fuentes; Carter, Pablo; Muñoz, Sergio; Silva, Héctor; Venegas, Gonzalo Hernán Oporto; Cantin, Mario; Ottone, Nicolás Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJDs) are caused by several factors such as anatomical, neuromuscular and psychological alterations. A relationship has been established between TMJDs and postural alterations, a type of anatomical alteration. An anterior position of the head requires hyperactivity of the posterior neck region and shoulder muscles to prevent the head from falling forward. This compensatory muscular function may cause fatigue, discomfort and trigger point activation. To our knowledge, a method for assessing human postural attitude in more than one plane has not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to design a methodology to measure the external human postural attitude in frontal and sagittal planes, with proper validity and reliability analyses. METHODS The variable postures of 78 subjects (36 men, 42 women; age 18–24 years) were evaluated. The postural attitudes of the subjects were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes, using an acromiopelvimeter, grid panel and Fox plane. RESULTS The method we designed for measuring postural attitudes had adequate reliability and validity, both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on Cohen’s Kappa coefficient (> 0.87) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r = 0.824, > 80%). CONCLUSION This method exhibits adequate metrical properties and can therefore be used in further research on the association of human body posture with skeletal types and TMJDs. PMID:26768173

  10. Evaluation of validity and reliability of a methodology for measuring human postural attitude and its relation to temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Fuentes Fernández, Ramón; Carter, Pablo; Muñoz, Sergio; Silva, Héctor; Oporto Venegas, Gonzalo Hernán; Cantin, Mario; Ottone, Nicolás Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJDs) are caused by several factors such as anatomical, neuromuscular and psychological alterations. A relationship has been established between TMJDs and postural alterations, a type of anatomical alteration. An anterior position of the head requires hyperactivity of the posterior neck region and shoulder muscles to prevent the head from falling forward. This compensatory muscular function may cause fatigue, discomfort and trigger point activation. To our knowledge, a method for assessing human postural attitude in more than one plane has not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to design a methodology to measure the external human postural attitude in frontal and sagittal planes, with proper validity and reliability analyses. The variable postures of 78 subjects (36 men, 42 women; age 18-24 years) were evaluated. The postural attitudes of the subjects were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes, using an acromiopelvimeter, grid panel and Fox plane. The method we designed for measuring postural attitudes had adequate reliability and validity, both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on Cohen's Kappa coefficient (> 0.87) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.824, > 80%). This method exhibits adequate metrical properties and can therefore be used in further research on the association of human body posture with skeletal types and TMJDs. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.

  11. Constrained posture in dentistry - a kinematic analysis of dentists.

    PubMed

    Ohlendorf, Daniela; Erbe, Christina; Nowak, Jennifer; Hauck, Imke; Hermanns, Ingo; Ditchen, Dirk; Ellegast, Rolf; Groneberg, David A

    2017-07-05

    How a dentist works, such as the patterns of movements performed daily, is also largely affected by the workstation Dental tasks are often executed in awkward body positions, thereby causing a very high degree of strain on the corresponding muscles. The objective of this study is to detect those dental tasks, during which awkward postures occur most frequently. The isolated analysis of static postures will examine the duration for which these postures are maintained during the corresponding dental, respectively non-dental, activities. 21 (11f/10 m) dentists (age: 40.1 ± 10.4 years) participated in this study. An average dental workday was collected for every subject. To collect kinematic data of all activities, the CUELA system was used. Parallel to the kinematic examination, a detailed computer-based task analysis was conducted. Afterwards, both data sets were synchronized based on the chronological order of the postures assumed in the trunk and the head region. All tasks performed were assigned to the categories "treatment" (I), "office" (II) and "other activities" (III). The angle values of each body region (evaluation parameter) were examined and assessed corresponding to ergonomic standards. Moreover, this study placed a particular focus on static positions, which are held statically for 4 s and longer. For "treatment" (I), the entire head and trunk area is anteriorly tilted while the back is twisted to the right, in (II) and (III) the back is anteriorly tilted and twisted to the right (non-neutral position). Static positions in (I) last for 4-10s, static postures (approx. 60%) can be observed while in (II) and (III) in the back area static positions for more than 30 s are most common. Moreover, in (II) the back is twisted to the right for more than 60 s in 26.8%. Awkward positions are a major part of a dentists' work. This mainly pertains to static positions of the trunk and head in contrast to "office work." These insights facilitate the quantitative

  12. The internal representation of head orientation differs for conscious perception and balance control

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Brian H.; Rasman, Brandon G.; Inglis, J. Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Key points We tested perceived head‐on‐feet orientation and the direction of vestibular‐evoked balance responses in passively and actively held head‐turned postures.The direction of vestibular‐evoked balance responses was not aligned with perceived head‐on‐feet orientation while maintaining prolonged passively held head‐turned postures. Furthermore, static visual cues of head‐on‐feet orientation did not update the estimate of head posture for the balance controller.A prolonged actively held head‐turned posture did not elicit a rotation in the direction of the vestibular‐evoked balance response despite a significant rotation in perceived angular head posture.It is proposed that conscious perception of head posture and the transformation of vestibular signals for standing balance relying on this head posture are not dependent on the same internal representation. Rather, the balance system may operate under its own sensorimotor principles, which are partly independent from perception. Abstract Vestibular signals used for balance control must be integrated with other sensorimotor cues to allow transformation of descending signals according to an internal representation of body configuration. We explored two alternative models of sensorimotor integration that propose (1) a single internal representation of head‐on‐feet orientation is responsible for perceived postural orientation and standing balance or (2) conscious perception and balance control are driven by separate internal representations. During three experiments, participants stood quietly while passively or actively maintaining a prolonged head‐turned posture (>10 min). Throughout the trials, participants intermittently reported their perceived head angular position, and subsequently electrical vestibular stimuli were delivered to elicit whole‐body balance responses. Visual recalibration of head‐on‐feet posture was used to determine whether static visual cues are used to

  13. Head Position Comparison between Students with Normal Hearing and Students with Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Amorim da Silva, Polyanna Waleska; Souza, Robson Arruda; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Ferraz, Karla Mônica

    2013-10-01

    Introduction Head sense position is coordinated by sensory activity of the vestibular system, located in the inner ear. Children with sensorineural hearing loss may show changes in the vestibular system as a result of injury to the inner ear, which can alter the sense of head position in this population. Aim Analyze the head alignment in students with normal hearing and students with sensorineural hearing loss and compare the data between groups. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study examined the head alignment of 96 students, 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years. The analysis of head alignment occurred through postural assessment performed according to the criteria proposed by Kendall et al. For data analysis we used the chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Results The students with hearing loss had a higher occurrence of changes in the alignment of the head than normally hearing students (p < 0.001). Forward head posture was the type of postural change observed most, occurring in greater proportion in children with hearing loss (p < 0.001), followed by the side slope head posture (p < 0.001). Conclusion Children with sensorineural hearing loss showed more changes in the head posture compared with children with normal hearing.

  14. Head Position Comparison between Students with Normal Hearing and Students with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Amorim da Silva, Polyanna Waleska; Souza, Robson Arruda; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Ferraz, Karla Mônica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Head sense position is coordinated by sensory activity of the vestibular system, located in the inner ear. Children with sensorineural hearing loss may show changes in the vestibular system as a result of injury to the inner ear, which can alter the sense of head position in this population. Aim Analyze the head alignment in students with normal hearing and students with sensorineural hearing loss and compare the data between groups. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study examined the head alignment of 96 students, 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years. The analysis of head alignment occurred through postural assessment performed according to the criteria proposed by Kendall et al. For data analysis we used the chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Results The students with hearing loss had a higher occurrence of changes in the alignment of the head than normally hearing students (p < 0.001). Forward head posture was the type of postural change observed most, occurring in greater proportion in children with hearing loss (p < 0.001), followed by the side slope head posture (p < 0.001). Conclusion Children with sensorineural hearing loss showed more changes in the head posture compared with children with normal hearing. PMID:25992037

  15. [The exploding head syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bongers, K M; ter Bruggen, J P; Franke, C L

    1991-04-06

    The case is reported of a 47-year old female suffering from the exploding head syndrome. This syndrome consists of a sudden awakening due to a loud noise shortly after falling asleep, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light. The patient is anxious and experiences palpitations and excessive sweating. Most patients are more than fifty years of age. Further investigations do not reveal any abnormality. The pathogenesis is unknown, and no therapy other than reassurance is necessary.

  16. The impact of computer display height and desk design on 3D posture during information technology work by young adults.

    PubMed

    Straker, L; Burgess-Limerick, R; Pollock, C; Murray, K; Netto, K; Coleman, J; Skoss, R

    2008-04-01

    Computer display height and desk design to allow forearm support are two critical design features of workstations for information technology tasks. However there is currently no 3D description of head and neck posture with different computer display heights and no direct comparison to paper based information technology tasks. There is also inconsistent evidence on the effect of forearm support on posture and no evidence on whether these features interact. This study compared the 3D head, neck and upper limb postures of 18 male and 18 female young adults whilst working with different display and desk design conditions. There was no substantial interaction between display height and desk design. Lower display heights increased head and neck flexion with more spinal asymmetry when working with paper. The curved desk, designed to provide forearm support, increased scapula elevation/protraction and shoulder flexion/abduction.

  17. Postural correction reduces hip pain in adult with acetabular dysplasia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cara L; Khuu, Anne; Marinko, Lee N

    2015-06-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip is often diagnosed in infancy, but less severe cases of acetabular dysplasia are being detected in young active adults. The purpose of this case report is to present a non-surgical intervention for a 31-year-old female with mild acetabular dysplasia and an anterior acetabular labral tear. The patient presented with right anterior hip and groin pain, and she stood with the trunk swayed posterior to the pelvis (swayback posture). The hip pain was reproduced with the anterior impingement test. During gait, the patient maintained the swayback posture and reported 6/10 hip pain. Following correction of the patient's posture, the patient's pain rating was reduced to a 2/10 while walking. The patient was instructed to maintain the improved posture. At the 1 year follow-up, she demonstrated significantly improved posture in standing and walking. She had returned to recreational running and was generally pain-free. The patient demonstrated improvement on self-reported questionnaires for pain, function, and activity. These findings suggest that alteration of posture can have an immediate and lasting effect on hip pain in persons with structural abnormality and labral pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Postural correction reduces hip pain in adult with acetabular dysplasia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cara L.; Khuu, Anne; Marinko, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip is often diagnosed in infancy, but less severe cases of acetabular dysplasia are being detected in young active adults. The purpose of this case report is to present a non-surgical intervention for a 31-year-old female with mild acetabular dysplasia and an anterior acetabular labral tear. The patient presented with right anterior hip and groin pain, and she stood with the trunk swayed posterior to the pelvis (swayback posture). The hip pain was reproduced with the anterior impingement test. During gait, the patient maintained the swayback posture and reported 6/10 hip pain. Following correction of the patient’s posture, the patient’s pain rating was reduced to a 2/10 while walking. The patient was instructed to maintain the improved posture. At the 1 year follow-up, she demonstrated significantly improved posture in standing and walking. She had returned to recreational running and was generally pain-free. The patient demonstrated improvement on self-reported questionnaires for pain, function and activity. These findings suggest that alteration of posture can have an immediate and lasting effect on hip pain in persons with structural abnormality and labral pathology. PMID:25731688

  19. Body posture in children with obesity - the relationship to physical activity (PA).

    PubMed

    Brzęk, Anna; Sołtys, Jacek; Gallert-Kopyto, Weronika; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Plinta, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    The modern world of electronic devices offers children and young people various forms of leisure activities, while reducing the need for natural movement, necessary for normal psychomotor development. Sedentary life contributes to an increased body weight and, thereby, to the development of body posture abnormalities. The aim of the study was to evaluate body posture, leisure activities, and the number of hours spent using electronic devices among children with obesity. The study involved 51 children with obesity (BMI above 95 percentile) - A group, and 69 children with normal body weight at the age of 9-13 years (10.98 ± 1.29) - B group (control). Body posture has been evaluated with the scoliometer, the digital inclinometer and the plumb line. The hump ratio has been calculated on the basis of SOSORT recommendations. Time spent in front of electronic devices based on a questionnaire results has also been calculated. Children with obesity have more body posture defects in the sagittal plane than children with normal z-scores (p<0.001). 46.8% of children in group A have distorted depth of the two curvatures of the spine. In the control group, the majority of deviations have been observed in the evaluation of the ATR (Angle Trunk Rotation) at the lumbar spine (p<0.05), while in group A, at the level of the thoracic spine (40.42% vs. 23.07%). Both groups of respondents use electronic devices at least 3 days a week (p>0.05). Obese children often use mobile devices, while children with normal body weight often use desktop equipment. Definitely more body posture abnormalities are found in the group of obese children. Children use electronic devices regardless of weight. It is worth to expand educational activities with programs that improve the quality of body posture through a daily change of abnormal patterns. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  20. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome during pregnancy: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kate; Chojenta, Catherine; Tavener, Meredith; Smith, Angela; Loxton, Deb

    2018-05-09

    Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome is most commonly seen in women of child bearing age, however little is known about its effects in pregnancy. A systematic review was conducted in March 2015 and updated in February 2018. Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINHAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception. The ClinicalTrials.gov site and bibliographies were searched. MeSH and Emtree headings and keywords included; Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, and were combined with pregnancy and pregnancy related subject headings and keywords. Searches were limited to English. Eligible articles contained key words within the title and or abstract. Articles were excluded if Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome was not pre-existing. Eleven articles were identified as eligible for inclusion. Studies were appraised using the PRISMA 2009 guidelines. The overall quality of evidence was poor using the NHMRC Evidence Grading Matrix, which was attributed to small sample sizes and mostly observational studies, emphasizing the need for future high quality research. Findings in this review must be used with caution due to the poor quality of the literature available. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome should not be a contraindication to pregnancy. Symptom course is variable during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Continuing pre-conception medication may help symptoms, with no significant risks reported. Obstetric complications, not Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, should dictate mode of delivery. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome did not appear to affect the rate of adverse events. These results are important in determining appropriate management and care in this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  2. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Devore, Cynthia D; Schutze, Gordon E

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2010 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, newer medications have been approved for the treatment of head lice. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Functional morphology of the primate head and neck.

    PubMed

    Nalley, Thierra K; Grider-Potter, Neysa

    2015-04-01

    The vertebral column plays a key role in maintaining posture, locomotion, and transmitting loads between body components. Cervical vertebrae act as a bridge between the torso and head and play a crucial role in the maintenance of head position and the visual field. Despite its importance in positional behaviors, the functional morphology of the cervical region remains poorly understood, particularly in comparison to the thoracic and lumbar sections of the spinal column. This study tests whether morphological variation in the primate cervical vertebrae correlates with differences in postural behavior. Phylogenetic generalized least-squares analyses were performed on a taxonomically broad sample of 26 extant primate taxa to test the link between vertebral morphology and posture. Kinematic data on primate head and neck postures were used instead of behavioral categories in an effort to provide a more direct analysis of our functional hypothesis. Results provide evidence for a function-form link between cervical vertebral shape and postural behaviors. Specifically, taxa with more pronograde heads and necks and less kyphotic orbits exhibit cervical vertebrae with longer spinous processes, indicating increased mechanical advantage for deep nuchal musculature, and craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies and more coronally oriented zygapophyseal articular facets, suggesting an emphasis on curve formation and maintenance within the cervical lordosis, coupled with a greater resistance to translation and ventral displacement. These results not only document support for functional relationships in cervical vertebrae features across a wide range of primate taxa, but highlight the utility of quantitative behavioral data in functional investigations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Changes in maximum bite force related to extension of the head.

    PubMed

    Hellsing, E; Hagberg, C

    1990-05-01

    The maximum bite force and position of the hyoid bone during natural and extended head posture were studied in 15 adults. All participants had normal occlusions and full dentitions. In addition, there were no signs or symptoms of craniomandibular disorders. The bite force was measured with a bite force sensor placed between the first molars. Six registrations of gradually increasing bite force up to a maximum were made with randomized natural and extended head postures. With one exception, the mean maximum bite force value was found to be higher for every subject with extended head posture compared to natural head posture. The sample mean was 271.6 Newton in natural head posture and 321.5 Newton with 20 degrees extension. With changed head posture, the cephalometric measurements pointed towards a changed position of the hyoid bone in relation to the mandible and pharyngeal airway. The cephalometric changes in the position of the hyoid bone could be due to a changed interplay between the elevator and depressor muscle groups. This was one factor which could have influenced the registered maximum bite force.

  5. Regulation of dynamic postural control to attend manual steadiness constraints.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luis Augusto; Coutinho, Joane Figueiredo Serpa; Coelho, Daniel Boari

    2018-05-02

    In daily living activities, performance of spatially accurate manual movements in upright stance depends on postural stability. In the present investigation, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the required manual steadiness (task constraint) on the regulation of dynamic postural control. A single group of young participants (n=20) were evaluated in the performance of a dual posturo-manual task of balancing on a platform oscillating in sinusoidal translations at 0.4 Hz (low) or 1 Hz (high) frequencies while stabilizing a cylinder on a handheld tray. Manual task constraint was manipulated by comparing the conditions of keeping the cylinder stationary on its flat or round side, corresponding to low and high manual task constraints, respectively. Results showed that in the low oscillation frequency the high manual task constraint led to lower oscillation amplitudes of the head, center of mass, and tray, in addition to higher relative phase values between ankle/hip-shoulder oscillatory rotations and between center of mass/center of pressure-feet oscillations as compared to values observed in the low manual task constraint. Further analyses showed that the high manual task constraint also affected variables related to both postural (increased amplitudes of center of pressure oscillation) and manual (increased amplitude of shoulder rotations) task components in the high oscillation frequency. These results suggest that control of a dynamic posturo-manual task is modulated in distinct parameters to attend the required manual steadiness in a complex and flexible way.

  6. Haptic cues for orientation and postural control in sighted and blind individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Easton, R. D.; Bentzen, B. L.; Lackner, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Haptic cues from fingertip contact with a stable surface attenuate body sway in subjects even when the contact forces are too small to provide physical support of the body. We investigated how haptic cues derived from contact of a cane with a stationary surface at low force levels aids postural control in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Five sighted (eyes closed) and five congenitally blind subjects maintained a tandem Romberg stance in five conditions: (1) no cane; (2,3) touch contact (< 2 N of applied force) while holding the cane in a vertical or slanted orientation; and (4,5) force contact (as much force as desired) in the vertical and slanted orientations. Touch contact of a cane at force levels below those necessary to provide significant physical stabilization was as effective as force contact in reducing postural sway in all subjects, compared to the no-cane condition. A slanted cane was far more effective in reducing postural sway than was a perpendicular cane. Cane use also decreased head displacement of sighted subjects far more than that of blind subjects. These results suggest that head movement control is linked to postural control through gaze stabilization reflexes in sighted subjects; such reflexes are absent in congenitally blind individuals and may account for their higher levels of head displacement.

  7. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    overt goals. It follows that an essential characteristic of postural behavior is the effective maintenance of the orientation and stability of the sensory and motor "platforms" (e.g., head or shoulders) over variations in the human, the environment and the task. This general skill suggests that individuals should be sensitive to the functional consequences of body configuration and stability. In other words, individuals should perceive the relation between configuration, stability, and performance so that they can adaptively control their interaction with the surroundings. Human-environment interactions constitute robust systems in that individuals can maintain the stability of such interactions over uncertainty about and variations in the dynamics of the interaction. Robust interactions allow individuals to adopt orientations and configurations that are not optimal with respect to purely energetic criteria. Individuals can tolerate variation in postural states, and such variation can serve an important function in adaptive systems. Postural variability generates stimulation which is "textured" by the dynamics of the human-environment system. The texture or structure in stimulation provides information about variation in dynamics, and such information can be sufficient to guide adaption in control strategies. Our method were designed to measure informative patterns of movement variability.

  8. Does Observation of Postural Imbalance Induce a Postural Reaction?

    PubMed Central

    Tia, Banty; Saimpont, Arnaud; Paizis, Christos; Mourey, France; Fadiga, Luciano; Pozzo, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies bring evidence that action observation elicits contagious responses during social interactions. However automatic imitative tendencies are generally inhibited and it remains unclear in which conditions mere action observation triggers motor behaviours. In this study, we addressed the question of contagious postural responses when observing human imbalance. Methodology/Principal Findings We recorded participants' body sway while they observed a fixation cross (control condition), an upright point-light display of a gymnast balancing on a rope, and the same point-light display presented upside down. Our results showed that, when the upright stimulus was displayed prior to the inverted one, centre of pressure area and antero-posterior path length were significantly greater in the upright condition compared to the control and upside down conditions. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate a contagious postural reaction suggesting a partial inefficiency of inhibitory processes. Further, kinematic information was sufficient to trigger this reaction. The difference recorded between the upright and upside down conditions indicates that the contagion effect was dependent on the integration of gravity constraints by body kinematics. Interestingly, the postural response was sensitive to habituation, and seemed to disappear when the observer was previously shown an inverted display. The motor contagion recorded here is consistent with previous work showing vegetative output during observation of an effortful movement and could indicate that lower level control facilitates contagion effects. PMID:21423622

  9. Geometric morphometrics as a tool for improving the comparative study of behavioural postures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fureix, Carole; Hausberger, Martine; Seneque, Emilie; Morisset, Stéphane; Baylac, Michel; Cornette, Raphaël; Biquand, Véronique; Deleporte, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Describing postures has always been a central concern when studying behaviour. However, attempts to compare postures objectively at phylogenetical, populational, inter- or intra-individual levels generally either rely upon a few key elements or remain highly subjective. Here, we propose a novel approach, based on well-established geometric morphometrics, to describe and to analyse postures globally (i.e. considering the animal's body posture in its entirety rather than focusing only on a few salient elements, such as head or tail position). Geometric morphometrics is concerned with describing and comparing variation and changes in the form (size and shape) of organisms using the coordinates of a series of homologous landmarks (i.e. positioned in relation to skeletal or muscular cues that are the same for different species for every variety of form and function and that have derived from a common ancestor, i.e. they have a common evolutionary ancestry, e.g. neck, wings, flipper/hand). We applied this approach to horses, using global postures (1) to characterise behaviours that correspond to different arousal levels, (2) to test potential impact of environmental changes on postures. Our application of geometric morphometrics to horse postures showed that this method can be used to characterise behavioural categories, to evaluate the impact of environmental factors (here human actions) and to compare individuals and groups. Beyond its application to horses, this promising approach could be applied to all questions involving the analysis of postures (evolution of displays, expression of emotions, stress and welfare, behavioural repertoires…) and could lead to a whole new line of research.

  10. Balance ability and posture in postmenopausal women with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Márquez, Pedro; Rodríguez-Torres, Janet R; Valenza, Marie C; Ortíz-Rubio, Araceli; Ariza-Mateos, María J; Cabrera-Martos, Irene

    2018-04-09

    The aim of the present study was to analyze balance ability and posture in postmenopausal women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). This study includes a sample of 48 women with CPP recruited from the Gynecology Service of Virgen de las Nieves and San Cecilio Hospitals in Granada (Spain) and 48 healthy control women matched with respect to age and anthropometric characteristics. Outcome variables collected included: balance ability (Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Timed Up an Go Test) and posture (photogrammetry and Spinal Mouse). Significant differences were found in all Mini Best Test subscales: total (P < 0.001), anticipatory (P = 0.002), reactive postural control (P < 0.001), sensory orientation (P < 0.001), and dynamic gait (P < 0.001), and all Timed Up and Go test subscales: alone (P < 0.001), with manual (P = 0.002) and cognitive task (P = 0.030). Significant differences were also found on spinal cervical angles with a forward head posture in women with CPP; global spine alignment exhibited more deviation in the women with CPP (P < 0.001); and a higher percentage of women with CPP (58%) presented with increased thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. Cohen's d was used to calculate the effect size. Some subscales of balance and posture tests showed a large effect size (d ≥0.8), indicating a more consistent result. Women with CPP presented poor balance including anticipatory, reactive postural control, sensory orientation, dynamic gait, and dual task-related conditions. Posture showed higher values on the dorsal angle and lower sacral inclination, less spine alignment, and a more prevalent posture with increased kyphosis and lumbar lordosis.

  11. Birthing postures and birth canal lacerations.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-05-01

    This study was performed to assess the differences in the birth canal lacerations following the lateral and fours posture deliveries compared with those following the supine posture deliveries. We examined the birth canal lacerations of our "low risk" pregnant women under the midwife-led delivery care at Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital between April 2006 and March 2015. There were 3826, 1754 and 719 women who delivered with supine, lateral and fours postures. The rate of no laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.630, 95% CI 0.56-0.71, p < 0.01); however, the incidence of perineal laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.856, 95% CI 0.76-0.90, p < 0.01). The incidence of perineal laceration of third- or fourth-degree in the women who delivered with fours posture was significant higher than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.2-4.2, p < 0.01). The current results may be to help for self-determination of birthing postures in prenatal women.

  12. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  13. The cam impinging femur has multiple morphologic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Andrew R; Noble, Philip C; Schroder, Steven J; Thompson, Matthew T; Stocks, Gregory W

    2011-09-01

    This study was performed to establish whether the "cam" impinging femur has a single deformity of the head-neck junction or multiple abnormalities. Average dimensions (anteversion angle, α angle of Notzli, β angle of Beaulé, normalized anterior head offset) were compared between normal and impinging femora. The results demonstrated that impinging femora had wider necks, larger heads, and decreased head-neck ratios. There was no difference in neck-shaft angle or anteversion angle. Forty-six percent of impinging femora had significant posterior head displacement (>2mm), which averaged 1.93 mm for the cam impinging group, and 0.78 mm for the normal group. In conclusion, surgical treatment limited to localized recontouring of the head-neck profile may fail to address significant components of the underlying abnormality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Near Tasks on Posture in Myopic Chinese Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Jinhua; Drobe, Björn; Wang, Yuwen; Chen, Ke; Seow, Eu Jin; Lu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate near-vision posture in Chinese myopic schoolchildren and compare near-vision posture during different near-vision tasks (i.e., playing video games, reading, and writing). Methods The study investigated 120 myopic children (grades 1 through 6 and aged 6 to 13 years). An electromagnetic motion-tracking system was used for continuous measurements of the working distance and head declination of the subjects while they were playing video games or reading or writing at a desk. The reading and writing documents were adjusted by grade level (i.e., grades 1 to 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 6). For analysis, the subjects were grouped in two refractive groups according to their median spherical equivalent refractive error (−1.50D). Results The myopic schoolchildren used close working distances for all tasks: 21.3 ± 5.2 cm (video games), 27.2 ± 6.4 cm (reading), and 24.9 ± 5.8 cm (writing). The mean head declinations were 63.5 ± 12.2 deg (video games), 37.1 ± 12.8 deg (reading), and 44.5 ± 14.1 deg (writing). Working distance decreased significantly across time for the reading and writing tasks (p < 0.001). Head declination increased significantly across time only for the reading task (p < 0.001). Grade level significantly influenced working distance, but the difference was not significant when working distance was adjusted by the subject’s size. No differences were observed within the refractive or the accommodative lag groups in terms of the posture data (p > 0.05). Working distance was negatively correlated with head declination (r = −0.53, p < 0.001). Conclusions Close working distances were observed for Chinese myopic schoolchildren. The attention dedicated to each task, the task difficulty, and the page/screen size may affect near working distance and head declination. Handheld video games were associated with the closest working distance, which may be a risk factor for myopia progression, according to previous studies. PMID:26107025

  15. The Steps to Perfect Posture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Many people have memories of being told to "stop slouching" while seated at the piano bench. But the reality is that good piano posture is not as simple as bolting upright on the bench when the teacher barks. According to Eric Sutz, a Chicago-area piano teacher and performer, one should see a natural curve in his/her lower lumbar area and should…

  16. [Correlates between Munich Functional Development Diagnostics and postural reactivity findings based on seven provovoked postural reactions modus Vojta during the first period of child's life].

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Ewa; Sobieska, Magdalena; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    This work presents two diagnostic methods which were used to examine 57 children during their first three months of life. By classifying abnormalities of central nervous coordination we compared seven postural reactions according to Vojta with spontaneous behaviour of the child according to Munich Functional Development Diagnostics. It was demonstrated that both methods for the detection of early lesions in the central nervous system are sensitive. Good coherence of the results suggests that both methods may be used interchangeably.

  17. Changes in posture through the use of simple inclines with notebook computers placed on a standard desk.

    PubMed

    Asundi, Krishna; Odell, Dan; Luce, Adam; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the use of simple inclines as a portable peripheral for improving head and neck postures during notebook computer use on tables in portable environments such as hotel rooms, cafés, and airport lounges. A 3D motion analysis system measured head, neck and right upper extremity postures of 15 participants as they completed a 10 min computer task in six different configurations, all on a fixed height desk: no-incline, 12° incline, 25° incline, no-incline with external mouse, 25° incline with an external mouse, and a commercially available riser with external mouse and keyboard. After completion of the task, subjects rated the configuration for comfort and ease of use and indicated perceived discomfort in several body segments. Compared to the no-incline configuration, use of the 12° incline reduced forward head tilt and neck flexion while increasing wrist extension. The 25° incline further reduced head tilt and neck flexion while further increasing wrist extension. The 25° incline received the lowest comfort and ease of use ratings and the highest perceived discomfort score. For portable, temporary computing environments where internal input devices are used, users may find improved head and neck postures with acceptable wrist extension postures with the utilization of a 12° incline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Common postural defects among music students.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  20. Development of Postural Muscles and Their Innervation

    PubMed Central

    IJkema-Paassen, J.; Gramsbergen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Control of posture is a prerequisite for efficient motor performance. Posture depends on muscles capable of enduring contractions, whereas movements often require quick, forceful muscle actions. To serve these different goals, muscles contain fibers that meet these different tasks. Muscles with strong postural functions mainly consist of slow muscle fibers with a great resistance against fatigue. Flexor muscles in the leg and arm muscles are mainly composed of fast muscle fibers producing relatively large forces that are rapidly fatigable. Development of the neuromuscular system continues after birth. We discuss in the human baby and in animal experiments changes in muscle fiber properties, regression from polyneural into mononeural innervation, and developmental changes in the motoneurons of postural muscles during that period. The regression of poly-neural innervation in postural muscles and the development of dendrite bundles of their motoneurons seem to be linked to the transition from the immature into the adult-like patterns of moving and postural control. PMID:16097482

  1. The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J. R.; Robertson, R. M.; Wathen, M.; Stein, M.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A.; Black, B.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The postural tachycardia syndrome is a common disorder that is characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and a dramatic increase in heart rate on standing, but that does not involve orthostatic hypotension. Several lines of evidence indicate that this disorder may result from sympathetic denervation of the legs. METHODS: We measured norepinephrine spillover (the rate of entry of norepinephrine into the venous circulation) in the arms and legs both before and in response to exposure to three stimuli (the cold pressor test, sodium nitroprusside infusion, and tyramine infusion) in 10 patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome and in 8 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. RESULTS: At base line, the mean (+/-SD) plasma norepinephrine concentration in the femoral vein was lower in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (135+/-30 vs. 215+/-55 pg per milliliter [0.80+/-0.18 vs. 1.27+/-0.32 nmol per liter], P=0.001). Norepinephrine spillover in the arms increased to a similar extent in the two groups in response to each of the three stimuli, but the increases in the legs were smaller in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (0.001+/-0.09 vs. 0.12+/-0.12 ng per minute per deciliter of tissue [0.006+/-0.53 vs. 0.71+/-0.71 nmol per minute per deciliter] with the cold pressor test, P=0.02; 0.02+/-0.07 vs. 0.23+/-0.17 ng per minute per deciliter [0.12+/-0.41 vs. 1.36+/-1.00 nmol per minute per deciliter] with nitroprusside infusion, P=0.01; and 0.008+/-0.09 vs. 0.19+/-0.25 ng per minute per deciliter [0.05+/-0.53 vs. 1.12+/-1.47 nmol per minute per deciliter] with tyramine infusion, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome results from partial sympathetic denervation, especially in the legs.

  2. Orthostatic Intolerance and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: Neurovegetative Dysregulation or Autonomic Failure?

    PubMed

    Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Castori, Marco; Censi, Federica; Gioffrè, Laura; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Strano, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background . Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is a hereditary connective tissue disorder mainly characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, skin texture abnormalities, and visceral and vascular dysfunctions, also comprising symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. This study aims to further evaluate cardiovascular autonomic involvement in JHS/EDS-HT by a battery of functional tests. Methods . The response to cardiovascular reflex tests comprising deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, 30/15 ratio, handgrip test, and head-up tilt test was studied in 35 JHS/EDS-HT adults. Heart rate and blood pressure variability was also investigated by spectral analysis in comparison to age and sex healthy matched group. Results . Valsalva ratio was normal in all patients, but 37.2% of them were not able to finish the test. At tilt, 48.6% patients showed postural orthostatic tachycardia, 31.4% orthostatic intolerance, 20% normal results. Only one patient had orthostatic hypotension. Spectral analysis showed significant higher baroreflex sensitivity values at rest compared to controls. Conclusions. This study confirms the abnormal cardiovascular autonomic profile in adults with JHS/EDS-HT and found the higher baroreflex sensitivity as a potential disease marker and clue for future research.

  3. Absence of Rotation Perception during Warm Water Caloric Irrigation in Some Seniors with Postural Instability.

    PubMed

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Magnani, Christophe; Lamas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S; de Waele, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied. Twenty senior subjects were included in the study, and separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI) and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex- and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls). We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric tests, and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric-induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or ≥15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions. These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this as dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, among other factors, from

  4. Postural analysis of eight university student wheelchair users when performing written exercises in their classroom: a case study in Santiago de Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Martínez, David Leonardo Hurtado; Rodríguez, Wilfredo Ágredo

    2012-01-01

    In students with physical disabilities, the more energy and time required and invested into finding a good posture, the longer the learning process takes. For this reason, the objective of this study was to characterize the posture in the act of writing of wheelchair users in a classroom. Eight students, (three women) aged 18-40, of some of the main universities of the city of Santiago de Cali participated. An observational field study filming of approximately 10 minutes was done while they took notes in their classes. Posture of the head, trunk, and upper extremities was analyzed with respect to its axis and the type of movement in each joint. The postures were classified depending on the location of support surface finding five different postures in the eight students. In these five postures some biomechanical risk factors, usually present in wheelchair users, are increased when they are associated with those postures. Those associated risk factors are: possible disc spine deformation, muscular stress and causing of pressure ulcer. In conclusion, in four of these five postures a poor interaction among person, task and work desk was observed. Therefore, seven of the eight students in this study were found to have a posture that could be considered risky.

  5. The dentist's operating posture - ergonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-06-15

    The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.

  6. Neuromagnetic brain activity associated with anticipatory postural adjustments for bimanual load lifting.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tommy H B; Sowman, Paul F; Brock, Jon; Johnson, Blake W

    2013-02-01

    During bimanual load lifting, the brain must anticipate the effects of unloading upon the load-bearing arm. Little is currently known about the neural networks that coordinate these anticipatory postural adjustments. We measured neuromagnetic brain activity with whole-head magnetoencephalography while participants performed a bimanual load-lifting task. Anticipatory adjustments were associated with reduction in biceps brachii muscle activity of the load-bearing arm and pre-movement desynchronization of the cortical beta rhythm. Beamforming analyses localized anticipatory brain activity to the precentral gyrus, basal ganglia, supplementary motor area, and thalamus, contralateral to the load-bearing arm. To our knowledge this is the first human neuroimaging study to directly investigate anticipatory postural adjustments and to explicitly partition the anticipatory and volitional aspects of brain activity in bimanual load lifting. These data contribute to our understanding of the neural systems supporting anticipatory postural adjustments in healthy adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Using motion capture technology to measure the effects of magnification loupes on dental operator posture: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Branson, B G; Abnos, R M; Simmer-Beck, M L; King, G W; Siddicky, S F

    2018-01-01

    Motion analysis has great potential for quantitatively evaluating dental operator posture and the impact of interventions such as magnification loupes on posture and subsequent development of musculoskeletal disorders. This study sought to determine the feasibility of motion capture technology for measurement of dental operator posture and examine the impact that different styles of magnification loupes had on dental operator posture. Forward and lateral head flexion were measured for two different operators while completing a periodontal probing procedure. Each was measured while wearing magnification loupes (flip up-FL and through the lens-TTL) and basic safety lenses. Operators both exhibited reduced forward flexion range of motion (ROM) when using loupes (TTL or FL) compared to a baseline lens (BL). In contrast to forward flexion, no consistent trends were observed for lateral flexion between subjects. The researchers can report that it is possible to measure dental operator posture using motion capture technology. More study is needed to determine which type of magnification loupes (FL or TTL) are superior in improving dental operator posture. Some evidence was found supporting that the quality of operator posture may more likely be related to the use of magnification loupes, rather than the specific type of lenses worn.

  8. The effect of moderate running on foot posture index and plantar pressure distribution in male recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Escamilla-Martínez, Elena; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Gómez-Martín, Beatriz; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue due to running has been shown to contribute to changes in plantar pressure distribution. However, little is known about changes in foot posture after running. We sought to compare the foot posture index before and after moderate exercise and to relate any changes to plantar pressure patterns. A baropodometric evaluation was made, using the FootScan platform (RSscan International, Olen, Belgium), of 30 men who were regular runners and their foot posture was examined using the Foot Posture Index before and after a 60-min continuous run at a moderate pace (3.3 m/sec). Foot posture showed a tendency toward pronation after the 60-min run, gaining 2 points in the foot posture index. The total support and medial heel contact areas increased, as did pressures under the second metatarsal head and medial heel. Continuous running at a moderate speed (3.3 m/sec) induced changes in heel strike related to enhanced pronation posture, indicative of greater stress on that zone after physical activity. This observation may help us understand the functioning of the foot, prevent injuries, and design effective plantar orthoses in sport.

  9. State-dependent sensorimotor processing: gaze and posture stability during simulated flight in birds

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular responses play an important role in maintaining gaze and posture stability during rotational motion. Previous studies suggest that these responses are state dependent, their expression varying with the environmental and locomotor conditions of the animal. In this study, we simulated an ethologically relevant state in the laboratory to study state-dependent vestibular responses in birds. We used frontal airflow to simulate gliding flight and measured pigeons′ eye, head, and tail responses to rotational motion in darkness, under both head-fixed and head-free conditions. We show that both eye and head response gains are significantly higher during flight, thus enhancing gaze and head-in-space stability. We also characterize state-specific tail responses to pitch and roll rotation that would help to maintain body-in-space orientation during flight. These results demonstrate that vestibular sensorimotor processing is not fixed but depends instead on the animal's behavioral state. PMID:21307332

  10. State-dependent sensorimotor processing: gaze and posture stability during simulated flight in birds.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Kimberly L; Dickman, J David

    2011-04-01

    Vestibular responses play an important role in maintaining gaze and posture stability during rotational motion. Previous studies suggest that these responses are state dependent, their expression varying with the environmental and locomotor conditions of the animal. In this study, we simulated an ethologically relevant state in the laboratory to study state-dependent vestibular responses in birds. We used frontal airflow to simulate gliding flight and measured pigeons' eye, head, and tail responses to rotational motion in darkness, under both head-fixed and head-free conditions. We show that both eye and head response gains are significantly higher during flight, thus enhancing gaze and head-in-space stability. We also characterize state-specific tail responses to pitch and roll rotation that would help to maintain body-in-space orientation during flight. These results demonstrate that vestibular sensorimotor processing is not fixed but depends instead on the animal's behavioral state.

  11. Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain

    PubMed Central

    Ruivo, Rodrigo M.; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Carita, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. Objectives: To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools in Portugal. 275 adolescent students (153 females and 122 males) aged 15 to 17 were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and PAS software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES) was used to assess shoulder pain, whereas neck pain was self-reported with a single question. Results: Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.2±5.7, 47.4±5.2, and 51.4±8.5º, respectively. 68% of the participants revealed protraction of the head, whereas 58% of them had protraction of the shoulder. The boys showed a significantly higher mean cervical angle, and adolescents with neck pain revealed lower mean cervical angle than adolescents without neck pain. 53% of the girls self-reported regular neck pain, contrasting with 19% of the boys. Conclusions: This data shows that forward head and protracted shoulder are common postural disorders in adolescents, especially in girls. Neck pain is prevalent in adolescents, especially girls, and it is associated with forward head posture. PMID:25054381

  12. Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain.

    PubMed

    Ruivo, Rodrigo M; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Carita, Ana I

    2014-01-01

    There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools in Portugal. 275 adolescent students (153 females and 122 males) aged 15 to 17 were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and PAS software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES) was used to assess shoulder pain, whereas neck pain was self-reported with a single question. Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.2±5.7, 47.4±5.2, and 51.4±8.5º, respectively. 68% of the participants revealed protraction of the head, whereas 58% of them had protraction of the shoulder. The boys showed a significantly higher mean cervical angle, and adolescents with neck pain revealed lower mean cervical angle than adolescents without neck pain. 53% of the girls self-reported regular neck pain, contrasting with 19% of the boys. This data shows that forward head and protracted shoulder are common postural disorders in adolescents, especially in girls. Neck pain is prevalent in adolescents, especially girls, and it is associated with forward head posture.

  13. Is there a relationship between preferred posture and positioning in early life and the direction of subsequent asymmetrical postural deformity in non ambulant people with cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Porter, David; Michael, Shona; Kirkwood, Craig

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that asymmetrical positioning of an infant with reduced mobility may lead to postural deformity becoming established over time. However, evidence to support or question this line of thinking is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective cohort study was to test the association between asymmetrical positioning in the first 12 months of life and the subsequent direction of postural deformity in non-ambulant people with cerebral palsy. The direction of scoliosis, pelvic obliquity and windswept hip pattern and also the side of unilateral hip subluxation/dislocation were determined for 246 young people ranging in age from 1 year and 2 months to 19 years (median age 10 years and 3 months). Parents/carers of the participants were interviewed to establish holding and feeding positions and preferred lying posture adopted in early life. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. The study provided evidence of an association between asymmetrical lying posture adopted in the first year of life and the direction of the subsequent pattern of postural deformity. If the child's head had been rotated to the right during supine lying, it was more likely that the scoliosis would be convex to the left, pelvic obliquity would be lower on the left, windswept hip pattern would be to the right and hip subluxation/dislocation would occur on the left. The likelihood of the deformities occurring in the same direction was also increased if consistent side lying on the right had been preferred. Clinicians should be aware of positioning for children with severe disabilities particularly those who prefer supine lying with their head rotated to the side and those who prefer consistent side lying.

  14. Postural set for balance control is normal in Alzheimer's but not in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chong, R K; Jones, C L; Horak, F B

    1999-03-01

    It has been suggested that patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type have abnormalities in the basal ganglia, and thus, may have similar sensorimotor problems as patients with basal ganglia degeneration from Parkinson's disease. Whether the similarity extends to balance control is unknown. One distinguishing feature of balance disorder in Parkinson's disease is difficulty with changing postural set in terms of adapting the amplitude of leg muscle activity as a function of support condition. We, therefore, tested whether patients with Alzheimer's disease without extrapyramidal signs would show a similar problem in changing postural set as patients with Parkinson's disease. The ability to quickly change postural set was measured by comparing leg muscle activity under two conditions of support (free stance, versus grasping a frame, or sitting) during backward surface translations, during toes up surface rotations, and during voluntary rise to toes. Results were compared among 12 healthy adults, 8 nondemented Parkinson's patients on their usual dose of medication, and 11 Alzheimer patients without extrapyramidal signs. Subjects with Alzheimer's, but not Parkinson's, disease performed similarly to the healthy control subjects. They changed postural set immediately, by suppressing leg muscle activity to low levels when supported. Parkinson subjects did not change postural set immediately. They did not suppress the tibialis anterior in voluntary rise to toes when holding, nor the soleus in perturbed sitting as much as the healthy control and Alzheimer subjects in the first trial. Instead, the Parkinson subjects changed set more slowly, over repeated and consecutive trials in both protocols. The onset latencies of soleus responses to backward surface translations and perturbed sitting, as well as tibialis anterior responses to toes up rotations, were the same for all three groups. Alzheimer patients without extrapyramidal signs, unlike nondemented Parkinson's disease

  15. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments.

    PubMed

    Bourelle, Sophie; Taiar, Redha; Berge, Benoit; Gautheron, Vincent; Cottalorda, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning) and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon) school on regular school days using the Balance Master® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P < 0.05). By end of afternoon, the body weight was borne mainly on the left side with the knee fully extended and at various degrees of knee flexion. A significantly better directional control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P < 0.05). In summary, most of our findings are inconsistent with results from previous studies in adults, suggesting age-related differences in posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training) or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders), be better performed late in the afternoon.

  16. Planus Foot Posture and Pronated Foot Function are Associated with Foot Pain: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of foot posture and foot function to foot pain. Methods Data were collected on 3,378 members of the Framingham Study who completed foot examinations in 2002–2008. Foot pain (generalized and at six locations) was based on the response to the question “On most days, do you have pain, aching or stiffness in either foot?” Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static pressure measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the center of pressure excursion index from dynamic pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of foot posture and function on generalized and location-specific foot pain, adjusting for age and weight. Results Planus foot posture was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of arch pain in men (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 – 1.90), while cavus foot posture was protective against ball of foot pain (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00) and arch pain (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48 – 0.85) in women. Pronated foot function was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of generalized foot pain (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04 – 1.56) and heel pain (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04 – 2.27) in men, while supinated foot function was protective against hindfoot pain in women (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00). Conclusion Planus foot posture and pronated foot function are associated with foot symptoms. Interventions that modify abnormal foot posture and function may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of foot pain. PMID:23861176

  17. Postural control in restless legs syndrome with medication intervention using pramipexole.

    PubMed

    Ahlgrén-Rimpiläinen, Aulikki; Lauerma, Hannu; Kähkönen, Seppo; Aalto, Heikki; Tuisku, Katinka; Holi, Matti; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Rimpiläinen, Ilpo

    2014-02-01

    Central dopamine regulation is involved in postural control and in the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Postural control abnormalities have been detected in PD, but there are no earlier studies with regard to RLS and postural control. Computerized force platform posturography was applied to measure the shift and the velocity (CPFV) of center point of forces (CPF) with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) in controls (n = 12) and prior and after a single day intervention with pramipexole in RLS subjects (n = 12). CPFV (EO) was significantly lower in the RLS group (p < 0.05) than in controls. After pramipexole intake, the difference disappeared and the subjective symptom severity diminished. Pramipexole did not significantly influence CPFV (EC) or CPF shift direction. Subjects with RLS used extensively visual mechanisms to control vestibule-spinal reflexes to improve or compensate the postural stability. Further research is needed to clarify altered feedback in the central nervous system and involvement of dopamine and vision in the postural control in RLS.

  18. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002–05). Methods. Low back pain, aching or stiffness on most days was documented on a body chart. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static weight-bearing measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the centre of pressure excursion index derived from dynamic foot pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of foot posture, foot function and asymmetry with low back pain, adjusting for confounding variables. Results. Foot posture showed no association with low back pain. However, pronated foot function was associated with low back pain in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.1, 2.07, P = 0.011] and this remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, smoking and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07, 2.05, P = 0.018). Conclusion. These findings suggest that pronated foot function may contribute to low back symptoms in women. Interventions that modify foot function, such as orthoses, may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of low back pain. PMID:24049103

  19. Classification of Posture in Poststroke Upper Limb Spasticity: A Potential Decision Tool for Botulinum Toxin A Treatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefter, Harald; Jost, Wolfgang H.; Reissig, Andrea; Zakine, Benjamin; Bakheit, Abdel Magid; Wissel, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    A significant percentage of patients suffering from a stroke involving motor-relevant central nervous system regions will develop a spastic movement disorder. Hyperactivity of different muscle combinations forces the limbs affected into abnormal postures or movement patterns. As muscular hyperactivity can effectively and safely be treated with…

  20. Effect of microgravity on spatial orientation and posture regulation during Coriolis stimulation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Sekine, Motoki; Ikeda, Takuo; Watanuki, Koichi; Hakuta, Shuzo; Takeoka, Hajime

    2004-05-01

    To elucidate spatial orientation and posture regulation under conditions of microgravity. Coriolis stimulation was done with five normal subjects on the ground (1 g) and onboard an aircraft (under conditions of microgravity during parabolic flight). Subjects were asked to tilt their heads forward during rotation at speeds of 0, 50, 100 and 150 degrees/s on the ground and 100 degrees/s during flight. Body sway was recorded using a 3D linear accelerometer and eye movements using an infrared charge-coupled device video camera. Flight experiments were performed on 5 consecutive days, and 11-16 parabolic maneuvers were done during each flight. Two subjects boarded each flight and were examined alternately at least five times. Coriolis stimulation at 1 g caused body sway, nystagmus and a movement sensation in accordance with inertial inputs at 1 g. Neither body sway, excepting a minute sway due to the Coriolis force, nor a movement sensation occurred in microgravity, but nystagmus was recorded. Posture, eye movement and sensation at 1 g are controlled with reference to spatial coordinates that represent the external world in the brain. Normal spatial coordinates are not relevant in microgravity because there is no Z-axis, and the posture regulation and sensation that depend on them collapse. The discrepancy in responses between posture and eye movement under conditions of microgravity may be caused by a different constitution of the effectors which adjust posture and gaze.

  1. Assessment of dental student posture in two seating conditions using RULA methodology - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gandavadi, A; Ramsay, J R E; Burke, F J T

    2007-11-24

    To assess dental students' posture on two different seats in order to determine if one seat predisposes to a difference in working posture. A between-subject experimental design was selected. The study was undertaken at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry in 2006. Subjects (materials) and methods Sixty second year dental students at the University of Birmingham who were attending their fi rst classes in the phantom head laboratory were randomly selected and allocated to two different seats (30 Bambach Saddle Seats and 30 conventional seats). Students were trained in the use of the seats. After ten weeks, the students were observed, photographs were taken by the researcher and these were assessed using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA). The posture of the students was assessed using the RULA. Each student was given a risk score. A Mann Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. The results indicated that the students using the conventional seat recorded significantly higher risk scores (p <0.05) when compared with the students using Bambach Saddle Seat, suggesting an improvement in posture when using the Bambach Saddle Seat. RULA has identified that dental students using a Bambach Saddle Seat were able to maintain an acceptable working posture during simulated dental treatment and this seating may reduce the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  2. Cervical column posture and airway dimensions in clinical bruxist adults: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, C C; Álvarez, C P; Jaimes, J; Gómez, A F

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cervical column posture and the upper airway dimensions between sleep bruxist and non-bruxist young adults. Twenty-three sleep-grinders and 22 asymptomatic subjects, selected according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria (report by a sleep partner and the presence of dental wear, according to Wetselaar et al.), were evaluated. The mean age was 23·8 years (range 18-30). All the subjects had complete permanent dentition and skeletal and occlusal class I. A digital cephalometric radiograph with natural head posture was performed for each subject. The craniocervical posture was traced and evaluated according to Solow and Tallgren, and the airway dimensions of the oropharynx and nasopharynx were evaluated in agreement with Sayinsu. The data were analysed with independent-samples t-tests and Mann-Whitney U-test. Significance was set at P < 0·05. Sleep bruxist young adults presented more forwarded cervical column posture and narrower measures of the oropharynx, when compared with controls (P < 0·05). As in children, anterior cervical column posture was found to be associated with sleep bruxism. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Upper quadrant postural changes of school children in response to interaction with different information technologies.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Andrew; Straker, Leon; Greig, Alison

    2004-06-10

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively analyse the sitting posture of school children interacting with both old (book) and new (laptop and desktop computers) information technologies to test the hypothesis that posture is effected by the type of information technology (IT) used. A mixed model design was used to test the effect of IT type (within subjects) and age and gender (between subjects). The sitting posture of 32 children aged 4-17 years was measured whilst they read from a book, laptop, and desktop computer at a standard school chair and desk. Video images were captured and then digitized to calculate mean angles for head tilt, neck flexion, trunk flexion, and gaze angle. Posture was found to be influenced by IT type (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001) and gender (p = 0.024) and significantly correlated to the stature of the participants. Measurement of resting posture and the maximal range of motion of the upper and lower cervical spines in the sagittal plane was also undertaken. The biophysical impact and the suitability of the three different information technologies are discussed.

  4. Specificity of postural sway to the demands of a precision task at sea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2012-06-01

    Mariners actively adjust their body orientation in response to ship motion. On a ship at sea, we evaluated relations between standing postural activity and the performance of a precision aiming task. Standing participants (experienced mariners) maintained the beam from a handheld laser on a target. Targets were large or small, thereby varying the difficulty of the aiming task. Targets were located in front of the participant or to the participant's right (requiring participants to look over the right shoulder), thereby varying the functional consequences (for the aiming task) of postural activity in different body axes. The torso was oriented toward the bow or toward the ship's side (athwartship), thereby varying the effects on postural activity of differential motion of the ship in its different axes. The weather was rough, producing high magnitudes of ship motion, which sometimes caused participants to step or stagger. Our manipulations influenced the magnitude and dynamics of head and torso movements, as well as the organization of movement in different axes. The results provide the first empirical confirmation that postural activity can be influenced by orientation of the torso relative to a ship. Despite powerful effects of ship motion, postural activity was influenced by variations in target location and in the difficulty of the aiming task, replicating subtle effects that have been observed on land. We discuss implications for hull design and the placement of workstations on ships.

  5. Effects of neck and circumoesophageal connective lesions on posture and locomotion in the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Ridgel, Angela L; Ritzmann, Roy E

    2005-06-01

    Few studies in arthropods have documented to what extent local control centers in the thorax can support locomotion in absence of inputs from head ganglia. Posture, walking, and leg motor activity was examined in cockroaches with lesions of neck or circumoesophageal connectives. Early in recovery, cockroaches with neck lesions had hyper-extended postures and did not walk. After recovery, posture was less hyper-extended and animals initiated slow leg movements for multiple cycles. Neck lesioned individuals showed an increase in walking after injection of either octopamine or pilocarpine. The phase of leg movement between segments was reduced in neck lesioned cockroaches from that seen in intact animals, while phases in the same segment remained constant. Neither octopamine nor pilocarpine initiated changes in coordination between segments in neck lesioned individuals. Animals with lesions of the circumoesophageal connectives had postures similar to intact individuals but walked in a tripod gait for extended periods of time. Changes in activity of slow tibial extensor and coxal depressor motor neurons and concomitant changes in leg joint angles were present after the lesions. This suggests that thoracic circuits are sufficient to produce leg movements but coordinated walking with normal motor patterns requires descending input from head ganglia.

  6. Whiplash-associated disorders affect postural reactions to antero-posterior support surface translations during sitting.

    PubMed

    Côté, Julie N; Patenaude, Isabelle; St-Onge, Nancy; Fung, Joyce

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with WAD display decreased postural stability during standing and walking tasks. However, their ability to maintain seated upright posture has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to characterize kinematic and electromyographic postural stabilization patterns in individuals with chronic WAD and to compare these patterns with those in an able-bodied control group. Ten individuals with WAD and an age- and gender-matched group of healthy individuals were exposed to sudden forward and backward support surface translations while they were seated. Neck and trunk muscle activity and angular displacements as well as centers of mass (COMs) linear displacements at four levels of the head and trunk were computed. The displacement onset of the combined head, arms and trunk COM was significantly delayed in persons with WAD. However, their peak trunk angles were smaller and were reached sooner. In the WAD group, the activation onset of the lumbar erector spinae was less affected by perturbation direction and the sternocleidomastoid muscle, a neck flexor, showed a trend towards being activated later, compared to the healthy group. These results suggest that individuals with WAD may alter stretch reflex threshold and/or elicit a learned response for pain avoidance that may be direction-specific. Such findings highlight the importance of assessing both spatial and temporal characteristics across different levels of the spinal musculoskeletal system to evaluate multidirectional postural responses in WAD individuals.

  7. The foot posture index in men practicing three sports different in their biomechanical gestures.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Gómez-Blázquez, Eduardo; Escamilla-Martínez, Elena; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María

    2014-03-01

    The technical gestures characteristic of certain sports may lead to one type of foot being more prevalent than the others. The Foot Posture Index (FPI) has been used as a diagnostic tool for support postures in various sports, but the differences in these postures between sports of distinct gestures in their actions are far from completely understood. The overall FPI, obtained as the sum of the scores of its six individual criteria, was determined in 90 male athletes (30 runners, 30 basketball players, and 30 handball players) in static bipedal stance and relaxed position. Analysis of variance was used to find significant differences among the three sports in the total FPI and its six criteria. The mean ± SD FPI was 2.9 ± 2.8 in runners, 3.9 ± 4.1 in basketball players, and -0.4 ± 6.9 in handball players, with significant differences among these groups (P = .008). Significant differences were also found in the talar head position and talonavicular prominence values between handball players and runners (P = .001 and P = .004, respectively) and between handball and basketball players (P = .002 and P = .006, respectively). Runners and basketball players had neutral feet, whereas handball players had supinated feet. The differences in foot posture seem to be mainly determined by two of the FPI criteria: talar head position and talonavicular prominence.

  8. Pharmacological modulation of abnormal involuntary DOI-induced head twitch response in male DBA/2J mice: I. Effects of D2/D3 and D2 dopamine receptor selective compounds.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Malik, Maninder; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2014-08-01

    Because of the complexity and heterogeneity of human neuropsychiatric disorders, it has been difficult to identify animal models that mimic the symptoms of these neuropathologies and can be used to screen for antipsychotic agents. For this study we selected the murine 5HT2A/2C receptor agonist-induced head twitch response (HTR) induced by the administration of 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), which has been proposed as an animal model of symptoms associated with a variety of behavioral and psychiatric conditions. We investigated the DOI-induced HTR in male DBA/2J mice using a panel of D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) and D2 dopamine receptor selective compounds. When DBA/2J mice were administered a daily dose of DOI (5 mg/kg), tolerance to the DOI occurs. However, administrations of the same dose of DOI every other day (48 h) or on a weekly basis did not lead to tolerance and the ability to induce tolerance after daily administration of DOI remains intact after repeated weekly administration of DOI. Subsequently, a panel of D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists was found to effectively inhibit the DOI-induced HTR in DBA/2J mice. However, the benzamide eticlopride, which is a high affinity D2-like antagonist, was a notable exception. SV 293, SV-III-130s and N-methylbenperidol, which exhibit a high affinity for D2 versus the D3 dopamine receptor subtypes (60- to 100-fold binding selectivity), were also found to inhibit the HTR in DBA/2J mice. This observation suggests a functional interaction between dopaminergic and serotonergic systems through D2 dopamine receptors and the 5-HT2A serotonin receptors in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  10. Postural orientation and standing postural alignment in ambulant children with bilateral cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    Standing postural alignment in children with cerebral palsy is usually altered by central postural control disorders. The primary aim of this study is to describe body alignment in a quiet standing position in ambulatory children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared with children with typical development. Fifty-eight children with bilateral cerebral palsy (aged 7-13years) and 45 age-matched children with typical development underwent a surface topography examination based on Moiré topography and were classified according to their sagittal postural profiles. The following eight grouping variables were extracted using a data reduction technique: angle of trunk inclination, pelvic tilt, and lordosis, the difference between kyphosis and lordosis, angle of vertebral lateral curvature, shoulder inclination, and shoulder and pelvic rotation. According to the cluster analysis results, 25% of the participants were classified into Cluster 1, 9% into Cluster 2, 49% in Cluster 3, and 17% in Cluster 4. Three different postural patterns emerged in accordance with the sagittal postural profiles in children with bilateral cerebral palsy and were defined as follows: 1) a lordotic postural pattern corresponding to forward-leaning posture; 2) a swayback postural pattern corresponding to backward-leaning posture; and 3) a balanced postural pattern corresponding to balanced posture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Relationship Between Postural and Movement Stability.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2016-01-01

    Postural stabilization is provided by stretch reflexes, intermuscular reflexes, and intrinsic muscle properties. Taken together, these posture-stabilizing mechanisms resist deflections from the posture at which balance of muscle and external forces is maintained. Empirical findings suggest that for each muscle, these mechanisms become functional at a specific, spatial threshold-the muscle length or respective joint angle at which motor units begin to be recruited. Empirical data suggest that spinal and supraspinal centers can shift the spatial thresholds for a group of muscles that stabilized the initial posture. As a consequence, the same stabilizing mechanisms, instead of resisting motion from the initial posture, drive the body to another stable posture. In other words by shifting spatial thresholds, the nervous system converts movement resisting to movement-producing mechanisms. It is illustrated that, contrary to conventional view, this control strategy allows the system to transfer body balance to produce locomotion and other actions without loosing stability at any point of them. It also helps orient posture and movement with the direction of gravity. It is concluded that postural and movement stability is provided by a common mechanism.

  12. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  13. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  14. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    PubMed Central

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling. PMID:28122432

  15. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  16. Effect of posture on arterial baroreflex control of heart rate in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. H.; Rittenhouse, D.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of blood-volume redistribution induced by postural changes on baroreflex activity are investigated. The central blood volume and baroreceptor functions of ten males between 23-51 years old were examined while they were in the head-up tilt (HUT), head-down tilt (HDT), and supine positions. It is observed that during HDT at 15 deg the pulse interval over the first five cardiac cycles following neck suction onset is 51 + or - 18 ms longer, at 30 deg it is 61 + or - 20 ms longer, and at 45 deg it is 74 + or - 35 ms longer than at supine; during HUT at 15 deg the pulse interval is 25 + or - 9 ms shorter than when supine, but for the 30 and 45 deg there is no significant difference in pulse interval detected. The data reveal that posture does modify arterial baroreflex control of heart rate.

  17. Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas.

    PubMed

    Kiviranta, A-M; Rusbridge, C; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O; Hielm-Björkman, A; Lappalainen, A K; Knowler, S P; Jokinen, T S

    2017-11-01

    Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas. To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neurologic deficits and to investigate the association of CM/SM-related clinical signs with signalment, SM, or CCJ abnormalities. Fifty-three client-owned Chihuahuas. Prospective study. Questionnaire analyses and physical and neurologic examinations were obtained before magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging. Images were evaluated for the presence of SM, CM, and atlantooccipital overlapping. Additionally, medullary kinking, dorsal spinal cord compression, and their sum indices were calculated. Scratching was the most common CM/SM-related clinical sign and decreased postural reaction the most common neurologic deficit in 73 and 87% of dogs, respectively. Chiari-like malformation and SM were present in 100 and 38% of dogs, respectively. Syringomyelia was associated with the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs (P = 0.034), and medullary kinking and sum indices were higher in dogs with clinical signs (P = 0.016 and P = 0.007, respectively). Syringomyelia and CCJ abnormalities are prevalent in Chihuahuas. Syringomyelia was an important factor for the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs, but many dogs suffered from similar clinical signs without being affected by SM, highlighting the clinical importance of CCJ abnormalities in Chihuahuas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation

    PubMed Central

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N.; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G.; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  19. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  20. Postural tachycardia syndrome: time frequency mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, V.; Novak, P.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Low, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Orthostatic tachycardia is common but its specificity remains uncertain. Our preliminary work suggested that using autonomic function testing in conjunction with time-frequency mapping (TFM), it might be possible to characterize a subset of the postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), that is due to a restricted autonomic neuropathy. We describe 20 patients (17 women and 3 men, aged 14-43 years) with florid POTS and 20 controls (14 women and 6 men, aged 20-41 years). Autonomic failure was quantified by its distribution (cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor) and severity, a symptom profile was generated, and spectral indices, based on modified Wigner distribution during rest and head-up tilt (80 degrees) were evaluated. During tilt-up POTS patients differed from controls by an excessive heart rate (> 130 bpm) (P < 0.001), and higher diastolic pressure (P < 0.01). During rest, cardiovagal oscillations (at respiratory frequencies [RF]) and slow rhythms at nonrespiratory frequencies (NONRF) (from 0.01 to 0.07 Hz) in R-R intervals (RRI) (P < 0.01) were reduced. Both RF and NONRF rhythms in RRI were further blunted with tilt-up (P < 0.001). Slow adrenergic vasomotor rhythms in blood pressure (BP) (approximately 0.07 Hz) surged with tilt-up and returned to normal levels afterwards. The index of sympatho-vagal balance (NONRF-Systolic BP (SBP)/RF-RRI) was dramatically increased in POTS (P < 0.001). Distal postganglionic sudomotor failure was observed, and impairment of the BP responses to the Valsalva maneuver (phase II) suggested peripheral adrenergic dysfunction. Persistent orthostatic dizziness, tiredness, gastrointestinal symptoms and palpitations were common in POTS patients. It is possible to identify a subset of POTS patients who have a length-dependent autonomic neuropathy, affecting the peripheral adrenergic and cardiovagal fibers, with relative preservation of cardiac adrenergic fibers.

  1. A research on the postural stability of a person wearing the lower limb exoskeletal robot by the HAT model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Minsu; Kim, Yeongmin; Lee, Yoseph; Jeon, Doyoung

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a method of detecting the postural stability of a person wearing the lower limb exoskeletal robot with the HAT(Head-Arm-Trunk) model. Previous studies have shown that the human posture is stable when the CoM(Center of Mass) of the human body is placed on the BoS(Base of Support). In the case of the lower limb exoskeletal robot, the motion data, which are used for the CoM estimation, are acquired by sensors in the robot. The upper body, however, does not have sensors in each segment so that it may cause the error of the CoM estimation. In this paper, the HAT(Head-Arm-Trunk) model which combines head, arms, and torso into a single segment is considered because the motion of head and arms are unknown due to the lack of sensors. To verify the feasibility of HAT model, the reflecting markers are attached to each segment of the whole human body and the exact motion data are acquired by the VICON to compare the COM of the full body model and HAT model. The difference between the CoM with full body and that with HAT model is within 20mm for the various motions of head and arms. Based on the HAT model, the XCoM(Extrapolated Center of Mass) which includes the velocity of the CoM is used for prediction of the postural stability. The experiment of making unstable posture shows that the XCoM of the whole body based on the HAT model is feasible to detect the instance of postural instability earlier than the CoM by 20-250 msec. This result may be used for the lower limb exoskeletal robot to prepare for any action to prevent the falling down.

  2. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't stop crying complains of head and neck pain (younger or nonverbal children may be more fussy) ... vision pupils of unequal size weakness or paralysis neck pain or stiffness seizure If your child is unconscious: ...

  3. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  4. Effect of lower-body positive pressure on postural fluid shifts in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Kravik, S. E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) on the orthostatic fluid and protein shifts were investigated in five men during combined tilt-table/antigravity suit inflation and deflation experiments. Changes in the mass densities of venous blood and plasma were measured and the values were used to calculate the densities of erythrocytes, whole-body blood, and shifted fluid. It was found that the application of 60 mm Hg LBPP during 60-deg head-up tilt prevented about half of the postural hemoconcentration occurring during passive head-up tilt.

  5. Postural effects on intracranial pressure: modeling and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Qvarlander, Sara; Sundström, Nina; Malm, Jan; Eklund, Anders

    2013-11-01

    The physiological effect of posture on intracranial pressure (ICP) is not well described. This study defined and evaluated three mathematical models describing the postural effects on ICP, designed to predict ICP at different head-up tilt angles from the supine ICP value. Model I was based on a hydrostatic indifference point for the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system, i.e., the existence of a point in the system where pressure is independent of body position. Models II and III were based on Davson's equation for CSF absorption, which relates ICP to venous pressure, and postulated that gravitational effects within the venous system are transferred to the CSF system. Model II assumed a fully communicating venous system, and model III assumed that collapse of the jugular veins at higher tilt angles creates two separate hydrostatic compartments. Evaluation of the models was based on ICP measurements at seven tilt angles (0-71°) in 27 normal pressure hydrocephalus patients. ICP decreased with tilt angle (ANOVA: P < 0.01). The reduction was well predicted by model III (ANOVA lack-of-fit: P = 0.65), which showed excellent fit against measured ICP. Neither model I nor II adequately described the reduction in ICP (ANOVA lack-of-fit: P < 0.01). Postural changes in ICP could not be predicted based on the currently accepted theory of a hydrostatic indifference point for the CSF system, but a new model combining Davson's equation for CSF absorption and hydrostatic gradients in a collapsible venous system performed well and can be useful in future research on gravity and CSF physiology.

  6. Differential approach to strategies of segmental stabilisation in postural control.

    PubMed

    Isableu, Brice; Ohlmann, Théophile; Crémieux, Jacques; Amblard, Bernard

    2003-05-01

    The present paper attempts to clarify the between-subjects variability exhibited in both segmental stabilisation strategies and their subordinated or associated sensory contribution. Previous data have emphasised close relationships between the interindividual variability in both the visual control of posture and the spatial visual perception. In this study, we focused on the possible relationships that might link perceptual visual field dependence-independence and the visual contribution to segmental stabilisation strategies. Visual field dependent (FD) and field independent (FI) subjects were selected on the basis of their extreme score in a static rod and frame test where an estimation of the subjective vertical was required. In the postural test, the subjects stood in the sharpened Romberg position in darkness or under normal or stroboscopic illumination, in front of either a vertical or a tilted frame. Strategies of segmental stabilisation of the head, shoulders and hip in the roll plane were analysed by means of their anchoring index (AI). Our hypothesis was that FD subjects might use mainly visual cues for calibrating not only their spatial perception but also their strategies of segmental stabilisation. In the case of visual cue disturbances, a greater visual dependency to the strategies of segmental stabilisation in FD subjects should be validated by observing more systematic "en bloc" functioning (i.e. negative AI) between two adjacent segments. The main results are the following: 1. Strategies of segmental stabilisation differed between both groups and differences were amplified with the deprivation of either total vision and/or static visual cues. 2. In the absence of total vision and/or static visual cues, FD subjects have shown an increased efficiency of the hip stabilisation in space strategy and an "en bloc" operation of the shoulder-hip unit (whole trunk). The last "en bloc" operation was extended to the whole head-trunk unit in darkness

  7. Recovery of postural equilibrium control following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Black, F. O.; Doxey, D. D.; Harm, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Decreased postural stability is observed in most astronauts immediately following spaceflight. Because ataxia may present postflight operational hazards, it is important to determine the incidence of postural instability immediately following landing and the dynamics of recovery of normal postural equilibrium control. It is postulated that postflight postural instability results from in-flight adaptive changes in central nervous system (CNS) processing of sensory information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the magnitude and time course of postflight recovery of postural equilibrium control and, hence, readaptation of CNS processing of sensory information. Thirteen crew members from six spaceflight missions were studied pre- and postflight using a modified commercial posturography system. Postural equilibrium control was found to be seriously disrupted immediately following spaceflight in all subjects. Readaptation to the terrestrial environment began immediately upon landing, proceeded rapidly for the first 10-12 hours, and then proceeded much more slowly for the subsequent 2-4 days until preflight stability levels were reachieved. It is concluded that the overall postflight recovery of postural stability follows a predictable time course.

  8. Effects of experimental insoles on body posture, mandibular kinematics and masticatory muscles activity. A pilot study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Marini, Ida; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Bortolotti, Francesco; Bartolucci, Maria Lavinia; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Michelotti, Ambra

    2015-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that different plantar sensory inputs could influence the whole body posture and dental occlusion but there is a lack of evidence on this possible association. To investigate the effects of experimental insoles redistributing plantar pressure on body posture, mandibular kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles on healthy subjects. A pilot study was conducted on 19 healthy volunteers that wore custom-made insoles normalizing the plantar pressure distribution for 2 weeks. Body posture parameters were measured by means of an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis; mandibular kinematics was analyzed by means of gothic arch tracings; superficial EMG activity of head and neck muscles was performed. Measurements were carried out 10 days before the insertion of the insoles, immediately before the insertion, the day after, 7 and 14 days after, in four different exteroceptive conditions. The outcomes of the present study show that insoles do not modify significantly over time the parameters of body posture, SEMG activity of head and neck muscles and mandibular kinematics. In this pilot study the experimental insoles did not significantly influence the body posture, the mandibular kinematics and the activity of masticatory muscles during a 14-day follow up period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of natural head position in different anteroposterior malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Zohreh; Paknahad, Maryam; Zorriasatine, Farbod

    2013-05-01

    The facial esthetics after orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery may be affected by the patient's natural head position. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural head position for the three skeletal classes of malocclusion. Our sample consisted of 102 lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients aged 15 to 18 years; class I (n=32), class II (n=40) and class III (n=30). Nine landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton and three landmarks of the cervical vertebrae were determined. Variables consisted of two angles for cervical posture (OPT/Hor and CVT/Hor), three angles for craniofacial posture (SN/Ver, PNS-ANS/Ver, and ML/Ver ) and five for craniofacial angulation (SN/OPT, SN/CVT, PNS-ANS/OPT, PNS-ANS/CVT, ML/CVT). The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and post hoc tests. PNS-ANS/Ver and SN/Ver differed significantly (p<0.05) among the three groups. There were no significant differences between class I and class II malocclusions for the indicator angles of cranial posture except for ML/Ver. The SN/CVT was significantly different for class I compared to class III patients. A head posture camouflaging the underlying skeletal class III was observed in our population. A more forward head posture was observed in skeletal class III participants compared to skeletal class I and II and that class III patients tended to incline their head more ventral compared to class I participants. These findings may have implications for the amount of jaw movements during surgery particularly in patients with a class III malocclusion.

  10. Adaptation to transient postural perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    This research was first proposed in May, 1986, to focus on some of the problems encountered in the analysis of postural responses gathered from crewmembers. The ultimate driving force behind this line of research was the desire to treat, predict, or explain 'Space Adaptation Syndrome' (SAS) and hence circumvent any adverse effects of space motion sickness on crewmember performance. The aim of this project was to develop an easily implemented analysis of the transient responses to platform translation that can be elicited with a protocol designed to force sensorimotor reorganization, utilizing statistically reliable criterion measures. This report will present: (1) a summary of the activity that took place in each of the three funded years of the project; (2) discussion of experimental results and their implications for future research; and (3) a list of presentations and publications resulting from this project.

  11. Postural control system influences intrinsic alerting state.

    PubMed

    Barra, Julien; Auclair, Laurent; Charvillat, Agnès; Vidal, Manuel; Pérennou, Dominic

    2015-03-01

    Numerous studies using dual-task paradigms (postural and cognitive) have shown that postural control requires cognitive resources. However, the influence of postural control on attention components has never been directly addressed. Using the attention network test (ANT), which assesses specifically each of the 3 components of attention-alertness, orientation, and executive control-within a single paradigm, we investigated the effect of postural balance demand on these 3 components. Forty-two participants completed the ANT in 3 postural conditions: (a) supine, a very stable position; (b) sitting on a chair, an intermediate position; and (c) standing with feet lined up heel to toe, a very instable position known as the Romberg position. Our results revealed that the difficulty of postural control does modulate alerting in such a way that it improves with the level of instability of the position. Regarding the orienting and executive control components of attention, performance was not different when participants were standing upright or seated, whereas in the supine position, performance dropped. The strong and specific interaction between postural control and the alerting system suggests that these mechanisms may share parts of the underlying neural circuits. We discuss the possible implication of the locus coeruleus, known to be involved in both postural balance and alerting. Also, our findings concerning orienting and executive control systems suggest that supine posture could have a specific effect on cognitive activities. These effects are discussed in terms of particularities resulting from the supine position. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression

    PubMed Central

    Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Léonard, Jacques; Dumitrescu, Michel; Meller, Renaud; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body's position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of postlingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static (stable platform) and dynamic (platform in translation) conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with the CI activated (ON) or not (OFF). Results showed that the postural performance of the CI patients strongly differed from the controls, mainly in the EC condition. The CI patients showed significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk: they behaved dynamically without vision like an inverted pendulum while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on) as well

  13. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression.

    PubMed

    Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Léonard, Jacques; Dumitrescu, Michel; Meller, Renaud; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body's position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of postlingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static (stable platform) and dynamic (platform in translation) conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with the CI activated (ON) or not (OFF). Results showed that the postural performance of the CI patients strongly differed from the controls, mainly in the EC condition. The CI patients showed significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk: they behaved dynamically without vision like an inverted pendulum while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on) as well

  14. Trunk posture monitoring with inertial sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Man Sang

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of human posture and movement is an important area of research in the bioengineering and rehabilitation fields. Various attempts have been initiated for different clinical application goals, such as diagnosis of pathological posture and movements, assessment of pre- and post-treatment efficacy and comparison of different treatment protocols. Image-based methods for measurements of human posture and movements have been developed, such as the radiography, photogrammetry, optoelectric technique and video analysis. However, it is found that these methods are complicated to set up, time-consuming to operate and could only be applied in laboratory environments. This study introduced a method of using a posture monitoring system in estimating the spinal curvature changes during trunk movements on the sagittal and coronal planes and providing trunk posture monitoring during daily activities. The system consisted of three sensor modules, each with one tri-axial accelerometer and three uni-axial gyroscopes orthogonally aligned, and a digital data acquisition and feedback system. The accuracy of this system was tested with a motion analysis system (Vicon 370) in calibration with experimental setup and in trunk posture measurement with nine human subjects, and the performance of the posture monitoring system during daily activities with two human subjects was reported. The averaged root mean squared differences between the measurements of the system and motion analysis system were found to be <1.5° in dynamic calibration, and <3.1° for the sagittal plane and ≤2.1° for the coronal plane in estimation of the trunk posture change during trunk movements. The measurements of the system and the motion analysis system was highly correlated (>0.999 for dynamic calibration and >0.829 for estimation of spinal curvature change in domain planes of movement during flexion and lateral bending). With the sensing modules located on the upper trunk, mid-trunk and the pelvic

  15. Trunk posture monitoring with inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai Yin; Wong, Man Sang

    2008-05-01

    Measurement of human posture and movement is an important area of research in the bioengineering and rehabilitation fields. Various attempts have been initiated for different clinical application goals, such as diagnosis of pathological posture and movements, assessment of pre- and post-treatment efficacy and comparison of different treatment protocols. Image-based methods for measurements of human posture and movements have been developed, such as the radiography, photogrammetry, optoelectric technique and video analysis. However, it is found that these methods are complicated to set up, time-consuming to operate and could only be applied in laboratory environments. This study introduced a method of using a posture monitoring system in estimating the spinal curvature changes during trunk movements on the sagittal and coronal planes and providing trunk posture monitoring during daily activities. The system consisted of three sensor modules, each with one tri-axial accelerometer and three uni-axial gyroscopes orthogonally aligned, and a digital data acquisition and feedback system. The accuracy of this system was tested with a motion analysis system (Vicon 370) in calibration with experimental setup and in trunk posture measurement with nine human subjects, and the performance of the posture monitoring system during daily activities with two human subjects was reported. The averaged root mean squared differences between the measurements of the system and motion analysis system were found to be < 1.5 degrees in dynamic calibration, and < 3.1 degrees for the sagittal plane and < or = 2.1 degrees for the coronal plane in estimation of the trunk posture change during trunk movements. The measurements of the system and the motion analysis system was highly correlated (> 0.999 for dynamic calibration and > 0.829 for estimation of spinal curvature change in domain planes of movement during flexion and lateral bending). With the sensing modules located on the upper trunk

  16. Postural Effects on Intracranial Pressure as Assessed Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Hargens, Alan R.; Ballard, R. E.; Shuer, L. M.; Cantrell, J. H.; Yost, W. T.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate effects of whole body tilting on intracranial compliance and pressure in six healthy volunteers by using a noninvasive ultrasonic device. Subjects were randomly tilted up or down sequentially at 60 degree, 30 degree head-up, supine, and 15 degree head-down position for one minute at each angle. We measured arterial blood pressure with a finger pressure cuff and changes in intracranial distance with an ultrasonic device. The device measures skull movement on the order of micro-meter. Our ultrasound technique demonstrates that skull movement is highly correlated (r$(circumflex){2}$=0.77) with intracranial pressure variations due to cerebral arterial pulsation. The amplitudes of arterial pressure (r$(circumflex){2}$=0.99 and those of intracranial distance changes (r$(circumflex){2}$=0.87) associated with one cardiac cycle were inversely correlated with the angle of tilt. The ratio of pulsation amplitudes for intracranial distance over arterial pressure also showed a significant increase as the angle of tilt was lowered (p=0.003). Thus, postural changes alter intracranial compliance in healthy volunteers and intracranial volume-buffering capacity is reduced in head-down position.

  17. Body posture and hand strength of patients with temporomandibular disorder.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Y Y; Chai, H M

    1990-07-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the difference between patients of craniocervical muscle pain and nonpatients in head-neck posture, masticatory muscle activity, and the force exerted by the hand. Fifty-one patients and 28 nonpatients were observed. The electric activity of the masseter muscles was recorded when the subjects were doing pinching or grasping with the jaw in positions of rest, clenched, and clenched with gauze. Measurement of right and left tilting or extension and flexion of the head and neck was made from photographs of frontal and lateral views. It was found that the pinching and grasping force was much stronger in men than in women and in nonpatients than in patients with pain. The pinching and grasping force was more powerful with the teeth clenched. Clenching with gauze did not increase, but more often decreased the strength of the hand. The activity of the masseter muscle during clenching was about 10 to 26 times that of the resting activity. The activity decreased slightly when clenching with pinching or grasping. Patients were more likely to have a stretched neck with more extension of the head. Their masseter muscle activity and hand force were significantly weaker than that of the nonpatients.

  18. Reducing patient posture variability using the predicted couch position

    SciTech Connect

    Kruijf, Wilhelmus J.M. de, E-mail: kruijf.de.w@bvi.nl; Martens, Rob J.W.

    2015-10-01

    A method is presented in which the couch position is predicted before the treatment instead of obtaining a reference position at the first treatment fraction. This prevents systematic differences in patient posture between preparation and treatment. In literature, only limited data are available on couch positioning. We position our patients at the planned couch position, allowing a small difference between skin marks and lasers, followed by online imaging. For a 3-month period, our standard deviations (mm) in couch position in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions were head and neck—1.6, 2.8, and 2.5; thorax—2.9, 5.5, and 4.5; breast—3.0, 4.1, andmore » 4.0; and pelvis—3.5, 4.0, and 4.7, respectively. We have improved the reproducibility of patient posture in our institute by using the predicted couch position. Our data may serve as a reference for other institutes because the couch position variation is less than that published in literature.« less

  19. Hierarchical human action recognition around sleeping using obscured posture information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Yuta; Sashida, Takehiko; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for human action recognition around sleeping with the human body parts locations and the positional relationship between human and sleeping environment. Body parts are estimated from the depth image obtained by a time-of-flight (TOF) sensor using oriented 3D normal vector. Issues in action recognition of sleeping situation are the demand of availability in darkness, and hiding of the human body by duvets. Therefore, the extraction of image features is difficult since color and edge features are obscured by covers. Thus, first in our method, positions of four parts of the body (head, torso, thigh, and lower leg) are estimated by using the shape model of bodily surface constructed by oriented 3D normal vector. This shape model can represent the surface shape of rough body, and is effective in robust posture estimation of the body hidden with duvets. Then, action descriptor is extracted from the position of each body part. The descriptor includes temporal variation of each part of the body and spatial vector of position of the parts and the bed. Furthermore, this paper proposes hierarchical action classes and classifiers to improve the indistinct action classification. Classifiers are composed of two layers, and recognize human action by using the action descriptor. First layer focuses on spatial descriptor and classifies action roughly. Second layer focuses on temporal descriptor and classifies action finely. This approach achieves a robust recognition of obscured human by using the posture information and the hierarchical action recognition.

  20. Postural headache in a patient with Marfan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, E; Citterio, A; Savino, A; Santalucia, P

    2003-09-01

    A 26-year-old man with Marfan's syndrome had postural headache. Brain MRI with gadolinium showed diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. MRI myelography revealed bilateral multiple large meningeal diverticula at sacral nerve roots level. He was suspected to have spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome. Eight days later headache improved with bed rest and hydration. One month after the onset he was asymptomatic and 3 months later brain MRI showed no evidence of diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. The 1-year follow-up revealed no neurological abnormalities. The intracranial hypotension syndrome likely resulted from a CSF leak from one of the meningeal diverticula. In conclusion patients with spinal meningeal diverticula (frequently seen in Marfan's syndrome) might be at increased risk of developing CSF leaks, possibly secondary to Valsalva maneuver or minor unrecognized trauma.

  1. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  2. Can postural modification reduce kinetic and kinematic loading during the bowing postures of Islamic prayer?

    PubMed

    AbouHassan, J; Milosavljevic, S; Carman, A

    2010-12-01

    As stooped postures are known to increase kinematic and kinetic loading on the lumbar spine they can be problematic for people with low back pain and postural task modification is often recommended. For the Muslim with low back pain, the bowing postures during prayer can aggravate low back symptoms. The aims of this study were to describe lumbo-sacral and pelvic tilt kinematics and lumbo-sacral kinetics during the standard bowing postures of Islam and to compare these to kinematic and kinetic data gathered during a clinically recommended modified bowing posture. The study was a repeated measures within subject cross-over design with 33 healthy male Muslim participants. 3-D motion analysis data were gathered to calculate body joint angles during the two bowing postures. A 3-D biomechanical model was then used to calculate spinal loads. Paired t-test analyses showed that the use of the modified posture resulted in significantly less pelvic tilt range of motion and anterior shear force and compressive force L5/S1, at stages 1 and 5 of bowing. Although this study was conducted with healthy young Muslim males, the use of this modified bent knee posture is recommended for all Muslims with low back pain. Clinical trials are being considered to determine the clinical utility of this postural manoeuvre as an intervention. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The presence of low back pain may hinder a Muslim's ability to use the traditional Islamic bowing posture. Muslims who have low back pain may benefit from adopting a modification to the traditional bowing posture, which has been found to reduce the loads and postural demands on the lower back.

  3. Does increased postural threat lead to more conscious control of posture?

    PubMed

    Huffman, J L; Horslen, B C; Carpenter, M G; Adkin, A L

    2009-11-01

    Although it is well established that postural threat modifies postural control, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these changes. It is possible that changes in postural control under conditions of elevated postural threat result from a shift to a more conscious control of posture. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of elevated postural threat on conscious control of posture and to determine the relationship between conscious control and postural control measures. Forty-eight healthy young adults stood on a force plate at two different surface heights: ground level (LOW) and 3.2-m above ground level (HIGH). Centre of pressure measures calculated in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction were mean position (AP-MP), root mean square (AP-RMS) and mean power frequency (AP-MPF). A modified state-specific version of the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale was used to measure conscious motor processing (CMP) and movement self-consciousness (MSC). Balance confidence, fear of falling, perceived stability, and perceived and actual anxiety indicators were also collected. A significant effect of postural threat was found for movement reinvestment as participants reported more conscious control and a greater concern about their posture at the HIGH height. Significant correlations between CMP and MSC with AP-MP were observed as participants who consciously controlled and were more concerned for their posture leaned further away from the platform edge. It is possible that changes in movement reinvestment can influence specific aspects of posture (leaning) but other aspects may be immune to these changes (amplitude and frequency).

  4. Hearts, neck posture and metabolic intensity of sauropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, R S; Lillywhite, H B

    2000-01-01

    Hypothesized upright neck postures in sauropod dinosaurs require systemic arterial blood pressures reaching 700 mmHg at the heart. Recent data on ventricular wall stress indicate that their left ventricles would have weighed 15 times those of similarly sized whales. Such dimensionally, energetically and mechanically disadvantageous ventricles were highly unlikely in an endothermic sauropod. Accessory hearts or a siphon mechanism, with sub-atmospheric blood pressures in the head, were also not feasible. If the blood flow requirements of sauropods were typical of ectotherms, the left-ventricular blood volume and mass would have been smaller; nevertheless, the heart would have suffered the serious mechanical disadvantage of thick walls. It is doubtful that any large sauropod could have raised its neck vertically and endured high arterial blood pressure, and it certainly could not if it had high metabolic rates characteristic of endotherms. PMID:11052540

  5. Vestibulospinal control of reflex and voluntary head movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Secondary canal-related vestibulospinal neurons respond to an externally applied movement of the head in the form of a firing rate modulation that encodes the angular velocity of the movement, and reflects in large part the input "head velocity in space" signal carried by the semicircular canal afferents. In addition to the head velocity signal, the vestibulospinal neurons can carry a more processed signal that includes eye position or eye velocity, or both (see Boyle on ref. list). To understand the control signals used by the central vestibular pathways in the generation of reflex head stabilization, such as the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), and the maintenance of head posture, it is essential to record directly from identified vestibulospinal neurons projecting to the cervical spinal segments in the alert animal. The present report discusses two key features of the primate vestibulospinal system. First, the termination morphology of vestibulospinal axons in the cervical segments of the spinal cord is described to lay the structural basis of vestibulospinal control of head/neck posture and movement. And second, the head movement signal content carried by the same class of secondary vestibulospinal neurons during the actual execution of the VCR and during self-generated, or active, rapid head movements is presented.

  6. Head Lice.

    PubMed

    Meister, Laura; Ochsendorf, Falk

    2016-11-11

    Conflicting information about the proper treatment of head lice has given rise to uncertainty among patients and treating personnel. For example, the reported efficacy of permethrin fell from 97% in the 1990s to 30% in 2010. Review of the literature based on a selective search of PubMed. In Germany, outbreaks of head lice mainly occur among 5- to 13-year-olds returning to school after the summer vacation. Nymphs hatch from eggs after an average of 8 days and become sexually mature lice over the ensuing 9 days. The main route of transmission is direct head-to-head contact; transmission via inanimate objects is of no relevance. Symptoms arise 4-6 weeks after an initial infestation; many affected persons have no symptoms at all. Wet combing is the most sensitive method of establishing the diagnosis and monitoring treatment. Resistance to neurotoxic pediculocidal drugs is increasing around the world. Dimethicones are the treatment of choice, with 97% efficacy. Outbreaks must be managed with the synchronous treatment of all infested persons to break the chain of infestation. If the agent used is not ovicidal, the treatment must be repeated in 8-10 days and sometimes in a further 7 days as well. Outbreaks of head lice can be successfully terminated by synchronous treatment with ovicidal dimethicones.

  7. Body posture changes in women with migraine with or without temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mariana C; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Dach, Fabíola E; Speciali, José G; Gonçalves, Maria C; Chaves, Thais C

    2014-01-01

    Migraine and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are reported to be associated. However, there are no reports on the association among migraines, TMDs and changes in body posture. To assess changes in body posture in women suffering migraines with or without TMD compared with a control group. Sixty-six women with a mean age of 18 to 45 years participated in this study. The groups were composed of 22 volunteers with migraine and TMD (MTMD), 22 volunteers with migraines without TMD (MG) and 22 women in the control group (CG). Static posture was assessed by photogrammetry, and 19 angles were measured. Postural asymmetry was observed in the face for 4 angles measured on the frontal plane in the MG group and for 4 angles of the trunk in the MG and MTMD groups with respect to CG. However, for comparisons between MTMD and CG, clinical relevance was identified for two angles of the sagittal plane (Cervical and Lumbar Lordosis, Effect Size - ES - moderate: 0.53 and 0.60). For comparisons between the MG and CG, the clinical relevance/potential was verified for three angles with moderate ES (ES>0.42). The clinical relevance when comparing MTMD and CG was identified for four angles of facial symmetry head inclination (ES>0.54) and for two angles between MG and CG (ES>0.48). The results demonstrated the presence of postural changes compared with a control group in women with migraines with or without TMD, and there were similar clinically relevant postural changes among the patients with migraines with and without TMD.

  8. Body posture changes in women with migraine with or without temporomandibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Mariana C.; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Dach, Fabíola É.; Speciali, José G.; Gonçalves, Maria C.; Chaves, Thais C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are reported to be associated. However, there are no reports on the association among migraines, TMDs and changes in body posture. Objectives To assess changes in body posture in women suffering migraines with or without TMD compared with a control group. Method Sixty-six women with a mean age of 18 to 45 years participated in this study. The groups were composed of 22 volunteers with migraine and TMD (MTMD), 22 volunteers with migraines without TMD (MG) and 22 women in the control group (CG). Static posture was assessed by photogrammetry, and 19 angles were measured. Results Postural asymmetry was observed in the face for 4 angles measured on the frontal plane in the MG group and for 4 angles of the trunk in the MG and MTMD groups with respect to CG. However, for comparisons between MTMD and CG, clinical relevance was identified for two angles of the sagittal plane (Cervical and Lumbar Lordosis, Effect Size - ES - moderate: 0.53 and 0.60). For comparisons between the MG and CG, the clinical relevance/potential was verified for three angles with moderate ES (ES>0.42). The clinical relevance when comparing MTMD and CG was identified for four angles of facial symmetry head inclination (ES>0.54) and for two angles between MG and CG (ES>0.48). Conclusion The results demonstrated the presence of postural changes compared with a control group in women with migraines with or without TMD, and there were similar clinically relevant postural changes among the patients with migraines with and without TMD. PMID:24675909

  9. The demands of professional opera singing on cranio-cervical posture

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Margot

    2009-01-01

    Difficulty with singing is a rare but important complication following cervical spine surgery but there is little objective information regarding the cervical and head postural changes taking place during singing. The aim of this study was to identify postural changes in the cranio-cervical region associated with the demands of voice production in professional opera singing. The two Roentgen-cephalograms, one of which are taken whilst performing a specified singing task were taken from 18 professional opera students, 12 females (mean age 20.86 ± 3.07 years) and six males (18.66 ± 1.36 years). A paired t test compared mean cranio-cervical postural and pharyngeal/hyoid variables between the two registrations (P = 0.05). The association between the cranio-cervical postural variables and the pharyngeal/hyoid region in each registration position was examined using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. In singing, the position of the atlas with respect to the true vertical (P < 0.001), the axis (P < 0.001) and the C4 vertebra both with respect to the horizontal (P < 0.001), and the axis with respect to the cranium (P < 0.001), were all significantly different to those at rest. Of the cranio-cervical postural variables in the singing registration, the angles measuring positional change of the atlas and C4 relative to the true horizontal were shown be significantly related to an increased pharyngeal airway space at the C3 level (P < 0.01). An appreciation of the requirement for the cervical spine to undergo postural change during professional opera singing has relevance to the potential impact on voice quality in professional opera singers should they undergo cervical spine surgery. PMID:19165506

  10. Notebook computer use with different monitor tilt angle: effects on posture, muscle activity and discomfort of neck pain users.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Ko; Chou, Wei-Ying; Chen, Bi-Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the posture, muscle activities, and self reported discomforts of neck pain notebook computer users on three monitor tilt conditions: 100°, 115°, and 130°. Six subjects were recruited in this study to completed typing tasks. Results showed subjects have a trend to show the forward head posture in the condition that monitor was set at 100°, and the significant less neck and shoulder discomfort were noted in the condition that monitor was set at 130°. These result suggested neck pain notebook user to set their monitor tilt angle at 130°.

  11. ITKids part II: variation of postures and muscle activity in children using different information and communication technologies.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Marina; Straker, Leon; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Pollock, Clare

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that insufficient variation in postural and muscle activity associated with use of modern information and communication technology (ICT) presents a risk for musculoskeletal ill-health among school children. However, scientific knowledge on physical exposure variation in this group is limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify postures and muscle activity of school children using different types of ICT. Postures of the head, upper back and upper arm, and muscle activity of the right and left upper trapezius and right forearm extensors were measured over 10-12 hours in nine school children using different types of ICT at school and away-from-school. Variation in postures and muscle activity was quantified using two indices, EVA{sd} and APDF₉₀-₁₀. Paper-based (Old) ICT tasks produced postures that were less neutral but more variable than electronics-based (New ICT) and Non-ICT tasks. Non-ICT tasks involved mean postures similar to New ICT tasks, but with greater variation. Variation of muscle activity was similar between ICT types in the right and left upper trapezius muscles. Non-ICT tasks produced more muscle activity variation in the right forearm extensor group compared to New and Old ICT tasks. Different ICT tasks produce different degrees of variation in posture and muscle activity. Combining tasks that use different ICT may increase overall exposure variation. More research is needed to determine what degree of postural and muscle activity variation is associated with reduced risk of musculoskeletal ill-health.

  12. The influence of cranio-cervical posture on maximal mouth opening and pressure pain threshold in patients with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders.

    PubMed

    La Touche, Roy; París-Alemany, Alba; von Piekartz, Harry; Mannheimer, Jeffrey S; Fernández-Carnero, Josue; Rocabado, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cranio-cervical posture on the maximal mouth opening (MMO) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) in patients with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders. A total of 29 patients (19 females and 10 males) with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders, aged 19 to 59 years participated in the study (mean years±SD; 34.69±10.83 y). MMO and the PPT (on the right side) of patients in neutral, retracted, and forward head postures were measured. A 1-way repeated measures analysis of variance followed by 3 pair-wise comparisons were used to determine differences. Comparisons indicated significant differences in PPT at 3 points within the trigeminal innervated musculature [masseter (M1 and M2) and anterior temporalis (T1)] among the 3 head postures [M1 (F=117.78; P<0.001), M2 (F=129.04; P<0.001), and T1 (F=195.44; P<0.001)]. There were also significant differences in MMO among the 3 head postures (F=208.06; P<0.001). The intrarater reliability on a given day-to-day basis was good with the interclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.89 to 0.94 and 0.92 to 0.94 for PPT and MMO, respectively, among the different head postures. The results of this study shows that the experimental induction of different cranio-cervical postures influences the MMO and PPT values of the temporomandibular joint and muscles of mastication that receive motor and sensory innervation by the trigeminal nerve. Our results provide data that supports the biomechanical relationship between the cranio-cervical region and the dynamics of the temporomandibular joint, as well as trigeminal nociceptive processing in different cranio-cervical postures.

  13. [Bilateral caudate head infarcts].

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, N; Yamamoto, Y; Akiguchi, I; Oiwa, K; Nakajima, K

    1997-11-01

    We reported a 67-year-old woman with bilateral caudate head infarcts. She developed sudden mutism followed by abulia. She was admitted to our hospital 2 months after ictus for further examination. She showed prominent abulia and was inactive, slow and apathetic. Spontaneous activity and speech, immediate response to queries, spontaneous word recall and attention and persistence to complex programs were disturbed. Apparent motor disturbance, gait disturbance, motor aphasia, apraxia and remote memory disturbance were not identified. She seemed to be depressed but not sad. Brain CT and MRI revealed bilateral caudate head hemorrhagic infarcts including bilateral anterior internal capsules, in which the left lesion was more extensive than right one and involved the part of the left putamen. These infarct locations were thought to be supplied by the area around the medial striate artery including Heubner's arteries and the A1 perforator. Digital subtraction angiography showed asymptomatic right internal carotid artery occlusion. She bad had hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation and also had a left atrium with a large diameter. The infarcts were thought to be caused by cardioembolic occlusion to the distal portion of the left internal carotid artery. Although some variations of vasculature at the anterior communicating artery might contribute to bilateral medial striate artery infarcts, we could not demonstrate such abnormalities by angiography. Bilateral caudate head infarcts involving the anterior internal capsule may cause prominent abulia. The patient did not improve by drug and rehabilitation therapy and died suddenly a year after discharge.

  14. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E; Gadd, Nichole E; Caldwell, Erin E; Peters, Brian T; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Oddsson, Lars I E; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed. Postural control in this test paradigm was hypothesized to utilize predominantly contributions of somatosensory information from the feet and ankle joint, with minimal vestibular input. Fourteen healthy subjects "stood" supine on their dominant leg while strapped to a backpack frame that was freely moving on air-bearings, to remove available otolith tilt cues with respect to gravity that influences postural control when standing upright. The backpack was attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provided a gravity-like load. Subjects performed three trials each with Eyes-open (EO) and Eyes-closed (EC) while loaded with 60% body weight. There was no difference in unipedal stance time (UST) across the two conditions with EC condition challenging the postural control system greater than the EO condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis (SDA) indicated that the critical mean square displacement was significantly different between the two conditions. Vestibular cues, both in terms of magnitude and the duration for which relevant information was available for postural control in this test paradigm, were minimized. These results support our hypothesis that maintaining unipedal stance in supine orientation without vision, minimizes vestibular contribution and thus predominantly utilizes somatosensory information for postural control.

  15. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  16. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E.; Gadd, Nichole E.; Caldwell, Erin E.; Peters, Brian T.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Oddsson, Lars I. E.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory—visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed. Postural control in this test paradigm was hypothesized to utilize predominantly contributions of somatosensory information from the feet and ankle joint, with minimal vestibular input. Fourteen healthy subjects “stood” supine on their dominant leg while strapped to a backpack frame that was freely moving on air-bearings, to remove available otolith tilt cues with respect to gravity that influences postural control when standing upright. The backpack was attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provided a gravity-like load. Subjects performed three trials each with Eyes-open (EO) and Eyes-closed (EC) while loaded with 60% body weight. There was no difference in unipedal stance time (UST) across the two conditions with EC condition challenging the postural control system greater than the EO condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis (SDA) indicated that the critical mean square displacement was significantly different between the two conditions. Vestibular cues, both in terms of magnitude and the duration for which relevant information was available for postural control in this test paradigm, were minimized. These results support our hypothesis that maintaining unipedal stance in supine orientation without vision, minimizes vestibular contribution and thus predominantly utilizes somatosensory information for postural control. PMID:28443004

  17. Effectuation of adaptive stability and postural alignment strategies are decreased by alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Hafström, A; Modig, F; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2014-06-01

    Human stability control is a complex process comprising contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as coordination, feedback and feed-forward control, and adaptation. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs these functions and is recognized as a major contributor to fall traumas. The study aimed to investigate how alcohol intoxication at .06% and .10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the movement spans and control of posture alignment. The angular positions of the head, shoulder, hip and knees relative to the ankles were measured with a 3D motion analysis system in 25 healthy adults during standing with eyes open or closed and with or without vibratory balance perturbations. Alcohol intoxication significantly increased the movement spans of the head, shoulders, hip and knees in anteroposterior and lateral directions during quiet stance (p < or = .047 and p < or = .003) and balance perturbations (p<.001, both directions). Alcohol intoxication also decreased the ability to reduce the movement spans through adaptation in both anteroposterior (p < or = .011) and lateral (p < or = .004) directions. When sober and submitted to balance perturbations, the subjects aligned the head, shoulders, hip and knees more forward relative to the ankle joint (p < .001), hence adopting a more resilient posture increasing the safety margin for backward falls. Alcohol intoxication significantly delayed this forward realignment (p < or = .022). Alcohol intoxication did not cause any significant posture realignment in the lateral direction. Thus, initiation of adaptive posture realignments to alcohol or other disruptions might be context dependent and associated with reaching a certain level of stability threats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducing three common smartphone tasks (text messaging, web browsing, video watching) while sitting and standing in a laboratory setting. It was found that participants maintained head flexion of 33-45° (50th percentile angle) from vertical when using the smartphone. The head flexion angle was significantly larger (p < 0.05) for text messaging than for the other tasks, and significantly larger while sitting than while standing. Study results suggest that text messaging, which is one of the most frequently used app categories of smartphone, could be a main contributing factor to the occurrence of neck pain of heavy smartphone users. Practitioner Summary: In this laboratory study, the severity of head flexion of smartphone users was quantitatively evaluated when conducting text messaging, web browsing and video watching while sitting and standing. Study results indicate that text messaging while sitting caused the largest head flexion than that of other task conditions.

  19. Postural control in man: the phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Erect posture in man is a recent affordance from an evolutionary perspective. About eight million years ago, the stock from which modern humans derived split off from the ape family, and from around sixty-thousand years ago, modern man developed. Upright gait and manipulations while standing pose intricate cybernetic problems for postural control. The trunk, having an older evolutionary history than the extremities, is innervated by medially descending motor systems and extremity muscles by the more recent, laterally descending systems. Movements obviously require concerted actions from both systems. Research in rats has demonstrated the interdependencies between postural control and the development of fluent walking. Only 15 days after birth, adult-like fluent locomotion emerges and is critically dependent upon postural development. Vesttibular deprivation induces a retardation in postural development and, consequently, a retarded development of adult-like locomotion. The cerebellum obviously has an important role in mutual adjustments in postural control and extremity movements, or, in coupling the phylogenetic older and newer structures. In the human, the cerebellum develops partly after birth and therefore is vulnerable to adverse perinatal influences. Such vulnerability seems to justify focusing our scientific research efforts onto the development of this structure.

  20. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... are so characteristic that they have been given descriptive names: Propulsive gait; a stooped, rigid posture, with ... you! Champion's Rx Inclusive Fitness Coalition UAB/Lakeshore Research Collaborative Facebook Twitter YouTube The information provided in ...

  1. Abnormal tactile temporal discrimination in psychogenic dystonia.

    PubMed

    Morgante, F; Tinazzi, M; Squintani, G; Martino, D; Defazio, G; Romito, L; Albanese, A; Di Matteo, A; Quartarone, A; Girlanda, P; Fiorio, M; Berardelli, A

    2011-09-20

    Neurophysiologic studies demonstrated that patients with primary torsion dystonia (PTD) and with psychogenic dystonia (Psy-D) share similar abnormalities in the motor system. In this study, we evaluated somatosensory function in Psy-D by testing temporal discrimination threshold (TDT), and compared the results with those obtained in patients with PTD. TDT of tactile stimuli was assessed in 10 patients with Psy-D, 10 patients with PTD, and 16 control subjects. The 2 groups of patients were matched for age, gender, disease duration, and distribution of dystonia. Tactile stimuli consisted of pairs of non-noxious electrical shocks delivered to the right or left hand at interstimulus interval increasing from 0 to 400 msec, in 10-msec steps. TDT was defined as the value at which subjects recognized the 2 stimuli as asynchronous. TDT was higher in Psy-D and PTD compared to control subjects, for both the right and the left hand. In a subgroup of patients with unilateral dystonia (Psy-D = 4, PTD = 5), TDT did not differ between the affected and the unaffected side in both groups of patients. Disease duration was not correlated to the increased TDT value. Our study suggests an impaired processing of somatosensory inputs in both Psy-D and PTD. These abnormalities might represent a neurophysiological trait predisposing to develop a dystonic posture triggered by psychiatric and psychological factors.

  2. Influence of vision and dental occlusion on body posture in pilots.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Alberto; Nota, Alessandro; Cravino, Gaia; Cioffi, Clementina; Rinaldi, Antonio; Cozza, Paola

    2013-08-01

    Air force pilots have great postural control, movement coordination, motor learning, and motor transformation. They undergo abnormal stresses during flight that affect their organs and systems, with consequences such as barodontalgia, bruxism, TMJ dysfunctions, and cervical pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dental occlusion and vision on their body posture. In collaboration with the "A. Mosso" Legal Medical Institute (Aeronautica Militare), two groups, consisting of 20 air force and 20 civilian pilots, were selected for the study using a protocol approved by the Italian Air Force. An oral examination and a force platform test were performed in order to evaluate the subjects' postural system efficiency. A MANOVA (Multivariate analysis of variance) analysis was performed by using the Wilkes' criterion, in order to statistically evaluate the influence of each factor. Both the sway area and velocity parameters are very strongly influenced by vision: the sway area increases by approximately 32% and the sway velocity increases by approximately 50% when the pilot closes his eyes. Only the sway area parameter was significantly influenced by the mandibular position: the mandibular position with eyes open changed the sway area by about 51% and with eyes closed by about 40%. No statistically significant differences were found between air force and civilian pilots. The results of this analysis show that occlusion and visual function could influence posture in air force and civilian pilots.

  3. Relationships between the obstructive character of the tonsils and the type of ventilation and lip posture.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Joseph Samba; Diallo, Bay Karim; Diop-Ba, Khady; Badiane, Alpha; Ngom, Papa Ibrahima; Sonko, Ousmane; Diagne, Falou

    2018-06-01

    The role of obstructive tonsils in ventilatory disorders and abnormal lip posture is widely discussed in the literature but remains controversial. The data reported on the probable relationship between obstructive tonsils and an existing breathing disorder or lip incompetence were subjective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the obstructive character of the tonsils and the type of ventilation and lip posture. This is a cross-sectional study performed in children aged from 6 to 12 years old. The subjects were divided into two groups (A and B) according to the obstructive or non-obstructive character of the palatal tonsils. Type of ventilation and lip posture at rest were recorded for each child. The collected data were analysed using the SPSS 20.0 software (for Windows). A Student's t-test and a Chi 2 test were respectively used to compare quantitative and qualitative variables according to the obstructive character of the tonsils for each group. The level of significance is fixed at P=0.05. The subjects in group B with obstructive palatal tonsils were significantly more likely to oral breathing and lip incompetence than the subjects with non-obstructive tonsils (group A). The clinical examination of children with ventilatory and postural disorders with lip incompetence must be directed towards the search for associated obstructive palatal tonsils in order to plan an early etiological treatment. This would allow to avoid subsequent problems in the dentofacial structures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Postural stability changes during large vertical diplopia induced by prism wear in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Yamasaki, Hanako; Yasuhara, Hirotaka; Hasebe, Kayoko

    2013-01-01

    To test the effect of double vision on postural stability, we measured postural stability by electric stabilometry before prism-wearing and immediately, 15, 30, and 60min after continuous prism-wearing with 6 prism diopters in total (a 3-prism-diopter prism placed with the base up in front of one eye and with the base down in front of the other eye) in 20 normal adult individuals with their eyes open or closed. Changes in stabilometric parameters in the time course of 60min were analyzed statistically by repeated-measure analysis of variance. When subjectsセ eyes were closed, the total linear length (cm) and the unit-time length (cm/sec) of the sway path were significantly shortened during the 60-minute prism-wearing (p<0.05). No significant change was noted in any stabilometric parameters obtained with the eyes open during the time course. In conclusion, postural stability did not change with the eyes open in the condition of large vertical diplopia, induced by prism-wearing for 60min, while the stability became better when measured with the eyes closed. A postural control mechanism other than that derived from visual input might be reinforced under abnormal visual input such as non-fusionable diplopia.

  5. Cardio-postural interactions and short-arm centrifugation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, Andrew; Goswami, Nandu; Xu, Da; Laurin, Alexendre

    INTRODUCTION: We are interested in mechanisms associated with orthostatic tolerance. In previous studies we have shown that postural muscles in the calf contribute to both posture and blood pressure regulation during orthostatic stress. In this study we investigated the relationship between cardiovascular and postural muscle control before, during and after short arm human centrifuge (SAHC) up to 2.2 G. METHODS: Eleven healthy young subjects (6 m, 5 f), with no history of cardiovascular disease, falls or orthostatic hypotension, participated. All were familiarized with the SAHC with 10 minutes at 1-G at the feet. Each subject was instrumented in the supine position on the SAHC for beat-to-beat ECG and blood pressure (Portapres derived SBP). Bilateral lower leg EMG was collected from four leg postural muscles: tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and medial soleus. Transdermal differential recording of signals was performed using an 8-channel EMG system, (Myosystem 1200, Noraxon Inc., Arizona, USA). Postural sway data of the body COP was computed from the force and moment data collected with a force platform (Accusway, AMTI, MA, USA). Before and after SAHC, the subject stood on a force platform with their gaze fixed on a point at eye level, closed their eyes and stood quietly for 5 min. A final stand was conducted 30 min after centrifugation with supine rest in between. During clockwise centrifugation (10-min 1g and 10-min 2.2g at the foot) the subjects’ head was hooded and in the dark. The subject’s body was restrained into the rotation arm with a parachute harness and given additional body support with a foot-plate. ECG, EMG and BP data were collected throughout and centre of pressure trajectory (COP) collected during the stand test. Subjects were requested to relax and not to voluntarily contract the leg muscles; however, they were not to suppress contractions as they occurred involuntarily or by reflex. A Continuous Wavelet

  6. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... the-counter shampoos and lotions containing pyrethrin (one brand name: Rid) or permethrin (brand name: Nix) are commonly used to treat head ... hand or by using a special comb (one brand name: LiceMeister comb) to remove them. Comb through ...

  7. Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  8. Cone Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The author, a middle school art teacher, describes a sculpture project lesson involving Cone Heads (sculptures made from cardboard cones). Discussion of caricatures with exaggerated facial features and interesting profiles helped students understand that the more expressive the face, the better. This project took approximately four to five…

  9. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... HEADS UP Resources Training Custom PDFs Mobile Apps Videos Graphics Podcasts Social Media File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint ... file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  10. Human Body 3D Posture Estimation Using Significant Points and Two Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Teng-Chang; Du, Wei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) human posture estimation system that locates 3D significant body points based on 2D body contours extracted from two cameras without using any depth sensors. The 3D significant body points that are located by this system include the head, the center of the body, the tips of the feet, the tips of the hands, the elbows, and the knees. First, a linear support vector machine- (SVM-) based segmentation method is proposed to distinguish the human body from the background in red, green, and blue (RGB) color space. The SVM-based segmentation method uses not only normalized color differences but also included angle between pixels in the current frame and the background in order to reduce shadow influence. After segmentation, 2D significant points in each of the two extracted images are located. A significant point volume matching (SPVM) method is then proposed to reconstruct the 3D significant body point locations by using 2D posture estimation results. Experimental results show that the proposed SVM-based segmentation method shows better performance than other gray level- and RGB-based segmentation approaches. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the 3D posture estimation results in different postures. PMID:24883422

  11. Resolving Sensory Conflict: the Effect of Muscle Vibration on Postural Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.

    1991-01-01

    The otolith-tilt reinterpretation hypothesis (OTTR) proposes that the central nervous system adapts to weightlessness by reinterpreting all otolith input as linear motion. While interpreting otolith input exclusively as linear motion is functionally useful in space, it is maladaptive upon return to Earth. Astronauts have reported experiencing illusory sensations during head movement which contributes to postural instability. The effect is assessed of muscle vibration in combination with a variety of sensory conflicts on postural equilibrium. The equilibrium of six healthy subjects was tested using the EquiTest sensory test protocol, with and without the confounding influence of triceps surea vibration. The data were analyzed with repeated measures with vibration, vision status, and platform status as independent variables. All main effects and an interaction between the presence of vision and platform sway referencing were found to be significant. Overall, a 4.5 pct. decrease in postural stability was observed with vibration. The trend of the difference scores between conditions with and without vibration suggests that vibration is most destabilizing when the triceps surea is able to change length during postural sway (i.e., conditions with a fixed support surface). The impact of sway referencing vision was virtually identical to that of eye closure, providing compelling evidence that sway referencing 'nulls out' useful cues about subject sway.

  12. Role of different sensory inputs for maintenance of body posture in sitting rat and rabbit.

    PubMed

    Deliagina, T; Beloozerova, I N; Popova, L B; Sirota, M G; Swadlow, H A; Grant, G; Orlovsky, G N

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the postural activity in sitting rats and rabbits. An animal was positioned on the platform that could be tilted in the frontal plane for up to +/-20-30 degrees, and postural corrections were video recorded. We found that in both rat and rabbit, the postural reactions led to stabilization of the dorsal-side-up trunk orientation. The result of this was that the trunk tilt constituted only approximately 50% (rat) and 25% (rabbit) of the platform tilt. In addition, in the rabbit the head orientation was also stabilized. Trunk stabilization persisted in the animals subjected to the bilateral labyrinthectomy and blindfolding, suggesting that the somatosensory input is primarily responsible for trunk stabilization. Trunk stabilization was due to extension of the limbs on the side moving down, and flexion of the opposite limbs. EMG recordings showed that the limb extension was caused by the active contraction of extensor muscles. We argue that signals from the Golgi tendon organs of the extensor muscles may considerably contribute to elicitation of postural corrective responses to the lateral tilt.

  13. Effects of neck exercise on high-school students' neck-shoulder posture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Hyo; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise on the neck-shoulder posture, and the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles of high-school students. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 seventeen-year-old female high-school students who complained about bad posture and chronic neck-shoulder pain. They were randomly divided into an experimental group of 15 subjects, who performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise and a control group of 15 subjects, who performed a basic stretching exercise. [Methods] The experimental group of 15 subjects performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise consisting of low-load training of the cranio-cervical flexor muscle, and the control group of 15 subjects performed a basic stretching exercise consisting of seven motions. [Results] The experimental group showed statistically significant changes in head tilt angle, neck flexion angle, forward shoulder angle, and the result of the cranio-cervical flexion test after the training. In contrast, the control group showed no statistically significant changes in these measures following the training. When the results of the groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found for all items between the experimental group and the control group. [Conclusion] Strengthening cranio-cervical flexor muscles is important for the adjustment of neck posture, and maintaining their stability is required to improve neck-shoulder posture.

  14. Postural Control Disturbances Produced By Exposure to HMD and Dome Vr Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Two critical and unresolved human factors issues in VR systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness which is experienced in virtual worlds, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Most astronauts and cosmonauts experience perceptual and sensorimotor disturbances during and following space flight. All astronauts exhibit decrements in postural control following space flight. It has been suggested that training in virtual reality (VR) may be an effective countermeasure for minimizing perceptual and/or sensorimotor disturbances. People adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, and experimentally-produced stimulus rearrangements (e.g., reversing prisms, magnifying lenses, flight simulators, and VR systems). Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays. Individuals recovered from motion sickness and the detrimental effects of exposure to virtual reality on postural control within one hour. Sickness severity and initial decrements in postural equilibrium decreases over days, which suggests that subjects become dual-adapted over time. These findings provide some direction for developing training schedules for VR users that facilitate adaptation, and address safety concerns about aftereffects.

  15. Control of vertical posture while elevating one foot to avoid a real or virtual obstacle.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hirofumi; Mohapatra, Sambit; Aruin, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the control of vertical posture during obstacle avoidance in a real versus a virtual reality (VR) environment. Ten healthy participants stood upright and lifted one leg to avoid colliding with a real obstacle sliding on the floor toward a participant and with its virtual image. Virtual obstacles were delivered by a head mounted display (HMD) or a 3D projector. The acceleration of the foot, center of pressure, and electrical activity of the leg and trunk muscles were measured and analyzed during the time intervals typical for early postural adjustments (EPAs), anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs). The results showed that the peak acceleration of foot elevation in the HMD condition decreased significantly when compared with that of the real and 3D projector conditions. Reduced activity of the leg and trunk muscles was seen when dealing with virtual obstacles (HMD and 3D projector) as compared with that seen when dealing with real obstacles. These effects were more pronounced during APAs and CPAs. The onsets of muscle activities in the supporting limb were seen during EPAs and APAs. The observed modulation of muscle activity and altered patterns of movement seen while avoiding a virtual obstacle should be considered when designing virtual rehabilitation protocols.

  16. Neck postures in air traffic controllers with and without neck/shoulder disorders.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Inger; Hansson, Gert-Ake; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Skerfving, Staffan

    2008-03-01

    Prolonged computer work with an extended neck is commonly believed to be associated with an increased risk of neck-shoulder disorders. The aim of this study was to compare neck postures during computer work between female cases with neck-shoulder disorders, and healthy referents. Based on physical examinations, 13 cases and 11 referents were selected among 70 female air traffic controllers with the same computer-based work tasks and identical workstations. Postures and movements were measured by inclinometers, placed on the forehead and upper back (C7/Th1) during authentic air traffic control. A recently developed method was applied to assess flexion/extension in the neck, calculated as the difference between head and upper back flexion/extension. cases and referents did not differ significantly in neck posture (median neck flexion/extension: -10 degrees vs. -9 degrees ; p=0.9). Hence, the belief that neck extension posture is associated with neck-shoulder disorders in computer work is not supported by the present data.

  17. Gravitational Effects upon Locomotion Posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Bentley, Jason R.; Edwards, W. Brent; Perusek, Gail P.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Researchers use actual microgravity (AM) during parabolic flight and simulated microgravity (SM) obtained with horizontal suspension analogs to better understand the effect of gravity upon gait. In both environments, the gravitational force is replaced by an external load (EL) that returns the subject to the treadmill. However, when compared to normal gravity (N), researchers consistently find reduced ground reaction forces (GRF) and subtle kinematic differences (Schaffner et al., 2005). On the International Space Station, the EL is applied by elastic bungees attached to a waist and shoulder harness. While bungees can provide EL approaching body weight (BW), their force-length characteristics coupled with vertical oscillations of the body during gait result in a variable load. However, during locomotion in N, the EL is consistently equal to 100% body weight. Comparisons between AM and N have shown that during running, GRF are decreased in AM (Schaffner et al, 2005). Kinematic evaluations in the past have focussed on joint range of motion rather than joint posture at specific instances of the gait cycle. The reduced GRF in microgravity may be a result of differing hip, knee, and ankle positions during contact. The purpose of this investigation was to compare joint angles of the lower extremities during walking and running in AM, SM, and N. We hypothesized that in AM and SM, joints would be more flexed at heel strike (HS), mid-stance (MS) and toe-off (TO) than in N.

  18. Anatomy and histochemistry of hindlimb flight posture in birds. I. The extended hindlimb posture of shorebirds.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Joshua C; Meyers, Ron A

    2008-08-01

    Birds utilize one of two hindlimb postures during flight: an extended posture (with the hip and knee joints flexed, while the ankle joint is extended caudally) or a flexed posture (with the hip, knee, and ankle joints flexed beneath the body). American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) extend their legs caudally during flight and support them for extended periods. Slow tonic and slow twitch muscle fibers are typically found in muscles functioning in postural support due to the fatigue resistance of these fibers. We hypothesized that a set of small muscles composed of high percentages of slow fibers and thus dedicated to postural support would function in securing the legs in the extended posture during flight. This study examined the anatomy and histochemical profile of eleven hindlimb muscles to gain insight into their functional roles during flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, all muscles possessed both fast twitch and slow twitch or slow tonic fibers. We believe this finding is due to the versatility of dynamic and postural functions the leg muscles must facilitate, including standing, walking, running, swimming, and hindlimb support during flight. Whether birds use an extended or flexed hindlimb flight posture may be related to the aerodynamic effect of leg position or may reflect evolutionary history. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Development of Human Posture Simulation Method for Assessing Posture Angles and Spinal Loads

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Waters, Thomas; Werren, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Video-based posture analysis employing a biomechanical model is gaining a growing popularity for ergonomic assessments. A human posture simulation method of estimating multiple body postural angles and spinal loads from a video record was developed to expedite ergonomic assessments. The method was evaluated by a repeated measures study design with three trunk flexion levels, two lift asymmetry levels, three viewing angles and three trial repetitions as experimental factors. The study comprised two phases evaluating the accuracy of simulating self and other people’s lifting posture via a proxy of a computer-generated humanoid. The mean values of the accuracy of simulating self and humanoid postures were 12° and 15°, respectively. The repeatability of the method for the same lifting condition was excellent (~2°). The least simulation error was associated with side viewing angle. The estimated back compressive force and moment, calculated by a three dimensional biomechanical model, exhibited a range of 5% underestimation. The posture simulation method enables researchers to simultaneously quantify body posture angles and spinal loading variables with accuracy and precision comparable to on-screen posture matching methods. PMID:26361435

  20. Analysis of posture and eye movement responses to Coriolis stimulation under 1 G and microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Motoki; Takahashi, Masahiro; Iida, Masahiro

    2009-12-20

    To detect the effect of microgravity on vestibular responses, we conducted Coriolis stimulation experiments at 1 G and μ G. Five men with vision occluded were asked to tilt their head forward while rotating at 100 degrees/sec. Postural changes were recorded by a 3D linear accelerometer, and the distance of upper body movement was derived from recordings of linear acceleration. Eye movements were recorded by a CCD camera. For a second period after commencing head tilt, the upper body moved 10 cm in the direction of inertia input at 1 G, but it moved to the opposite direction at μ G, i.e., 4 cm in the direction of inertia force. Nystagmus peak slow-phase velocity immediately after head tilt and its attenuation process did not differ between 1 G and μ G. The strength of movement sensation and the severity of motion sickness were far weaker at μ G than at 1 G. It was concluded that inertia input is valid to induce postural and sensation responses only when the external reference is given Z axis by gravity. Vestibular ocular response may be maintained at μ G because the head reference is valid even after the external reference becomes arbitrary.

  1. Evaluation of Postural Control in Patients with Glaucoma Using a Virtual Reality Environment.

    PubMed

    Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Boer, Erwin R; Gracitelli, Carolina P B; Abe, Ricardo Y; van Driel, Nienke; Yang, Zhiyong; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate postural control using a dynamic virtual reality environment and the relationship between postural metrics and history of falls in patients with glaucoma. Cross-sectional study. The study involved 42 patients with glaucoma with repeatable visual field defects on standard automated perimetry (SAP) and 38 control healthy subjects. Patients underwent evaluation of postural stability by a force platform during presentation of static and dynamic visual stimuli on stereoscopic head-mounted goggles. The dynamic visual stimuli presented rotational and translational ecologically valid peripheral background perturbations. Postural stability was also tested in a completely dark field to assess somatosensory and vestibular contributions to postural control. History of falls was evaluated by a standard questionnaire. Torque moments around the center of foot pressure on the force platform were measured, and the standard deviations of the torque moments (STD) were calculated as a measurement of postural stability and reported in Newton meters (Nm). The association with history of falls was investigated using Poisson regression models. Age, gender, body mass index, severity of visual field defect, best-corrected visual acuity, and STD on dark field condition were included as confounding factors. Patients with glaucoma had larger overall STD than controls during both translational (5.12 ± 2.39 Nm vs. 3.85 ± 1.82 Nm, respectively; P = 0.005) and rotational stimuli (5.60 ± 3.82 Nm vs. 3.93 ± 2.07 Nm, respectively; P = 0.022). Postural metrics obtained during dynamic visual stimuli performed better in explaining history of falls compared with those obtained in static and dark field condition. In the multivariable model, STD values in the mediolateral direction during translational stimulus were significantly associated with a history of falls in patients with glaucoma (incidence rate ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.63; P = 0.001). The study presented and

  2. Evaluation of Postural Control in Glaucoma Patients Using a Virtual 1 Reality Environment

    PubMed Central

    Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Boer, Erwin R.; Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Abe, Ricardo Y.; van Driel, Nienke; Yang, Zhiyong; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postural control using a dynamic virtual reality environment and the relationship between postural metrics and history of falls in glaucoma patients. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants The study involved 42 glaucoma patients with repeatable visual field defects on standard automated perimetry (SAP) and 38 control healthy subjects. Methods Patients underwent evaluation of postural stability by a force platform during presentation of static and dynamic visual stimuli on stereoscopic head-mounted goggles. The dynamic visual stimuli presented rotational and translational ecologically valid peripheral background perturbations. Postural stability was also tested in a completely dark field to assess somatosensory and vestibular contributions to postural control. History of falls was evaluated by a standard questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures Torque moments around the center of foot pressure on the force platform were measured and the standard deviations (STD) of these torque moments were calculated as a measurement of postural stability and reported in Newton meter (Nm). The association with history of falls was investigated using Poisson regression models. Age, gender, body mass index, severity of visual field defect, best-corrected visual acuity, and STD on dark field condition were included as confounding factors. Results Glaucoma patients had larger overall STD than controls during both translational (5.12 ± 2.39 Nm vs. 3.85 ± 1.82 Nm, respectively; P = 0.005) as well as rotational stimuli (5.60 ± 3.82 Nm vs. 3.93 ± 2.07 Nm, respectively; P = 0.022). Postural metrics obtained during dynamic visual stimuli performed better in explaining history of falls compared to those obtained in static and dark field condition. In the multivariable model, STD values in the mediolateral direction during translational stimulus were significantly associated with history of falls in glaucoma patients (incidence-rate ratio = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.30 – 2

  3. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Sitting on a Sloping Seat Does Not Reduce the Strain Sustained by the Postural Chain

    PubMed Central

    Hamaoui, Alain; Hassaïne, Myriam; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effect of a forward sloping seat on posture and muscular activity of the trunk and lower limbs. To this aim, twelve asymptomatic participants were tested in six conditions varying seat slope (0°, 15° forward) and height (high, medium, low). Angular position of head, trunk and pelvis was assessed with an inertial orientation system, and muscular activity of 11 superficial postural muscles located in the trunk and lower limbs was estimated using normalized EMG. Results showed that a forward sloping seat, compared to a flat seat, induced a greater activity of the soleus (p<0.01), vastus lateralis (p<0.05) and vastus medialis (p<0.05), as well a lower hip flexion (p<0.01). In contrast, no significant variation of head, trunk and pelvis angular position was observed according to seat slope. It was concluded that forward sloping seats increase the load sustained by the lower limbs, without a systematic improvement of body posture. PMID:25587989

  5. Postural synergies associated with a stepping task.

    PubMed

    Mercer, V S; Sahrmann, S A

    1999-12-01

    Synergistic relationships among multiple muscle components are thought to exist to simplify control of posture and movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which children, young adults, and older adults exhibit consistent sequences of postural muscle activation when lifting the right foot onto a step from a standing position. Twenty subjects without known impairments of the neuromuscular system (10 male, 10 female) in each of 3 age groups--children (8-12 years), young adults (25-35 years), and older adults (65-73 years)--participated. A pressure switch taped to the subject's right foot was used to determine movement onset and offset. Latencies of muscle activation were determined using surface electromyography. A preferred postural synergy was defined as the sequence of postural muscle activation observed during the majority of trials for each subject. Mean movement times did not differ among age groups. Although the left tibialis anterior (TA) muscle was the first of the postural muscles activated in 93% of the trials, subjects displayed considerable variability in the subsequent order of postural muscle activation. Across subjects, a total of 14 different preferred postural synergies were observed. Age groups did not differ in the number of different synergies. Early TA activation may reflect biomechanical constraints of the stepping task, producing forward displacement of the center of mass over the changing base of support. The fact that subjects of all ages were quite variable in the specific sequences of muscles activated subsequent to the TA suggests that, for this type of task, therapists should not focus their interventions on facilitating execution of particular synergy patterns.

  6. Using impedance cardiography with postural change to stratify patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    DeMarzo, Arthur P

    2011-06-01

    Early detection of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypertension could initiate appropriate treatment to control blood pressure and prevent the progression of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to show how impedance cardiography waveform analysis with postural change can be used to detect subclinical cardiovascular disease in patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had impedance cardiography data obtained in two positions, standing upright and supine. In 50 adults, impedance cardiography indicated that all patients had abnormal data, with 44 (88%) having multiple abnormalities. Impedance cardiography showed 32 (64%) had ventricular dysfunction, 48 (96%) had vascular load abnormalities, 34 (68%) had hemodynamic abnormalities, 2 (4%) had hypovolemia, and 3 (6%) had hypervolemia. Hypertensive patients have diverse cardiovascular abnormalities that can be quantified by impedance cardiography. By stratifying patients with ventricular, vascular, and hemodynamic abnormalities, treatment could be customized based on the abnormal underlying mechanisms with the potential to rapidly control blood pressure, prevent progression of cardiovascular disease, and possibly reverse remodeling.

  7. Proprioceptive encoding of head position in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Paulk, Angelique; Gilbert, Cole

    2006-10-01

    Because the eyes of insects cannot be moved independently of the head, information about head posture is essential for stabilizing the visual world or providing information about the direction of gaze. We examined the external anatomy and physiological capabilities of a head posture proprioceptor, the prosternal organ (PO), located at the base of the neck in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Family: Stratiomyidae). The PO is sexually isomorphic and is composed of two fused plates of about 130 mechanosensory hairs set in asymmetrical sockets whose orientation varies across the organ. A multi-joint mechanical coupling between the head, neck membrane, and contact sclerites deflects the hairs more or less to increase or decrease their level of excitation. The PO sensory afferents project to the central nervous system (CNS) via a pair of bilateral prosternal nerves (PN) to the fused thoracic ganglia. Simultaneous recording of spiking activity in the PN and videotaping of wind-induced and voluntary head movements around all three axes of head rotation reveal that a few PN afferents are active at rest, but activity increases tonically in response to head deflections. Activity is significantly modulated by change in head angles around the pitch (+/-40 degrees ), yaw (+/-30 degrees ) and roll (more than +/-90 degrees ) axes, although the dynamic range of spiking activity differs for each axis of rotation. Prosternal nerve afferents are bilaterally excited (inhibited) by pitch down (up); excited (inhibited) by head yaw toward the ipsilateral (contralateral) side; excited by roll down toward the ipsilateral side, but little inhibited by roll toward the opposite side. Although bilateral comparison of activity in PN afferents reliably encodes head posture around a given rotational axis, from the point of view of the CNS, the problem of encoding head posture is ill-posed with three axes of rotation and only two streams of afferent information. Furthermore, when the

  8. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  9. Electrical stimulation of acupuncture points and blood pressure responses to postural changes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alice Y M; Kwan, Y L; Leung, Nathan T F; Yu, Rachel P W; Wu, Cindy M Y; Warburton, Darren E R

    2011-05-01

    Application of transcutaneous electrical stimulation over acupuncture points (Acu-TENS) facilitates heart rate recovery after exercise and restores hemodynamic stability after open heart surgery. The role of Acu-TENS on cardiovascular parameters in response to postural changes has not been reported. To investigate (1) the effect of Acu-TENS on blood pressure responses to -10º head-down postural change and (2) whether such effects were associated with modulation by the autonomic nervous system. Sixteen healthy volunteers, mean age 22.8 (SD, 3.1) years, were subjected to a -10º head-down tilt from the supine position on 3 separate occasions and received in random order the following 3 intervention protocols for 40 minutes before the postural change: Acu-TENS (over bilateral acupuncture points, PC6), sham-TENS (TENS applied to the skin over the patellae), and control (no electrical output from the TENS device applied at PC6). Mean arterial pressure, large artery elasticity index, cardiac output, and heart rate were recorded and compared at different stimulation protocols in the supine and -10º head-down tilt positions. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability was used to determine any modulation by the autonomic nervous system. Change in large artery elasticity index was observed only in the Acu-TENS group (P < .05) and mean arterial pressure appeared most stable during Acu-TENS. Autonomic nervous system modulation was not apparent with spectral analysis, irrespective of intervention. Sympathetic activity predominated in all positions. Acu-TENS seems to reduce blood pressure changes with -10º head-down tilt with concomitant changes in arterial vessel tone.

  10. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Transfer of Dynamic Learning Across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    When learning a difficult motor task, we often decompose the task so that the control of individual body segments is practiced in isolation. But on re-composition, the combined movements can result in novel and possibly complex internal forces between the body segments that were not experienced (or did not need to be compensated for) during isolated practice. Here we investigate whether dynamics learned in isolation by one part of the body can be used by other parts of the body to immediately predict and compensate for novel forces between body segments. Subjects reached to targets while holding the handle of a robotic, force-generating manipulandum. One group of subjects was initially exposed to the novel robot dynamics while seated and was then tested in a standing position. A second group was tested in the reverse order: standing then sitting. Both groups adapted their arm dynamics to the novel environment, and this movement learning transferred between seated and standing postures and vice versa. Both groups also generated anticipatory postural adjustments when standing and exposed to the force field for several trials. In the group that had learned the dynamics while seated, the appropriate postural adjustments were observed on the very first reach on standing. These results suggest that the CNS can immediately anticipate the effect of learned movement dynamics on a novel whole-body posture. The results support the existence of separate mappings for posture and movement, which encode similar dynamics but can be adapted independently. PMID:19710374

  12. Primary postural instability: a cause of recurrent sudden falls in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Djaldetti, R; Lorberboym, M; Melamed, E

    2006-12-01

    Elderly patients with recurrent falls are frequently diagnosed with an extrapyramidal syndrome. This study aims to characterise a distinct group of patients with recurrent falls and postural instability as a hallmark of the clinical examination. The study took place in the Movement Disorders Unit, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tiqva, Israel among 26 patients with recurrent falls who had no clinical evidence of a neurodegenerative disease. Medical records, neurological examination and brain imaging studies were assessed. Falls in these patients were sudden, unprovoked, with no vertigo or loss of consciousness. All had postural instability with minimal or no abnormality on the neurological examination. Brain imaging showed diffuse ischaemic changes in 65%. [(123)I]-FPCIT SPECT with the dopamine transporter ligand, performed in five patients, was normal in all. Recurrent falls might be caused by a neurological syndrome that primarily affects balance control. The importance of identifying this disorder is its distinction from other parkinsonian syndromes causing falls.

  13. The relationship between sitting posture and seated-related upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain in computing South African adolescents: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Brink, Yolandi; Louw, Quinette; Grimmer, Karen; Jordaan, Esmè

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that consistent sitting for prolonged periods is associated with upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain (UQMP). It is unclear whether postural alignment is a significant risk factor. The aim of the prospective study (2010-2011) was to ascertain if three-dimensional sitting postural angles, measured in a real-life school computer classroom setting, predict seated-related UQMP. Asymptomatic Grade 10 high-school students, aged 15-17 years, undertaking Computer Application Technology, were eligible to participate. Using the 3D Posture Analysis Tool, sitting posture was measured while students used desk-top computers. Posture was reported as five upper quadrant angles (Head flexion, Neck flexion; Craniocervical angle, Trunk flexion and Head lateral bending). The Computer Usage Questionnaire measured seated-related UQMP and hours of computer use. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children assessed psychosocial factors. Sitting posture, computer use and psychosocial factors were measured at baseline. UQMP was measured at six months and one-year follow-up. 211, 190 and 153 students participated at baseline, six months and one-year follow-up respectively. 34.2% students complained of seated-related UQMP during the follow-up period. Increased head flexion (HF) predicted seated-related UQMP developing over time for a small group of students with pain scores greater than the 90th pain percentile, adjusted for age, gender, BMI, computer use and psychosocial factors (p = 0.003). The pain score increased 0.22 points per 1° increase in HF. Classroom ergonomics and postural hygiene should therefore focus on reducing large HF angles among computing adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of Cardiopulmonary Activity and Related Abnormal Events Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor.

    PubMed

    Al-Naji, Ali; Chahl, Javaan

    2018-03-20

    Monitoring of cardiopulmonary activity is a challenge when attempted under adverse conditions, including different sleeping postures, environmental settings, and an unclear region of interest (ROI). This study proposes an efficient remote imaging system based on a Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor for the observation of cardiopulmonary-signal-and-detection-related abnormal cardiopulmonary events (e.g., tachycardia, bradycardia, tachypnea, bradypnea, and central apnoea) in many possible sleeping postures within varying environmental settings including in total darkness and whether the subject is covered by a blanket or not. The proposed system extracts the signal from the abdominal-thoracic region where cardiopulmonary activity is most pronounced, using a real-time image sequence captured by Kinect v2 sensor. The proposed system shows promising results in any sleep posture, regardless of illumination conditions and unclear ROI even in the presence of a blanket, whilst being reliable, safe, and cost-effective.

  15. Detection of Cardiopulmonary Activity and Related Abnormal Events Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Chahl, Javaan

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring of cardiopulmonary activity is a challenge when attempted under adverse conditions, including different sleeping postures, environmental settings, and an unclear region of interest (ROI). This study proposes an efficient remote imaging system based on a Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor for the observation of cardiopulmonary-signal-and-detection-related abnormal cardiopulmonary events (e.g., tachycardia, bradycardia, tachypnea, bradypnea, and central apnoea) in many possible sleeping postures within varying environmental settings including in total darkness and whether the subject is covered by a blanket or not. The proposed system extracts the signal from the abdominal-thoracic region where cardiopulmonary activity is most pronounced, using a real-time image sequence captured by Kinect v2 sensor. The proposed system shows promising results in any sleep posture, regardless of illumination conditions and unclear ROI even in the presence of a blanket, whilst being reliable, safe, and cost-effective. PMID:29558414

  16. Effects of Document Holder on Postural Neck Muscles Activity among Computer Users: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Ambusam, Subramaniam; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard; Deepashini, Harithasan

    2015-01-01

    Computer users are exposed to work related neck disorders due to repetitive movement and static posture for prolonged period. Viewing document and typing simultaneously are one of the contributing factors for neck disorders. This preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the document holder on the postural neck muscles activity among computer users. Nine healthy participants with pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Neck muscles activity were analyzed using the surface electromyography (EMG) in five different document location such as flat right, flat left, flat center, stand right and stand left during a 5 min typing task. The mean and standard deviation results showed a least amount of muscles activity using a document holder compared to without document holder. Nevertheless, the statistical analysis showed no significant differences between the using of a document holder. The effects of document holder on head excursion and neck muscle activity is recommended in clinical neck pain population.

  17. The influence of an immersive virtual environment on the segmental organization of postural stabilizing responses.

    PubMed

    Keshner, E A; Kenyon, R V

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effect of a 3-dimensional stereoscopic scene on segmental stabilization. Eight subjects participated in static sway and locomotion experiments with a visual scene that moved sinusoidally or at constant velocity about the pitch or roll axes. Segmental displacements, Fast Fourier Transforms, and Root Mean Square values were calculated. In both pitch and roll, subjects exhibited greater magnitudes of motion in head and trunk than ankle. Smaller amplitudes and frequent phase reversals suggested control of the ankle by segmental proprioceptive inputs and ground reaction forces rather than by the visual-vestibular signals. Postural controllers may set limits of motion at each body segment rather than be governed solely by a perception of the visual vertical. Two locomotor strategies were also exhibited, implying that some subjects could override the effect of the roll axis optic flow field. Our results demonstrate task dependent differences that argue against using static postural responses to moving visual fields when assessing more dynamic tasks.

  18. Global body posture and plantar pressure distribution in individuals with and without temporomandibular disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Souza, Juliana A; Pasinato, Fernanda; Corrêa, Eliane C R; da Silva, Ana Maria T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate body posture and the distribution of plantar pressure at physiologic rest of the mandible and during maximal intercuspal positions in subjects with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Fifty-one subjects were assessed by the Diagnostic Criteria for Research on Temporomandibular Disorders and divided into a symptomatic group (21) and an asymptomatic group (30). Postural analysis for both groups was conducted using photogrammetry (SAPo version 0.68; University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil). The distribution of plantar pressures was evaluated by means of baropodometry (Footwork software), at physiologic rest and maximal intercuspal positions. Of 18 angular measurements, 3 (17%) were statistically different between the groups in photogrammetric evaluation. The symptomatic group showed more pronounced cervical distance (P = .0002), valgus of the right calcaneus (P = .0122), and lower pelvic tilt (P = .0124). The baropodometry results showed the TMD subjects presented significantly higher rearfoot and lower forefoot distribution than those in the asymptomatic group. No differences were verified in maximal intercuspal position in the between-group analysis and between the 2 mandibular positions in the within-group analysis. Subjects with and without TMD presented with global body posture misalignment. Postural changes were more pronounced in the subjects with TMD. In addition, symptomatic subjects presented with abnormal plantar pressure distribution, suggesting that TMD may have an influence on the postural system. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptive changes in anticipatory postural adjustments with novel and familiar postural supports.

    PubMed

    Hall, Leanne M; Brauer, Sandra; Horak, Fay; Hodges, Paul W

    2010-02-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) serve to stabilize posture prior to initiation of voluntary movement. This study examined the effects of changes in postural support on APAs using novel and familiar support paradigms. We also investigated whether postural strategies were refined with practice and how the CNS responded when multiple supports were available. Twelve healthy subjects stood on dual force platforms and performed 20 randomized left and right rapid leg-lift tasks in response to a visual cue under four conditions: unsupported, bilateral handgrip, bite plate, and a combined handgrip and bite plate condition. Vertical ground reaction forces, electromyography of limb, trunk and jaw muscles, and forces exerted on the support apparatus were recorded. Shift in center-of-pressure amplitude and duration were reduced with increased support. Muscles were recruited in advance of the focal movement when able to contribute to stability, and activity was modulated based on the amount of support available. The CNS adapted anticipatory postural strategies immediately with changes in condition regardless of familiarity with the support; however, adaptation was only complete at the first repetition in conditions that involved familiar support strategies. Tasks that involved a novel bite strategy continued to adapt with practice. In the multiple support condition, both hand and bite strategies were immediately incorporated; however, the contribution of each was not identical to conditions where supports were provided individually. This study emphasizes the flexibility of the CNS to organize postural strategies to meet the demands of postural stability in both familiar and novel situations.

  20. Day/Night Variability in Blood Pressure: Influence of Posture and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood pressure (BP) is highest during the day and lowest at night. Absence of this rhythm is a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contributions of changes in posture and physical activity to the 24-hour day/night rhythm in BP are not well understood. We hypothesized that postural changes and physical activity contribute substantially to the day/night rhythm in BP. METHODS Fourteen healthy, sedentary, nonobese, normotensive men (aged 19–50 years) each completed an ambulatory and a bed rest condition during which BP was measured every 30–60 minutes for 24 hours. When ambulatory, subjects followed their usual routines without restrictions to capture the “normal” condition. During bed rest, subjects were constantly confined to bed in a 6-degree head-down position; therefore posture was constant, and physical activity was minimized. Two subjects were excluded from analysis because of irregular sleep timing. RESULTS The systolic and diastolic BP reduction during the sleep period was similar in ambulatory (−11±2mmHg/−8±1mmHg) and bed rest conditions (−8±3mmHg/−4±2mmHg; P = 0.38/P = 0.12). The morning surge in diastolic BP was attenuated during bed rest (P = 0.001), and there was a statistical trend for the same effect in systolic BP (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS A substantial proportion of the 24-hour BP rhythm remained during bed rest, indicating that typical daily changes in posture and/or physical activity do not entirely explain 24-hour BP variation under normal ambulatory conditions. However, the morning BP increase was attenuated during bed rest, suggesting that the adoption of an upright posture and/or physical activity in the morning contributes to the morning BP surge. PMID:23535155

  1. Postural imbalance and falls in PSP correlate with functional pathology of the thalamus.

    PubMed

    Zwergal, A; la Fougère, C; Lorenzl, S; Rominger, A; Xiong, G; Deutschenbaur, L; Linn, J; Krafczyk, S; Dieterich, M; Brandt, T; Strupp, M; Bartenstein, P; Jahn, K

    2011-07-12

    To determine how postural imbalance and falls are related to regional cerebral glucose metabolism (PET) and functional activation of the cerebral postural network (fMRI) in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Sixteen patients with PSP, who had self-monitored their frequency of falls, underwent a standardized clinical assessment, posturographic measurement of balance during modified sensory input, and a resting [¹⁸F]FDG-PET. In addition, patients performed an fMRI paradigm using mental imagery of standing. Results were compared to healthy controls (n = 16). The frequency of falls/month in patients (range 1-40) correlated with total PSP rating score (r = 0.90). Total sway path in PSP significantly correlated with frequency of falls, especially during modulated sensory input (eyes open: r = 0.62, eyes closed: r = 0.67, eyes open/head extended: r = 0.84, eyes open/foam-padded platform: r = 0.87). Higher sway path values and frequency of falls were associated with decreased regional glucose metabolism (rCGM) in the thalamus (sway path: r = -0.80, falls: r = -0.64) and increased rCGM in the precentral gyrus (sway path: r = 0.79, falls: r = 0.64). Mental imagery of standing during fMRI revealed a reduced activation of the mesencephalic brainstem tegmentum and the thalamus in patients with postural imbalance and falls. The new and clinically relevant finding of this study is that imbalance and falls in PSP are closely associated with thalamic dysfunction. Deficits in thalamic postural control get most evident when balance is assessed during modified sensory input. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that reduced thalamic activation via the ascending brainstem projections may cause postural imbalance in PSP.

  2. Head Lice (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Head Lice KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: Head Lice Print A head louse is a tiny, wingless ... Prevention! You can help protect your kids from head lice by teaching them to: avoid head-to-head ...

  3. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Head position of helicopter pilots during slalom maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Temme, Leonard A; Still, David L

    2007-01-01

    Pilots typically tilt their heads when executing coordinated banking turns, a phenomenon commonly attributed to the putative opto-kinetic cervical reflex (OKCR). The OKCR is usually described as a reflex, primarily driven by stimuli in the visual periphery, and is important to a pilot's spatial orientation by providing a relatively stabilized horizontal frame of reference. The present paper presents an alternative hypothesis for the observed head tilting seen in pilots. An archived data set, originally collected for other purposes, contained the head turn, pitch, and tilt of 4 helicopter pilots recorded at 10 Hz as the pilots executed 42 slalom maneuvers in an AH Mk 7 Lynx helicopter under visual flight conditions. The analytic method was a correlational analysis of head turn, pitch, and tilt. As expected, pilots routinely tilted their heads during the slaloms in a fashion typically attributed to the OKCR. Correlations among head turn, tilt, and pitch showed that when the helicopter turned left, the head, presumably to look into the turn, turned left and also pitched up and tilted right. Similarly, when the helicopter turned right, the head, presumably to look into the turn, turned right, pitched up, and tilted left. The head tilting usually attributed to a neuromuscular reflex driven by visual stimuli may be a biomechanical consequence of the head posture pilots assume when they simply look where they are going, eliminating the need to postulate the existence of a novel neuromuscular reflex.

  5. Sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei during active head movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gdowski, G. T.; Boyle, R.; McCrea, R. A.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Many secondary vestibular neurons are sensitive to head on trunk rotation during reflex-induced and voluntary head movements. During passive whole body rotation the interaction of head on trunk signals related to the vestibulo-collic reflex with vestibular signals increases the rotational gain of many secondary vestibular neurons, including many that project to the spinal cord. In some units, the sensitivity to head on trunk and vestibular input is matched and the resulting interaction produces an output that is related to the trunk velocity in space. In other units the head on trunk inputs are stronger and the resulting interaction produces an output that is larger during the reflex. During voluntary head movements, inputs related to head on trunk movement combine destructively with vestibular signals, and often cancel the sensory reafferent consequences of self-generated movements. Cancellation of sensory vestibular signals was observed in all of the antidromically identified secondary vestibulospinal units, even though many of these units were not significantly affected by reflexive head on trunk movements. The results imply that the inputs to vestibular neurons related to head on trunk rotation during reflexive and voluntary movements arise from different sources. We suggest that the relative strength of reflexive head on trunk input to different vestibular neurons might reflect the different functional roles they have in controlling the posture of the neck and body.

  6. Gender affects sympathetic and hemodynamic response to postural stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Khan, M.; Kimmerly, D. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that differences in sympathetic reflex responses to head-up tilt (HUT) between males (n = 9) and females (n = 8) were associated with decrements in postural vasomotor responses in women. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), heart rate, stroke volume (SV; Doppler), and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured during a progressive HUT protocol (5 min at each of supine, 20 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees ). MSNA and hemodynamic responses were also measured during the cold pressor test (CPT) to examine nonbaroreflex neurovascular control. SV was normalized to body surface area (SV(i)) to calculate the index of cardiac output (Q(i)), and total peripheral resistance (TPR). During HUT, heart rate increased more in females versus males (P < 0.001) and SV(i) and Q(i) decreased similarly in both groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased to a lesser extent in females versus males in the HUT (P < 0.01) but increases in TPR during HUT were similar. MSNA burst frequency was lower in females versus males in supine (P < 0.03) but increased similarly during HUT. Average amplitude/burst increased in 60 degrees HUT for males but not females. Both males and females demonstrated an increase in MAP as well as MSNA burst frequency, mean burst amplitude, and total MSNA during the CPT. However, compared with females, males demonstrated a greater neural response (DeltaTotal MSNA) due to a larger increase in mean burst amplitude (P < 0.05). Therefore, these data point to gender-specific autonomic responses to cardiovascular stress. The different MSNA response to postural stress between genders may contribute importantly to decrements in blood pressure control during HUT in females.

  7. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  8. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  9. Touch-screen tablet user configurations and case-supported tilt affect head and neck flexion angles.

    PubMed

    Young, Justin G; Trudeau, Matthieu; Odell, Dan; Marinelli, Kim; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how head and neck postures vary when using two media tablet (slate) computers in four common user configurations. Fifteen experienced media tablet users completed a set of simulated tasks with two media tablets in four typical user configurations. The four configurations were: on the lap and held with the user's hands, on the lap and in a case, on a table and in a case, and on a table and in a case set at a high angle for watching movies. An infra-red LED marker based motion analysis system measured head/neck postures. Head and neck flexion significantly varied across the four configurations and across the two tablets tested. Head and neck flexion angles during tablet use were greater, in general, than angles previously reported for desktop and notebook computing. Postural differences between tablets were driven by case designs, which provided significantly different tilt angles, while postural differences between configurations were driven by gaze and viewing angles. Head and neck posture during tablet computing can be improved by placing the tablet higher to avoid low gaze angles (i.e. on a table rather than on the lap) and through the use of a case that provides optimal viewing angles.

  10. A preliminary study of static and dynamic balance in sedentary obese young adults: the relationship between BMI, posture and postural balance.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, J A; Silva, C C; Dos Santos, H H; de Almeida Ferreira, J J; de Andrade, P R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the postural control of obese young adults with normal body mass index during different static (bipedic and unipedic support) and dynamic postural conditions (gait velocity and limits of stability) in order to compare the static and dynamic balance of these individuals. A cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out to evaluate static and dynamic balance in 25 sedentary individuals. The sample was divided into two groups, 10 in the normal-weight group (24.70 ± 3.89 years and 21.5 ± 1.66 kg m -2 ) and 15 in the obese group (26.80 ± 5.16 years and 35.66 ± 4.29 kg m -2 ). Postural evaluation was performed through visual inspection, and balance analyses were performed using the Timed Up & Go test (TUGT) and Balance System (Biodex). Descriptive analyses, Fisher's exact test and Mann Whitney U-tests were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS - 20.0, Armonk, NY) software. Most of the obese volunteers presented postural alterations, such as head protrusion (47.6%), hyperkyphosis (46.7%) and hyperlordosis (26.7%). Medial-lateral dynamic displacement, risk of falls and mean time to perform the limits of stability test and TUGT were higher for obese subjects (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences between the groups (P > 0.05) for static balance tests for either bipedal or unipedal tasks. The disadvantage presented by the young obese subjects occurs in dynamic activities, representing worse balance and an increase in time needed to accomplish these activities. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  11. Postural Responses Following Space Flight and Ground Based Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, Igor S.; Reschke, Millard F.; Cerisano, Jody M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Tomilovskaya, Elena V.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Bloomberg, Jacob B.

    2013-01-01

    With the transition from the Shuttle program to the International Space Station (ISS), the opportunity to fly sensorimotor experiments in a weightless environment has become increasingly more difficult to obtain. As a result, more investigations have turned to ground-based analogs as a way of evaluating an experiment's viability. The two primary analogs available to most investigators are 6deg head down bed rest (HDBR) and dry immersion (DI). For the time being, HDBR investigations have been associated with studies conducted in the United States while the Russians and several other European Union states have concentrated their efforts on using DI as the space flight analog of choice. While either model may be viable for cardiovascular, bone and other system changes, vestibular and sensorimotor investigators have retained serious reservations of either analog's potential to serve as a replacement for a true weightless environment. These reservations have merit, but it is worthwhile to consider that not all changes associated with sensorimotor function during space flight are the result of top-down modifications, but may also be due to the lack, or change, of appropriate support surfaces applying force to the bottom of the feet. To this end we have compared quiet stance postural responses between short duration Space Shuttle flights, long duration ISS flights and HDBR of varying duration. Using these three platforms, representing different modifications of support we investigated postural ataxia using a quiet stance model. Quiet stance was obtained by asking the subjects to stand upright on a force plate, eyes open, arms at the side of the body for three min. From the force plate we obtained average sway velocity in two axes as well as length of line (stabilogram). These parameters were then related to EMG activity recorded from the medial gastrocnemius and lateral tibialis. It is significant to note that postural ataxia measured as quiet stance shows analogous

  12. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  13. Lateral idiopathic subluxation of the radial head. Case report.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, S; Horowitz, M

    1987-01-01

    Idiopathic subluxation of the radial head (ISRH) is a rare entity that is separate from congenital dislocations of the radial head, both symptomatically and radiographically. ISRH causes pain and restriction of rotation. A dome-shaped radial head, a hypertrophied ulna, and a hypoplastic capitellum are not present in ISRH, as they are in a congenital dislocation of the radial head (CDRH). A true lateral ISRH is used as an example to demonstrate these differences. Remodeling of the radial head may preserve motion in the joint surface deformed by growth along abnormal planes of motion.

  14. Effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern.

    PubMed

    Hassaïne, M; Hamaoui, A; Zanone, P-G

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern. Twelve asymptomatic participants performed a 5-min reading task while sitting, in six experimental conditions manipulating the table top slope (20° backward slope, no slope) and its height (low, medium, up). EMGs recordings were taken on 9 superficial muscles located at the trunk and shoulder level, and the angular positions of the head, trunk and pelvis were assessed using an inertial orientation system. Results revealed that the sloping table top was associated with a higher activity of deltoideus pars clavicularis (P<0.05) and a smaller flexion angle of the head (P<0.05). A tentative conclusion is that a sloping table top induces a more erect posture of the head and the neck, but entails an overload of the shoulder, which might be harmful on the long run. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Vascular anomalies of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Donald, P J

    2001-02-01

    Vascular abnormalities of the head and neck are relatively uncommon lesions. An understanding of these anomalies based on their pathogenesis and natural history clearly divides them into hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Treatment strategies that are reasonable and predictable can then be devised based on the aforementioned factors.

  16. Additional helmet and pack loading reduce situational awareness during the establishment of marksmanship posture.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongil; Palmer, Christopher J; Busa, Michael A; Amado, Avelino; Rosado, Luis D; Ducharme, Scott W; Simon, Darnell; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2017-06-01

    The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment. Time to discriminate visual information was extended when additional pack and helmet loads were added, with the small increase in helmet load having the largest effect. Greater head-leading and in-phase trunk-head coordination were found with lighter pack loads, while trunk-leading coordination increased and head gaze dynamics were more disrupted in heavier pack loads. Additional armour load in the vest had no consequences for Time to discriminate, coordination or head dynamics. This suggests that the addition of head borne load be carefully considered when integrating new technology and that up-armouring does not necessarily have negative consequences for marksmanship performance. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the trade-space between protection and reductions in task performance continue to challenge those developing personal protective equipment. These methods provide an approach that can help optimise equipment design and loading techniques by quantifying changes in task performance and the emergent coordination dynamics that underlie that performance.

  17. Convergent evidence for abnormal striatal synaptic plasticity in dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor “use” may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes

  18. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  19. Dressing up posture: The interactive effects of posture and clothing on competency judgements.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Daniel J; Howlett, Neil; Pine, Karen; Tracey, Megan; Moggridge, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing. We confirm that posture manipulations affected judgements of individuals differently according to the clothing they were pictured in. The nature of these interactions varied by gender and, for women, competency judgements differed according to attire type (trouser or skirt suit). The implications of these findings in relation to impression formation are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Inadequate interaction between open- and closed-loop postural control in phobic postural vertigo.

    PubMed

    Wuehr, M; Pradhan, C; Novozhilov, S; Krafczyk, S; Brandt, T; Jahn, K; Schniepp, R

    2013-05-01

    Phobic postural vertigo (PPV) is characterized by a subjective dizziness and postural imbalance. Changes in postural control strategy may cause the disturbed postural performance in PPV. A better understanding of the mechanisms behind this change in strategy is required to improve the diagnostic tools and therapeutic options for this prevalent disorder. Here we apply stabilogram diffusion analysis (SDA) to examine the characteristics and modes of interaction of open- and closed-loop processes that make up the postural control scheme in PPV. Twenty patients with PPV and 20 age-matched healthy controls were recorded on a stabilometer platform with eyes open and with eyes closed. Spatio-temporal changes of the center of pressure (CoP) displacement were analyzed by means of SDA and complementary CoP amplitude measures. (1) Open-loop control mechanisms in PPV were disturbed because of a higher diffusion activity (p < 0.001). (2) The interaction of open- and closed-loop processes was altered in that the sensory feedback threshold of the system was lowered (p = 0.010). These two changes were comparable to those observed in healthy subjects during more demanding balance conditions such as standing with eyes closed. These data indicate that subjective imbalance in PPV is associated with characteristic changes in the coordination of open- and closed-loop mechanisms of postural control. Patients with PPV use sensory feedback inadequately during undisturbed stance, and this impairs postural performance. These changes are compatible with higher levels of anti-gravity muscle activity and co-contraction during the conscious concentration on control of postural stability.

  1. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p < 0.01). However, the risk of failure in unilateral stance was statistically elevated in cleaners with concurrent neck/low back pain compared to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p < 0.01), whereas pain at only neck or only low back did not increase the risk. Impaired postural balance, measured as CEA (p < 0.01), rambling (p < 0.05) and trembling (p < 0.05) was observed among cleaners with neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:21806796

  2. Postural Determinants in the Blind. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irwin M.; Murphy, Thomas J.

    The problem of malposture in the blind and its affect on orientation and travel skills was explored. A group of 45 students were enrolled in a standard 3-month mobility training program. Each student suffered a postural problem, some compounded by severe orthopedic and/or neurological deficit. All subjects were given complete orthopedic and…

  3. Can smartwatches replace smartphones for posture tracking?

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-22

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch's ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches' ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed.

  4. Influence of musical groove on postural sway.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jessica M; Warlaumont, Anne S; Abney, Drew H; Rigoli, Lillian M; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Timescales of postural fluctuation reflect underlying neuromuscular processes in balance control that are influenced by sensory information and the performance of concurrent cognitive and motor tasks. An open question is how postural fluctuations entrain to complex environmental rhythms, such as in music, which also vary on multiple timescales. Musical groove describes the property of music that encourages auditory-motor synchronization and is used to study voluntary motor entrainment to rhythmic sounds. The influence of groove on balance control mechanisms remains unexplored. We recorded fluctuations in center of pressure (CoP) of standing participants (N = 40) listening to low and high groove music and during quiet stance. We found an effect of musical groove on radial sway variability, with the least amount of variability in the high groove condition. In addition, we observed that groove influenced postural sway entrainment at various temporal scales. For example, with increasing levels of groove, we observed more entrainment to shorter, local timescale rhythmic musical occurrences. In contrast, we observed more entrainment to longer, global timescale features of the music, such as periodicity, with decreasing levels of groove. Finally, musical experience influenced the amount of postural variability and entrainment at local and global timescales. We conclude that groove in music and musical experience can influence the neural mechanisms that govern balance control, and discuss implications of our findings in terms of multiscale sensorimotor coupling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Effects of Recipient Posture on Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heesacker, Martin; Petty, Richard E.

    Sixty-five female undergraduate students who were either standing or reclining listened to a tape-recorded counterattitudinal speech containing either strong or weak arguments. Their evaluations revealed a significant interaction between posture (standing or reclining) and quality of arguments (strong or weak) on a measure of attitude change.…

  6. Role of cerebellum in learning postural tasks.

    PubMed

    Ioffe, M E; Chernikova, L A; Ustinova, K I

    2007-01-01

    For a long time, the cerebellum has been known to be a structure related to posture and equilibrium control. According to the anatomic structure of inputs and internal structure of the cerebellum, its role in learning was theoretically reasoned and experimentally proved. The hypothesis of an inverse internal model based on feedback-error learning mechanism combines feedforward control by the cerebellum and feedback control by the cerebral motor cortex. The cerebellar cortex is suggested to acquire internal models of the body and objects in the external world. During learning of a new tool the motor cortex receives feedback from the realized movement while the cerebellum produces only feedforward command. To realize a desired movement without feedback of the realized movement, the cerebellum needs to form an inverse model of the hand/arm system. This suggestion was supported by FMRi data. The role of cerebellum in learning new postural tasks mainly concerns reorganization of natural synergies. A learned postural pattern in dogs has been shown to be disturbed after lesions of the cerebral motor cortex or cerebellar nuclei. In humans, learning voluntary control of center of pressure position is greatly disturbed after cerebellar lesions. However, motor cortex and basal ganglia are also involved in the feedback learning postural tasks.

  7. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  8. 2012 National Guard Bureau Posture Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Illinois / Poland Indiana / Slovakia Kansas / Armenia Maine/ Montenegro Maryland / Estonia Maryland / Bosnia Michigan / Latvia Minnesota / Croatia New Jersey...alternative methods of planting to help increase crop production in the area. 2012 Posture Statement 19 Global Engagement State Partnership...horticulture ( plant cultivation), pest control, veterinary/animal husbandry techniques, civil engineering, and energy management. As a result of the

  9. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  10. Head stabilisation in fast running lizards.

    PubMed

    Goyens, Jana; Aerts, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The cyclic patterns of terrestrial animal locomotion are frequently perturbed in natural environments. The terrain can be complex or inclined, the substrate can move unexpectedly and animals can misjudge situations. Loosing stability due to perturbations increases the probability of capture by predators and decreases the chance of successful prey capture and winning intraspecific battles. When controlled corrective actions are necessary to negotiate perturbations, animals rely on their exteroceptive and proprioceptive senses to monitor the environment and their own body movements. The vestibular system in the inner ear perceives linear and angular accelerations. This information enables gaze stabilisation and the creation of a stable, world-bound reference frame for the integration of the information of other senses. During locomotion, both functions are known to be facilitated by head stabilisation in several animals with an erect posture. Animals with a sprawled body posture, however, undergo very large body undulations while running. Using high speed video recordings, we tested whether they nevertheless stabilise their head during running, and how this is influenced by perturbations. We found that running Acanthodactylus boskianus lizards strongly stabilise their head yaw rotations when running on a flat, straight runway: the head rotation amplitude is only 4.76±0.99°, while the adjacent trunk part rotates over 27.0±3.8°. Lateral head translations are not stabilised (average amplitude of 7.4±2.0mm). When the lizards are experimentally perturbed by a large and unexpected lateral substrate movement, lateral translations of both the head and the body decrease (on average by 1.52±0.81mm). At the same time, the rotations of the head and trunk also decrease (on average by 1.62°±7.21°). These results show that head stabilisation intensifies because of the perturbation, which emphasises the importance of vestibular perception and balance in these fast and

  11. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  12. Temporary cerebral revascularization using a radial artery in the hand-eyeshade posture: technical note.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Jun; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2014-06-17

    Kamiyama introduced a unique method of temporary cerebral revascularization using a radial artery graft (RAG) in his technical review. We tried original method with Sugita frame, and pointed out some disadvantages that include to avoid taking instruments or hands in and out, stability of hands, and unrestricted usage of brain retractors during temporary bypass between radial artery and M2 potion of middle cerebral artery (RA-M2 bypass). To solve those disadvantages, especially for Sugita head frame users, we here present a modified Kamiyama's method of temporary cerebral revascularization with the forearm elevated over the face like as hand-eyeshade posture.

  13. The prevention of selected and imposed posture-caused injury.

    PubMed

    Kemp, D

    1977-09-01

    It has been recognized for centuries that posture and health are interrelated. Poor health and injuries impose their own specific postures, and poor posture can contribute towards injury and poor health. The correlation between posture and health is not absolute. We can say that a certain posture will increase the probability of injury. Individual differences of age, sex, somatype, fitness, fatigue, load and frequency of posture adoption will dictate if injury will occur, or not, with any individual. There is no doubt that some postures are more stressful than others. The individual factors mentioned dictate whether the resulting strain is above or below the critical amount required for injury. Copyright © 1977 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  14. Normative Data for the BTrackS Balance Test of Postural Sway: Results from 16,357 Community-Dwelling Individuals Who Were 5 to 100 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Baweja, Harsimran S

    2018-05-17

    Postural sway is routinely assessed because increased postural sway is associated with poorer performance of activities of daily living, higher rates of residential care, and increased risk of falling. Force plate technology is one of the most sensitive and objective means of assessing postural sway in the clinic. The aim of this study was to provide the first set of normative data for the BTrackS Balance Test (BBT) of postural sway. The design was descriptive and population based. BBT results from 16,357 community-dwelling individuals who were 5 to 100 years old were accumulated and assessed for effects of age, sex, height, and weight. Percentile rankings were calculated for significant groupings. BBT results were dependent on age and sex but not height or weight. Therefore, percentile rankings were determined for male and female individuals in each age category, with no consideration of participant height or weight. Data were collected by third-party practitioners with various backgrounds in more than 50 locations across the United States and Canada. There was an imbalance in the sample sizes for age and sex groupings. The findings of this study represent the largest normative dataset ever published for postural sway results. Normative data on the BBT can assist in determining abnormalities in postural sway, which have been linked to negative clinical outcomes.

  15. Rehabilitation of Dysphagia Following Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pauloski, Barbara R.

    2008-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Patients with cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx or larynx may be treated with surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Each treatment type may have a negative impact on posttreatment swallowing function; these effects are presented in this chapter. The clinician has a number of rehabilitative procedures available to reduce or eliminate swallowing disorders in patients treated for cancer of the head and neck. The various procedures--including postures, maneuvers, modifications to bolus volume and viscosity, range of motion exercises, and strengthening exercises--and their efficacy in treated head and neck cancer patients are discussed. PMID:18940647

  16. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles. PMID:27313393

  17. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral).