Elias, Peter M.
Prior studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the evolution of the chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes atopic dermatitis (AD). We review here increasing evidence that the inflammation in AD results primarily from inherited abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins that impact permeability barrier function. We also will show that the barrier defect can be attributed to a paracellular abnormality due to a variety of abnormalities in lipid composition, transport and extracellular organization. Accordingly, we also review the therapeutic implications of this emerging pathogenic paradigm, including several current and potentially novel, lipid-based approaches to corrective therapy. PMID:24128970
Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan; Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Man; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong
Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan
Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Inmore » addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • Aspirin inhibits the levels of liquid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HCC cells. • Aspirin is able to down-regulate ACSL1 in HCC cells. • NF-κB inhibitor PDTC can down-regulate ACSL1 and reduces lipogenesis in HCC cells. • Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling.« less
Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman
High intake of dietary fructose causes perturbation in lipid metabolism and provokes lipid-induced insulin resistance. A rise in glucocorticoids (GCs) has recently been suggested to be involved in fructose-induced insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of GC blockade on lipid abnormalities in insulin-resistant mice. Insulin resistance was induced in mice by administering a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 60 days. Mifepristone (RU486), a GC antagonist, was administered to HFrD-fed mice for the last 18 days, and the intracellular and extracellular GC levels, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and the expression of GC-regulated genes involved in lipid metabolism were examined. HFrD elevated the intracellular GC content in both liver and adipose tissue and enhanced the GR nuclear translocation. The plasma GC level remained unchanged. The levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in plasma were elevated, accompanied by increased plasma insulin and glucose levels and decreased hepatic glycogen content. Treatment with RU486 reduced plasma lipid levels, tissue GC levels and the expression of GC-targeted genes involved in lipid accumulation, and it improved insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrated that HFrD-induced lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are mediated by enhanced GC in liver and adipose tissue and that GC antagonism might reduce fructose-induced lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oh, J-Y; Sung, Y-A; Lee, H J
The lipid accumulation product, a combination of waist circumference and triglycerides concentration, has been suggested as a better marker for abnormal glucose regulation than BMI. We aimed to compare the lipid accumulation product and BMI as useful markers for abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women. The lipid accumulation product was calculated using the formula [waist circumference (cm) - 58] × triglycerides (mmol/l). Glucose tolerance status was determined using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 2810 Korean women aged 18-39 years from the general population. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation was 6.8% (isolated impaired fasting glucose 1.8%, isolated impaired glucose tolerance 4.0%; impaired fasting glucose + impaired glucose tolerance 0.4% and diabetes mellitus 0.6%). According to the quintile distributions of the lipid accumulation product and BMI, women with a lipid accumulation product quintile greater than their BMI quintile exhibited significantly greater areas under the curve and higher levels of 2-h post-load glucose, insulin, homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance and lipid profiles than did women with a BMI quintile greater than their lipid accumulation product quintile. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the lipid accumulation product exhibited a higher odds ratio for abnormal glucose regulation than did BMI after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, previous history of gestational diabetes and family history of diabetes (odds ratios 3.5 and 2.6 of the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of lipid accumulation product and BMI, respectively). The lipid accumulation product could be useful for identifying the young Korean women with abnormal glucose regulation. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.
da Silva, P Marques; Cardoso, S Massano
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and one of the most important causes of morbidity in Western societies. Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for CVD and effective treatment significantly reduces cardiovascular risk. To evaluate the prevalence and type of persistent lipid abnormalities in patients treated with statins. The Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS) was a multicenter, epidemiologic cross-sectional study conducted in 12 European countries and Canada. Patients > or = 45 years old, treated with statins for at least three months during the enrolment period from April 2008 to February 2009, were sequentially enrolled. This study presents the results for the Portuguese population. In Portugal, 916 patients were recruited in 125 centers; mean age was 64.1 +/- 9.9 years and 47.1% were women. Most patients (66.7%) presented high cardiovascular risk. The most frequently used statin was simvastatin (55.9%; dose 21.3 +/- 6.2 mg/day) and only 15.3% of the patients were simultaneously taking other lipid-lowering agents. In most patients, LDL (62.9%; n = 883) and total cholesterol (68%; n = 883) were not at the target levels recommended by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). It was also found that 22% of patients presented lower HDL values than those recommended and that 39% presented high triglyceride levels. LDL outside the target range was the most common abnormality, both when assessed separately and when combined with low HDL and high triglycerides. The number of patients with lipid abnormalities was very significant, especially for LDL, considering that all were under statin therapy.
Morel, Sophia; Leahy, Jade; Fournier, Maryse; Lamarche, Benoit; Garofalo, Carole; Grimard, Guy; Poulain, Floriane; Delvin, Edgard; Laverdière, Caroline; Krajinovic, Maja; Drouin, Simon; Sinnett, Daniel; Marcil, Valérie; Levy, Emile
Survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer in children, are at increased risk of developing late cardiometabolic conditions. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to characterize the plasma lipid profile, Apo distribution, and lipoprotein composition of 80 childhood ALL survivors compared with 22 healthy controls. Our results show that, despite their young age, 50% of the ALL survivors displayed dyslipidemia, characterized by increased plasma triglyceride (TG) and LDL-cholesterol, as well as decreased HDL-cholesterol. ALL survivors exhibited lower plasma Apo A-I and higher Apo B-100 and C-II levels, along with elevated Apo C-II/C-III and B-100/A-I ratios. VLDL fractions of dyslipidemic ALL survivors contained more TG, free cholesterol, and phospholipid moieties, but less protein. Differences in Apo content were found between ALL survivors and controls for all lipoprotein fractions except HDL 3 HDL 2 , especially, showed reduced Apo A-I and raised Apo A-II, leading to a depressed Apo A-I/A-II ratio. Analysis of VLDL-Apo Cs disclosed a trend for higher Apo C-III 1 content in dyslipidemic ALL survivors. In conclusion, this thorough investigation demonstrates a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in ALL survivors, while highlighting significant abnormalities in their plasma lipid profile and lipoprotein composition. Special attention must, therefore, be paid to these subjects given the atherosclerotic potency of lipid and lipoprotein disorders. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Ding, Xiaoyan; Yang, Zi; Han, Yiwei; Yu, Huan
Preeclampsia (PE) is a multifactorial pregnancy complication. Maternal underlying condition and adverse factors both influence the pathogenesis of PE. Abnormal lipid metabolism as a maternal underlying disease may participate in the occurrence and development of PE. This study aimed to observe the effects of adverse factors on PE-like symptoms of pregnant mice with genetic abnormal lipid metabolism. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC3) transgenic mice with abnormal lipid metabolism were subcutaneously injected with L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or normal saline (NS) daily starting at Day 7 or 16 of pregnancy (ApoC3+L-NA and ApoC3+NS groups), and wild-type (WT) mice served as a control (WT+L-NA and WT+NS groups). All mice were subdivided into early and late subgroups by injection time. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urinary protein were measured. Pregnancy outcomes, including fetal weight, placental weight, live birth rate, and fetal absorption rate, were analyzed. Pathologic changes in the placenta were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. One-way analysis of variance, t-test, and χ(2) test were used for statistical analysis. MAP significantly increased for ApoC3+NS groups compared with WT+NS groups (P < 0.05), without significant difference in urine protein. Following L-NAME injection, MAP and urinary protein significantly increased for ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA compared with the corresponding NS groups (P < 0.05), and the increase for ApoC3+L-NA was more obvious. Urinary protein levels in early ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA significantly increased compared with the corresponding late groups (P < 0.05). Fetal absorption rate significantly increased and fetal and placental weights significantly decreased in early ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA compared with the corresponding NS groups (P < 0.05), without significant difference in late ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA groups. Fetal weight in early ApoC3+L-NA was significantly lower than in early WT+L-NA group (P < 0.05). Morphologic
Wang, Xiaoxia; Xian, Tongzhang; Jia, Xiaofan; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Li; Man, Fuli; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Qi; Guo, Lixin
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a long-term metabolic disorder. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR), and relative impairment in insulin secretion. IR plays a major role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Many previous studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen, androgen, and obesity, but few focused on the relationship between sex hormones, abnormal lipid metabolism, and IR. The goal for the present study was to identify the association of IR with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients. In total 13,400 participants were analyzed based on the results of the glucose tolerance test. Using a cross-sectional study, we showed the relationship between IR and the level of sex hormones among 3 different glucose tolerance states: normal control people, IGT, and T2DM patients. We also analyzed the relationship between IR and abnormal lipid metabolism. Significantly, luteinizing, progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels decreased in T2DM and IGT patients compared with those in normal control people. The association between IR and lipid metabolism disorders in T2DM and IGT patients was also observed. Our clinical findings may offer new insights into understanding the mechanism of metabolic disorders and in new therapeutic methods for the treatment of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. PMID:28658166
Leiter, L A; Lundman, P; da Silva, P M; Drexel, H; Jünger, C; Gitt, A K
To assess the prevalence of persistent lipid abnormalities in statin-treated patients with diabetes with and without the metabolic syndrome. This was a cross-sectional study of 22,063 statin-treated outpatients consecutively recruited by clinicians in Canada and 11 European countries. Patient cardiovascular risk factors, risk level, lipid measurements and lipid-modifying medication regimens were recorded. Of the 20,129 subjects who had documented diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome status, 41% had diabetes (of whom 86.8% also had the metabolic syndrome). Of those with diabetes, 48.1% were not at total cholesterol target compared with 58% of those without diabetes. Amongst those with diabetes, 41.6 and 41.3% of those with and without the metabolic syndrome, respectively, were not at their LDL cholesterol goal relative to 54.2% of those with metabolic syndrome and without diabetes, and 52% of those with neither condition. Twenty per cent of people with diabetes but without the metabolic syndrome were not at the optimal HDL cholesterol level compared with 9% of those with neither condition. Of people with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, 49.9% were not at optimal triglyceride level relative to 13.5% of people with neither diabetes nor the metabolic syndrome. Simvastatin was the most commonly prescribed statin (>45%) and the most common statin potency was 20-40 mg/day (simvastatin equivalent). Approximately 14% of patients were taking ezetimibe alone or in combination with a statin. Despite evidence supporting the benefits of lipid modification and international guideline recommendations, statin-treated patients with diabetes had a high prevalence of persistent lipid abnormalities. There is frequently room to optimize therapy through statin dose up-titration and/or addition of other lipid-modifying therapies. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.
Yogeeta, Surinder Kumar; Hanumantra, Rao Balaji Raghavendran; Gnanapragasam, Arunachalam; Senthilkumar, Subramanian; Subhashini, Rajakannu; Devaki, Thiruvengadam
The present study aims at evaluating the effect of the combination of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid on isoproterenol-induced abnormalities in lipid metabolism. The rats were divided into eight groups: Control, isoproterenol, ferulic acid alone, ascorbic acid alone, ferulic acid+ascorbic acid, ferulic acid+isoproterenol, ascorbic acid+isoproterenol and ferulic acid+ascorbic acid+isoproterenol. Ferulic acid (20 mg/kg b.w.t.) and ascorbic acid (80 mg/kg b.w.t.) both alone and in combination was administered orally for 6 days and on the fifth and the sixth day, isoproterenol (150 mg/kg b.w.t.) was injected intraperitoneally to induce myocardial injury to rats. Induction of rats with isoproterenol resulted in a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, free and ester cholesterol in both serum and cardiac tissue. A rise in the levels of phospholipids, lipid peroxides, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol was also observed in the serum of isoproterenol-intoxicated rats. Further, a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein in serum and in the phospholipid levels, in the heart of isoproterenol-intoxicated rats was observed, which was paralleled by abnormal activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes: total lipase, cholesterol ester synthase, lipoprotein lipase and lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase. Pre-cotreatment with the combination of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels to near normal when compared to individual treatment groups. Histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. These findings indicate the synergistic protective effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid on isoproterenol-induced abnormalities in lipid metabolism.
Calanna, S; Scicali, R; Di Pino, A; Knop, F K; Piro, S; Rabuazzo, A M; Purrello, F
We aimed to investigate lipid abnormalities and liver steatosis in patients with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared to individuals with HbA1c-defined normoglycaemia. Ninety-one subjects with prediabetes according to HbA1c, i.e. from 5.7 to 6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol), 50 newly diagnosed patients with HbA1c-defined type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% [≥48 mmol/mol]), and 67 controls with HbA1c lower than 5.7% (<39 mmol/mol), were studied. Fasting blood samples for lipid profiles, fatty liver index (FLI), bioimpedance analysis, ultrasound scan of the liver, and BARD (body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes) score for evaluation of liver fibrosis, were performed in all subjects. In comparison to controls, subjects with prediabetes were characterised by: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels, higher blood pressure, triglycerides levels and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, similar BARD score, and higher total body fat mass. In comparison to subjects with diabetes, subjects with prediabetes exhibited: similar blood pressure and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, similar FLI, reduced prevalence of and less severe hepatic steatosis, lower BARD score, increased percent fat and lower total body muscle mass. In comparison to controls, subjects with diabetes showed: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels, higher blood pressure and triglycerides levels, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, higher BARD score, and higher total body muscle mass. Moreover, HbA1c was correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, AST, and ALT. Subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively, are characterised by abnormalities in lipid profile and liver steatosis, thus exhibiting a severe risk profile for cardiovascular and liver diseases. Copyright © 2014
Privitera, Graziella; Spadaro, Luisa; Marchisello, Simona; Fede, Giuseppe; Purrello, Francesco
Progressive lipoprotein impairment occurs in liver cirrhosis and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The present review aims to summarize the current evidence regarding the prognostic value of lipoprotein abnormalities in liver cirrhosis and to address the need of a better prognostic stratification of patients, including lipoprotein profile assessment. Low levels of lipoproteins are usual in cirrhosis. Much evidence supports the prognostic role of hypolipidemia in cirrhotic patients. In particular, hypocholesterolemia represents an independent predictor of survival in cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, lipoprotein impairment is associated with several complications: infections, malnutrition, adrenal function, and spur cell anemia. Alterations of liver function are associated with modifications of circulating lipids. Decreased levels of lipoproteins significantly impact the survival of cirrhotic patients and play an important role in the pathogenesis of some cirrhosis-related complications.
Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Tossavainen, Paivi H; Heywood, James Jn; Dalton, R Neil; Dunger, David B
Genetic factors modulate lipid levels and an intrafamilial aggregation of abnormal lipid profiles has been reported in the general population. As dyslipidemia is common among people with diabetes and has been related to diabetic nephropathy, we investigated whether parental lipid levels were related to lipids and albumin excretion in young offspring with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). Non-fasting blood samples were collected from 895 offspring, 808 mothers and 582 fathers. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-HDL-C were measured. Three early morning urinary albumin-creatinine ratios (ACR), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and anthropometric parameters were also assessed. The offspring's mean age (±SD) was 14.5 ± 2.2 yr, mean diabetes duration 5.5 ± 3.7 yr; the fathers' age was 45.7 ± 6.1 yr and the mothers' age was 42.8 ± 5.5 yr. After adjusting for the offspring age, gender, body mass index, HbA1c, maternal (TC: β = 0.242; TG: β = 0.152; HDL-C: β = 0.285; LDL-C: β = 0.278; non-HDL-C: β = 0.253; all p < 0.001) and paternal lipid levels (TC: β = 0.188; TG: β = 0.108; HDL-C: β = 0.253; LDL-C: β = 0.187; non-HDL-C: β = 0.173; all p < 0.001) were significantly associated with the offspring's lipid parameters. In contrast, no significant association was found between parental lipid levels and the offspring's ACR. In the present study, parental lipid levels were independently associated with the same traits in the offspring, suggesting a role of genetic influences and/or shared environmental factors in modulating the metabolic profile of adolescents with T1D. In contrast, there was no significant association between parental lipid levels and the offspring's albumin excretion. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
S, Kanjanavanit; T, Puthanakit; U, Vibol; P, Kosalaraksa; R, Hansudewechakul; C, Ngampiyasakul; J, Wongsawat; W, Luesomboon; J, Wongsabut; A, Mahanontharit; T, Suwanlerk; Saphonn; J, Ananworanich; K, Ruxrungtham
Background Dyslipidemia is a common complication among HIV-infected children after antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, HIV itself can cause abnormal lipid metabolism. There is limited information of lipid profile among Asian HIV-infected children naïve to ART. Methods 274 HIV-infected ART-naïve Thai and Cambodian children 1–12 years of age with CD4 between 15–24% were included. Patients were fasted for ≥ 4 hours before blood was drawn. Abnormal lipid level was defined as triglyceride (TG) > 130 mg/dL, total cholesterol (TC) > 200 mg/dL, low density lipoprotein (LDL) > 130 mg/dL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) ≤ 40 mg/dL. Result The mean (SD) was 76.6 (33.8) months for age and −1.3 (1.0) for weight Z-score. Mean (SD) CD4% was 19.9 (4.8) % and HIV RNA was 4.6 (0.6) log10 copies/ml. The median (SD) fasting time was 13.0 (2.7) hours. Mean (SD) for lipids were 116 mg/dl (62) for TG, 139 mg/dl (29) for TC, 73 mg/dl (29) for LDL and 45 mg/dl (19) for HDL. Overall 63.9% had dyslipidemia with hypertriglyceridemia and hypo HDL being the most common: 28% and 45% respectively, while 2% had hypercholesterolemia or hyper-LDL. After adjusting for age, having HIV RNA > 5 log10 copies/ml was associated with hypo-HDL with odds ratios of 8.1 (95% CI 2.7–24.3). Conclusions Up to two-third of ART-naïve, HIV-infected Asian children with mild to moderate immune suppression had dyslipidemia. Low HDL was the most common and was associated with high HIV viremia. The long term consequence of low HDL deserves further investigation in children. PMID:22155918
Latsuzbaia, Ardashel; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Felix, Janine F
Lipid concentrations are heritable traits. Recently, the number of known genetic loci associated with lipid levels in adults increased from 95 to 157. The effects of these 157 loci have not been tested in children. Considering that lipid levels track from childhood to adulthood, we studied to determine whether these variants already affected lipid concentrations in a large group of 2,645 children with a median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.7-7.3 years) from the population-based Generation R Study. Twenty-eight SNPs associated with TGs, 39 SNPs associated with total cholesterol (TC), 28 SNPs associated with LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and 56 SNPs associated with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) were analyzed individually and combined into genetic risk scores (GRSs). All risk scores were associated with their specific outcomes. The differences in mean absolute lipid and lipoprotein values between the 10% of children with the highest lipid or lipoprotein GRS versus the 10% with the lowest score were 0.28, 0.25, 0.32, and 0.30 mmol/l for TGs, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C, respectively. In conclusion, we show for the first time that GRSs based on 157 SNPs associated with adult lipid concentrations are associated with lipid levels in children. The genetic background of these phenotypes at least partly overlaps between children and adults. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Milad, Nadia; White, Zoe; Tehrani, Arash Y; Sellers, Stephanie; Rossi, Fabio M V; Bernatchez, Pascal
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by loss of dystrophin expression and leads to severe ambulatory and cardiac function decline. However, the dystrophin-deficient mdx murine model of DMD only develops a very mild form of the disease. Our group and others have shown vascular abnormalities in animal models of MD, a likely consequence of the fact that blood vessels express the same dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) proteins as skeletal muscles. To test the blood vessel contribution to muscle damage in DMD, mdx 4cv mice were given elevated lipid levels via apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene knockout combined with normal chow or lipid-rich Western diets. Ambulatory function and heart function (via echocardiogram) were assessed at 4 and 7 months of age. After sacrifice, muscle histology and aortic staining were used to assess muscle pathology and atherosclerosis development, respectively. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and creatine kinase (CK) were also measured. Although there was an increase in left ventricular heart volume in mdx-ApoE mice compared to that in mdx mice, parameters of heart function were not affected. Compared with wild-type and ApoE-null, only mdx-ApoE KO mice showed significant ambulatory dysfunction. Despite no significant difference in plasma CK, histological analyses revealed that elevated plasma lipids in chow- and Western diet-fed mdx-ApoE mice was associated with severe exacerbation of muscle pathology compared to mdx mice: significant increase in myofiber damage and fibrofatty replacement in the gastrocnemius and triceps brachii muscles, more reminiscent of human DMD pathology. Finally, although both ApoE and mdx-ApoE groups displayed increased plasma lipids, mdx-ApoE exhibited atherosclerotic plaque deposition equal to or less than that of ApoE mice. Since others have shown that lipid abnormalities correlate with DMD severity, our data suggest that plasma lipids could be
Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Patterson, Tucker A; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin
Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the
Kiranmayee, Donthu; Kavya, Kothapalli; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Sriharibabu, Manne; Madhuri, Gadi Leela Jaya; Venu, Swargam
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive age women and is associated with both reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. Recent studies have demonstrated an early onset of abnormal cardiovascular risk profile in women with PCOS. Abnormal lipid profile patterns are common in women with PCOS, and these abnormalities are not uniform in all populations. Anthropometry is a simple and commonly used research tool for assessing metabolic risk in women with PCOS. Therefore, this study examined the correlations between anthropometric parameters and lipid profile in women with PCOS. The objectives of the study were (1) To study the anthropometric profile of women with PCOS, (2) To examine the lipid profile pattern of these women with PCOS and (3) To see whether there exists any correlation between these anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. This observational cross-sectional study examined anthropometry and lipid profile in 86 married women with PCOS in the age group of 18-35 years and correlated them by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. More than 80% of the women with PCOS demonstrated abnormal anthropometric parameters, and in more than 70% women, lipid abnormalities such as low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Significant positive correlations were seen between body mass index (BMI) and triglycerides ( P ≤ 0.001) and waist circumference (WC) and triglycerides ( P ≤ 0.029). Negative correlations were observed between BMI and HDL cholesterol ( P ≤ 0.013). This study revealed that BMI and WC are the most important anthropometric parameters correlated to dyslipidemia in the south Indian women with PCOS.
Tania, M; Khan, M A; Song, Y
Defects in lipid metabolism have been found to be linked to several diseases, among which atherosclerosis, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are the most important. Although cancer is chiefly a genetic disease, dietary lipid intake and metabolism are related to some cancer risks, including the risk for ovarian cancer. Higher intake of dietary lipids, systemic lipid metabolism malfunction, and abnormal serum lipid levels are somehow related to ovarian cancer. Overexpression of some lipid metabolic enzymes are also found in ovarian cancer. In this review article, we summarize the relationships between lipid intake, lipid metabolism, and ovarian cancer.
Tania, M.; Khan, M.A.; Song, Y.
Defects in lipid metabolism have been found to be linked to several diseases, among which atherosclerosis, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are the most important. Although cancer is chiefly a genetic disease, dietary lipid intake and metabolism are related to some cancer risks, including the risk for ovarian cancer. Higher intake of dietary lipids, systemic lipid metabolism malfunction, and abnormal serum lipid levels are somehow related to ovarian cancer. Overexpression of some lipid metabolic enzymes are also found in ovarian cancer. In this review article, we summarize the relationships between lipid intake, lipid metabolism, and ovarian cancer. PMID:20975872
Mohamed, Hanaa Mahmoud; Mohamed, Manal Abdul-Hamid
The present study aims of to investigate the effects of low and high doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on histopathology and apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells as well as lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality and DNA fragmentation. Eighteen animals were divided into three groups each group contain six animals. The rats were divided into three groups as following: Group 1 was administered saline (control). Group 2, received nandrolone decanoate (3 mg/kg/weekly) (low dose) with intramuscular injection. Group 3, received intramuscular injection dose of nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/weekly) (high dose). After 8 weeks, caspase-3 assay was used to determine the apoptotic cells. The sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and testosterone concentration were also investigated in the experimental groups of both low and high dose compared to the control groups. Treated group with high dose showed degenerated germinal epithelial cells sloughed in the lumina of seminiferous tubules, where almost seminiferous tubules were devoid of spermatids and spermatozoa compared to control and group treated with low dose. Also, a significant increase of lipid peroxidation levels and heat shock proteins was observed in two groups administrated with two different doses of ND while, antioxidant enzyme activities, and testosterone concentration was significantly decreased in two treated group when compared with control. Administration of ND at high and low doses leads to deteriorated sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation and testicular apoptosis. In conclusion, the administration ND at high doses more effective on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality, histopathology, apoptotic and DNA changes compared to low dose group and to control group. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide
The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2011 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.
Airanthi, M K Widjaja-Adhi; Sasaki, Naoya; Iwasaki, Sayaka; Baba, Nobuko; Abe, Masayuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo
Brown seaweed lipids from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Sargassum horneri (Akamoku), and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Uganomoku) contained several bioactive compounds, namely, fucoxanthin, polyphenols, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Fucoxanthin and polyphenol contents of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids were higher than those of Wakame lipids, while Wakame lipids showed higher total omega-3 PUFA content than Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in liver lipids of KK-A(y) mouse significantly increased by Akamoku and Uganomoku lipid feeding as compared with the control, but not by Wakame lipid feeding. Fucoxanthin has been reported to accelerate the bioconversion of omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA to DHA and AA, respectively. The higher hepatic DHA and AA level of mice fed Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids would be attributed to the higher content of fucoxanthin of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The lipid hydroperoxide levels of the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids were significantly lower than those of control mice, even though total PUFA content was higher in the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids. This would be, at least in part, due to the antioxidant activity of fucoxanthin metabolites in the liver.
Damsa, Cristian; Lazignac, Coralie; Miller, Nick; Maris, Susanne; Adam, Eric; Rossignon, Kevin
Although there are several data suggesting a link between lower lipids levels and the risk of suicide, there are few data concerning lower lipids levels in patients with dissociative disorders (DD). This is the first longitudinal study investigating the evolution of the lipids levels during a specific 8 weeks of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PP) for patients with DD. 32 patients diagnosed with DD (SCID for DSMIVR) were assessed with Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Clinical Global Impression and Improvement Scale and their lipids levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein) were measured at inclusion and after 3 and 8 weeks of PP. 30 patients finished the study. There is a significant positive (p < 0.05) link between lower lipids levels (total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerids) and a higher level of dissociation (DES scores) at the beginning and at the end of the study. Interestingly, we found a significant (p = 0.018) positive link between the reduction of the dissociation (DES) and the increase of the triglycerides levels after 8 weeks of treatment. While lower lipids seems related to a higher level of dissociation before and after the treatment, an increasing triglycerides level was observed after 8 weeks of PP in patients with a better outcome. Further studies are needed with larger samples and control groups, in order to confirm these preliminary data. These findings could open the way for hypothesis about the role of lipids in the pathophysiology of DD and raise the question of the patients with DD receiving antilipidemiants agents.
Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.
Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380
Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Santpere, Gabriel; Marín, Raquel; Torrent, Laia; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario
Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains that provide a highly saturated and viscous physicochemical microenvironment to promote protein–lipid and protein–protein interactions. We purified lipid rafts from human frontal cortex from normal, early motor stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and incidental Parkinson’s disease (iPD) subjects and analyzed their lipid composition. We observed that lipid rafts from PD and iPD cortices exhibit dramatic reductions in their contents of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (22:6-n3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Also, saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) were significantly higher than in control brains. Paralleling these findings, unsaturation and peroxidability indices were considerably reduced in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Lipid classes were also affected in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Thus, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were increased in PD and iPD, whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides and plasmalogen levels were considerably diminished. Our data pinpoint a dramatic increase in lipid raft order due to the aberrant biochemical structure in PD and iPD and indicate that these abnormalities of lipid rafts in the frontal cortex occur at early stages of PD pathology. The findings correlate with abnormal lipid raft signaling and cognitive decline observed during the development of these neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21717034
Thelin, A; Stiernström, E L; Holmberg, S
Farmers have a low risk for cardiovascular disease, which may be related to a favourable blood lipid profile. In order to study the blood lipid levels and evaluate the effect of other cardiovascular risk factors on the blood lipid profile, this cross-sectional study was made. A total of 1013 farmers and 769 non-farming rural men in nine different Swedish counties were examined, interviewed, and replied to questionnaires. The inter-relationships between different risk factors were analysed using a multivariate linear regression model. The farmers had a significantly more favourable blood lipid profile than the non-farmers although the total cholesterol levels were almost the same for the two groups. In the total study population there were significant positive relationships between total cholesterol level and body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure and smoking. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was positively related to physical workload and alcohol consumption, and negatively related to BMI, waist/hip ratio and smoking. Triglyceride levels showed a positive relationship to BMI, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Differences between farmers and other rural males were seen, especially with respect to the effect of physical activity and psychosocial factors. Among the farmers, a negative correlation between the Karasek-Theorell authority over work index and total cholesterol, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL ratio and triglyceride levels was observed. This study indicated that diet is of minor significance for the blood lipid profile, whereas factors such as physical activity, body weight and the waist/hip ratio, smoking, alcohol consumption, and perhaps psychosocial working conditions are major independent factors affecting the blood lipid profile most prominently among farmers, but also among non-farming rural men.
Wysocka-Mincewicz, Marta; Kołodziejczyk, Honorata; Wierzbicka, Elżbieta; Szalecki, Mieczysław
Overweight children are growing problem as in the pediatric, as well in the diabetic population. The aim of the study was to research the percentage of overweight and obesity in a group of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and to analyzethe lipid parameters, as well risk factors of these abnormalities. The study group consist of 60 type 1 diabetic adolescents (including 32 girls, 53.3%), aged above 12 years (mean age for girls 14.6+/-0,3years, boys 15.6+/-0.4 years) with diabetes duration (girls 5.7+-0.6 years, boys 4.4+/-0.8 years). Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v 9.0 and SPSS v20. The study revealed that boys with type 1 diabetes are significantly higher than healthy population, with weight, waist circumference and BMI comparable to the healthy counterparts. However, diabetic girls are more likely to be overweight and have bigger waist circumference, and higher BMI than the healthy population. Overweight were 12 adolescents (20%) using BMI ≥1SD criterion, and 10 (16%) using waist circumference as obesity parameter. Logistic regression revealed that the most important factors for obesity and abdominal obesity are female gender (OR=2.43 and OR=4.56for obesity and abdominal, respectively), diabetes duration above 5 years (respectively OR=1.96 and OR=3.27) and poor metabolic control (respectively OR=1.74 and OR=2.89). The most important risk factor for obesity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes is female gender. Lipids profile is closely dependent on metabolic control and mass excess. Diabetes duration, metabolic control and lipids profile are significant risk factors for overweight and abdominal obesity. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.
Giraldo Villa, Adriana; Henao Roldan, Catherine; García Loboguerrero, Fanny; Martínez Volkmar, María Isabel; Contreras Ramírez, Mónica María; Ruiz Navas, Patricia
Prolonged Total Parental Nutrition (TPN) is associated with life-threatening complications in the pediatric population, being cholestasis one of the most important ones. The source of fatty acids, the amount of phytosterols and the dose of lipids in the nutritional support, have been linked to the development of this complication. To describe the behavior of liver function tests in pediatric patients with TPN where lipid based omega 3 fatty acids (OmegavenR) were used. A retrospective research was made in a population of children under 18 years old where omega 3 fatty acids were used for a minimum of 8 days. Patients were initially classified into two groups: cholestasis and abnormal liver tests. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB) gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) before and after treatment with OmegavenR was evaluated. 33 patients met the inclusion criteria. At the end of treatment with OmegavenR, 82.4% of patients who initially presented cholestasis showed resolution or improvement. The group of patients with abnormal liver tests 18.8% progressed to cholestasis. Our study suggests that the use of OmegavenR in pediatric patients with TPN and DB ≥ 2 mg/dL, seem to reverse or improve cholestasis while in patients with abnormal liver tests we still don't have clear effect. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Ingi Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Kathiresan, Sekar; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Gonçalo R
Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10(-8), including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.
Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Feng, Rui-Xiang; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing
Objective This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters. Methods 631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and SHBG levels were detected. Results Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001), while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05). For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility, progressive motility (PR) and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS). Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012), both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002), and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051). Conclusion The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility. PMID:26726884
Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; De la Garza, Yolanda E; Villarreal, Jesus Z; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A
The increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the serum lipid profile, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, and associated risk factors among the North Mexican adolescent population. Two hundred and ninety-three subjects (47.8% girls) ages 11 to 16 years took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011-2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, dyslipidaemia was defined as a presence of ≥1 of the following levels (mg/dL): Total cholesterol ≥200, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40, and triglyceride ≥130. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 48.8% with no differences between sexes. Adolescents with high body mass index were more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (overweight: odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-3.77, P < 0.05; obesity: OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.11-4.41, P < 0.05) than those with normal weight. Abdominally subjects with obesity were also more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.35-3.91, P < 0.01) than their leaner counterparts. Half of Mexican adolescents living in the State of Nuevo León have at least 1 abnormal lipid concentration. Low HDL-chol level was the most common dyslipidaemia. Body mass index and abdominal obesity were associated with the prevalence of at least 1 abnormal lipid level.
Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Mo, Zengnan; He, Jiang; Wang, Laiyuan; Yang, Xueli; Tan, Aihua; Chen, Shufeng; Chen, Jing; Gu, C Charles; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Hao, Yongchen; Li, Jianxin; Hixson, James E; Li, Yunzhi; Cheng, Min; Liu, Xiaoli; Cao, Jie; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Peng, Xiaozhong; Gu, Dongfeng
Multiple genetic loci associated with lipid levels have been identified predominantly in Europeans, and the issue of to what extent these genetic loci can predict blood lipid levels increases over time and the incidence of future hyperlipidemia remains largely unknown. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of lipid levels in 8344 subjects followed by replication studies including 14 739 additional individuals. We replicated 17 previously reported loci. We also newly identified 3 Chinese-specific variants in previous regions (HLA-C, LIPG, and LDLR) with genome-wide significance. Almost all the variants contributed to lipid levels change and incident hyperlipidemia >8.1-year follow-up among 6428 individuals of a prospective cohort study. The strongest associations for lipid levels change were detected at LPL, TRIB1, APOA1-C3-A4-A5, LIPC, CETP, and LDLR (P range from 4.84×10(-4) to 4.62×10(-18)), whereas LPL, TRIB1, ABCA1, APOA1-C3-A4-A5, CETP, and APOE displayed significant strongest associations for incident hyperlipidemia (P range from 1.20×10(-3) to 4.67×10(-16)). The 4 lipids genetic risk scores were independently associated with linear increases in their corresponding lipid levels and risk of incident hyperlipidemia. A C-statistics analysis showed significant improvement in the prediction of incident hyperlipidemia on top of traditional risk factors including the baseline lipid levels. These findings identified some evidence for allelic heterogeneity in Chinese when compared with Europeans in relation to lipid associations. The individual variants and those cumulative effects were independent risk factors for lipids increase and incident hyperlipidemia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Cholesterol management to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease is a major public health concern. Despite widespread recognition of lipid abnormalities as cardiovascular risk factors, significant cardiovascular event reductions with cholesterol-lowering therapies, and dissemination of treatment guidelines, most high-risk patients are not at target lipid levels. In addition to lifestyle changes, four major drug classes are available to modify lipid levels: fibrates, niacin, resins, and statins. High efficacy and tolerability in clinical trials make statins the most widely prescribed of these agents. Newer, more potent members of this class and novel formulations of niacin and resins may provide more effective therapy for dyslipidemia with fewer side effects. Several agents in development (cholesterol-absorption inhibitors and ACAT inhibitors) exploit mechanisms of action complementary to those of current treatments and combined with statins may produce greater improvements in lipid profiles than are now possible. These innovations should enable a greater number of patients to achieve more aggressive cholesterol goals, thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular events.
Marcovecchio, M. Loredana; Dalton, R. Neil; Prevost, A. Toby; Acerini, Carlo L.; Barrett, Timothy G.; Cooper, Jason D.; Edge, Julie; Neil, Andrew; Shield, Julian; Widmer, Barry; Todd, John A.; Dunger, David B.
OBJECTIVE To explore the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and their relationship with albumin excretion and microalbuminuria in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study population comprised 895 young subjects with type 1 diabetes (490 males); median age at the baseline assessment was 14.5 years (range 10–21.1), and median diabetes duration was 4.8 years (0.2–17). A total of 2,194 nonfasting blood samples were collected longitudinally for determination of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TG, and non-HDL cholesterol. Additional annually collected data on anthropometric parameters, A1C, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) were available. RESULTS Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol were higher in females than in males (all P < 0.001). A significant proportion of subjects presented sustained lipid abnormalities during follow-up: total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/l (18.6%), non-HDL cholesterol >3.4 mmol/l (25.9%), TG >1.7 mmol/l (20.1%), and LDL cholesterol >3.4 mmol/l (9.6%). Age and duration were significantly related to all lipid parameters (P < 0.001); A1C was independently related to all parameters (P < 0.001) except HDL cholesterol, whereas BMI SD scores were related to all parameters (P < 0.05) except total cholesterol. Total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were independently related to longitudinal changes in ACR (B coefficient ± SE): 0.03 ± 0.01/1 mmol/l, P = 0.009, and 0.32 ± 0.014/1 mmol/l, P = 0.02, respectively. Overall mean total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were higher in microalbuminuria positive (n = 115) than in normoalbuminuric subjects (n = 780): total cholesterol 4.7 ± 1.2 vs. 4.5 ± 0.8 mmol/l (P = 0.04) and non-HDL cholesterol 3.2 ± 1.2 vs. 2.9 ± 0.8 mmol/l (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS In this longitudinal study of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, sustained lipid abnormalities were related to age, duration, BMI, and A1C. Furthermore, ACR was
Weissman, Ellen M; Zhu, Carolyn W; Schooler, Nina R; Goetz, Raymond R; Essock, Susan M
Treatment with second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications has been linked with increased rates of the metabolic syndrome (i.e., dyslipidemia, obesity, and hyperglycemia). Several sets of published recommendations now provide clinicians with guidelines for monitoring metabolic parameters in individuals with schizophrenia treated with SGAs. However, few data are available regarding actual metabolic monitoring practices in this patient population. The objectives of the study were to determine baseline lipid monitoring rates for individuals with schizophrenia prescribed SGAs during the period prior to the publication of monitoring guidelines and to determine whether individuals with abnormal lipid levels received follow-up monitoring sooner than individuals with normal levels. Lipid monitoring rates for 408 individuals with schizophrenia who were prescribed SGAs from October 1999 to October 2003 were examined using administrative data from a Veterans Affairs facility. Survival analysis was used to examine time to follow-up lipid measurement and to compare time to follow-up measure for individuals with normal initial lipid levels versus those with elevated initial lipid levels. Eighty-five percent of individuals had at least 1 measurement for total cholesterol or triglycerides in a 4-year period. Abnormal initial measurements predicted significantly earlier follow-up monitoring (p < .005 for total cholesterol, p < .05 for triglycerides, p < .001 for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol). However, median time to follow-up measure was 304 days (approximately 10 months) for individuals with elevated total cholesterol levels, which is too long for optimal clinical follow-up. Program managers and clinicians should assess adequacy of monitoring and support quality improvement initiatives in this area.
Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; De la Garza, Yolanda E.; Villarreal, Jesus Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.
ABSTRACT Background: The increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the serum lipid profile, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, and associated risk factors among the North Mexican adolescent population. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-three subjects (47.8% girls) ages 11 to 16 years took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, dyslipidaemia was defined as a presence of ≥1 of the following levels (mg/dL): Total cholesterol ≥200, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130, non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40, and triglyceride ≥130. Results: The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 48.8% with no differences between sexes. Adolescents with high body mass index were more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (overweight: odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–3.77, P < 0.05; obesity: OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.11–4.41, P < 0.05) than those with normal weight. Abdominally subjects with obesity were also more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.35–3.91, P < 0.01) than their leaner counterparts. Conclusions: Half of Mexican adolescents living in the State of Nuevo León have at least 1 abnormal lipid concentration. Low HDL-chol level was the most common dyslipidaemia. Body mass index and abdominal obesity were associated with the prevalence of at least 1 abnormal lipid level. PMID:27379432
García-Rodríguez, S; Arias-Santiago, S; Orgaz-Molina, J; Magro-Checa, C; Valenzuela, I; Navarro, P; Naranjo-Sintes, R; Sancho, J; Zubiaur, M
Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of genes associated with lipid metabolism (miRNA-33) and vascular function and angiogenesis (miRNA-126). The objective of this exploratory study was to measure plasma levels of miRNA-33 and miRNA-126 in patients with plaque psoriasis and evaluate their association with clinical parameters. We studied 11 patients with plaque psoriasis. The median Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was 13 (interquartile range [IQR], 9-14) and body surface area involvement was 12 (IQR, 11-15). Eleven healthy controls matched for age and sex were also included. We analyzed cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical carotid atheromatosis. Plasma miRNAs were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Carotid intima-media thickness was greater in patients (0.57mm; IQR, 0.54-0.61; n=11) than in controls (0.50mm; IQR, 0.48-0.54; data available for 9 controls) (P=.0055, Mann-Whitney). Expression of miRNA-33 in patients (5.34; IQR, 3.12-7.96; n=11) was significantly higher than in controls (2.33; IQR, 1.71-2.84; only detected in 7 of 11 controls) (P=.0049, Wilcoxon signed rank). No differences in miRNA-126 levels were observed between patients and controls. In patients (n=11), we observed a positive correlation between miRNA-33 and insulin levels (r=0.7289, P=.0109) and a negative correlation between miRNA-126 and carotid intima-media thickness (r=-0.6181, P=.0426). In psoriasis patients plasma levels of lipid and glucose metabolism-related miRNA-33 are increased and correlated with insulin. The study of circulating miRNA-33 in psoriasis may provide new insights about the associated systemic inflammatory abnormalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Olson, James R; Pavuk, Marian; Carpenter, David O
Serum lipid levels are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In addition to diet, exercise, genetics, age and race, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) influence concentrations of serum lipids. We investigated associations between fasting concentrations of 35 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and nine organochlorine pesticides in relation to total serum lipids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides in 525 Caucasian and African American residents of Anniston, Alabama, who were not on any lipid-lowering medication. In Model 1, data were adjusted for age, age quadratic, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercise, while in Model 2, additional adjustment was done for other POPs. As compared to Caucasians, African Americans had lower levels of total lipids and triglycerides with higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol, but higher concentrations of PCBs and pesticides. Total pesticides were more strongly associated with elevations in serum lipids than were total PCBs, and the associations were stronger in African Americans. Total DDTs were not associated with serum lipids after adjustment for other POPs in either racial group, while the strongest positive associations were seen for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in both racial groups. Racial differences in lipid profiles, concentrations of POPs and associations between POP concentrations and serum lipids are relevant to racial differences in rates of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tsao, Connie W; Preis, Sarah Rosner; Peloso, Gina M; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Kathiresan, Sekar; Fox, Caroline S; Cupples, L Adrienne; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J
This study evaluated the association of timing of lipid levels and lipid genetic risk score (GRS) with subclinical atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a slowly progressive disorder influenced by suboptimal lipid levels. Long-term versus contemporary lipid levels may more strongly impact the development of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Offspring Cohort participants (n = 1,156, 44% male, 63 ± 9 years) underwent serial fasting lipids (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides), Exam 1 (1971 to 1975) to Exam 7 (1998 to 2001). FHS Third Generation Cohort participants (n = 1,954, 55% male, 45 ± 6 years) had fasting lipid profiles assessed, 2002 to 2005. Computed tomography (2002 to 2005) measured CAC. Lipid GRSs were computed from significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The association between early, long-term average, and contemporary lipids, and lipid GRS with elevated CAC was assessed using logistic regression. In FHS Offspring, Exam 1 and long-term average as compared with Exam 7 lipid measurements, including untreated lipid levels, were strongly associated with elevated CAC. In the FHS Third Generation, contemporary lipids were associated with CAC. The LDL-C GRS was associated with CAC (age-/sex-adjusted odds ratio: 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 1.29, p = 0.04). However, addition of the GRS to the lipid models did not result in a significant increase in the odds ratio or C-statistic for any lipid measure. Early and long-term average lipid levels, as compared with contemporary measures, are more strongly associated with elevated CAC. Lipid GRS was associated with lipid levels but did not predict elevated CAC. Adult early and long-term average lipid levels provide important information when assessing subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M.; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian’an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S.F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Ingi Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Rich, Stephen S.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable, risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,578 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5×10−8, including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian, and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipids are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index. Our results illustrate the value of genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestries and provide insights into biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological, and therapeutic research. PMID:24097068
Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji
Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.
Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji
Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets. PMID:27144650
Bradlee, M L; Singer, M R; Daniels, S R; Moore, L L
Few studies have evaluated the effects of food-based eating patterns on adolescent lipid levels. This study examines whether usual adolescent eating patterns (ages 9-17 years) predict lipid levels at 18-20 years of age. This study uses previously collected data from the longitudinal NHLBI Growth and Health Study in which 2379 girls were enrolled at ages 9-10 years and followed for ten years. Food-based eating patterns were derived from multiple 3-day diet records. After adjusting for age, race, socioeconomic status, height, physical activity, and television viewing, girls with higher intakes of dairy, fruit and non-starchy vegetables had about a 40-50% reduced risk an LDL-C ≥ 170 mg/dL and non-HDL-C ≥ 145 mg/dL. Diets characterized by higher intakes of dairy and whole grains had similar benefits on TC and LDL-C. Girls consuming more fruits and non-starchy vegetables as well as more whole grains were much less likely to have high-risk lipid levels. Lean meat, poultry and fish when consumed in the context of other healthy eating patterns had no adverse effects on lipid levels in late adolescence. In fact when consumed with higher amounts of fruit and non-starchy vegetables, lean meat, poultry and fish had beneficial effects on HDL. Finally, dietary patterns that included more whole grains tended to be associated with lower TG levels. Healthy childhood eating patterns characterized by higher intakes of a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, lean meat, poultry and fish are important modifiable predictors of lipid levels in late adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...
Background Abnormal lipid concentrations are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The pathological susceptibility to cardiovascular disease risks such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, insulin resistance, and so on differs between Sasang constitutional types. Methods We used multiple regression analyses to study the association between lipid-related traits and genetic variants from several genome-wide association studies according to Sasang constitutional types, considering that the Tae-Eum (TE) has predominant cardiovascular risk. Results By analyzing 26 variants of 20 loci in two Korean populations (8,597 subjects), we found that 12 and 5 variants, respectively, were replicably associated with lipid levels and dyslipidemia risk. By analyzing TE and non-TE type (each 2,664 subjects) populations classified on the basis of Sasang constitutional medicine, we found that the minor allele effects of three variants enriched in TE type had a harmful influence on lipid risk (near apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5)-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1 on increased triglyceride: p = 8.90 × 10-11, in APOE-APOC1-APOC4 on increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: p = 1.63 × 10-5, and near endothelial lipase gene on decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: p = 4.28 × 10-3), whereas those of three variants (near angiopoietin-like 3 gene, APOA5-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1, and near lipoprotein lipase gene on triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) associated in non-TE type had neutral influences because of a compensating effect. Conclusions These results implied that the minor allele effects of lipid-associated variants may predispose TE type subjects to high cardiovascular disease risk because of their genetic susceptibility to lipid-related disorders. PMID:25005712
Barcelo-Coblijn, G.; Murphy, E. J.; Mills, K.; Winchester, B.; Jakobs, C.; Snead, O.C.; Gibson, KM
Earlier work from our laboratory provided evidence for myelin abnormalities (decreased quantities of proteins associated with myelin compaction, decreased sheath thickness) in cortex and hippocampus of Aldh5a1−/− mice, which have a complete ablation of the succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase protein . In the current report, we have extended these findings via comprehensive analysis of brain phospholipid fractions, including quantitation of fatty acids in individual phospholipid subclasses and estimation of hexose-ceramide in Aldh5a1−/− brain. In comparison to wild-type littermates (Aldh5a1+/+), we detected a 20% reduction in the ethanolamine glycerophospholipid content of Aldh5a1−/− mice, while other brain phospholipids (choline glycerophospholipid, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol) were within normal limits. Analysis of individual fatty acids in each of these fractions revealed consistent alterations in n-3 fatty acids, primarily increased 22:6n-3 levels (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA). In the phosphatidyl serine fraction there were marked increases in the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids with corresponding decreases of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of hexose-ceramide (glucosyl- and galactosylceramide, principal myelin cerebrosides) were decreased in Aldh5a1−/− brain tissue (one-tailed t test, p=0.0449). The current results suggest that lipid and myelin abnormalities in this animal may contribute to the pathophysiology. PMID:17300923
Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Voortman, Trudy; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Gaillard, Romy
Background and Aims Maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with cord blood lipid and insulin levels. Not much is known about the influence of maternal PUFAs during pregnancy on long-term offspring lipid and insulin metabolism. We examined the associations of maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels during pregnancy with childhood lipids and insulin levels. Methods and Results In a population-based prospective cohort study among 3,230 mothers and their children, we measured maternal second trimester n-3 and n-6 PUFA plasma levels. At the median age of 6.0 years (95% range, 5.6-7.9), we measured childhood total-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and c-peptide levels. Higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels, and specifically DHA levels, were associated with higher childhood total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and insulin levels (p-values <0.05), but not with LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Maternal total n-6 PUFA levels were not associated with childhood outcomes, but higher levels of the individual n-6 PUFAs, EDA and DGLA were associated with a lower childhood HDL-cholesterol, and higher AA levels with higher childhood total-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels (all p-values <0.05). A higher maternal n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was only associated with lower childhood HDL-cholesterol and insulin levels (p-values <0.05). These associations were not explained by childhood body mass index. Conclusions Higher maternal total n-3 PUFAs and specifically DHA levels during pregnancy are associated with higher childhood total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and insulin levels. Only individual maternal n-6 PUFAs, not total maternal n-6 PUFA levels, tended to be associated with childhood lipids and insulin levels. PMID:27919543
Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi
Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Villacis, Diego; Yi, Anthony; Jahn, Ryan; Kephart, Curtis J.; Charlton, Timothy; Gamradt, Seth C.; Romano, Russ; Tibone, James E.; Hatch, George F. Rick
Background: Up to 1 billion people have insufficient or deficient vitamin D levels. Despite the well-documented, widespread prevalence of low vitamin D levels and the importance of vitamin D for athletes, there is a paucity of research investigating the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in athletes. Hypothesis: We investigated the prevalence of abnormal vitamin D levels in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college athletes at a single institution. We hypothesized that vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among our cohort. Study Design: Cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 1. Methods: We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels of 223 NCAA Division I athletes between June 2012 and August 2012. The prevalence of normal (≥32 ng/mL), insufficient (20 to <32 ng/mL), and deficient (<20 ng/mL) vitamin D levels was determined. Logistic regression was utilized to analyze risk factors for abnormal vitamin D levels. Results: The mean serum 25(OH)D level for the 223 members of this study was 40.1 ± 14.9 ng/mL. Overall, 148 (66.4%) participants had sufficient 25(OH)D levels, and 75 (33.6%) had abnormal levels. Univariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of abnormal vitamin D levels: male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 2.83; P = 0.0006), Hispanic race (OR = 6.07; P = 0.0063), black race (OR = 19.1; P < 0.0001), and dark skin tone (OR = 15.2; P < 0.0001). Only dark skin tone remained a significant predictor of abnormal vitamin D levels after multivariate analysis (adjusted OR = 15.2; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: In a large cohort of NCAA athletes, more than one third had abnormal vitamin D levels. Races with dark skin tones are at much higher risk than white athletes. Male athletes are more likely than female athletes to be vitamin D deficient. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy NCAA athletes. Clinical Relevance: Many studies indicate a significant prevalence of vitamin-D insufficiency
Dinis, Ana Paula Gonçalves; Marques, Ruy Garcia; Simões, Fernanda Correia; Diestel, Cristina Fajardo; Caetano, Carlos Eduardo Rodrigues; Secchin, Dióscuro José Ferreira; Neto, José Firmino Nogueira; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo
Experimental studies have suggested an important role of the spleen in lipid metabolism, although with controversial results. Our purpose was to analyze the effect of a nutritionally balanced (NB) diet and a diet containing pork fat (PF) as source of lipids on the lipid profile of rats submitted to splenic surgery. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of 10 animals each: 1 sham-operated, NB diet; 2 sham-operated, PF diet; 3 total splenectomy (TS), NB diet; 4 TS, PF diet; 5 TS followed by splenic autotransplantation (SA), NB diet; and 6 SA, PF diet. Blood samples were collected at the beginning (D0) and after 12 weeks of the experiment (D + 12) for plasma lipid determination. Morphologic regeneration of splenic tissues was observed, with no differences between groups 5 and 6. When D + 12 plasma lipid levels were compared to D0 levels there were no differences in groups 1, 3, and 5, while in groups 2, 4, and 6 total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triacylglycerols (TAG) increased, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) decreased. At D + 12, groups 2, 4, and 6 had lower HDL than group 3. In conclusion, regardless of the surgical procedure applied to the spleen, an NB diet maintained plasma lipid levels while a diet with PF as source of lipids changed the animals' lipid profile.
Udupa, Sridevi V.; Manjrekar, Poornima A.; Udupa, Vinit A.; Vivian, D’Souza
Background: Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in the lipoprotein metabolism. Objectives: To study the lipid and the glycaemic abnormalities in the subclinical hypothyroidism cases and to compare the same with the euthyroid, overt hypothyroid and the hyperthyroid subjects. Methodology: Four groups, euthyroid (Group-I), hypothyroid (Group-II), subclinical hypothyroid (Group-III) and hyperthyroid (Group-IV), which consisted of 30 subjects each, of either sex, who were aged 25-55 years, underwent Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), fructosamine, lipid profile and total T3, T4 and TSH estimations. The subjects who were on lipid lowering or thyroid disorder drugs and known diabetics were excluded from the study. Results: In Group-III, all the lipid fractions were comparable to those of Group-II and they were significantly deranged, as compared to those of Group-I. The fructosamine levels were significantly higher in Group-II and Group-III (p<0.05), but the subclinical hypothyroid pool had statistically lower levels than the hypothyroid pool (376.63±54.73, 587.80±65.10). In the Group-IV patients, the LDL-C levels were significantly higher as compared to those in the euthyroid pool. The fructosamine levels were significantly lower in comparison with both the euthyroid and the hypothyroid pools (both in Groups-II and III). The FPG levels were higher in all the classes of the thyroid abnormalities (subclinical hypothyroidnot significant) but within the reference range of 70-100mg/dl. Conclusion: Since the lipid derangement in subclinical hypothyroidism is on par with that in overt hypothyrodism, the subclinical hypothyroid cases also need to be treated similarly. The fructosamine values which are largely in excess of the FPG values, indicate a higher propensity to glycation and a decreased turnover of the proteins in the hypothyroid and the subclinical hypothyroid pools. Vice versa is true of the hyperthyroid pool. Fructosamine can be included in the thyroid work up of
Udupa, Sridevi V; Manjrekar, Poornima A; Udupa, Vinit A; Vivian, D'Souza
Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in the lipoprotein metabolism. To study the lipid and the glycaemic abnormalities in the subclinical hypothyroidism cases and to compare the same with the euthyroid, overt hypothyroid and the hyperthyroid subjects. Four groups, euthyroid (Group-I), hypothyroid (Group-II), subclinical hypothyroid (Group-III) and hyperthyroid (Group-IV), which consisted of 30 subjects each, of either sex, who were aged 25-55 years, underwent Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), fructosamine, lipid profile and total T3, T4 and TSH estimations. The subjects who were on lipid lowering or thyroid disorder drugs and known diabetics were excluded from the study. In Group-III, all the lipid fractions were comparable to those of Group-II and they were significantly deranged, as compared to those of Group-I. The fructosamine levels were significantly higher in Group-II and Group-III (p<0.05), but the subclinical hypothyroid pool had statistically lower levels than the hypothyroid pool (376.63±54.73, 587.80±65.10). In the Group-IV patients, the LDL-C levels were significantly higher as compared to those in the euthyroid pool. The fructosamine levels were significantly lower in comparison with both the euthyroid and the hypothyroid pools (both in Groups-II and III). The FPG levels were higher in all the classes of the thyroid abnormalities (subclinical hypothyroidnot significant) but within the reference range of 70-100mg/dl. Since the lipid derangement in subclinical hypothyroidism is on par with that in overt hypothyrodism, the subclinical hypothyroid cases also need to be treated similarly. The fructosamine values which are largely in excess of the FPG values, indicate a higher propensity to glycation and a decreased turnover of the proteins in the hypothyroid and the subclinical hypothyroid pools. Vice versa is true of the hyperthyroid pool. Fructosamine can be included in the thyroid work up of the patients to assess the metabolic function and the
Wolk, Robert; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Hansen, Peter R; Thiers, Bruce; Lan, Shuping; Tallman, Anna M; Kaur, Mandeep; Tatulych, Svitlana
Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk and altered lipid metabolism. Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of tofacitinib on traditional and nontraditional lipid parameters and CV risk markers in patients with psoriasis from a phase III study, OPT Pivotal 1. Patients with psoriasis were randomized to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo BID. Serum samples were collected at baseline, week 4, and week 16. Analyses included serum cholesterol levels, triglycerides, lipoproteins, lipid particles, lipid-related parameters/CV risk markers, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function analyses. At week 16, small concurrent increases in mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were observed with tofacitinib; total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio did not change. There was no significant change in the number of small dense LDL particles, which are considered to be more atherogenic than large particles, and oxidized LDL did not increase. Paraoxonase 1 activity, linked to HDL antioxidant capacity, increased, and HDL-associated serum amyloid A, which reduces the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL, decreased. HDL capacity to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages did not change. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity, which is associated with reverse cholesterol transport, increased. Markers of systemic inflammation, serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein, decreased with tofacitinib. While small increases in lipid levels are observed with tofacitinib treatment in patients with psoriasis, effects on selected lipid-related parameters and other circulating CV risk biomarkers are not suggestive of an increased CV risk [NCT01276639]. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Shengxian; Chu, Qianqian; Ma, Jing; Sun, Yun; Tao, Tao; Huang, Rong; Liao, Yu; Yue, Jiang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Lihua; Xue, Xinli; Zhu, Mingjiang; Kang, Xiaonan; Yin, Huiyong; Liu, Wei
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome showing clinical features of an endocrine/metabolic disorder, including hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derivatives, both tightly linked to PCOS and obesity, play important roles in inflammation and reproduction. This study aimed to investigate serum lipid profiles in newly diagnosed patients with PCOS using lipidomics and correlate these features with the hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS and obesity. Thirty-two newly diagnosed women with PCOS and 34 controls were divided into obese and lean subgroups. A PCOS rat model was used to validate results of the human studies. Serum lipid profiles, including phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and bioactive lipids, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography-MS. Elevation in phosphatidylcholine and a concomitant decrease in lysophospholipid were found in obese patients with PCOS vs lean controls. Obese patients with PCOS had decreased PUFA levels and increased levels of long-chain saturated fatty acids vs lean controls. Serum bioactive lipids downstream of arachidonic acid were increased in obese controls, but reduced in both obese and lean patients with PCOS vs their respective controls. Patients with PCOS showed abnormal levels of phosphatidylcholine, FFAs, and PUFA metabolites. Circulating insulin and androgens may have opposing effects on lipid profiles in patients with PCOS, particularly on the bioactive lipid metabolites derived from PUFAs. These clinical observations warrant further studies of the molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of PCOS and obesity. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society
Li, Shengxian; Chu, Qianqian; Ma, Jing; Sun, Yun; Tao, Tao; Huang, Rong; Liao, Yu; Yue, Jiang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Lihua; Xue, Xinli; Zhu, Mingjiang; Kang, Xiaonan; Yin, Huiyong
Abstract Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome showing clinical features of an endocrine/metabolic disorder, including hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derivatives, both tightly linked to PCOS and obesity, play important roles in inflammation and reproduction. Objective: This study aimed to investigate serum lipid profiles in newly diagnosed patients with PCOS using lipidomics and correlate these features with the hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS and obesity. Design and Setting: Thirty-two newly diagnosed women with PCOS and 34 controls were divided into obese and lean subgroups. A PCOS rat model was used to validate results of the human studies. Main Outcome Measures: Serum lipid profiles, including phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and bioactive lipids, were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography–MS. Results: Elevation in phosphatidylcholine and a concomitant decrease in lysophospholipid were found in obese patients with PCOS vs lean controls. Obese patients with PCOS had decreased PUFA levels and increased levels of long-chain saturated fatty acids vs lean controls. Serum bioactive lipids downstream of arachidonic acid were increased in obese controls, but reduced in both obese and lean patients with PCOS vs their respective controls. Conclusions: Patients with PCOS showed abnormal levels of phosphatidylcholine, FFAs, and PUFA metabolites. Circulating insulin and androgens may have opposing effects on lipid profiles in patients with PCOS, particularly on the bioactive lipid metabolites derived from PUFAs. These clinical observations warrant further studies of the molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of PCOS and obesity. PMID:27886515
Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F
lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K.; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.
phenotypic variance. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25226301
Kotler, Donald P
It has been demonstrated that patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for developing metabolic abnormalities that include elevated levels of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This dyslipidemia is similar to that seen in the metabolic syndrome, raising the concern that highly active antiretroviral therapy also potentially increases the risk for cardiovascular complications. This paper reviews the contribution of both HIV infection and the different components of highly active antiretroviral therapy to dyslipidemia and the role of these abnormalities toward increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients; therapeutic strategies to manage these risks are also considered.
Sun, Jinhui; Fan, Ze; Chen, Chunxiu; Li, Jinghui; Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Yang; Qiao, Xiuting
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary lipid level on body composition, and digestive ability of common carp with initial average weight (36.12 ± 1.18)g. Five experimental diets with increasing lipid levels of 2.1%, 4.0%, 5.8%, 7.6%, 9.4% were fed to triplicate groups of fish for 9 weeks. The results showed that lipid content of whole body and muscle increased in parallel with the increase of dietary lipid levels. Protein content of muscle decreased with the increase of dietary lipid levels, and the lowest muscle protein content was observed in fish fed 9.4% lipid diet. Lipaseactivity was significantly affected by dietary lipid levels in hepatopancreas andintestine (P <0.05). Lipase activity in fish fed at 5.8% lipid level group was significantly higher than others inhepatopancreas (P <0.05). There were no significant differences in amylase and proteaseactivities (P > 0.05). The results suggested that the most excellentdigestive ability and antioxidant parameters were obtained at 7.6% lipid level group.
Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar
Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of
McIntyre, R S; McCann, S M; Kennedy, S H
To review published and nonpublished literature describing changes in weight, glucose homeostasis, and lipid milieu with antipsychotics. A Medline search was completed using the words weight gain, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol, triglycerides, risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, predictors, prolactin, obesity, and conventional antipsychotics. Publications, including original articles, review articles, letters to the editor, abstracts or posters presented at professional meetings in the last 4 years, and references from published articles, were collected. Manufacturers, including Eli Lilly Canada Inc, JanssenOrtho Inc, Pfizer Canada Inc, AstraZeneca Inc, and Novartis Pharmaceuticals, were contacted to retrieve additional medical information. The topic of antipsychotic-induced weight gain is understudied, and there are relatively few well-controlled studies. Weight gain as a side effect has been described with both conventional and atypical antipsychotics. Moreover, some atypical antipsychotics are associated with de novo diabetes mellitus and increased serum triglyceride levels. Predictors of weight gain may be age, baseline body mass index, appetite stimulation, previous antipsychotic exposure, and antipsychotic treatment duration. Significant weight gain is reported with the existing atypical antipsychotics. The weight gain described is highly distressing to patients, may reduce treatment adherence, and may increase the relative risk for diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia. Physicians employing these agents should routinely monitor weight, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles.
He, Jintian; Dong, Li; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kaiwen; Lu, Changhui; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with insulin resistance and lipid disorder. Tributyrin (TB), a pro-drug of butyrate, can attenuate dysfunctions in body metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of TB supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in neonatal piglets with IUGR. Eight neonatal piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 neonatal piglets with IUGR were selected, weaned on the 7th day, and fed basic milk diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic milk diets supplemented with 0.1% tributyrin (IT group, IUGR piglets) until day 21 (n = 8). Relative parameters for lipid metabolism and mRNA expression were measured. Piglets with IUGR showed higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of insulin in the serum, higher (P < 0.05) HOMA-IR and total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) in the liver, and lower (P < 0.05) enzyme activities (hepatic lipase [HL], lipoprotein lipase [LPL], total lipase [TL]) and concentration of glycogen in the liver than the NBW group. TB supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, and the concentrations of TG and NEFA in the liver, and increased (P < 0.05) enzyme activities (HL, LPL, and TL) and concentration of glycogen in the liver of the IT group. The mRNA expression for insulin signal transduction pathway and hepatic lipogenic pathway (including transcription factors and nuclear factors) was significantly (P < 0.05) affected in the liver by IUGR, which was efficiently (P < 0.05) attenuated by diets supplemented with TB. TB supplementation has therapeutic potential for attenuating insulin resistance and abnormal lipid metabolism in IUGR piglets by increasing enzyme activities and upregulating mRNA expression, leading to an early improvement in the metabolic efficiency of IUGR piglets. PMID:26317832
Thampi, B S; Manoj, G; Leelamma, S; Menon, V P
Effect of feeding coconut and blackgram fiber isolated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on the levels of lipids and lipid peroxides was studied in rats given a high fat diet. Concentration of cholesterol, free falty acid and phospholipids showed significant decrease in the serum, liver aorta and intestine of coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes was significantly decreased in liver and intestine of both fiber groups, while hydroperoxides showed significant increase in liver and heart of both the fiber groups. SOD and catalase activity was found to be increased in liver, intestine, heart proximal colon and distal colon of both the fiber groups. Serum ceruloplasmin levels showed a slight increase in animals fed coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Glutathione levels in liver, intestine proximal colon, distal colon and heart also showed a significant decrease in the animals of both the fiber groups.
Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.
Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian
Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609
Ainiyet, Babajohn; Rybakowski, Janusz K
Evidence for a possible association between a low level of cholesterol and increased suicidal behaviour has accumulated in the recent 3 decades. The present study investigates whether lipid levels can make state-dependent markers of suicidal behaviour in Polish patients with mood disorder recently admitted to a psychiatric hospital owing to an acute depressive episode. The study was conducted on 223 patients (73 male and 150 female) with unipolar (n=171) and bipolar (n=52) depression. They were interviewed to assess any occurrence of suicidal thoughts, suicidal tendencies and/or suicidal attempts during the 3 months before admission. Laboratory measurements [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total lipids] were obtained within 24-72 h after hospital admission. Suicidal thoughts, tendencies, and attempts were associated with low total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and total lipids in both male and female patients, in both diagnostic categories. Triglycerides were significantly lower in male and female patients with suicidal thoughts compared with their non-suicidal counterparts. No association with suicidality was found with HDL cholesterol. The results of our study support a majority of research showing the association in depressed patients between suicidal behaviour and low levels of total and LDL cholesterol. In addition, the data suggest a similar association with low total lipids, and in some instances, with low triglycerides.
Condray, Ruth; Yao, Jeffrey K.
Schizophrenia is a remarkably complex disorder with a multitude of behavioral and biological perturbations. Cognitive deficits are a core feature of this disorder, and involve abnormalities across multiple domains, including memory, attention, and perception. The complexity of this debilitating illness has led to a view that the key to unraveling its pathophysiology lies in deconstructing the clinically-defined syndrome into pathophysiologically distinct intermediate phenotypes. Accumulating evidence suggests that one of these intermediate phenotypes may involve phospholipid signaling abnormalities, particularly in relation to arachidonic acid (AA). Our data show relationships between levels of AA and performance on tests of cognition for schizophrenia patients, with defects in AA signaling associated with deficits in cognition. Moreover, dopamine may moderate these relationships between AA and cognition. Taken together, cognitive deficits, dopaminergic neurotransmission, and bioactive lipids have emerged as related features of schizophrenia. Existing treatment options for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia do not specifically target lipid-derived signaling pathways; understanding these processes could inform efforts to identify novel targets for treatment innovation. PMID:21196378
Chen, Chen; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cheng, Yibin; Hake, Ann M.; Liang, Chaoke; Ma, Feng; Su, Liqin; Liu, Jingyi; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Gao, Sujuan
A protective effect of selenium on lipid levels has been reported in populations with relatively low selenium status. However, recent studies found that high selenium exposure may lead to adverse cardiometabolic effects, particularly in selenium-replete populations. We examined the associations of selenium status with changes in lipid levels in a 7-year follow up of an elderly Chinese cohort including participants from selenium-deplete areas. Study population consisted of 140 elderly Chinese aged 65 or older with nail selenium levels measured at baseline (2003-2005). Lipid concentrations were measured in fasting blood samples collected at baseline and the 7-year follow-up (2010-2012). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models was used to determine the association between baseline selenium status and changes in lipid levels from baseline to follow-up adjusting for other covariates. Mean (±standard deviation) baseline selenium concentration was 0.41±0.2mg/kg. In prospective analysis, we found that individuals in the highest selenium quartile group showed 1.11 SD decrease on total-cholesterol (p<0.001), 0.41 SD increase on HDL-cholesterol (p<0.001) and 0.52 SD decrease on triglyceride after 7 years than those in the lowest selenium quartile group. The similar trends were seen with significant lipids changes in the 2th and 3th quartile groups. Selenium has modestly beneficial effects on blood lipid levels in a population with relatively low selenium status. Our result suggests adequate dietary selenium intake as a potential prevention strategy for lowering lipid levels in selenium deplete populations. PMID:25263027
Wizert, Alicja; Iskander, D. Robert; Cwiklik, Lukasz
Biophysical properties of the tear film lipid layer are studied at the molecular level employing coarse grain molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a realistic model of the human tear film. In this model, polar lipids are chosen to reflect the current knowledge on the lipidome of the tear film whereas typical Meibomian-origin lipids are included in the thick non-polar lipids subphase. Simulation conditions mimic those experienced by the real human tear film during blinks. Namely, thermodynamic equilibrium simulations at different lateral compressions are performed to model varying surface pressure, and the dynamics of the system during a blink is studied by non-equilibrium MD simulations. Polar lipids separate their non-polar counterparts from water by forming a monomolecular layer whereas the non-polar molecules establish a thick outermost lipid layer. Under lateral compression, the polar layer undulates and a sorting of polar lipids occurs. Moreover, formation of three-dimensional aggregates of polar lipids in both non-polar and water subphases is observed. We suggest that these three-dimensional structures are abundant under dynamic conditions caused by the action of eye lids and that they act as reservoirs of polar lipids, thus increasing stability of the tear film. PMID:24651175
Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo
Obesity causes excess fat accumulation in various tissues, most notoriously in the adipose tissue, along with other insulin-responsive organs such as skeletal muscle and the liver, which predisposes an individual to the development of metabolic abnormalities. The molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities have not been completely elucidated; however, in recent years, the search for therapies to prevent the development of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders has increased. It is known that several nuclear receptors, when activated by specific ligands, regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at the transcriptional level. The expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes is directly regulated by the activity of various nuclear receptors via their interaction with specific response elements in promoters of those genes. Many natural compounds act as ligands of nuclear receptors and regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by regulating the activities of these nuclear receptors. In this review, we describe our current knowledge of obesity, the role of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors in energy metabolism, and several examples of food factors that act as agonists or antagonists of nuclear receptors, which may be useful for the management of obesity and the accompanying energy metabolism abnormalities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Dietary Lipid Levels Influence Lipid Deposition in the Liver of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) by Regulating Lipoprotein Receptors, Fatty Acid Uptake and Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level.
Yan, Jing; Liao, Kai; Wang, Tianjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui
Ectopic lipid accumulation has been observed in fish fed a high-lipid diet. However, no information is available on the mechanism by which dietary lipid levels comprehensively regulate lipid transport, uptake, synthesis and catabolism in fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to gain further insight into how dietary lipids affect lipid deposition in the liver of large yellow croaker(Larimichthys crocea). Fish (150.00±4.95 g) were fed a diet with a low (6%), moderate (12%, the control diet) or high (18%) crude lipid content for 10 weeks. Growth performance, plasma biochemical indexes, lipid contents and gene expression related to lipid deposition, including lipoprotein assembly and clearance, fatty acid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism, were assessed. Growth performance was not significantly affected. However, the hepato-somatic and viscera-somatic indexes as well as plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased in fish fed the high-lipid diet. In the livers of fish fed the high-lipid diet, the expression of genes related to lipoprotein clearance (LDLR) and fatty acid uptake (FABP11) was significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of genes involved in lipoprotein assembly (apoB100), triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism (DGAT2, CPT I) was significantly down-regulated compared with fish fed the control diet, and hepatic lipid deposition increased. In fish fed the low-lipid diet, the expression of genes associated with lipoprotein assembly and clearance (apoB100, LDLR, LRP-1), fatty acid uptake (CD36, FATP1, FABP3) and triacylglycerol synthesis (FAS) was significantly increased, whereas the expression of triacylglycerol catabolism related genes (ATGL, CPT I) was reduced compared with fish fed the control diet. However, hepatic lipid content in fish fed the low-lipid diet decreased mainly due to low dietary lipid intake. In summary, findings of this study provide molecular
Dietary Lipid Levels Influence Lipid Deposition in the Liver of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) by Regulating Lipoprotein Receptors, Fatty Acid Uptake and Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level
Yan, Jing; Liao, Kai; Wang, Tianjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui
Ectopic lipid accumulation has been observed in fish fed a high-lipid diet. However, no information is available on the mechanism by which dietary lipid levels comprehensively regulate lipid transport, uptake, synthesis and catabolism in fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to gain further insight into how dietary lipids affect lipid deposition in the liver of large yellow croaker(Larimichthys crocea). Fish (150.00±4.95 g) were fed a diet with a low (6%), moderate (12%, the control diet) or high (18%) crude lipid content for 10 weeks. Growth performance, plasma biochemical indexes, lipid contents and gene expression related to lipid deposition, including lipoprotein assembly and clearance, fatty acid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism, were assessed. Growth performance was not significantly affected. However, the hepato-somatic and viscera-somatic indexes as well as plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased in fish fed the high-lipid diet. In the livers of fish fed the high-lipid diet, the expression of genes related to lipoprotein clearance (LDLR) and fatty acid uptake (FABP11) was significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of genes involved in lipoprotein assembly (apoB100), triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism (DGAT2, CPT I) was significantly down-regulated compared with fish fed the control diet, and hepatic lipid deposition increased. In fish fed the low-lipid diet, the expression of genes associated with lipoprotein assembly and clearance (apoB100, LDLR, LRP-1), fatty acid uptake (CD36, FATP1, FABP3) and triacylglycerol synthesis (FAS) was significantly increased, whereas the expression of triacylglycerol catabolism related genes (ATGL, CPT I) was reduced compared with fish fed the control diet. However, hepatic lipid content in fish fed the low-lipid diet decreased mainly due to low dietary lipid intake. In summary, findings of this study provide molecular
Arlien-Søborg, Mai C; Schmedes, Astrid S; Stokholm, Z A; Grynderup, M B; Bonde, J P; Jensen, C S; Hansen, Å M; Frederiksen, T W; Kristiansen, J; Christensen, K L; Vestergaard, J M; Lund, S P; Kolstad, H A
Occupational and residential noise exposure has been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Alteration of serum lipid levels has been proposed as a possible causal pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides when accounting for well-established predictors of lipid levels. This cross-sectional study included 424 industrial workers and 84 financial workers to obtain contrast in noise exposure levels. They provided a serum sample and wore portable dosimeters that every 5-s recorded ambient noise exposure levels during a 24-h period. We extracted measurements obtained during work and calculated the full-shift mean ambient noise level. For 331 workers who kept a diary on the use of a hearing protection device (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the mean full-shift noise exposure level at the ear. Mean ambient noise level was 79.9 dB (A) [range 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.8 dB (A) [range 55.0-94.2]. Ambient and at-the-ear noise levels were strongly associated with increasing levels of triglycerides, cholesterol-HDL ratio, and decreasing levels of HDL-cholesterol, but only in unadjusted analyses that did not account for HPD use and other risk factors. No associations between ambient or at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels were observed. This indicates that a causal pathway between occupational and residential noise exposure and cardiovascular disease does not include alteration of lipid levels.
Bruckert, E; Czernichow, S; Bertrais, S; Paillard, F; Tichet, J; Galan, P; Castetbon, K; Hercberg, S
Blood lipid profile of French men and women obtained from the general population is not well known. Furthermore, the association between these lipids, as a function of other potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and sociodemographic factors such as age, educational level, and region of residence is not well studied in large samples in Europe. Data on French healthy volunteers, aged between 40 and 65 years for men (n = 5141) and 35 and 65 years for women (n = 7876) were obtained from the "Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants" (SU.VI.MAX) study, a primary prevention trial. Baseline blood samples were collected in 1994-1995 and analyzed for cholesterol, triglyceride, apolipoproteins (apo)-B and -A1. The results were analyzed separately for men and women as a function of age, educational level, and area of residence. Overall, blood lipid levels for men and women did not differ significantly from those reported in other Western industrialized countries. Except for triglyceride in men, all blood lipids were statistically different among ages. In women, cholesterol, apo-A1, and apo-B showed a significant decrease with educational level. Statistical differences were found in both genders between blood lipids and lipoproteins among regions of residence. Even if differences between region of residence were found in blood lipid levels, this cannot explain the North-East to South gradient in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in France nor differences between France and other industrialized Western countries.
Malhotra, Alka; Wolford, Johanna K
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Dyslipidemia contributes significantly to CHD in diabetic patients, in whom lipid abnormalities include hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, and increased levels of small, dense LDL particles. To identify genes for lipid-related traits, we performed genome-wide linkage analyses for levels of triglycerides and HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol in Caucasian, Hispanic, and African-American families from the Genetics of NIDDM (GENNID) study. Most lipid traits showed significant estimates of heritability (P < 0.001) with the exception of triglycerides and the triglyceride/HDL ratio in African Americans. Variance components analysis identified linkage on chromosome 3p12.1-3q13.31 for the triglyceride/HDL ratio (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 3.36) and triglyceride (LOD = 3.27) in Caucasian families. Statistically significant evidence for linkage was identified for the triglyceride/HDL ratio (LOD = 2.45) on 11p in Hispanic families in a region that showed suggestive evidence for linkage (LOD = 2.26) for triglycerides in this population. In African Americans, the strongest evidence for linkage (LOD = 2.26) was found on 19p13.2-19q13.42 for total cholesterol. Our findings provide strong support for previous reports of linkage for lipid-related traits, suggesting the presence of genes on 3p12.1-3q13.31, 11p15.4-11p11.3, and 19p13.2-19q13.42 that may influence traits underlying lipid abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes.
Dores, Hélder; Malhotra, Aneil; Sheikh, Nabeel; Millar, Lynne; Dhutia, Harshil; Narain, Rajay; Merghani, Ahmed; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay
Athletes can exhibit abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) phenotypes that require further evaluation prior to competition. These are apparently more prevalent in high-intensity endurance sports. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between ECG findings in athletes and intensity of sport and level of competition. A cohort of 3423 competitive athletes had their ECGs assessed according to the Seattle criteria (SC). The presence of abnormal ECGs was correlated with: (1) intensity of sport (low/moderate vs. at least one high static or dynamic component); (2) competitive level (regional vs. national/international); (3) training volume (≤20 vs. >20 hours/week); (4) type of sport (high dynamic vs. high static component). The same endpoints were studied according to the 'Refined Criteria' (RC). Abnormal ECGs according to the SC were present in 225 (6.6%) athletes, more frequently in those involved in high-intensity sports (8.0% vs. 5.4%; p=0.002), particularly in dynamic sports, and competing at national/international level (7.1% vs. 4.9%; p=0.028). Training volume was not significantly associated with abnormal ECGs. By multivariate analysis, high-intensity sport (OR 1.55, 1.18-2.03; p=0.002) and national/international level (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.14; p=0.027) were independent predictors of abnormal ECGs, and these variables, when combined, doubled the prevalence of this finding. According to the RC, abnormal ECGs decreased to 103 (3.0%), but were also more frequent in high-intensity sports (4.2% vs. 2.0%; p<0.001). There is a positive correlation between higher intensity of sports and increased prevalence of ECG abnormalities. This relationship persists with the use of more restrictive criteria for ECG interpretation, although the number of abnormal ECGs is lower. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Delacrétaz, Aurélie; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Saigi Morgui, Nuria; Glatard, Anaïs; Thonney, Jacques; Solida-Tozzi, Alessandra; Kolly, Stéphane; Gallo, Sylfa Fassassi; Baumann, Philipp; Berney, Sylvie; Zulauff, Sandrine Valloton; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Hasler, Roland; Ebbing, Karsten; von Gunten, Armin; Conus, Philippe; Eap, Chin B
Cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia represent a major health issue in psychiatry. Many psychotropic drugs can induce a rapid and substantial increase of blood lipid levels. This study aimed to determine the potential predictive power of an early change of blood lipid levels during psychotropic treatment on long-term change and on dyslipidemia development. Data were obtained from a prospective study including 181 psychiatric patients with metabolic parameters monitored during the first year of treatment and with adherence ascertained. Blood lipid levels (ie, total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C], and fasting triglycerides [TGs]) were measured at baseline and after 1, 3, and/or 12 months of treatment. Receiver-operating characteristic analyses indicated that early (ie, after 1 month of psychotropic treatment) increases (≥5%) for TC, LDL-C, TG, and non-HDL-C and decrease (≥5%) for HDL-C were the best predictors for clinically relevant modifications of blood lipid levels after 3 months of treatment (≥30% TC, ≥40% LDL-C, ≥45% TG, ≥55% non-HDL-C increase, and ≥20% HDL-C decrease; sensitivity 70%-100%, specificity 53%-72%). Predictive powers of these models were confirmed by fitting longitudinal multivariate models in the same cohort (P ≤ .03) as well as in a replication cohort (n = 79; P ≤ .003). Survival models showed significantly higher incidences of new onset dyslipidemia (TC, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C hypercholesterolemia, HDL-C hypocholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia) for patients with early changes of blood lipid levels compared to others (P ≤ .01). Early modifications of blood lipid levels following prescription of psychotropic drugs inducing dyslipidemia should therefore raise questions on clinical strategies to control long-term dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published
Niu, J; Liu, Y J; Tian, L X; Mai, K S; Yang, H J; Ye, C X; Zhu, Y
A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary phospholipid (PL) levels in cobia (Rachycentron canadum) larvae with regard to growth, survival, plasma lipids and enzymes of lipid metabolism. Fish with an average weight of 0.4 g were fed diets containing four levels of PL (0, 20, 40 and 80 g kg(-1)dry matter: purity 97%) for 42 days. Final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG) and survival ratio were highest in the 8% PL diet group and mortality was highest in PL-free diet group. We examined the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) in liver, lecithin-cholesterolacyltransferase (LCAT) in plasma as well as plasma lipids and lipoprotein. LCAT activity showed a decrease of more than two-fold in PL-supplemented diet groups compared with the PL-free diet group. HL activity was highest in the 8% PL diet group and the other three groups showed no difference. LPL activity was significantly higher in the PL-supplemented diet groups than in the PL-free diet group. The dietary intervention significantly increased plasma phospholipids and total cholesterol (TC) levels, and the higher free cholesterol (FC) level contributed to the TC level. However, the fish fed PL exhibited a significantly decreased plasma triglyceride (TG) level. The lipoprotein fractions were also affected significantly by the PL. The PL-supplemented diet groups had significantly higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared with the PL-free diet group, but showed a marked decrease in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The results suggested that PL could modify plasma lipoprotein metabolism and lipid profile, and that the optimal dietary PL level may well exceed 80 g kg(-1) for cobia larvae according to growth and survival.
Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F; Real, Jose T; Masana, Luis; Catalá, Miguel; Vendrell, Joan; Vázquez, José Antonio; Valdés, Sergio; Urrutia, Inés; Soriguer, Federico; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Ortega, Emilio; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; López-Alba, Alfonso; Gomis, Ramón; Goday, Albert; Girbés, Juan; Gaztambide, Sonia; Franch, Josep; Delgado, Elías; Castell, Conxa; Castaño, Luis; Casamitjana, Roser; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Bordiú, Elena
Dyslipidemia is a significant contributor to the elevated CVD risk observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with glucose metabolism status in a representative sample of the adult population in Spain and the percentage of subjects at guideline-recommended LDL-C goals. The firstname.lastname@example.org study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey of 5728 adults. A total of 4776 subjects were studied. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 56.8% of subjects; only 13.2% of subjects were treated with lipid lowering drugs. Lipid abnormalities were found in 56.8% of Spanish adults: 23.3% with high LDL-C, 21.5% high TG, 35.8% high non-HDL-C, and 17.2% low HDL-C. Most normal subjects showed an LDL-C ≤ 3.36 mmol/l. Pre-diabetics presented similar proportion when considering a goal of 3.36 mmol/l, but only 35% of them reached an LDL-C goal ≤ 2.6 mmol/l. Finally, 45.3% of diabetics had an LDL-C ≤ 2.6 mmol/l, and only 11.3% achieved an LDL-C ≤ 1.8 mmol/l. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in the adult Spanish population, and a low use of lipid-lowering drugs. Moreover, the number of subjects achieving their corresponding LDL-C goal is small, particularly in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Mamtimin, Batur; Xia, Guo; Mijit, Mahmut; Hizbulla, Mawlanjan; Kurbantay, Nazuk; You, Li; Upur, Halmurat
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uyghur herbal preparation used as a therapy for abnormal Savda-related diseases. In this study, we investigate ASMq's dynamic effects on abnormal Savda rat models under different disease conditions. Abnormal Savda rat models with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and asthma dosed of ASMq. Serum samples of each animal tested by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and analyzed by orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis. Compared with healthy controls, HCC rats had higher concentrations of amino acids, fat-related metabolites, lactate, myoinositol, and citrate, but lower concentrations of α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine. Following ASMq treatment, the serum acetone very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, unsaturated lipids, acetylcysteine, and pyruvate concentration decreased, but α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine concentration increased (P < 0.05). T2DM rats had higher concentrations of α- and β-glucose, but lower concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, tyrosine, creatine, alanine, carnitine, and phenylalanine. After ASMq treated T2DM groups showed reduced α- and β-glucose and increased creatine levels (P < 0.05). Asthma rats had higher acetate, carnitine, formate, and phenylalanine levels, but lower concentrations of glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, VLDL, LDL, and unsaturated lipids. ASMq treatment showed increased glutamine and reduced carnitine, glycoprotein, formate, and phenylalanine levels (P < 0.05). Low immune function, decreased oxidative defense, liver function abnormalities, amino acid deficiencies, and energy metabolism disorders are common characteristics of abnormal Savda-related diseases. ASMq may improve the abnormal metabolism and immune function of rat models with different diseases combined abnormal Savda.
Celap, Ivana; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Nikolac, Nora; Kackov, Sanja; Katalinic, Darko
Significant abnormalities in lipid metabolism are frequently present in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hypertriglyceridemia, a highly proatherogenic state, is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. Genetic polymorphism APOA5 -1131T>C has been recognized as a significant contributor to hypertriglyceridemia in both healthy and diabetic populations. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphism with the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in patients with T2DM. In total, 234 DNA samples from patients with T2DM were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method. Serum lipid levels were measured using standard laboratory methods. Obtained APOA5 -1131T>C genotype frequencies were 89% (T/T) and 11% (T/C+C/C). There was no significant association between APOA5 -1131T>C genotypes and triglyceride levels (1.90 mM [1.32-2.74] vs. 1.78 mM [1.54-3.05] for T/T vs. T/C+C/C genotype; p=0.553), HDL cholesterol levels (1.30 mM [1.10-1.40] vs. 1.30 mM [1.05-1.40] for T/T vs. T/C+C/C; p=0.534), and LDL cholesterol levels (3.1 mM [2.3-3.8] vs. 3.0 mM [2.2-3.5] for T/T vs. T/C+C/C; p=0.313). Our results suggest that hypertriglyceridemia in patients with T2DM is not likely to be associated with the APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphism.
Horvath, Susanne E; Daum, Günther
A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria are capable of synthesizing several lipids autonomously such as phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin and in part phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid and CDP-diacylglycerol. Other mitochondrial membrane lipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sterols and sphingolipids have to be imported. The mitochondrial lipid composition, the biosynthesis and the import of mitochondrial lipids as well as the regulation of these processes will be main issues of this review article. Furthermore, interactions of lipids and mitochondrial proteins which are highly important for various mitochondrial processes will be discussed. Malfunction or loss of enzymes involved in mitochondrial phospholipid biosynthesis lead to dysfunction of cell respiration, affect the assembly and stability of the mitochondrial protein import machinery and cause abnormal mitochondrial morphology or even lethality. Molecular aspects of these processes as well as diseases related to defects in the formation of mitochondrial membranes will be described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kolovou, Genovefa D; Anagnostopoulou, Katherine K; Damaskos, Dimitris S; Bilianou, Helen I; Mihas, Constantinos; Milionis, Haralampos J; Kostakou, Peggy M; Cokkinos, Dennis V
We evaluated the gender-associated differences in lipid profile of subjects intended to receive lipid-lowering therapy with emphasis on the associations between triglycerides (TG) and other plasma lipid variables. Lipid profiles of 1385 patients [aged 55+/-11 years, 549 women (40%)] were evaluated. Eligible subjects fulfilled one or more of the following criteria: total cholesterol (TC)>or=6.2 mmol/l, TG>or=1.7 mmol/l, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)<1.0 mmol/l. Patients were divided into subgroups according to TG and HDL-C levels. Women aged on average 3.5 years older, had higher TC and HDL-C, lower TG and a correspondingly lower TC/HDL-C ratio than men. High TG and low HDL-C in tandem appeared twice more frequently in men. Inverse correlations between HDL-C and TG levels were found to exist in the entire cohort (r=-0.354, p<0.001) and in all various subgroups. In the subgroup with TG<1.7 mmol/l, women had higher TC and HDL-C, lower TG levels and lower TC/HDL-C ratio compared with men. In the subgroup with TG>or=1.7 mmol/l, women had higher TC and HDL-C levels and lower TC/HDL ratio compared with men. In the subgroup with HDL-C>or=1.0 mmol/l women had higher HDL-C, lower TG levels and lower TC/HDL-C ratio compared with men. Elevated TG levels and low HDL-C in tandem are common lipid abnormalities in the clinical setting of primary and secondary preventions. Gender-associated differences in the lipid profile are evident in subjects presenting with dyslipidemia and might be of potential relevance for diagnostics and therapy for the prevention of atherosclerosis.
Gramlich, Leah; Meddings, Liisa; Alberda, Cathy; Wichansawakun, Sanit; Robbins, Sarah; Driscoll, David; Bistrian, Bruce
The fatty acids, linoleic acid (18:2ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω-3), are essential to the human diet. When these essential fatty acids are not provided in sufficient quantities, essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) develops. This can be suggested clinically by abnormal liver function tests or biochemically by an elevated Mead acid and reduced linoleic acid and arachidonic acid level, which is manifested as an elevated triene/tetraene ratio of Mead acid/arachidonic acid. Clinical features of EFAD may present later. With the introduction of novel intravenous (IV) lipid emulsions in North America, the proportion of fatty acids provided, particularly the essential fatty acids, varies substantially. We describe a case series of 3 complicated obese patients who were administered parenteral nutrition (PN), primarily using ClinOleic 20%, an olive oil-based lipid emulsion with reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids, linoleic and α-linolenic, compared with more conventional soybean oil emulsions throughout their hospital admission. Essential fatty acid profiles were obtained for each of these patients to investigate EFAD as a potential cause of abnormal liver enzymes. Although the profiles revealed reduced linoleic acid and elevated Mead acid levels, this was not indicative of the development of essential fatty acid deficiency, as reflected in the more definitive measure of triene/tetraene ratio. Instead, although the serum fatty acid panel reflected the markedly lower but still adequate dietary linoleic acid content and greatly increased oleic acid content in the parenteral lipid emulsion, the triene/tetraene ratio remained well below the level, indicating EFAD in each of these patients. The availability and use of new IV lipid emulsions in PN should encourage the clinician to review lipid metabolism based on the quantity of fatty acids provided in specific parenteral lipid emulsions and the expected impact of these lipid emulsions (with quite different
Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen
Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next β-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations.
Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei
Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134
Wu, Chen; Yang, Handong; Yu, Dianke; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Yiqin; Sun, Jielin; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; He, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Zhu, Jingwen; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Zhu, Jiang; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Li, Dongfeng; Zhai, Kan; Chang, Jiang; Tan, Wen; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong; Wang, Youjie; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Wang, Feng; Fang, Weimin; Liang, Yuan; Deng, Qifei; Dai, Xiayun; Lin, Dafeng; Huang, Suli; Guo, Huan; Lilly Zheng, S.; Xu, Jianfeng; Lin, Dongxin; Hu, Frank B.; Wu, Tangchun
Plasma lipid levels are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several lipid-associated loci, but these loci have been identified primarily in European populations. In order to identify genetic markers for lipid levels in a Chinese population and analyze the heterogeneity between Europeans and Asians, especially Chinese, we performed a meta-analysis of two genome wide association studies on four common lipid traits including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in a Han Chinese population totaling 3,451 healthy subjects. Replication was performed in an additional 8,830 subjects of Han Chinese ethnicity. We replicated eight loci associated with lipid levels previously reported in a European population. The loci genome wide significantly associated with TC were near DOCK7, HMGCR and ABO; those genome wide significantly associated with TG were near APOA1/C3/A4/A5 and LPL; those genome wide significantly associated with LDL were near HMGCR, ABO and TOMM40; and those genome wide significantly associated with HDL were near LPL, LIPC and CETP. In addition, an additive genotype score of eight SNPs representing the eight loci that were found to be associated with lipid levels was associated with higher TC, TG and LDL levels (P = 5.52×10-16, 1.38×10-6 and 5.59×10-9, respectively). These findings suggest the cumulative effects of multiple genetic loci on plasma lipid levels. Comparisons with previous GWAS of lipids highlight heterogeneity in allele frequency and in effect size for some loci between Chinese and European populations. The results from our GWAS provided comprehensive and convincing evidence of the genetic determinants of plasma lipid levels in a Chinese population. PMID:24386095
Özdemir, Suna; Batmaz, Gonca; Ates, Seda; Celik, Cetin; Incesu, Feyzanur; Peru, Celalettin
We aimed to investigate the association of metabolic syndrome and metabolic risk factors with endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma among women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). This study included 199 patients who had undergone endometrial curettage due to abnormal uterine bleeding. We divided the patients into two groups according to whether they had an abnormal (n = 53) or normal endometrium (n = 146). Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and serum lipid levels were measured and statistically analyzed. The women in each group were matched with regard to mean age, gravidity, parity and menopausal status. We found increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, general and abdominal obesity, hypertension, elevated levels of glucose, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol among women with endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia. These results were detected particularly in postmenopausal (>50 years) women compared to pre-menopausal cases (<50 years). All metabolic parameters were similar between hyperplasia and cancer groups. Metabolic syndrome and its components have been shown to have profound impacts on initiation and progession of endometrial pathology, particularly during post-menopausal period.
Xiao, Xin-Ye; Liu, Zu-Guo
Dry eye is a common disease in the ophthalmological clinic, which is related to the dysfunction of tear film. The tear film is composed of lipid layer, aqueous layer and mucin layer (or lipid layer, aqueous/mucin layer). The lipid of the outmost layer derived from Meibomian gland and distributed on the tear film after blinking can decrease the evaporation and stabilize the tear film. The thickness, quality, and distribution of lipid layer are impaired in many dry eye patients, hence restoring the physiological function of lipid layer may be crucial for the treatment of this kind of dry eye. The lipid artificial tears manifest great effects on increasing lipid layer thickness, stabilizing tear film, improving Meibomian gland dysfunction, and promoting tear film distribution.
Xiao, Peizhen; Ji, Hong; Ye, Yuantu; Zhang, Baotong; Chen, Yongsheng; Tian, Jingjing; Liu, Pin; Chen, Liqiao; Du, Zhenyu
This study was carried out to evaluate whether silymarin supplementation influences growth, lipid metabolism, and health status in grass carp fed elevated dietary lipid levels. The juvenile fish (27.43 ± 0.17 g/tail) were fed six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets in a factorial design containing 0, 100, or 200 mg kg -1 silymarin (SM0, SM100, SM200) associated with either 4 or 8 % lipid level (low lipid, LL, and high lipid, HL, respectively) for 82 days. The results showed that both dietary silymarin supplementation and high lipid level significantly enhanced growth performance (WG, SGR), protein efficiency ratio, and feed utilization. Silymarin supplementation significantly reduced the VSI, hepatic lipid content, and the total bilirubin concentration in the serum. The gallbladdersomatic index displayed higher in the SM100 groups than SM200 groups. Serum total cholesterol content exhibited lower in the SM100 groups than SM0 groups. Meanwhile, significant interactions were shown for hepatic gene expression of HSL and CPT1 by two factors, and SM100 group had higher hepatic gene expression of HSL and CPT1 in fish fed with the HL diets. The SM100 groups up-regulated hepatic gene expressions of HMGCR and CYP7A1 compared with the SM0 groups. Silymarin supplementation notably reduced the elevated serum MDA content induced by HL treatments. Thus, silymarin supplementation markedly promoted growth and protein efficiency, suppressed lipid accumulation, and improved health status in grass carp fed with high-lipid diets, which might be associated with its enhancement of lipolysis and β-oxidation, antioxidant capacity.
Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D; Weitzman, Shimon; Sharf, Amir; Shvartzman, Pesach
Previous studies observed higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and lower triglycerides levels among people of African ancestry. The goal of this study was to characterize lipid levels in Bedouins of African vs. Middle-Eastern ethnicity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Bedouin primary care clinic in southern Israel, with 4470 listed individuals over the age of 21, of whom 402 (9%) were of African origin. A stratified random sample was included in the analysis. Associations between ethnicity, age, gender and lipid levels were assessed. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used for multivariate analysis. The study included 261 African Bedouins and 406 Middle-Eastern Bedouins. (median age: 37 years, 58.6% females). The average total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were 10 mg/dl lower among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (total cholesterol: 168.6 vs. 179.6 mg/dl, p<0.001; LDL: 99.5 vs. 109.0 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). Average triglycerides levels were 36 mg/dl lower among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (102.8 vs. 138.9 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). Average HDL levels were 3 mg/dl higher among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (48.3 vs. 44.6 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). A lower prevalence of dyslipidemia was found in African Bedouins, as compared with Middle-Eastern Bedouins.
Yang, Xuefeng; Huang, Lianzhen; Hu, Jianping; Li, Tao
To observe the effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats, according to serum TG, TC level, 40 male Wistar rats are divided into four groups (normal control group, high fat control group, silkworm pupa oil group and silkworm pupa oil + VE group). The rats are fed different diets and six weeks later, serum lipids level and platelet function are measured. The results show that (1) Compared with high fat control group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C level, AI value, Platelet aggregability, plasma TXB2 level and T/P ratio decrease significantly while HDL-C level and 6-k-PGF1 level increase in silkworm pupa oil group; (2) Serum TC, LDL-C level, T/P ratio and platelet aggregability are significantly lower in silkworm pupa oil + VE group than in silkworm pupa oil group. It is suggested that silkworm pupa oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid can reduce serum lipids level and inhibit platelet aggregation, which is more effective with the supplementation with VE.
Ma, Zhengping; Onorato, Joelle M.; Chen, Luping; Nelson, David W.; Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Cheng, Dong
In mammals, ether lipids exert a wide spectrum of signaling and structural functions, such as stimulation of immune responses, anti-tumor activities, and enhancement of sperm functions. Abnormal accumulation of monoalkyl-diacylglycerol (MADAG) was found in Wolman’s disease, a human genetic disorder defined by a deficiency in lysosomal acid lipase. In the current study, we found that among the nine recombinant human lipid acyltransferases examined, acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1, DGAT2, acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT)2, MGAT3, acyl-CoA:wax-alcohol acyltransferase 2/MFAT, and DGAT candidate 3 were able to use 1-monoalkylglycerol (1-MAkG) as an acyl acceptor for the synthesis of monoalkyl-monoacylglycerol (MAMAG). These enzymes demonstrated different enzymatic turnover rates and relative efficiencies for the first and second acylation steps leading to the synthesis of MAMAG and MADAG, respectively. They also exhibited different degrees of substrate preference when presented with 1-monooleoylglycerol versus 1-MAkG. In CHO-K1 cells, treatment with DGAT1 selective inhibitor, XP-620, completely blocked the synthesis of MADAG, indicating that DGAT1 is the predominant enzyme responsible for the intracellular synthesis of MADAG in this model system. The levels of MADAG in the adrenal gland of DGAT1 KO mice were reduced as compared with those of the WT mice, suggesting that DGAT1 is a major enzyme for the synthesis of MADAG in this tissue. Our findings indicate that several of these lipid acyltransferases may be able to synthesize neutral ether lipids in mammals. PMID:28420705
Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng
Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.
Driscoll, David F; Silvestri, Anthony P; Bistrian, Bruce R; Mikrut, Bernard A
The physical stability of two emulsions compounded as part of a total nutrient admixture (TNA) was studied in lipids packaged in either glass or plastic containers. Five weight-based adult TNA formulations that were designed to meet the full nutritional needs of adults with body weights between 40 and 80 kg were studied. Triplicate preparations of each TNA were assessed over 30 hours at room temperature by applying currently proposed United States Pharmacopeia (USP) criteria for mean droplet diameter, large-diameter tail, and globule-size distribution (GSD) for lipid injectable emulsions. In accordance with conditions set forth in USP chapter 729, the higher levels of volume-weighted percent of fat exceeding 5 microm (PFAT(5)) should not exceed 0.05% of the total lipid concentration. Significant differences were noted among TNA admixtures based on whether the lipid emulsion product was manufactured in glass or plastic. The plastic-contained TNAs failed the proposed USP methods for large-diameter fat globules in all formulations from the outset, and 60% had significant growth in large-diameter fat globules over time. In contrast, glass-contained TNAs were stable throughout and in all cases would have passed proposed USP limits. Certain lipid injectable emulsions packaged in plastic containers have baseline abnormal GSD profiles compared with those packaged in glass containers. When used to compound TNAs, the abnormal profile worsens and produces less stable TNAs than those compounded with lipid injectable emulsions packaged in glass containers.
Pearson, Glen J; Olson, Kari L; Panich, Nicole E; Majumdar, Sumit R; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Gilchrist, Dawna M; Damani, Ali; Francis, Gordon A
Background: Specialty cardiovascular risk reduction clinics (CRRC) increase the proportion of patients attaining recommended lipid targets; however, it is not known if the benefits are sustained after discharge. We evaluated the impact of a CRRC on lipid levels and assessed the long-term effect of a CRRC in maintaining improved lipid levels following discharge. Methods: The medical records of consecutive dyslipidemic patients discharged ×6 months from a tertiary hospital CRRC from January 1991 to January 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in patients’ lipid levels between the final CRRC visit and the most recent primary care follow-up. A worst-case analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of the patients in whom the follow-up lipid profiles post-discharge from the CRRC were not obtained. Results: Within the CRRC (median follow-up = 1.28 years in 1064 patients), we observed statistically significant improvements in all lipid parameters. In the 411 patients for whom post-discharge lipid profiles were available (median follow-up = 2.41 years), there were no significant differences observed in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), or triglycerides since CRRC discharge; however, there were small improvements in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TC:HDL ratio (p < 0.05 for both). The unadjusted worst-case analysis (653 patients with no follow-up lipid profiles) demonstrated statistically significant worsening of all lipid parameters between CRRC discharge and the most recent follow-up. However, when the change in lipid parameters between the baseline and the most recent follow-up was assessed in this analysis, the changes in all lipid parameters were significantly improved (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a CRRC can improve lipid levels and suggests that these benefits are sustained once patients are returned to the care of their primary physician. PMID
Lu, Yonggang; Lin, Minjie; Aitken, Robert John
In this study, we have investigated the impact of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on early embryogenesis in a sessile marine invertebrate, Galeolaria caespitosa. DBP was found to induce sperm dysfunction as well as impaired and defective embryogenesis characterised by a particular pattern of abnormality. Thus, after the first cleavage, one blastomere in these abnormal embryos was able to carry out further mitoses, while the other arrested. Analysis of microtubules, chromosomes and actin filaments demonstrated that the mitotic spindles in the abnormal embryos were irregularly bent, shortened and unable to anchor to the cortex, resulting in the defective segregation of chromosomes. Within the non-dividing blastomeres, karyokinesis was found to continue at a slow pace as indicated by the presence of multiple sets of abnormal mitotic spindles. However, cytokinesis had been disrupted in these arrested cells due to a failure to assemble the contractile actin ring, as a result of which one pole of the embryos remained as one large, undivided cell. DBP was found to suppress the activity of superoxide dismutase in spermatozoa and, in association with this change, DBP-treated cells experienced oxidative stress as indicated by the presence of lipid aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the sperm acrosome and neck. Adduction of lipid aldehydes at the level of the acrosome would be expected to impede the acrosome reaction and account for the significant decrease in fertilisation rates. 4-HNE generated as a consequence of lipid peroxidation in the sperm neck resulted in alkylation of the sperm centrioles. Such paternally damaged centrioles were inherited by the embryos and disrupted cytoskeletal protein organisation during early cleavage, generating the observed abnormalities in embryonic development. This research emphasises the vulnerability of spermatozoa to oxidative damage and highlights novel potential mechanisms for reproductive toxicity involving the alkylation of
Laway, Bashir Ahmad; War, Fayaz Ahmad; Shah, Sonaullah; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Kumar Kotwal, Suman
Background: Overt hypothyroidism is associated with abnormalities of lipid metabolism, but conflicting results regarding the degree of lipid changes in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) exist. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess differences in lipid profile parameters between subjects with and without SCH in a north Indian population. Patients and Methods: Serum lipid parameters of 70 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 100 age and sex matched euthyroid controls were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Results: Mean serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and very low-density cholesterol (VLDL) were significantly higher in patients with SCH than controls (P < 0.05). Mean TC, TG and low-density cholesterol (LDL) concentrations were higher in patients with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) greater than 10 mU/L than those with serum TSH equal to or less than 10 mU/L, but this difference was not statistically significant. No association was found between serum high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and serum TSH level. Conclusions: High TC, TG and VLDL were observed in our patients with SCH. PMID:25237326
Zhuang, Ke; Zhang, Wencai; Zhang, Xiaobo; Wu, Fangqin; Cheng, Longxian
Associations between "lipid-related" candidate genes, blood lipid concentrations and coronary artery disease (CHD) risk are not clear. We aimed to investigate the effect of three newly identified lipids loci from genome-wide association studies on CHD and blood lipid levels in Chinese Han population. The genotypes of SNPs at three newly identified lipid loci and blood lipids concentrations were examined in 1360 CHD patients and 1360 age- and sex-frequency matched controls from an unrelated Chinese Han population. Allele T of rs16996148 occurred less frequently in CHD patients with the odds ratio (OR) being 0.64 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.81), after adjusting for conventional risk factors and was associated with a 33% decreased CHD risk (P<0.01) comparing with the major allele G. Individuals with GT genotype had the lowest CHD risk. No associations were found between the polymorphisms of other two loci with CHD risk and all three SNPs had no effect on lipid profile in this population. SNP rs16996148 on chromosome 19p13 is significantly associated with lower risk for CHD in Chinese Han population. However, it remains unresolved why these lipid-related loci had significantly less effects than the correspondingly expected effects on blood lipids levels in this population.
Shin, Hee-Young; Kang, Gaeun; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Jae-Min
There have been inconsistent reports on the relationships between lipids and suicidality, and studies conducted in older adults are rare. This study examined associations between serum lipid levels and suicidal ideation in an older population. This study used data obtained from a representative Korean sample of 4265 people age 65 years or older who completed a self-administered questionnaire about suicidal ideation over the last year. The fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured and categorized into lower, intermediate (reference), and upper quartiles. A complex sample logistic regression stratified by gender was performed to determine the associations between serum lipid levels and suicidal ideation after controlling for covariates including age, education, marital status, current smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, diagnosed depression, antidepressant use, and lipid-lowering therapies. In this study, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in an older Korean population was 22.9% (SE=0.9%). The prevalence was significantly higher in women than in men, 27.7% (1.2%) vs. 15.9% (1.1%) respectively. After adjusting for covariates, lower triglyceride levels were significantly associated with a decreased risk of suicidal ideation (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.43-0.99) among men but no significant associations were observed among women. Additionally, there were no significant associations between any other measure of cholesterol levels and suicidal ideation in either men or women. Cross-sectional design cannot infer temporality or the effects of changes in variables. These results support the association between lower triglyceride levels and a reduced risk of suicidal ideation among Korean men over 65. Further studies are necessary to investigate gender difference and the biological mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing
We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…
Kim, Kye-Young; Stevens, Mark V.; Akter, M. Hasina; Rusk, Sarah E.; Huang, Robert J.; Cohen, Alexandra; Noguchi, Audrey; Springer, Danielle; Bocharov, Alexander V.; Eggerman, Tomas L.; Suen, Der-Fen; Youle, Richard J.; Amar, Marcelo; Remaley, Alan T.; Sack, Michael N.
It has long been hypothesized that abnormalities in lipid biology contribute to degenerative brain diseases. Consistent with this, emerging epidemiologic evidence links lipid alterations with Parkinson disease (PD), and disruption of lipid metabolism has been found to predispose to α-synuclein toxicity. We therefore investigated whether Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase found to be defective in patients with early onset PD, regulates systemic lipid metabolism. We perturbed lipid levels by exposing Parkin+/+ and Parkin–/– mice to a high-fat and -cholesterol diet (HFD). Parkin–/– mice resisted weight gain, steatohepatitis, and insulin resistance. In wild-type mice, the HFD markedly increased hepatic Parkin levels in parallel with lipid transport proteins, including CD36, Sr-B1, and FABP. These lipid transport proteins were not induced in Parkin–/– mice. The role of Parkin in fat uptake was confirmed by increased oleate accumulation in hepatocytes overexpressing Parkin and decreased uptake in Parkin–/– mouse embryonic fibroblasts and patient cells harboring complex heterozygous mutations in the Parkin-encoding gene PARK2. Parkin conferred this effect, in part, via ubiquitin-mediated stabilization of the lipid transporter CD36. Reconstitution of Parkin restored hepatic fat uptake and CD36 levels in Parkin–/– mice, and Parkin augmented fat accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. These results demonstrate that Parkin is regulated in a lipid-dependent manner and modulates systemic fat uptake via ubiquitin ligase–dependent effects. Whether this metabolic regulation contributes to premature Parkinsonism warrants investigation. PMID:21865652
Dar, Javeed; Mughal, Inam; Hassan, Hilali; Al Mekki, Taj E.; Chapunduka, Zivani; Hassan, Imad S. A.
Objective: Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Setting: Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Adult patients (12 years and older) admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. Results: 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9%) of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. Conclusion: D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray. PMID:21063468
Dar, Javeed; Mughal, Inam; Hassan, Hilali; Al Mekki, Taj E; Chapunduka, Zivani; Hassan, Imad S A
Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Prospective longitudinal study. Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Adult patients (12 years and older) admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9%) of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray.
Wang, Ting; Shi, Xiao; Quan, Song
Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. During spermatogenesis, membrane remodeling takes place, and cell membrane permeability and liquidity undergo phase-specific changes, which are all associated with the alteration of membrane lipids. Lipids are important components of the germ cell membrane, whose volume and ratio fluctuate in different phases of spermatogenesis. Abnormal lipid metabolism can cause spermatogenic dysfunction and consequently male infertility. Germ cell membrane lipids are mainly composed of cholesterol, phospholipids and glycolipids, which play critical roles in cell adhesion and signal transduction during spermatogenesis. An insight into the correlation of membrane lipids with spermatogenesis helps us to better understand the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and provide new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.
Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María
Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol <45 mg/dL. Overweight and lipid profile alterations were present in an important group of the children, which increase their risk of obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases. Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.
Background Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication of diabetes and an established risk factor for cardiovascular events. Lipid abnormalities occur in patients with diabetic nephropathy, which further increase their risk for cardiovascular events. We compared the degree of dyslipidemia among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with and without nephropathy and analyzed the factors associated with nephropathy among them. Methods In this retrospective study, T2DM patients with overt nephropathy were enrolled in the study group (n=89) and without nephropathy were enrolled in the control group (n=92). Both groups were matched for age and duration of diabetes. Data on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), urea and creatinine were collected from the case sheets. TG/HDL-C ratio, a surrogate marker for small, dense, LDL particles (sdLDL) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated using equations. Multivariate analysis was done to determine the factors associated with eGFR. Results Dyslipidemia was present among 56.52% of control subjects and 75.28% of nephropathy subjects (P=0.012). The percentage of subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia (high TG+low HDL-C+sdLDL) was 14.13 among controls and 14.61 among nephropathy subjects. Though serum creatinine was not significantly different, mean eGFR value was significantly lower among nephropathy patients (P=0.002). Upon multivariate analysis, it was found that TC (P=0.007) and HDL-C (P=0.06) were associated with eGFR among our study subjects. Conclusion Our results show that dyslipidemia was highly prevalent among subjects with nephropathy. Regular screening for dyslipidemia may be beneficial in controlling the risk for adverse events among diabetic nephropathy patients. PMID:28447439
Tüzün, Sefa; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Kemik, Ahu Sarbay; Kemik, Ozgür
High levels of TGF-β1 and enhanced TGF-β1 receptor signaling are related to the pathology of gastric cancer. This effect is caused by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation products. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of TGF-β1 and lipid peroxidation products in gastric cancer patients and their correlation with pathologic stage. Lipid peroxidation products and TGF-β1 levels were studied in the serum samples of 50 gastric cancer patients and 18 control subjects. HNE-protein adducts and TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in T2, T3 and T4 gastric cancers than in either the T1 stage or controls (p<0.001). Pathologic stage was correlated with TGF-β1 levels (r=0.702, p<0.05). These markers production may contribute to tumor angiogenesis and aid in the prognosis of the gastric cancer.
Background Some experimental animal studies reported that vanadium had beneficial effects on blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). However, the relationship between vanadium exposure and lipid, lipoprotein profiles in human subjects remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles of occupational vanadium exposed and non-exposed workers, and to provide human evidence on serum lipid, lipoprotein profiles and atherogenic indexes changes in relation to vanadium exposure. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 533 vanadium exposed workers and 241 non-exposed workers from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured for all participants. The ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to HDL-C and apoB to apoA-I were used as atherogenic indexes. A general linear model was applied to compare outcomes of the two groups while controlling possible confounders and multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between low HDL-C level, abnormal atherogenic index and vanadium exposure. Results Higher levels of HDL-C and apoA-I could be observed in the vanadium exposed group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, atherogenic indexes (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios) were found statistically lower in the vanadium exposed workers (P < 0.05). Changes in HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were more pronounced in male workers than that in female workers. In male workers, after adjusting for potential confounding variables as age, habits of smoking and drinking, occupational vanadium exposure was still associated with lower HDL-C (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.62) and abnormal atherogenic index (OR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.70). Conclusion Occupational
Chen, Lian-Hui; Liang, Li; Fang, Yan-Lan; Wang, Ying-Min; Zhu, Wei-Fen
To determine whether maternal intrauterine undernutrition and post-weaning fish oil intake influence lipid profile in juvenile offspring, and explore the possible mechanisms at transcriptional levels. After weaning, 32 control offspring and 24 intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring were randomly allocated to standard chow or fish oil diet. At 10 weeks, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and expressions of related hepatic genes were examined. IUGR offspring without catch-up growth tended to develop hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Down-regulation of CPT-1 and LDLR at transcriptional levels were found in IUGR offspring. Early short-term fish oil intervention reversed these unfavorable changes in juvenile rats with IUGR. The mechanisms might be mediated by decreased expression of ACC-1, increased expression of CPT-1, LDLR and ABCG5. These data suggest that IUGR offspring already present lipid abnormality in juvenile stage, and early short-term fish oil consumption is beneficial to prevent these unfavorable changes.
Chou, Tsui-Wei; Ma, Chien-Ya; Cheng, Hsing-Hsien; Chen, Ya-Yen; Lai, Ming-Hoang
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rats were divided into two groups: the control group (15% soybean oil, contains 0 g γ-oryzanol and 0 g γ-tocotrienol/150 g oil for 5 weeks) and the RBO group (15% RBO, contains 5.25 g γ-oryzanol and 0.9 g γ-tocotrienol/150 g oil for 5 weeks). Compared with the control group, the RBO group had a lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration, ratio of total to high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, hepatic cholesterol concentration, and area under the curve for insulin. The RBO group had a higher high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and greater excretion of fecal neutral sterols and bile acid than did the control group. RBO may improve lipid abnormalities, reduce the atherogenic index, and suppress the hyperinsulinemic response in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced T2DM. In addition, RBO can lead to increased fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion. PMID:19590704
Moller, Christina Strom; Byberg, Liisa; Sundstrom, Johan; Lind, Lars
Background Most studies on risk factors for development of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been based on the clinical outcome of CHD. Our aim was to identify factors that could predict the development of ECG markers of CHD, such as abnormal Q/QS patterns, ST segment depression and T wave abnormalities, in 70-year-old men, irrespective of clinical outcome. Methods Predictors for development of different ECG abnormalities were identified in a population-based study using stepwise logistic regression. Anthropometrical and metabolic factors, ECG abnormalities and vital signs from a health survey of men at age 50 were related to ECG abnormalities identified in the same cohort 20 years later. Results At the age of 70, 9% had developed a major abnormal Q/QS pattern, but 63% of these subjects had not been previously hospitalized due to MI, while 57% with symptomatic MI between age 50 and 70 had no major Q/QS pattern at age 70. T wave abnormalities (Odds ratio 3.11, 95% CI 1.18–8.17), high lipoprotein (a) levels, high body mass index (BMI) and smoking were identified as significant independent predictors for the development of abnormal major Q/QS patterns. T wave abnormalities and high fasting glucose levels were significant independent predictors for the development of ST segment depression without abnormal Q/QS pattern. Conclusion T wave abnormalities on resting ECG should be given special attention and correlated with clinical information. Risk factors for major Q/QS patterns need not be the same as traditional risk factors for clinically recognized CHD. High lipoprotein (a) levels may be a stronger risk factor for silent myocardial infarction (MI) compared to clinically recognized MI. PMID:16519804
Tüzün, Sefa; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Kemik, Ahu Sarbay; Kemik, Özgür
Objective: High levels of TGF-β1 and enhanced TGF-β1 receptor signaling are related to the pathology of gastric cancer. This effect is caused by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation products. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of TGF-β1 and lipid peroxidation products in gastric cancer patients and their correlation with pathologic stage. Material and Methods: Lipid peroxidation products and TGF-β1 levels were studied in the serum samples of 50 gastric cancer patients and 18 control subjects. Results: HNE-protein adducts and TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in T2, T3 and T4 gastric cancers than in either the T1 stage or controls (p<0.001). Pathologic stage was correlated with TGF-β1 levels (r=0.702, p<0.05). Conclusion: These markers production may contribute to tumor angiogenesis and aid in the prognosis of the gastric cancer. PMID:25207013
Background As obesity is rapidly becoming a major medical and public health problem, the aim of our study was to determine: 1) if obesity in Caucasian adolescents at 5 different Tanner stages are associated with obesity in adulthood and its obesity-associated abnormal glucose and lipid profiles, 2) the type of fat distribution is associated with glucose and lipid profile abnormalities, and 3) the risk level and the age of appearance of these abnormalities. Methods For the first study, data analyses were from a case-control study of adolescents classified according to their BMI; a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex as overweight, and those with a BMI ≥ 95th percentile as obese. Subjects with a BMI < 85th percentile were classified as controls. WC:AC ratio of waist circumference to arm circumference was used as an indicator of a central pattern of adiposity. Two other indices of central adiposity were calculated from skinfolds: Central-peripheral (CPR) as subscapular skinfold + suprailliac skinfold)/ (triceps skinfold + thigh skinfold) and ratio of subscapular to triceps skinfold (STR). The sum of the four skinfolds (SUM) was calculated from triceps, subscapular, suprailliac and thigh skinfolds. SUM provides a single measure of subcutaneous adiposity. Representative adult subjects were used for comparison. Glucose and lipid profiles were also determined in these subjects. Abnormal glucose and lipid profiles were determined as being those with fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l and lipid values ≥ 85th percentile adjusted for age and sex, respectively. Prevalence and odds ratio analysis were used to determine the impact of obesity on glucose and lipid profiles at each Tanner stages for both sexes. Correlation coefficient analyses were used to determine the association between glucose and lipid profiles and anthropometric measurements for both sexes. The second study evaluated in a retrospective-prospective longitudinal way if: 1) obesity in adolescence is
Rodo, M; Czonkowska, A; Pulawska, M; Swiderska, M; Tarnacka, B; Wehr, H
The aim of this study was to estimate the level of lipids and of the main serum antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), and to evaluate the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation in Wilson's disease patients. It was assumed that enhanced LDL peroxidation caused by high copper levels could contribute to the injury of liver and other tissues. The group investigated comprised 45 individuals with Wilson's disease treated with penicillamine or zinc salts and a control group of 36 healthy individuals. Lipids were determined by enzymatic methods, alpha-tocopherol by high performance liquid chromatography, the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in vitro by absorption changes at 234 nm during 5 h and end-products of LDL lipid oxidation as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. In Wilson's disease patients total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly lower compared with the control group. No difference in LDL oxidation in vitro between the patients and the controls was stated. enhanced susceptibility of isolated LDL for lipid peroxidation in vitro was not observed in Wilson's disease patients. One cannot exclude, however, that because of low alpha-tocopherol level lipid peroxidation in the tissues can play a role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in this disease.
Chang, Jin-Biou; Chu, Nain-Feng; Lin, Fu-Huang; Hsu, Jhu-Ting; Chen, Pi-Yun
Adropin is a 76 amino acid peptide hormone with a molecular weight of 4999.9Da that may be associated with energy homeostasis, insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in mice and human. There is only a few studies that examine plasma adropin levels and body composition in children. This study is to evaluate the relationship between plasma adropin levels, body composition and lipid variables amongst young adolescents in Taiwan. We examined 492 adolescents (269 females and 223 males) ranging from 12 to 15 years old, with a mean age of 13.6 years. Body composition was measured using impedance method by Tanita-BC418. Plasma lipid variables were measured using standard methods and plasma adropin levels were measured using the ELISA method. There was no significant difference in plasma adropin levels between males and females (3.52 vs. 3.58ng/ml). Plasma adropin levels were negatively correlated with fat free mass (r=-0.12, p<0.01). More interestingly, children with higher plasma adropin levels had lower waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) and lower body fat percentage by mass. Furthermore, there is no difference in lipid profiles in high vs. low adropin subjects. Plasma adropin levels are not consistency associated with body composition and no association with lipid variables amongst Taiwanese adolescents. The role of adropin in the development of obesity is still not clear, and further studies are need especially for children. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz
There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027
Zhou, Xiaoming; Lin, Haiyan; Zhang, Shigang; Ren, Jianwei; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Mansen; Zhang, Qunye
The rules and mechanisms of seasonal changes in plasma lipid levels, which may be related to annual rhythmicity of incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases, are still controversial. The objectives of this study were to study the effects of climatic factors on plasma lipid levels and to preliminarily reveal mechanisms of annual rhythmicity of plasma lipid levels. A longitudinal study was performed using health examination data of 5 consecutive years (47,270 subjects) in Jinan, China. The climate in Jinan is typical temperate continental monsoon climate with huge temperature difference between winter and summer (>30°C). After considering and adjusting those classical lipid-associated risk factors, such as age, gender, diet, exercise, blood pressure, body weight, change of body weight, body mass index, glycemia, alanine aminotransferase, and creatinine, only air temperature could still significantly affect plasma lipid levels among the main climatic factors (humidity, precipitation, and so forth). For men, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was decreased significantly 0.35, 0.18, and 0.06 mmol/L, respectively, whereas triglyceride was increased significantly 0.12 mmol/L for every 10°C increase in air temperature. For women, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased notably 0.73 and 0.32 mmol/L, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased significantly 0.26 mmol/L for every 10°C increase in air temperature, whereas triglyceride was not significantly affected by air temperature. Air temperature is an independent risk factor for plasma lipid levels besides those classical lipid-associated risk factors. The annual air temperature fluctuations might be an important mechanism of the seasonal changes of lipids. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Yongteng; Li, Dafei; Xu, Jun-Wei; Zhao, Peng; Li, Tao; Ma, Huixian; Yu, Xuya
In this study, melatonin (MT) promoted lipid accumulation in Monoraphidium sp. QLY-1 under nitrogen deficiency conditions. The lipid accumulation increased 1.22- and 1.36-fold compared with a nitrogen-starved medium and a normal BG-11 medium, respectively. The maximum lipid content was 51.38%. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the presence of melatonin was lower than that in the control group, likely because of the high antioxidant activities. The application of melatonin upregulated the gibberellin acid (GA) production and rbcL and accD expression levels but downregulated the abscisic acid (ABA) content and pepc expression levels. These findings demonstrated that exogenous melatonin could further improve the lipid production in Monoraphidium sp. QLY-1 by regulating antioxidant systems, signalling molecules, and lipid biosynthesis-related gene expression under nitrogen deficiency conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Snyder, P J; Weinrich, J D; Pillard, R C
Self-identified homosexual (n = 30), bisexual (n = 29), and heterosexual (n = 31) men were compared on measures of gender-typical behavior, sex role, ego strength, and lipid levels. Homosexual men differed significantly from the heterosexual men on the gender-typical behavior and feminine sex-role measure (both in adulthood and in childhood), and several trends and significant differences were found on the biochemical measures of lipid levels (especially when 7 obese men were removed from the analyses). As a rule, the bisexual men were different from the heterosexual men on the above measures, but were indistinguishable from the homosexual men. Bisexuals differed from both of the other two groups, however, by scoring lower on the ego strength scale and by reporting themselves to be more often troubled, lonely, and depressed. We caution that the lipid analyses were made on single blood samples and require an extended replication; however, we report the data because of their possible theoretical interest and because they replicate work of 20 years ago.
Chumnanpuen, Pramote; Nookaew, Intawat; Nielsen, Jens
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes containing UASINO sequences are regulated by the Ino2/Ino4 and Opi1 transcription factors, and this regulation controls lipid biosynthesis. The expression level of INO2 and INO4 genes (INO-level) at different nutrient limited conditions might lead to various responses in yeast lipid metabolism. In this study, we undertook a global study on how INO-levels (transcription level of INO2 and INO4) affect lipid metabolism in yeast and we also studied the effects of single and double deletions of the two INO-genes (deficient effect). Using 2 types of nutrient limitations (carbon and nitrogen) in chemostat cultures operated at a fixed specific growth rate of 0.1 h-1 and strains having different INO-level, we were able to see the effect on expression level of the genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and the fluxes towards the different lipid components. Through combined measurements of the transcriptome, metabolome, and lipidome it was possible to obtain a large dataset that could be used to identify how the INO-level controls lipid metabolism and also establish correlations between the different components. In this study, we undertook a global study on how INO-levels (transcription level of INO2 and INO4) affect lipid metabolism in yeast and we also studied the effects of single and double deletions of the two INO-genes (deficient effect). Using 2 types of nutrient limitations (carbon and nitrogen) in chemostat cultures operated at a fixed specific growth rate of 0.1 h-1 and strains having different INO-level, we were able to see the effect on expression level of the genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and the fluxes towards the different lipid components. Through combined measurements of the transcriptome, metabolome, and lipidome it was possible to obtain a large dataset that could be used to identify how the INO-level controls lipid metabolism and also establish correlations between the different components. Our analysis
Hulver, Matthew W.; Berggren, Jason R.; Carper, Michael J.; Miyazaki, Makoto; Ntambi, James M.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Thyfault, John P.; Stevens, Robert; Dohm, G. Lynis; Houmard, Joseph A.; Muoio, Deborah M.
Summary Obesity and type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and accumulation of intramyocellular triacylglycerol, but the underlying cause of these perturbations are yet unknown. Herein, we show that the lipogenic gene, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), is robustly up-regulated in skeletal muscle from extremely obese humans. High expression and activity of SCD1, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, corresponded with low rates of fatty acid oxidation, increased triacylglycerol synthesis and increased monounsaturation of muscle lipids. Elevated SCD1 expression and abnormal lipid partitioning were retained in primary skeletal myocytes derived from obese compared to lean donors, implying that these traits might be driven by epigenetic and/or heritable mechanisms. Overexpression of human SCD1 in myotubes from lean subjects was sufficient to mimic the obese phenotype. These results suggest that elevated expression of SCD1 in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal lipid metabolism and progression of obesity. PMID:16213227
Hulver, Matthew W; Berggren, Jason R; Carper, Michael J; Miyazaki, Makoto; Ntambi, James M; Hoffman, Eric P; Thyfault, John P; Stevens, Robert; Dohm, G Lynis; Houmard, Joseph A; Muoio, Deborah M
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and accumulation of intramyocellular triacylglycerol, but the underlying cause of these perturbations are yet unknown. Herein, we show that the lipogenic gene, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), is robustly up-regulated in skeletal muscle from extremely obese humans. High expression and activity of SCD1, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, corresponded with low rates of fatty acid oxidation, increased triacylglycerol synthesis and increased monounsaturation of muscle lipids. Elevated SCD1 expression and abnormal lipid partitioning were retained in primary skeletal myocytes derived from obese compared to lean donors, implying that these traits might be driven by epigenetic and/or heritable mechanisms. Overexpression of human SCD1 in myotubes from lean subjects was sufficient to mimic the obese phenotype. These results suggest that elevated expression of SCD1 in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal lipid metabolism and progression of obesity.
González Sandoval, Claudia Elena; Díaz Burke, Yolanda; Mendizabal-Ruiz, Adriana Patricia; Medina Díaz, Eunice; Morales, José Alejandro
Obesity is a serious public health problem because its association with the risk to develop various chronic diseases. Atherogenic dyslipidemia that often accompany obesity is also associated to the metabolic syndrome and to cardiovascular diseases. The transition from adolescence to young adulthood appears to be a period where major changes occur in the lifestyle which contributes to the development of obesity, however, little attention has been given to this transition stage. The inclination to adopt unhealthy behaviors which occurs during early adulthood may be increased on university students because their lifestyle, which is characterized by lack of time to eat a healthy diet, which can make them susceptible to obesity. To determine the prevalence of obesity and lipid levels abnormalities and their relationship in a group of university students. Transversal study of university students aged between 18 and 24 years. Body mass index, waist circumference and blood lipid profile where evaluated. Of the 620 students surveyed about one-third have either overweight or obesity. 86% of students had at least one alteration in the evaluated parameters. Lipid profile results show a high prevalence of minor alterations in levels, particularly in cholesterol linked to low density lipoproteins levels. University young students have a high prevalence of overweight and plasma lipid levels above the norm, but most are in the low-risk categories. It is necessary to establish early preventive measures aimed at promoting in the university student good eating habits and increased physical activity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Wang, Lin; Shuai, Ping; Liu, Yuping; Cheng, Youfu; Yang, Hua; Li, Tingxin; Gong, Lirong; Ren, Jiaojiao; Wang, Hongjia
To explore the effect of blood lipid and lipoprotein ratios on the change of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) among prehypertensive subjects. 11 611 subjects with normal blood pressure (BP) were divided into two groups, which was one with optimal blood pressure (BP<120/80 mmHg) and the other with prehypertension (BP:120-139/80-89 mmHg). Height, weight, baPWV, fasting blood-glucose, TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C were detected. The abnormal rate of baPWV in prehypertension group was obviously higher than that in the optimal blood pressure group. For optimal blood pressure group, the abnormality of TG, TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C as well as LDL-C/HDL-C, caused the increase of baPWV significantly (P < 0.001). For prehypertensive group, the abnormality of TC and LDL-C caused the significant increase of baPWV (P < 0.001). Results from logistic regression analysis showed that except for age, BMI and fasting blood-glucose, TC/HDL-C increasing was the independent risk factor in optimal blood pressure group, while TG increasing was for the prehypertension group. With different normal BP level, both abnormality of blood lipid and lipoprotein ratio were the independent risk factors for baPWV increasing.
Amano, Taku; Hosaka, Shigetoshi; Takami, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Chie; Oda, Kazue; Morikawa, Ryuichi
The atypical antipsychotic medication olanzapine is a useful agent in acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. It has beneficial effects on both positive and negative symptoms, an early onset of antipsychotic action and a favourable side effect profile. On the other hand, olanzapine has many reports of causing weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances and lipidosis. We carried out blood tests (leptin, adiponectin, remnant-like lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), total cholesterol, HbA1C, 75-OGTT and etc.) on patients with schizophrenia who had taken olanzapine. As a result, leptin, neutral lipid and RLP-C were significantly correlated by BMI. (The average blood test data and BMI revealed a normal range). Most analysis results of the lipoprotein fraction by a polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis method were normal patterns. Furthermore, the serum insulin concentrations from 75 g glucose tolerance (75 g-OGTT) 30 minutes later, in one third of patients receiving olanzapine, registered more than 100 microU/ml. The mechanism of the insulin secretion rise by olannzapine is unknown. Olanzapine may impair glucose tolerance due in part to increased insulin resistance. These findings do not necessarily imply that olanzapine is directly associated with a risk of impairment of weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances and lipidosis. These results suggest that it is useful to promote diet cure and exercise therapy with patients with high BMI levels.
Sun, Li; Zhou, Pingping; Hua, Qingli; Jin, Changming; Guo, Chunling; Song, Bing
This study aimed to investigate the effects of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure control on recovery of patients with gastric cancer complicated with metabolic syndrome (MS) after radical gastrectomy. A total of 150 patients with gastric cancer, who were treated in Daqing Longnan Hospital from November, 2015 to May, 2017, were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into the MS group (80 cases) and non-MS group (70 cases). Patients in the MS group were given corresponding drugs to control blood pressure, blood lipids and blood glucose, while patients in the non-MS group were not treated with those drugs. Patients in the MS group were divided into the normal and abnormal groups according to the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure. Moreover, occurrences of complications were compared between the normal and abnormal groups. Before surgery, blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in the MS group were significantly higher than those in the non-MS group (p<0.05). One month after operation, blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure of the MS group decreased significantly compared to those before operation (p<0.05). Incidence of complications at 1 and 3 months after operation was significantly lower in the normal groups than that in the corresponding abnormal groups (p<0.05). Postoperative recovery was significantly better in the normal groups than that in the corresponding abnormal groups (p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the incidence of postoperative complications was related to fasting blood glucose, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total triglycerides (TGs), LDL, mean blood pressure and BMI (p<0.05). The results show that, control of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in patients with gastric cancer complicated with MS after radical gastrectomy can reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and promote postoperative recovery.
Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Wichart, Ildiko
Weight gain is a common adverse effect associated with the use of most typical and atypical antipsychotic. Aim of this study was to investigate serum prolactin, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, such high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related psychosis during long-term medication with atypical antipsychotic. The study population comprised 40 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: olanzapine (n=10), risperidone (n=10), seroquel (n=10) monotherapy, a group of 10 patients receiving only antiparkinson drugs and a control group of 8 healthy persons. The patients were evaluated at baseline and at the sixth and twelfth week according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels. Treatment of patients with olanzapine caused marked increase of serum LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels (p<0,02). No changes in HDL concentrations. There was positive relationship between serum leptin, lipid levels and BMI. However, treatment of patients with seroquel did not cause changes in serum prolactin, leptin, lipids, and lipoproteins levels. Our results suggest that treatment of patients with PD-related psychosis with seroquel appears to have minimal influence on serum leptin, prolactin, lipids, lipoproteins and BMI compared with olanzapine and risperidone.
Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma
Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.
Luo, Zhi; Wei, Chuan-Chuan; Ye, Han-Mei; Zhao, Hai-Ping; Song, Yu-Feng; Wu, Kun
The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect and mechanism of dietary choline levels on growth performance and lipid deposition of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Dietary choline was included at three levels of 239.2 (control (without extra choline addition), 1156.4 and 2273.6mg choline per kg diet, respectively) and fed to yellow catfish (mean initial weight: 3.45±0.02g mean±standard errors of mean (SEM)) for 8weeks. Fish fed the diet containing 1156.4mgkg -1 choline showed the higher weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed intake (FI), but the lower feed conversion rate (FCR), than those in control and highest choline group. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) and hepatic lipid content declined with increasing dietary choline levels. Muscle lipid content was the lowest for fish fed adequate choline diets and showed no significant difference between other two groups. Choline contents in liver and muscle increased with increasing dietary choline levels. Dietary choline levels significantly influenced mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid homeostasis in muscle and liver, such as CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase a (CCTa), phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyl-transferase (PEMT), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), apolipoprotein b (APOBb), apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and effects of dietary choline levels on lipid deposition and metabolism were tissue-specific. Different responses of these genes at the mRNA levels partially explained the profiles of lipid deposition in liver and muscle for fish fed different choline diets. To our knowledge, this is the first to explore the effect of dietary choline level on mRNA expression of these genes, which provides new insights into choline nutrition in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paganella, MP; Cohen, RA; Harris, DR; Kuchenbecker, RS; Sperhacke, RD; Kato, SK; Silva, CLO; Sturzbecher, FT; Oliveira, RHS; Pavía Ruz, N; Hazra, R
Objective(s) To estimate the incidence of lipid and glucose abnormalities and assess their association with exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) regimens among perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Methods Data were analyzed from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Pediatric Latin American Countries Epidemiologic Study (PLACES). The incidence of dyslipidemia (total cholesterol>200mg/dL, HDL<35mg/dL, LDL≥130mg/dL, triglycerides>110mg/dL [age<10 years] or >150mg/dL [≥10 years]) and fasting glucose abnormalities (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance >2.5 [Tanner Stage 1] or >4.0 [Tanner Stage>1]; impaired glucose: 110 to <126mg/dL; diabetes: ≥126 mg/dL) was estimated. Proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the risk of abnormalities associated with ARV regimen, adjusted for covariates. Results There were 385 children eligible for analysis (mean age 6.6 years). Incident cholesterol abnormalities were reported in 18.1% of participants (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.1–22.8%), HDL and LDL cholesterol abnormalities in 19.6% (15.1–24.7%) and 15.0% (11.3–19.5%), respectively, and triglyceride abnormalities in 44.2% (37.7–50.8%). In multivariable analysis, ARV regimen was only associated with triglyceride abnormalities; participants receiving a protease inhibitor-containing (PI) regimen were 3.6 times as likely to experience a triglyceride abnormality as those receiving no ARVs (95% CI: 1.3–10.5; p=0.0167). The cumulative incidence of insulin resistance was 3.8% (1.8–7.1%); there were no incident cases of diabetes and only two of impaired fasting glucose. Conclusions Children receiving PI-containing regimens were at increased risk of developing triglyceride abnormalities. Continued monitoring of lipid levels in children receiving PI-containing regimens appears warranted. PMID:27570910
Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the
Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Junmei; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Han, Chengyi; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Bingyuan; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Dongdong; Liu, Xuejiao; Hu, Dongsheng
To investigate the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk and plasma lipid levels in rural Chinese. Each lipid variable was divided into quartiles and dichotomized by clinical cutoff points. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of T2DM risk and plasma lipid levels and explore the interaction between plasma lipid levels and other risk factors. 11,929 participants were included in the analysis. We documented 720 incident cases of T2DM over 70,720.84 person-years of follow-up, for an incidence of 10.18/1,000 person-years. In the multivariable-adjusted model, risk of T2DM was increased with the highest versus lowest quartiles of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) levels and TC/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG/HDL-C ratios. The HRs (95% CIs) for the fourth quartiles, for example, were 1.34 (1.03-1.74), 2.32 (1.73-3.13), 1.66 (1.23-2.25), and 1.84 (1.38-2.45), respectively. In addition, risk of T2DM was increased with high TG level and TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios by clinical cutoffs. The HRs (95% CIs) were 1.50 (1.25-1.80), 1.24 (1.03-1.48), and 1.44 (1.18-1.75), respectively. Risk of T2DM was associated with interactions between all lipid variables and age and BMI. TG level and TG/HDL-C ratio additionally interacted with gender (all P interaction < 0.0001). Risk of T2DM was increased with elevated serum levels of TC and TG and TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and also with interactions between high TC and TG levels and TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and age and BMI in a rural Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo
Thalassemia is a congenital hemoglobinopathy leading to anemia because of impaired erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis. Thalassemia major patients are transfusion dependent and it results in iron accumulation. The heart is one of the major organs affected with iron overload and iron induced cardiac dysfunction (pump and conduction abnormalities) remains the number one cause of death among thalassemia major patients. It has been reported that a high ferritin concentration is related to high troponin levels in hemodialysis patients receiving more intravenous iron sucrose. Abnormal troponin I levels have also been reported without acute coronary syndrome. We present a case of abnormal troponin I levels in Thalassemia major patient with high ferritin concentration, permanent atrial fibrillation and without acute coronary syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of abnormal troponin I levels in a Thalassemia major patient with high ferritin concentration and without acute coronary syndrome and also this case focuses attention on the importance of the correct evaluation of abnormal troponin I levels. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Welch, H Gilbert; Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven
The finding that some men with a normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (i.e., less than 4 ng/mL) nonetheless have microscopic evidence of prostate cancer has led to some suggestions that the threshold defining abnormal should be lowered to 2.5 ng/mL. We examined the effect of this lower threshold on the number of American men who would be labeled abnormal by a single PSA test. We obtained PSA data on a nationally representative sample of American men 40 years of age and older with no history of prostate cancer and no current inflammation or infection of the prostate gland (n = 1308) from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We obtained data on the 10-year risk of prostate cancer death in the pre-PSA era from DevCan, the National Cancer Institute's software to calculate the probability of dying of cancer. Based on NHANES data, approximately 1.5 million American men aged 40 to 69 years have a PSA level over 4.0 ng/mL. Lowering the threshold to 2.5 ng/mL would label an additional 1.8 million men as abnormal, if all men were screened. For men aged 70 years or older, the corresponding numbers are 1.5 and 1.2 million. The proportion of the population affected by different thresholds would vary with age. Among men in their 60s, for example, 17% have a PSA level over 2.5 ng/mL, 5.7% have a PSA level over 4.0 ng/mL, and 1.7% have a PSA level over 10.0 ng/mL. For context, only 0.9% of men in their 60s are expected to die from prostate cancer in the next 10 years. Lowering the PSA threshold to 2.5 ng/mL would double the number of men defined as abnormal, to up to 6 million. Until there is evidence that screening is effective, increasing the number of men recommended for prostate biopsy--and the number potentially diagnosed and treated unnecessarily--would be a mistake.
Sekine, Seiji; Kubo, Kazuhiro; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Saito, Morio
We examined the effects of ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH; experiment 1) and of GSH in acetaminophen-fed rats (experiment 2) on dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced tissue lipid peroxidation. In experiment 1, AsA-requiring Osteogenic Disorder Shionogi/Shi-od/od (ODS) rats were fed soybean protein diets containing DHA (10.0% total energy) and AsA at 50 (low) or 300 (normal) mg/kg without (low) or with (normal) methionine at 2 g/kg for 32 d. In experiment 2, ODS rats were fed diets containing DHA (7.8% total energy) and acetaminophen (4 g/kg) with different levels of dietary methionine (low, moderate, high, and excessive at 0, 3, 6, and 9 g/kg, respectively) for 30 d. Tissue lipid peroxides and antioxidant levels were determined. In experiment 1, liver lipid peroxide levels in the low-AsA group were lower than those in the normal-AsA group, but kidney and testis lipid peroxide levels in the low-AsA group were higher than those in the normal-AsA group. Dietary methionine tended to decrease tissue lipid peroxide levels but did not decrease vitamin E (VE) consumption. In experiment 2, a high level of methionine (6 g/kg) decreased liver lipid peroxide levels and VE consumption. However, generation of tissue lipid peroxides and VE consumption were not decreased further by a higher dose of methionine (9 g/kg). Higher than normal levels of dietary methionine are not necessarily associated with decreased dietary DHA-induced generation of tissue lipid peroxides and VE consumption except that the GSH requirement is increased in a condition such as acetaminophen feeding.
Xu, D; Liang, C; Chen, L; Wu, X D; He, J
Objective: To study the variations and influencing factors of serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: A retrospective study was performed among 5 020 healthy singleton (95.10%, 4 774/5 020) and twin (4.90%, 246/5 020) women who had delivery in Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2016. Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum of all the cases were collected. Both singleton and twin pregnant women were divided into advanced age and appropriate age groups, and then data of serum sample were assigned to 3 groups according to the gestation weeks, which were second trimester pregnancy (24-28 gestation weeks) , third trimester pregnancy (32-41 gestation weeks) and postpartum (within 72 hours after delivery) . The serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels in each groups were compared. Results: (1) Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during the second trimester pregnancy, third trimester pregnancy and postpartum were higher than levels of non-pregnancy in both singleton and twin groups (all P< 0.05) . (2) Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels in the third trimester pregnancy group were higher than those of second trimester pregnancy group in both advanced age and appropriate aged women regardless singleton or twin pregnancy (all P< 0.05) . The 95% CI of serum lipid levels in each group during second and third trimester pregnancy were as follows: in appropriate aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.07-4.13 and 1.52-7.21 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 2.77-12.11 and 4.44-9.36 mmol/L. In advanced aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.28-4.61 and 1.70-7.80 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.35-8.40 and 4.46-9.35 mmol/L; in appropriate aged twin group, the triglycerides levels were 1.39-7.16 and 1.90-9.29 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.99-12.16 and 4.52-10.07 mmol/L; in advanced
Al-Griw, Mohamed A.; Treesh, Soad A.; Alghazeer, Rabia O.; Regeai, Sassia O.
Environmental toxicants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and pesticides have been shown to promote transgenerational inheritance of abnormal phenotypes and/or diseases to multiple subsequent generations following parental and/or ancestral exposures. This study was designed to examine the potential transgenerational action of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE) on transmission of liver abnormality, and to elucidate the molecular etiology of hepatocyte cell damage. A total of thirty two healthy immature female albino mice were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: a sham group, which did not receive any treatment; a vehicle group, which received corn oil alone, and TCE treated group (3 weeks, 100 μg/kg i.p., every 4th day). The F0 and F1 generation control and TCE populations were sacrificed at the age of four months, and various abnormalities histpathologically investigated. Cell death and oxidative stress indices were also measured. The present study provides experimental evidence for the inheritance of environmentally induced liver abnormalities in mice. The results of this study show that exposure to the TCE promoted adult onset liver abnormalities in F0 female mice as well as unexposed F1 generation offspring. It is the first study to report a transgenerational liver abnormalities in the F1 generation mice through maternal line prior to gestation. This finding was based on careful evaluation of liver histopathological abnormalities, apoptosis of hepatocytes, and measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and nitric oxide) in control and TCE populations. There was an increase in liver histopathological abnormalities, cell death, and oxidative lipid damage in F0 and F1 hepatic tissues of TCE treated group. In conclusion, this study showed that the biological and health impacts of environmental toxicant TCE do not end in maternal adults, but are passed on to offspring generations. Hence
Li, Yijun; Mu, Yiming; Ji, Qiuhe; Huang, Qin; Kuang, Hongyu; Ji, Linong; Yang, Xilin
We recruited a group of 6713 consecutive Chinese patients with T2D but normal renal and liver function who were admitted to one of 81 top tertiary care hospitals in China. Mild hypoglycaemia was defined as having symptomatic hypoglycaemia in one month before hospitalization. Severe hypoglycaemia was defined as having hypoglycaemia that needed assistance from other people in three months before hospitalization. Prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) was defined as having coronary heart disease, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. Of 6713 patients, 80 and 304 had severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes, respectively, and 561 had CVD. Patients with severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes were more likely to have prior CVD (32.5% versus 16.5% versus 7.7%, P < 0.0001). Both mild and severe hypoglycaemia were associated with increased risk of CVD (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 2.64, 95% CI: 1.85–3.76 for mild hypoglycaemia; 6.59, 95% CI: 3.79–11.45 for sever hypoglycaemia) than those patients free of hypoglycaemia. Further adjustment for lipid profile did not change these two ORs. In the same way, the ORs of lipid profile for CVD were similar before and after adjustment for hypoglycaemia. We concluded that hypoglycaemia and lipid profile were independently associated with increased risk of CVD. PMID:26504840
Li, Yijun; Mu, Yiming; Ji, Qiuhe; Huang, Qin; Kuang, Hongyu; Ji, Linong; Yang, Xilin
We recruited a group of 6713 consecutive Chinese patients with T2D but normal renal and liver function who were admitted to one of 81 top tertiary care hospitals in China. Mild hypoglycaemia was defined as having symptomatic hypoglycaemia in one month before hospitalization. Severe hypoglycaemia was defined as having hypoglycaemia that needed assistance from other people in three months before hospitalization. Prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) was defined as having coronary heart disease, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. Of 6713 patients, 80 and 304 had severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes, respectively, and 561 had CVD. Patients with severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes were more likely to have prior CVD (32.5% versus 16.5% versus 7.7%, P < 0.0001). Both mild and severe hypoglycaemia were associated with increased risk of CVD (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 2.64, 95% CI: 1.85-3.76 for mild hypoglycaemia; 6.59, 95% CI: 3.79-11.45 for sever hypoglycaemia) than those patients free of hypoglycaemia. Further adjustment for lipid profile did not change these two ORs. In the same way, the ORs of lipid profile for CVD were similar before and after adjustment for hypoglycaemia. We concluded that hypoglycaemia and lipid profile were independently associated with increased risk of CVD.
Arikan, Deniz Cemgil; Coskun, Ayhan; Ozer, Ali; Kilinc, Metin; Atalay, Filiz; Arikan, Tugba
It has been shown that the trace elements and lipids play role in the growth, development and maintenance of bones. We aimed to investigate serum selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lipid (total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) levels in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, osteopenia and in healthy controls, and to determine the relationship between Se, Zn, Cu and lipid parameters and bone mineral density (BMD). The study included 107 postmenopausal women; 35 healthy (group 1), 37 osteopenic (group 2) and 35 osteoporotic (group 3). The women in all three groups were carefully matched for body mass index (BMI). Serum concentrations of Se, Zn and Cu were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plasma Se, Cu, Zn and lipid levels were similar in all groups (p > 0.05). When we combined the women in each of the three groups, and considered them as one group (n = 107) we found a positive correlation between BMI and lumbar vertebra BMD, femur neck BMD, femur total BMD; a positive correlation between TG and femur neck BMD, femur total BMD; a positive correlation between Zn and lumbar vertebra BMD (total T score) (p < 0.05). There was no correlation between Se, Cu, Zn, P and lipid parameters (p > 0.05). Although BMI has a positive effect on BMD, trace elements and lipids, except Zn and TG, did not directly and correlatively influence BMD. Further studies are needed to clarify the role and relationship of trace elements and lipid parameters in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Lipid peroxidation may be increased in schizophrenia, due to the illness, lifestyle or medication. To determine plasma lipid peroxide levels and serum vitamin E and A levels in first-episode never-treated people with schizophrenia and in controls. Thirty in-patients with a first episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform psychosis were recruited, as were controls matched for gender, age, smoking and dietary status. Blood samples were taken, smoking status was recorded and body mass index measured. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in plasma peroxide levels. Seventy-three per cent of the patients smoked. Patients who smoked had a higher mean lipid peroxide level than non-smokers. Seventy-seven per cent of patients and 70% of controls had a ratio of vitamin E to cholesterol of less than 5. Body mass index was lower in patients than in controls. As a result of the high prevalence of smoking this group shows increased lipid peroxidation. Low serum ratios of vitamin E to cholesterol in both patients and controls suggest an unsatisfactory diet.
Parrill, Abby L
Lipids have a variety of physiological roles, ranging from structural and biophysical contributions to membrane functions to signaling contributions in normal and abnormal physiology. This review highlights some of the contributions made by Robert Bittman to our understanding of lipid assemblies through the production of synthetic lipid analogs in the sterol, sphingolipid, and glycolipid classes. His contributions have included the development of a fluorescent cholesterol analog that shows strong functional analogies to cholesterol that has allowed live imaging of cholesterol distribution in living systems, to stereospecific synthetic approaches to both sphingolipid and glycolipid analogs crucial in defining the structure-activity relationships of lipid biological targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ghelani, Hardik; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Nammi, Srinivas
(R)- α -lipoic acid ( ALA ), an essential cofactor in mitochondrial respiration and a potential antioxidant, possesses a wide array of metabolic benefits including anti-obesity, glucose lowering, insulin-sensitizing, and lipid-lowering effects. In this study, the curative effects of ALA (100 mg/kg) on a spectrum of conditions related to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes ( T2D ) were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome and T2D . The marked rise in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and VLDL-cholesterol in the blood of HFD-fed and low-dose STZ-injected rats were significantly reduced by ALA treatment. Furthermore, ALA treatment significantly increased the serum HDL-cholesterol levels and tended to inhibit diabetes-induced weight reduction. Mathematical computational analysis revealed that ALA also significantly improved insulin sensitivity and reduced the risk of atherosclerotic lesions and coronary atherogenesis. This study provides scientific evidence to substantiate the use of ALA to mitigate the glucose and lipid abnormality in metabolic syndrome and T2D .
Cui, Rongtao; Qi, Zhiming; Zhou, Lin; Li, Zuohong; Li, Qing; Zhang, Junyong
People with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of hypertension, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke. Glucose intolerance (insulin resistance) is the main feature of type 2 diabetes. Obesity leads to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc. The aim of this study was to assess the biochemical parameters and measures of obesity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 2,273 males and 6,547 females previously healthy volunteers (aged 41-95 years old) were recruited by open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, was collected by questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profile, liver transaminase, blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c were obtained after 12 hours of fasting. According to our results, diabetic patients presented serum lipid abnormality. Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels (≥1.7 mmol/L) were noted in 19.69% of males and 20.40% of females, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (≤1.15 mmol/L) were noted in 21.96% of males and 15.74% of females. The combination of elevated TG and reduced HDL-C was the most prevalent of the combined lipid abnormalities. In contrast, no differences were observed in the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences in the levels of BMI and waistline between T2DM and non-T2DM participants. After adjustment for BMI, logistic regression analysis revealed that the subjects with BMI ≤20 kg/m(2) and >30 kg/m(2) had a significantly elevated hazard ratio of T2DM compared with participants having a BMI range of 20-30 kg/m(2) in both males and females. However, there was a significant difference between T2DM patients and non-T2DM patients in waistline (χ (2)=8.57, P<0.001) than in BMI parameter (χ (2)=6.29, P<0.001). The present study shows for the first
Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S
Nine semi-purified diets were prepared with three levels each of protein (300, 350 and 400 g/kg) and lipid (60, 80 and 100 g/kg) and fed ad libitum to Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings (0.61 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups (10 fish/replicate) for 90 days to determine optimum dietary protein and lipid levels. Twenty-seven flow-through fibre-reinforced plastic tanks (200 l capacity each with 100 l of water) were used for rearing the fish. The dietary protein, lipid and their interactions had significant effects (p < 0.05) on weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, nutrient retention and digestibility, but not on hepato- and viscerosomatic indexes (p > 0.05). Dietary protein and the interaction of protein with lipid had significant effect (p < 0.05) on whole-body dry matter, lipid and energy contents, but not on protein and ash contents (p > 0.05). But, the dietary lipid had significant (p < 0.05) effect on whole-body dry matter, protein, lipid and energy contents except the ash contents (p > 0.05). For each level of dietary protein, the increase in dietary lipid resulted significant increase (p < 0.05) in whole-body lipid contents without affecting the protein and ash contents (p > 0.05). Based on better growth and dietary performances, the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels of blue gourami fingerling are 350 and 80 g/kg diet respectively. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Sozio, Margaret; Crabb, David W.
Many new mechanisms for alcoholic steatosis have been suggested by work reported in the last five years. These include alterations of transcriptional controls of lipid metabolism, better understanding of the effects of abnormal methionine metabolism on the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, unraveling of the basis for sensitization of the Kupffer cell to lipopolysaccharide, a better understanding of the role of cytokines and adipokines in alcoholic liver disease, and implication of the innate immune and complement systems in responses to alcohol. Much of this work has been facilitated by work with knockout mice. Undoubtedly, there are interrelationships among these various pathogenic mechanisms that ultimately will provide a more cohesive picture of how heavy alcohol use deranges hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:18349117
Yen, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong
The total amount of lipids produced in Rhodotorula glutinis is a subject which has attracted increasing attention due to the potential biodiesel conversion from these microbial oils. The effects of the dissolved oxygen (DO) level in lipid accumulation were examined in this study. Variations of different medium volumes (30, 40 and 50ml) and shaking speed (60, 150 and 210rpm) in the flask trials were adopted to explore the DO effects on lipid production. All of the results revealed that a low DO could retard cell growth, while enhancing lipid accumulation. The 5l-fermentor results also confirm that a low DO (25 ± 10%) batch could have higher lipid content than that of high DO batch (60 ± 10%). Nevertheless, the DO level would not obviously affect the lipid composition profile. Oleic acid (C18:1) was the primary fatty acid in both batches. Due to the slow biomass growth rate resulting from the low DO, a two-stage DO controlled strategy (consisting of a high DO stage and following a low DO stage) was performed to improve the cell growth and lipid accumulation simultaneously. However, the strategy was not successful on the enhancement of total lipid production as compared to other batches. Conclusively, even a low DO could retard cell growth; the total production of lipids in the batch with low DO was higher that of the high DO batch due to the enhancement of lipid accumulation. Therefore, the batch operation of R. glutinis at the low DO was suggested for the purpose of lipid production. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Patel, Chirag J; Cullen, Mark R; Ioannidis, John PA; Butte, Atul J
Background Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Although genome-wide association studies are currently testing the genetic factors systematically, testing and reporting one or a few factors at a time can lead to fragmented literature for environmental chemical factors. We screened for correlation between environmental factors and lipid levels, utilizing four independent surveys with information on 188 environmental factors from the Centers of Disease Control, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, collected between 1999 and 2006. Methods We used linear regression to correlate each environmental chemical factor to triglycerides, LDL-C and HDL-C adjusting for age, age2, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status and body mass index. Final estimates were adjusted for waist circumference, diabetes status, blood pressure and survey. Multiple comparisons were controlled for by estimating the false discovery rate and significant findings were tentatively validated in an independent survey. Results We identified and validated 29, 9 and 17 environmental factors correlated with triglycerides, LDL-C and HDL-C levels, respectively. Findings include hydrocarbons and nicotine associated with lower HDL-C and vitamin E (γ-tocopherol) associated with unfavourable lipid levels. Higher triglycerides and lower HDL-C were correlated with higher levels of fat-soluble contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans). Nutrients and vitamin markers (e.g. vitamins B, D and carotenes), were associated with favourable triglyceride and HDL-C levels. Conclusions Our systematic association study has enabled us to postulate about broad environmental correlation to lipid levels. Although subject to confounding and reverse causality bias, these findings merit evaluation in additional cohorts. PMID:22421054
Kawanishi, Noriaki; Kato, Yuki; Yokozeki, Kyosuke; Sawada, Shuji; Sakurai, Ryota; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji; Goda, Nobuhito; Suzuki, Katsuhiko
Aging is known to be associated with increased risk of lipid disorders related to the development of type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence revealed that change of lipid molecule species in blood is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, changes in lipid molecular species induced by aging are still unknown. We assessed the effects of age on the serum levels of lipid molecular species as determined by lipidomics analysis. Serum samples were collected from ten elderly men (71.7 ± 0.5 years old) and women (70.2 ± 1.0 years old), ten young men (23.9 ± 0.4 years old), and women (23.9 ± 0.7 years old). Serum levels of lipid molecular species were determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based lipidomics analysis. Our mass spectrometry analysis revealed increases in the levels of multiple triacylglycerol molecular species in the serum of elderly men and women. Moreover, serum levels of total ester-linked phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were increased by aging. In contrast, serum levels of specific ether-linked PC and PE molecular species were lower in elderly individuals than in young individuals. Our finding indicates that specific lipid molecular species, such as ether- and ester- linked phospholipids, may be selectively altered by aging.
Tin'kov, Aleksey N; Aksenov, Valeriy A
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) on plasma lipid concentrations of male coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Forty-six male coronary patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty had a history of myocardial infarction and 16 had ischemic episodes documented by ergometer testing or Holter monitoring. The patients underwent acclimation to hypoxia by means of a protocol of intermittent exposure in a hypobaric chamber. Lipid profiles, including coefficient of atherogenity (CA) by A.N. Klimov, were assessed at baseline, on completion of the study, and at 3-, 6-, and 10-month follow-ups. Total cholesterol decreased by 7% on completion of the IHH and by 9% at 3 months and persisted on that level to month 6. HDL levels increased by 12% at 3-month follow-up and remained significantly higher than baseline until month 6. LDL levels declined on completion of IHH, but the changes from baseline were most prominent at 3-month (13%) and 6-month (11%) follow-ups. Similar changes were found in levels of VLDL and TG. CA declined by 26% on treatment completion and by 37% at 3-month follow-up and increased to baseline at 10 months. No changes in lipid profiles were found in patients with CA < 3 (n = 22). In subjects with CA > 3 (n = 24), beneficial effects were more pronounced. IHH in CHD patients with abnormal lipid metabolism leads to favorable changes of plasma lipid patterns persisting to month 6 following IHH.
Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Lavie, Carl J.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.
Background Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. Objectives This study sought to assess the longitudinal, aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults, and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 (mean 3.5) health examinations between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Results Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until the mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p < 0.0001). Compared to men with higher CRF, those with lower CRF developed abnormal values earlier in life: TC (≥200 mg/dl), LDL-C (≥130 mg/dl), non-HDL-C (≥160 mg/dl), and TG/HDL-C ratio (≥3.0). Notably, abnormal values for TC and LDL-C in men with low CRF were observed around 15 years earlier than in those with high CRF. After adjusting for time-varying covariates, a significant interaction was found between age and CRF in each trajectory, indicating that CRF was more strongly associated with the aging trajectories of lipids and lipoproteins in young to middle-aged men than in older men. Conclusions Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men, and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. PMID:25975472
A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in the corpus callosum (CC), a heterotopia, in adult rats following hypothyroidism induced by the hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). In this report we have investigated the dose- response relationships to administered dose of PTU, the magnitude of reductions in circulating TH, and the incidence and volume of the heterotopia in adult offspring of PTU-treated dams. Pregnant rat dams were administered 0, 1, 2, 3 or 10 ppm of PTU in the drinking water from gestational day 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day 21 (PN2 1). Serum hormones in the dams were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, but at the lower dose levels (1, 2 and 3ppm) reductions were limited to T4 with no change in serum T3. At higher PTU concentrations, serum T3 was reduced in dams (1 Oppm) and pups on PN14 and 21 (3 and 10 ppm). All hormone levels returned to control levels in adulthood. On PN 130, female offspring were perfused with paraformaldehyde and sections prepared for immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. All sections (40-45 50u through the hippocampus) were examined for the presence of a heterotopia in the CC. A dose-dependent increase in incidence and volume of heterotopic re
Israel, R G; Davidson, P C; Albrink, M J; Krall, J M
The effect of 3 different physical training programs on cardiorespiratory (cr) fitness, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, and scapular skinfold thickness was assessed in 64 healthy college men. Training sessions were held 4 times a week for 5 weeks. The cr fitness improved significantly and skinfold thickness decreased following the aerobic, the pulse workout (interval training), and the anaerobic training compared to the control group. Skinfold thickness, plasma insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly intercorrelated before and after training. The exercise programs had no significant effect on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose tolerance, or insulin levels. Change in adipose mass was thus dissociated from change in plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations. It was concluded that in young men plasma triglycerides, the lipid component mostly readily reduced by exercise, were too low to be reduced further by a physical training program.
Narayanan, Sruthi; Prasad, P.V. Vara; Welti, Ruth
Identifying lipids that experience coordinated metabolism during heat stress would provide information regarding lipid dynamics under stress conditions and assist in developing heat-tolerant wheat varieties. We hypothesized that co-occurring lipids, which are up-or-down-regulated together through time during heat stress, represent groups that can be explained by coordinated metabolism. Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) were subjected to 12 days of high day and/or night temperature stress, followed by a 4-day recovery period. Leaves were sampled at four time points, and 165 lipids were measured by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Correlation analysis of lipid levels in 160 leaf samples from each of two wheat genotypes revealed 13 groups of lipids. Lipids within each group co-occurred through the high day and night temperature stress treatments. The lipid groups can be broadly classified as groups containing: extraplastidic phospholipids, plastidic glycerolipids, oxidized glycerolipids, triacylglycerols, acylated sterol glycosides, and sterol glycosides. Current knowledge of lipid metabolism suggests that the lipids in each group co-occur because they are regulated by the same enzyme(s). The results suggest that increases in activities of desaturating, oxidizing, glycosylating, and acylating enzymes lead to simultaneous changes in levels of multiple lipid species during high day and night temperature stress in wheat. PMID:26436445
Kashyap, Kanchan L; Bajpai, Manish K; Khanna, Pritee; Giakos, George
Automatic segmentation of abnormal region is a crucial task in computer-aided detection system using mammograms. In this work, an automatic abnormality detection algorithm using mammographic images is proposed. In the preprocessing step, partial differential equation-based variational level set method is used for breast region extraction. The evolution of the level set method is done by applying mesh-free-based radial basis function (RBF). The limitation of mesh-based approach is removed by using mesh-free-based RBF method. The evolution of variational level set function is also done by mesh-based finite difference method for comparison purpose. Unsharp masking and median filtering is used for mammogram enhancement. Suspicious abnormal regions are segmented by applying fuzzy c-means clustering. Texture features are extracted from the segmented suspicious regions by computing local binary pattern and dominated rotated local binary pattern (DRLBP). Finally, suspicious regions are classified as normal or abnormal regions by means of support vector machine with linear, multilayer perceptron, radial basis, and polynomial kernel function. The algorithm is validated on 322 sample mammograms of mammographic image analysis society (MIAS) and 500 mammograms from digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) datasets. Proficiency of the algorithm is quantified by using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 93.96%, 95.01%, and 94.48%, respectively, are obtained on MIAS dataset using DRLBP feature with RBF kernel function. Whereas, the highest 92.31% sensitivity, 98.45% specificity, and 96.21% accuracy are achieved on DDSM dataset using DRLBP feature with RBF kernel function. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Roberts, Deborah D; Pollien, Philippe; Watzke, Brigitte
The purpose of this work was to study two key parameters of the lipid phase that influence flavor release-lipid level and lipid type-and to relate the results to a mass balance partition coefficient-based mathematical model. Release of 10 volatile compounds from milk-based emulsions at 10, 25, and 50 degrees C was monitored by 1-min headspace sampling with a solid-phase microextraction fiber, followed by GC-MS analysis. As compared to the observations for milk fat, changing to a lipophilic lipid (medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) and adding a monoglyceride-based surfactant did not influence the volatiles release. However, increasing the solid fat content was found to increase the release. At 25 degrees C, and even more so at 10 degrees C, concurrent with an increase in their solid fat content, hydrogenated palm fat emulsions showed increased flavor release over that observed for emulsions made with coconut oil, coconut oil with surfactant, milk fat, and MCT. However, at 50 degrees C, when hydrogenated palm fat emulsions had zero solid fat content, there was no difference in flavor release from that observed for milk fat emulsions. Varying milk fat at nine levels between 0 and 4.5% showed a systematic dependence of the release on the lipid level, dependent on compound lipophilicity. Close correlations were found between the experimental and model predictions with lipid level and percent liquid lipid as variables.
Pérez-Castrillón, José Luis; Abad Manteca, Laura; Vega, Gemma; del Pino Montes, Javier; de Luis, Daniel; Dueňas Laita, Antonio
Adequate vitamin D levels are necessary for good vascular health. 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol activates CYP3A4, an enzyme of the cytochrome P450 system, which metabolizes atorvastatin to its main metabolites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of cholesterol and triglycerides to atorvastatin according to vitamin D levels. Sixty-three patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with low and high doses of atorvastatin were included. Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were measured at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up. Baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were classified as deficient (<30 nmol/L), insufficient (30–50 nmol/L), and normal (>50 nmol/L). In patients with 25-OHD <30 nmol/L, there were no significant changes in levels of total cholesterol (173 ± 47 mg/dL versus 164 ± 51 mg/dL), triglycerides (151 ± 49 mg/dL versus 177 ± 94 mg/dL), and LDL cholesterol (111 ± 48 mg/dL versus 92 45 ± mg/dL); whereas patients with insufficient (30–50 nmol/L) and normal vitamin D (>50 nmol/L) had a good response to atorvastatin. We suggest that vitamin D concentrations >30 nmol/L may be required for atorvastatin to reduce lipid levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:20016682
Aryal, Binod; Singh, Abhishek K.; Rotllan, Noemi; Price, Nathan; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos
Purpose of review Work over the last decade has identified the important role of microRNAs (miRNAS) in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and associated disorders including metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field, highlighting the contribution of miRNAs in controlling low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Recent findings A number of miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipid metabolism, including miR-122 and miR-33. Work over the last two years has identified additional functions of miR-33 including the regulation of macrophage activation and mitochondrial metabolism. Moreover, it has recently been shown that miR-33 regulates vascular homeostasis and cardiac adaptation in response to pressure overload. In addition to miR-33 and miR-122, recent GWAS have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the proximity of miRNAs genes associated with abnormal levels of circulating lipids in humans. Several of these miRNA, such as miR-148a and miR-128-1, target important proteins that regulate cellular cholesterol metabolism, including the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1). Summary microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of cholesterol metabolism and promising therapeutic targets for treating cardiometabolic disorders including atherosclerosis. Here, we discuss the recent findings in the field highlighting the novel mechanisms by which miR-33 controls lipid metabolism and atherogenesis and the identification of novel miRNAs that regulate LDL metabolism. Finally, we summarize the recent findings that identified miR-33 as an important non-coding RNA that controls cardiovascular homeostasis independent of its role in regulating lipid metabolism. PMID:28333713
Glatz, Jan F C
Lipids serve a great variety of functions, ranging from structural components of biological membranes to signaling molecules affecting various cellular functions. Several of these functions are related to the unique physico-chemical properties shared by all lipid species, i.e., their hydrophobicity. The latter, however, is accompanied by a poor solubility in an aqueous environment and thus a severe limitation in the transport of lipids in aqueous compartments such as blood plasma and the cellular soluble cytoplasm. Specific proteins which can reversibly and non-covalently associate with lipids, designated as lipid binding proteins or lipid chaperones, greatly enhance the aqueous solubility of lipids and facilitate their transport between tissues and within tissue cells. Importantly, transport of lipids across biological membranes also is facilitated by specific (membrane-associated) lipid binding proteins. Together, these lipid binding proteins determine the bio-availability of their ligands, and thereby markedly influence the subsequent processing, utilization, or signaling effect of lipids. The bio-availability of specific lipid species thus is governed by the presence of specific lipid binding proteins, the affinity of these proteins for distinct lipid species, and the presence of competing ligands (including pharmaceutical compounds). Recent studies suggest that post-translational modifications of lipid binding proteins may have great impact on lipid-protein interactions. As a result, several levels of regulation exist that together determine the bio-availability of lipid species. This short review discusses the significance of lipid binding proteins and their potential application as targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gentles, Dudley; Metcalf, Patricia; Dyall, Lorna; Scragg, Robert; Sundborn, Gerhard; Schaaf, David; Black, Peter N; Jackson, Rodney T
To describe mean serum lipid concentrations for Maori, Pacific people (mostly of Samoan, Tongan, Niuean, or Cook Islands origin), and Others (mostly New Zealand-born Europeans), and to identify risk factors for an adverse lipid profile. A cross-sectional survey of adults aged between 35-74 years within the Auckland area. There were 1006 Maori, 996 Pacific people, and 2021 'Others' Fasting blood samples were collected from participants, and total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and triglycerides were measured. Maori and Pacific people had similar mean serum total and LDL cholesterol levels but lower HDL levels and higher total to HDL cholesterol ratios compared to Others (adjusted for age and gender). Maori also had higher triglycerides than Others. High BMI and cigarette smoking were positively associated with unfavourable lipid profiles, while current alcohol drinking and vigorous leisure time activity were associated with increased HDL cholesterol and lower total to HDL cholesterol ratios. Over 90% of all ethnic groups had total cholesterol levels above currently accepted optimal levels (>4 mmol/L) and two-thirds were above 5 mmol/L. While 30% of Others had a total to HDL cholesterol ratio above the 'optimal' threshold of 4.5, 40% of Maori and 44% of pacific people were above this level. This is the first study to simultaneously assess lipid levels in Maori, Pacific people, and Others in one population-based study. Despite similar total and LDL cholesterol levels in all ethnic groups; overweight, obesity, and current cigarette smoking were the main risk factors for their adverse lipid profiles. Engaging in leisure-time activity and alcohol consumption (and not surprisingly lipid-lowering drugs) were associated with better lipid profiles. We confirm that the main lipid-related cardiovascular disease risk in Maori and Pacific people is due to their low HDL and high triglyceride levels.
Background The fatty acid mixture of human milk is ideal for the newborn but little is known about its composition in the first few weeks of lactation. Of special interest are the levels of long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs), since these are essential for the newborn’s development. Additionally, the LCPUFAs arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are precursors for lipid mediators which regulate inflammation. Methods We determined the composition of 94 human milk samples from 30 mothers over the first month of lactation for fatty acids using GC-MS and quantified lipid mediators using HPLC-MS/MS. Results Over the four weeks period, DHA levels decreased, while levels of γC18:3 and αC18:3 steadily increased. Intriguingly, we found high concentrations of lipid mediators and their hydroxy fatty acid precursors in human milk, including pro-inflammatory leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipoxin A4 (LXA4), resolvin D1 (RvD1) and resolvin E1 (RvE1). Lipid mediator levels were stable with the exception of two direct precursors. Conclusions Elevated levels of DHA right after birth might represent higher requirements of the newborn and the high content of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators and their precursors may indicate their role in neonatal immunity and may be one of the reasons for the advantage of human milk over infant formula. PMID:23767972
Narayanan, Sruthi; Prasad, P V Vara; Welti, Ruth
Identifying lipids that experience coordinated metabolism during heat stress would provide information regarding lipid dynamics under stress conditions and assist in developing heat-tolerant wheat varieties. We hypothesized that co-occurring lipids, which are up-regulated or down-regulated together through time during heat stress, represent groups that can be explained by coordinated metabolism. Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) were subjected to 12 days of high day and/or night temperature stress, followed by a 4-day recovery period. Leaves were sampled at four time points, and 165 lipids were measured by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Correlation analysis of lipid levels in 160 leaf samples from each of two wheat genotypes revealed 13 groups of lipids. Lipids within each group co-occurred through the high day and night temperature stress treatments. The lipid groups can be broadly classified as groups containing extraplastidic phospholipids, plastidic glycerolipids, oxidized glycerolipids, triacylglycerols, acylated sterol glycosides and sterol glycosides. Current knowledge of lipid metabolism suggests that the lipids in each group co-occur because they are regulated by the same enzyme(s). The results suggest that increases in activities of desaturating, oxidizing, glycosylating and acylating enzymes lead to simultaneous changes in levels of multiple lipid species during high day and night temperature stress in wheat. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Adenan, Nurul Salma; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Shariff, M
Microalgae are important food sources for aquaculture animals. Among the different factors which influence the biochemical composition of microalgae, nitrogen and phosphorus are two of the most important nutrient sources for growth and development. The present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency on lipid production of Chlorella sp. and Chaetoceros calcitrans. Early stationary phase culture of these species were exposed to different stress levels of nitrogen and phosphorus (25%, 50% and 75% of the full NO(3)-N and PO(4)-P concentration in the Conway media), and solvent extraction and gas-liquid chromatography methods were performed for analysis of lipid and fatty acid composition. The results revealed that lipid production in these two species significantly increased (P<0.05) as nitrogen and phosphorus decreased. The fatty acid proportion remained unaffected under nitrogen deficiency, while phosphorus limitation resulted in a decrease of saturated fatty acids and promoted a higher content of omega-3 fatty acids in these species. The protein and carbohydrate levels were also altered under limited nutrients. Therefore, these conditions could be used for enhanced lipid production in microalgae for aquaculture and other industrial applications.
Tang, Xin; Zan, Xinyi; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin
The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is attracting considerable interest as it produces oil rich in γ-linolenic acid. Nitrogen (N) deficiency is a common strategy to trigger the lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. Although a simple pathway from N depletion in the medium to lipid accumulation has been elucidated at the enzymatic level, global changes at protein levels upon N depletion have not been investigated. In this study, we have systematically analyzed the changes at the levels of protein expression in M. circinelloides WJ11, a high lipid-producing strain (36 %, lipid/cell dry weight), during lipid accumulation. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that N depletion increased the expression of glutamine synthetase, involved in ammonia assimilation, for the supply of cellular nitrogen but decreased the metabolism of amino acids. Upon N deficiency, many proteins (e.g., fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, pyruvate kinase) involved in glycolytic pathway were up-regulated while proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (e.g., isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA ligase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase) were down-regulated, indicating this activity was retarded thereby leading to a greater flux of carbon into fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, transaldolase and transketolase, which participate in the pentose phosphate pathway, were up-regulated, leading to the increased production of NADPH, the reducing power for fatty acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, protein and nucleic acid metabolism were down-regulated and some proteins involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, molecular chaperone and redox homeostasis were up-regulated upon N depletion, which may be the cellular response to the stress produced by the onset of N deficiency. N limitation increased those expressions of the proteins involved in ammonia assimilation but decreased that
Silvain, M; Bligny, D; Aparicio, T; Laforêt, P; Grodet, A; Peretti, N; Ménard, D; Djouadi, F; Jardel, C; Bégué, J M; Walker, F; Schmitz, J; Lachaux, A; Aggerbeck, L P; Samson-Bouma, M E
Anderson's disease (AD) or chylomicron retention disease (CMRD) is a rare hereditary lipid malabsorption syndrome linked to SARA2 gene mutations. We report in this study a novel mutation in two sisters for which the Sar1b protein is predicted to be truncated by 32 amino acids at its carboxyl-terminus. Because the SARA2 gene is also expressed in the muscle, heart, liver and placenta, extraintestinal clinical manifestations may exist. For the first time, we describe in this study in the two sisters muscular as well as cardiac abnormalities that could be related to the reported expression of SARA2 in these tissues. We also evaluated six other patients for potential manifestations of the SARA2 mutation. The creatine phosphokinase levels were increased in all patients [1.5-9.4 x normal (N)] and transaminases were moderately elevated in five of the eight patients (1.2-2.6 x N), probably related to muscle disease rather than to liver dysfunction. A decreased ejection fraction occurred in one patient (40%, N: 60%). The muscle, liver and placental tissues that were examined had no specific abnormalities and, in particular, no lipid accumulation. These results suggest that myolysis and other extraintestinal abnormalities can occur in AD/CMRD and that the clinical evaluation of patients should reflect this.
Konda, Venugopala Rao; Eerike, Madhavi; Chary, R Prasanth; Arunachalam, Ruckmani; Yeddula, Venkata Ramana; Meti, Vinayak; Devi, T Sobita
The objectives of the study were to assess evaluate the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) on blood glucose and lipid levels in normal, diabetic, and glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six each. Group I was normal control, Groups II and III were given AlCl 3 50 and 100 mg/kg, and Group IV to VII were administered with streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Group IV was diabetic control, Group V in addition was given AlCl 3 50 mg/kg, Group VI glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), and Group VII glibenclamide and AlCl 3 (50 mg/kg) per-oral daily for 28 days. Blood glucose and lipid levels were estimated at base line, after diabetes was set in and on the last day of study. Histopathological changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney were studied. No significant change was observed in blood glucose and lipid levels in Group I. Group II and III showed a dose-dependent significant increase in blood glucose was observed. Group V had a reduction in blood glucose but not to the nondiabetic level. Group VI had significant reduction in blood sugar. In Group VII, treated with glibenclamide and AlCl 3 , there was no significant change in blood glucose reduction compared to Group VI. Lipid levels were reduced in groups treated with AlCl 3 and glibenclamide and not in other groups. Gross tissue damage was seen in pancreas in STZ group and in liver and kidney in AlCl 3 groups. AlCl 3 administration in Wistar rats caused in significant hyperglycemia in normal rats, hypoglycemia in diabetic rats, and did not influenced hypoglycemic effect of glibenclamide and in addition, resulted in reduction in lipid levels.
Pan, Jianqiu; Van, Joanne T; Chan, Eve; Kesala, Renata L; Lin, Michael; Charles, M Arthur
We tested the hypotheses that extended-release niacin is effective for the separate treatments of abnormalities in low-density liprotein (LDL) size, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-2, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] without potential negative effects on glycated hemoglobin levels. The lipids that constitute the atherogenic lipid profile (ALP), such as triglycerides, small, dense LDL-cholesterol particle concentration, LDL particle size, total HDL-cholesterol (HDLc), HDL-2, and HDL-2 cholesterol concentration, as well as total LDL-cholesterol (LDLc) and Lp(a), were measured in 36 diabetic patients with primary abnormalities of LDL particle size (n = 25), HDL-2 (n = 23), and/or Lp(a) (n = 12) before and after extended-release niacin treatment. LDL particle size and HDL-2 were measured using polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoreses and Lp(a) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After extended-release niacin, LDL peak particle diameter increased from 25.2 +/- 0.6 nm to 26.1 +/- 0.7 nm (P <.0001); small, dense LDLc concentration decreased from 30 +/- 17 mg/dL to 17 +/- 10 mg/dL (P <.0001); total HDLc increased from 42 +/- 9 mg/dL to 57 +/- 16 mg/dL (P <.0001); HDL-2 as the percent of total HDLc mass increased from 34% +/- 10% to 51% +/- 17% (P <.0001); and Lp(a) decreased from 37 +/- 10 mg/dL to 23 +/- 10 mg/dL (P <.001). Mean hemoglobin A(1c) level was improved during treatment from 7.5% +/- 1.6% to 6.5% +/- 0.9% (P <.0001). A subset of patients who had no change in hemoglobin A(1c) levels before and after treatment (6.8% +/- 1% v 6.7% +/- 1%; not significant) showed identical lipid changes. Twenty-two percent of patients were unable to tolerate extended-release niacin due to reversible side effects. These data indicate that in diabetic patients, extended-release niacin (1) is effective for separately treating diabetic dyslipidemias associated with abnormal LDL size, HDL-2, and Lp(a) independently of glycated hemoglobin levels; (2) must be used with
Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur
Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet.
Jensen, Jeffrey T; Addis, Ilana B; Hennebold, Jon D; Bogan, Randy L
The premenopausal circulating lipid profile may be linked to the hormonal profile and ovarian lipid metabolism. Assess how estradiol, progesterone, and ovarian lipid metabolism contributes to the premenopausal lipid profile; and evaluate the acute effects of a common hormonal oral contraceptive (OC) on circulating lipids. Experimental crossover with repeated measures. Academic hospitals. Eight healthy, regularly menstruating women. Participants underwent periodic serum sampling during a normal menstrual cycle; a standard 21-day, monophasic combined hormonal OC cycle (30 µg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 µg of levonorgestrel per day); menopause simulated by leuprolide acetate (22.5-mg depot); and an artificial menstrual cycle achieved via transdermal estradiol (50 to 300 µg/d) and vaginal micronized progesterone (100 to 300 mg/d). Primary outcomes included evaluation of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio. To estimate the effect of estradiol, progesterone, and ovarian lipid metabolism, all specimens except those from the OC cycle were analyzed. Subgroup analysis was conducted on the follicular and luteal phases. In a separate analysis, the effect of the OC was evaluated relative to the normal menstrual cycle. Estradiol was significantly associated with increased levels of HDL cholesterol throughout the menstrual cycle and in the follicular phase. Ovarian effects were associated with reduced lipid levels, especially during the luteal phase. The OC was associated with an increased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and triglycerides. Previously unappreciated factors including ovarian lipid metabolism may contribute to the premenopausal lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society
Gopalan, Kavitha; Singh, Surjit; Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Gupta, Anju; Rohit, Manojkumar; Attri, Savita Verma
Kawasaki disease (KD) has a predilection to involve coronary arteries, leading to several long-term cardiovascular sequelae. Apart from coronary artery abnormalities, children with KD are also prone to develop premature atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and lipid abnormalities. Some of these complications may occur even in children who have received appropriate treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin in the acute phase. In 2009, we had studied carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and lipid profile in 27 children with KD at least 1 year after the acute episode. In the present study, we have followed up the same cohort of 27 children at least 5 years after the acute episode of KD. We measured the cIMT, a surrogate marker for premature atherosclerosis, and fasting lipid profile in the cohort and compared the results with values obtained in our previous study. There was significantly higher mean cIMT in children with KD as compared with control subjects. However, there was no significant difference in cIMT among children in the cohort at 1 and 5 years of follow-up. Abnormal lipid profile was seen in 7 of 27 children in the present study, 5 of whom also had had lipid abnormality at 1-year follow-up. This suggests that lipid abnormalities in KD may be long lasting. Children with KD need careful long-term follow-up even when they do not have overt and persistent coronary artery abnormalities. It is possible that consequences of KD in childhood may impact health status of young adults several years later.
Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hwan
There is some evidence that low lipid levels cause suicide in depressed patients. The purpose of this study was to identify whether low serum lipid levels are associated with suicide ideation or are correlated with central serotonin function. Auditory processing for the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) was measured in 73 outpatients with major depressive disorder. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered on the same day as measurement of the LDAEP. In addition, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured. All subjects had received antidepressant monotherapy. The depressed subjects were divided into those with and without suicide ideation according to the score for HAMD item 3 or BDI item 9. TG levels differed significantly between the two groups, whereas body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and LDAEP did not. The scores for HAMD item 3 and BDI item 9 were negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.045 and 0.026, respectively). The LDAEP was negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.012). Although there was tendency toward a negative correlation between the LDAEP and serum LDL, it did not reach statistical significance (p=0.068). The cross-sectional design of this study means that baseline serum lipid levels were not measured. The findings of this study revealed a relationship between TG and suicide ideation that is independent of both BMI and body weight. Furthermore, serum lipid levels were associated with central serotonergic activity, as assessed using the LDAEP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oldewage-Theron, Wilna; Egal, Abdulkadir
The objective of this study was to compare the long-term effect of 40-g daily whole bean soy consumption for a period of 18 mo on blood lipid levels of women. A single-system design was used and 90 women randomly selected in peri-urban Qwa-Qwa, South Africa. Measurements included dietary intake (24-h recall), anthropometric (weight and height) and biochemical lipid parameters with venous blood samples. The respondents were divided into a hypercholesterolemic and normo-cholesterolemic (NC) group and data analyses included descriptive statistics and t-tests on SPSS, version 21.0. The results showed that a large percentage (40%) of the women was hypercholesterolemic. The hypercholesterolemic group showed abnormal mean values for all the lipid parameters at baseline whereas the NC group showed total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) values in the normal range, but abnormally low mean HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (0.9±0.6) and high mean triglyceride (TG) (2.3±0.8) levels. At follow-up, the hypercholesterolemic group had significantly improved HDL-C (p=0.000), LDL-C (p=0.032) and TG (p=0.000) levels, but with significantly increased TC (p=0.01). A similar trend was observed in the NC group; however, no significantly improved HDL-C or TG values were observed. It can be concluded that dyslipidemia and obesity were prevalent amongst this group of women. The daily consumption of 40 g of whole soybean, had no significant positive effect on TC, but had a beneficial effect on LDL-C in the women in Qwa-Qwa. The HDL:LDL ratio was also improved in the in the hypercholesterolemic group, thus reducing the risk for CVD. The consumption of whole soybean thus had a beneficial effect on the lipid profile of the women in Qwa-Qwa.
Bruna, Marcos; Gumbau, Verónica; Guaita, Marcos; Canelles, Enrique; Mulas, Claudia; Basés, Carla; Celma, Isabel; Puche, José; Marcaida, Goitzane; Oviedo, Miguel; Vázquez, Antonio
Different hormones and peptides involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism have been studied in relation to morbid obesity and its variation after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study is toevaluate variations in different molecules related to glico-lipidic metabolism during the first year after sleeve gastrectomy in morbidly obese patients. Prospective study in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy between November 2009 and January 2011. We analyzed changes in different clinical, anthropometric and analytic parameters related with glico-lipidic metabolism in all patients in the preoperative period, first postoperative day, fifth day, one month, 6 months and one year after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. We included 20 patients, 60% were women with a median of age of 45 years. Median of body mass index (IMC) was 48,5 kg/m(2) and 70% had obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (SAOS), 65% arterial hypertension (HTA), 45% dyslipidemia and 40% diabetes mellitus. One year after surgery, the percentage of excess of BMI loss was 72% and the rate of cure or improvement of dyslipidemia was 100%, diabetes 87,5%, HTA 84,6% and SAOS 57,1%. At this time, glycemia levels decreased significantly (P<.001), and levels of IGF-1 and HDL-cholesterol increased significantly. Levels of adiponectine increased and leptine (P=.003), insulin (P=.004) and triglycerides (P=.016) decreased significantly one year after the surgery. ACTH levels (that decreased during first 6 months after surgery), glycosilated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol had no changes one year after surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy is a surgical technique with good results of weight loss and cure of comorbidities. This procedure induces significant modifications in blood levels of glico-lipidic metabolism related peptides and hormones, such as glucose, IGF-1, insulin, leptin, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Vellinga, Namkje A R; Boerma, E Christiaan; Koopmans, Matty; Donati, Abele; Dubin, Arnaldo; Shapiro, Nathan I; Pearse, Rupert M; van der Voort, Peter H J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Bafi, Tony; Fries, Michael; Akarsu-Ayazoglu, Tulin; Pranskunas, Andrius; Hollenberg, Steven; Balestra, Gianmarco; van Iterson, Mat; Sadaka, Farid; Minto, Gary; Aypar, Ulku; Hurtado, F Javier; Martinelli, Giampaolo; Payen, Didier; van Haren, Frank; Holley, Anthony; Gomez, Hernando; Mehta, Ravindra L; Rodriguez, Alejandro H; Ruiz, Carolina; Canales, Héctor S; Duranteau, Jacques; Spronk, Peter E; Jhanji, Shaman; Hubble, Sheena; Chierego, Marialuisa; Jung, Christian; Martin, Daniel; Sorbara, Carlo; Bakker, Jan; Ince, Can
Mildly elevated lactate levels (i.e., 1-2 mmol/L) are increasingly recognized as a prognostic finding in critically ill patients. One of several possible underlying mechanisms, microcirculatory dysfunction, can be assessed at the bedside using sublingual direct in vivo microscopy. We aimed to evaluate the association between relative hyperlactatemia, microcirculatory flow, and outcome. This study was a predefined subanalysis of a multicenter international point prevalence study on microcirculatory flow abnormalities, the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (microSOAP). Microcirculatory flow abnormalities were assessed with sidestream dark-field imaging. Abnormal microcirculatory flow was defined as a microvascular flow index (MFI) < 2.6. MFI is a semiquantitative score ranging from 0 (no flow) to 3 (continuous flow). Associations between microcirculatory flow abnormalities, single-spot lactate measurements, and outcome were analyzed. In 338 of 501 patients, lactate levels were available. For this substudy, all 257 patients with lactate levels ≤ 2 mmol/L (median [IQR] 1.04 [0.80-1.40] mmol/L) were included. Crude ICU mortality increased with each lactate quartile. In a multivariable analysis, a lactate level > 1.5 mmol/L was independently associated with a MFI < 2.6 (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7, P = 0.027). In a heterogeneous ICU population, a single-spot mildly elevated lactate level (even within the reference range) was independently associated with increased mortality and microvascular flow abnormalities. In vivo microscopy of the microcirculation may be helpful in discriminating between flow- and non-flow-related causes of mildly elevated lactate levels. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01179243 . Registered on August 3, 2010.
Chen, S-F; Hu, T-M; Lan, T-H; Chiu, H-J; Sheen, L-Y; Loh, E-W
Metabolic abnormality is common among schizophrenia patients. Some metabolic traits were found associated with subgroups of schizophrenia patients. We examined a possible relationship between metabolic abnormality and psychosis profile in schizophrenia patients. Three hundred and seventy-two chronic schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics for more than 2 years were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A set of metabolic traits was measured at scheduled checkpoints between October 2004 and September 2006. Multiple regressions adjusted for sex showed negative correlations between body mass index (BMI) and total score and all subscales; triglycerides (TG) was negatively correlated with total score and negative syndrome, while HDLC was positively correlated with negative syndrome. When sex interaction was concerned, total score was negatively correlated with BMI but not with others; negative syndrome was negatively correlated with BMI and positively with HDLC. No metabolic traits were correlated with positive syndrome or general psychopathology. Loss of body weight is a serious health problem in schizophrenia patients with severe psychosis syndrome, especially the negative syndrome. Schizophrenia patients with severe negative syndrome may have a distinct lipid pathophysiology in comparison with those who were less severe in the domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Jessica I.; Cazettes, Fanny; Convit, Antonio
The brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ in the body. Although most of the cholesterol in the brain is produced endogenously, some studies suggest that systemic cholesterol may be able to enter the brain. We investigated whether abnormal cholesterol profiles correlated with diffusion-tensor-imaging-based estimates of white matter microstructural integrity of lean and overweight/obese (o/o) adults. Twenty-two lean and 39 obese adults underwent magnetic resonance imaging, kept a 3-day food diary, and had a standardized assessment of fasting blood lipids. The lean group ate less cholesterol rich food than o/o although both groups ate equivalent servings of food per day. Voxelwise correlational analyses controlling for age, diabetes, and white matter hyperintensities, resulted in two significant clusters of negative associations between abnormal cholesterol profile and fractional anisotropy, located in the left and right prefrontal lobes. When the groups were split, the lean subjects showed no associations, whereas the o/o group expanded the association to three significant clusters, still in the frontal lobes. These findings suggest that cholesterol profile abnormalities may explain some of the reductions in white matter microstructural integrity that are reported in obesity. PMID:22163070
Mwendwa, Denee T; Sims, Regina C; Madhere, Serge; Thomas, Joneis; Keen, Larry D; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L
Lipid dysregulation is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and is attributed to numerous biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Psychological stress has been examined as a predictor of lipid dysregulation; however, the role of coping with perceived racism, a stressor unique to the African American experience, has not been addressed. The current study sought to determine the impact of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism and perceived daily stress on lipid levels in African Americans. The sample consisted of 122 African American participants who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Data were collected as part of an ongoing study entitled Stress and Psychoneuroimmunological Factors in Renal Health and Disease at Howard University Hospital. Through canonical analysis, distinct profiles of African American lipid function emerged with body mass index, age, and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism being associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively. Results from linear regression analyses showed that greater endorsement of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism items predicted higher levels of LDL (B = .24, p < .05). This relationship was not mediated by pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the stress response system such as cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and IL-6. The relationship between elevated levels of LDL and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism suggests that African Americans may be at increased risk for CVD due to the unique stress encountered by racism in our culture. Behavioral pathways used to counteract the negative effects of perceived discrimination may better explain this relationship. Further research is necessary to determine other biobehavioral and pathophysiological mechanisms that explain this relationship.
Mwendwa, Denee T.; Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Thomas, Joneis; Keen, Larry D.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.
Background Lipid dysregulation is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and is attributed to numerous biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Psychological stress has been examined as a predictor of lipid dysregulation; however, the role of coping with perceived racism, a stressor unique to the African American experience, has not been addressed. The current study sought to determine the impact of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism and perceived daily stress on lipid levels in African Americans. Methods The sample consisted of 122 African American participants who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Data were collected as part of an ongoing study entitled Stress and Psychoneuroimmunological Factors in Renal Health and Disease at Howard University Hospital. Results Through canonical analysis, distinct profiles of African American lipid function emerged with body mass index, age, and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism being associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively. Results from linear regression analyses showed that greater endorsement of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism items predicted higher levels of LDL (β = .24, p < .05). This relationship was not mediated by pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the stress response system such as cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and IL-6. Conclusion The relationship between elevated levels of LDL and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism suggests that African Americans may be at increased risk for CVD due to the unique stress encountered by racism in our culture. Behavioral pathways used to counteract the negative effects of perceived discrimination may better explain this relationship. Further research is necessary to determine other biobehavioral and pathophysiological mechanisms that explain this relationship. PMID
Gul, Isil Gogcegoz; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Karlidag, Rifat; Turkoz, Yusuf
We aimed to evaluate serum ghrelin (GHR) levels and lipid profile in panic disorder (PD), with and without agoraphobia, and to compare these parameters before and after treatment. The GHR and lipid profiles were measured in blood samples taken from 31 PD patients with agoraphobia, 22 PD patients without agoraphobia, and 53 control group subjects. 23 of the 53 patients who were prescribed 20 to 40 mg/day paroxetine had continued treatment. The 23 patients who had continued treatment were measured again at the end of twelve weeks. The GHR and triglyceride (TRG), total cholesterol (Total-C), low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-C) levels were higher in the PD with agoraphobia group than the PD without agoraphobia and control groups. The 23 patients that had continued their treatment were re-evaluated, and the serum GHR, Total-C levels, and BMI after treatment were significantly decreased, compared to the values before treatment. There may be a pathophysiological relationship between the GHR and lipid profiles that interact with each other in PD. In fact, this relationship was more marked in PD with agoraphobia than in PD without agoraphobia.
Wenger, Nanette K
In multiple randomized, controlled clinical trials, statin treatment of elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women at increased risk of or with coronary heart disease decreased the risk of coronary events: coronary death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and myocardial revascularization procedures. Total mortality was unchanged, potentially reflecting the underrepresentation of women in these trials and consequent small number of fatal events. Statin therapy provided comparable benefit for women and men with acute coronary syndromes. Application of lipid-lowering therapy with statin drugs is currently underutilized in women, and represents an opportunity to improve clinical cardiovascular outcomes for women.
Chamorro, Laura; García-Cano, Ana; Busto, Rebeca; Martínez-González, Javier; Albillos, Agustín; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Pastor, Oscar
The lack of analytical methods specific for each lipid class, particularly for phospholipids and sphyngolipids, makes necessary their separation by preparative techniques before quantification. LC-MS would be the election method but for daily work in the clinical laboratory this is not feasible for different reasons, both economic and time consuming. In the present work, we have optimized an HPLC method to quantify lipid classes in plasma and erythrocytes and applied it to samples from patients with cirrhosis. Lipid classes were analyzed by normal phase liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. We employed a quaternary solvent system to separate twelve lipid classes in 15 min. Interday, intraday and recovery for quantification of lipid classes in plasma were excellent with our methodology. The total plasma lipid content of cirrhotic patients vs control subjects was decreased with diminished CE (81±33 vs 160±17 mg/dL) and PC (37±16 vs 60±19 mg/dL). The composition of erythrocytes showed a decrease in acidic phospholipids: PE, PI and PS. Present methodology provides a reliable quantification of lipid classes in blood. The lipid profile of cirrhotics showed alterations in the PC/PE plasma ratio and in the phospholipid content of erythrocytes, which might reflect alterations in hepatocyte and erythrocyte membrane integrity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Silva, Débora Santos da; Teixeira, Lisandra Antonia Castro; Beghini, Daniela Gois; Ferreira, André Teixeira da Silva; Pinho, Márcia de Berredo Moreira; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Ribeiro, Marli Rambaldi; Freire, Monica Di Calafiori; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Tovar, Ana Maria Freire; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Perales, Jonas; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Esquenazi, Danuza; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Lara, Flavio Alves
Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities. In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48%) which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7%) belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP). In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro. We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.
Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.
Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the
Farooqui, Akhlaq A
Lipid mediators are important endogenous regulators derived from enzymatic degradation of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol by phospholipases, sphingomyelinases, and cytochrome P450 hydroxylases, respectively. In neural cells, lipid mediators are associated with proliferation, differentiation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. A major group of lipid mediators, which originates from the enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid, is called eicosanoids (i.e., prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and lipoxins). The corresponding lipid mediators of docosahexaenoic acid metabolism are named as docosanoids. They include resolvins, protectins (neuroprotectins), and maresins. Docosanoids produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects in brain tissue. Other glycerophospholipid-derived lipid mediators are platelet activating factor, lysophosphatidic acid, and endocannabinoids. Degradation of sphingolipids also results in the generation of sphingolipid-derived lipid mediators, such as ceramide, ceramide 1-phosphate, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate. These mediators are involved in differentiation, growth, cell migration, and apoptosis. Similarly, cholesterol-derived lipid mediators, hydroxycholesterol, produce apoptosis. Abnormal metabolism of lipid mediators may be closely associated with pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
Aulchenko, Yurii S; Ripatti, Samuli; Lindqvist, Ida; Boomsma, Dorret; Heid, Iris M; Pramstaller, Peter P; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Wilson, James F; Spector, Tim; Martin, Nicholas G; Pedersen, Nancy L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Johansson, Åsa; Marroni, Fabio; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Jonasson, Inger; Pattaro, Cristian; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nick; Pichler, Irene; Hicks, Andrew A; Falchi, Mario; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Geus, Eco J C; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John; Magnusson, Patrik; Saharinen, Juha; Perola, Markus; Silander, Kaisa; Isaacs, Aaron; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Oostra, Ben A; Elliott, Paul; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sabatti, Chiara; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Kronenberg, Florian; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H-Erich; Smit, Johannes H; McCarthy, Mark I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Peltonen, Leena
Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies of lipids have been conducted in samples ascertained for other phenotypes, particularly diabetes. Here we report the first GWA analysis of loci affecting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides sampled randomly from 16 population-based cohorts and genotyped using mainly the Illumina HumanHap300-Duo platform. Our study included a total of 17,797-22,562 persons, aged 18-104 years and from geographic regions spanning from the Nordic countries to Southern Europe. We established 22 loci associated with serum lipid levels at a genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8), including 16 loci that were identified by previous GWA studies. The six newly identified loci in our cohort samples are ABCG5 (TC, P = 1.5 × 10-11; LDL, P = 2.6 × 10-10), TMEM57 (TC, P = 5.4 × 10-10), CTCF-PRMT8 region (HDL, P = 8.3 × 10-16), DNAH11 (LDL, P = 6.1 × 10-9), FADS3-FADS2 (TC, P = 1.5 × 10-10; LDL, P = 4.4 × 10-13) and MADD-FOLH1 region (HDL, P = 6 × 10-11). For three loci, effect sizes differed significantly by sex. Genetic risk scores based on lipid loci explain up to 4.8% of variation in lipids and were also associated with increased intima media thickness (P = 0.001) and coronary heart disease incidence (P = 0.04). The genetic risk score improves the screening of high-risk groups of dyslipidemia over classical risk factors. PMID:19060911
Thompson, D L; Snead, D B; Seip, R L; Weltman, J Y; Rogol, A D; Weltman, A
This study compared the lipid profile of women runners with menstrual cycle irregularities with their normally menstruating counterparts. Relationships among selected steroid hormones and serum lipid levels in 10 eumenorrheic (EU) and 8 oligo-/amenorrheic (O/A) women runners and 6 eumenorrheic controls (CON) were examined. Serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone (Prog), and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations were determined in daily blood samples for 21 days, and integrated concentrations were calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2, HDL3, triglycerides (Trig), and apolipoproteins A-1, A-II, and B. The O/A group had significantly lower E2 and Prog than EU or CON groups. Women in the CON group had lower HDL-C and HDL3 than the runners. With all women grouped together, E2 was not significantly correlated with any measured blood lipid parameters. On the other hand, DHEAS was significantly correlated with HDL-C, HDL2, and apolipoprotein A-I. These data demonstrate that women runners, regardless of menstrual cycle status, exhibit higher HDL-C concentrations than CON and supports previous research reporting a positive association between DHEAS and HDL-C.
Jury, Elizabeth C.; Kabouridis, Panagiotis S.; Flores-Borja, Fabian; Mageed, Rizgar A.; Isenberg, David A.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by abnormalities in T lymphocyte receptor–mediated signal transduction pathways. Our previous studies have established that lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) is reduced in T lymphocytes from patients with SLE and that this reduction is associated with disease activity and parallels an increase in LCK ubiquitination independent of T cell activation. This study investigated the expression of molecules that regulate LCK homeostasis, such as CD45, C-terminal Src kinase (CSK), and c-Cbl, in lipid raft domains from SLE T cells and investigated the localization of these proteins during T cell receptor (TCR) triggering. Our results indicate that the expression of raft-associated ganglioside, GM1, is increased in T cells from SLE patients and LCK may be differentially regulated due to an alteration in the association of CD45 with lipid raft domains. CD45 tyrosine phosphatase, which regulates LCK activity, was differentially expressed and its localization into lipid rafts was increased in T cells from patients with SLE. Furthermore, T cells allowed to “rest” in vitro showed a reversal of the changes in LCK, CD45, and GM1 expression. The results also revealed that alterations in the level of GM1 expression and lipid raft occupancy cannot be induced by serum factors from patients with SLE but indicated that cell-cell contact, activating aberrant proximal signaling pathways, may be important in influencing abnormalities in T cell signaling and, therefore, function in patients with SLE. PMID:15085197
Davis-Yadley, Ashley H; Lipka, Seth; Shen, Huafeng; Devanney, Valerie; Swarup, Supreeya; Barnowsky, Alex; Silpe, Jeff; Mosdale, Josh; Pan, Qinshi; Fridlyand, Svetlana; Sreeharshan, Suhas; Abraham, Albin; Viswanathan, Prakash; Krishnamachari, Bhuma
Although data exists showing that uncontrolled lipid levels in white and black patients is associated with colorectal adenomas, there are currently no studies looking only at the Hispanic population. With the rapid increase in the Hispanic population, we aimed to look at their risk of colorectal adenomas in association with lipid levels. We retrospectively analyzed 1473 patients undergoing colonoscopy from 2009 to 2011 at a community hospital. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-squared for categorical variables and t test for continuous variables with age-, gender-, and race-adjusted odds ratios. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate 95 % confidence intervals (CI). SAS 9.3 software was used to perform all statistical analysis. In our general population, there was an association with elevated triglyceride levels greater than 150 and presence of multiple colorectal adenomas with odds ratio (OR) 1.60 (1.03, 2.48). There was an association with proximal colon adenomas and cholesterol levels between 200 and 239 with OR 1.57 (1.07, 2.30), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels of greater than 130 with OR 1.54 (1.04, 2.30). There was no association between high-density lipoproteins (HDL) levels and colorectal adenomas. The Hispanic population showed no statistical correlation between elevated triglycerides, cholesterol, or LDL with the presence, size, location, or multiplicity of colorectal adenomas. We found a significant correlation between elevated lipid levels and colorectal adenomas in white and black patients; however, there was no such association in the Hispanic population. This finding can possibly be due to environmental factors such as dietary, colonic flora, or genetic susceptibility, which fosters further investigation and research.
Delacrétaz, Aurélie; Lagares Santos, Patricia; Saigi Morgui, Nuria; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Glatard, Anaïs; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; von Gunten, Armin; Conus, Philippe; Eap, Chin B
Dyslipidemia represents a major health issue in psychiatry. We determined whether weighted polygenic risk scores (wPRSs) combining multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lipid levels in the general population are associated with lipid levels [high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides] and/or dyslipidemia in patients receiving weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs. We also determined whether genetics improve the predictive power of dyslipidemia. The influence of wPRS on lipid levels was firstly assessed in a discovery psychiatric sample (n=332) and was then tested for replication in an independent psychiatric sample (n=140). The contribution of genetic markers to predict dyslipidemia was evaluated in the combined psychiatric sample. wPRSs were significantly associated with the four lipid traits in the discovery (P≤0.02) and in the replication sample (P≤0.03). Patients whose wPRS was higher than the median wPRS had significantly higher LDL, TC, and triglyceride levels (0.20, 0.32 and 0.26 mmol/l, respectively; P≤0.004) and significantly lower HDL levels (0.13 mmol/l; P<0.0001) compared with others. Adding wPRS to clinical data significantly improved dyslipidemia prediction of HDL (P=0.03) and a trend for improvement was observed for the prediction of TC dyslipidemia (P=0.08). Population-based wPRSs have thus significant effects on lipid levels in the psychiatric population. As genetics improved the predictive power of dyslipidemia development, only 24 patients need to be genotyped to prevent the development of one case of HDL hypocholesterolemia. If confirmed by further prospective investigations, the present results could be used for individualizing psychotropic treatment.
Lee, Hwankyu; Malmstadt, Noah
Lipid bilayers composed of saturated and unsaturated lipids, oxidized lipids, and cholesterol at concentrations of 0–18 mol% oxidized lipid were simulated, showing that the presence of oxidized lipid increases bilayer disorder, curvature, and lateral dynamics at low oxidized-lipid concentrations of 18 mol% or less. The aldehyde terminal of a shortened oxidized-lipid tail tends to interact with water and thus bends toward the bilayer-water interface, in agreement with previous experiments and simulations. In particular, water molecules pass through the oxidized bilayer without pore formation, implying passive permeability. A single nanoparticle, which consists of 300 polystyrene (PS) chains with cationic terminals, added to this bilayer simulation induces negative bilayer curvature and inserts to the bilayer, regardless of the oxidized-lipid concentration. Hydrophobic monomers and cationic terminals of the PS particle interact respectively with lipid tails and headgroups, leading to the wrapping of either lipid monolayer or bilayer along the particle surface. These results indicate that lipid oxidation increases membrane curvature and permeability even at such a low concentration of oxidized lipid, which supports the experimental observations regarding the passive permeability of oxidized bilayer, and also that oxidized lipids of low concentration do not significantly influence the insertion of a cationic PS particle to the bilayer.
Liu, Baoshan; Yan, Rongdi; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Bin; Sun, Hu; Cui, Xing
As evidence was shown that abnormal shortening of telomeres begins to accumulate in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the mRNA expression levels of telomere-binding proteins (TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1) and the risk level in MDS. There were 40 patients with MDS and 40 normal controls in this study. Methods including telomere content assays and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to examine the mRNA levels of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1 in patients with MDS. Compared to the normal group used as a control, the mRNA expression levels of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 of the patients with MDS were decreased, whereas their levels of TRF1/TRF2 and TIN2 were increased. A positive correlation was found between the TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 mRNA expression levels and the risk level of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the World Health Organization Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) criteria; however, a negative correlation was found between RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression levels and the risk levels of IPSS and WPSS criteria. Because the reduction of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2 mRNA expression and the increase of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression are closely related to the risk levels of the IPSS and WPSS criteria in MDS, it is thought that these telomere-binding proteins could lead to abnormal telomere length and function, which cause chromosomal abnormalities in MDS. With this evidence, we suggest that those proteins' mRNA expressions could be used as biomarkers for the assessment of the risk degree of MDS patients.
Zhao Tieqiang; Guo Jun; Li Hui
Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a metabolic disturbance often seen in clinical practice. It is known to induce life-threatening acute pancreatitis, but its role in atherogenesis remains elusive. Hemorheological abnormality was thought to play an important role in pathogenesis of both pancreatitis and atherosclerosis. However, hemorheology in severe HTG was not well investigated. Recently, we established a severe HTG mouse model deficient in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in which severe HTG was observed to cause a significant increase in plasma viscosity. Disturbances of erythrocytes were also documented, including decreased deformability, electrophoresis rate, and membrane fluidity, and increased osmotic fragility. Scanning electron microscopymore » demonstrated that most erythrocytes of LPL deficient mice deformed with protrusions, irregular appearances or indistinct concaves. Analysis of erythrocyte membrane lipids showed decreased cholesterol (Ch) and phospholipid (PL) contents but unaltered Ch/PL ratio. The changes of membrane lipids may be partially responsible for the hemorheological and morphologic abnormalities of erythrocytes. This study indicated that severe HTG could lead to significant impairment of hemorheology and this model may be useful in delineating the role of severe HTG in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis and atherosclerosis.« less
Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Toth, Peter P; Joshi, Parag H; McEvoy, John W; Ahmed, Haitham M; Elshazly, Mohamed B; Swiger, Kristopher J; Michos, Erin D; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R; Chimera, Joseph; Cannon, Christopher P; Blumenthal, Roger S; Jones, Steven R
Blood lipids have major cardiovascular and public health implications. Lipid-lowering drugs are prescribed based in part on categorization of patients into normal or abnormal lipid metabolism, yet relatively little emphasis has been placed on: (1) the accuracy of current lipid measures used in clinical practice, (2) the reliability of current categorizations of dyslipidemia states, and (3) the relationship of advanced lipid characterization to other cardiovascular disease biomarkers. To these ends, we developed the Very Large Database of Lipids (NCT01698489), an ongoing database protocol that harnesses deidentified data from the daily operations of a commercial lipid laboratory. The database includes individuals who were referred for clinical purposes for a Vertical Auto Profile (Atherotech Inc., Birmingham, AL), which directly measures cholesterol concentrations of low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, their subclasses, and lipoprotein(a). Individual Very Large Database of Lipids studies, ranging from studies of measurement accuracy, to dyslipidemia categorization, to biomarker associations, to characterization of rare lipid disorders, are investigator-initiated and utilize peer-reviewed statistical analysis plans to address a priori hypotheses/aims. In the first database harvest (Very Large Database of Lipids 1.0) from 2009 to 2011, there were 1 340 614 adult and 10 294 pediatric patients; the adult sample had a median age of 59 years (interquartile range, 49-70 years) with even representation by sex. Lipid distributions closely matched those from the population-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The second harvest of the database (Very Large Database of Lipids 2.0) is underway. Overall, the Very Large Database of Lipids database provides an opportunity for collaboration and new knowledge generation through careful examination of granular lipid data on
Jiang, Yan; Ma, Junpeng; Li, Hao; Liu, Yi; You, Chao
Serum lipid levels are associated with the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Genetic variants in the apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) gene were associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two genetic variants (1100 C/T and 3238 C/G) of APOC3 on serum lipid levels and risk of ICH. A prospective hospital-based case-control design and logistic regression analysis were utilized. We enrolled 150 ICH patients and 150 age- and gender-matched controls. The APOC3 gene polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). ICH patients had a significantly higher frequency of APOC3 3238 GG genotype [odds ratio (OR)=.97, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.20, 7.38; P=0.02] and APOC3 3238 G allele (OR=.53, 95% CI=1.03, 2.27; P=0.04) than controls. The APOC3 3238 G allele was significantly associated with increasing plasma TG levels and VLDL levels both in ICH cases (P=0.01) and controls (P=0.02). No association was found between APOC3 1100 C/T polymorphisms and ICH. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature that the APOC3 3238 GG genotype and G allele might contribute to an increased risk of ICH as a result of its effect on serum lipid levels.
Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hiller, David B; Di Gregorio, Guido; Kelly, Kemba; Ripper, Richard; Edelman, Lucas; Boumendjel, Redouane; Drasner, Kenneth; Weinberg, Guy L
Lipid infusion reverses systemic local anesthetic toxicity. The acceptable upper limit for lipid administration is unknown and has direct bearing on clinical management. We hypothesize that high volumes of lipid could have undesirable effects and sought to identify the dose required to kill 50% of the animals (LD(50)) of large volume lipid administration. Intravenous lines and electrocardiogram electrodes were placed in anesthetized, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty percent lipid emulsion (20, 40, 60, or 80 mL/kg) or saline (60 or 80 mL/kg), were administered over 30 mins; lipid dosing was assigned by the Dixon "up-and-down" method. Rats were recovered and observed for 48 hrs then euthanized for histologic analysis of major organs. Three additional rats were administered 60 mL/kg lipid emulsion and euthanized at 1, 4, and 24 hrs to identify progression of organ damage. The maximum likelihood estimate for LD(50) was 67.72 (SE, 10.69) mL/kg. Triglycerides were elevated immediately after infusion but returned to baseline by 48 hrs when laboratory abnormalities included elevated amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, and serum urea nitrogen for all lipid doses. Histologic diagnosis of myocardium, brain, pancreas, and kidneys was normal at all doses. Microscopic abnormalities in lung and liver were observed at 60 and 80 mL/kg; histopathology in the lung and liver was worse at 1 hr than at 4 and 24 hrs. The LD(50) of rapid, high volume lipid infusion is an order of magnitude greater than doses typically used for lipid rescue in humans and supports the safety of lipid infusion at currently recommended doses for toxin-induced cardiac arrest. Lung and liver histopathology was observed at the highest infused volumes.
Garcia-Gil, Mercedes; Albi, Elisabetta
In the last 20 years it has been widely demonstrated that cell nucleus contains neutral and polar lipids localized in nuclear membranes, nucleoli, nuclear matrix and chromatin. Nuclear lipids may show specific organization forming nuclear lipid microdomains and have both structural and functional roles. Depending on their localization, nuclear lipids play different roles such as the regulation of nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix fluidity but they also can act as platforms for vitamin and hormone function, for active chromatin anchoring, and for the regulation of gene expression, DNA duplication and transcription. Crosstalk among different kinds of lipid signalling pathways influence the physiopathology of numerous cell types. In neural cells the nuclear lipids are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, migration and apoptosis. Abnormal metabolism of nuclear lipids might be closely associated with tumorigenesis and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease among others.
Mehrotra, Ravi; Pandya, Shruti; Chaudhary, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Himanshu Pratap; Jaiswal, Ritesh Kumar; Singh, Mangal; Gupta, S C; Singh, Mamta
Changes in lipid profile have long been associated with malignancies as lipids play a key role in maintenance of cell integrity. This study evaluated the alterations in extended lipid profile in untreated patients of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and studied the correlation between lipid levels with tobacco consumption. In this hospital-based study, 65 clinically diagnosed and histopathologically proven patients of OSMF and 42 age and sex matched controls were studied. In these samples serum lipids including: (i) Total cholesterol, (ii) LDL cholesterol (LDLC), (iii) HDL cholesterol (HDLC) (iv) VLDL cholesterol (VLDLC) (v) triglycerides (vi) Apo-A1 (viii) Apo-B and (viii) LPa were analyzed. A significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, HDLC and Apo-A1 was observed in patients with OSMF as compared to the controls. Thus an inverse relationship between plasma lipid levels and patients was found in OSMF. The lower levels of plasma cholesterol and other lipid constituents in patients might be due to their increased utilization. The findings strongly warrant an in-depth study of alterations in plasma lipid profile in patients with oral precancerous conditions.
Song, Yongyan; Zhu, Liren; Richa, Mudwari; Li, Ping; Yang, Yang; Li, Suping
Studies of the association between the apolipoprotein C3 gene (APOC3) rs5128 polymorphism and plasma levels of apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) and lipids have reported apparently conflicting findings. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the associations of the rs5128 polymorphism with fasting APOC3 and lipid levels. The following information was abstracted for each study: ethnicity, age, sex, health condition, sample size, genotyping and lipid assay methods, mean and standard deviation or standard error by genotypes for APOC3 and lipid variables. There were 42 eligible studies with 23846 subjects included in this meta-analysis. A dominant model was used for this meta-analysis. The results showed that the carriers of the variant allele G had higher levels of APOC3 [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-0.31, P<0.00001], triglycerides (TG) (SMD: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.23-0.44, P<0.00001), total cholesterol (TC) (SMD: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.09-0.22, P<0.00001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (SMD: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.04-0.17, P=0.001) than the non-carriers. No significant association between the APOC3 rs5128 polymorphism and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was detected under the dominant model (SMD: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.06-0.01, P=0.156). The results from the present meta-analysis demonstrate a significant association between the APOC3 rs5128 polymorphism and higher levels of APOC3, TG, TC and LDL-C, but further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
Pulitano, Patrizia; Franco, Valentina; Mecarelli, Oriano; Brienza, Marianna; Davassi, Chiara; Russo, Emilio
Several studies have demonstrated that treatment with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs is associated with increased serum lipid levels. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel antiepileptic drug specifically designed with the objective to identify carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine analogues with favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. The present study aimed to assess the changes in lipid profile and sodium levels in patients with epilepsy taking ESL as adjunctive therapy. This report describes a retrospective cohort study of 36 adult patients with epilepsy, taking ESL as an add-on treatment. The laboratory values assessed prior and after (range 6-18 months) ESL treatment were sodium levels, total cholesterol (TC), low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins and triglycerides. TC and LDL values were significantly decreased already after at least six months of therapy with ESL (191.3±29.6 vs 179.7±29.2mg/dl, p <0.0001 and 114.58±22.7 vs 103.11±19.46mg/dl, p <0.0001 respectively). HDL values before and during ESL treatment were significantly increased (57.5± 9.1 vs 63.9±8.3mg/dl; p<0.0001). No statistically significant changes have been found in triglycerides and sodium values. Add-on therapy with ESL, in contrast to the negative effects observed with traditional older carboxamides, positively affects lipid metabolism profile in patients with epilepsy over an average follow-up of 11 months. Further research is needed to confirm the obtained results with a focus on a comprehensive assessment of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xirui; Liang, Yingjian; Song, Ruipeng; Yang, Guangchao; Han, Jihua; Lan, Yaliang; Pan, Shangha; Zhu, Mingxi; Liu, Yao; Wang, Yan; Meng, Fanzheng; Cui, Yifeng; Wang, Jiabei; Zhang, Bo; Song, Xuan; Lu, Zhaoyang; Zheng, Tongsen; Liu, Lianxin
Abnormal metabolism, including abnormal lipid metabolism, is a hallmark of cancer cells. Some studies have demonstrated that the lipogenic pathway might promote the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of the lipolytic pathway in HCC has not been elucidated. We compared levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in human HCC and healthy liver tissues by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. We measured diacylglycerol(DAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in HCC cells driven by the NEAT1-ATGL axis and in HCC tissues. We also assessed the effects of ATGL, DAG, FFA, and NEAT1 on HCC cells proliferation in vitro and in an orthotopic xenograft HCC mouse model. We also performed a luciferase reporter assay to investigate the interaction between NEAT1/ATGL and miR-124-3p. We found that the lipolytic enzyme, ATGL is highly expressed in human HCC tissues and predicts poor prognosis. We also found that high levels of DAG and FFA are present in HCC tissues. Furthermore, the lncRNA-NEAT1 was found to modulate ATGL expression and disrupt lipolysis in HCC cells via ATGL. Notably, ATGL and its products, DAG and FFA, were shown to be responsible for NEAT1-mediated HCC cell growth. NEAT1 regulated ATGL expression by binding miR-124-3p. Additionally, NEAT1 knockdown attenuated HCC cell growth through miR-124-3p/ATGL/DAG+FFA/PPARα signaling. Our results reveal that NEAT1-modulates abnormal lipolysis via ATGL to drive HCC proliferation.
Kojima, Yuichi; Kaga, Hideyoshi; Hayashi, Shinu; Kitazawa, Toru; Iimura, Yuko; Ohno, Makoto; Yoshitsugu, Michiyasu; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Hiyoshi, Toru
.24 kg/m(2)). Fasting levels of HbA1c, glycated albumin, 1.5-anhydroglucitol, and blood glucose, as well as the blood glucose levels at one and three hours postprandially, improved in both groups after 12 wk of treatment, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, the glucagon level at one hour postprandially (P = 0.040) and the diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01) only showed a significant decrease in the sitagliptin group. In the nateglinide group, there was no significant change in the AUC of Apo B48, the glucagon level at one hour postprandially, the fasting triglyceride level, or the diastolic blood pressure. Body weight was unchanged in both groups. However, the AUC of Apo B48 at three hours postprandially showed a significant decrease in the sitagliptin group from 2.48 ± 0.11 at baseline to 1.94 ± 0.78 g/L per hour after 12 wk (P = 0.019). The fasting triglyceride level also decreased significantly in the sitagliptin group (P = 0.035). With regard to lipid-related markers other than Apo B48 and fasting triglycerides, no significant changes were observed with respect to Apo A1, Apo B, or Apo C3 in either group. No adverse events occurred in either group. Sitagliptin significantly improves some lipid parameters while having a comparable effect on blood glucose to nateglinide. A large-scale prospective study of sitagliptin therapy is warranted.
Kojima, Yuichi; Kaga, Hideyoshi; Hayashi, Shinu; Kitazawa, Toru; Iimura, Yuko; Ohno, Makoto; Yoshitsugu, Michiyasu; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Hiyoshi, Toru
group: 21.39 ± 2.24 kg/m2). Fasting levels of HbA1c, glycated albumin, 1.5-anhydroglucitol, and blood glucose, as well as the blood glucose levels at one and three hours postprandially, improved in both groups after 12 wk of treatment, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, the glucagon level at one hour postprandially (P = 0.040) and the diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01) only showed a significant decrease in the sitagliptin group. In the nateglinide group, there was no significant change in the AUC of Apo B48, the glucagon level at one hour postprandially, the fasting triglyceride level, or the diastolic blood pressure. Body weight was unchanged in both groups. However, the AUC of Apo B48 at three hours postprandially showed a significant decrease in the sitagliptin group from 2.48 ± 0.11 at baseline to 1.94 ± 0.78 g/L per hour after 12 wk (P = 0.019). The fasting triglyceride level also decreased significantly in the sitagliptin group (P = 0.035). With regard to lipid-related markers other than Apo B48 and fasting triglycerides, no significant changes were observed with respect to Apo A1, Apo B, or Apo C3 in either group. No adverse events occurred in either group. CONCLUSION: Sitagliptin significantly improves some lipid parameters while having a comparable effect on blood glucose to nateglinide. A large-scale prospective study of sitagliptin therapy is warranted. PMID:23493856
Xu, Hong; Xu, Hou-En; Ryan, Damien
This project studied the lowering blood lipids effect in atherosclerotic ApoE-deficient mice. Group A mice (n = 6), fed with a normal diet, served as the negative control. The experimental groups used mice fed with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) for eight weeks, and then selected for inclusion in the study on the basis of high blood lipid levels and the formation of atherosclerotic lesion plaque, which was indicated by an ultrasound biomicroscopy test. Eighteen mice met the selection criteria (atherosclerotic mice with high blood lipid levels) and these were randomly assigned into three groups B, C and D (n = 6). Group B fed with a HCD, served as the positive control. The intervention Group C was fed with HCD and Simvastatin. The intervention Group D was fed with a HCD and Hawthorn fruit compound (HFC includes Hawthorn and Kiwi fruit extract) for eight weeks. The results showed that after feeding on a HCD, Group B had significantly higher blood lipid levels compared to Group A and this confirmed the validity of Group A and Group B controls in this study. The results also showed that compared to Group B, in both Group C and D, there was a significant reduction in triglyceride and in the ratio between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and serum cholesterol. Moreover a reduction of LDL-C was evident in Group D, whereas a similar effect did not occur in Group C. The results indicate that HFC can be considered for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of atherosclerosis.
Battistini, Tânia Regina Beraldo; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo; de Souza, Fabíola Isabel Suano; Pitta, Tassiana Sacchi; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Hix, Sonia; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Tardini, Priscila Chemiotti; dos Santos, Valter Pinho; Lopez, Fábio Ancona
To assess serum retinol and levels of carotenoids in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to correlate low serum retinol and carotenoid levels with the presence of lipodystrophy, lipid profile changes, lipid peroxidation, and insulin resistance. A cross-sectional, controlled observational study was carried out with 30 children and adolescents with AIDS (mean age 9.1 y) receiving antiretroviral therapy (median length of treatment 28.4 mo), including 30 uninfected healthy controls matched for age and gender. Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed to determine nutritional status, presence of lipodystrophy, serum concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), glycemia, and serum insulin (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, cutoff point >3). Statistical analysis was done with chi-square test and Student's t test. Lipodystrophy was observed in 53.3% of patients with AIDS, and dyslipidemia was detected in 60% and 23% of subjects with human immunodeficiency virus and control subjects, respectively (P = 0.004). A higher prevalence of retinol deficiency (60% versus 26.7%, P = 0.009) and beta-carotene deficiency (23.3% versus 3.3%, P = 0.026) was found in the group with human immunodeficiency virus than in the control group. No correlation was found for low retinol and beta-carotene levels, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, or lipodystrophy in children and adolescents with AIDS. Despite the high frequency of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies, it was not possible to demonstrate a correlation of these findings with lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. More studies are needed to investigate the causes of retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies in this population and the clinical
Kandadi, Machender Reddy; Unnikrishnan, MK; Warrier, Ajaya Kumar Sankara; Du, Min; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair
High-fat diet has been implicated as a major cause of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dietary-supplementation of chromium (d-phenylalanine)3 [Cr(d-Phe)3] on -glucose and -insulin tolerance in high-fat diet fed mice. C57BL/6-mice were randomly assigned to orally receive vehicle or Cr(d-Phe)3 (45 μg of elemental chromium/kg/day) for 8-weeks. High-fat-fed mice exhibited impaired whole-body -glucose and- insulin tolerance and elevated serum triglyceride levels compared to normal chow-fed mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose up- take in the gastrocnemius muscles, assessed as 2-[3H-deoxyglucose] incorporation was markedly diminished in high-fat fed mice compared to control mice. Treatment with chromium reconciled the high-fat diet-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Treatment of cultured, differentiated myotubes with palmitic acid evoked insulin resistance as evidenced by lower levels of insulin-stimulated Akt-phosphorylation, elevated JNK-phosphorylation, (assessed by Western blotting), attenuation of phosphoinositol-3-kinase activity (determined in the insulin-receptor substrate-1-immunoprecipitates by measuring the extent of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol by γ-32P-ATP), and impairment in cellular glucose up-take, all of which were inhibited by Cr(d-Phe)3. These results suggest a beneficial effect of chromium-supplementation in insulin resistant conditions. It is likely that these effects of chromium may be mediated by augmenting downstream insulin signaling. PMID:21134603
Liu, Qingsheng; Pan, Ran; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Fuli; Hu, Linfeng; Ding, Bin; Zhu, Linwensi; Xia, Yongliang; Dou, Xiaobing
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive accumulation of hepatic lipids and oxidative injury of hepatocytes. Rutin is a natural flavonoid with significant roles in combating cellular oxidative stress and regulating lipid metabolism. The current study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying rutin's hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Rutin treatment was applied to male C57BL/6 mice maintained on a high-fat diet and HepG2 cells challenged with oleic acid. Hepatic lipid accumulation was evaluated by triglyceride assay and Oil Red O staining. Oxidative hepatic injury was assessed by malondialdehyde assay, superoxide dismutase assay and reactive oxygen species assay. The expression levels of various lipogenic and lipolytic genes were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. In addition, liver autophagy was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In both fat-challenged murine liver tissues and HepG2 cells, rutin treatment was shown to significantly lower triglyceride content and the abundance of lipid droplets. Rutin was also found to reduce cellular malondialdehyde level and restore superoxide dismutase activity in hepatocytes. Among the various lipid-related genes, rutin treatment was able to restore the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) and its downstream targets, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and 2 (CPT-1 and CPT-2), while suppressing those of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), diglyceride acyltransfase 1 and 2 (DGAT-1 and 2), as well as acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, rutin was shown to repress the autophagic function of liver tissues by down-regulating key autophagy biomarkers, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The experimental data demonstrated that rutin could reduce triglyceride content and mitigate oxidative injuries in fat
Background Anniston, Alabama, is the site of a former Monsanto plant where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured from 1929 until 1971. Residents of Anniston are known to have elevated levels of PCBs. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that levels of the various lipid components (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) are differentially associated with concentrations of total PCBs and total pesticides, and further that different congeners, congener groups and different pesticides do not have identical associations in serum samples obtained from Anniston residents in a cross-sectional study. Methods Fasting serum samples were obtained from 575 residents of Anniston who were not on any lipid-lowering medication and were analyzed for 35 PCB congeners, nine chlorinated pesticides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Associations between toxicant concentrations and lipid levels were determined using multiple linear regression analysis. Results We observed that elevated serum concentrations of lipids were associated with elevated serum concentrations of ΣPCBs and summed pesticides in analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercising status. The strongest associations were seen for PCB congeners with three, four, or at least eight substituted chlorines. Mono-ortho substituted congeners 74 and 156, di-ortho congeners 172 and 194, and tri- and tetra-ortho congeners 199, 196–203, 206 and 209 each were significantly associated with total lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Serum concentrations of HCB and chlordane also had strong associations with lipid components. Conclusions Increased concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides are associated with elevations in total serum lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides, but the patterns are different for different groups of PCBs and different pesticides. These
Yang, Jian; Ye, Jun; Guo, Qiao; Sun, Yining; Zheng, Yansong; Zhang, Yongliang
Smoking and drinking are two predisposing factors for dyslipidemia. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to improve the blood lipids. However, it remains unclear how smoking and drinking jointly affect blood lipids and whether exercise influences their effects. To evaluate the effects of smoking and drinking, either alone or in combination, on lipid-related indices in both exercise and non-exercise groups among Chinese men. This study was conducted in a health examination center between 2015 and 2016. A sample of 6,179 male subjects was divided into exercise and non-exercise groups. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios for abnormal lipid-related indices and correlation coefficients between smoking/drinking and lipid-related indices. In the study population, the percentage of stable smokers and stable drinkers was 46.3% (2,860/6,179) and 77.6% (4,795/6,179), respectively. An increased smoking amount was significantly associated with an elevated triglyceride (TG) level and a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Heavier smokers had higher odds ratios for high TG and low HDL-C. Heavier drinkers had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, and HDL-C and higher odds ratios for high TC and high TG but lower odds ratio for low HDL-C. The exercise group had lower TG levels and higher HDL-C levels than did the non-exercise group. Both heavier smoking and heavier drinking were associated with poorer TG levels, and the results suggest that drinking may be helpful for HDL-C. Exercise may relieve the negative effects of smoking and drinking.
Galle, Marianela; Kladniew, Boris Rodenak; Castro, María Agustina; Villegas, Sandra Montero; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Polo, Mónica; de Bravo, Margarita García; Crespo, Rosana
Geraniol (G) is a natural isoprenoid present in the essential oils of several aromatic plants, with various biochemical and pharmacologic properties. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of action of G on cellular metabolism are largely unknown. We propose that G could be a potential agent for the treatment of hyperlipidemia that could contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of its mechanism of action on cholesterol and TG metabolism. NIH mice received supplemented diets containing 25, 50, and 75 mmol G/kg chow. After a 3-week treatment, serum total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by commercial kits and lipid biosynthesis determined by the [(14)C] acetate incorporated into fatty acids plus nonsaponifiable and total hepatic lipids of the mice. The activity of the mRNA encoding HMGCR-the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis-along with the enzyme levels and catalysis were assessed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and HMG-CoA-conversion assays, respectively. In-silico analysis of several genes involved in lipid metabolism and regulated by G in cultured cells was also performed. Finally, the mRNA levels encoded by the genes for the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), the sterol-regulatory-element-binding transcription factor (SREBF2), the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), and the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA) were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Plasma total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels plus hepatic fatty-acid, total-lipid, and nonsaponifiable-lipid biosynthesis were significantly reduced by feeding with G. Even though an up-regulation of the mRNA encoding HMGCR occurred in the G treated mouse livers, the protein levels and specific activity of the enzyme were both inhibited. G also enhanced the mRNAs encoding the LDL and VLDL receptors and reduced ACACA mRNA, without altering the transcription of the mRNA encoding the SREBF2. The following
Haldar, Saptarsi M.; Jeyaraj, Darwin; Anand, Priti; Zhu, Han; Lu, Yuan; Prosdocimo, Domenick A.; Eapen, Betty; Kawanami, Daiji; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Brotto, Leticia; Fujioka, Hisashi; Kerner, Janos; Rosca, Mariana G.; McGuinness, Owen P.; Snow, Rod J.; Russell, Aaron P.; Gerber, Anthony N.; Bai, Xiaodong; Yan, Zhen; Nosek, Thomas M.; Brotto, Marco; Hoppel, Charles L.; Jain, Mukesh K.
The ability of skeletal muscle to enhance lipid utilization during exercise is a form of metabolic plasticity essential for survival. Conversely, metabolic inflexibility in muscle can cause organ dysfunction and disease. Although the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is an important regulator of glucose and amino acid metabolism, its endogenous role in lipid homeostasis and muscle physiology is unknown. Here we demonstrate that KLF15 is essential for skeletal muscle lipid utilization and physiologic performance. KLF15 directly regulates a broad transcriptional program spanning all major segments of the lipid-flux pathway in muscle. Consequently, Klf15-deficient mice have abnormal lipid and energy flux, excessive reliance on carbohydrate fuels, exaggerated muscle fatigue, and impaired endurance exercise capacity. Elucidation of this heretofore unrecognized role for KLF15 now implicates this factor as a central component of the transcriptional circuitry that coordinates physiologic flux of all three basic cellular nutrients: glucose, amino acids, and lipids. PMID:22493257
Cheng, Sara Y.; Duong, Hai V.; Compton, Campbell; Vaughn, Mark W.; Nguyen, Hoa; Cheng, Kwan H.
Quantifying protein-induced lipid disruptions at the atomistic level is a challenging problem in membrane biophysics. Here we propose a novel 3D Voronoi tessellation nearest-atom-neighbor shell method to classify and characterize lipid domains into discrete concentric lipid shells surrounding membrane proteins in structurally heterogeneous lipid membranes. This method needs only the coordinates of the system and is independent of force fields and simulation conditions. As a proof-of-principle, we use this multiple lipid shell method to analyze the lipid disruption profiles of three simulated membrane systems: phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, and beta-amyloid/phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol. We observed different atomic volume disruption mechanisms due to cholesterol and beta-amyloid Additionally, several lipid fractional groups and lipid-interfacial water did not converge to their control values with increasing distance or shell order from the protein. This volume divergent behavior was confirmed by bilayer thickness and chain orientational order calculations. Our method can also be used to analyze high-resolution structural experimental data. PMID:25637891
Hamanaka, Taichi; Nishizawa, Keiko; Sakasegawa, Yuji; Oguma, Ayumi; Teruya, Kenta; Kurahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Sakaguchi, Suehiro
ABSTRACT Prion diseases are progressive fatal neurodegenerative illnesses caused by the accumulation of transmissible abnormal prion protein (PrP). To find treatments for prion diseases, we searched for substances from natural resources that inhibit abnormal PrP formation in prion-infected cells. We found that high-molecular-weight components from insect cuticle extracts reduced abnormal PrP levels. The chemical nature of these components was consistent with that of melanin. In fact, synthetic melanin produced from tyrosine or 3-hydroxy-l-tyrosine inhibited abnormal PrP formation. Melanin did not modify cellular or cell surface PrP levels, nor did it modify lipid raft or cellular cholesterol levels. Neither did it enhance autophagy or lysosomal function. Melanin was capable of interacting with PrP at two N-terminal domains. Specifically, it strongly interacted with the PrP region of amino acids 23 to 50 including a positively charged amino acid cluster and weakly interacted with the PrP octarepeat peptide region of residues 51 to 90. However, the in vitro and in vivo data were inconsistent with those of prion-infected cells. Abnormal PrP formation in protein misfolding cyclic amplification was not inhibited by melanin. Survival after prion infection was not significantly altered in albino mice or exogenously melanin-injected mice compared with that of control mice. These data suggest that melanin, a main determinant of skin color, is not likely to modify prion disease pathogenesis, even though racial differences in the incidence of human prion diseases have been reported. Thus, the findings identify an interaction between melanin and the N terminus of PrP, but the pathophysiological roles of the PrP-melanin interaction remain unclear. IMPORTANCE The N-terminal region of PrP is reportedly important for neuroprotection, neurotoxicity, and abnormal PrP formation, as this region is bound by many factors, such as metal ions, lipids, nucleic acids, antiprion compounds
Human meibomian lipids form the outermost lipid layer of the tear film and serve many important functions to maintain its integrity. Although not investigated earlier, these lipids may have antimicrobial properties that help in strengthening the innate host defense of tears at the ocular surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. Ocular pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus 31, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 19, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20, and Serratia marcescens 35, were grown in the presence and absence of human meibomian lipids in an artificial tear solution at the physiological temperature. Viable counts were obtained to note the number of bacteria surviving the treatment with meibomian lipids. Bacterial cells were imaged using scanning electron microscopy to observe the damages caused by meibomian lipids. Viable count results showed that in the presence of meibomian lipids, growth of all bacteria was considerably lower. Scanning electron microscopy showed that meibomian lipids caused extensive cellular damage to bacteria as manifested in smaller size, loss of aggregation, abnormal phenotype, cellular distortion, damaged cell wall, and cell lysis. This is the first-ever report of the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. These lipids possess antimicrobial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are involved in the innate host defense of tears in protecting the ocular surface against microbial pathogens. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in ...
Purpose. The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine (OAM) is responsible for the certification of pilots with diabetic conditions. Therefore, it is essential for OAM to monitor pilots involved in fatal accidents for abnormal gl...
Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.
Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123
Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A
Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn(®) II, Liposyn(®) III, Lipofundin(®) MCT, Lipofundin(®) N, Structolipid(®), Intralipid(®), Ivelip(®) and ClinOleic(®). Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.
Szabó, D; Somogyi, J; Acs, Z; Mihály, K
The effect of reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels on adrenocortical lipid droplets have been examined by treating adult rats with 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine (4-APP), a drug that inhibits hepatic secretion of lipoproteins. Lowering the blood cholesterol level and the cholesterol content of the adrenals was associated with a marked reduction in the lipid droplets and with a simultaneous increase in their electron density in the inner cortical zones. In the zona glomerulosa cells, no perceptible differences were found in the quantity and morphology of lipid droplets. These data suggest that reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels do not affect lipids located in the zona glomerulosa and in the inner cortical zones in the same way, probably due to differences in their intracellular lipid dynamism. Noteworthy, that in spite of the marked lipid depletion, the adrenal glands retained their responsiveness to ACTH stimulation.
Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young
Accumulating evidence suggests that fat distribution is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of android and gynoid fat percentages with lipid profiles to determine whether android and/or gynoid fat percentages are associated with serum lipid levels. A population-based cross-sectional study. Five thousand six hundred and ninety-six adults (20 years and older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. The regional body composition in the android and gynoid regions was defined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The estimation of lipid risk profiles included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) -cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Regardless of gender, android and gynoid body fat percentages were positively and significantly correlated with BMI and waist circumference. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, dyslipidaemia and BMI, increases in android fat percentage were significantly associated with total cholesterol, TG and HDL cholesterol in males, and total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in females. The gynoid fat percentages showed a positive correlation with total cholesterol in males, whereas gynoid fat accumulation in females showed a favourable association with TG and HDL cholesterol. The observed associations differed according to ethnic groups. Our results suggest that regional fat distribution in the android and gynoid regions have different effects on lipid profiles, and that fat in the android region, rather than the gynoid region, may be an important factor in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Z B; Xue, Z X; Wu, X J; Wang, T M; Li, Y H; Song, X L; Chao, X F; Wang, G; Nazibam, Nurmamat; Ayxamgul, Bawudun; Gulbahar, Elyas; Zhou, Z Y; Sun, B S; Wang, Y Z; Wang, M
Objective: To understand the prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar prefecture in southern area of Xinjiang. Methods: A total of 5 078 local residents aged ≥18 years (42.56 % were men) selected through cluster random sampling in Kashgar were surveyed by means of questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory test, and 521 diabetes patients were screened. Results: The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in diabetes patients was 59.50 % (310/521) with adjusted rate as 49.39 % . Age ≥65 years, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity increased the risk for dyslipidemia by 0.771 times (95 % CI : 1.015-3.088), 1.132 times (95 % CI : 1.290-3.523), 1.688 times (95 % CI : 1.573-4.592) and 0.801 times (95 % CI : 1.028-3.155) respectively. Compared with males, female was a protective factor for dyslipidemia ( OR =0.507, 95 %CI : 0.334-0.769). The overall normal rate of blood lipids level including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for type 2 diabetes patients was 11.13 % . Female, higher BMI and abdominal obesity were the factors influencing the overall normal blood lipids level. The normal rate of LDL-C level decreased with increase of age, BMI and waist circumferences (trend test χ (2)=18.049, P <0.001; trend test χ (2)=10.582, P =0.001; χ (2)=19.081, P <0.001), but increased with educational level (trend test χ (2)=9.764, P =0.002). Conclusion: The prevalence of dyslipidemia in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar was high, however, the overall normal rate of blood lipid level was relatively low. Obesity was the most important risk factor for dyslipidemia in this area. More attention should be paid to dyslipidemia prevention in women.
Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Xie, Guoming; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong
Background We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association between serum lipid levels and suicidality, as evidence from previous studies has been inconsistent. Methods We identified relevant studies by searching Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1980 to Dec. 5, 2014). Studies assessing the association between serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or triglycerides (TG) levels and suicidality were included. We used a random-effects model to take into account heterogeneity among studies. Results We included 65 studies with a total of 510 392 participants in our analysis. Compared with the nonsuicidal patients, suicidal patients had significantly lower serum TC (weighted mean difference [WMD] −22.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] −27.95 to −16.75), LDL-C (WMD −19.56, 95% CI −26.13 to −12.99) and TG (WMD −23.40, 95% CI −32.38 to −14.42) levels, while compared with the healthy controls, suicidal patients had significantly lower TC (WMD −24.75, 95% CI −27.71 to −21.78), HDL-C (WMD −1.75, 95% CI −3.01 to −0.48) and LDL-C (WMD −3.85, 95% CI −7.45 to −0.26) levels. Furthermore, compared with the highest serum TC level category, a lower serum TC level was associated with a 112% (95% CI 40%–220%) higher risk of suicidality, including a 123% (95% CI 24%–302%) higher risk of suicide attempt and an 85% (95 CI 7%–221%) higher risk of suicide completion. The cut-off values for low and high serum TC level were in compliance with the categories reported in the original studies. Limitations A major limitation of our study is the potential heterogeneity in most of the analyses. In addition, the suicidal behaviour was examined using different scales or methods across studies, which may further explain heterogeneity among the studies. Conclusion We identified an inverse association
Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Garmo, Hans; Hammar, Niklas; Jungner, Ingmar; Walldius, Göran; Lambe, Mats; Holmberg, Lars
With exception of cholesterol and total fat intake, associations between lipid biomarkers and kidney cancer have not often been researched. We aimed to assess possible links between lipid profiles and kidney cancer risk in a large prospective cohort study, while also taking into account glucose levels and BMI. A cohort based on 542,924 persons with baseline information on glucose, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC) and creatinine was selected from the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk study. A subgroup of 85,621 also had baseline measurements of HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A-I and apoB. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations between quartiles and dichotomized values of these lipid components and kidney cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 13 years, 958 persons developed kidney cancer. TGs were the only lipid component for which a statistically significant association was found with kidney cancer risk when using both quartiles and a clinical cutoff (hazard ratio: 1.25 (95% CI: 0.99-1.60), 1.29 (1.01-1.66) and 1.66 (1.30-2.13) for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartile, compared to the 1st, with p-value for trend: <0.001). The association remained after exclusion of the 95% percentile of TG. Quartiles of glucose were also positively associated with kidney cancer risk, whereas quartiles of TC were negatively associated with kidney cancer risk. This detailed analysis of lipid components only showed a consistent relation between TG levels and kidney cancer risk. Further mechanistic studies are required to assess links between lipid abnormalities and kidney cancer. Copyright © 2011 UICC.
Kandadi, Machender Reddy; Unnikrishnan, M K; Warrier, Ajaya Kumar Sankara; Du, Min; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair
High-fat diet has been implicated as a major cause of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dietary-supplementation of chromium (D-phenylalanine)(3) [Cr(D-Phe)(3)] on glucose and insulin tolerance in high-fat diet fed mice. C57BL/6-mice were randomly assigned to orally receive vehicle or Cr(D-Phe)(3) (45 μg of elemental chromium/kg/day) for 8-weeks. High-fat-fed mice exhibited impaired whole-body-glucose and -insulin tolerance and elevated serum triglyceride levels compared to normal chow-fed mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose up-take in the gastrocnemius muscles, assessed as 2-[(3)H-deoxyglucose] incorporation was markedly diminished in high-fat fed mice compared to control mice. Treatment with chromium reconciled the high-fat diet-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Treatment of cultured, differentiated myotubes with palmitic acid evoked insulin resistance as evidenced by lower levels of insulin-stimulated Akt-phosphorylation, elevated JNK-phosphorylation, (assessed by Western blotting), attenuation of phosphoinositol-3-kinase activity (determined in the insulin-receptor substrate-1-immunoprecipitates by measuring the extent of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol by γ-(32)P-ATP), and impairment in cellular glucose up-take, all of which were inhibited by Cr(d-Phe)(3). These results suggest a beneficial effect of chromium-supplementation in insulin resistant conditions. It is likely that these effects of chromium may be mediated by augmenting downstream insulin signaling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Sun, Ye; Gantner, Marin L.; Shao, Zhuo; Evans, Lucy P.; Saba, Nicholas; Fredrick, Thomas; Burnim, Samuel; Kim, Jin Sung; Patel, Gauri; Juan, Aimee M.; Hurst, Christian G.; Hatton, Colman J.; Cui, Zhenghao; Pierce, Kerry A.; Bherer, Patrick; Aguilar, Edith; Powner, Michael B.; Vevis, Kristis; Boisvert, Michel; Fu, Zhongjie; Levy, Emile; Fruttiger, Marcus; Packard, Alan; Rezende, Flavio A.; Maranda, Bruno; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Chen, Jing; Friedlander, Martin; Clish, Clary B.; Smith, Lois E.H.
Tissues with high metabolic rates often use lipid as well as glucose for energy, conferring a survival advantage during feast and famine.1 Current dogma suggests that high-energy consuming photoreceptors depend on glucose.2,3 Here we show that retina also uses fatty acids (FA) β-oxidation for energy. Moreover, we identify a lipid sensor Ffar1 that curbs glucose uptake when FA are available. Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), expressed in tissues with a high metabolic rate, facilitates the uptake of triglyceride-derived FA.4,5 Vldlr is present in photoreceptors.6 In Vldlr−/− retinas, Ffar1, sensing high circulating lipid levels despite decreased FA uptake5, suppresses glucose transporter Glut1. This impaired glucose entry into photoreceptors results in a dual lipid/glucose fuel shortage and reduction in the Krebs cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate (KG). Low α-KG levels promote hypoxia-induced factor-1α (Hif1a) stabilization and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) secretion by starved Vldlr−/− photoreceptors, attracting neovessels to supply fuel. These aberrant vessels invading normally avascular photoreceptors in Vldlr−/− retinas are reminiscent of retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), a subset of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD)7, associated with high vitreous VEGF levels in humans. Dysregulated lipid and glucose photoreceptor energy metabolism may therefore be a driving force in neovascular AMD and other retinal diseases. PMID:26974308
Jury, EC; Kabouridis, PS
In the last few years it has become clear that in cells of the immune system, specialized microdomains present in the plasma membrane, called lipid rafts, have been found to play a central role in regulating signalling by immune receptors. Recent studies have looked at whether lipid rafts may be connected to the abnormalities in signalling seen in T lymphocytes isolated from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These early findings show that in SLE T cells, the expression and protein composition of lipid rafts is different when compared with normal T cells. These results also demonstrate changes in the function and localization of critical signalling molecules such as the LCK tyrosine kinase and the CD45 tyrosine phosphatase. PMID:15303567
Kaya, Cemil; Akgül, Ebru; Pabuccu, Recai
To determine heart rate recovery (HRR) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its relation to C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Sixty-eight women with PCOS and 68 healthy women were included this study. Heart rate recovery was evaluated. We measured serum levels of CRP and Hcy. The presence of insulin resistance was investigated using homeostasis model assesment (HOMA-IR). Heart rate recovery, CRP, Hcy. Heart rate recovery was significantly decreased in women with PCOS compared with control group women. Subjects with abnormal HRR had significantly greater levels of CRP and Hcy. The PCOS patients with HRR in the top tertile compared with the bottom quartile tended to have lower mean CRP and Hcy levels. The HRR was significantly and negatively correlated with age, CRP, Hcy, HOMA-IR, and body mass index. C-reactive protein and Hcy are independent determinants of HRR. The CRP and Hcy levels may affect the development and progression of abnormal HRR in PCOS. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Yadav, Ramakant; Mukherjee, Somnath; Pal, Lily; Sinha, Neeraj
Qualitative (assignment of lipid components) and quantitative (quantification of lipid components) analysis of lipid components were performed in skeletal muscle tissue of patients with muscular dystrophy in early phase of the disease as compared to control/normal subjects. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy based experiment was performed on the lipid extract of skeletal muscle tissue of patients with muscular dystrophy in early phase of the disease and normal individuals for the analysis of lipid components [triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic, linolenic and linoleic acid)]. Specimens of muscle tissue were obtained from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) [n=11; Age, Mean±SD; 9.2±1.4years; all were males], Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) [n=12; Age, Mean±SD; 21.4±5.0years; all were males], facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) [n=11; Age, Mean±SD; 23.7±7.5years; all were males] and limb girdle muscular dystrophy-2B (LGMD-2B) [n=18; Age, Mean±SD; 24.2±4.1years; all were males]. Muscle specimens were also obtained from [n=30; Mean age±SD 23.1±6.0years; all were males] normal/control subjects. Assigned lipid components in skeletal muscle tissue were triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), total cholesterol (CHOL) and unsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic, linolenic and linoleic acid)]. Quantity of lipid components was observed in skeletal muscle tissue of DMD, BMD, FSHD and LGMD-2B patients as compared to control/normal subjects. TG was significantly elevated in muscle tissue of DMD, BMD and LGMD-2B patients. Increase level of CHOL was found only in muscle of DMD patients. Level of PL was found insignificant for DMD, BMD and LGMD-2B patients. Quantity of TG, PL and CHOL was unaltered in the muscle of patients with FSHD as compared to control/normal subjects. Linoleic acids were significantly reduced in muscle tissue of DMD, BMD, FSHD and LGMD-2B as compared to normal
Charles, Luenda E; Gu, Ja K; Tinney-Zara, Cathy A; Fekedulegn, Desta; Ma, Claudia C; Baughman, Penelope; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M
Shift work and/or sleep quality may affect health. We investigated whether shift work and sleep quality, separately and jointly, were associated with abnormal levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), and low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 360 police officers (27.5% women). Triglycerides, TC, and high-density lipoprotein were analyzed on the Abbott Architect; low-density lipoprotein was calculated. Shift work was assessed using City of Buffalo payroll work history records. Sleep quality (good, ≤ 5; intermediate, 6-8; poor, ≥ 9) was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. A shift work + sleep quality variable was created: day plus good sleep; day plus poor sleep; afternoon/night plus good; and poor sleep quality. Mean values of lipid biomarkers were compared across categories of the exposures using analysis of variance/analysis of covariance. Shift work was not significantly associated with lipids. However, as sleep quality worsened, mean levels of triglycerides and TC gradually increased but only among female officers (age- and race-adjusted p = 0.013 and 0.030, respectively). Age significantly modified the association between sleep quality and TC. Among officers ≥ 40 years old, those reporting poor sleep quality had a significantly higher mean level of TC (202.9 ± 3.7 mg/dL) compared with those reporting good sleep quality (190.6 ± 4.0 mg/dL) (gender- and race-adjusted p = 0.010). Female officers who worked the day shift and also reported good sleep quality had the lowest mean level of TC compared with women in the other three categories (p = 0.014). Sleep quality and its combined influence with shift work may play a role in the alteration of some lipid measures.
Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. ( U. dioica ) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica . Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein
Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. Results: The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28078249
Ke, Zhang-Hong; Pan, Jie-Xue; Jin, Lu-Yang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Tian-Tian; Ullah, Kamran; Rahman, Tanzil Ur; Ren, Jun; Cheng, Yi; Dong, Xin-Yan; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng
Accumulating evidence suggests a role of bisphenol A (BPA) in metabolic disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Using a mouse BPA exposure model, we investigated the effects of long-term BPA exposure on lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms. The male mice exposed to BPA (0.5 μg BPA /kg/day, a human relevant dose) for 10 months exhibited significant hepatic accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol. The liver cells from the BPA-exposed mice showed significantly increased expression levels of the genes related to lipid synthesis. These liver cells showed decreased DNA methylation levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2, and increased expression levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2 that may upregulate the genes related to lipid synthesis. The expression levels of DNA methyltransferases were decreased in BPA-exposed mouse liver. Hepa1-6 cell line treated with BPA showed decreased expression levels of DNA methyltransferases and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. DNA methyltransferase knockdown in Hepa1-6 led to hypo-methylation and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. Our results suggest that long-term BPA exposure could induce hepatic lipid accumulation, which may be due to the epigenetic reprogramming of the genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as the alterations of DNA methylation patterns.
Ke, Zhang-Hong; Pan, Jie-Xue; Jin, Lu-Yang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Tian-Tian; Ullah, Kamran; Rahman, Tanzil Ur; Ren, Jun; Cheng, Yi; Dong, Xin-Yan; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng
Accumulating evidence suggests a role of bisphenol A (BPA) in metabolic disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Using a mouse BPA exposure model, we investigated the effects of long-term BPA exposure on lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms. The male mice exposed to BPA (0.5 μg BPA /kg/day, a human relevant dose) for 10 months exhibited significant hepatic accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol. The liver cells from the BPA-exposed mice showed significantly increased expression levels of the genes related to lipid synthesis. These liver cells showed decreased DNA methylation levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2, and increased expression levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2 that may upregulate the genes related to lipid synthesis. The expression levels of DNA methyltransferases were decreased in BPA-exposed mouse liver. Hepa1-6 cell line treated with BPA showed decreased expression levels of DNA methyltransferases and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. DNA methyltransferase knockdown in Hepa1-6 led to hypo-methylation and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. Our results suggest that long-term BPA exposure could induce hepatic lipid accumulation, which may be due to the epigenetic reprogramming of the genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as the alterations of DNA methylation patterns. PMID:27502578
Simpson, Annie N.; Matthews, Lois J.; Dubno, Judy R.
Objective To determine the role of cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers, lipids and C-reactive protein, in age-related hearing loss over time. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Research laboratories at an academic medical center. Subjects and Methods In total, 837 older adults (mean age 67.5 years) were included. Primary dependent variables were puretone thresholds (pure-tone average [PTA]), including “narrow” PTA (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz), “broad” PTA (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 kHz), low-frequency PTA (0.25, 0.5, 1 kHz), and high-frequency PTA (2, 3, 4, 6, 8 kHz). Repeated-measures mixed regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid levels with PTAs over time. Results In a cross-sectional sample of 837 subjects, modest associations were found between triglycerides and all PTAs. Weak associations were observed between the ratio of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein and narrow PTA, broad PTA, and high-frequency PTA. However, when assessing changes in hearing and lipids over time in a longitudinal analysis, no significant associations between hearing and lipids remained. PTAs and CRP were not statistically associated when controlling for age and sex. Conclusion Associations between hearing and blood lipids have been the focus of scientific inquiry for more than 50 years. The current results suggest that the association is either spurious or too small to be of consequence in the assessment and treatment of hearing loss in older adults. Inquiry into other potential risk factors for age-related hearing loss and associations with CVD may prove more fruitful. PMID:23322627
Oliveira, A A; Almeida, J P C; Freitas, R M; Nascimento, V S; Aguiar, L M V; Júnior, H V N; Fonseca, F N; Viana, G S B; Sousa, F C F; Fonteles, M M F
: Oxidative stress has been implicated in a large number of human degenerative diseases, including epilepsy. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a new antiepileptic agent with broad-spectrum effects on seizures and animal models of epilepsy. Recently, it was demonstrated that the mechanism of LEV differs from that of conventional antiepileptic drugs. Objectifying to investigate if LEV mechanism of action involves antioxidant properties, lipid peroxidation levels, nitrite-nitrate formation, catalase activity, and glutathione (GSH) content were measured in adult mice brain. The neurochemical analyses were carried out in hippocampus of animals pretreated with LEV (200 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min before pilocarpine-induced seizures (400 mg/kg, s.c.). The administration of alone pilocarpine, 400 mg/kg, s.c. (P400) produced a significant increase of lipid peroxidation level in hippocampus. LEV pretreatment was able to counteract this increase, preserving the lipid peroxidation level in normal value. P400 administration also produced increase in the nitrite-nitrate formation and catalase activity in hippocampus, beyond a decrease in GSH levels. LEV administration before P400 prevented the P400-induced alteration in nitrite-nitrate levels and preserved normal values of catalase activity in hippocampus. Moreover, LEV administration prevented the P400-induced loss of GSH in this cerebral area. The present data suggest that the protective effects of LEV against pilocarpine-induced seizures can be mediated, at least in part, by reduction of lipid peroxidation and hippocampal oxidative stress.
Jabbari, Abbas; Argani, Hassan; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Mahdavi, Reza
Hyperlipidemia and increased degree of oxidative stress are among the important risk factors for Atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients (RTR). The Medical treatment of hyperlipidemia in RTR because of drugs side effects has been problematic, therefore alternative methods such as using of Garlic as an effective material in cholesterol lowering and inhibition of LDL Oxidation has been noted. For evaluation of garlic effect on RTR, 50 renal transplant patients with stable renal function were selected and divided into 2 groups. They took one clove of garlic (1 gr) by chewing or swallowing for two months, after one month wash-out period, they took garlic by the other route. Results indicated that although lipid profile, BUN, Cr, serum levels of cyclosporine and diastolic blood pressure did not change, Systolic blood pressure decreased from 138.2 to 132.8 mmHg (p=0.001) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased from 2.4 to 1.7 nmol/ml (p=0.009) by swallowing route, Cholesterol decreased from 205.1 to 195.3 mg/dl (p=0.03), triglyceride decreased from 195.7 to 174.8 mg/dl (p=0.008), MDA decreased from 2.5 to 1.6 nmol/ml (p=0.001), systolic blood pressure decreased from 137.5 to 129.8 mmHg (p=0.001), diastolic blood pressure decreased from 84.6 to 77.6 mmHg (p=0.001) and Cr decreased from 1.51 to 1.44 mg/dl (p=0.03) by chewing route too. However HDL, LDL and cyclosporine serum levels had no significant differences by both of swallowing and chewing routes. We conclude that undamaged garlic (swallowed) had no lowering effect on lipid level of serum. But Crushed garlic (chewed) reduces cholesterol, triglyceride, MDA and blood pressure. Additionally creatinine reduced without notable decrease in cyclosporine serum levels may be due to cyclosporine nephrotoxicity ameliorating effect of garlic.
Schweigert, F J; Uehlein-Harrell, S; von Hegel, G; Wiesner, H
Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), vitamin E and lipids were determined in a wide variety of wild mammals and birds held in captivity. In mammals plasma levels of vitamin A were generally below 500 ng/ml and those of vitamin E were highly variable (0.1-2 micrograms/ml). In primates, vitamin E levels were 3 to 8 micrograms/ml. Whereas in Marsupialia, Chiroptera, primates, Rodentia, Proboscidea, Sirenia, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla only retinol was found, retinyl esters (basically retinol palmitate/oleate) represented 10 to 50% of the total plasma vitamin A in some birds of the order Ciconiiformes and Falconiformes. Retinol levels in birds were higher compared to mammals (500-2,000 ng/ml). The same was true for lipids as well as for vitamin E levels (1-26 micrograms/ml) in the plasma of birds.
Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Schlegel, Amnon
Liver X receptors (Lxrs) are master regulators of cholesterol catabolism, driving the elimination of cholesterol from the periphery to the lumen of the intestine. Development of pharmacological agents to activate Lxrs has been hindered by synthetic Lxr agonists' induction of hepatic lipogenesis and hypertriglyceridemia. Elucidating the function of Lxrs in regulating enterocyte lipid handling might identify novel aspects of lipid metabolism that are pharmacologically amenable. We took a genetic approach centered on the single Lxr gene nr1h3 in zebrafish to study the role of Lxr in enterocyte lipid metabolism. Loss of nr1h3 function causes anticipated gene regulatory changes and cholesterol intolerance, collectively reflecting high evolutionary conservation of zebrafish Lxra function. Intestinal nr1h3 activation delays transport of absorbed neutral lipids, with accumulation of neutral lipids in enterocyte cytoplasmic droplets. This delay in transport of ingested neutral lipids protects animals from hypercholesterolemia and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet. On a gene regulatory level, Lxra induces expression of acsl3a, which encodes acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3a, a lipid droplet-anchored protein that directs fatty acyl chains into lipids. Forced overexpression of acls3a in enterocytes delays, in part, the appearance of neutral lipids in the vasculature of zebrafish larvae. Activation of Lxr in the intestine cell-autonomously regulates the rate of delivery of absorbed lipids by inducting a temporary lipid intestinal droplet storage depot. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Veeck, Ana Paula L; Garcia, Luciano O; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Zaniboni Filho, Evoy; Emanuelli, Tatiana
The ammonia and oxygen levels of water are physicochemical parameters that affect fish physiology. Thus, we hypothesized that in vivo exposure to stressful ammonia and oxygen levels will affect the post-mortem quality of the fish. Therefore, in this study, the effects of in vivo exposure to stressful ammonia and oxygen levels on the composition and content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in fillets from dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) and on the lipid oxidation of these fillets during frozen storage were evaluated. Short-term exposure (12 h) to stressful environmental conditions (low oxygen and high ammonia levels) did not change the composition of the flesh. However, longer exposure (15 days) to these stressful conditions caused significant changes in the composition of the flesh. Exposure to a stressful ammonia level before slaughtering increased the susceptibility of the fish fillets to lipid oxidation during frozen storage. In contrast, exposure to low oxygen levels did not increase the lipid oxidation rate of the fillets. These results indicate that the in vivo exposure to high ammonia levels may reduce the quality and stability of dourado fillets. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Goedeke, Leigh; Rotllan, Noemi; Ramírez, Cristina M.; Aranda, Juan F.; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Araldi, Elisa; Fernández-Hernando, Ana; Langhi, Cedric; de Cabo, Rafael; Baldán, Ángel; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos
Rationale Recently, there has been significant interest in the therapeutic administration of miRNA mimics and inhibitors to treat cardiovascular disease. In particular, miR-27b has emerged as a regulatory hub in cholesterol and lipid metabolism and potential therapeutic target for treating atherosclerosis. Despite this, the impact of miR-27b on lipid levels in vivo remains to be determined. As such, here we set out to further characterize the role of miR-27b in regulating cholesterol metabolism in vitro and to determine the effect of miR-27b overexpression and inhibition on circulating and hepatic lipids in mice. Methods and Results Our results identify miR-27b as an important regulator of LDLR activity in human and mouse hepatic cells through direct targeting of LDLR and LDLRAP1. In addition, we report that modulation of miR-27b expression affects ABCA1 protein levels and cellular cholesterol efflux to ApoA1 in human hepatic Huh7 cells. Overexpression of pre-miR-27b in the livers of wild-type mice using AAV8 vectors increased pre-miR-27b levels 50–fold and reduced hepatic ABCA1 and LDLR expression by 50% and 20%, respectively, without changing circulating and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides. To determine the effect of endogenous miR-27b on circulating lipids, wild-type mice were fed a Western diet for one month and injected with 5 mg/kg of LNA control or LNA anti-miR-27b oligonucleotides. Following two weeks of treatment, the expression of ABCA1 and LDLR were increased by 10–20% in the liver, demonstrating effective inhibition of miR-27b function. Intriguingly, no differences in circulating and hepatic lipids were observed between treatment groups. Conclusions The results presented here provide evidence that short-term modulation of miR-27b expression in wild-type mice regulates hepatic LDLR and ABCA1 expression but does not influence plasma and hepatic lipid levels. PMID:26520906
Qian, Zhenyu; Zou, Yu; Zhang, Qingwen; Chen, Peijie; Ma, Buyong; Wei, Guanghong; Nussinov, Ruth
The pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with the aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) and aggregation-mediated membrane disruption. The interactions of hIAPP aggregates with lipid membrane, as well as the effects of pH and lipid composition at the atomic level, remain elusive. Herein, using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the interactions of hIAPP protofibrillar oligomers with lipids, and the membrane perturbation that they induce, when they are partially inserted in an anionic dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) membrane or a mixed dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/DPPG (7:3) lipid bilayer under acidic/neutral pH conditions. We observed that the tilt angles and insertion depths of the hIAPP protofibril are strongly correlated with the pH and lipid composition. At neutral pH, the tilt angle and insertion depth of hIAPP protofibrils at a DPPG bilayer reach ~52° and ~1.62 nm with respect to the membrane surface, while they become ~77° and ~1.75 nm at a mixed DPPC/DPPG membrane. The calculated tilt angle of hIAPP at DPPG membrane is consistent with a recent chiral sum frequency generation spectroscopic study. The acidic pH induces a smaller tilt angle of ~40° and a shallower insertion depth (~1.24 nm) of hIAPP at the DPPG membrane surface, mainly due to protonation of His18 near the turn region. These differences mainly result from a combination of distinct electrostatic, van der Waals, hydrogen bonding and salt-bridge interactions between hIAPP and lipid bilayers. The hIAPP-membrane interaction energy analysis reveals that besides charged residues K1, R11 and H18, aromatic residues Phe15 and Phe23 also exhibit strong interactions with lipid bilayers, revealing the crucial role of aromatic residues in stabilizing the membrane-bound hIAPP protofibrils. hIAPP-membrane interactions disturb the lipid ordering and the local bilayer thickness around the peptides. Our results provide atomic-level information
Nakamura, T; Takebe, K; Tando, Y; Arai, Y; Yamada, N; Ishii, M; Kikuchi, H; Machida, K; Imamura, K; Terada, A
A survey was conducted on 110 normal Japanese adults (55 men and 55 women) to determine their caloric intake, dietary fat content and its origin (animal, plant, or marine). In addition, their blood lipid levels and fatty acid compositions were examined. Men in their 30s-50s consumed 2,600-2,800 calories and 60 g of fats, while women in the same age range consumed 2,000-2,200 calories and 52-58 g of fats. In both sexes, caloric, fat, and cholesterol intakes were lower for those in their 60s but protein and crude fiber consumption remained generally unchanged. When the dietary fats were classified according to origin, men and women in their 30s were found to consume less oil of marine origin. This appeared to be the result of a western style diet for Japanese adults in their 30s. Compared with men, women exhibited lower blood lipid levels. As age increased, the total cholesterol level of the blood rose in women. Thus the blood lipid level was generally equal in the two groups in their 60s. There was a positive correlation between the blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and dietary consumption of fish oil. The marine/plant lipid ratio was positively correlated with the blood EPA/arachidonic acid ratio. Therefore, it was believed that the origin of the dietary fats consumed is a factor in determining the blood fatty acid profile. The linoleic acid (18:2), arachidonic acid (20:4), and 18:2 + 20:4 contents were negatively correlated to the total cholesterol level in the blood but positively correlated to the HDL-cholesterol level. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4 + 20:5 + 22:6) were negatively correlated with the blood triglyceride level. From the findings presented above, we concluded that dietary fats not derived from animal sources should be classified into fish and vegetable oils to evaluate their dietary significance. We also noted that Japanese in their 30s consume less fish oil, indicating the western trend in their
Hamanaka, Taichi; Nishizawa, Keiko; Sakasegawa, Yuji; Oguma, Ayumi; Teruya, Kenta; Kurahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Doh-Ura, Katsumi
Prion diseases are progressive fatal neurodegenerative illnesses caused by the accumulation of transmissible abnormal prion protein (PrP). To find treatments for prion diseases, we searched for substances from natural resources that inhibit abnormal PrP formation in prion-infected cells. We found that high-molecular-weight components from insect cuticle extracts reduced abnormal PrP levels. The chemical nature of these components was consistent with that of melanin. In fact, synthetic melanin produced from tyrosine or 3-hydroxy-l-tyrosine inhibited abnormal PrP formation. Melanin did not modify cellular or cell surface PrP levels, nor did it modify lipid raft or cellular cholesterol levels. Neither did it enhance autophagy or lysosomal function. Melanin was capable of interacting with PrP at two N-terminal domains. Specifically, it strongly interacted with the PrP region of amino acids 23 to 50 including a positively charged amino acid cluster and weakly interacted with the PrP octarepeat peptide region of residues 51 to 90. However, the in vitro and in vivo data were inconsistent with those of prion-infected cells. Abnormal PrP formation in protein misfolding cyclic amplification was not inhibited by melanin. Survival after prion infection was not significantly altered in albino mice or exogenously melanin-injected mice compared with that of control mice. These data suggest that melanin, a main determinant of skin color, is not likely to modify prion disease pathogenesis, even though racial differences in the incidence of human prion diseases have been reported. Thus, the findings identify an interaction between melanin and the N terminus of PrP, but the pathophysiological roles of the PrP-melanin interaction remain unclear. IMPORTANCE The N-terminal region of PrP is reportedly important for neuroprotection, neurotoxicity, and abnormal PrP formation, as this region is bound by many factors, such as metal ions, lipids, nucleic acids, antiprion compounds, and
Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan
The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.
Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yan; Fu, Lin; Feng, Yu-Jie; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Hua; Xu, De-Xiang
Cadmium (Cd) is a persistent environmental and occupational contaminant that accumulates in humans and shows adverse effects on health. Accumulating evidence reveals that environmental Cd exposure is associated with hepatic lipid accumulation and metabolic alterations in adult male mice. However, whether Cd exposure induces hepatic lipid accumulation and metabolic alterations in female mice remains poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Cd exposure on insulin resistance, hepatic lipid accumulation and associated metabolic pathways. Female CD1 mice were administrated with CdCl 2 (10 and 100 mg l -1 ) by drinking water. We found that Cd exposure did not induce obesity, insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation. By contrary, mice in the Cd-100 mg l -1 group presented a significant reduction of the glucose area under the curve during the glucose tolerance test. However, there was a significant elevation in the mRNA level of Fasn and Scd-1, which were critical genes during hepatic fatty acid synthesis. Moreover, hepatic Fabp1 and Fabp4, two genes for hepatic fatty acid uptake were upregulated in Cd-treated mice. Of interest, Lpl, a key gene for hepatic lipoprotein lysis, was also upregulated in Cd-treated mice. Collectively, our results suggest that Cd exposure upregulated mRNA level of genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism although there was no insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation shown in the present study. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stefansson, Hrafnkell; Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Águsta
Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a known, but uncommon complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We discuss the case of a 23-year-old, previously healthy, woman who initially presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Grossly lipemic serum due to extremely high triglyceride (38.6 mmol/L) and cholesterol (23.2 mmol/L) levels were observed with a high blood glucose (23 mmol/L) and a low pH of 7.06 on a venous blood gas. She was treated successfully with fluids and insulin and had no sequale of pancreatitis or cerebral edema. Her triglycerides and cholesterol was normalized in three days and she was discharged home on insulin therapy after five days. Further history revealed a recent change in diet with no meat, fish or poultry consumption in the last 12 months and concomitantly an increase in carbohydrate intake which might have contributed to her extremely high serum lipid levels. This case demonstrates that clinicians should be mindful of the different presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis. Key words: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, vegan diet, carbohydrate diet. Correspondence: Hrafnkell Stefansson, email@example.com.
Heber, María F; Ferreira, Silvana R; Vélez, Leandro M; Motta, Alicia B
The present study investigates the effect of prenatal hyperandrogenization on lipid metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant balance. Experimental study. Research institute. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with 2 mg free T between days 16 and 19 of pregnancy, and controls (C) received vehicle (0.1 mL of sesame oil). Prenatally hyperandrogenized female offspring (T2) had a condition that resembles polycystic ovary (PCO). Animals were weighed and killed at 21 and 60 days of age (N = 15 rats/group). Ovarian tissue and truncal blood were obtained from the C and T2 groups. Circulating lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) was quantified by colorimetric-enzymatic methods. Ovarian oxidative stress was evaluated by quantifying lipid peroxidation and glutathione content by spectofotometric assays. Ovarian fat content was evaluated by Red Oil staining and ovarian messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At 60 days of age, 100% of group C rats and 20% of group T2 rats ovulated. At 21 days of age the T2 rats displayed lower body weight than C rats; however, at 60 days of age T2 and C rats showed similar body weights. The lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) was altered in the anovulatory and ovulatory phenotype of the T2 group, but the levels were higher in the anovulatory phenotype. Lipid peroxidation of rats at 21 and 60 days of age from T2 was similar to C but the antioxidant glutathione level was decreased in 21-day-old rats compared with C rats. The lipid content of ovarian tissue, determined by Red Oil staining, was higher in the T2 than in the C group. The mRNA expression of ovarian PPAR-γ, quantified by real time PCR, decreased in anovulatory rats at 60 days of age from T2 compared to C rats. Our findings reveal
Klouwer, Femke C C; Koster, Janet; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R
The immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line is increasingly used for studies related to liver metabolism, including hepatic glucose, lipid, lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism, and the effect of therapeutic interventions. To determine whether the IHH cell line is a good model to investigate hepatic peroxisomal metabolism, we measured several peroxisomal parameters in IHH cells and, for comparison, HepG2 cells and primary skin fibroblasts. This revealed a marked plasmalogen deficiency and a deficient fatty acid α-oxidation in the IHH cells, due to a defect of PEX7, a cytosolic receptor protein required for peroxisomal import of a subset of peroxisomal proteins. These abnormalities have consequences for the lipid homeostasis of these cells and thus should be taken into account for the interpretation of data previously generated by using this cell line and when considering using this cell line for future research.
Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Sun, Ye; Gantner, Marin L; Shao, Zhuo; Evans, Lucy P; Saba, Nicholas; Fredrick, Thomas; Burnim, Samuel; Kim, Jin Sung; Patel, Gauri; Juan, Aimee M; Hurst, Christian G; Hatton, Colman J; Cui, Zhenghao; Pierce, Kerry A; Bherer, Patrick; Aguilar, Edith; Powner, Michael B; Vevis, Kristis; Boisvert, Michel; Fu, Zhongjie; Levy, Emile; Fruttiger, Marcus; Packard, Alan; Rezende, Flavio A; Maranda, Bruno; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Chen, Jing; Friedlander, Martin; Clish, Clary B; Smith, Lois E H
Tissues with high metabolic rates often use lipids, as well as glucose, for energy, conferring a survival advantage during feast and famine. Current dogma suggests that high-energy-consuming photoreceptors depend on glucose. Here we show that the retina also uses fatty acid β-oxidation for energy. Moreover, we identify a lipid sensor, free fatty acid receptor 1 (Ffar1), that curbs glucose uptake when fatty acids are available. Very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), which is present in photoreceptors and is expressed in other tissues with a high metabolic rate, facilitates the uptake of triglyceride-derived fatty acid. In the retinas of Vldlr(-/-) mice with low fatty acid uptake but high circulating lipid levels, we found that Ffar1 suppresses expression of the glucose transporter Glut1. Impaired glucose entry into photoreceptors results in a dual (lipid and glucose) fuel shortage and a reduction in the levels of the Krebs cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). Low α-KG levels promotes stabilization of hypoxia-induced factor 1a (Hif1a) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) by starved Vldlr(-/-) photoreceptors, leading to neovascularization. The aberrant vessels in the Vldlr(-/-) retinas, which invade normally avascular photoreceptors, are reminiscent of the vascular defects in retinal angiomatous proliferation, a subset of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is associated with high vitreous VEGFA levels in humans. Dysregulated lipid and glucose photoreceptor energy metabolism may therefore be a driving force in macular telangiectasia, neovascular AMD and other retinal diseases.
Kuo, Tien-Chueh; Tseng, Yufeng Jane
Lipids are divided into fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, sterols, prenol lipids and polyketides. Fatty acyls and glycerolipids are commonly used as energy storage, whereas glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and saccharolipids are common used as components of cell membranes. Lipids in fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols classes play important roles in signaling. Although more than 36 million lipids can be identified or computationally generated, no single lipid database provides comprehensive information on lipids. Furthermore, the complex systematic or common names of lipids make the discovery of related information challenging. Here, we present LipidPedia, a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase. The content of this database is derived from integrating annotation data with full-text mining of 3,923 lipids and more than 400,000 annotations of associated diseases, pathways, functions, and locations that are essential for interpreting lipid functions and mechanisms from over 1,400,000 scientific publications. Each lipid in LipidPedia also has its own entry containing a text summary curated from the most frequently cited diseases, pathways, genes, locations, functions, lipids and experimental models in the biomedical literature. LipidPedia aims to provide an overall synopsis of lipids to summarize lipid annotations and provide a detailed listing of references for understanding complex lipid functions and mechanisms. LipidPedia is available at http://lipidpedia.cmdm.tw. firstname.lastname@example.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Mohanty, Gayatri; Swain, Nirlipta; Goswami, Chandan; Kar, Sujata; Samanta, Luna
Contribution from a defective paternal genome has been attributed to be an important cause for spontaneous recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Increased oxidative stress results in decreased detoxification and is a cause for damage to chromatin, proteins, and membrane lipids. The present study aimed to explore if there is a significant relationship between retained histones due to defective packaging of DNA in spermatozoa and oxidative stress. RPL patients (n=16) with a history of ≥2 embryo losses before the 20th week of gestation and no female factor abnormality, and fertile healthy volunteers (n=20) as controls were included in the study. A significant difference in the levels of protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation together with an increased retention of histones in the experimental groups was noticed. Histone carrying sites for oxidative modification such as arginine and lysine might be responsible for disturbing the paternal epigenomic control during early stages of embryonic differentiation leading to abortion.
Chang, Man-huei; Ned, Renée M; Hong, Yuling; Yesupriya, Ajay; Yang, Quanhe; Liu, Tiebin; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Dowling, Nicole F
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum lipid level in populations of European descent. The individual and the cumulative effect of these SNPs on blood lipids are largely unclear for the US population. Using data from the second phase (1991-1994) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a nationally representative survey of the US population, we examined associations of 57 GWAS-identified or well-established lipid-related genetic loci with plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio, and non-HDL-C. We used multivariable linear regression to examine single SNP associations and the cumulative effect of multiple SNPs (using a genetic risk score [GRS]) on blood lipid levels. Analyses were conducted in adults from each of the 3 major racial/ethnic groups in the United States: non-Hispanic whites (n=2296), non-Hispanic blacks (n=1699), and Mexican Americans (n=1713). Allele frequencies for all SNPs varied significantly by race/ethnicity, except rs3764261 in CETP. Individual SNPs had very small effects on lipid levels, effects that were generally consistent in direction across racial/ethnic groups. More GWAS-validated SNPs were replicated in non-Hispanic whites (<67%) than in non-Hispanic blacks (<44%) or Mexican Americans (<44%). GRSs were strongly associated with increased lipid levels in each racial/ethnic group. The combination of all SNPs into a weighted GRS explained no more than 11% of the total variance in blood lipid levels. Our findings show that the combined association of SNPs, based on a GRS, was strongly associated with increased blood lipid measures in all major race/ethnic groups in the United States, which may help in identifying subgroups with a high risk for an unfavorable lipid profile.
Xu, Yunpeng; Rao, Xiaojiao; Hao, Min; Hou, Lijuan; Zhu, Xiaobo; Chang, Xiaotong
To explore the relationship between intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) gene G54A polymorphism and simple childhood obesity, the effect of mutant 54A FABP2 gene on serum lipids and glucose metabolism. The total of 83 subjects with overweight/obesity and 100 subjects with healthy/normal weight were involved in this study. The G54A FABP2 gene allele and genotype frequencies between control group and overweight/obesity group were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technology, and DNA sequences were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Plasma insulin (Ins) was detected by radiation immune method, free fatty acids (FFA) was tested by ELISA method, insulin resistance index ( HOMA-IR ) was also calculated. The correlation between FABP2 G54A polymorphism and the development of children' obesity was analyzed. The relation between FABP2 G54A polymorphism and abnormal blood lipid and insulin resistance was assessed. The results of study on FABP2 gene polymorphism revealed as followed. In overweight/obese groups, the frequencies of GG, GA, AA genotypes was 33.7%, 49.4% and 16.9%, respectively. In control group, the frequencies of GG, GA, AA genotypes was 51. 0% , 40. 0% and 9. 0% , respectively. The differences between two groups was statistically significant (Χ2 = 6.27, P < 0.05). In overweight/obesity group, the frequencies of alleles were 58.4% for 54G and 41.6% for 54A. In control group, the frequencies of alleles were 71.0% for 54G and 29.0% for 54A. There was significant differences (Χ2 = 6.32, P < 0.05). The plasma biochemical variables results showed that compared with the normal control group, plasma TG (P < 0.01), Ins (P < 0.05), HOMA-IR (P < 0.05) were elevated in overweight
Narayanan, Sruthi; Tamura, Pamela J; Roth, Mary R; Prasad, P V Vara; Welti, Ruth
Understanding how wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants under high temperature (HT) regulate lipid composition is critical to developing climate-resilient varieties. We measured 165 glycerolipids and sterol derivatives under optimum and high day and night temperatures in wheat leaves using electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of polar lipid fatty acyl chain unsaturation were lower in both heat-tolerant genotype Ventnor and susceptible genotype Karl 92 under HT, compared with optimum temperature. The lower unsaturation was predominantly because of lower levels of 18:3 acyl chains and higher levels of 18:1 and 16:0 acyl chains. Levels of 18:3-containing triacylglycerols increased threefold/more under HT, consistent with their possible role in sequestering fatty acids during membrane lipid remodelling. Phospholipids containing odd-numbered or oxidized acyl chains accumulated in leaves under HT. Sterol glycosides (SG) and 16:0-acylated sterol glycosides (ASG) were higher under HT than optimum temperatures. Ventnor had lower amounts of phospholipids with oxidized acyl chains under HT and higher amounts of SG and 16:0-ASG than Karl 92. Taken together, the data demonstrate that wheat leaf lipid composition is altered by HT, in which some lipids are particularly responsive to HT, and that two wheat genotypes, chosen for their differing physiological responses to HT, differ in lipid profile under HT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Narayanan, Sruthi; Tamura, Pamela J.; Roth, Mary R.; Vara Prasad, P.V.; Welti, Ruth
Understanding how wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants under high temperature (HT) regulate lipid composition is critical to developing climate-resilient varieties. We measured 165 glycerolipids and sterol derivatives under optimum and high day and night temperatures in wheat leaves using electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of polar lipid fatty acyl chain unsaturation were lower in both heat-tolerant genotype Ventnor and susceptible genotype Karl 92 under HT, compared to optimum temperature. The lower unsaturation was predominantly due to lower levels of 18:3 and higher levels of 18:1 and 16:0 acyl chains. Levels of 18:3-containing triacylglycerols increased 3-fold/more under HT, consistent with their possible role in sequestering fatty acids during membrane lipid remodeling. Phospholipids containing odd-numbered or oxidized acyl chains accumulated in leaves under HT. Sterol glycosides (SG) and 16:0-acylated sterol glycosides (ASG) were higher under HT than optimum temperatures. Ventnor had lower amounts of phospholipids with oxidized acyl chains under HT and higher amounts of SG and 16:0-ASG than Karl 92. Taken together, the data demonstrate that wheat leaf lipid composition is altered by HT, that some lipids are particularly responsive to HT, and that two wheat genotypes, chosen for their differing physiological responses to HT, differ in lipid profile under HT. PMID:26436679
Rossini, A A
The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.
Biegen, Vanessa R.; McCue, John P.; Donovan, Taryn A.; Shelton, G. Diane
A 1-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu presented for episodic abnormalities of posture and mentation. Neurological examination was consistent with a bilaterally symmetric multifocal encephalopathy. The dog had a waxing-and-waning hyperlactemia and hypoglycemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilaterally symmetric cavitated lesions of the caudate nuclei with less severe abnormalities in the cerebellar nuclei. Empirical therapy was unsuccessful, and the patient was euthanized. Post-mortem histopathology revealed bilaterally symmetric necrotic lesions of the caudate and cerebellar nuclei and multi-organ lipid accumulation, including a lipid storage myopathy. Malonic aciduria and ketonuria were found on urinary organic acid screen. Plasma acylcarnitine analysis suggested a fatty acid oxidation defect. Fatty acid oxidation disorders are inborn errors of metabolism documented in humans, but poorly described in dogs. Although neurological signs have been described in humans with this group of diseases, descriptions of advanced imaging, and histopathology are severely lacking. This report suggests that abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism may cause severe, bilateral gray matter necrosis, and lipid accumulation in multiple organs including the skeletal muscles, liver, and kidneys. Veterinarians should be aware that fatty acid oxidation disorders, although potentially fatal, may be treatable. A timely definitive diagnosis is essential in guiding therapy. PMID:26664991
Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Vaněčková, I; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T
Red palm oil (RPO) is a rich natural source of antioxidant vitamins, namely carotenes, tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, it contains approximately 50 % saturated fatty acids the regular consumption of which could negatively modify lipid profile. The aim of our study was to test whether 7 weeks of RPO supplementation (1 g/kg body weight/day) would affect blood glucose and lipid metabolism in adult male Wistar rats with altered thyroid status. We induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rats by oral administration of either methimazole or mixture of thyroid hormones. Different thyroid status (EU - euthyroid, HY - hypothyroid and HT - hyperthyroid) was characterized by different serum thyroid hormones levels (total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine), changes in the activity of a marker enzyme of thyroid status - liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and altered absolute and relative heart weights. Fasting blood glucose levels were higher in HT rats in comparison with EU and HY rats, but the changes caused by RPO supplementation were not significant. The achievement of the HY status significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol, as well as with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 2.43+/-0.15, 1.48+/-0.09, 0.89+/-0.08 mmol/l, compared to EU: 1.14+/-0.06, 0.77+/-0.06, 0.34+/-0.05 mmol/l and HT: 1.01+/-0.06, 0.69+/-0.04, 0.20+/-0.03 mmol/l, respectively. RPO supplementation did not increase significantly levels of blood lipids but tended to increase glutathione levels in the liver. In conclusion, RPO supplementation did not induce the presumed deterioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in rats with three well-characterized alterations in thyroid status.
Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a
Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. While many studies have investigated general physical activity (PA) in relation to blood lipid levels, the current study aimed to examine the intensity of activity, including sedentary behavior time, and time spent engaging in moderate and intense PA, with concentrations of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Participants comprised 1331 individuals, aged 18 to 70 years, from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors (screen time on a workday and a day off, and total sitting time on a work day), and moderate and intense PA, were related to levels of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample, and then with stratification according to BMI (normal weight versus overweight/obese). Both lower screen time during days off and higher intense PA time were significantly associated with higher HDL-cholesterol after full adjustment for socio-demographic factors, dietary factors and smoking (both p < 0.05). In normal weight individuals, consistent positive relations between triglycerides, LDL, and total cholesterol with all sedentary behavior time variables were observed (all p < 0.05; adjusted for age, education, gender). There were no statistically significant associations between any intensity level of PA or sedentary behavior time variable and lipid levels in those overweight or obese. Spending less time in sedentary behaviors, and engaging in medium levels of intense physical activity may be associated with a more favorable blood lipid profile, particularly with regard to levels of HDL and triglycerides.
To highlight recently published studies addressing lipid changes with disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use and outline implications on cardiovascular outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Growing evidence suggests lower lipid levels are present in patients with active RA vs. general population, and significant modifications of lipid profile with inflammation suppression. Increase in lipid levels in patients with RA on synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs may be accompanied by antiatherogenic changes in lipid composition and function. The impact of lipid changes on cardiovascular outcomes in RA is a subject of active research. The role of lipids in cardiovascular risk in RA may be overpowered by the benefits of inflammation suppression with antirheumatic medication use. Recommendations on lipid management in RA are evolving but uncertainty exists regarding frequency of lipid testing and goals of treatment. Knowledge about quantitative and qualitative lipid changes in RA is expanding. The relative role of lipids in cardiovascular risk in the context of systemic inflammation and antirheumatic therapy remains uncertain, delaying development of effective strategies for cardiovascular risk management in RA. Studies are underway to address these knowledge gaps and may be expected to inform cardiovascular risk management in RA and the general population.
Klimkiewicz-Blok, Dominika; Florjański, Jerzy; Zalewski, Jerzy; Blok, Radosław
Little is known about the behavior of interleukin 15 (IL-15) and 18 (IL-18) in the amniotic fluid in the second trimester of gestations complicated by chromosomal defects in the fetus. Likewise, it has not yet been established whether a fetus with chromosome abnormalities creates its immunity mechanisms in the same way as a fetus with a normal karyotype. The aim of this work was to assess the concentration of IL-15 and IL-18 in the amniotic fluid in the second trimester of gestation in fetuses with normal karyotypes and with chromosome abnormalities. The material consisted of 51 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from genetic amniocenteses carried out between the 15th and the 19th weeks of gestation. On the basis of cytogenetic screening, two groups were singled out: Group I--45 fetuses with normal karyotypes, and Group II--6 fetuses with abnormal karyotypes. The concentrations of IL-15 and IL-18 in the amniotic fluid were assessed with ready-made assays and analyzed, and the results from both groups were compared. The differences between the IL-15 levels in the amniotic fluid from Groups I and II proved to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.054). However, the average IL-18 levels in the amniotic fluid of the fetuses with normal karyotypes were significantly higher than in the amniotic fluid of the fetuses with chromosome abnormalities (p = 0.032). Some defense mechanisms in the second trimester of gestation in fetuses with chromosome abnormalities may develop in a different way than in fetuses with normal karyotypes.
Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Kingkaw, Amornthep; Yang, Junhuan; Song, Yuanda; Laoteng, Kobkul
Lipid accumulation is an important cellular process of oleaginous microorganisms. To dissect metabolic behavior of oleaginous Zygomycetes, the lipid over-producing strain, Mucor circinelloides WJ11, was subjected for omics-scale analysis. The genome annotation was improved and used for construction of genome-scale metabolic network of WJ11 strain. Then, the quality of the metabolic network was enhanced by incorporating gene and protein expression data. In addition to the known oleaginous genes, our results showed a number of newly identified unique genes of WJ11 strain, which involved in central carbon metabolism, lipid, amino acid and nitrogen metabolisms. The systematic compilations indicated the additional metabolic routes with the involvement in supplying precursors (acetyl-CoA, NADPH and fatty acyl substrate) for fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, amino acid metabolism played a substantial role in responsive mechanism of the fungal cells to nutrient imbalance circumstance through lipogenesis as the finding of reporter metabolites (l-methionine, l-glutamate, l-aspartate, l-asparagine and l-glutamine) at lipid-accumulating stage. The cooperative function of certain lipid-degrading enzymes at the particular growth stage was elucidated by integrating the metabolic networks with gene expression data. The unique feature of carotenoid biosynthetic route in WJ11 strain was also identified by protein domain analysis. Taken together, there were cross-functional metabolisms in regulating lipid biosynthesis and retaining high level of cellular lipids in the representative of lipid over-producing strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Krajnicáková, M; Bekeová, E; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I
Our investigations were concerned with dynamic changes in total lipids (CL), cholesterol (CHOL) and progesterone (P4) in blood serum of sheep in the period of oestrus synchronization treatment and during mating and gravidity. Our experiment was carried out using 10 animals housed under the conditions of productive rearing. Blood samples were taken from v. jugularis on day of swab application (day 0) and on days 3 and 7 of the action of Agelin vaginal swabs, on day of insemination, and on days 7, 14, 17 and in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th month of gravidity. Blood serum was used to determine total lipids and cholesterol by means of Bio-Lachema tests, and P4 concentrations employing RIA-test-Prog kits (URVJT, Kosice). A statistically significant decrease in concentrations of total lipids (Fig. 1, Tab. I) in sheep blood serum was recorded on day of insemination (P < 0.05) compared to day 0, with the value 1.59 +/- 0.31 g/l of serum, and in the 3rd month of gravidity (P < 0.01), at concentrations 1.36 +/- 0.38 g/l of serum. The determined decrease in their values in the mentioned period can be modulated by the mutually changing ratio of steroid hormones or by inhibition of synthesis of lipoproteins responsible for changes in total plasma lipids. Changes in cholesterol concentrations (Fig. 2, Tab. I) during the introduction of swabs were insignificant and ranged from 1.60 +/- 0.42 to 1.73 +/- 0.33 mmol/l of serum. An insignificant increase in cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05), with its highest levels 1.98 +/- 0.43 mmol/l of serum, was recorded in the 3rd month of gravidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Brauge, C; Corraze, G; Médale, F
Trout reared at 8 or 18 degrees C were fed twice a day almost to satiation with 1 of 3 experimental diets. The diets were formulated to contain the same levels of protein (43%, dry matter (DM) basis) and digestible energy (around 15 kJ/g DM), but different carbohydrate/lipid ratios 30:7 to 23:14). Time-course studies of nitrogen excretion and glycaemia were also carried out. After 12 weeks of feeding, growth, protein retention and body composition were not influenced by the dietary treatment in trout reared at 8 degrees C. At 18 degrees C, the protein retention was not affected by dietary treatment, but the weight gain tended to be higher in trout fed the diet with the lowest carbohydrate/lipid ratio. This result was due to higher body lipid deposition in these trout. Nitrogen excretion was not influenced by dietary treatment, but was higher at 18 degrees C than at 8 degrees C because of a higher feed intake. Glycaemia increased with dietary level of digestible carbohydrate and the highest plasma glucose level was attained later at 8 degrees C in comparison to 18 degrees C.
Xie, Shali; Zhu, Jundong; Zhang, Yanqi; Shi, Kai; Shi, Yuangang; Ma, Xiao
In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of soya oligosaccharides (SOS) and soya oligopeptides (SOP) on blood lipid levels, release of vasoactive substances, antioxidant activity and faecal bile acid (FBA) excretion in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were evenly divided into five groups according to diets as follows: regular diet (control), HFD, HFD enriched with 2 % of SOS (SOS), HFD enriched with 3 % of SOP (SOP) and HFD enriched with 2 % SOS and 3 % SOP (SOSP). The results showed that SOS and SOP significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TAG, whereas HDL-cholesterol concentration was significantly increased. Furthermore, SOS and SOP reduced plasma apoB, apoE and the apoB:apoAI ratio, whereas apoAI was significantly increased. Moreover, SOS and SOP also reduced plasma thromboxane A₂ (TXA₂) and the TXA₂:prostacyclin (PGI₂) ratio, whereas plasma PGI₂ and nitric oxide were significantly increased. In addition, SOS and SOP significantly reduced serum and liver malondialdehyde concentrations and increased FBA excretion. However, we did not observe obvious influences of SOS and SOP on superoxide dismutase activities in the liver of HFD-fed rats. The combination of 2 % SOS and 3 % SOP showed a more marked effect than SOS or SOP alone in improving the lipid profile, release of vasoactive substances and increasing FBA excretion (P < 0.05). In summary, SOS and SOP might help prevent atherosclerosis through improving abnormal blood lipid levels, regulating vasoactive substances and protecting against oxidative stress.
Stavrides, Philip; Saito, Mitsuo; Kumar, Asok; Rodriguez-Navarro, Jose A.; Pawlik, Monika; Huo, Chunfeng; Walkley, Steven U.; Saito, Mariko; Cuervo, Ana M.
Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for the turnover of intracellular organelles is markedly impaired in neurons in Alzheimer’s disease and Alzheimer mouse models. We have previously reported that severe lysosomal and amyloid neuropathology and associated cognitive deficits in the TgCRND8 Alzheimer mouse model can be ameliorated by restoring lysosomal proteolytic capacity and autophagy flux via genetic deletion of the lysosomal protease inhibitor, cystatin B. Here we present evidence that macroautophagy is a significant pathway for lipid turnover, which is defective in TgCRND8 brain where lipids accumulate as membranous structures and lipid droplets within giant neuronal autolysosomes. Levels of multiple lipid species including several sphingolipids (ceramide, ganglioside GM3, GM2, GM1, GD3 and GD1a), cardiolipin, cholesterol and cholesteryl esters are elevated in autophagic vacuole fractions and lysosomes isolated from TgCRND8 brain. Lipids are localized in autophagosomes and autolysosomes by double immunofluorescence analyses in wild-type mice and colocalization is increased in TgCRND8 mice where abnormally abundant GM2 ganglioside-positive granules are detected in neuronal lysosomes. Cystatin B deletion in TgCRND8 significantly reduces the number of GM2-positive granules and lowers the levels of GM2 and GM3 in lysosomes, decreases lipofuscin-related autofluorescence, and eliminates giant lipid-containing autolysosomes while increasing numbers of normal-sized autolysosomes/lysosomes with reduced content of undigested components. These findings have identified macroautophagy as a previously unappreciated route for delivering membrane lipids to lysosomes for turnover, a function that has so far been considered to be mediated exclusively through the endocytic pathway, and revealed that autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in TgCRND8 brain impedes lysosomal turnover of lipids as well as proteins. The amelioration of lipid accumulation in TgCRND8 by removing cystatin
Oakes, Nicholas D; Thalén, Pia; Hultstrand, Therese; Jacinto, Severina; Camejo, Germán; Wallin, Boel; Ljung, Bengt
Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, high circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFA), and postprandial hyperlipidemia are associated with the metabolic syndrome, which has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We studied the metabolic responses to an oral glucose/triglyceride (TG) (1.7/2.0 g/kg lean body mass) load in three groups of conscious 7-h fasted Zucker rats: lean healthy controls, obese insulin-resistant/dyslipidemic controls, and obese rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma agonist, tesaglitazar, 3 mumol.kg(-1).day(-1) for 4 wk. Untreated obese Zucker rats displayed marked insulin resistance, as well as glucose and lipid intolerance in response to the glucose/TG load. The 2-h postload area under the curve values were greater for glucose (+19%), insulin (+849%), FFA (+53%), and TG (+413%) compared with untreated lean controls. Treatment with tesaglitazar lowered fasting plasma glucose, improved glucose tolerance, substantially reduced fasting and postload insulin levels, and markedly lowered fasting TG and improved lipid tolerance. Fasting FFA were not affected, but postprandial FFA suppression was restored to levels seen in lean controls. Mechanisms of tesaglitazar-induced lowering of plasma TG were studied separately using the Triton WR1339 method. In anesthetized, 5-h fasted, obese Zucker rats, tesaglitazar reduced hepatic TG secretion by 47%, increased plasma TG clearance by 490%, and reduced very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein CIII content by 86%, compared with obese controls. In conclusion, the glucose/lipid tolerance test in obese Zucker rats appears to be a useful model of the metabolic syndrome that can be used to evaluate therapeutic effects on impaired postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism. The present work demonstrates that tesaglitazar ameliorates these abnormalities and enhances insulin sensitivity in this animal model.
Wu, Weiche; Xu, Ziye; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Jiaqi; Feng, Jie; Wang, Xinxia; Shan, Tizhong; Wang, Yizhen
Excessive intramyocellular triacylglycerols (IMTGs, muscle lipids) are associated with the abnormal energy metabolism and insulin resistance of skeletal muscle. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a crucial cellular energy sensor, consists of α, β and γ subunits. Researchers have not clearly determined whether Prkaa1 (also known as AMPKα1) affects IMTG accumulation in skeletal muscle. Here, we show an important role of Prkaa1 in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism. Deletion of muscle Prkaa1 leads to the delayed development of skeletal muscles but does not affect glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity in animals fed a normal diet. Notably, when animals are fed a high-fat diet, the skeletal muscle of muscle-specific Prkaa1 knockout mice accumulates more lipids than the skeletal muscle of wild-type (WT) mice, with concomitant upregulation of adipogenic gene expressions and downregulation of the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial oxidation. Muscle-specific Prkaa1 ablation also results in hyperlipidemia, which may contribute to the increased IMTG levels. Furthermore, Prkaa1 deletion activates skeletal muscle mTOR signalling, which has a central role in lipid metabolism and mitochondrial oxidation. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the role of Prkaa1 in skeletal muscle. This knowledge may contribute to the treatment of related metabolic diseases.
Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung
Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI. Copyright © 2012
Thomsen, Stine Brinkløv; Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Vestergaard, Henrik
The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 seems to play a role in atherosclerosis and is elevated in patients with obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the YKL-40 encoding gene, CHI3L1, are associated with inter-individual YKL-40 levels. One study has described an association between a promoter polymorphism of CHI3L1 and levels of low density lipoprotein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of YKL-40 on lipid parameters by determining the association between polymorphisms of CHI3L1, serum YKL-40 and levels of the differentiated lipid profile in a Danish general population. 12 SNPs of CHI3L1 were genotyped, and serum YKL-40 and parameters of the lipid profile were measured in 2,656 Danes. Lipid profile and genotypes were available in another Danish population (n = 6,784) for replication. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels increased with increasing YKL-40 quartile (both p<0.0001), and YKL-40 correlated with triglyceride levels (β = 0.15, p<0.0001). Low density lipoprotein levels increased slightly from the 1(st) to the 3(rd) quartile (p = 0.006). The highest YKL-40 quartile was associated with a greater risk of hypercholesterolemia compared to the lowest YKL-40 quartile (odds ratio 1.36, p = 0.009). Minor homozygosity of rs12123883 was associated with higher triglyceride levels (p = 0.022) and a higher prevalence of low high density lipoprotein (p = 0.012), but these associations could not be confirmed in the replication population. Serum YKL-40 correlates with triglyceride levels in a representative group of the general Danish population. No consistent associations between SNPs of CHI3L1 and lipid levels could be documented.
Plutzky, Jorge; Liao, Katherine P.
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lipid levels are dynamic and can fluctuate along with changes in inflammation. A reduction in inflammation, most commonly as a result of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy, is associated with increases in total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A similar pattern of increased lipids is observed across biologic and non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), suggesting that the main driver of changes in lipids is inflammation rather than individual treatments. In this review, we discuss new evidence shedding light on the potential mechanism underlying changes in lipid levels observed with changes in inflammation. Measured lipid levels in the blood are a result of a balance between synthesis and catabolism or absorption. Recent human studies in active RA show that the catabolic rates of lipids are higher than expected compared to expected rates in the general population. DMARD therapy appears to allow a return to baseline lower catabolic rates, resulting in an apparent increase in lipids. Additionally, we discuss findings from the recently published randomized controlled clinical trial, Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study (CANTOS). Findings from CANTOS provide further evidence for tighter control of inflammation to reduce cardiovascular risk in RA. PMID:29464513
Madeira, Marta Sofia Morgado Dos Santos; Rolo, Eva Sofia Alves; Pires, Virgínia Maria Rico; Alfaia, Cristina Maria Riscado Pereira Mateus; Coelho, Diogo Francisco Maurício; Lopes, Paula Alexandra Antunes Brás; Martins, Susana Isabel Vargas; Pinto, Rui Manuel Amaro; Prates, José António Mestre
In the present study, the effect of arginine and leucine supplementation, and dietary protein level, were investigated in commercial crossbred pigs to clarify their individual or combined impact on plasma metabolites, hepatic fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of lipid sensitive factors. The experiment was conducted on fifty-four entire male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace crossbred) from 59 to 92 kg of live weight. Each pig was randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatments (n = 9). The treatments followed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, providing two levels of arginine supplementation (0 vs. 1%) and three levels of basal diet (normal protein diet, NPD; reduced protein diet, RPD; reduced protein diet with 2% of leucine, RPDL). Significant interactions between arginine supplementation and protein level were observed across plasma lipids. While dietary arginine increased total lipids, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in NPD, the inverse effect was observed in RPD. Overall, dietary treatments had a minor impact on hepatic fatty acid composition. RPD increased 18:1c9 fatty acid while the combination of leucine and RPD reduced 18:0 fatty acid. Arginine supplementation increased the gene expression of FABP1, which contributes for triacylglycerols synthesis without affecting hepatic fatty acids content. RPD, with or without leucine addition, upregulated the lipogenic gene CEBPA but downregulated the fat oxidation gene LPIN1. Arginine supplementation was responsible for a modulated effect on plasma lipids, which is dependent on dietary protein level. It consistently increased lipaemia in NPD, while reducing the correspondent metabolites in RPD. In contrast, arginine had no major impact, neither on hepatic fatty acids content nor on fatty acid composition. Likewise, leucine supplementation of RPD, regardless the presence of arginine, promoted no changes on total fatty acids in
Keutzer, Carolin S.
Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)
Byun, Jae Soon; Han, Young Sun; Lee, Sang Sun
Soy isoflavones have been reported to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. However, the effects of dietary consumption of soybean have not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effects of consuming yellow soybeans, black soybeans (Glycine max), or sword beans (Canavalia gladiate) on lipid and oxidative stress levels in an ovariectomized rat model. Forty-seven nine-week-old female rats were ovariectomized, randomly divided into four groups, and fed one of the following diets for 10 weeks: a diet supplemented with casein (NC, n = 12), a diet supplemented with yellow soybean (YS, n = 12), a diet supplemented with black soybean (BS, n = 12), or a diet supplemented with sword bean (SB, n = 11). Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in the BS and SB groups were significantly lower than that in the NC group. Notably, the BS group had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels than the other groups. Hepatic total lipid levels were significantly lower in the YS and SB groups, and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the SB group than in the NC group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly higher in the groups fed beans compared to the NC group. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were also significantly lower in the BS and SB groups than the NC group. In conclusion, our results suggest that consumption of various types of beans may inhibit oxidative stress in postmenopausal women by increasing antioxidant activity and improving lipid profiles. Notably, intake of black soybean resulted in the greatest improvement in risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.
Melin, Eva; Kahan, Thomas; Borg, Kristian
The post-polio syndrome occurs in people who previously have had poliomyelitis. After the initial recovery, new or increasing neurologic symptoms occur. Inflammation and dyslipidaemia may play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic complications, for example myocardial infarction and angina pectoris. Previous studies on cardiovascular risk factors in the post-polio syndrome have found a higher prevalence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidaemia, and stroke in these patients. The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate whether post-polio patients have elevated lipid values, and if blood lipid abnormalities could be correlated to signs of inflammation. Cross-sectional study of 89 consecutive post-polio patients, (53 women, mean age 65 years) from the Post-Polio Outpatient Clinic, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The lipid profiles of post-polio patients were compared to age and sex matched reference values from two earlier studies. Statistical analyses were performed by the Student's t-test, and linear regression analyses were assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Mean total cholesterol levels (5.7 mmol/L) were low or normal in post-polio patients, whereas low density lipoprotein levels (3.6 mmol/L) were normal, and high density lipoprotein (1.5 mmol/L) and triglycerides (1.4 mmol/L) lower than reference values. The prevalence of diabetes (7%), hypertension (38%), concomitant cardiovascular disease, (including angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and stroke) (7%), and calculated 10 year risk of coronary heart disease according to Framingham risk score algorithm (8%) was not increased in post-polio patients. Compared to reference populations, post-polio patients in Sweden appear to have low or normal total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels, whereas high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels are low. Hence, a possible persisting inflammatory
Sikora, Elżbieta; Bodziarczyk, Izabela
Organism's lipid peroxidation is one of the most often examined and known physiological process evoked by free radicals. It concerns oxidation reaction of unsaturated fatty acid and/or other lipids leading to lipid oxidation products (LOP), which as a result of further changes generate among others the malondialdehyde molecules. The aim of the work was an estimation if raw or cooked kale addition to rat's diet influences antioxidant defense efficiency in their organisms in comparison to rats fed with standard AIN-93G diet. The experiment was conducted with 36 Wistar strain, male rats over 21 days. The rats were divided into 3 groups (each 12 stuck) which were fed with: standard diet AIN-93G (2 groups), AIN-93G diet with 10% addition of raw kale (2 groups), and AIN-93G with 10% addition of cooked lyophilised kale. The total content of polyphenols (FC method) and antioxidant activity (ABTS+•) were previously determined in raw and then in cooked kale. On the 20th day of experiment, half of rats (6 stuck) of each kind of the diet were injected intraperitoneally by the solution of paraquat (PQ) in physiological salt to evoke the oxidative stress. The next day animals were stunned and blood from their hearts was sampled. In the obtained serum, the levels of lipid oxidation products (LOP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. It was observed that in blood serum of rats fed with modified diet with raw and cooked lyophilised kale addition the lipid oxides level was lower in comparison to control group fed with standard diet (p < 0.05). It was found that intoxication with paraquat caused growth of MDA and LOP levels in blood serum of all rats in comparison to not intoxicated groups but that growth was the lowest in group fed diet with cooked kale addition. Diet with kale, both raw and cooked, efficiently inhibited the lipid peroxidation process in rats' organisms, ongoing during natural metabolism and during evoked oxidative stress.
Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro
In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.
Lv, Cheng; Lin, Yi; Liu, An-An; Hong, Zheng-Yuan; Wen, Li; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Wang, Hanzhong; Pang, Dai-Wen
Highly efficient labeling of viruses with quantum dots (QDs) is the prerequisite for the long-term tracking of virus invasion at the single virus level to reveal mechanisms of virus infection. As one of the structural components of viruses, viral envelope lipids are hard to be labeled with QDs due to the lack of efficient methods to modify viral envelope lipids. Moreover, it is still a challenge to maintain the intactness and infectivity of labeled viruses. Herein, a mild method has been developed to label viral envelope lipids with QDs by harnessing the biotinylated lipid-self-inserted cellular membrane. Biotinylated lipids can spontaneously insert in cellular membranes of host cells during culture and then be naturally assembled on progeny Pseudorabies virus (PrV) via propagation. The biotinylated PrV can be labeled with streptavidin-conjugated QDs, with a labeling efficiency of ∼90%. Such a strategy to label lipids with QDs can retain the intactness and infectivity of labeled viruses to the largest extent, facilitating the study of mechanisms of virus infection at the single virus level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Li; Zhang, Xue Tong; Zhang, Hai Yan; Yao, Hui Yuan; Zhang, Hui
To investigate the hypoglycemic effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaves (VBTL) extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. After administration of VBTL extract for 4 weeks, the body weight, organ weight, blood glucose (BG), insulin and plasma lipid levels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were measured. Body weights of diabetic mice treated with VBTL extract were partly recovered. The BG levels of AEG (diabetic mice treated with VBTL aqueous extract) were reduced to 91.52 and 85.82% at week 2 and week 4, respectively (P<0.05), while those of EEG (diabetic mice treated with VBTL ethanolic extract) were reduced slightly (P>0.05). The insulin levels of AEG and EEG were obviously higher (P<0.05) than those of MC (diabetic mice in model control group). Comparing with MC, AEG and EEG had significantly lower (P<0.05) TC or TG levels and similar HDL-cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol levels. In comparison with non-diabetic control mice, AEG had similar plasma lipid levels except higher LDL-cholesterol level, while EEG had higher TC, TG and LDL-cholesterol levels and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Both aqueous and ethanolic extract of VBTL possess a potential hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Read, J.L.; Tyler, M.J.
Frogs are more susceptible than most vertebrates to environmental contaminants. Unlike amniotes, the frog egg is not protected by a semi-impervious shell, and hence is readily exposed to pollutants. In addition, tadpoles develop in wetlands to which many noxious substances drain from the surrounding landscape. Coupled with this high exposure rate, frogs are also very sensitive to trace elements, some pesticides, heavy metals especially when coupled with exposure to low pH and ionizing radiation. Frogs commonly exhibit discernible deformities following exposure to teratogenic contaminants, and therefore are valuable indicators of the existence of noxious substances in the environment. The abundancemore » and ease of sampling of frogs, along with their sensitivity to environmental contaminants, makes them ideal organisms for environmental monitoring in the Australian arid zone. The study of abnormalities in frogs has become an integral part of the Environmental Management Programme of the Olympic Dam Operations (ODO) copper-uranium-gold-silver mine in northern South Australia. The Trilling Frog (Neobatrachus centralis) is the only frog species which has been recorded at Olympic Dam. It is likely that these frogs, are relatively sedentary, thus enhancing their value as indicator organisms. A pilot survey in 1989 documented frog deformity levels comparable to those found at undisturbed sites in Australia and in other countries. This paper reports on larger study conducted in February and March 1992 when heavy rains provided another opportunity to survey the frog population. The low levels of abnormalities support the conclusion that N. centralis at Olympic Dam does not appear to be accumulating or being influenced by the very low levels of radionuclides present here.« less
Peng, Rui; Dai, Wen; Li, Yan
The present research was carried out to observe the relationships between serum free triiothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and lipid profile and suicide risk in depressive subjects. Serum concentrations of albumin, total bilrubin, uric acid, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), FT3, FT4 and TSH were measured in 271 patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (202 subjects without suicidal behavior and 69 suicide attempters). A significant decrease in serum TC, TG and FT4 levels was found in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder compared with non-suicide attempters (all p < 0.0025). For the other biochemical factors levels (albumin, total bilrubin, uric acid, HDL, LDL, hs-CRP, FT3, and TSH), there were no significant differences between suicide attempters and non-suicide attempters. Relativity analysis suggested that FT4 is positively and significantly correlated with TC (p < 0.0025); TSH is positively associated with HDL (p < 0.0025). Univariate analysis showed that serum TC and FT4 abundances are correlated with the suicide attempts in major depressive subjects. This research demonstrated that the levels of serum TC, TG, and FT4 levels in suicidal patients were greatly decreased compared with patients without suicidal behavior. These findings support the hypothesis that low serum FT4 level affects lipid profile in major depressive patients with suicidal attempt. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dekkers, Koen F; Slagboom, P Eline; Jukema, J Wouter; Heijmans, Bastiaan T
The interplay between lipids and epigenetic mechanisms has recently gained increased interest because of its relevance for common diseases and most notably atherosclerosis. This review discusses recent advances in unravelling this interplay with a particular focus on promising approaches and methods that will be able to establish causal relationships. Complementary approaches uncovered close links between circulating lipids and epigenetic mechanisms at multiple levels. A characterization of lipid-associated genetic variants suggests that these variants exert their influence on lipid levels through epigenetic changes in the liver. Moreover, exposure of monocytes to lipids persistently alters their epigenetic makeup resulting in more proinflammatory cells. Hence, epigenetic changes can both impact on and be induced by lipids. It is the combined application of technological advances to probe epigenetic modifications at a genome-wide scale and methodological advances aimed at causal inference (including Mendelian randomization and integrative genomics) that will elucidate the interplay between circulating lipids and epigenetics. Understanding its role in the development of atherosclerosis holds the promise of identifying a new category of therapeutic targets, since epigenetic changes are amenable to reversal.
Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan
Several inflammatory diseases are thought to be related to oxidative injury and free oxygen radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of heart disease and aging. To investigate the effects of daily intake of medicinal plants on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and lipid profiles in rat, 28 rats were randomly divided into four groups and administered with three plant extracts (0.2 g/kg body weight): Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower), Rosa hybrida (flower) and with saline as a control. After 3 weeks, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels in plasma were measured. The SOD activity of the Piper cubeba group and the catalase activity of the Piper cubeba and Rosa hybrida groups were significantly increased compared with the control group, while the SOD and catalase activities of the Physalis angulata group were not significantly changed (p<0.05). TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was significantly lower in all experimental groups compeered with the control group. No significant changes occurred in the TG, total- and LDL-cholesterol of all groups, but the HDL-cholesterol of the Physalis angulata group was significantly increased. This study showed that the intake of medicinal plants in rats results in an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and HDL-cholesterol, and a decrease in malondialdehyde, which may reduce the risk of inflammatory and heart disease. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Satitmanwiwat, S; Promthep, K; Buranaamnuay, K; Mahasawangkul, S; Saikhun, K
Peroxidation damage to spermatozoa and seminal plasma has an important role in sperm quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of lipid and protein oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with varying percentage of progressive motility. Lipid and protein oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) assay and the 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Fresh semen samples were collected from Asian elephants and classified according to the percentage of motile spermatozoa into good (>60%) and poor (≤20%) motility. Results revealed that seminal plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and seminal plasma protein carbonyls (PCs) were significantly higher in poor motility than in good motility (p < .05). The MDA and PC levels in seminal plasma were negatively correlated with the percentages of progressive motility (p < .05). In addition, the negative correlation between sperm concentration and seminal plasma MDA level was investigated (p < .05). The sperm viability was also negatively correlated with sperm PC level (p < .05). This study indicated that lipid and protein oxidation has deleterious effect on semen quality of Asian elephants. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette
Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Impaired embryonic development in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans due to abnormal redox homeostasis induced activation of calcium-independent phospholipase and alteration of glycerophospholipid metabolism.
Chen, Tzu-Ling; Yang, Hung-Chi; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Pan, Yi-Yun; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Stern, Arnold; Lo, Szecheng J; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a commonly pervasive inherited disease in many parts of the world. The complete lack of G6PD activity in a mouse model causes embryonic lethality. The G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans model also shows embryonic death as indicated by a severe hatching defect. Although increased oxidative stress has been implicated in both cases as the underlying cause, the exact mechanism has not been clearly delineated. In this study with C. elegans, membrane-associated defects, including enhanced permeability, defective polarity and cytokinesis, were found in G6PD-deficient embryos. The membrane-associated abnormalities were accompanied by impaired eggshell structure as evidenced by a transmission electron microscopic study. Such loss of membrane structural integrity was associated with abnormal lipid composition as lipidomic analysis revealed that lysoglycerophospholipids were significantly increased in G6PD-deficient embryos. Abnormal glycerophospholipid metabolism leading to defective embryonic development could be attributed to the increased activity of calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 (iPLA) in G6PD-deficient embryos. This notion is further supported by the fact that the suppression of multiple iPLAs by genetic manipulation partially rescued the embryonic defects in G6PD-deficient embryos. In addition, G6PD deficiency induced disruption of redox balance as manifested by diminished NADPH and elevated lipid peroxidation in embryos. Taken together, disrupted lipid metabolism due to abnormal redox homeostasis is a major factor contributing to abnormal embryonic development in G6PD-deficient C. elegans.
Narang, S; Sood, S; Kaur, B; Singh, R; Mallik, A; Kaur, J
Lipid-lowering drugs preserve vision and reduce the risk of hard exudates in clinically-significant macular edema(CSME) in diabetics with an abnormal lipid profile. But their role in reducing CSME in diabetics with a normal lipid profile is not yet known. To evaluate the role of atorvastatin in CSME in diabetics with a normal lipid profile. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was carried out. Thirty CSME patients with a normal lipid profile were randomly divided into Group A and B. Atorvastatin had been started in Group A four weeks prior to laser treatment. The main outcome measures were any improvement or deterioration in visual acuity and macular edema and hard exudates at six months follow-up. Both the groups were compared using unpaired t test for quantitative parameters and chi-square test for qualitative parameters. A p value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant. Visual acuity, macular edema and hard exudates resolution was not significantly different in the two groups (P = 0.14, 0.62, 0.39 respectively). Atorvastatin does not affect treatment outcome in CSME with a normal lipid profile over a short term follow-up. © NEPjOPH.
Panda, Vandana; Mistry, Kinjal; Sudhamani, S; Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar
The present study evaluates the protective effects of an antioxidant-rich extract of Spinacea oleracea (NAOE) in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rats. HPTLC of NAOE revealed the presence of 13 total antioxidants, 14 flavonoids, and 10 phenolic acids. Rats administered with fructose (20% w / v ) in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po), the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po), aerobic exercise (AE), and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE) daily for 45 days. All treatments significantly altered the lipid profile and attenuated the fructose-elevated levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and marker enzymes (AST, LDH, and CK-MB) in serum and malondialdehyde in the heart and restored the fructose-depleted levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). A significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels decreased insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance was observed in the treatment animals when compared with the fructose-fed animals. The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS.
Mistry, Kinjal; Sudhamani, S.
The present study evaluates the protective effects of an antioxidant-rich extract of Spinacea oleracea (NAOE) in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rats. HPTLC of NAOE revealed the presence of 13 total antioxidants, 14 flavonoids, and 10 phenolic acids. Rats administered with fructose (20% w/v) in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po), the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po), aerobic exercise (AE), and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE) daily for 45 days. All treatments significantly altered the lipid profile and attenuated the fructose-elevated levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and marker enzymes (AST, LDH, and CK-MB) in serum and malondialdehyde in the heart and restored the fructose-depleted levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). A significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels decreased insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance was observed in the treatment animals when compared with the fructose-fed animals. The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS. PMID:28798859
Carr, Brian I.; Guerra, Vito; Giannini, Edoardo G.; Farinati, Fabio; Ciccarese, Francesca; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Marco, Maria Di; Benvegnù, Luisa; Zoli, Marco; Borzio, Franco; Caturelli, Eugenio; Chiaramonte, Maria; Trevisani, Franco
Background Cirrhosis-related abnormal liver function is associated with predisposition to HCC, features in several HCC classification systems and is an HCC prognostic factor. Aims To examine the phenotypic tumor differences in HCC patients with normal or abnormal plasma bilirubin levels. Methods A 2,416 patient HCC cohort was studied and dichotomized into normal and abnormal plasma bilirubin groups. Their HCC characteristics were compared for tumor aggressiveness features, namely blood AFP levels, tumor size, presence of PVT and tumor multifocality. Results In the total cohort, elevated bilirubin levels were associated with higher AFP levels, increased PVT and multifocality and lower survival, despite similar tumor sizes. When different tumor size terciles were compared, similar results were found, even for small tumor size patients. A multiple logistic regression model for PVT or tumor multifocality showed increased OddsRatios for elevated levels of GGTP, bilirubin and AFP and for larger tumor sizes. Conclusions HCC patients with abnormal bilirubin levels had worse prognosis than patients with normal bilirubin. They also had increased incidence of PVT and tumor multifocality and higher AFP levels, in patients with both small and larger tumors. The results show an association between bilirubin levels and indices of HCC aggressiveness. PMID:24787296
Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: FULL REPORT.
Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig
Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the full report of part 1. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.
Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.
Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig
Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on cardiovascular disease; and finally (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the executive summary of part 1. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.
Owei, Ibiye; Umekwe, Nkiru; Wan, Jim
Dyslipidemia and dysglycemia are etiologically associated, but the direction, chronology, and mechanisms of the association are not fully understood. We, therefore, analyzed data from 335 healthy adults (184 black, 151 white) enrolled in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study. Subjects underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were enrolled if they had normal fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels. Assessments during year 1 included anthropometry, fasting lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Thereafter, OGTT was assessed annually for 5.5 years. The primary outcome was occurrence of prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) or diabetes. During a mean follow-up of 2.62 years, 110 participants (32.8%) developed prediabetes (N = 100) or diabetes (N = 10). In multivariate logistic regression models, higher baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels and lower HDL cholesterol levels significantly increased the risk of incident prediabetes. The combined relative risk (95% confidence interval [CI]) of prediabetes for participants with lower baseline HDL cholesterol (10th vs. 90th percentile), higher LDL cholesterol (90th vs. 10th percentile) and high triglycerides levels (90th vs. 10th percentile) was 4.12 (95% CI 1.61–10.56), P = 0.0032. At baseline, lipid values showed significant associations with measures of adiposity, glycemia, insulin sensitivity, and secretion. In both ethnic groups, waist circumference correlated positively with triglycerides and inversely with HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.0004–<0.0001); fasting plasma glucose correlated positively with triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels and inversely with HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.006–<0.0001); insulin sensitivity correlated positively with HDL cholesterol and inversely with triglyceride levels (P < 0.0001), and insulin secretion correlated positively with triglycerides
Indocyanine green (ICG) is a near-infrared (NIR) contrast agent commonly used for in vivo cardiovascular and eye imaging. For medical diagnosis, ICG is limited by its aqueous instability, concentration-dependent aggregation, and rapid degradation. To overcome these limitations, scientists have formulated ICG in various liposomes, which are spherical lipid membrane vesicles with an aqueous core. Some encapsulate ICG, while others mix it with liposomes. There is no clear understanding of lipid–ICG interactions. Therefore, we investigated lipid–ICG interactions by fluorescence and photon correlation spectroscopy. These data were used to design stable and maximally fluorescent liposomal ICG nanoparticles for NIR optical imaging of the lymphatic system. We found that ICG binds to and is incorporated completely and stably into the lipid membrane. At a lipid:ICG molar ratio of 250:1, the maximal fluorescence intensity was detected. ICG incorporated into liposomes enhanced the fluorescence intensity that could be detected across 1.5 cm of muscle tissue, while free ICG only allowed 0.5 cm detection. When administered subcutaneously in mice, lipid-bound ICG in liposomes exhibited a higher intensity, NIR image resolution, and enhanced lymph node and lymphatic vessel visualization. It also reduced the level of fluorescence quenching due to light exposure and degradation in storage. Lipid-bound ICG could provide additional medical diagnostic value with NIR optical imaging for early intervention in cases of lymphatic abnormalities. PMID:24512123
Lu, Yuan; Zhou, Shengfan; Dreyer, Rachel P; Caulfield, Michael; Spatz, Erica S; Geda, Mary; Lorenze, Nancy P; Herbert, Peter; D'Onofrio, Gail; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Lichtman, Judith H; Bueno, Héctor; Spertus, John A; Krumholz, Harlan M
Young women with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have higher mortality risk than similarly aged men. An adverse lipid profile is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes after AMI, but little is known about whether young women with AMI have a higher-risk lipid pattern than men. We characterized sex differences in lipid profiles and treatment utilization among young adults with AMI. A total of 2,219 adults with AMI (1,494 women) aged 18-55 years were enrolled from 103 hospitals in the United States (2008-2012). Serum lipids and lipoprotein subclasses were measured 1 month after discharge. More than 90% of adults were discharged on a statin, but less than half received a high-intensity dose and 12% stopped taking treatments by 1 month. For both men and women, the median of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was reduced to <100 mg/dL 1 month after discharge for AMI, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol remained <40 mg/dL. Multivariate regression analyses showed that young women had favorable lipoprotein profiles compared with men: women had higher HDL cholesterol and HDL large particle, but lower total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio and LDL small particle. Young women with AMI had slightly favorable lipid and lipoprotein profiles compared with men, suggesting that difference in lipid and lipoprotein may not be a major contributor to sex differences in outcomes after AMI. In both men and women, statin remained inadequately used, and low HDL cholesterol level was a major lipid abnormality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Várnai, Péter; Gulyás, Gergő; Tóth, Dániel J; Sohn, Mira; Sengupta, Nivedita; Balla, Tamas
One of the largest challenges in cell biology is to map the lipid composition of the membranes of various organelles and define the exact location of processes that control the synthesis and distribution of lipids between cellular compartments. The critical role of phosphoinositides, low-abundant lipids with rapid metabolism and exceptional regulatory importance in the control of almost all aspects of cellular functions created the need for tools to visualize their localizations and dynamics at the single cell level. However, there is also an increasing need for methods to determine the cellular distribution of other lipids regulatory or structural, such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, or other phospholipids and cholesterol. This review will summarize recent advances in this research field focusing on the means by which changes can be described in more quantitative terms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Background Despite the precise pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is unknown, an immune dysregulation that causes Th2-predominant inflammation and an intrinsic defect in skin barrier function are currently the two major hypotheses, according to the so-called outside-inside-outside model. Mast cells (MCs) are involved in AD both by releasing Th2 polarizing cytokines and generating pruritus symptoms through release of histamine and tryptase. A link between MCs and skin barrier defects was recently uncovered, with histamine being found to profoundly contribute to the skin barrier defects. Palmitoylethanolamide and related lipid mediators are endogenous bioactive compounds, considered to play a protective homeostatic role in many tissues: evidence collected so far shows that the anti-inflammatory effect of palmitoylethanolamide depends on the down-modulation of MC degranulation. Based on this background, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to determine if the endogenous levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators are changed in the skin of AD dogs compared to healthy animals; (b) to examine if MC number is increased in the skin of AD dogs and, if so, whether it depends on MC in-situ proliferation. Results The amount of lipid extract expressed as percent of biopsy tissue weight was significantly reduced in AD skin while the levels of all analyzed bioactive lipid mediators were significantly elevated, with palmitoylethanolamide showing the highest increase. In dogs with AD, the number of MCs was significantly increased in both the subepidermal and the perifollicular compartments and their granule content was significantly decreased in the latter. Also, in situ proliferation of MCs was documented. Conclusions The levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators were shown to increase in AD skin compared to healthy samples, leading to the hypothesis that they may be part of the body’s innate mechanisms to
Díaz-Ríos, Lillian Karina; Rivera-Cisneros, Antonio Eugenio; Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Sánchez-González, Jorge Manuel; Guerrero-Martínez, Francisco Javier
it has been demonstrated an association between the increase in physical activity and improvements in the lipid profile. to evaluate changes in the serum lipids caused by spinning practice. nine men and twelve women were studied, they underwent to an initial evaluation that included a treadmill effort test, in order to establish the physical fitness level. With the purpose of determine the lipids change, a blood sample was obtained before and after a typical spinning session. The design was prospective, experimental, longitudinal and comparative study. Student's t-test and regression model were used to determine the changes in the lipids concentrations, and its relation with the physical fitness level. A p value < or = 0.05 was required for statistical significance. lipids increase concentrations were observed (p < 0.05), except at triglycerides in men, in which it had a decrease. It was statistically significant relation between the physical fitness level and the percentage of high-density lipoproteins variation (r = 0.44, p = 0.046). the percentage of high-density lipoproteins variation was greater when the values of VO(2)max were higher. At greater level of medical fitness greater positive answer in this lipoproteins. In the case of the rest serum lipids, it was not observed relation between the level of medical fitness and the percentage of variation due to the execution of the spinning session.
Kim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Kyung
High levels of blood lipids have been associated with high levels of coagulation factors. We investigated whether blood lipids influence the results of global coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA). PT, aPTT, and TGA, along with procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, were measured in 488 normal individuals. Vitamin K status was assessed with prothrombin-induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II). The procoagulant factors II, VII, IX, X, and XI and anticoagulant factors protein C and protein S showed significant correlations with triglyceride, and the procoagulant factors II, V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII and anticoagulant factors antithrombin and protein C correlated with total cholesterol. There were no correlations of blood lipid levels with PIVKA-II levels. Subjects with high triglyceride levels (≥200 mg/dL) showed shorter PT values than those with lower triglyceride levels. However, aPTT value was not changed in terms of blood lipid levels. In both 1 and 5 pM tissue factor-induced TGAs, subjects in the high-triglyceride or high-cholesterol groups (≥240 mg/dL) had high levels of lag time, time-to-peak, and endogenous thrombin potential. Total cholesterol was a significant determinant of PT and TGA values. High blood lipids were related with increased coagulation activity in a normal population. Our findings are expected to help interpret the global coagulation test results in individuals with high lipid levels.
Girard, P-M; Campbell, T B; Grinsztejn, B; Hartikainen, J; Rachline, A; Nijs, S; Witek, J
The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs) and laboratory abnormalities of interest over 96 weeks of treatment with etravirine or placebo in the pooled TMC125 DUET (Demonstrate Undetectable viral load in patients Experienced with ARV Therapy) trials. Treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected patients randomly received etravirine 200 mg twice a day (bid) or placebo, plus a background regimen. The frequency and severity of neuropsychiatric, rash, hepatic and lipid AEs were analysed; frequencies were also adjusted for total patient-years of exposure (PYE). A total of 599 and 604 patients received etravirine and placebo, respectively (median treatment duration 96.0 and 69.6 weeks, respectively). There was no significant difference between the treatment groups in the frequency of neuropsychiatric AEs. However, a significant difference in the frequency of rash was observed (20.5% vs. 11.8%, respectively; P < 0.0001); rash was generally mild to moderate in severity; the rate of discontinuation because of rash was low (2.2% vs. 0% in the etravirine and placebo groups, respectively). The frequency of hepatic AEs was low and similar between the treatment groups (8.7% vs. 7.1%, respectively; P = 0.3370); hepatic enzyme levels did not increase over time. Lipid-related laboratory abnormalities and changes over time in lipid levels were generally comparable between treatment groups. Adjusting for treatment exposure, the frequency of AEs remained similar between treatment groups, with the exception of rash [13.7 vs. 9.3 per 100 PYE; relative risk (95% confidence interval) 1.48 (1.02-1.95)]. The frequency of AEs of interest was generally similar between the treatment groups, both overall and when adjusted for treatment exposure, with the exception of rash which was more frequent in the etravirine group. © 2012 British HIV Association.
Boghossian, Nansi S.; Mendola, Pauline; Liu, Aiyi; Robledo, Candace; Yeung, Edwina H.
Objective To examine associations between lipids (HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a)) measured on average three time-points during pregnancy and neonatal anthropometrics. Study Design Stored samples from a preeclampsia trial measured as part of a case-control study from five US centers (1992-1995) were used. The sample included women without pregnancy complications (n=136), and cases of gestational diabetes (n=93), abnormal glucose tolerance (n=76), gestational hypertension (n=170), and preeclampsia (n=177). Linear regression and linear mixed-effects models estimated adjusted associations between lipids and birth weight z-score, ponderal index, length, and head circumference. Results Among women without complications, cross-sectional associations between total cholesterol measured at different gestational ages increased ponderal index 2.23 to 2.55 kg/m3 per-unit increase in cholesterol. HDL was inversely associated with birth length (β's=-2.21 and -2.56 cm). For gestational hypertension, triglycerides were associated with birth weight z-score (β's=0.24 to 0.31). For preeclampsia, HDL was associated with lower birth weight z-scores (β's=-0.49 and -0.82). Women with gestational diabetes or abnormal glucose tolerance had inconsistent associations. Examining the level changes across pregnancy, each 0.0037 mmol/L increase in HDL was associated with decreased birth weight z-score (β=-0.22), length (β=-0.24 cm), and head circumference (β=-0.24 cm) whereas each 0.028 mmol/L increase in triglycerides was associated with increased birth weight z-score (β=0.13) and head circumference (β=0.19 cm). Conclusion Although associations varied by complications, in general, growth promoting fuels as total cholesterol and triglycerides were associated with increased neonatal size whereas high HDL was associated with smaller size. Maternal HDL that failed to decrease over pregnancy was associated with smaller neonate size. PMID:28333159
King-Smith, P Ewen; Nichols, Jason J; Braun, Richard J; Nichols, Kelly K
Tear film evaporation is controlled by the lipid layer and is an important factor in dry eye conditions. Because the barrier to evaporation depends on the structure of the lipid layer, a high resolution microscope has been constructed to study the lipid layer in dry and in normal eyes. The microscope incorporates the following features. First, a long working distance microscope objective is used with a high numerical aperture and resolution. Second, because such a high resolution objective has limited depth of focus, 2000 images are recorded with a video camera over a 20-sec period, with the expectation that some images will be in focus. Third, illumination is from a stroboscopic light source having a brief flash duration, to avoid blurring from movement of the lipid layer. Fourth, the image is in focus when the edge of the image is sharp - this feature is used to select images in good focus. Fifth, an aid is included to help align the cornea at normal incidence to the axis of the objective so that the whole lipid image can be in focus. High resolution microscopy has the potential to elucidate several characteristics of the normal and abnormal lipid layer, including different objects and backgrounds, changes in the blink cycle, stability and fluidity, dewetting, gel-like properties and possible relation to lipid domains. It is expected that high resolution microscopy of the lipid layer will provide information about the mechanisms of dry eye disorders. Illustrative results are presented, derived from over 10,000 images from 375 subjects.
Chen, Cai; Yu, Xuefeng; Shao, Shiying
Background Many studies assessed the impact of marine omega-3 fatty acids on glycemic homeostasis and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but reported controversial results. Our goal was to systematically evaluate the effects of omega-3 on glucose control and lipid levels. Methods Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, the National Research Register, and SIGLE were searched to identify eligible randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Extracted data from RCTs were analyzed using STATA 11.0 statistical software with fixed or random effects model. Effect sizes were presented as weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Heterogeneity was assessed using the Chi-square test with significance level set at p < 0.1. Results 20 RCT trials were included into this meta-analysis. Among patients with omega-3 supplementation, triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly decreased by 0.24 mmol/L. No marked change in total cholesterol (TC), HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, BMI or body weight was observed. High ratio of EPA/DHA contributed to a greater decreasing tendency in plasma insulin, HbAc1, TC, TG, and BMI measures, although no statistical significance was identified (except TG). FPG levels were increased by 0.42 mmol/L in Asians. No evidence of publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis. Conclusions The ratio of EPA/DHA and early intervention with omega 3 fatty acids may affect their effects on glucose control and lipid levels, which may serve as a dietary reference for clinicians or nutritionists who manage diabetic patients. PMID:26431431
Tsai, Chung-Hung; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Yin-Fan; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chih-Jen
To evaluate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with gallstones, independent of hepatitis C infection or chronic kidney disease (CKD), in a non-diabetic population. A total of 8,188 Chinese adult participants that underwent a self-motivated health examination were recruited into the final analysis after excluding the subjects who had a history of cholecystectomy, diabetes mellitus, or were currently using antihypertensive or lipid-lowering agents. Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or that attenuated ultrasound transmission. A total of 447 subjects (5.5%) had gallstones, with 239 (5.1%) men and 208 (6.0%) women. After adjusting for age, gender, obesity, education level, and lifestyle factors, included current smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and CKD, there was a positive association between metabolic syndrome and gallstones. Moreover, as compared to subjects without metabolic abnormalities, subjects with one, two, and three or more suffered from a 35, 40, and 59% higher risk of gallstones, respectively. Non-diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome had a higher risk of gallstones independent of hepatitis C or CKD, and a dose-dependent effect of metabolic abnormalities also exists.
Forsman, Antti; Ruohonen, Kari
Feed intake in fish is examined extensively but there is not much information about the dynamics of regulation i.e. how fish react to different diets, and how these reactions change, over a longer period of time. The present study was designed to evaluate the dynamics of food intake regulation in rainbow trout over a very wide range of dietary protein and lipid levels; from a very low lipid level (5%) to an extremely high level (55%). The study was conducted with three subsequent 40-day blocks of 20 fish and the intake dynamics of the lipid effect were studied by splitting the 40-day experimental period to shorter periods of 10 days. Depending on a diet the rainbow trout were more willing to ingest larger surpluses of both protein and lipid during the periods 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 days if compared with the anticipated nutritional intake target of rainbow trout. A strong regulatory response against high lipid intake was seen during the last period (days 30-40) leading not only to a decrease in lipid intake but much more drastic decrease in protein intake. Thus, a significant nonlinear interaction between time and dietary protein and lipid was found indicating that the effect of protein and lipid was dynamic.
Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano Nobre; de França Fonteles, Marta Maria
Previous experiments have shown that the generation of free radicals in rat brain homogenates is increased following pilocarpine-induced seizures and status epilepticus (SE). This study was aimed at investigating the changes in neurochemical mechanisms such as lipid peroxidation levels, nitrite content, glutathione reduced (GSH) concentration, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the frontal cortex and the striatum of Wistar adult rats after seizures and SE induced by pilocarpine. The control group was treated with 0.9% saline and another group of rats received pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.). Both groups were sacrificed 24 h after the treatments. Lipid peroxidation level, nitrite content, GSH concentration and enzymatic activities were measured by using spectrophotometric methods. Our findings showed that pilocarpine administration and its resulting seizures and SE produced a significant increase of lipid peroxidation level in the striatum (47%) and frontal cortex (59%). Nitrite contents increased 49% and 73% in striatum and frontal cortex in pilocarpine group, respectively. In GSH concentrations were decreases of 54% and 58% in the striatum and frontal cortex in pilocarpine group, respectively. The catalase activity increased 39% and 49% in the striatum and frontal cortex, respectively. The superoxide dismutase activity was not altered in the striatum, but it was present at a 24% increase in frontal cortex. These results suggest that there is a direct relationship between the lipid peroxidation and nitrite contents during epileptic activity that can be responsible for the superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activity changes observed during the establishment of seizures and SE induced by pilocarpine. PMID:20592767
Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...
Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Coronella, Franco; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Fossarello, Maurizio
The aim of this work was to gather preliminary data in different conditions of healthy eyes, aqueous tear deficient dry eyes, obstructive meibomian gland disease (MGD) and non-obvious obstructive MGD (NOMGD) individuals, using a new, contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging method to evaluate the clearance of lipids in human tears. Eighty-two adult patients presenting with complaints of ocular irritation were studied for abnormalities of the ocular surface and classified as healthy (n = 21), aqueous tear deficient dry eyes (n = 20), obstructive MGD (n = 15) and NOMGD (n = 26) individuals. A lipid-based tracer, containing an oil-in-water emulsion, was used to obtain an enhanced OCT imaging of the lower tear meniscus. After instillation, a dramatic initial increase of reflectivity of the lower tear meniscus was detected by OCT, followed by a decay back to baseline values over time. Based on this finding, the clearance of lipids was measured in real-time by Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT. The differences in the clearance of lipids among the four groups as well as the correlations between symptom questionnaire score, standardized visual scale test, fluorescein break-up time, ocular surface fluorescein staining score, Schirmer I test scores were found to be statistically significant. The individual areas under the curve of the clearance of lipids calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve technique ranged from 0.66 to 0.98, suggesting reliable sensitivity and specificity of lipid-enhanced OCT imaging. This new technique of contrast-enhanced OCT imaging of the tear film following lipid-based tracer instillation provides a measure of the clearance of lipids. The quantitative values found are in agreement with other methods of evaluation of the lacrimal system. An improvement of the clinician's ability in the diagnosis and understanding of abnormalities of the ocular surface may be achieved by this simple approach.
Palacios-Verdú, María Gabriela; Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Del Campo, Miguel; Campuzano, Victoria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto
Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ∼ 30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ∼ 75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well as in several mouse models, to establish potential candidate genes. We analysed several metabolic parameters in a cohort of 154 individuals with WBS (data available from 69 to 151 cases per parameter), as well as in several mouse models with complete and partial deletions of the orthologous WBS locus, and searched for causative genes and potential modifiers. Triglyceride plasma levels were significantly decreased in individuals with WBS while cholesterol levels were slightly decreased compared with controls. Hyperbilirubinemia, mostly unconjugated, was found in 18.3% of WBS cases and correlated with subclinical hypothyroidism and hypotriglyceridemia, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. Haploinsufficiency at MLXIPL and increased penetrance for hypomorphic alleles at the UGT1A1 gene promoter might underlie the lipid and bilirubin alterations. Other disturbances included increased protein and iron levels, as well as the known subclinical hypothyroidism and glucose intolerance. Our results show that several unreported biochemical alterations, related to haploinsufficiency for specific genes at 7q11.23, are relatively common in WBS. The early diagnosis, follow-up and management of these metabolic disturbances could prevent long-term complications in this disorder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Reitz, Christiane; Tang, Ming-Xin; Luchsinger, Jose; Mayeux, Richard
Background The relation between plasma lipid levels and Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), and the impact of drugs to lower lipid levels remains unclear. Objective To investigate the relation between plasma lipid levels and the risk of AD and VaD and the impact of drugs to lower lipid levels on this relationship. Design and Setting Cross-sectional and prospective community-based cohort studies. Participants Random sample of 4316 Medicare recipients, 65 years and older, residing in northern Manhattan, NY. Main Outcome Measures Vascular dementia and AD according to standard criteria. Results Elevated levels of non–high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and decreased levels of HDL-C were weak risk factors for VaD in either cross-sectional or prospective analyses. Higher levels of total cholesterol were associated with a decreased risk of incident AD after adjustment for demographics, apolipoprotein E genotype, and cardiovascular risk factors. Treatment with drugs to lower lipid levels did not change the disease risk of either disorder. Conclusions We found a weak relation between non–HDL-C, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels and the risk of VaD. Lipid levels and the use of agents to lower them do not seem to be associated with the risk of AD. PMID:15148148
Jameel, Faizan; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L
Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between fructose consumption and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Mechanisms by which dietary fructose mediates metabolic changes are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of fructose, glucose and sucrose consumption on post-postprandial lipemia and low grade inflammation measured as hs-CRP. This was a randomized, single blinded, cross-over trial involving healthy subjects (n=14). After an overnight fast, participants were given one of 3 different isocaloric drinks, containing 50 g of either fructose or glucose or sucrose dissolved in water. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post intervention for the analysis of blood lipids, glucose, insulin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Glucose and sucrose supplementation initially resulted in a significant increase in glucose and insulin levels compared to fructose supplementation and returned to near baseline values within 2 hours. Change in plasma cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol (measured as area under curve, AUC) was significantly higher when participants consumed fructose compared with glucose or sucrose (P<0.05). AUC for plasma triglyceride levels however remained unchanged regardless of the dietary intervention. Change in AUC for hs-CRP was also significantly higher in subjects consuming fructose compared with those consuming glucose (P<0.05), but not sucrose (P=0.07). This study demonstrates that fructose as a sole source of energy modulates plasma lipids and hsCRP levels in healthy individuals. The significance of increase in HDL-cholesterol with a concurrent increase in LDL-cholesterol and elevated hs-CRP levels remains to be delineated when considering health effects of feeding fructose-rich diets. ACTRN12614000431628.
Kushnir, T; Kristal-Boneh, E
As part of the Cardiovascular Occupational Risk Factors Determination in Israel (CORDIS) study, the association between marriage termination (divorce/separation or widowhood) and blood lipids and lipoproteins was examined in a sample of 351 healthy women employed in industry. Eighty-seven former spouses were each matched with three married women (N = 264) for age, number of children, smoking status, and type of job (blue/white collar). After controlling for age, number of cigarettes per day, leisure sport participation, and daily coffee consumption, former spouses in the younger women group (younger than 45 years) had significantly higher total cholesterol, total cholesterol ratio, and LDL levels than married women. Among older women (> or = 45 years), there were no significant differences. Significantly more younger former spouses had abnormally high cholesterol and LDL levels. In both age groups, former spouses smoked more cigarettes daily. These differences between the marital status groups may be explained by stress effects and changes in primary prevention practices. If replicated, such findings would delineate a population in need of intervention to reduce disease risk.
De Berardis, Domenico; Serroni, Nicola; Marini, Stefano; Rapini, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Valchera, Alessandro; Iasevoli, Felice; Mazza, Monica; Signorelli, Maria; Aguglia, Eugenio; Perna, Giampaolo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Varasano, Paola A; Pressanti, Gabriella Lucidi; Di Giannantonio, Massimo
As obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common psychiatric disorder with a significant suicide risk, the individuation of potential biomarkers of suicidality, such as cholesterol levels, may enable recognition of at-risk subjects. Therefore, the aims of this study were to: 1) evaluate potential differences in clinical and laboratory parameters between patients with and without alexithymia and compare them with healthy controls; and 2) investigate which clinical and laboratory variables were associated with suicidal ideation. 79 drug-naïve adult outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were recruited. Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), suicidal ideation was assessed with the Scale for Suicide Ideation, and depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Serum lipid levels of 40 healthy controls were also evaluated. Alexithymic patients had altered serum lipid levels in comparison with non-alexithymics and healthy controls. Using a linear regression model, the presence of symmetry/ordering obsessions and compulsions, lower HDL-C levels, and difficulty in identifying feelings dimension of the TAS-20 were associated with higher suicidal ideation. Alexithymic individuals with OCD may exhibit dysregulation of the cholesterol balance, which in turn may be linked to suicidal ideation. Further prospective studies are required to elucidate this potential association.
Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Song, Yuanda; Chen, Wei
Mucor circinelloides is one of few oleaginous fungi that produces a useful oil rich in γ-linolenic acid, but it usually only produces <25% total lipid. Nevertheless, we isolated a new strain WJ11 that can produce up to 36% lipid of cell dry weight. In this study, we have systematically analyzed the global changes in protein levels between the high lipid-producing strain WJ11 and the low lipid-producing strain CBS 277.49 (15%, lipid/cell dry weight) at lipid accumulation phase through comparative proteome analysis. Proteome analysis demonstrated that the branched-chain amino acid and lysine metabolism, glycolytic pathway, and pentose phosphate pathway in WJ11 were up-regulated, while the activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle and branch point enzyme for synthesis of isoprenoids were retarded compared with CBS 277.49. The coordinated regulation at proteome level indicate that more acetyl-CoA and NADPH are provided for fatty acid biosynthesis in WJ11 compared with CBS 277.49.
Robinson, George A; Waddington, Kirsty E; Pineda-Torra, Ines; Jury, Elizabeth C
It is well established that cholesterol and glycosphingolipids are enriched in the plasma membrane (PM) and form signaling platforms called lipid rafts, essential for T-cell activation and function. Moreover, changes in PM lipid composition affect the biophysical properties of lipid rafts and have a role in defining functional T-cell phenotypes. Here, we review the role of transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism including liver X receptors α/β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, estrogen receptors α/β (ERα/β), and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins in T-cells. These receptors lie at the interface between lipid metabolism and immune cell function and are endogenously activated by lipids and/or hormones. Importantly, they regulate cellular cholesterol, fatty acid, glycosphingolipid, and phospholipid levels but are also known to modulate a broad spectrum of immune responses. The current evidence supporting a role for lipid metabolism pathways in controlling immune cell activation by influencing PM lipid raft composition in health and disease, and the potential for targeting lipid biosynthesis pathways to control unwanted T-cell activation in autoimmunity is reviewed.
Robinson, George A.; Waddington, Kirsty E.; Pineda-Torra, Ines; Jury, Elizabeth C.
It is well established that cholesterol and glycosphingolipids are enriched in the plasma membrane (PM) and form signaling platforms called lipid rafts, essential for T-cell activation and function. Moreover, changes in PM lipid composition affect the biophysical properties of lipid rafts and have a role in defining functional T-cell phenotypes. Here, we review the role of transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism including liver X receptors α/β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, estrogen receptors α/β (ERα/β), and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins in T-cells. These receptors lie at the interface between lipid metabolism and immune cell function and are endogenously activated by lipids and/or hormones. Importantly, they regulate cellular cholesterol, fatty acid, glycosphingolipid, and phospholipid levels but are also known to modulate a broad spectrum of immune responses. The current evidence supporting a role for lipid metabolism pathways in controlling immune cell activation by influencing PM lipid raft composition in health and disease, and the potential for targeting lipid biosynthesis pathways to control unwanted T-cell activation in autoimmunity is reviewed. PMID:29225604
Blank, Karen; Szarek, Bonnie L; Goethe, John W
Metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS) increasingly have been linked to depression. The authors studied examined inpatients 35 years and older with major depressive disorder (MDD) to determine the prevalence of component metabolic abnormalities and the full MetS with age, treatment, and comorbid dementia. Data analysis involved retrospective cross-sectional review from a nonprofit psychiatry inpatient service of all discharges 35 years and older with a diagnosis of MDD during a 3 year period (April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2006) (N=1718). Metabolic measures included waist circumference, lipid measurements, glucose, and hypertension diagnosis. Abnormal metabolic measures and MetS were highly prevalent in both young and old patients with MDD: one or more component was present in 87.6% of older (65-99 years old) and 79.9% of younger patients. Full MetS was present in 31.5% of older and 28.9% of younger patients (not significant, P=0.85). Metabolic abnormalities were not associated with atypical antipsychotics after controlling other variables. One-quarter (n=79, 24.9%) of older inpatients had a dementia co-diagnosis. Older patients with MDD and dementia had greater risk of elevated glucose while younger patients were more often hypertensive. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the relationships of MDD with or without dementia with these highly prevalent abnormal metabolic measures and MetS. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sang Hoon
Background High levels of blood lipids have been associated with high levels of coagulation factors. We investigated whether blood lipids influence the results of global coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA). Methods PT, aPTT, and TGA, along with procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, were measured in 488 normal individuals. Vitamin K status was assessed with prothrombin-induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II). Results The procoagulant factors II, VII, IX, X, and XI and anticoagulant factors protein C and protein S showed significant correlations with triglyceride, and the procoagulant factors II, V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII and anticoagulant factors antithrombin and protein C correlated with total cholesterol. There were no correlations of blood lipid levels with PIVKA-II levels. Subjects with high triglyceride levels (≥200 mg/dL) showed shorter PT values than those with lower triglyceride levels. However, aPTT value was not changed in terms of blood lipid levels. In both 1 and 5 pM tissue factor-induced TGAs, subjects in the high-triglyceride or high-cholesterol groups (≥240 mg/dL) had high levels of lag time, time-to-peak, and endogenous thrombin potential. Total cholesterol was a significant determinant of PT and TGA values. Conclusion High blood lipids were related with increased coagulation activity in a normal population. Our findings are expected to help interpret the global coagulation test results in individuals with high lipid levels. PMID:25553275
Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Othman, Shatrah
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties. PMID:26788107
The AMBER lipid force field has been updated to create Lipid14, allowing tensionless simulation of a number of lipid types with the AMBER MD package. The modular nature of this force field allows numerous combinations of head and tail groups to create different lipid types, enabling the easy insertion of new lipid species. The Lennard-Jones and torsion parameters of both the head and tail groups have been revised and updated partial charges calculated. The force field has been validated by simulating bilayers of six different lipid types for a total of 0.5 μs each without applying a surface tension; with favorable comparison to experiment for properties such as area per lipid, volume per lipid, bilayer thickness, NMR order parameters, scattering data, and lipid lateral diffusion. As the derivation of this force field is consistent with the AMBER development philosophy, Lipid14 is compatible with the AMBER protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, and small molecule force fields. PMID:24803855
Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M; Bauserman, Robert; Barton, Bruce A
Cereal consumption is a common dietary behavior that has been associated with positive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine prospective associations between cereal intake in childhood and percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence. In this longitudinal investigation (data collected 1987-1997), data were analyzed for the 2,379 girls who participated in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. The cumulative percent of days that each girl consumed cereal during childhood (based on 3-day food diaries collected during six study visits between ages 11.5 and 18.6 years) was examined in relation to percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity measured at age 18.6 years. Results indicated that nearly all girls (90.1%) reported eating cereal and 18.7% reported eating cereal on half or more of the days reported in the food diaries. Girls who ate cereal on a greater percentage of days during childhood had lower percent body fat and total cholesterol, and were more likely to exhibit high levels of physical activity and less television viewing during Study Year 10 (P values<0.05). Further research should explore lifestyle issues related to cereal consumption.
Salt stress induced lipid accumulation in heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides: Mechanisms based on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration.
Wang, Tao; Ge, Haiyan; Liu, Tingting; Tian, Xiwei; Wang, Zejian; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping
Salt stress as an effective stress factor that could improve the lipid content and lipid yield of glucose in the heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides was demonstrated in this study. The highest lipid content of 41.2% and lipid yield of 185.8mg/g were obtained when C. protothecoides was stressed under 30g/L NaCl condition at its late logarithmic growth phase. Moreover, the effects of salt and osmotic stress on lipid accumulation were comparatively analyzed, and it was found that the effects of NaCl and KCl stress had no significant differences at the same osmolarity level of 1150mOsm/kg with lipid contents of 41.7 and 40.8% as well as lipid yields of 192.9 and 186.8mg/g, respectively, whereas these results were obviously higher than those obtained under the iso-osmotic glycerol and sorbitol stresses. Furthermore, basing on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration, the superior performance of salt stress driving lipid over-synthesis was probably ascribed to the more ROS production as a result of additional ion effect besides the osmotic effect, subsequently mediating the alteration from carbohydrate storage to lipid accumulation in signal transduction process of C. protothecoides. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
McIntosh, Avery L.; Senthivinayagam, Subramanian; Moon, Kenneth C.; Gupta, Shipra; Lwande, Joel S.; Murphy, Cameron C.; Storey, Stephen M.
Despite increasing awareness of the health risks associated with excess lipid storage in cells and tissues, knowledge of events governing lipid exchange at the surface of lipid droplets remains unclear. To address this issue, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was performed to examine live cell interactions of Plin2 with lipids involved in maintaining lipid droplet structure and function. FRET efficiencies (E) between CFP-labeled Plin2 and fluorescently labeled phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, stearic acid, and cholesterol were quantitated on a pixel-by-pixel basis to generate FRET image maps that specified areas with high E (>60%) in lipid droplets. The mean E and the distance R between the probes indicated a high yield of energy transfer and demonstrated molecular distances on the order of 44–57 Å, in keeping with direct molecular contact. In contrast, FRET between CFP-Plin2 and Nile red was not detected, indicating that the CFP-Plin2/Nile red interaction was beyond FRET proximity (>100 Å). An examination of the effect of Plin2 on cellular metabolism revealed that triacylglycerol, fatty acid, and cholesteryl ester content increased while diacylglycerol remained constant in CFP-Plin2-overexpressing cells. Total phospholipids also increased, reflecting increased phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Consistent with these results, expression levels of enzymes involved in triacylglycerol, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid synthesis were significantly upregulated in CFP-Plin2-expressing cells while those associated with lipolysis either decreased or were unaffected. Taken together, these data show for the first time that Plin2 interacts directly with lipids on the surface of lipid droplets and influences levels of key enzymes and lipids involved in maintaining lipid droplet structure and function. PMID:22744009
Background Embryonic acute exposure to ethanol (EtOH), lithium, and homocysteine (HCy) induces cardiac defects at the time of exposure; folic acid (FA) supplementation protects normal cardiogenesis (Han et al., 2009, 2012; Serrano et al., 2010). Our hypothesis is that EtOH exposure and FA protection relate to lipid and FA metabolism during mouse cardiogenesis and placentation. Methods On the morning of conception, pregnant C57BL/6J mice were placed on either of two FA‐containing diets: a 3.3 mg health maintenance diet or a high FA diet of 10.5 mg/kg. Mice were injected a binge level of EtOH, HCy, or saline on embryonic day (E) 6.75, targeting gastrulation. On E15.5, cardiac and umbilical blood flow were examined by ultrasound. Embryonic cardiac tissues were processed for gene expression of lipid and FA metabolism; the placenta and heart tissues for neutral lipid droplets, or for medium chain acyl‐dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein. Results EtOH exposure altered lipid‐related gene expression on E7.5 in comparison to control or FA‐supplemented groups and remained altered on E15.5 similarly to changes with HCy, signifying FA deficiency. In comparison to control tissues, the lipid‐related acyl CoA dehydrogenase medium length chain gene and its protein MCAD were altered with EtOH exposure, as were neutral lipid droplet localization in the heart and placenta. Conclusion EtOH altered gene expression associated with lipid and folate metabolism, as well as neutral lipids, in the E15.5 abnormally functioning heart and placenta. In comparison to controls, the high FA diet protected the embryo and placenta from these effects allowing normal development. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:749–760, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27296863
Delitala, Alessandro P; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Maioli, Margherita; Delitala, Giuseppe
Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined by elevated serum thyrotropin in presence of normal free thyroid hormones. Lipid metabolism is influenced by thyroid hormone and many reports showed that lipids status worsen along with TSH level. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors such as alteration in blood pressure and increased atherosclerosis. Further evidences suggested that mild dysfunction of thyroid gland is associated with metabolic syndrome and heart failure. Thyrotropin level seems the best predictor of cardiovascular disease, in particular when its levels are above 10mU/L. However, despite these observations, there is no clear evidence that levothyroxine therapy in subjects with milder form of subclinical hypothyroidism could improve lipid status and the other cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, we address the effect of thyroid hormone and cardiovascular risk, with a focus on lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Chih-Wei; Tsai, Hung-Cheng; Huang, Chia-Chang; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Su, Yen-Bo; Lin, Ming-Wei; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Li, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Shiang-Fen; Yang, Ying-Ying; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lee, Shou-Dong
In obesity, there are no effective therapies for parallel immune and metabolic abnormalities, including systemic/tissue insulin-resistance/inflammation, adiposity and hepatic steatosis. Caffeine has anti-inflammation, antihepatic steatosis, and anti-insulin resistance effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects and molecular mechanisms of 6 wk of caffeine treatment (HFD-caf) on immunological and metabolic abnormalities of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Compared with HFD vehicle (HFD-V) rats, in HFD-caf rats the suppressed circulating immune cell inflammatory [TNFα, MCP-1, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and nitrite] profiles were accompanied by decreased liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and muscle macrophages and their intracellular cytokine levels. Metabolically, the increase in metabolic rates reduced lipid accumulation in various tissues, resulting in reduced adiposity, lower fat mass, decreased body weight, amelioration of hepatic steatosis, and improved systemic/muscle insulin resistance. Further mechanistic approaches revealed an upregulation of tissue lipogenic [(SREBP1c, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase)/insulin-sensitizing (GLUT4 and p-IRS1)] markers in HFD-caf rats. Significantly, ex vivo experiments revealed that the cytokine release by the cocultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell (monocyte) and WAT (adipocyte), which are known to stimulate macrophage migration and hepatocyte lipogenesis, were lower in HFD-V groups than HFD-caf groups. Caffeine treatment simultaneously ameliorates immune and metabolic pathogenic signals present in tissue to normalize immunolgical and metabolic abnormalities found in HFD-induced obese rats.
Gayral, Mathieu; Bakan, Bénédicte; Dalgalarrondo, Michele; Elmorjani, Khalil; Delluc, Caroline; Brunet, Sylvie; Linossier, Laurent; Morel, Marie-Hélène; Marion, Didier
Content and composition of maize endosperm lipids and their partition in the floury and vitreous regions were determined for a set of inbred lines. Neutral lipids, i.e., triglycerides and free fatty acids, accounted for more than 80% of endosperm lipids and are almost 2 times higher in the floury than in the vitreous regions. The composition of endosperm lipids, including their fatty acid unsaturation levels, as well as their distribution may be related to metabolic specificities of the floury and vitreous regions in carbon and nitrogen storage and to the management of stress responses during endosperm cell development. Remarkably, the highest contents of starch lipids were observed systematically within the vitreous endosperm. These high amounts of starch lipids were mainly due to lysophosphatidylcholine and were tightly linked to the highest amylose content. Consequently, the formation of amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine complexes has to be considered as an outstanding mechanism affecting endosperm vitreousness.
Olefsky, Jerrold; Reaven, Gerald M.; Farquhar, John W.
Considerable controversy exists over the purported role of obesity in causing hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance; and the potential beneficial effects of weight reduction remain incompletely defined. Hypertriglyceridemia is one of the metabolic abnormalities proposed to accompany obesity, and in order to help explain the mechanisms leading to this abnormality we have proposed the following sequential hypothesis: insulin resistance → hyperinsulinemia → accelerated hepatic triglyceride(TG) production → elevated plasma TG concentrations. To test this hypothesis and to gain insight into both the possible role of obesity in causing the above metabolic abnormalities and the potential benefit of weight reduction we studied the effects of weight loss on various aspects of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a group of 36 normal and hyperlipoproteinemic subjects. Only weak to absent correlations (r = 0.03 — 0.46) were noted between obesity and the metabolic variables measured. This points out that in our study group obesity cannot be the sole, or even the major, cause of these abnormalities in the first place. Further, we have observed marked decreases after weight reduction in fasting plasma TG (mean value: pre-weight reduction, 319 mg/100 ml; post-weight reduction, 180 mg/100 ml) and cholesterol (mean values: pre-weight reduction, 282 mg/100 ml; post-weight reduction, 223 mg/100 ml) levels, with a direct relationship between the magnitude of the fall in plasma lipid values and the height of the initial plasma TG level. We have also noted significant decreases after weight reduction in the insulin and glucose responses during the oral glucose tolerance test (37% decrease and 12% decrease, respectively). Insulin and glucose responses to liquid food before and after weight reduction were also measured and the overall post-weight reduction decrease in insulin response was 48% while the glucose response was relatively unchanged. In a
Li, Xue; Meng, Zhaowei; Jia, Qiang; Ren, Xiaojun
Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is a common disease and whether L-thyroxine replacement treatment improves serum lipid levels in affected patients remains controversial. Thus, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to assess the effect of L-thyroxine therapy on serum lipid levels in sub-clinical hyperthyroidism. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing continuous data, published until July 2015 were retrieved from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar and Embase databases and subjected to meta-analysis using Review Manager software version 5.2 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Seven RCTs comprising 319 patients were included. The overall methodological quality of the RCTs was good. Statistical analysis revealed that serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased after L-thyroxine treatment [mean difference (MD): −0.23; 95% confidence interval: −0.44, −0.03; P=0.02], while changes of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were not significant (MD: −0.18, P=0.09; MD: −0.02, P=0.78; and MD: −0.06, P=0.14, respectively). In conclusion, the meta-analysis performed in the present study revealed that compared with placebo treatment, L-thyroxine significantly improved serum LDL-C levels in patients with sub-clinical hypothyroidism, while not significantly affecting TC, TG and HDL-C levels. PMID:27699011
Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar
In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol levels were 196±37.22 and 126±29.17 mg/dl respectively. The statistical analysis of these two groups showed a significant correlation between raised TSH levels and serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol (P<0.05 & P<0.01) respectively. We conclude that hypothyrodism is associated with changes in lipid profile.
Liechti, Robin; Hyka-Nouspikel, Nevila; Niknejad, Anne; Gleizes, Anne; Götz, Lou; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; David, Fabrice P.A.; van der Goot, F. Gisou; Riezman, Howard; Bougueleret, Lydie; Xenarios, Ioannis; Bridge, Alan
Motivation: Lipids are a large and diverse group of biological molecules with roles in membrane formation, energy storage and signaling. Cellular lipidomes may contain tens of thousands of structures, a staggering degree of complexity whose significance is not yet fully understood. High-throughput mass spectrometry-based platforms provide a means to study this complexity, but the interpretation of lipidomic data and its integration with prior knowledge of lipid biology suffers from a lack of appropriate tools to manage the data and extract knowledge from it. Results: To facilitate the description and exploration of lipidomic data and its integration with prior biological knowledge, we have developed a knowledge resource for lipids and their biology—SwissLipids. SwissLipids provides curated knowledge of lipid structures and metabolism which is used to generate an in silico library of feasible lipid structures. These are arranged in a hierarchical classification that links mass spectrometry analytical outputs to all possible lipid structures, metabolic reactions and enzymes. SwissLipids provides a reference namespace for lipidomic data publication, data exploration and hypothesis generation. The current version of SwissLipids includes over 244 000 known and theoretically possible lipid structures, over 800 proteins, and curated links to published knowledge from over 620 peer-reviewed publications. We are continually updating the SwissLipids hierarchy with new lipid categories and new expert curated knowledge. Availability: SwissLipids is freely available at http://www.swisslipids.org/. Contact: email@example.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25943471
Yetukuri, Laxman; Ekroos, Kim; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Oresic, Matej
Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques for lipidomic analysis have empowered us with the tools that afford studies of lipidomes at the systems level. However, these techniques pose a number of challenges for lipidomic raw data processing, lipid informatics, and the interpretation of lipidomic data in the context of lipid function and structure. Integration of lipidomic data with other systemic levels, such as genomic or proteomic, in the context of molecular pathways and biophysical processes provides a basis for the understanding of lipid function at the systems level. The present report, based on the limited literature, is an update on a young but rapidly emerging field of lipid informatics and related pathway reconstruction strategies.
Yang, Dun-Sheng; Stavrides, Philip; Saito, Mitsuo; Kumar, Asok; Rodriguez-Navarro, Jose A; Pawlik, Monika; Huo, Chunfeng; Walkley, Steven U; Saito, Mariko; Cuervo, Ana M; Nixon, Ralph A
Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for the turnover of intracellular organelles is markedly impaired in neurons in Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer mouse models. We have previously reported that severe lysosomal and amyloid neuropathology and associated cognitive deficits in the TgCRND8 Alzheimer mouse model can be ameliorated by restoring lysosomal proteolytic capacity and autophagy flux via genetic deletion of the lysosomal protease inhibitor, cystatin B. Here we present evidence that macroautophagy is a significant pathway for lipid turnover, which is defective in TgCRND8 brain where lipids accumulate as membranous structures and lipid droplets within giant neuronal autolysosomes. Levels of multiple lipid species including several sphingolipids (ceramide, ganglioside GM3, GM2, GM1, GD3 and GD1a), cardiolipin, cholesterol and cholesteryl esters are elevated in autophagic vacuole fractions and lysosomes isolated from TgCRND8 brain. Lipids are localized in autophagosomes and autolysosomes by double immunofluorescence analyses in wild-type mice and colocalization is increased in TgCRND8 mice where abnormally abundant GM2 ganglioside-positive granules are detected in neuronal lysosomes. Cystatin B deletion in TgCRND8 significantly reduces the number of GM2-positive granules and lowers the levels of GM2 and GM3 in lysosomes, decreases lipofuscin-related autofluorescence, and eliminates giant lipid-containing autolysosomes while increasing numbers of normal-sized autolysosomes/lysosomes with reduced content of undigested components. These findings have identified macroautophagy as a previously unappreciated route for delivering membrane lipids to lysosomes for turnover, a function that has so far been considered to be mediated exclusively through the endocytic pathway, and revealed that autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in TgCRND8 brain impedes lysosomal turnover of lipids as well as proteins. The amelioration of lipid accumulation in TgCRND8 by removing cystatin B
Dodge, James C
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a heterogeneous group of rare inherited metabolic diseases that are frequently triggered by the accumulation of lipids inside organelles of the endosomal-autophagic-lysosomal system (EALS). There is now a growing realization that disrupted lysosomal homeostasis (i.e., lysosomal cacostasis) also contributes to more common neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD). Lipid deposition within the EALS may also participate in the pathogenesis of some additional neurodegenerative diseases of the motor system. Here, I will highlight the lipid abnormalities and clinical manifestations that are common to LSDs and several diseases of the motor system, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), atypical forms of spinal muscular atrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), PD and spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). Elucidating the underlying basis of intracellular lipid mislocalization as well as its consequences in each of these disorders will likely provide innovative targets for therapeutic research.
Ma, Yunsheng; Chiriboga, David E.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Li, Wenjun; Leung, Katherine; Hafner, Andrea R.; Li, Youfu; Ockene, Ira S.; Hebert, James R.
Background The effect of dietary carbohydrate on blood lipids has received considerable attention in light of the current trend in lowering carbohydrate intake for weight loss. Objectives To evaluate the association between carbohydrate intake and serum lipids. Methods Blood samples and 24-hour dietary and physical activity recall interviews were obtained from each subject at quarterly intervals for five consecutive quarters between 1994 and 1998 from 574 healthy adults in Central Massachusetts. Relationships between serum lipids and dietary carbohydrate factors were assessed using linear mixed models and adjusting for other risk factors known to be related to blood lipids. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal results were reported. Results Cross-sectional analysis results from this study suggest that higher total carbohydrate intake, percentage of calories from carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI) and/or glycemic load (GL) are related to lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and higher serum triacylglycerol levels, while higher total carbohydrate intake and/or GL are related to lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In a one-year longitudinal analysis, GL was positively associated with total and LDL-C levels, and there was an inverse association between percentage of calories from carbohydrate and HDL-C levels. Conclusions Results suggest that there is a complex and predominantly unfavorable effect of increased intake of highly processed carbohydrate on lipid profile, which may have implications for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Further studies in the form of randomized controlled trials are required to investigate these associations and determine the implications for lipid management. PMID:16582033
Peng, Rui; Li, Yan
The current study was designed to investigate the association between serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with lipid profile in depressive disorder. A total of 370 depressive individuals aged 18 years and above were recruited in this cross-section study. All participants underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and recorded the duration of their symptoms. The serum levels of total cholesterol (TCH), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), lipoprotein A (Lp(a)), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and TSH levels were determined and the ratios of TCH/HDL-C were assessed. Depressed subjects with a symptom duration ≥3 years had higher TG levels, increased TCH/HDL-C ratios and lower levels of HDL-C, FT4 and TSH compared with depressive patients with a symptom duration <3 years. Correlation analysis displayed that TSH is positively and significantly associated with TCH and LDL-C (p<0.05); the above FT4 and FT3 are negatively, significantly and respectively associated with TCH/HDL-C (p<0.05) and TCH, HDL-C, LDL-C (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that serum TG and TSH levels are associated with depressive symptom duration. According to our results,These findings indicate that low serum TSH levels are associated with lipid profile, TG and TSH levels have significant association with symptom duration in depressive patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Whayne, Thomas F; Mukherjee, Debabrata
Many therapeutically active medications have significant side effects, some of which can compromise the intended therapeutic goal. The development of plasma lipid abnormalities or a dyslipidemia as the result of a medication intended for an unrelated effect has been reported. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can cause dyslipidemia as can the medications used to treat this infection. Such dyslipidemia can be a significant problem made more relevant by the already increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease faced by these patients. Some hypoglycemic medications used to treat diabetes can also be associated with dyslipidemia, most notably rosiglitazone. Antihypertensive medications are intended to decrease CV risk but are not free of dyslipidemia problems with thiazides able to cause hypertriglyceridemia and older beta-blockers without an alpha-blocking effect associated with moderate plasma lipid abnormalities and altered glucose metabolism. Estrogen administered orally can be associated with a severe hypertriglyceridemia. Currently-used antipsychotic medications have a significant association with hypertriglyceridemia. Clinicians must be aware of the dyslipidemias caused by these medications and know how to manage them, even treating a secondary dyslipidemia with another medication as in the case of HIV infection rather than trying to switch treatment of the infection in many cases. Mention is also made of lipid lowering effects of medications intended for other purposes (e.g. angiotensin receptor blockers and orlistat).
Boonyasopun, Umaporn; Aree, Patcharaporn; Avant, Kay C
This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of an empowerment-based nutrition promotion program on food consumption and serum lipid levels among hyperlipidemic Thai elderly. Fifty-six experimental subjects received the program; 48 control subjects maintained their habitual lifestyle. The statistical methods used were the t-test, Z-test, and chi2/Fisher's exact test. After the program, the consumption of high saturated fat, cholesterol, and simple sugar diets was significantly lower for the experimental group than for the control group. The percentage change of the serum total cholesterol of the experimental subjects was significantly higher than that of the control subjects. The number of experimental subjects that changed from hyperlipidemia to normolipidemia significantly increased compared to that for the control subjects. The implementation of this program was related to an improvement in food consumption and serum lipid levels among hyperlipidemic Thai elderly and, therefore, has implications for practice.
Ajayi, Ayodeji F; Akhigbe, Roland E
About half of the cases of infertility in couples have been attributed to male factor. Despite the claim in folklore medicine that trona (a sesquicarbonate or hydrated carbonate of sodium) causes fetal loss, its effect on male reproductive function has not been investigated. This study sought to provide scientific evidence on the effect of trona on sperm characteristics, male reproductive hormones and organs, and lipid peroxidation. Forty male Wistar rats of comparable weights were used for the study. Rats were randomized into four different groups. The control received 1 mL of distilled water orally, whereas those in groups 1, 2, and 3 (test groups) received orally, same volume of trona preparation corresponding to 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 28 days. Body weight was monitored throughout the study period, and at the end of the experiment, testicular morphometry, sperm characteristic, reproductive hormones, and malondialdehyde (MDA), an index of lipid peroxidation, were determined. Sperm count, motility, progressibility, and percentage of normal sperm were significantly decreased in the trona-treated rats ( P < 0.05). The percentage of abnormal sperm, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and MDA were significantly increased in the treated rats ( P < 0.05). Body weight, testicular morphometry, and testosterone level were comparable across all groups ( P > 0.05). The study showed that trona has a dose-dependent deleterious effect on sperm characteristic. The antispermatogenic effect of trona was associated with lipid peroxidation but not testosterone.
Kaya, Cihan; Cengiz, Hüseyin; Yeşil, Ali; Ekin, Murat; Yaşar, Levent
Many postmenopausal women experience hot flashes, night sweats, non-specific emotional and psychological distresses. Our aim was to investigate the relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity using the menopause rating scale (MRS). A cross-sectional study was performed at our outpatient clinic with natural postmenopausal women. A total of 444 women were included in this study. The basic characteristics of the study population, such as age, gravidity, parity, time to menopause onset and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Venous blood samples were collected from subjects after overnight fasting. The levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, estradiol (E2), progesterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEA-S) were analyzed. The MRS questionnaire validated for the Turkish population was used to assess the menopausal symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference between mild and severe total symptom scores for TG, and elevated TG levels were observed in the severe group (p = 0.04). Elevated testosterone levels were observed with severe psychological symptom and total symptom scores. There were significant differences in progesterone level in psychological, urogenital, and total scores and lower levels were seen in severe symptom groups. There was a significant negative correlation between urogenital symptom scores and progesterone levels (p < 0.001). Elevated levels of testosterone were related to severe psychological symptom and total menopausal symptom scores. A decrease in progesterone levels was related to high psychological, urogenital and total menopausal symptom scores. Elevated TG levels were also related to the total severe symptom scores.
Tayeb, Wafa; Nakbi, Amel; Cheraief, Imed; Miled, Abdelhedi; Hammami, Mohamed
This study aims to investigate the effects of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic herbicide (2,4-D) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins concentrations, hepatic lipid peroxidation, fatty acid composition and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each: control group and three 2,4-D-treated groups G1, G2 and G3 were administered 15, 75 and 150 mg/kg/BW/d 2,4-D by gavage for 28 d, respectively. Results showed that 2,4-D caused significant negative changes in the biochemical parameters investigated. The malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in 2,4-D-treated groups. Fatty acid composition of the liver was also significantly changed with 2,4-D exposure. Furthermore, the hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly affected. Finally, 2,4-D at the studied doses modifies lipidic status, disrupt lipid metabolism and induce hepatic oxidative stress. In conclusion, at higher doses, 2,4-D may play an important role in the development of vascular disease via metabolic disorder of lipoproteins, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.
de Kroon, Anton I P M
Mass spectrometry is increasingly used in research on membrane lipid homeostasis, both in analyses of the steady state lipidome at the level of molecular lipid species, and in pulse-chase approaches employing stable isotope-labeled lipid precursors addressing the dynamics of lipid metabolism. Here my experience with, and view on mass spectrometry-based lipid analysis is presented, with emphasis on aspects of quantification of membrane lipid composition of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Quehenberger, Oswald; Armando, Aaron M; Brown, Alex H; Milne, Stephen B; Myers, David S; Merrill, Alfred H; Bandyopadhyay, Sibali; Jones, Kristin N; Kelly, Samuel; Shaner, Rebecca L; Sullards, Cameron M; Wang, Elaine; Murphy, Robert C; Barkley, Robert M; Leiker, Thomas J; Raetz, Christian R H; Guan, Ziqiang; Laird, Gregory M; Six, David A; Russell, David W; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Subramaniam, Shankar; Fahy, Eoin; Dennis, Edward A
The focus of the present study was to define the human plasma lipidome and to establish novel analytical methodologies to quantify the large spectrum of plasma lipids. Partial lipid analysis is now a regular part of every patient's blood test and physicians readily and regularly prescribe drugs that alter the levels of major plasma lipids such as cholesterol and triglycerides. Plasma contains many thousands of distinct lipid molecular species that fall into six main categories including fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and prenols. The physiological contributions of these diverse lipids and how their levels change in response to therapy remain largely unknown. As a first step toward answering these questions, we provide herein an in-depth lipidomics analysis of a pooled human plasma obtained from healthy individuals after overnight fasting and with a gender balance and an ethnic distribution that is representative of the US population. In total, we quantitatively assessed the levels of over 500 distinct molecular species distributed among the main lipid categories. As more information is obtained regarding the roles of individual lipids in health and disease, it seems likely that future blood tests will include an ever increasing number of these lipid molecules.
Habiba, Nusrath M; Fulda, Kimberly G; Basha, Riyaz; Shah, Deep; Fernando, Shane; Nguyen, Bao; Xiong, Yi; Franks, Susan F; Matches, Sarah J; Magie, Richard D; Bowman, W Paul
The role of lipid profile in predicting the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children is not clearly established. Our aim is to screen non-diabetic children aged 10-14 years for risk of developing T2DM and evaluate the association of abnormal lipids and socioeconomic status (SES). Data on race/ethnicity, family history, body mass index percentile, blood pressure and presence of neck pigmentation (acanthosis nigricans) were collected from 149 non-diabetic children. Using these factors, children were classified into low risk (<3 risk factors) and high risk (>3 risk factors) groups. Logistic regression model and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the association of blood lipid profile and demographic variables. Independent t-test was used to compare the ratio of Total Cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipids (HDL) with T2DM risk. 60% of children were at high risk for developing T2DM. HDL (p<0.001), triglycerides (p=0.02) and TC/HDL ratio (p<.001) were significantly abnormal in high risk group. Low SES showed a marginal association with high risk group. There were no gender or age differences between high and low risk groups. The significant determinants associated with high risk group were modifiable factors providing an opportunity for early intervention and prevention. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Fernández-Nebro, A; Marenco, J L; López-Longo, F; Galindo, M; Hernández-Cruz, B E; Narváez, J; Rúa-Figueroa, I; Raya-Alvarez, E; Zea, A; Freire, M; Sánchez-Atrio, A I; García-Vicuña, R; Pego-Reigosa, J M; Manrique-Arija, S; Nieves-Martín, L; Carreño, L
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have increased cardiovascular risk related to lipid changes induced by inflammatory activity, proteinuria and treatments. Our objective was to analyse lipid changes in a cohort of patients with SLE resistant to standard treatments who were treated with rituximab. The study population comprised a retrospective multicentre, national cohort of patients with SLE resistant to standard treatments who were treated with rituximab. The basic lipid profile, concomitant treatment and disease activity were analysed at the start of the treatment, 24 weeks later, and at the end of the follow-up period. The effects of the main lupus variables and therapy on the lipid changes were analysed. Seventy-nine patients with active lupus treated with rituximab were assessed during 149.3 patient-years. Prior to the treatment, 69% had dyslipidaemia. The most frequent abnormalities were a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level of ≥100 mg/dl (34%) and a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level of <50 mg/dl (27%). Baseline total cholesterol (TC) and LDL levels correlated with the degree of proteinuria, while the concentration of triglycerides (TGs) correlated with the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). TGs were reduced at short- and long-term follow-up after rituximab treatment. A multiple linear regression analysis identified that the reduction of the lupus inflammatory activity, particularly changes in proteinuria, was the only independent variable that was positively associated with the reduction in TGs after 24 weeks (p=0.001) and with TC (p=0.005) and TGs (p<0.001) at the end of the follow-up period. Our results suggest that rituximab may improve the long-term lipid profile of patients with SLE refractory to standard treatment, mainly by reducing inflammatory activity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Willey, Joshua Z.; Xu, Qiang; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Paik, Myunghee C.; Moon, Yeseon Park; Sacco, Ralph L.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.
Objective To explore the relationship between lipid profile components and incident ischemic stroke in a stroke-free prospective cohort. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting Northern Manhattan, New York. Patients Stroke-free community residents. Intervention As part of the Northern Manhattan Study, baseline fasting blood samples were collected on stroke-free community residents followed up for a mean of 7.5 years. Main Outcome Measures Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for lipid profile components and ischemic stroke after adjusting for demographic and risk factors. In secondary analyses, we used repeated lipid measures over 5 years from a 10% sample of the population to calculate the change per year of each of the lipid parameters and to impute time-dependent lipid parameters for the full cohort. Results After excluding those with a history of myocardial infarction, 2940 participants were available for analysis. Baseline high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels were not associated with risk of ischemic stroke. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were associated with a paradoxical reduction in risk of stroke. There was an interaction with use of cholesterol-lowering medication on follow-up, such that LDL-C level was only associated with a reduction in stroke risk among those taking medications. An LDL-C level greater than 130 mg/dL as a time-dependent covariate showed an increased risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.53–9.51). Conclusions Baseline lipid panel components were not associated with an increased stroke risk in this cohort. Treatment with cholesterol-lowering medications and changes in LDL-C level over time may have attenuated the risk in this population, and lipid measurements at several points may be a better marker of
Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Ji-Eun; Dan, Yongwook; Kim, Yong-Woon; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Cho, Kyu Hyang; Bae, Young Kyung; Im, Seung-Soon; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Song, In-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, So-Young
Clusterin is a secretory glycoprotein that is involved in multiple physiopathological processes, including lipid metabolism. Previous studies have shown that clusterin prevents hepatic lipid accumulation via suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1. In this study, we examined the role of clusterin in renal lipid accumulation in clusterin-knockout mice and NRK52e tubular epithelial cells. Clusterin deficiency increased the expression of SREBP1 and its target genes and decreased malonyl-CoA decarboxylase protein levels in the kidney. Expression of the endocytic receptor, megalin, and scavenger receptor class A was increased in clusterin-deficient mice. Functional analysis of lipid metabolism also revealed that lipid uptake and triglyceride synthesis were increased and fatty acid oxidation was reduced, leading to increased lipid accumulation in clusterin-deficient mice. These phenomena were accompanied by mesangial expansion, fibrosis and increased urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio. High-fat feeding aggravated these clusterin deficiency-induced pathological changes. Clusterin knockdown in NRK52e cells increased lipogenic gene expression and lipid levels, whereas overexpression of clusterin by treatment with adenovirus or recombinant clusterin protein suppressed lipogenic gene expression and lipid levels. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFB1) expression increased in the kidney of clusterin-deficient mice and suppression of TGFB1 in NRK52e cells suppressed lipid accumulation. These results suggest that clusterin deficiency induces renal lipid accumulation by dysregulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related factors and TGFB1, thereby leading to chronic kidney disease. Hence, clusterin may serve as a therapeutic target for lipid-induced chronic kidney disease. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.
Bhat, Swapna; Boynton, Tye O; Pham, Dan; Shimkets, Lawrence J
Myxococcus xanthus responds to amino acid limitation by producing fruiting bodies containing dormant spores. During development, cells produce triacylglycerides in lipid bodies that become consumed during spore maturation. As the cells are starved to induce development, the production of triglycerides represents a counterintuitive metabolic switch. In this paper, lipid bodies were quantified in wild-type strain DK1622 and 33 developmental mutants at the cellular level by measuring the cross sectional area of the cell stained with the lipophilic dye Nile red. We provide five lines of evidence that triacylglycerides are derived from membrane phospholipids as cells shorten in length and then differentiate into myxospores. First, in wild type cells, lipid bodies appear early in development and their size increases concurrent with an 87% decline in membrane surface area. Second, developmental mutants blocked at different stages of shortening and differentiation accumulated lipid bodies proportionate with their cell length with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.76. Third, peripheral rods, developing cells that do not produce lipid bodies, fail to shorten. Fourth, genes for fatty acid synthesis are down-regulated while genes for fatty acid degradation are up regulated. Finally, direct movement of fatty acids from membrane lipids in growing cells to lipid bodies in developing cells was observed by pulse labeling cells with palmitate. Recycling of lipids released by Programmed Cell Death appears not to be necessary for lipid body production as a fadL mutant was defective in fatty acid uptake but proficient in lipid body production. The lipid body regulon involves many developmental genes that are not specifically involved in fatty acid synthesis or degradation. MazF RNA interferase and its target, enhancer-binding protein Nla6, appear to negatively regulate cell shortening and TAG accumulation whereas most cell-cell signals activate these processes.
Dieterich, A; Troschinski, S; Schwarz, S; Di Lellis, M A; Henneberg, A; Fischbach, U; Ludwig, M; Gärtner, U; Triebskorn, R; Köhler, H-R
Terrestrial snails which live under dry and hot conditions need efficient mechanisms of adaptation to counteract the problems of desiccation and over-heating. A profoundly heat tolerant snail species is the Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina, exhibiting different shell colour morphs ranging from pale white to darkly banded. Considering that dark-pigmented snails are believed to have a disadvantage due to faster heating, we investigated possible differences in the stress markers Hsp70 and lipid peroxideation between four pre-defined colour morphs which were exposed to different temperatures for eight hours. The highest Hsp70 levels were observed in response to 38-40 °C. Levels decreased when this temperature was exceeded. Snails of a pre-defined colour category 3 (with a large black band at the umbilicus side of the shell) showed the most prominent Hsp70 response. Lipid peroxideation levels also showed a maximum at 38 °C but displayed a second peak at rather high temperatures at which the Hsp70 level already had decreased (45-48 °C). Particularly pure white snails (category 1) and the most pigmented ones (category 4) were found to have different levels of lipid peroxidation at 38 °C and 45 °C compared to the other morphs. A hypothesis involving a combined two-phase defence mechanism, to which both, the Hsp70 protection system and the antioxidant defence system, may contribute, is discussed.
Martynowycz, Michael W.
Interactions between lipids and drug molecules in biological membranes help govern proper biological function in organisms. The mechanisms responsible for hydrophobic drug permeation remain elusive. Many small molecule drugs are hydrophobic. These drugs inhibit proteins in the cellular interior. The rise of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is thought to be caused by mutations in protein structure, changing drug kinetics to favor growth. However, small molecule drugs have been shown to have different mechanisms depending in the structure of the lipid membrane of the target cell. Biological membranes are investigated using Langmuir monolayers at the air-liquid interface. These offer the highest level of control in the mimetic system and allow them to be investigated using complementary techniques. Langmuir isotherms and insertion assays are used to determine the area occupied by each lipid in the membrane and the change in area caused by the introduction of a drug molecule, respectively. Specular X-ray reflectivity is used to determine the electron density of the monolayer, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction is used to determine the in-plane order of the monolayer. These methods determine the affinity of the drug and the mechanism of action. Studies are presented on hydrophobic drugs with mammalian membrane mimics using warfarin along with modified analogues, called superwarfarins. Data shows that toxicity of these modified drugs are modulated by the membrane cholesterol content in cells; explaining several previously unexplained effects of the drugs. Membrane mimics of bacteria are investigated along with their interactions with a hydrophobic antibiotic, novobiocin. Data suggests that permeation of the drug is mediated by modifications to the membrane lipids, and completely ceases translocation under certain circumstances. Circumventing deficiencies in small, hydrophobic drugs is approached by using biologically mimetic oligomers. Peptoids, mimetic of host
Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin
The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei
High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dul, E C; Groen, H; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C M A; Dijkhuizen, T; van Echten-Arends, J; Land, J A
The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is assumed to be higher in infertile men and inversely correlated with sperm concentration. Although guidelines advise karyotyping infertile men, karyotyping is costly, therefore it would be of benefit to identify men with the highest risk of chromosomal abnormalities, possibly by using parameters other than sperm concentration. The aim of this study was to evaluate several clinical parameters in azoospermic and non-azoospermic men, in order to assess the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in different subgroups of infertile men. In a retrospective cohort of 1223 azoospermic men and men eligible for ICSI treatment, we studied sperm parameters, hormone levels and medical history for an association with chromosomal abnormalities. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in the cohort was 3.1%. No association was found between chromosomal abnormalities and sperm volume, concentration, progressive motility or total motile sperm count. Azoospermia was significantly associated with the presence of a chromosomal abnormality [15.2%, odds ratio (OR) 7.70, P < 0.001]. High gonadotrophin levels were also associated with an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities (OR 2.96, P = 0.013). Azoospermic men with a positive andrologic history had a lower prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities than azoospermic men with an uneventful history (OR 0.28, P = 0.047). In non-azoospermic men, we found that none of the studied variables were associated with the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities. We show that the highest prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is found in hypergonadotrophic azoospermic men with an uneventful andrologic history.
Botha, J L; Irwig, L M; Joffe, B I; Mendelsohn, D; Seftel, H C
Serum lipid, uric acid and glucose levels were measured in four groups of Black male factory workers 1 hour after an oral glucose load. These groups comprised non-obese manual, obese manual, non-obese clerical and obese clerical workers. Obese men had significantly higher serum uric acid, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and lower high=density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels than non-obese men. Serum glucose and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol values were also higher in obese than in non-obese men, but the differences were not significant. Clerical workers had higher levels than manual workers for most of the biochemical variables measured, but only in the case of uric acid was the difference significant. Possible reasons for the fact that the effect of occupation on the variables was slight are briefly discussed.
Kevin Crowell, PNNL
LIQUID (Lipid Informed Quantitation and Identification) is a software program that has been developed to enable users to conduct both informed and high-throughput global liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based lipidomics analysis. This newly designed desktop application can quickly identify and quantify lipids from LC-MS/MS datasets while providing a friendly graphical user interface for users to fully explore the data. Informed data analysis simply involves the user specifying an electrospray ionization mode, lipid common name (i.e. PE(16:0/18:2)), and associated charge carrier. A stemplot of the isotopic profile and a line plot of the extracted ion chromatogram are also provided to showmore » the MS-level evidence of the identified lipid. In addition to plots, other information such as intensity, mass measurement error, and elution time are also provided. Typically, a global analysis for 15,000 lipid targets« less
Lee, Chang Hwa
Central obesity and related metabolic components are important risks for microalbuminuria. To describe the effects of interactions between central obesity and related metabolic components on microalbuminuria, we conducted a nation-wide, population-based interaction analysis using cardio-metabolic index (CMI) as a candidate indicator of central obesity and related abnormal lipid metabolism. We recruited native Koreans aged 20 years or older with no medical illness. A total of 5398 participants were divided into quintiles according to CMI with sex as a covariate factor. Participants in the highest CMI quintile had elevated blood pressure (BP), increased glycemic exposure, poor lipid profile, and increased urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio compared to other lower quintiles. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, systolic BP, and diastolic BP showed that CMI had an independent association with increased glycemic exposure and increased urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Our interaction analysis revealed a significant interaction between the highest CMI quintile and prediabetes with an increased risk of microalbuminuria (adjusted RERI = 0.473, 95% CI = 0.464–0.482; adjusted AP = 0.276, 95% CI = 0.156–0.395; adjusted SI = 2.952, 95% CI = 1.234–4.670). Our findings suggest a significant association between central obesity-related abnormal lipid metabolism and prediabetes, and their interaction may exert a synergistic effect on renal vascular endothelial dysfunction even before the appearance of full-blown diabetes mellitus. To confirm these findings, large population-based prospective studies are needed. PMID:28715448
Liu, Wenhua; Huang, Zheren; Tang, Shanshan; Wei, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Zhifen
In the present study, the risk coefficients of serum homocysteine (hcy), lipid levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophils to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in postmenopausal osteopenic women were determined. We enrolled 269 patients with postmenopausal women from Hangzhou No.1 Hospital gynecological clinic, who aged 45 to 60 years old and never received menopause hormone therapy. According to the bone mineral density determination results, subjects were divided into normal group (n = 128), osteopenia group (n = 141). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum hcy, CRP and lipid indexes were determined by enzyme chemiluminescence immunoassay. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of those variables (menopausal age, duration of menopause, LDL, CRP, hcy and NLR) were found significant (p < 0.05). Menopausal age, duration of menopause, LDL, CRP, hcy and NLR variables were found statistically significant in the analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROCs). The present study shows that menopause age, duration of menopause, serum LDL, CRP, hcy and NLR levels are risk factors for postmenopausal osteopenic women, which may be used as the indicators of bone loss in postmenopausal women.
Olżyńska, Agnieszka; Cwiklik, Lukasz
Tear film lipid layer is a complex lipid mixture forming the outermost interface between eye and environment. Its key characteristics, such as surface tension and structural stability, are governed by the presence of polar lipids. The origin of these lipids and exact composition of the mixture are still elusive. We focus on two minor polar lipid components of the tear film lipid later: sphingomyelin and ceramide. By employing coarse grain molecular dynamics in silico simulations accompanied by Langmuir balance experiments we provide molecular-level insight into behavior of these two lipids in a tear film lipid layer model. Sphingomyelin headgroups are significantly exposed at the water-lipids boundary while ceramide molecules are incorporated between other lipids frequently interacting with nonpolar lipids. Even though these two lipids increase surface tension of the film, their molecular-level behavior suggests that they have a stabilizing effect on the tear film lipid layer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Hargett, Stefan R; Walker, Natalie N; Hussain, Syed S; Hoehn, Kyle L; Keller, Susanna R
Tbc1d1 is a Rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) implicated in regulating intracellular retention and cell surface localization of the glucose transporter GLUT4 and thus glucose uptake in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Tbc1d1 is most abundant in skeletal muscle but is expressed at varying levels among different skeletal muscles. Previous studies with male Tbc1d1-deficient (Tbc1d1(-/-)) mice on standard and high-fat diets established a role for Tbc1d1 in glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. Here we describe similar, but also additional abnormalities in male and female Tbc1d1(-/-) mice. We corroborate that Tbc1d1 loss leads to skeletal muscle-specific and skeletal muscle type-dependent abnormalities in GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake in female and male mice. Using subcellular fractionation, we show that Tbc1d1 controls basal intracellular GLUT4 retention in large skeletal muscles. However, cell surface labeling of extensor digitorum longus muscle indicates that Tbc1d1 does not regulate basal GLUT4 cell surface exposure as previously suggested. Consistent with earlier observations, female and male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice demonstrate increased energy expenditure and skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, we observe sex-dependent differences in in vivo phenotypes. Female, but not male, Tbc1d1(-/-) mice have decreased body weight and impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, but only male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice show increased lipid clearance after oil gavage. We surmise that similar changes at the tissue level cause differences in whole-body metabolism between male and female Tbc1d1(-/-) mice and between male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice in different studies due to variations in body composition and nutrient handling. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Harriott, V J
Environmental monitoring of coral reefs is presently limited by difficulties in recognising coral stress, other than by monitoring coral mortality over time. A recent report described an experiment demonstrating that a measured lipid index declined in shaded corals. The technique described might have application in monitoring coral health, with a decline in coral lipid index as an indicator of coral stress. The application of the technique as a practical monitoring tool was tested for two coral species from the Great Barrier Reef. Consistent with the previous results, lipid index for Pocillopora damicornis initially declined over a period of three weeks in corals maintained in filtered seawater in the dark, indicating possible utilization of lipid stored as energy reserves. However, lipid index subsequently rose to near normal levels. In contrast, lipid index of Acropora formosa increased after four weeks in the dark in filtered seawater. The results showed considerable variability in lipid content between samples from the same colony. Results were also found to be dependent on fixation times and sample weight, introducing potential error into the practical application of the technique. The method as described would be unsuitable for monitoring environmental stress in corals, but the search for a practical method to monitor coral health should continue, given its importance in coral reef management.
Kohli, Aparna; Siddhu, Anupa; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Reddy, K. Srinath
Context: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality in Indians. Insulin resistance and related dyslipidemia of increased triglyceride (TG), small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) particles, and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased risk of CVD. TG/HDL-C ratio could be a potential surrogate marker for this South Asian phenotype. Data are scarce on the relevance of TG/HDL-C ratio as a useful lipid marker among Indians. Aims: To study the prevalence of TG/HDL-C ratio among healthy, young, and middle-aged Indian men (25–44 years) and its relationship with other lipid and nonlipid factors. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis, fasting blood samples from 236 healthy participants recruited from an urban community setting were tested for TG/HDL-C ratio, HDL-C, TG, total cholesterol (TC), non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index (BMI), and body fat. Results: Mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 34.7 (7.7) years; median (interquartile range) TG/HDL-C ratio was 4 (2.85-5.2). More than half (51.3%) the participants (n = 121) recorded abnormal TG/HDL-C ratio (≥4.0). Across tertiles of TG/HDL-C ratio, there was a significant trend of higher conventional lipid parameters such as non-HDL-C*, TC/HDL-C ratio*, TG*, HDL-C*, TC**; and non-lipid parameters body-fat* and BMI*** (*P < 0.001, **P = 0.015, ***P = 0.002). LDL-C showed moderate and nonsignificant (P = 0.646) increase across tertiles. Conclusion: In a sample of apparently healthy, young, and middle-aged Indian men abnormal TG/HDL-C ratio levels were observed among more than half the participants. The TG/HDL-C ratio was closely associated with other lipid parameters and measures of adiposity, such as BMI and body fat, apart from its previously documented unique association with sd-LDL particles. TG/HDL-C ratio should be evaluated in future for risk prediction of incident CVD among Indians
Kohli, Aparna; Siddhu, Anupa; Pandey, Ravindra M; Reddy, K Srinath
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality in Indians. Insulin resistance and related dyslipidemia of increased triglyceride (TG), small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) particles, and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased risk of CVD. TG/HDL-C ratio could be a potential surrogate marker for this South Asian phenotype. Data are scarce on the relevance of TG/HDL-C ratio as a useful lipid marker among Indians. To study the prevalence of TG/HDL-C ratio among healthy, young, and middle-aged Indian men (25-44 years) and its relationship with other lipid and nonlipid factors. In this cross-sectional analysis, fasting blood samples from 236 healthy participants recruited from an urban community setting were tested for TG/HDL-C ratio, HDL-C, TG, total cholesterol (TC), non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index (BMI), and body fat. Mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 34.7 (7.7) years; median (interquartile range) TG/HDL-C ratio was 4 (2.85-5.2). More than half (51.3%) the participants ( n = 121) recorded abnormal TG/HDL-C ratio (≥4.0). Across tertiles of TG/HDL-C ratio, there was a significant trend of higher conventional lipid parameters such as non-HDL-C*, TC/HDL-C ratio*, TG*, HDL-C*, TC**; and non-lipid parameters body-fat* and BMI*** (* P < 0.001, ** P = 0.015, *** P = 0.002). LDL-C showed moderate and nonsignificant ( P = 0.646) increase across tertiles. In a sample of apparently healthy, young, and middle-aged Indian men abnormal TG/HDL-C ratio levels were observed among more than half the participants. The TG/HDL-C ratio was closely associated with other lipid parameters and measures of adiposity, such as BMI and body fat, apart from its previously documented unique association with sd-LDL particles. TG/HDL-C ratio should be evaluated in future for risk prediction of incident CVD among Indians.
Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali
To determine the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in the serum and urine of patients with urinary stones disease. Two hundred patients with either multiple or recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed on ultrasonography and intravenous urography were included in this study. 24 hour urine sample were collected from each patient and sent for PH, specific gravity, Creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and magnesium. In addition, blood sample of each patient was also sent for serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate and calcium. Mean age of patients was 38 ± 7.75 years with male to female ratio of 2:1. The main presenting complaint was lumber pain and 82.5% patients were found to have calcium oxalate stones on chemical analysis. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 90.5% patients, whereas there were no metabolic abnormalities in 19 (9.5%) patients. Forty patients (21.5%) only had one metabolic abnormality and 157 (78.5%) patients had multiple metabolic abnormalities. Hyperoxaluria was the most commonly observed metabolic abnormality and was found in 64.5% patients. Other significant metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria, Hypercalcemia, hypocitraturia and hyperuricemia. This study concludes that frequency of metabolic abnormalities is very high in patients with urolithiasis and hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia are the most important metabolic abnormalities observed in these patients.
Qiu, Hong; Jin, Min; Li, Yi; Lu, You; Hou, Yingmei; Zhou, Qicun
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), rapeseed oil (RO) and peanut oil (PO), respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13.77±0.07g) were stocked in 15 floating net cages (1.5m×1.5m×2.0m). Fish fed the diets containing RO and LO had lower weight gain and specific growth rates than those fed the FO, SO and PO diets. Survival, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, viscerasomatic index and condition factor were not significantly affected by different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the diet containing FO had higher lipid content in whole body compared with the other groups, whereas fish fed the SO diet had the lowest muscle lipid content. Fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver reflected the fatty acid composition of the diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly influenced by different dietary lipid sources, while total protein, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase or malondialdehyde in plasma were not affected by the different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the LO diet had lower adipose triglyceride lipase and fatty acid synthase activities in liver than those fed the diets containing FO and RO, while the LO diet resulted in the highest hepatic carnitine palmitoultransferase-1 activity. Hepatic gene relative expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in fish fed PO diet was significantly higher than all other groups, whereas fish fed the SO and LO diets had lower relative expression levels of lipoprotein
Syed, Samreen K; Bui, Hai Hoang; Beavers, Lisa S; Farb, Thomas B; Ficorilli, James; Chesterfield, Amy K; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Bokvist, Krister; Barrett, David G; Efanov, Alexander M
The GPR119 receptor plays an important role in the secretion of incretin hormones in response to nutrient consumption. We have studied the ability of an array of naturally occurring endocannabinoid-like lipids to activate GPR119 and have identified several lipid receptor agonists. The most potent receptor agonists identified were three N-acylethanolamines: oleoylethanolamine (OEA), palmitoleoylethanolamine, and linoleylethanolamine (LEA), all of which displayed similar potency in activating GPR119. Another lipid, 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG), also activated GPR119 receptor but with significantly lower potency. Endogenous levels of endocannabinoid-like lipids were measured in intestine in fasted and refed mice. Of the lipid GPR119 agonists studied, the intestinal levels of only OEA, LEA, and 2-OG increased significantly upon refeeding. Intestinal levels of OEA and LEA in the fasted mice were low. In the fed state, OEA levels only moderately increased, whereas LEA levels rose drastically. 2-OG was the most abundant of the three GPR119 agonists in intestine, and its levels were radically elevated in fed mice. Our data suggest that, in lean mice, 2-OG and LEA may serve as physiologically relevant endogenous GPR119 agonists that mediate receptor activation upon nutrient uptake.
Li, Qing; Yin, Rui-Xing; Yan, Ting-Ting; Miao, Lin; Cao, Xiao-Li; Hu, Xi-Jiang; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Lin, Wei-Xiong
The association of UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 gene (GALNT2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles in the general population is not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of GALNT2 polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 775 subjects of Mulao nationality and 699 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the GALNT2 rs2144300 and rs4846914 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of both SNPs between the two ethnic groups, or between the males and females. The subjects with TT genotype of rs2144300 in Mulao had lower serum triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with CC genotype in females (P < 0.01). The participants with CT/TT genotype of rs2144300 in Han had lower TG and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB in males; and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in females than the participants with CC genotype (P < 0.05-0.001). The individuals with GA/AA genotype of rs4846914 in Mulao had higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels than the individuals with GG genotype in males (P < 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype of rs4846914 in Han had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels, and lower HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB than the subjects with GG genotype (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of TC in Mulao were correlated with the genotypes of rs4846914 in males (P < 0.05). The levels of ApoA1 in Han were correlated with the genotypes of both SNPs, and the
Background The association of UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 gene (GALNT2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles in the general population is not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of GALNT2 polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Method A total of 775 subjects of Mulao nationality and 699 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the GALNT2 rs2144300 and rs4846914 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of both SNPs between the two ethnic groups, or between the males and females. The subjects with TT genotype of rs2144300 in Mulao had lower serum triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with CC genotype in females (P < 0.01). The participants with CT/TT genotype of rs2144300 in Han had lower TG and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB in males; and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in females than the participants with CC genotype (P < 0.05-0.001). The individuals with GA/AA genotype of rs4846914 in Mulao had higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels than the individuals with GG genotype in males (P < 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype of rs4846914 in Han had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels, and lower HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB than the subjects with GG genotype (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of TC in Mulao were correlated with the genotypes of rs4846914 in males (P < 0.05). The levels of ApoA1 in Han were correlated with the genotypes
Puri, Basant K; Ross, Brian M; Treasaden, Ian H
This study directly assessed whether there was a change in the level of exhaled ethane, which provides a non-invasive, quantitative, direct measure of n-3 lipid peroxidation, in the breath of patients with schizophrenia. Samples of alveolar air were obtained from 20 subjects with schizophrenia and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The air samples were analyzed for ethane using mass spectrometry. The mean level of ethane in the schizophrenia sample [5.15 (S.E. 0.56) ppb] was significantly higher than that of the healthy controls [2.63 (S.E. 0.31) ppb; p<0.0005]. A further sub-analysis showed that nicotine dependence was unlikely to be the cause of this difference. These results suggest that the measurement of exhaled ethane levels may offer a non-invasive direct biomarker of increased n-3 lipid peroxidation in schizophrenia.
Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro
T cells specific for lipid antigens participate in regulation of the immune response during infections, tumor immunosurveillance, allergy and autoimmune diseases. T cells recognize lipid antigens as complexes formed with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, thus resembling recognition of MHC-peptide complexes. The biophysical properties of lipids impose unique mechanisms for their delivery, internalization into antigen-presenting cells, membrane trafficking, processing, and loading of CD1 molecules. Each of these steps is controlled at molecular and celular levels and determines lipid immunogenicity. Lipid antigens may derive from microbes and from the cellular metabolism, thus allowing the immune system to survey a large repertoire of immunogenic molecules. Recognition of lipid antigens facilitates the detection of infectious agents and the initiation of responses involved in immunoregulation and autoimmunity. This review focuses on the presentation mechanisms and specific recognition of self and bacterial lipid antigens and discusses the important open issues.
Lee, Eun Jeong; Yun, Un-Jung; Koo, Kyung Hee; Sung, Jee Young; Shim, Jaegal; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Kim, Yong-Nyun
Lipid rafts, plasma membrane microdomains, are important for cell survival signaling and cholesterol is a critical lipid component for lipid raft integrity and function. DHA is known to have poor affinity for cholesterol and it influences lipid rafts. Here, we investigated a mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of DHA using a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. We found that DHA decreased cell surface levels of lipid rafts via their internalization, which was partially reversed by cholesterol addition. With DHA treatment, caveolin-1, a marker for rafts, and EGFR were colocalized with LAMP-1, a lysosomal marker, in a cholesterol-dependent manner, indicating that DHA induces raft fusion with lysosomes. DHA not only displaced several raft-associated onco-proteins, including EGFR, Hsp90, Akt, and Src, from the rafts but also decreased total levels of those proteins via multiple pathways, including the proteasomal and lysosomal pathways, thereby decreasing their activities. Hsp90 overexpression maintained its client proteins, EGFR and Akt, and attenuated DHA-induced cell death. In addition, overexpression of Akt or constitutively active Akt attenuated DHA-induced apoptosis. All these data indicate that the anti-proliferative effect of DHA is mediated by targeting of lipid rafts via decreasing cell surface lipid rafts by their internalization, thereby decreasing raft-associated onco-proteins via proteasomal and lysosomal pathways and decreasing Hsp90 chaperone function. © 2013.
Liu, F; Prabhakar, M; Ju, J; Long, H; Zhou, H-W
This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of inulin-type fructans (ITF) on human blood lipids and glucose homeostasis associated with metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, overweight or obesity, and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) before January 2016. Human trials that investigated the effects of ITF supplementation on the lipid profile, fasting glucose and insulin were included using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty RCTs with 607 adult participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, the supplementation of ITF reduced only the low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) (mean difference (MD): -0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.29, -0.02; P=0.03) without affecting the other endpoints. Within the T2DM subgroup analysis, ITF supplementation was positively associated with a decreased fasting insulin concentration (MD: -4.01; 95% CI: -5.92, -2.09; P<0.0001) and increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (MD: 0.07; 95% CI: 0, 0.14; P=0.05). Moreover, a reduced fasting glucose tendency was identified only in the T2DM subgroup (MD: -0.42; 95% CI: -0.90, 0.06; P=0.09). There was a potential publication bias, and few trials were available for the T2DM subgroup analysis. In summary, the use of ITF may have benefits for LDL-c reduction across all study populations, whereas HDL-c improvement and glucose control were demonstrated only in the T2DM subgroup. Thus, additional, well-powered, long-term, randomized clinical trials are required for a definitive conclusion. Overall, ITF supplementation may provide a novel direction for improving the lipid profile and glucose metabolism.
Vieira, Ana Carolina R; Alvarez, Marlene M; Kanaan, Salim; Sichieri, Rosely; Veiga, Gloria V
To determine the best cut-offs of body mass index for identifying alterations of blood lipids and glucose in adolescents. A probabilistic sample including 577 adolescent students aged 12-19 years in 2003 (210 males and 367 females) from state public schools in the city of Niterói, Southeastern Brazil, was studied. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was used to identify the best age-adjusted BMI cut-off for predicting high levels of serum total cholesterol (> or =150 mg/dL), LDL-C (> or =100 mg/dL), serum triglycerides (> or =100 mg/dL), plasma glucose (> 100 mg/dL) and low levels of HDL-C (< 45 mg/dL). Four references were used to calculate sensitivity and specificity of BMI cut-offs: one Brazilian, one international and two American. The most prevalent metabolic alterations (>50%) were: high total cholesterol and low HDL-C. BMI predicted high levels of triglycerides in males, high LDL-C in females, and high total cholesterol and the occurrence of three or more metabolic alterations in both males and females (areas under the curve range: 0.59 to 0.67), with low sensitivity (57%-66%) and low specificity (58%-66%). The best BMI cut-offs for this sample (20.3 kg/m(2) to 21.0 kg/m(2)) were lower than those proposed in the references studied. Although BMI values lower than the International cut-offs were better predictor of some metabolic abnormalities in Brazilian adolescents, overall BMI is not a good predictor of these abnormalities in this population.
Larsen, Sunniva V; Holven, Kirsten B; Ottestad, Inger; Dagsland, Kine N; Myhrstad, Mari C W; Ulven, Stine M
Solid evidence indicates that intake of marine n-3 fatty acids lowers serum triglycerides and that replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. The molecular mechanisms underlying these health beneficial effects are however not completely elucidated. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) depending on the plasma levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and the SFA to PUFA ratio. Fifty-four healthy subjects were grouped into tertiles ( n = 18) based on plasma levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and the SFA to PUFA ratio. The PBMC gene expression levels among subjects in the highest versus the lowest tertiles were compared. In total, 285 genes related to cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism were selected for this explorative study. Among the 285 selected genes, 161 were defined as expressed in the PBMCs. The plasma SFA to PUFA ratio was associated with the highest number of significantly different expressed genes (25 gene transcripts), followed by plasma n-6 fatty acid level (15 gene transcripts) and plasma n-3 fatty acid level (8 gene transcripts). In particular, genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis were significantly different expressed among subjects with high compared to low plasma SFA to PUFA ratio. Genes involved in lipid metabolism were differentially expressed in PBMCs depending on the plasma fatty acid levels. This finding may increase our understanding of how fatty acids influence lipid metabolism at a molecular level in humans.
Brummett, Beverly H; Boyle, Stephen H; Siegler, Ilene C; Zuchner, Stephan; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Williams, Redford B
The monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) gene plays a vital role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters, e.g, serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. A polymorphism in the promoter region (MAOA-uVNTR) affects transcriptional efficiency. Allelic variation in MAOA-uVNTR has been associated with body mass index (BMI). We extended previous work by examining relations among this polymorphism and serum lipid levels. The sample consisted of 74 males enrolled in a study of caregivers for relatives with dementia. Regression models, adjusted for age, race, group status (caregiver/control), and cholesterol lowering medication (yes/no), were used to examine associations between high verses low MAOA-uVNTR activity alleles and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, LDL/HDL ratio, triglycerides, and BMI. Higher total cholesterol (p<0.03), LDL/HDL ratio (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.02), and VLDL (p<0.02) were associated with low activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles. HDL and LDL were modestly related to MAOA-uVNTR activity, however, they did not reach the conventional significance level (p<0.07 and p<0.10, respectively). BMI (p<0.74) was unrelated to MAOA-uVNTR transcription. The present findings suggest that MAOA-uVNTR may influence lipid levels and individuals with less active alleles are at increased health risk.
Hernawati; Setiawan, N. A.; Shintawati, R.; Priyandoko, D.
The purpose of this research was to know the role of red dragon fruit peel powder to total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and weight in the male hyperlipidaemic Balb-C mice (Mus musculus). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) and four replicates for each dose treatments. Samples were 24 male mice that divided into six groups i.e. positive and negative controls, doses of 50; 100; 150 and 200 mg/kgBW/days red dragon fruit peel powder. Before being given treatment, mice were given feed containing high fat for 20 days until experiencing conditions hyperlipidaemia. The red dragon fruit peel powder was given at oral with used gavage for 30 days. Blood samples were taken from the tail on vena caudalis. Blood lipid samples were analysed at enzymatic with BIOLABO kits. The results of this study indicate that after administration of red dragon fruit peel powder total cholesterol levels, triglycerides and LDL-c decreased, along with increasing doses of red dragon fruit peel powder for 30 days. Furthermore showed that dragon fruit powder can increase HDL-c levels. The conclusion of this research was The red dragon fruit peel powder can improve blood lipid level of male Balb-c mice hyperlipidaemia.
Metabolic effects of trogiltazone on fructose-induced insulin resistance in the rat,” Diabetes, vol. 43, pp. 1435–1439, 1995.  T. P. Ciaraldi...re- mains unclear. It is possible that these agents indirectly alter plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels indirectly by improving insulin sensitivity...induced by TZDs remains unclear. It is possible that these agents indi- rectly alter plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels indirectly by improving insulin
Chen, Jidi; Xue, Bin; Li, Keji; Shi, Jingda; Krempin, D; Zhu, M; Garland, C
To determine the effectiveness of an instant haw beverage in regulating lipid disturbance, enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and immune function. Data was collected from 60 hyperlipidemic subjects. In this crossover design, each subject randomly received either the instant haw beverage (100 ml corresponding to 3 g of haw powder or 30 g of fresh haw fruit plus the carrier-guar gum plus some starch) or placebo (guar gum 1.5 g plus some starch as the carrier of the beverage) twice daily. Each supplementation lasted 31 days with a 28-day washout period between treatments. The instant haw beverage significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (9.6%), triglyceride (12.1%), LDLC (18%) while significantly increased SOD activities (7.5%). The placebo was shown to have positive results in some of the lipid profiles, though the effects of the instant haw beverage demonstrated greater significance. Serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased and SOD activity significantly increased only as subjects were supplemented with the instant haw beverage while no significant changes were seen with placebo. Supplementation with the instant haw beverage positively affects blood lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune function in individuals with hyperlipidemia.
Posadzki, Paul; AlBedah, Abdullah M N; Khalil, Mohamed M K; AlQaed, Meshari S
The aim of this article is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for lowering blood lipid levels (BLL). Eight electronic databases were searched until March 2016. Additionally, all the retrieved references were inspected manually for further relevant papers. Systematic reviews were considered eligible, if they included patients of any age and/or gender with elevated blood lipid levels using any type of CAM. We used the Oxman and AMSTAR criteria to critically appraise the methodological quality of the included SRs. Twenty-seven SRs were included in the analyses. The majority of the SRs were of high methodological quality (mean Oxman score=4.81, SD=4.88; and the mean AMSTAR score=7.22, SD=3.38). The majority of SRs (56%) arrived at equivocal conclusions (of these 8 were of high quality); 7 SRs (37%) arrived at positive conclusions (of these 6 were of high quality), and 2 (7%) arrived at negative conclusions (both were of high quality). There was conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of garlic; and promising evidence for yoga. To conclude, the evidence from SRs evaluating the effectiveness of CAM in lowering BLL is predominantly equivocal and confusing. Several limitations exist, such as variety of doses and preparations, confounding effects of diets and lifestyle factors, or heterogeneity of the primary trials among others. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Cheng, Xinwei; Lee, Robert J
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have shown promise as delivery vehicles for therapeutic oligonucleotides, including antisense oligos (ONs), siRNA, and microRNA mimics and inhibitors. In addition to a cationic lipid, LNPs are typically composed of helper lipids that contribute to their stability and delivery efficiency. Helper lipids with cone-shape geometry favoring the formation hexagonal II phase, such as dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), can promote endosomal release of ONs. Meanwhile, cylindrical-shaped lipid phosphatidylcholine can provide greater bilayer stability, which is important for in vivo application of LNPs. Cholesterol is often included as a helper that improves intracellular delivery as well as LNP stability in vivo. Inclusion of a PEGylating lipid can enhance LNP colloidal stability in vitro and circulation time in vivo but may reduce uptake and inhibit endosomal release at the cellular level. This problem can be addressed by choosing reversible PEGylation in which the PEG moiety is gradually released in blood circulation. pH-sensitive anionic helper lipids, such as fatty acids and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS), can trigger low-pH-induced changes in LNP surface charge and destabilization that can facilitate endosomal release of ONs. Generally speaking, there is no correlation between LNP activity in vitro and in vivo because of differences in factors limiting the efficiency of delivery. Designing LNPs requires the striking of a proper balance between the need for particle stability, long systemic circulation time, and the need for LNP destabilization inside the target cell to release the oligonucleotide cargo, which requires the proper selection of both the cationic and helper lipids. Customized design and empirical optimization is needed for specific applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U
To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.
Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Nakamura, K; Suzuki, K
Cross-sectional associations between lifestyle and serum lipid levels were examined in 1591 Japanese male office workers aged 35 to 59 years in Osaka, Japan. From multiple linear regression analyses, significant correlates with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and Log triglyceride levels and the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol were, in the order of relative importance: BMI, alcohol intake (negative) and age for LDL cholesterol level; BMI (negative), cigarette smoking (negative), alcohol intake, consideration for nutritional balance, hours of brisk walking, hours of walking at an ordinary pace and physical exercise for HDL cholesterol level; BMI, cigarette smoking, consideration for nutritional balance (negative), hours of work (negative), alcohol intake and coffee drinking (negative) for Log triglyceride level; and BMI, alcohol intake (negative), cigarette smoking, consideration for nutritional balance (negative), age, hours of brisk walking (negative) and the frequency of snack intake between meals for the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Our data suggest that obesity, cigarette smoking and snack intake between meals are atherogenic whereas alcohol consumption, consideration for nutritional balance and walking long hours, especially at a brisk pace, are anti-atherogenic in middle-aged Japanese men.
Ku, Tingting; Zhang, Yingying; Ji, Xiaotong; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan
Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is a serious threat to human health. As a toxicant constituent, metal leads to significant health risks in a population, but exposure to PM 2.5 -bound metals and their biological impacts are not fully understood. In this study, we determined the metal contents of PM 2.5 samples collected from a typical coal-burning city and then investigated the metabolic distributions of six metals (Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Cu, and Cd) following PM 2.5 inhalation in mice in different developmental windows. The results indicate that fine particles were mainly deposited in the lung, but PM 2.5 -bound metals could reach and gather in secondary off-target tissues (the lung, liver, heart and brain) with a developmental window-dependent property. Furthermore, elevations in triglycerides and cholesterol levels in sensitive developmental windows (the young and elderly stages) occurred, and significant associations between metals (Pb, Mn, As and Cd) and cholesterol in the heart, brain, liver and lung were observed. These findings suggest that PM 2.5 inhalation caused selective metal metabolic distribution in tissues with a developmental window-dependent property and that the effects were associated with lipid alterations. This provides a foundation for the underlying systemic toxicity following PM 2.5 exposure based on metal components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pedro-Botet, J; Flores-Le Roux, J A; Mostaza, J M; Pintó, X; de la Cruz, J J; Banegas, J R
Atherogenic dyslipidemia, which is characterized by increased triglyceride levels and reduced HDL cholesterol levels, is underestimated and undertreated in clinical practice. We assessed its prevalence and the achievement of therapeutic objectives for HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients treated at lipid and vascular risk units in Spain. This was an observational, longitudinal, retrospective, multicenter study performed in 14 autonomous Spanish communities that consecutively included 1828 patients aged ≥18 years who were referred for dyslipidemia and vascular risk to 43 lipid clinics accredited by the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis. We collected information from the medical records corresponding to 2 visits conducted during 2010 and 2011-12, respectively. Of the 1649 patients who had a lipid profile in the first visit (90.2%), 295 (17.9%) had atherogenic dyslipidemia. The factors associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia were excess weight/obesity, not taking hypolipidemic drugs (statins and/or fibrates), diabetes, myocardial infarction and previous heart failure. Of the 273 (92.5%) patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia that had a lipid profile in the last visit, 44 (16.1%) achieved the therapeutic objectives for HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The predictors of therapeutic success were normal weight and normoglycemia. One of every 6 patients treated in lipid and vascular risk units had atherogenic dyslipidemia. The degree to which the therapeutic goals for HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were achieved in these patients was very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Togha, Mansoureh; Gheini, Mohamad Reza; Ahmadi, Babak; Khashaiar, Patricia; Razeghi, Soodeh
Changes in the lipid profile have been suggested as a risk factor for developing ischemic stroke. Their role in intra-cerebral hemorrhage, however, is not clear. The present study was designed to evaluate the lipid profile levels of patients who had experienced an acute stroke during the first 24-hour and to compare these levels in different patients suffering from the stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, and healthy individuals. In this cross-sectional study, 258 consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted to the neurology department of our center during September 2006 and September 2007 were studied. As for the control group, 187 apparently healthy subjects living in the same community and matched for age and sex were selected. Lipid profile was measured and compared between the three groups. In the patients' group, 65 suffered from hemorrhagic stroke (group 1) and the other 193 had ischemic stroke (group 2). Except for TG values, there was no significant difference among the ischemic and hemorrhagic lipid profile. Age, cholesterol, and LDL influenced the risk of developing an ischemic stroke; TG was not reported as a risk factor or a protective one. While the comparison of data retrieved from patients suffering from hemorrhagic strokes with the controls, revealed LDL as the risk factor contributing to the development of ICH whereas TG was reported as a protective factor. It could be concluded that LDL level can be considered as a risk factor for both ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebral events.
Sims, Kacee H; Tytler, Ewan M; Tipton, John; Hill, Kasey L; Burgess, Stephen W; Shaw, Walter A
Lipid research is challenging owing to the complexity and diversity of the lipidome. Here we review a set of experimental tools developed for the seasoned lipid researcher, as well as, those who are new to the field of lipid research. Novel tools for probing protein-lipid interactions, applications for lipid binding antibodies, enhanced systems for the cellular delivery of lipids, improved visualization of lipid membranes using gold-labeled lipids, and advances in mass spectrometric analysis techniques will be discussed. Because lipid mediators are known to participate in a host of signal transduction and trafficking pathways within the cell, a comprehensive lipid toolbox that aids the science of lipidomics research is essential to better understand the molecular mechanisms of interactions between cellular components. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kong, Jian; Perkins, L Brian; Dougherty, Michael P; Camire, Mary Ellen
A shelf-life study was conducted to evaluate the effect of antioxidants on oxidative stability of extruded jerky-style salmon snacks. Deterioration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) due to lipid oxidation is a major concern for this healthy snack. A control jerky with no added antioxidants and 4 jerkies with antioxidants (rosemary, mixed tocopherols, tertiary butylhydroquinone, and ascorbyl palmitate) added as 0.02% of the lipid content were extruded in duplicate in a Coperion ZSK-25 twin screw extruder. Salmon jerkies from each formulation were placed in 3 mil barrier pouches, flushed with nitrogen, and stored at 35 °C and 75% relative humidity. Lipid oxidation was evaluated as by peroxide value and malonaldehyde content. Other chemical analyses included total fatty acid composition, lipid content, moisture, water activity, pH, and salt. Astaxanthin and CIE L*, a*, b* color were also analyzed at 4-wk intervals. Rosemary inhibited peroxide formation better than did other antioxidants at week 8; no treatment inhibited malonaldehyde levels. All jerkies had lower astaxanthin levels after 8 wk, but rosemary-treated jerky had higher pigment concentrations than did the control at weeks 4 and 8. Protection of omega-3 lipids in these extruded jerkies must be improved to offer consumers a convenient source of these healthful lipids. Practical Application: Salmon flesh can be extruded to produce a jerky that provides 410 mg of omega-3 lipids per serving. Natural antioxidants such as rosemary should be added at levels over 0.02% of the lipid content to help control lipid oxidation. Astaxanthin and CIE a* values correlated well with lipid stability and could be used to monitor quality during storage if initial values are known.
Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Ortega, Francisco B; Moreno, Luis A; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Martí, Amelia; Nova, Esther; Fuentes, Miguel García; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Martínez, J Alfredo; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J
There is increasing evidence indicating that genes involved in certain metabolic processes of cardiovascular diseases may be of particular influence in people with low body weight at birth. We examined whether the apolipoprotein (APO) E, APOC3 and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-2 (PPARgamma2) polymorphisms influence the association between low birth weight and blood lipid levels in healthy adolescents aged 13-18.5 years. A cross-sectional study of 502 Spanish adolescents born at term was conducted. Total (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein (apo) A and B, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were measured. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA were calculated. Low birth weight was associated with higher levels of TC, LDLc, apoB, Lp(a), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA in males with the APOE epsilon3epsilon4 genotype, whereas in females, it was associated with lower HDLc and higher TG levels. In males with the APOC3 S1/S2 genotype, low birth weight was associated with lower apoA and higher Lp(a), yet this association was not observed in females. There were no associations between low birth weight and blood lipids in any of the PPARgamma2 genotypes. The results indicate that low birth weight has a deleterious influence on lipid profile particularly in adolescents with the APOE epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype. These findings suggest that intrauterine environment interact with the genetic background affecting the lipid profile in later life.
This is the second Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function'. It covers current topics in lipid structure, metabolism and function in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including seed plants, algae, mosses and ferns. Work in photosynthetic bacteria is considered as well as it serves the understanding of specific aspects of lipid metabolism in plants. Breakthroughs are discussed in research on plant lipids as diverse as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, lipids of the cell surface, isoprenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. The program covers nine concepts at the forefront of research under which afore mentioned plant lipid classes are discussed. Themore » goal is to integrate areas such as lipid signaling, basic lipid metabolism, membrane function, lipid analysis, and lipid engineering to achieve a high level of stimulating interaction among diverse researchers with interests in plant lipids. One Emphasis is on the dynamics and regulation of lipid metabolism during plant cell development and in response to environmental factors.« less
Li, Qing; Shao, Jianhua; Tang, Shaohua; Shen, Qingwen; Wang, Tiehu; Chen, Wenling; Hong, Yueyun
Wrinkled1 (WRI1) belongs to the APETALA2 transcription factor family; it is unique to plants and is a central regulator of oil synthesis in Arabidopsis. The effects of WRI1 on comprehensive lipid metabolism and plant development were unknown, especially in crop plants. This study found that BnWRI1 in Brassica napus accelerated flowering and enhanced oil accumulation in both seeds and leaves without leading to a visible growth inhibition. BnWRI1 decreased storage carbohydrates and increased soluble sugars to facilitate the carbon flux to lipid anabolism. BnWRI1 is localized to the nucleus and directly binds to the AW-box at proximal upstream regions of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis and lipid assembly. The overexpression (OE) of BnWRI1 resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in glycolysis, FA synthesis, lipid assembly, and flowering. Lipid profiling revealed increased galactolipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the leaves of OE plants, whereas it exhibited a reduced level of the galactolipids DGDG and MGDG and increased levels of PC, phosphatidylethanolamide, and oil [triacylglycerol (TAG)] in the siliques of OE plants during the early seed development stage. These results suggest that BnWRI1 is important for homeostasis among TAG, membrane lipids and sugars, and thus facilitates flowering and oil accumulation in B. napus.
Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei
With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rasheed, Suraiya; Yan, Jasper S; Lau, Alex; Chan, Arvan S
HIV-infected patients develop multiple metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia. Although progression of these disorders has been associated with the use of various protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral drugs, HIV-infected individuals who have not received these treatments also develop lipid abnormalities albeit to a lesser extent. How HIV alters lipid metabolism in an infected cell and what molecular changes are affected through protein interaction pathways are not well-understood. Since many genetic, epigenetic, dietary and other factors influence lipid metabolism in vivo, we have chosen to study genome-wide changes in the proteomes of a human T-cell line before and after HIV infection in order to circumvent computational problems associated with multiple variables. Four separate experiments were conducted including one that compared 14 different time points over a period of >3 months. By subtractive analyses of protein profiles overtime, several hundred differentially expressed proteins were identified in HIV-infected cells by mass spectrometry and each protein was scrutinized for its biological functions by using various bioinformatics programs. Herein, we report 18 HIV-modulated proteins and their interaction pathways that enhance fatty acid synthesis, increase low density lipoproteins (triglycerides), dysregulate lipid transport, oxidize lipids, and alter cellular lipid metabolism. We conclude that HIV replication alone (i.e. without any influence of antiviral drugs, or other human genetic factors), can induce novel cellular enzymes and proteins that are significantly associated with biologically relevant processes involved in lipid synthesis, transport and metabolism (p = <0.0002-0.01). Translational and clinical studies on the newly discovered proteins may now shed light on how some of these proteins may be useful for early diagnosis of individuals who might be at high risk for developing lipid
Li, You; Liang, Guiyun; Shi, Liwei; Liang, Xue; Long, Bingshuang; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Zhiyong
BACKGROUND The present study was performed to identify the association of PON1 rs662 polymorphism with seru