Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal lipid levels

  1. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors.

    PubMed

    Morel, Sophia; Leahy, Jade; Fournier, Maryse; Lamarche, Benoit; Garofalo, Carole; Grimard, Guy; Poulain, Floriane; Delvin, Edgard; Laverdière, Caroline; Krajinovic, Maja; Drouin, Simon; Sinnett, Daniel; Marcil, Valérie; Levy, Emile

    2017-05-01

    Survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer in children, are at increased risk of developing late cardiometabolic conditions. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to characterize the plasma lipid profile, Apo distribution, and lipoprotein composition of 80 childhood ALL survivors compared with 22 healthy controls. Our results show that, despite their young age, 50% of the ALL survivors displayed dyslipidemia, characterized by increased plasma triglyceride (TG) and LDL-cholesterol, as well as decreased HDL-cholesterol. ALL survivors exhibited lower plasma Apo A-I and higher Apo B-100 and C-II levels, along with elevated Apo C-II/C-III and B-100/A-I ratios. VLDL fractions of dyslipidemic ALL survivors contained more TG, free cholesterol, and phospholipid moieties, but less protein. Differences in Apo content were found between ALL survivors and controls for all lipoprotein fractions except HDL 3 HDL 2 , especially, showed reduced Apo A-I and raised Apo A-II, leading to a depressed Apo A-I/A-II ratio. Analysis of VLDL-Apo Cs disclosed a trend for higher Apo C-III 1 content in dyslipidemic ALL survivors. In conclusion, this thorough investigation demonstrates a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in ALL survivors, while highlighting significant abnormalities in their plasma lipid profile and lipoprotein composition. Special attention must, therefore, be paid to these subjects given the atherosclerotic potency of lipid and lipoprotein disorders. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Glucocorticoid Antagonism Reduces Insulin Resistance and Associated Lipid Abnormalities in High-Fructose-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-02-01

    High intake of dietary fructose causes perturbation in lipid metabolism and provokes lipid-induced insulin resistance. A rise in glucocorticoids (GCs) has recently been suggested to be involved in fructose-induced insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of GC blockade on lipid abnormalities in insulin-resistant mice. Insulin resistance was induced in mice by administering a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 60 days. Mifepristone (RU486), a GC antagonist, was administered to HFrD-fed mice for the last 18 days, and the intracellular and extracellular GC levels, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and the expression of GC-regulated genes involved in lipid metabolism were examined. HFrD elevated the intracellular GC content in both liver and adipose tissue and enhanced the GR nuclear translocation. The plasma GC level remained unchanged. The levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in plasma were elevated, accompanied by increased plasma insulin and glucose levels and decreased hepatic glycogen content. Treatment with RU486 reduced plasma lipid levels, tissue GC levels and the expression of GC-targeted genes involved in lipid accumulation, and it improved insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrated that HFrD-induced lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are mediated by enhanced GC in liver and adipose tissue and that GC antagonism might reduce fructose-induced lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. LIPID ABNORMALITIES AND LIPID-BASED REPAIR STRATEGIES IN ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the evolution of the chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes atopic dermatitis (AD). We review here increasing evidence that the inflammation in AD results primarily from inherited abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins that impact permeability barrier function. We also will show that the barrier defect can be attributed to a paracellular abnormality due to a variety of abnormalities in lipid composition, transport and extracellular organization. Accordingly, we also review the therapeutic implications of this emerging pathogenic paradigm, including several current and potentially novel, lipid-based approaches to corrective therapy. PMID:24128970

  4. Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in liver cancer cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan; Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Man; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-05-06

    Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The lipid accumulation product as a useful index for identifying abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Oh, J-Y; Sung, Y-A; Lee, H J

    2013-04-01

    The lipid accumulation product, a combination of waist circumference and triglycerides concentration, has been suggested as a better marker for abnormal glucose regulation than BMI. We aimed to compare the lipid accumulation product and BMI as useful markers for abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women. The lipid accumulation product was calculated using the formula [waist circumference (cm) - 58] × triglycerides (mmol/l). Glucose tolerance status was determined using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 2810 Korean women aged 18-39 years from the general population. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation was 6.8% (isolated impaired fasting glucose 1.8%, isolated impaired glucose tolerance 4.0%; impaired fasting glucose + impaired glucose tolerance 0.4% and diabetes mellitus 0.6%). According to the quintile distributions of the lipid accumulation product and BMI, women with a lipid accumulation product quintile greater than their BMI quintile exhibited significantly greater areas under the curve and higher levels of 2-h post-load glucose, insulin, homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance and lipid profiles than did women with a BMI quintile greater than their lipid accumulation product quintile. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the lipid accumulation product exhibited a higher odds ratio for abnormal glucose regulation than did BMI after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, previous history of gestational diabetes and family history of diabetes (odds ratios 3.5 and 2.6 of the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of lipid accumulation product and BMI, respectively). The lipid accumulation product could be useful for identifying the young Korean women with abnormal glucose regulation. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  6. Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in liver cancer cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan

    Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Inmore » addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • Aspirin inhibits the levels of liquid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HCC cells. • Aspirin is able to down-regulate ACSL1 in HCC cells. • NF-κB inhibitor PDTC can down-regulate ACSL1 and reduces lipogenesis in HCC cells. • Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling.« less

  7. Antipsychotic metabolic effects: weight gain, diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, R S; McCann, S M; Kennedy, S H

    2001-04-01

    To review published and nonpublished literature describing changes in weight, glucose homeostasis, and lipid milieu with antipsychotics. A Medline search was completed using the words weight gain, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol, triglycerides, risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, predictors, prolactin, obesity, and conventional antipsychotics. Publications, including original articles, review articles, letters to the editor, abstracts or posters presented at professional meetings in the last 4 years, and references from published articles, were collected. Manufacturers, including Eli Lilly Canada Inc, JanssenOrtho Inc, Pfizer Canada Inc, AstraZeneca Inc, and Novartis Pharmaceuticals, were contacted to retrieve additional medical information. The topic of antipsychotic-induced weight gain is understudied, and there are relatively few well-controlled studies. Weight gain as a side effect has been described with both conventional and atypical antipsychotics. Moreover, some atypical antipsychotics are associated with de novo diabetes mellitus and increased serum triglyceride levels. Predictors of weight gain may be age, baseline body mass index, appetite stimulation, previous antipsychotic exposure, and antipsychotic treatment duration. Significant weight gain is reported with the existing atypical antipsychotics. The weight gain described is highly distressing to patients, may reduce treatment adherence, and may increase the relative risk for diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia. Physicians employing these agents should routinely monitor weight, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles.

  8. Persistent lipid abnormalities in patients treated with statins: Portuguese results of the Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS).

    PubMed

    da Silva, P Marques; Cardoso, S Massano

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and one of the most important causes of morbidity in Western societies. Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for CVD and effective treatment significantly reduces cardiovascular risk. To evaluate the prevalence and type of persistent lipid abnormalities in patients treated with statins. The Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS) was a multicenter, epidemiologic cross-sectional study conducted in 12 European countries and Canada. Patients > or = 45 years old, treated with statins for at least three months during the enrolment period from April 2008 to February 2009, were sequentially enrolled. This study presents the results for the Portuguese population. In Portugal, 916 patients were recruited in 125 centers; mean age was 64.1 +/- 9.9 years and 47.1% were women. Most patients (66.7%) presented high cardiovascular risk. The most frequently used statin was simvastatin (55.9%; dose 21.3 +/- 6.2 mg/day) and only 15.3% of the patients were simultaneously taking other lipid-lowering agents. In most patients, LDL (62.9%; n = 883) and total cholesterol (68%; n = 883) were not at the target levels recommended by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). It was also found that 22% of patients presented lower HDL values than those recommended and that 39% presented high triglyceride levels. LDL outside the target range was the most common abnormality, both when assessed separately and when combined with low HDL and high triglycerides. The number of patients with lipid abnormalities was very significant, especially for LDL, considering that all were under statin therapy.

  9. [The lipid metabolism abnormality in patients administered with olanzapine].

    PubMed

    Amano, Taku; Hosaka, Shigetoshi; Takami, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Chie; Oda, Kazue; Morikawa, Ryuichi

    2012-11-01

    The atypical antipsychotic medication olanzapine is a useful agent in acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. It has beneficial effects on both positive and negative symptoms, an early onset of antipsychotic action and a favourable side effect profile. On the other hand, olanzapine has many reports of causing weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances and lipidosis. We carried out blood tests (leptin, adiponectin, remnant-like lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), total cholesterol, HbA1C, 75-OGTT and etc.) on patients with schizophrenia who had taken olanzapine. As a result, leptin, neutral lipid and RLP-C were significantly correlated by BMI. (The average blood test data and BMI revealed a normal range). Most analysis results of the lipoprotein fraction by a polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis method were normal patterns. Furthermore, the serum insulin concentrations from 75 g glucose tolerance (75 g-OGTT) 30 minutes later, in one third of patients receiving olanzapine, registered more than 100 microU/ml. The mechanism of the insulin secretion rise by olannzapine is unknown. Olanzapine may impair glucose tolerance due in part to increased insulin resistance. These findings do not necessarily imply that olanzapine is directly associated with a risk of impairment of weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances and lipidosis. These results suggest that it is useful to promote diet cure and exercise therapy with patients with high BMI levels.

  10. Adverse factors increase preeclampsia-like changes in pregnant mice with abnormal lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Yang, Zi; Han, Yiwei; Yu, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a multifactorial pregnancy complication. Maternal underlying condition and adverse factors both influence the pathogenesis of PE. Abnormal lipid metabolism as a maternal underlying disease may participate in the occurrence and development of PE. This study aimed to observe the effects of adverse factors on PE-like symptoms of pregnant mice with genetic abnormal lipid metabolism. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC3) transgenic mice with abnormal lipid metabolism were subcutaneously injected with L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or normal saline (NS) daily starting at Day 7 or 16 of pregnancy (ApoC3+L-NA and ApoC3+NS groups), and wild-type (WT) mice served as a control (WT+L-NA and WT+NS groups). All mice were subdivided into early and late subgroups by injection time. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urinary protein were measured. Pregnancy outcomes, including fetal weight, placental weight, live birth rate, and fetal absorption rate, were analyzed. Pathologic changes in the placenta were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. One-way analysis of variance, t-test, and χ(2) test were used for statistical analysis. MAP significantly increased for ApoC3+NS groups compared with WT+NS groups (P < 0.05), without significant difference in urine protein. Following L-NAME injection, MAP and urinary protein significantly increased for ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA compared with the corresponding NS groups (P < 0.05), and the increase for ApoC3+L-NA was more obvious. Urinary protein levels in early ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA significantly increased compared with the corresponding late groups (P < 0.05). Fetal absorption rate significantly increased and fetal and placental weights significantly decreased in early ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA compared with the corresponding NS groups (P < 0.05), without significant difference in late ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA groups. Fetal weight in early ApoC3+L-NA was significantly lower than in early WT+L-NA group (P < 0.05). Morphologic

  11. Abnormalities of Lipoprotein Levels in Liver Cirrhosis: Clinical Relevance.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Graziella; Spadaro, Luisa; Marchisello, Simona; Fede, Giuseppe; Purrello, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Progressive lipoprotein impairment occurs in liver cirrhosis and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The present review aims to summarize the current evidence regarding the prognostic value of lipoprotein abnormalities in liver cirrhosis and to address the need of a better prognostic stratification of patients, including lipoprotein profile assessment. Low levels of lipoproteins are usual in cirrhosis. Much evidence supports the prognostic role of hypolipidemia in cirrhotic patients. In particular, hypocholesterolemia represents an independent predictor of survival in cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, lipoprotein impairment is associated with several complications: infections, malnutrition, adrenal function, and spur cell anemia. Alterations of liver function are associated with modifications of circulating lipids. Decreased levels of lipoproteins significantly impact the survival of cirrhotic patients and play an important role in the pathogenesis of some cirrhosis-related complications.

  12. Lipid abnormalities in women: data for risk, data for management.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Nanette K

    2006-01-01

    In multiple randomized, controlled clinical trials, statin treatment of elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women at increased risk of or with coronary heart disease decreased the risk of coronary events: coronary death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and myocardial revascularization procedures. Total mortality was unchanged, potentially reflecting the underrepresentation of women in these trials and consequent small number of fatal events. Statin therapy provided comparable benefit for women and men with acute coronary syndromes. Application of lipid-lowering therapy with statin drugs is currently underutilized in women, and represents an opportunity to improve clinical cardiovascular outcomes for women.

  13. Lipid and liver abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Calanna, S; Scicali, R; Di Pino, A; Knop, F K; Piro, S; Rabuazzo, A M; Purrello, F

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to investigate lipid abnormalities and liver steatosis in patients with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared to individuals with HbA1c-defined normoglycaemia. Ninety-one subjects with prediabetes according to HbA1c, i.e. from 5.7 to 6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol), 50 newly diagnosed patients with HbA1c-defined type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% [≥48 mmol/mol]), and 67 controls with HbA1c lower than 5.7% (<39 mmol/mol), were studied. Fasting blood samples for lipid profiles, fatty liver index (FLI), bioimpedance analysis, ultrasound scan of the liver, and BARD (body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes) score for evaluation of liver fibrosis, were performed in all subjects. In comparison to controls, subjects with prediabetes were characterised by: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels, higher blood pressure, triglycerides levels and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, similar BARD score, and higher total body fat mass. In comparison to subjects with diabetes, subjects with prediabetes exhibited: similar blood pressure and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, similar FLI, reduced prevalence of and less severe hepatic steatosis, lower BARD score, increased percent fat and lower total body muscle mass. In comparison to controls, subjects with diabetes showed: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels, higher blood pressure and triglycerides levels, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, higher BARD score, and higher total body muscle mass. Moreover, HbA1c was correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, AST, and ALT. Subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively, are characterised by abnormalities in lipid profile and liver steatosis, thus exhibiting a severe risk profile for cardiovascular and liver diseases. Copyright © 2014

  14. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Patterson, Tucker A; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  15. Effect of brown seaweed lipids on fatty acid composition and lipid hydroperoxide levels of mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Airanthi, M K Widjaja-Adhi; Sasaki, Naoya; Iwasaki, Sayaka; Baba, Nobuko; Abe, Masayuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2011-04-27

    Brown seaweed lipids from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Sargassum horneri (Akamoku), and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Uganomoku) contained several bioactive compounds, namely, fucoxanthin, polyphenols, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Fucoxanthin and polyphenol contents of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids were higher than those of Wakame lipids, while Wakame lipids showed higher total omega-3 PUFA content than Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in liver lipids of KK-A(y) mouse significantly increased by Akamoku and Uganomoku lipid feeding as compared with the control, but not by Wakame lipid feeding. Fucoxanthin has been reported to accelerate the bioconversion of omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA to DHA and AA, respectively. The higher hepatic DHA and AA level of mice fed Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids would be attributed to the higher content of fucoxanthin of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The lipid hydroperoxide levels of the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids were significantly lower than those of control mice, even though total PUFA content was higher in the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids. This would be, at least in part, due to the antioxidant activity of fucoxanthin metabolites in the liver.

  16. A cross-sectional study on the associations of insulin resistance with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in T2DM and IGT patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Xian, Tongzhang; Jia, Xiaofan; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Li; Man, Fuli; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Qi; Guo, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a long-term metabolic disorder. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR), and relative impairment in insulin secretion. IR plays a major role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Many previous studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen, androgen, and obesity, but few focused on the relationship between sex hormones, abnormal lipid metabolism, and IR. The goal for the present study was to identify the association of IR with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients. In total 13,400 participants were analyzed based on the results of the glucose tolerance test. Using a cross-sectional study, we showed the relationship between IR and the level of sex hormones among 3 different glucose tolerance states: normal control people, IGT, and T2DM patients. We also analyzed the relationship between IR and abnormal lipid metabolism. Significantly, luteinizing, progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels decreased in T2DM and IGT patients compared with those in normal control people. The association between IR and lipid metabolism disorders in T2DM and IGT patients was also observed. Our clinical findings may offer new insights into understanding the mechanism of metabolic disorders and in new therapeutic methods for the treatment of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. PMID:28658166

  17. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-08-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2011 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  18. An independent effect of parental lipids on the offspring lipid levels in a cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Tossavainen, Paivi H; Heywood, James Jn; Dalton, R Neil; Dunger, David B

    2012-09-01

    Genetic factors modulate lipid levels and an intrafamilial aggregation of abnormal lipid profiles has been reported in the general population. As dyslipidemia is common among people with diabetes and has been related to diabetic nephropathy, we investigated whether parental lipid levels were related to lipids and albumin excretion in young offspring with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). Non-fasting blood samples were collected from 895 offspring, 808 mothers and 582 fathers. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-HDL-C were measured. Three early morning urinary albumin-creatinine ratios (ACR), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and anthropometric parameters were also assessed. The offspring's mean age (±SD) was 14.5 ± 2.2 yr, mean diabetes duration 5.5 ± 3.7 yr; the fathers' age was 45.7 ± 6.1 yr and the mothers' age was 42.8 ± 5.5 yr. After adjusting for the offspring age, gender, body mass index, HbA1c, maternal (TC: β = 0.242; TG: β = 0.152; HDL-C: β = 0.285; LDL-C: β = 0.278; non-HDL-C: β = 0.253; all p < 0.001) and paternal lipid levels (TC: β = 0.188; TG: β = 0.108; HDL-C: β = 0.253; LDL-C: β = 0.187; non-HDL-C: β = 0.173; all p < 0.001) were significantly associated with the offspring's lipid parameters. In contrast, no significant association was found between parental lipid levels and the offspring's ACR. In the present study, parental lipid levels were independently associated with the same traits in the offspring, suggesting a role of genetic influences and/or shared environmental factors in modulating the metabolic profile of adolescents with T1D. In contrast, there was no significant association between parental lipid levels and the offspring's albumin excretion. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. [Overweight, obesity and lipids abnormalities in adolescents with type 1 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Wysocka-Mincewicz, Marta; Kołodziejczyk, Honorata; Wierzbicka, Elżbieta; Szalecki, Mieczysław

    2016-02-18

    Overweight children are growing problem as in the pediatric, as well in the diabetic population. The aim of the study was to research the percentage of overweight and obesity in a group of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and to analyzethe lipid parameters, as well risk factors of these abnormalities. The study group consist of 60 type 1 diabetic adolescents (including 32 girls, 53.3%), aged above 12 years (mean age for girls 14.6+/-0,3years, boys 15.6+/-0.4 years) with diabetes duration (girls 5.7+-0.6 years, boys 4.4+/-0.8 years). Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v 9.0 and SPSS v20. The study revealed that boys with type 1 diabetes are significantly higher than healthy population, with weight, waist circumference and BMI comparable to the healthy counterparts. However, diabetic girls are more likely to be overweight and have bigger waist circumference, and higher BMI than the healthy population. Overweight were 12 adolescents (20%) using BMI ≥1SD criterion, and 10 (16%) using waist circumference as obesity parameter. Logistic regression revealed that the most important factors for obesity and abdominal obesity are female gender (OR=2.43 and OR=4.56for obesity and abdominal, respectively), diabetes duration above 5 years (respectively OR=1.96 and OR=3.27) and poor metabolic control (respectively OR=1.74 and OR=2.89). The most important risk factor for obesity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes is female gender. Lipids profile is closely dependent on metabolic control and mass excess. Diabetes duration, metabolic control and lipids profile are significant risk factors for overweight and abdominal obesity. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  20. HIV and antiretroviral therapy: lipid abnormalities and associated cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Donald P

    2008-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for developing metabolic abnormalities that include elevated levels of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This dyslipidemia is similar to that seen in the metabolic syndrome, raising the concern that highly active antiretroviral therapy also potentially increases the risk for cardiovascular complications. This paper reviews the contribution of both HIV infection and the different components of highly active antiretroviral therapy to dyslipidemia and the role of these abnormalities toward increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients; therapeutic strategies to manage these risks are also considered.

  1. Persistent lipid abnormalities in statin-treated patients with diabetes mellitus in Europe and Canada: results of the Dyslipidaemia International Study.

    PubMed

    Leiter, L A; Lundman, P; da Silva, P M; Drexel, H; Jünger, C; Gitt, A K

    2011-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of persistent lipid abnormalities in statin-treated patients with diabetes with and without the metabolic syndrome. This was a cross-sectional study of 22,063 statin-treated outpatients consecutively recruited by clinicians in Canada and 11 European countries. Patient cardiovascular risk factors, risk level, lipid measurements and lipid-modifying medication regimens were recorded. Of the 20,129 subjects who had documented diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome status, 41% had diabetes (of whom 86.8% also had the metabolic syndrome). Of those with diabetes, 48.1% were not at total cholesterol target compared with 58% of those without diabetes. Amongst those with diabetes, 41.6 and 41.3% of those with and without the metabolic syndrome, respectively, were not at their LDL cholesterol goal relative to 54.2% of those with metabolic syndrome and without diabetes, and 52% of those with neither condition. Twenty per cent of people with diabetes but without the metabolic syndrome were not at the optimal HDL cholesterol level compared with 9% of those with neither condition. Of people with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, 49.9% were not at optimal triglyceride level relative to 13.5% of people with neither diabetes nor the metabolic syndrome. Simvastatin was the most commonly prescribed statin (>45%) and the most common statin potency was 20-40 mg/day (simvastatin equivalent). Approximately 14% of patients were taking ezetimibe alone or in combination with a statin. Despite evidence supporting the benefits of lipid modification and international guideline recommendations, statin-treated patients with diabetes had a high prevalence of persistent lipid abnormalities. There is frequently room to optimize therapy through statin dose up-titration and/or addition of other lipid-modifying therapies. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  2. Attenuation of abnormalities in the lipid metabolism during experimental myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats: beneficial effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Yogeeta, Surinder Kumar; Hanumantra, Rao Balaji Raghavendran; Gnanapragasam, Arunachalam; Senthilkumar, Subramanian; Subhashini, Rajakannu; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2006-05-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the effect of the combination of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid on isoproterenol-induced abnormalities in lipid metabolism. The rats were divided into eight groups: Control, isoproterenol, ferulic acid alone, ascorbic acid alone, ferulic acid+ascorbic acid, ferulic acid+isoproterenol, ascorbic acid+isoproterenol and ferulic acid+ascorbic acid+isoproterenol. Ferulic acid (20 mg/kg b.w.t.) and ascorbic acid (80 mg/kg b.w.t.) both alone and in combination was administered orally for 6 days and on the fifth and the sixth day, isoproterenol (150 mg/kg b.w.t.) was injected intraperitoneally to induce myocardial injury to rats. Induction of rats with isoproterenol resulted in a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, free and ester cholesterol in both serum and cardiac tissue. A rise in the levels of phospholipids, lipid peroxides, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol was also observed in the serum of isoproterenol-intoxicated rats. Further, a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein in serum and in the phospholipid levels, in the heart of isoproterenol-intoxicated rats was observed, which was paralleled by abnormal activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes: total lipase, cholesterol ester synthase, lipoprotein lipase and lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase. Pre-cotreatment with the combination of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels to near normal when compared to individual treatment groups. Histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. These findings indicate the synergistic protective effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid on isoproterenol-induced abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

  3. Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

  4. Associations of genetic variants for adult lipid levels with lipid levels in children. The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Latsuzbaia, Ardashel; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Felix, Janine F

    2016-12-01

    Lipid concentrations are heritable traits. Recently, the number of known genetic loci associated with lipid levels in adults increased from 95 to 157. The effects of these 157 loci have not been tested in children. Considering that lipid levels track from childhood to adulthood, we studied to determine whether these variants already affected lipid concentrations in a large group of 2,645 children with a median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.7-7.3 years) from the population-based Generation R Study. Twenty-eight SNPs associated with TGs, 39 SNPs associated with total cholesterol (TC), 28 SNPs associated with LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and 56 SNPs associated with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) were analyzed individually and combined into genetic risk scores (GRSs). All risk scores were associated with their specific outcomes. The differences in mean absolute lipid and lipoprotein values between the 10% of children with the highest lipid or lipoprotein GRS versus the 10% with the lowest score were 0.28, 0.25, 0.32, and 0.30 mmol/l for TGs, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C, respectively. In conclusion, we show for the first time that GRSs based on 157 SNPs associated with adult lipid concentrations are associated with lipid levels in children. The genetic background of these phenotypes at least partly overlaps between children and adults. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in the corpus callosum (CC), a heterotopia, in adult rats following hypothyroidism induced by the hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). In this report we have investigated the dose- response relationships to administered dose of PTU, the magnitude of reductions in circulating TH, and the incidence and volume of the heterotopia in adult offspring of PTU-treated dams. Pregnant rat dams were administered 0, 1, 2, 3 or 10 ppm of PTU in the drinking water from gestational day 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day 21 (PN2 1). Serum hormones in the dams were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, but at the lower dose levels (1, 2 and 3ppm) reductions were limited to T4 with no change in serum T3. At higher PTU concentrations, serum T3 was reduced in dams (1 Oppm) and pups on PN14 and 21 (3 and 10 ppm). All hormone levels returned to control levels in adulthood. On PN 130, female offspring were perfused with paraformaldehyde and sections prepared for immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. All sections (40-45 50u through the hippocampus) were examined for the presence of a heterotopia in the CC. A dose-dependent increase in incidence and volume of heterotopic re

  6. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Lipid Abnormalities in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Overt Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication of diabetes and an established risk factor for cardiovascular events. Lipid abnormalities occur in patients with diabetic nephropathy, which further increase their risk for cardiovascular events. We compared the degree of dyslipidemia among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with and without nephropathy and analyzed the factors associated with nephropathy among them. Methods In this retrospective study, T2DM patients with overt nephropathy were enrolled in the study group (n=89) and without nephropathy were enrolled in the control group (n=92). Both groups were matched for age and duration of diabetes. Data on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), urea and creatinine were collected from the case sheets. TG/HDL-C ratio, a surrogate marker for small, dense, LDL particles (sdLDL) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated using equations. Multivariate analysis was done to determine the factors associated with eGFR. Results Dyslipidemia was present among 56.52% of control subjects and 75.28% of nephropathy subjects (P=0.012). The percentage of subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia (high TG+low HDL-C+sdLDL) was 14.13 among controls and 14.61 among nephropathy subjects. Though serum creatinine was not significantly different, mean eGFR value was significantly lower among nephropathy patients (P=0.002). Upon multivariate analysis, it was found that TC (P=0.007) and HDL-C (P=0.06) were associated with eGFR among our study subjects. Conclusion Our results show that dyslipidemia was highly prevalent among subjects with nephropathy. Regular screening for dyslipidemia may be beneficial in controlling the risk for adverse events among diabetic nephropathy patients. PMID:28447439

  8. Lipid levels in dissociative disorders: effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Damsa, Cristian; Lazignac, Coralie; Miller, Nick; Maris, Susanne; Adam, Eric; Rossignon, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    Although there are several data suggesting a link between lower lipids levels and the risk of suicide, there are few data concerning lower lipids levels in patients with dissociative disorders (DD). This is the first longitudinal study investigating the evolution of the lipids levels during a specific 8 weeks of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PP) for patients with DD. 32 patients diagnosed with DD (SCID for DSMIVR) were assessed with Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Clinical Global Impression and Improvement Scale and their lipids levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein) were measured at inclusion and after 3 and 8 weeks of PP. 30 patients finished the study. There is a significant positive (p < 0.05) link between lower lipids levels (total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerids) and a higher level of dissociation (DES scores) at the beginning and at the end of the study. Interestingly, we found a significant (p = 0.018) positive link between the reduction of the dissociation (DES) and the increase of the triglycerides levels after 8 weeks of treatment. While lower lipids seems related to a higher level of dissociation before and after the treatment, an increasing triglycerides level was observed after 8 weeks of PP in patients with a better outcome. Further studies are needed with larger samples and control groups, in order to confirm these preliminary data. These findings could open the way for hypothesis about the role of lipids in the pathophysiology of DD and raise the question of the patients with DD receiving antilipidemiants agents.

  9. [Abnormal of tear lipid layer and recent advances in clinical study of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin-Ye; Liu, Zu-Guo

    2012-03-01

    Dry eye is a common disease in the ophthalmological clinic, which is related to the dysfunction of tear film. The tear film is composed of lipid layer, aqueous layer and mucin layer (or lipid layer, aqueous/mucin layer). The lipid of the outmost layer derived from Meibomian gland and distributed on the tear film after blinking can decrease the evaporation and stabilize the tear film. The thickness, quality, and distribution of lipid layer are impaired in many dry eye patients, hence restoring the physiological function of lipid layer may be crucial for the treatment of this kind of dry eye. The lipid artificial tears manifest great effects on increasing lipid layer thickness, stabilizing tear film, improving Meibomian gland dysfunction, and promoting tear film distribution.

  10. [Use of fish oil lipid emulsions in hospitalized patients under 18 years old with abnormal results in liver tests associated with total parental nutrition].

    PubMed

    Giraldo Villa, Adriana; Henao Roldan, Catherine; García Loboguerrero, Fanny; Martínez Volkmar, María Isabel; Contreras Ramírez, Mónica María; Ruiz Navas, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    Prolonged Total Parental Nutrition (TPN) is associated with life-threatening complications in the pediatric population, being cholestasis one of the most important ones. The source of fatty acids, the amount of phytosterols and the dose of lipids in the nutritional support, have been linked to the development of this complication. To describe the behavior of liver function tests in pediatric patients with TPN where lipid based omega 3 fatty acids (OmegavenR) were used. A retrospective research was made in a population of children under 18 years old where omega 3 fatty acids were used for a minimum of 8 days. Patients were initially classified into two groups: cholestasis and abnormal liver tests. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB) gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) before and after treatment with OmegavenR was evaluated. 33 patients met the inclusion criteria. At the end of treatment with OmegavenR, 82.4% of patients who initially presented cholestasis showed resolution or improvement. The group of patients with abnormal liver tests 18.8% progressed to cholestasis. Our study suggests that the use of OmegavenR in pediatric patients with TPN and DB ≥ 2 mg/dL, seem to reverse or improve cholestasis while in patients with abnormal liver tests we still don't have clear effect. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Abnormal glucose levels found in transportation accidents : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-06-01

    Purpose. The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine (OAM) is responsible for the certification of pilots with diabetic conditions. Therefore, it is essential for OAM to monitor pilots involved in fatal accidents for abnormal gl...

  12. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Ingi Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Kathiresan, Sekar; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2013-11-01

    Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10(-8), including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.

  13. Blood lipid levels in a rural male population.

    PubMed

    Thelin, A; Stiernström, E L; Holmberg, S

    2001-06-01

    Farmers have a low risk for cardiovascular disease, which may be related to a favourable blood lipid profile. In order to study the blood lipid levels and evaluate the effect of other cardiovascular risk factors on the blood lipid profile, this cross-sectional study was made. A total of 1013 farmers and 769 non-farming rural men in nine different Swedish counties were examined, interviewed, and replied to questionnaires. The inter-relationships between different risk factors were analysed using a multivariate linear regression model. The farmers had a significantly more favourable blood lipid profile than the non-farmers although the total cholesterol levels were almost the same for the two groups. In the total study population there were significant positive relationships between total cholesterol level and body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure and smoking. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was positively related to physical workload and alcohol consumption, and negatively related to BMI, waist/hip ratio and smoking. Triglyceride levels showed a positive relationship to BMI, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Differences between farmers and other rural males were seen, especially with respect to the effect of physical activity and psychosocial factors. Among the farmers, a negative correlation between the Karasek-Theorell authority over work index and total cholesterol, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL ratio and triglyceride levels was observed. This study indicated that diet is of minor significance for the blood lipid profile, whereas factors such as physical activity, body weight and the waist/hip ratio, smoking, alcohol consumption, and perhaps psychosocial working conditions are major independent factors affecting the blood lipid profile most prominently among farmers, but also among non-farming rural men.

  14. PM2.5-bound metal metabolic distribution and coupled lipid abnormality at different developmental windows.

    PubMed

    Ku, Tingting; Zhang, Yingying; Ji, Xiaotong; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is a serious threat to human health. As a toxicant constituent, metal leads to significant health risks in a population, but exposure to PM 2.5 -bound metals and their biological impacts are not fully understood. In this study, we determined the metal contents of PM 2.5 samples collected from a typical coal-burning city and then investigated the metabolic distributions of six metals (Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Cu, and Cd) following PM 2.5 inhalation in mice in different developmental windows. The results indicate that fine particles were mainly deposited in the lung, but PM 2.5 -bound metals could reach and gather in secondary off-target tissues (the lung, liver, heart and brain) with a developmental window-dependent property. Furthermore, elevations in triglycerides and cholesterol levels in sensitive developmental windows (the young and elderly stages) occurred, and significant associations between metals (Pb, Mn, As and Cd) and cholesterol in the heart, brain, liver and lung were observed. These findings suggest that PM 2.5 inhalation caused selective metal metabolic distribution in tissues with a developmental window-dependent property and that the effects were associated with lipid alterations. This provides a foundation for the underlying systemic toxicity following PM 2.5 exposure based on metal components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary fiber and lipid peroxidation: effect of dietary fiber on levels of lipids and lipid peroxides in high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Thampi, B S; Manoj, G; Leelamma, S; Menon, V P

    1991-06-01

    Effect of feeding coconut and blackgram fiber isolated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on the levels of lipids and lipid peroxides was studied in rats given a high fat diet. Concentration of cholesterol, free falty acid and phospholipids showed significant decrease in the serum, liver aorta and intestine of coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes was significantly decreased in liver and intestine of both fiber groups, while hydroperoxides showed significant increase in liver and heart of both the fiber groups. SOD and catalase activity was found to be increased in liver, intestine, heart proximal colon and distal colon of both the fiber groups. Serum ceruloplasmin levels showed a slight increase in animals fed coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Glutathione levels in liver, intestine proximal colon, distal colon and heart also showed a significant decrease in the animals of both the fiber groups.

  16. Discovery and Refinement of Loci Associated with Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M.; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian’an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S.F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Ingi Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Rich, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable, risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,578 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5×10−8, including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian, and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipids are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index. Our results illustrate the value of genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestries and provide insights into biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological, and therapeutic research. PMID:24097068

  17. Effect of different doses of nandrolone decanoate on lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, sperm abnormality and histopathology of testes of male Wister rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hanaa Mahmoud; Mohamed, Manal Abdul-Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims of to investigate the effects of low and high doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on histopathology and apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells as well as lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality and DNA fragmentation. Eighteen animals were divided into three groups each group contain six animals. The rats were divided into three groups as following: Group 1 was administered saline (control). Group 2, received nandrolone decanoate (3 mg/kg/weekly) (low dose) with intramuscular injection. Group 3, received intramuscular injection dose of nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/weekly) (high dose). After 8 weeks, caspase-3 assay was used to determine the apoptotic cells. The sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and testosterone concentration were also investigated in the experimental groups of both low and high dose compared to the control groups. Treated group with high dose showed degenerated germinal epithelial cells sloughed in the lumina of seminiferous tubules, where almost seminiferous tubules were devoid of spermatids and spermatozoa compared to control and group treated with low dose. Also, a significant increase of lipid peroxidation levels and heat shock proteins was observed in two groups administrated with two different doses of ND while, antioxidant enzyme activities, and testosterone concentration was significantly decreased in two treated group when compared with control. Administration of ND at high and low doses leads to deteriorated sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation and testicular apoptosis. In conclusion, the administration ND at high doses more effective on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality, histopathology, apoptotic and DNA changes compared to low dose group and to control group. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Increased plasma lipid levels exacerbate muscle pathology in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Milad, Nadia; White, Zoe; Tehrani, Arash Y; Sellers, Stephanie; Rossi, Fabio M V; Bernatchez, Pascal

    2017-09-12

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by loss of dystrophin expression and leads to severe ambulatory and cardiac function decline. However, the dystrophin-deficient mdx murine model of DMD only develops a very mild form of the disease. Our group and others have shown vascular abnormalities in animal models of MD, a likely consequence of the fact that blood vessels express the same dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) proteins as skeletal muscles. To test the blood vessel contribution to muscle damage in DMD, mdx 4cv mice were given elevated lipid levels via apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene knockout combined with normal chow or lipid-rich Western diets. Ambulatory function and heart function (via echocardiogram) were assessed at 4 and 7 months of age. After sacrifice, muscle histology and aortic staining were used to assess muscle pathology and atherosclerosis development, respectively. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and creatine kinase (CK) were also measured. Although there was an increase in left ventricular heart volume in mdx-ApoE mice compared to that in mdx mice, parameters of heart function were not affected. Compared with wild-type and ApoE-null, only mdx-ApoE KO mice showed significant ambulatory dysfunction. Despite no significant difference in plasma CK, histological analyses revealed that elevated plasma lipids in chow- and Western diet-fed mdx-ApoE mice was associated with severe exacerbation of muscle pathology compared to mdx mice: significant increase in myofiber damage and fibrofatty replacement in the gastrocnemius and triceps brachii muscles, more reminiscent of human DMD pathology. Finally, although both ApoE and mdx-ApoE groups displayed increased plasma lipids, mdx-ApoE exhibited atherosclerotic plaque deposition equal to or less than that of ApoE mice. Since others have shown that lipid abnormalities correlate with DMD severity, our data suggest that plasma lipids could be

  19. Chromium (d-Phenylalanine)3 Alleviates High Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance and Lipid Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Kandadi, Machender Reddy; Unnikrishnan, MK; Warrier, Ajaya Kumar Sankara; Du, Min; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2010-01-01

    High-fat diet has been implicated as a major cause of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dietary-supplementation of chromium (d-phenylalanine)3 [Cr(d-Phe)3] on -glucose and -insulin tolerance in high-fat diet fed mice. C57BL/6-mice were randomly assigned to orally receive vehicle or Cr(d-Phe)3 (45 μg of elemental chromium/kg/day) for 8-weeks. High-fat-fed mice exhibited impaired whole-body -glucose and- insulin tolerance and elevated serum triglyceride levels compared to normal chow-fed mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose up- take in the gastrocnemius muscles, assessed as 2-[3H-deoxyglucose] incorporation was markedly diminished in high-fat fed mice compared to control mice. Treatment with chromium reconciled the high-fat diet-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Treatment of cultured, differentiated myotubes with palmitic acid evoked insulin resistance as evidenced by lower levels of insulin-stimulated Akt-phosphorylation, elevated JNK-phosphorylation, (assessed by Western blotting), attenuation of phosphoinositol-3-kinase activity (determined in the insulin-receptor substrate-1-immunoprecipitates by measuring the extent of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol by γ-32P-ATP), and impairment in cellular glucose up-take, all of which were inhibited by Cr(d-Phe)3. These results suggest a beneficial effect of chromium-supplementation in insulin resistant conditions. It is likely that these effects of chromium may be mediated by augmenting downstream insulin signaling. PMID:21134603

  20. Chromium (D-phenylalanine)3 alleviates high fat-induced insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kandadi, Machender Reddy; Unnikrishnan, M K; Warrier, Ajaya Kumar Sankara; Du, Min; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2011-01-01

    High-fat diet has been implicated as a major cause of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dietary-supplementation of chromium (D-phenylalanine)(3) [Cr(D-Phe)(3)] on glucose and insulin tolerance in high-fat diet fed mice. C57BL/6-mice were randomly assigned to orally receive vehicle or Cr(D-Phe)(3) (45 μg of elemental chromium/kg/day) for 8-weeks. High-fat-fed mice exhibited impaired whole-body-glucose and -insulin tolerance and elevated serum triglyceride levels compared to normal chow-fed mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose up-take in the gastrocnemius muscles, assessed as 2-[(3)H-deoxyglucose] incorporation was markedly diminished in high-fat fed mice compared to control mice. Treatment with chromium reconciled the high-fat diet-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Treatment of cultured, differentiated myotubes with palmitic acid evoked insulin resistance as evidenced by lower levels of insulin-stimulated Akt-phosphorylation, elevated JNK-phosphorylation, (assessed by Western blotting), attenuation of phosphoinositol-3-kinase activity (determined in the insulin-receptor substrate-1-immunoprecipitates by measuring the extent of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol by γ-(32)P-ATP), and impairment in cellular glucose up-take, all of which were inhibited by Cr(d-Phe)(3). These results suggest a beneficial effect of chromium-supplementation in insulin resistant conditions. It is likely that these effects of chromium may be mediated by augmenting downstream insulin signaling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Eating patterns and lipid levels in older adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Bradlee, M L; Singer, M R; Daniels, S R; Moore, L L

    2013-03-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of food-based eating patterns on adolescent lipid levels. This study examines whether usual adolescent eating patterns (ages 9-17 years) predict lipid levels at 18-20 years of age. This study uses previously collected data from the longitudinal NHLBI Growth and Health Study in which 2379 girls were enrolled at ages 9-10 years and followed for ten years. Food-based eating patterns were derived from multiple 3-day diet records. After adjusting for age, race, socioeconomic status, height, physical activity, and television viewing, girls with higher intakes of dairy, fruit and non-starchy vegetables had about a 40-50% reduced risk an LDL-C ≥ 170 mg/dL and non-HDL-C ≥ 145 mg/dL. Diets characterized by higher intakes of dairy and whole grains had similar benefits on TC and LDL-C. Girls consuming more fruits and non-starchy vegetables as well as more whole grains were much less likely to have high-risk lipid levels. Lean meat, poultry and fish when consumed in the context of other healthy eating patterns had no adverse effects on lipid levels in late adolescence. In fact when consumed with higher amounts of fruit and non-starchy vegetables, lean meat, poultry and fish had beneficial effects on HDL. Finally, dietary patterns that included more whole grains tended to be associated with lower TG levels. Healthy childhood eating patterns characterized by higher intakes of a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, lean meat, poultry and fish are important modifiable predictors of lipid levels in late adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Suicidal behaviour and lipid levels in unipolar and bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Ainiyet, Babajohn; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2014-10-01

    Evidence for a possible association between a low level of cholesterol and increased suicidal behaviour has accumulated in the recent 3 decades. The present study investigates whether lipid levels can make state-dependent markers of suicidal behaviour in Polish patients with mood disorder recently admitted to a psychiatric hospital owing to an acute depressive episode. The study was conducted on 223 patients (73 male and 150 female) with unipolar (n=171) and bipolar (n=52) depression. They were interviewed to assess any occurrence of suicidal thoughts, suicidal tendencies and/or suicidal attempts during the 3 months before admission. Laboratory measurements [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total lipids] were obtained within 24-72 h after hospital admission. Suicidal thoughts, tendencies, and attempts were associated with low total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and total lipids in both male and female patients, in both diagnostic categories. Triglycerides were significantly lower in male and female patients with suicidal thoughts compared with their non-suicidal counterparts. No association with suicidality was found with HDL cholesterol. The results of our study support a majority of research showing the association in depressed patients between suicidal behaviour and low levels of total and LDL cholesterol. In addition, the data suggest a similar association with low total lipids, and in some instances, with low triglycerides.

  3. Prevalence of Abnormal Lipid Profiles and the Relationship With the Development of Microalbuminuria in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Marcovecchio, M. Loredana; Dalton, R. Neil; Prevost, A. Toby; Acerini, Carlo L.; Barrett, Timothy G.; Cooper, Jason D.; Edge, Julie; Neil, Andrew; Shield, Julian; Widmer, Barry; Todd, John A.; Dunger, David B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and their relationship with albumin excretion and microalbuminuria in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study population comprised 895 young subjects with type 1 diabetes (490 males); median age at the baseline assessment was 14.5 years (range 10–21.1), and median diabetes duration was 4.8 years (0.2–17). A total of 2,194 nonfasting blood samples were collected longitudinally for determination of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TG, and non-HDL cholesterol. Additional annually collected data on anthropometric parameters, A1C, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) were available. RESULTS Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol were higher in females than in males (all P < 0.001). A significant proportion of subjects presented sustained lipid abnormalities during follow-up: total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/l (18.6%), non-HDL cholesterol >3.4 mmol/l (25.9%), TG >1.7 mmol/l (20.1%), and LDL cholesterol >3.4 mmol/l (9.6%). Age and duration were significantly related to all lipid parameters (P < 0.001); A1C was independently related to all parameters (P < 0.001) except HDL cholesterol, whereas BMI SD scores were related to all parameters (P < 0.05) except total cholesterol. Total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were independently related to longitudinal changes in ACR (B coefficient ± SE): 0.03 ± 0.01/1 mmol/l, P = 0.009, and 0.32 ± 0.014/1 mmol/l, P = 0.02, respectively. Overall mean total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were higher in microalbuminuria positive (n = 115) than in normoalbuminuric subjects (n = 780): total cholesterol 4.7 ± 1.2 vs. 4.5 ± 0.8 mmol/l (P = 0.04) and non-HDL cholesterol 3.2 ± 1.2 vs. 2.9 ± 0.8 mmol/l (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS In this longitudinal study of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, sustained lipid abnormalities were related to age, duration, BMI, and A1C. Furthermore, ACR was

  4. Genetic loci associated with changes in lipid levels leading to constitution-based discrepancy in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal lipid concentrations are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The pathological susceptibility to cardiovascular disease risks such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, insulin resistance, and so on differs between Sasang constitutional types. Methods We used multiple regression analyses to study the association between lipid-related traits and genetic variants from several genome-wide association studies according to Sasang constitutional types, considering that the Tae-Eum (TE) has predominant cardiovascular risk. Results By analyzing 26 variants of 20 loci in two Korean populations (8,597 subjects), we found that 12 and 5 variants, respectively, were replicably associated with lipid levels and dyslipidemia risk. By analyzing TE and non-TE type (each 2,664 subjects) populations classified on the basis of Sasang constitutional medicine, we found that the minor allele effects of three variants enriched in TE type had a harmful influence on lipid risk (near apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5)-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1 on increased triglyceride: p = 8.90 × 10-11, in APOE-APOC1-APOC4 on increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: p = 1.63 × 10-5, and near endothelial lipase gene on decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: p = 4.28 × 10-3), whereas those of three variants (near angiopoietin-like 3 gene, APOA5-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1, and near lipoprotein lipase gene on triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) associated in non-TE type had neutral influences because of a compensating effect. Conclusions These results implied that the minor allele effects of lipid-associated variants may predispose TE type subjects to high cardiovascular disease risk because of their genetic susceptibility to lipid-related disorders. PMID:25005712

  5. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol <45 mg/dL. Overweight and lipid profile alterations were present in an important group of the children, which increase their risk of obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases. Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  6. Hypoglycaemia, Abnormal Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease among Chinese with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Mu, Yiming; Ji, Qiuhe; Huang, Qin; Kuang, Hongyu; Ji, Linong; Yang, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    We recruited a group of 6713 consecutive Chinese patients with T2D but normal renal and liver function who were admitted to one of 81 top tertiary care hospitals in China. Mild hypoglycaemia was defined as having symptomatic hypoglycaemia in one month before hospitalization. Severe hypoglycaemia was defined as having hypoglycaemia that needed assistance from other people in three months before hospitalization. Prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) was defined as having coronary heart disease, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. Of 6713 patients, 80 and 304 had severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes, respectively, and 561 had CVD. Patients with severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes were more likely to have prior CVD (32.5% versus 16.5% versus 7.7%, P < 0.0001). Both mild and severe hypoglycaemia were associated with increased risk of CVD (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 2.64, 95% CI: 1.85–3.76 for mild hypoglycaemia; 6.59, 95% CI: 3.79–11.45 for sever hypoglycaemia) than those patients free of hypoglycaemia. Further adjustment for lipid profile did not change these two ORs. In the same way, the ORs of lipid profile for CVD were similar before and after adjustment for hypoglycaemia. We concluded that hypoglycaemia and lipid profile were independently associated with increased risk of CVD. PMID:26504840

  7. Hypoglycaemia, Abnormal Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease among Chinese with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijun; Mu, Yiming; Ji, Qiuhe; Huang, Qin; Kuang, Hongyu; Ji, Linong; Yang, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    We recruited a group of 6713 consecutive Chinese patients with T2D but normal renal and liver function who were admitted to one of 81 top tertiary care hospitals in China. Mild hypoglycaemia was defined as having symptomatic hypoglycaemia in one month before hospitalization. Severe hypoglycaemia was defined as having hypoglycaemia that needed assistance from other people in three months before hospitalization. Prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) was defined as having coronary heart disease, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. Of 6713 patients, 80 and 304 had severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes, respectively, and 561 had CVD. Patients with severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes were more likely to have prior CVD (32.5% versus 16.5% versus 7.7%, P < 0.0001). Both mild and severe hypoglycaemia were associated with increased risk of CVD (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 2.64, 95% CI: 1.85-3.76 for mild hypoglycaemia; 6.59, 95% CI: 3.79-11.45 for sever hypoglycaemia) than those patients free of hypoglycaemia. Further adjustment for lipid profile did not change these two ORs. In the same way, the ORs of lipid profile for CVD were similar before and after adjustment for hypoglycaemia. We concluded that hypoglycaemia and lipid profile were independently associated with increased risk of CVD.

  8. Dietary Tributyrin Supplementation Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Abnormal Lipid Metabolism in Suckling Piglets with Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    He, Jintian; Dong, Li; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kaiwen; Lu, Changhui; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with insulin resistance and lipid disorder. Tributyrin (TB), a pro-drug of butyrate, can attenuate dysfunctions in body metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of TB supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in neonatal piglets with IUGR. Eight neonatal piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 neonatal piglets with IUGR were selected, weaned on the 7th day, and fed basic milk diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic milk diets supplemented with 0.1% tributyrin (IT group, IUGR piglets) until day 21 (n = 8). Relative parameters for lipid metabolism and mRNA expression were measured. Piglets with IUGR showed higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of insulin in the serum, higher (P < 0.05) HOMA-IR and total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) in the liver, and lower (P < 0.05) enzyme activities (hepatic lipase [HL], lipoprotein lipase [LPL], total lipase [TL]) and concentration of glycogen in the liver than the NBW group. TB supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, and the concentrations of TG and NEFA in the liver, and increased (P < 0.05) enzyme activities (HL, LPL, and TL) and concentration of glycogen in the liver of the IT group. The mRNA expression for insulin signal transduction pathway and hepatic lipogenic pathway (including transcription factors and nuclear factors) was significantly (P < 0.05) affected in the liver by IUGR, which was efficiently (P < 0.05) attenuated by diets supplemented with TB. TB supplementation has therapeutic potential for attenuating insulin resistance and abnormal lipid metabolism in IUGR piglets by increasing enzyme activities and upregulating mRNA expression, leading to an early improvement in the metabolic efficiency of IUGR piglets. PMID:26317832

  9. Abnormal levels of expression of plasma microRNA-33 in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, S; Arias-Santiago, S; Orgaz-Molina, J; Magro-Checa, C; Valenzuela, I; Navarro, P; Naranjo-Sintes, R; Sancho, J; Zubiaur, M

    2014-06-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of genes associated with lipid metabolism (miRNA-33) and vascular function and angiogenesis (miRNA-126). The objective of this exploratory study was to measure plasma levels of miRNA-33 and miRNA-126 in patients with plaque psoriasis and evaluate their association with clinical parameters. We studied 11 patients with plaque psoriasis. The median Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was 13 (interquartile range [IQR], 9-14) and body surface area involvement was 12 (IQR, 11-15). Eleven healthy controls matched for age and sex were also included. We analyzed cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical carotid atheromatosis. Plasma miRNAs were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Carotid intima-media thickness was greater in patients (0.57mm; IQR, 0.54-0.61; n=11) than in controls (0.50mm; IQR, 0.48-0.54; data available for 9 controls) (P=.0055, Mann-Whitney). Expression of miRNA-33 in patients (5.34; IQR, 3.12-7.96; n=11) was significantly higher than in controls (2.33; IQR, 1.71-2.84; only detected in 7 of 11 controls) (P=.0049, Wilcoxon signed rank). No differences in miRNA-126 levels were observed between patients and controls. In patients (n=11), we observed a positive correlation between miRNA-33 and insulin levels (r=0.7289, P=.0109) and a negative correlation between miRNA-126 and carotid intima-media thickness (r=-0.6181, P=.0426). In psoriasis patients plasma levels of lipid and glucose metabolism-related miRNA-33 are increased and correlated with insulin. The study of circulating miRNA-33 in psoriasis may provide new insights about the associated systemic inflammatory abnormalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  10. Gonadotropin level abnormalities in women with cyclic mastalgia.

    PubMed

    Ecochard, R; Marret, H; Rabilloud, M; Boehringer, H; Mathieu, C; Guerin, J F

    2001-01-01

    Women with cyclic mastalgia seem to be at risk of fibrocystic breast disease and/or breast cancer. We studied the relationships between mastalgia and hormone levels throughout the menstrual cycle. Ostensibly healthy women were monitored during a sum of 326 cycles. A case-control study compared personal and hormonal variables of 30 women experiencing cyclic mastalgia with those of 77 women without this symptom. Except sleeping times, no significant differences were found in personal variables. Cyclic mastalgia and symptoms of fluid retention were slightly associated. Menses and the luteal phase were significantly longer in cases than in controls. Gonadotropin but not ovarian hormone levels were also significantly higher in cases throughout the cycle. Cyclic mastalgia is less related to symptoms of fluid retention or to ovarian hormone levels than to regularly high gonadotropin levels, specific inhibitors might thus be used to alleviate the symptom.

  11. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2010-04-01

    Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of

  12. LIPID ABNORMALITIES IN SUCCINATE SEMIALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE (Aldh5a1−/−) DEFICIENT MOUSE BRAIN PROVIDE ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE FOR MYELIN ALTERATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo-Coblijn, G.; Murphy, E. J.; Mills, K.; Winchester, B.; Jakobs, C.; Snead, O.C.; Gibson, KM

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work from our laboratory provided evidence for myelin abnormalities (decreased quantities of proteins associated with myelin compaction, decreased sheath thickness) in cortex and hippocampus of Aldh5a1−/− mice, which have a complete ablation of the succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase protein [1]. In the current report, we have extended these findings via comprehensive analysis of brain phospholipid fractions, including quantitation of fatty acids in individual phospholipid subclasses and estimation of hexose-ceramide in Aldh5a1−/− brain. In comparison to wild-type littermates (Aldh5a1+/+), we detected a 20% reduction in the ethanolamine glycerophospholipid content of Aldh5a1−/− mice, while other brain phospholipids (choline glycerophospholipid, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol) were within normal limits. Analysis of individual fatty acids in each of these fractions revealed consistent alterations in n-3 fatty acids, primarily increased 22:6n-3 levels (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA). In the phosphatidyl serine fraction there were marked increases in the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids with corresponding decreases of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of hexose-ceramide (glucosyl- and galactosylceramide, principal myelin cerebrosides) were decreased in Aldh5a1−/− brain tissue (one-tailed t test, p=0.0449). The current results suggest that lipid and myelin abnormalities in this animal may contribute to the pathophysiology. PMID:17300923

  13. Prevalence of plasma lipid abnormalities and its association with glucose metabolism in Spain: the di@bet.es study.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F; Real, Jose T; Masana, Luis; Catalá, Miguel; Vendrell, Joan; Vázquez, José Antonio; Valdés, Sergio; Urrutia, Inés; Soriguer, Federico; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Ortega, Emilio; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; López-Alba, Alfonso; Gomis, Ramón; Goday, Albert; Girbés, Juan; Gaztambide, Sonia; Franch, Josep; Delgado, Elías; Castell, Conxa; Castaño, Luis; Casamitjana, Roser; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Bordiú, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a significant contributor to the elevated CVD risk observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with glucose metabolism status in a representative sample of the adult population in Spain and the percentage of subjects at guideline-recommended LDL-C goals. The di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey of 5728 adults. A total of 4776 subjects were studied. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 56.8% of subjects; only 13.2% of subjects were treated with lipid lowering drugs. Lipid abnormalities were found in 56.8% of Spanish adults: 23.3% with high LDL-C, 21.5% high TG, 35.8% high non-HDL-C, and 17.2% low HDL-C. Most normal subjects showed an LDL-C ≤ 3.36 mmol/l. Pre-diabetics presented similar proportion when considering a goal of 3.36 mmol/l, but only 35% of them reached an LDL-C goal ≤ 2.6 mmol/l. Finally, 45.3% of diabetics had an LDL-C ≤ 2.6 mmol/l, and only 11.3% achieved an LDL-C ≤ 1.8 mmol/l. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in the adult Spanish population, and a low use of lipid-lowering drugs. Moreover, the number of subjects achieving their corresponding LDL-C goal is small, particularly in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. High prevalence of lipid abnormalities among Antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected Asian children with mild to moderate immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    S, Kanjanavanit; T, Puthanakit; U, Vibol; P, Kosalaraksa; R, Hansudewechakul; C, Ngampiyasakul; J, Wongsawat; W, Luesomboon; J, Wongsabut; A, Mahanontharit; T, Suwanlerk; Saphonn; J, Ananworanich; K, Ruxrungtham

    2012-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia is a common complication among HIV-infected children after antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, HIV itself can cause abnormal lipid metabolism. There is limited information of lipid profile among Asian HIV-infected children naïve to ART. Methods 274 HIV-infected ART-naïve Thai and Cambodian children 1–12 years of age with CD4 between 15–24% were included. Patients were fasted for ≥ 4 hours before blood was drawn. Abnormal lipid level was defined as triglyceride (TG) > 130 mg/dL, total cholesterol (TC) > 200 mg/dL, low density lipoprotein (LDL) > 130 mg/dL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) ≤ 40 mg/dL. Result The mean (SD) was 76.6 (33.8) months for age and −1.3 (1.0) for weight Z-score. Mean (SD) CD4% was 19.9 (4.8) % and HIV RNA was 4.6 (0.6) log10 copies/ml. The median (SD) fasting time was 13.0 (2.7) hours. Mean (SD) for lipids were 116 mg/dl (62) for TG, 139 mg/dl (29) for TC, 73 mg/dl (29) for LDL and 45 mg/dl (19) for HDL. Overall 63.9% had dyslipidemia with hypertriglyceridemia and hypo HDL being the most common: 28% and 45% respectively, while 2% had hypercholesterolemia or hyper-LDL. After adjusting for age, having HIV RNA > 5 log10 copies/ml was associated with hypo-HDL with odds ratios of 8.1 (95% CI 2.7–24.3). Conclusions Up to two-third of ART-naïve, HIV-infected Asian children with mild to moderate immune suppression had dyslipidemia. Low HDL was the most common and was associated with high HIV viremia. The long term consequence of low HDL deserves further investigation in children. PMID:22155918

  15. Genetic Susceptibility to Lipid Levels and Lipid Change Over Time and Risk of Incident Hyperlipidemia in Chinese Populations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Mo, Zengnan; He, Jiang; Wang, Laiyuan; Yang, Xueli; Tan, Aihua; Chen, Shufeng; Chen, Jing; Gu, C Charles; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Hao, Yongchen; Li, Jianxin; Hixson, James E; Li, Yunzhi; Cheng, Min; Liu, Xiaoli; Cao, Jie; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Peng, Xiaozhong; Gu, Dongfeng

    2016-02-01

    Multiple genetic loci associated with lipid levels have been identified predominantly in Europeans, and the issue of to what extent these genetic loci can predict blood lipid levels increases over time and the incidence of future hyperlipidemia remains largely unknown. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of lipid levels in 8344 subjects followed by replication studies including 14 739 additional individuals. We replicated 17 previously reported loci. We also newly identified 3 Chinese-specific variants in previous regions (HLA-C, LIPG, and LDLR) with genome-wide significance. Almost all the variants contributed to lipid levels change and incident hyperlipidemia >8.1-year follow-up among 6428 individuals of a prospective cohort study. The strongest associations for lipid levels change were detected at LPL, TRIB1, APOA1-C3-A4-A5, LIPC, CETP, and LDLR (P range from 4.84×10(-4) to 4.62×10(-18)), whereas LPL, TRIB1, ABCA1, APOA1-C3-A4-A5, CETP, and APOE displayed significant strongest associations for incident hyperlipidemia (P range from 1.20×10(-3) to 4.67×10(-16)). The 4 lipids genetic risk scores were independently associated with linear increases in their corresponding lipid levels and risk of incident hyperlipidemia. A C-statistics analysis showed significant improvement in the prediction of incident hyperlipidemia on top of traditional risk factors including the baseline lipid levels. These findings identified some evidence for allelic heterogeneity in Chinese when compared with Europeans in relation to lipid associations. The individual variants and those cumulative effects were independent risk factors for lipids increase and incident hyperlipidemia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Profiles of Patients Demonstrating Abnormal Masking Level Difference Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, R. Ray; Waryas, Paul A.

    1985-01-01

    Profiles of three persons (9-11 years old) with extremely reduced masking level difference results (scores which measure binaural release from masking) are reported. It is suggested that tests of the MLD appear to be a useful adjunct of an evaluation battery for patients with presumed auditory perceptual problems. (CL)

  17. Lipid levels among African and Middle-Eastern Bedouin populations.

    PubMed

    Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D; Weitzman, Shimon; Sharf, Amir; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies observed higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and lower triglycerides levels among people of African ancestry. The goal of this study was to characterize lipid levels in Bedouins of African vs. Middle-Eastern ethnicity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Bedouin primary care clinic in southern Israel, with 4470 listed individuals over the age of 21, of whom 402 (9%) were of African origin. A stratified random sample was included in the analysis. Associations between ethnicity, age, gender and lipid levels were assessed. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used for multivariate analysis. The study included 261 African Bedouins and 406 Middle-Eastern Bedouins. (median age: 37 years, 58.6% females). The average total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were 10 mg/dl lower among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (total cholesterol: 168.6 vs. 179.6 mg/dl, p<0.001; LDL: 99.5 vs. 109.0 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). Average triglycerides levels were 36 mg/dl lower among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (102.8 vs. 138.9 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). Average HDL levels were 3 mg/dl higher among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (48.3 vs. 44.6 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). A lower prevalence of dyslipidemia was found in African Bedouins, as compared with Middle-Eastern Bedouins.

  18. Plasma lipid levels of rats fed a diet containing pork fat as a source of lipids after splenic surgery.

    PubMed

    Dinis, Ana Paula Gonçalves; Marques, Ruy Garcia; Simões, Fernanda Correia; Diestel, Cristina Fajardo; Caetano, Carlos Eduardo Rodrigues; Secchin, Dióscuro José Ferreira; Neto, José Firmino Nogueira; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo

    2009-06-01

    Experimental studies have suggested an important role of the spleen in lipid metabolism, although with controversial results. Our purpose was to analyze the effect of a nutritionally balanced (NB) diet and a diet containing pork fat (PF) as source of lipids on the lipid profile of rats submitted to splenic surgery. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of 10 animals each: 1 sham-operated, NB diet; 2 sham-operated, PF diet; 3 total splenectomy (TS), NB diet; 4 TS, PF diet; 5 TS followed by splenic autotransplantation (SA), NB diet; and 6 SA, PF diet. Blood samples were collected at the beginning (D0) and after 12 weeks of the experiment (D + 12) for plasma lipid determination. Morphologic regeneration of splenic tissues was observed, with no differences between groups 5 and 6. When D + 12 plasma lipid levels were compared to D0 levels there were no differences in groups 1, 3, and 5, while in groups 2, 4, and 6 total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triacylglycerols (TAG) increased, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) decreased. At D + 12, groups 2, 4, and 6 had lower HDL than group 3. In conclusion, regardless of the surgical procedure applied to the spleen, an NB diet maintained plasma lipid levels while a diet with PF as source of lipids changed the animals' lipid profile.

  19. Maternal plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid levels during pregnancy and childhood lipids and insulin levels

    PubMed Central

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Voortman, Trudy; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with cord blood lipid and insulin levels. Not much is known about the influence of maternal PUFAs during pregnancy on long-term offspring lipid and insulin metabolism. We examined the associations of maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels during pregnancy with childhood lipids and insulin levels. Methods and Results In a population-based prospective cohort study among 3,230 mothers and their children, we measured maternal second trimester n-3 and n-6 PUFA plasma levels. At the median age of 6.0 years (95% range, 5.6-7.9), we measured childhood total-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and c-peptide levels. Higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels, and specifically DHA levels, were associated with higher childhood total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and insulin levels (p-values <0.05), but not with LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Maternal total n-6 PUFA levels were not associated with childhood outcomes, but higher levels of the individual n-6 PUFAs, EDA and DGLA were associated with a lower childhood HDL-cholesterol, and higher AA levels with higher childhood total-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels (all p-values <0.05). A higher maternal n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was only associated with lower childhood HDL-cholesterol and insulin levels (p-values <0.05). These associations were not explained by childhood body mass index. Conclusions Higher maternal total n-3 PUFAs and specifically DHA levels during pregnancy are associated with higher childhood total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and insulin levels. Only individual maternal n-6 PUFAs, not total maternal n-6 PUFA levels, tended to be associated with childhood lipids and insulin levels. PMID:27919543

  20. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  1. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets. PMID:27144650

  2. Vitamin D Levels and Lipid Response to Atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Castrillón, José Luis; Abad Manteca, Laura; Vega, Gemma; del Pino Montes, Javier; de Luis, Daniel; Dueňas Laita, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Adequate vitamin D levels are necessary for good vascular health. 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol activates CYP3A4, an enzyme of the cytochrome P450 system, which metabolizes atorvastatin to its main metabolites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of cholesterol and triglycerides to atorvastatin according to vitamin D levels. Sixty-three patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with low and high doses of atorvastatin were included. Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were measured at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up. Baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were classified as deficient (<30 nmol/L), insufficient (30–50 nmol/L), and normal (>50 nmol/L). In patients with 25-OHD <30 nmol/L, there were no significant changes in levels of total cholesterol (173 ± 47 mg/dL versus 164 ± 51 mg/dL), triglycerides (151 ± 49 mg/dL versus 177 ± 94 mg/dL), and LDL cholesterol (111 ± 48 mg/dL versus 92 45 ± mg/dL); whereas patients with insufficient (30–50 nmol/L) and normal vitamin D (>50 nmol/L) had a good response to atorvastatin. We suggest that vitamin D concentrations >30 nmol/L may be required for atorvastatin to reduce lipid levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:20016682

  3. Racial differences in levels of serum lipids and effects of exposure to persistent organic pollutants on lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Olson, James R; Pavuk, Marian; Carpenter, David O

    2014-12-01

    Serum lipid levels are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In addition to diet, exercise, genetics, age and race, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) influence concentrations of serum lipids. We investigated associations between fasting concentrations of 35 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and nine organochlorine pesticides in relation to total serum lipids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides in 525 Caucasian and African American residents of Anniston, Alabama, who were not on any lipid-lowering medication. In Model 1, data were adjusted for age, age quadratic, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercise, while in Model 2, additional adjustment was done for other POPs. As compared to Caucasians, African Americans had lower levels of total lipids and triglycerides with higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol, but higher concentrations of PCBs and pesticides. Total pesticides were more strongly associated with elevations in serum lipids than were total PCBs, and the associations were stronger in African Americans. Total DDTs were not associated with serum lipids after adjustment for other POPs in either racial group, while the strongest positive associations were seen for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in both racial groups. Racial differences in lipid profiles, concentrations of POPs and associations between POP concentrations and serum lipids are relevant to racial differences in rates of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidaemia Prevalence among 2–10 Year-Old Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380

  5. [Severely increased serum lipid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis - case report].

    PubMed

    Stefansson, Hrafnkell; Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Águsta

    2017-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a known, but uncommon complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We discuss the case of a 23-year-old, previously healthy, woman who initially presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Grossly lipemic serum due to extremely high triglyceride (38.6 mmol/L) and cholesterol (23.2 mmol/L) levels were observed with a high blood glucose (23 mmol/L) and a low pH of 7.06 on a venous blood gas. She was treated successfully with fluids and insulin and had no sequale of pancreatitis or cerebral edema. Her triglycerides and cholesterol was normalized in three days and she was discharged home on insulin therapy after five days. Further history revealed a recent change in diet with no meat, fish or poultry consumption in the last 12 months and concomitantly an increase in carbohydrate intake which might have contributed to her extremely high serum lipid levels. This case demonstrates that clinicians should be mindful of the different presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis. Key words: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, vegan diet, carbohydrate diet. Correspondence: Hrafnkell Stefansson, hrafnkell.stefans@gmail.com.

  6. Relations of long-term and contemporary lipid levels and lipid genetic risk scores with coronary artery calcium in the framingham heart study.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Connie W; Preis, Sarah Rosner; Peloso, Gina M; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Kathiresan, Sekar; Fox, Caroline S; Cupples, L Adrienne; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2012-12-11

    This study evaluated the association of timing of lipid levels and lipid genetic risk score (GRS) with subclinical atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a slowly progressive disorder influenced by suboptimal lipid levels. Long-term versus contemporary lipid levels may more strongly impact the development of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Offspring Cohort participants (n = 1,156, 44% male, 63 ± 9 years) underwent serial fasting lipids (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides), Exam 1 (1971 to 1975) to Exam 7 (1998 to 2001). FHS Third Generation Cohort participants (n = 1,954, 55% male, 45 ± 6 years) had fasting lipid profiles assessed, 2002 to 2005. Computed tomography (2002 to 2005) measured CAC. Lipid GRSs were computed from significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The association between early, long-term average, and contemporary lipids, and lipid GRS with elevated CAC was assessed using logistic regression. In FHS Offspring, Exam 1 and long-term average as compared with Exam 7 lipid measurements, including untreated lipid levels, were strongly associated with elevated CAC. In the FHS Third Generation, contemporary lipids were associated with CAC. The LDL-C GRS was associated with CAC (age-/sex-adjusted odds ratio: 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 1.29, p = 0.04). However, addition of the GRS to the lipid models did not result in a significant increase in the odds ratio or C-statistic for any lipid measure. Early and long-term average lipid levels, as compared with contemporary measures, are more strongly associated with elevated CAC. Lipid GRS was associated with lipid levels but did not predict elevated CAC. Adult early and long-term average lipid levels provide important information when assessing subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of lipid metabolism with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tania, M; Khan, M A; Song, Y

    2010-10-01

    Defects in lipid metabolism have been found to be linked to several diseases, among which atherosclerosis, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are the most important. Although cancer is chiefly a genetic disease, dietary lipid intake and metabolism are related to some cancer risks, including the risk for ovarian cancer. Higher intake of dietary lipids, systemic lipid metabolism malfunction, and abnormal serum lipid levels are somehow related to ovarian cancer. Overexpression of some lipid metabolic enzymes are also found in ovarian cancer. In this review article, we summarize the relationships between lipid intake, lipid metabolism, and ovarian cancer.

  8. Association of lipid metabolism with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tania, M.; Khan, M.A.; Song, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Defects in lipid metabolism have been found to be linked to several diseases, among which atherosclerosis, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are the most important. Although cancer is chiefly a genetic disease, dietary lipid intake and metabolism are related to some cancer risks, including the risk for ovarian cancer. Higher intake of dietary lipids, systemic lipid metabolism malfunction, and abnormal serum lipid levels are somehow related to ovarian cancer. Overexpression of some lipid metabolic enzymes are also found in ovarian cancer. In this review article, we summarize the relationships between lipid intake, lipid metabolism, and ovarian cancer. PMID:20975872

  9. Quantitative profile of lipid classes in blood by normal phase chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector: application in the detection of lipid class abnormalities in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Laura; García-Cano, Ana; Busto, Rebeca; Martínez-González, Javier; Albillos, Agustín; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Pastor, Oscar

    2013-06-05

    The lack of analytical methods specific for each lipid class, particularly for phospholipids and sphyngolipids, makes necessary their separation by preparative techniques before quantification. LC-MS would be the election method but for daily work in the clinical laboratory this is not feasible for different reasons, both economic and time consuming. In the present work, we have optimized an HPLC method to quantify lipid classes in plasma and erythrocytes and applied it to samples from patients with cirrhosis. Lipid classes were analyzed by normal phase liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. We employed a quaternary solvent system to separate twelve lipid classes in 15 min. Interday, intraday and recovery for quantification of lipid classes in plasma were excellent with our methodology. The total plasma lipid content of cirrhotic patients vs control subjects was decreased with diminished CE (81±33 vs 160±17 mg/dL) and PC (37±16 vs 60±19 mg/dL). The composition of erythrocytes showed a decrease in acidic phospholipids: PE, PI and PS. Present methodology provides a reliable quantification of lipid classes in blood. The lipid profile of cirrhotics showed alterations in the PC/PE plasma ratio and in the phospholipid content of erythrocytes, which might reflect alterations in hepatocyte and erythrocyte membrane integrity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of tofacitinib on lipid levels and lipid-related parameters in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Wolk, Robert; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Hansen, Peter R; Thiers, Bruce; Lan, Shuping; Tallman, Anna M; Kaur, Mandeep; Tatulych, Svitlana

    Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk and altered lipid metabolism. Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of tofacitinib on traditional and nontraditional lipid parameters and CV risk markers in patients with psoriasis from a phase III study, OPT Pivotal 1. Patients with psoriasis were randomized to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo BID. Serum samples were collected at baseline, week 4, and week 16. Analyses included serum cholesterol levels, triglycerides, lipoproteins, lipid particles, lipid-related parameters/CV risk markers, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function analyses. At week 16, small concurrent increases in mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were observed with tofacitinib; total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio did not change. There was no significant change in the number of small dense LDL particles, which are considered to be more atherogenic than large particles, and oxidized LDL did not increase. Paraoxonase 1 activity, linked to HDL antioxidant capacity, increased, and HDL-associated serum amyloid A, which reduces the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL, decreased. HDL capacity to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages did not change. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity, which is associated with reverse cholesterol transport, increased. Markers of systemic inflammation, serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein, decreased with tofacitinib. While small increases in lipid levels are observed with tofacitinib treatment in patients with psoriasis, effects on selected lipid-related parameters and other circulating CV risk biomarkers are not suggestive of an increased CV risk [NCT01276639]. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of dietary lipid levels on body compositions, digestive ability and antioxidant parameters of common carp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinhui; Fan, Ze; Chen, Chunxiu; Li, Jinghui; Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Yang; Qiao, Xiuting

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary lipid level on body composition, and digestive ability of common carp with initial average weight (36.12 ± 1.18)g. Five experimental diets with increasing lipid levels of 2.1%, 4.0%, 5.8%, 7.6%, 9.4% were fed to triplicate groups of fish for 9 weeks. The results showed that lipid content of whole body and muscle increased in parallel with the increase of dietary lipid levels. Protein content of muscle decreased with the increase of dietary lipid levels, and the lowest muscle protein content was observed in fish fed 9.4% lipid diet. Lipaseactivity was significantly affected by dietary lipid levels in hepatopancreas andintestine (P <0.05). Lipase activity in fish fed at 5.8% lipid level group was significantly higher than others inhepatopancreas (P <0.05). There were no significant differences in amylase and proteaseactivities (P > 0.05). The results suggested that the most excellentdigestive ability and antioxidant parameters were obtained at 7.6% lipid level group.

  12. Abnormal electrocardiographic findings in athletes: Correlation with intensity of sport and level of competition.

    PubMed

    Dores, Hélder; Malhotra, Aneil; Sheikh, Nabeel; Millar, Lynne; Dhutia, Harshil; Narain, Rajay; Merghani, Ahmed; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    Athletes can exhibit abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) phenotypes that require further evaluation prior to competition. These are apparently more prevalent in high-intensity endurance sports. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between ECG findings in athletes and intensity of sport and level of competition. A cohort of 3423 competitive athletes had their ECGs assessed according to the Seattle criteria (SC). The presence of abnormal ECGs was correlated with: (1) intensity of sport (low/moderate vs. at least one high static or dynamic component); (2) competitive level (regional vs. national/international); (3) training volume (≤20 vs. >20 hours/week); (4) type of sport (high dynamic vs. high static component). The same endpoints were studied according to the 'Refined Criteria' (RC). Abnormal ECGs according to the SC were present in 225 (6.6%) athletes, more frequently in those involved in high-intensity sports (8.0% vs. 5.4%; p=0.002), particularly in dynamic sports, and competing at national/international level (7.1% vs. 4.9%; p=0.028). Training volume was not significantly associated with abnormal ECGs. By multivariate analysis, high-intensity sport (OR 1.55, 1.18-2.03; p=0.002) and national/international level (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.14; p=0.027) were independent predictors of abnormal ECGs, and these variables, when combined, doubled the prevalence of this finding. According to the RC, abnormal ECGs decreased to 103 (3.0%), but were also more frequent in high-intensity sports (4.2% vs. 2.0%; p<0.001). There is a positive correlation between higher intensity of sports and increased prevalence of ECG abnormalities. This relationship persists with the use of more restrictive criteria for ECG interpretation, although the number of abnormal ECGs is lower. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Feng, Rui-Xiang; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters. Methods 631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and SHBG levels were detected. Results Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001), while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05). For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility, progressive motility (PR) and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS). Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012), both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002), and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051). Conclusion The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility. PMID:26726884

  14. Prevalence of Abnormal Vitamin D Levels Among Division I NCAA Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Villacis, Diego; Yi, Anthony; Jahn, Ryan; Kephart, Curtis J.; Charlton, Timothy; Gamradt, Seth C.; Romano, Russ; Tibone, James E.; Hatch, George F. Rick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Up to 1 billion people have insufficient or deficient vitamin D levels. Despite the well-documented, widespread prevalence of low vitamin D levels and the importance of vitamin D for athletes, there is a paucity of research investigating the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in athletes. Hypothesis: We investigated the prevalence of abnormal vitamin D levels in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college athletes at a single institution. We hypothesized that vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among our cohort. Study Design: Cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 1. Methods: We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels of 223 NCAA Division I athletes between June 2012 and August 2012. The prevalence of normal (≥32 ng/mL), insufficient (20 to <32 ng/mL), and deficient (<20 ng/mL) vitamin D levels was determined. Logistic regression was utilized to analyze risk factors for abnormal vitamin D levels. Results: The mean serum 25(OH)D level for the 223 members of this study was 40.1 ± 14.9 ng/mL. Overall, 148 (66.4%) participants had sufficient 25(OH)D levels, and 75 (33.6%) had abnormal levels. Univariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of abnormal vitamin D levels: male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 2.83; P = 0.0006), Hispanic race (OR = 6.07; P = 0.0063), black race (OR = 19.1; P < 0.0001), and dark skin tone (OR = 15.2; P < 0.0001). Only dark skin tone remained a significant predictor of abnormal vitamin D levels after multivariate analysis (adjusted OR = 15.2; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: In a large cohort of NCAA athletes, more than one third had abnormal vitamin D levels. Races with dark skin tones are at much higher risk than white athletes. Male athletes are more likely than female athletes to be vitamin D deficient. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy NCAA athletes. Clinical Relevance: Many studies indicate a significant prevalence of vitamin-D insufficiency

  15. Effects of dietary phospholipid level in cobia (Rachycentron canadum) larvae: growth, survival, plasma lipids and enzymes of lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Niu, J; Liu, Y J; Tian, L X; Mai, K S; Yang, H J; Ye, C X; Zhu, Y

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary phospholipid (PL) levels in cobia (Rachycentron canadum) larvae with regard to growth, survival, plasma lipids and enzymes of lipid metabolism. Fish with an average weight of 0.4 g were fed diets containing four levels of PL (0, 20, 40 and 80 g kg(-1)dry matter: purity 97%) for 42 days. Final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG) and survival ratio were highest in the 8% PL diet group and mortality was highest in PL-free diet group. We examined the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) in liver, lecithin-cholesterolacyltransferase (LCAT) in plasma as well as plasma lipids and lipoprotein. LCAT activity showed a decrease of more than two-fold in PL-supplemented diet groups compared with the PL-free diet group. HL activity was highest in the 8% PL diet group and the other three groups showed no difference. LPL activity was significantly higher in the PL-supplemented diet groups than in the PL-free diet group. The dietary intervention significantly increased plasma phospholipids and total cholesterol (TC) levels, and the higher free cholesterol (FC) level contributed to the TC level. However, the fish fed PL exhibited a significantly decreased plasma triglyceride (TG) level. The lipoprotein fractions were also affected significantly by the PL. The PL-supplemented diet groups had significantly higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared with the PL-free diet group, but showed a marked decrease in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The results suggested that PL could modify plasma lipoprotein metabolism and lipid profile, and that the optimal dietary PL level may well exceed 80 g kg(-1) for cobia larvae according to growth and survival.

  16. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  17. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  18. Organization of Lipids in the Tear Film: A Molecular-Level View

    PubMed Central

    Wizert, Alicja; Iskander, D. Robert; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Biophysical properties of the tear film lipid layer are studied at the molecular level employing coarse grain molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a realistic model of the human tear film. In this model, polar lipids are chosen to reflect the current knowledge on the lipidome of the tear film whereas typical Meibomian-origin lipids are included in the thick non-polar lipids subphase. Simulation conditions mimic those experienced by the real human tear film during blinks. Namely, thermodynamic equilibrium simulations at different lateral compressions are performed to model varying surface pressure, and the dynamics of the system during a blink is studied by non-equilibrium MD simulations. Polar lipids separate their non-polar counterparts from water by forming a monomolecular layer whereas the non-polar molecules establish a thick outermost lipid layer. Under lateral compression, the polar layer undulates and a sorting of polar lipids occurs. Moreover, formation of three-dimensional aggregates of polar lipids in both non-polar and water subphases is observed. We suggest that these three-dimensional structures are abundant under dynamic conditions caused by the action of eye lids and that they act as reservoirs of polar lipids, thus increasing stability of the tear film. PMID:24651175

  19. A Genome Wide Association Study Identifies Common Variants Associated with Lipid Levels in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen; Yang, Handong; Yu, Dianke; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Yiqin; Sun, Jielin; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; He, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Zhu, Jingwen; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Zhu, Jiang; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Li, Dongfeng; Zhai, Kan; Chang, Jiang; Tan, Wen; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong; Wang, Youjie; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Wang, Feng; Fang, Weimin; Liang, Yuan; Deng, Qifei; Dai, Xiayun; Lin, Dafeng; Huang, Suli; Guo, Huan; Lilly Zheng, S.; Xu, Jianfeng; Lin, Dongxin; Hu, Frank B.; Wu, Tangchun

    2013-01-01

    Plasma lipid levels are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several lipid-associated loci, but these loci have been identified primarily in European populations. In order to identify genetic markers for lipid levels in a Chinese population and analyze the heterogeneity between Europeans and Asians, especially Chinese, we performed a meta-analysis of two genome wide association studies on four common lipid traits including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in a Han Chinese population totaling 3,451 healthy subjects. Replication was performed in an additional 8,830 subjects of Han Chinese ethnicity. We replicated eight loci associated with lipid levels previously reported in a European population. The loci genome wide significantly associated with TC were near DOCK7, HMGCR and ABO; those genome wide significantly associated with TG were near APOA1/C3/A4/A5 and LPL; those genome wide significantly associated with LDL were near HMGCR, ABO and TOMM40; and those genome wide significantly associated with HDL were near LPL, LIPC and CETP. In addition, an additive genotype score of eight SNPs representing the eight loci that were found to be associated with lipid levels was associated with higher TC, TG and LDL levels (P = 5.52×10-16, 1.38×10-6 and 5.59×10-9, respectively). These findings suggest the cumulative effects of multiple genetic loci on plasma lipid levels. Comparisons with previous GWAS of lipids highlight heterogeneity in allele frequency and in effect size for some loci between Chinese and European populations. The results from our GWAS provided comprehensive and convincing evidence of the genetic determinants of plasma lipid levels in a Chinese population. PMID:24386095

  20. Induced pluripotent stem cell models of Zellweger spectrum disorder show impaired peroxisome assembly and cell type-specific lipid abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ming; Yik, Wing Yan; Zhang, Peilin; Lu, Wange; Huang, Ning; Kim, Bo Ram; Shibata, Darryl; Zitting, Madison; Chow, Robert H; Moser, Ann B; Steinberg, Steven J; Hacia, Joseph G

    2015-08-29

    impaired peroxisome assembly. Normal peroxisome activity levels are not required for cellular reprogramming of skin fibroblasts. Patient iPSC gene expression profiles were consistent with hypotheses highlighting the role of altered mitochondrial activities and organelle cross-talk in PBD-ZSD pathogenesis. sVLCFA abnormalities dramatically differed among patient cell types, similar to observations made in iPSC models of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We propose that iPSCs could assist investigations into the cell type-specificity of peroxisomal activities, toxicology studies, and in HCS for targeted therapies for peroxisome-related disorders.

  1. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  2. Prostate-specific antigen levels in the United States: implications of various definitions for abnormal.

    PubMed

    Welch, H Gilbert; Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven

    2005-08-03

    The finding that some men with a normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (i.e., less than 4 ng/mL) nonetheless have microscopic evidence of prostate cancer has led to some suggestions that the threshold defining abnormal should be lowered to 2.5 ng/mL. We examined the effect of this lower threshold on the number of American men who would be labeled abnormal by a single PSA test. We obtained PSA data on a nationally representative sample of American men 40 years of age and older with no history of prostate cancer and no current inflammation or infection of the prostate gland (n = 1308) from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We obtained data on the 10-year risk of prostate cancer death in the pre-PSA era from DevCan, the National Cancer Institute's software to calculate the probability of dying of cancer. Based on NHANES data, approximately 1.5 million American men aged 40 to 69 years have a PSA level over 4.0 ng/mL. Lowering the threshold to 2.5 ng/mL would label an additional 1.8 million men as abnormal, if all men were screened. For men aged 70 years or older, the corresponding numbers are 1.5 and 1.2 million. The proportion of the population affected by different thresholds would vary with age. Among men in their 60s, for example, 17% have a PSA level over 2.5 ng/mL, 5.7% have a PSA level over 4.0 ng/mL, and 1.7% have a PSA level over 10.0 ng/mL. For context, only 0.9% of men in their 60s are expected to die from prostate cancer in the next 10 years. Lowering the PSA threshold to 2.5 ng/mL would double the number of men defined as abnormal, to up to 6 million. Until there is evidence that screening is effective, increasing the number of men recommended for prostate biopsy--and the number potentially diagnosed and treated unnecessarily--would be a mistake.

  3. Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels and risk of Alzheimer disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    PubMed

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F

    2014-09-01

    lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  4. Genetic Predisposition to Increased Blood Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lipid Levels and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K.; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.

    2014-01-01

    phenotypic variance. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25226301

  5. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of thyroid hormone insufficiency: Dose dependent increases in heterotopia volume

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in ...

  6. Lipid Peroxidation and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels in Gastric Cancer at Pathologic Stages.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Sefa; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Kemik, Ahu Sarbay; Kemik, Ozgür

    2012-09-01

    High levels of TGF-β1 and enhanced TGF-β1 receptor signaling are related to the pathology of gastric cancer. This effect is caused by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation products. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of TGF-β1 and lipid peroxidation products in gastric cancer patients and their correlation with pathologic stage. Lipid peroxidation products and TGF-β1 levels were studied in the serum samples of 50 gastric cancer patients and 18 control subjects. HNE-protein adducts and TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in T2, T3 and T4 gastric cancers than in either the T1 stage or controls (p<0.001). Pathologic stage was correlated with TGF-β1 levels (r=0.702, p<0.05). These markers production may contribute to tumor angiogenesis and aid in the prognosis of the gastric cancer.

  7. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  8. The Association between Selenium and Lipid Levels: a Longitudinal Study in Rural Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cheng, Yibin; Hake, Ann M.; Liang, Chaoke; Ma, Feng; Su, Liqin; Liu, Jingyi; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Gao, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    A protective effect of selenium on lipid levels has been reported in populations with relatively low selenium status. However, recent studies found that high selenium exposure may lead to adverse cardiometabolic effects, particularly in selenium-replete populations. We examined the associations of selenium status with changes in lipid levels in a 7-year follow up of an elderly Chinese cohort including participants from selenium-deplete areas. Study population consisted of 140 elderly Chinese aged 65 or older with nail selenium levels measured at baseline (2003-2005). Lipid concentrations were measured in fasting blood samples collected at baseline and the 7-year follow-up (2010-2012). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models was used to determine the association between baseline selenium status and changes in lipid levels from baseline to follow-up adjusting for other covariates. Mean (±standard deviation) baseline selenium concentration was 0.41±0.2mg/kg. In prospective analysis, we found that individuals in the highest selenium quartile group showed 1.11 SD decrease on total-cholesterol (p<0.001), 0.41 SD increase on HDL-cholesterol (p<0.001) and 0.52 SD decrease on triglyceride after 7 years than those in the lowest selenium quartile group. The similar trends were seen with significant lipids changes in the 2th and 3th quartile groups. Selenium has modestly beneficial effects on blood lipid levels in a population with relatively low selenium status. Our result suggests adequate dietary selenium intake as a potential prevention strategy for lowering lipid levels in selenium deplete populations. PMID:25263027

  9. Natural levels of abnormalities in the trilling frog (neobactrachus centralis) at the Olympic dam mine

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J.L.; Tyler, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Frogs are more susceptible than most vertebrates to environmental contaminants. Unlike amniotes, the frog egg is not protected by a semi-impervious shell, and hence is readily exposed to pollutants. In addition, tadpoles develop in wetlands to which many noxious substances drain from the surrounding landscape. Coupled with this high exposure rate, frogs are also very sensitive to trace elements, some pesticides, heavy metals especially when coupled with exposure to low pH and ionizing radiation. Frogs commonly exhibit discernible deformities following exposure to teratogenic contaminants, and therefore are valuable indicators of the existence of noxious substances in the environment. The abundancemore » and ease of sampling of frogs, along with their sensitivity to environmental contaminants, makes them ideal organisms for environmental monitoring in the Australian arid zone. The study of abnormalities in frogs has become an integral part of the Environmental Management Programme of the Olympic Dam Operations (ODO) copper-uranium-gold-silver mine in northern South Australia. The Trilling Frog (Neobatrachus centralis) is the only frog species which has been recorded at Olympic Dam. It is likely that these frogs, are relatively sedentary, thus enhancing their value as indicator organisms. A pilot survey in 1989 documented frog deformity levels comparable to those found at undisturbed sites in Australia and in other countries. This paper reports on larger study conducted in February and March 1992 when heavy rains provided another opportunity to survey the frog population. The low levels of abnormalities support the conclusion that N. centralis at Olympic Dam does not appear to be accumulating or being influenced by the very low levels of radionuclides present here.« less

  10. Effects of SNPs at newly identified lipids loci on blood lipid levels and risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese Han population: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ke; Zhang, Wencai; Zhang, Xiaobo; Wu, Fangqin; Cheng, Longxian

    2011-08-01

    Associations between "lipid-related" candidate genes, blood lipid concentrations and coronary artery disease (CHD) risk are not clear. We aimed to investigate the effect of three newly identified lipids loci from genome-wide association studies on CHD and blood lipid levels in Chinese Han population. The genotypes of SNPs at three newly identified lipid loci and blood lipids concentrations were examined in 1360 CHD patients and 1360 age- and sex-frequency matched controls from an unrelated Chinese Han population. Allele T of rs16996148 occurred less frequently in CHD patients with the odds ratio (OR) being 0.64 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.81), after adjusting for conventional risk factors and was associated with a 33% decreased CHD risk (P<0.01) comparing with the major allele G. Individuals with GT genotype had the lowest CHD risk. No associations were found between the polymorphisms of other two loci with CHD risk and all three SNPs had no effect on lipid profile in this population. SNP rs16996148 on chromosome 19p13 is significantly associated with lower risk for CHD in Chinese Han population. However, it remains unresolved why these lipid-related loci had significantly less effects than the correspondingly expected effects on blood lipids levels in this population.

  11. A null mutation of Hhex results in abnormal cardiac development, defective vasculogenesis and elevated Vegfa levels.

    PubMed

    Hallaq, Haifa; Pinter, Emese; Enciso, Josephine; McGrath, James; Zeiss, Caroline; Brueckner, Martina; Madri, Joseph; Jacobs, Harris C; Wilson, Christine M; Vasavada, Hemaxi; Jiang, Xiaobing; Bogue, Clifford W

    2004-10-01

    The homeobox gene Hhex has recently been shown to be essential for normal liver, thyroid and forebrain development. Hhex(-/-) mice die by mid-gestation (E14.5) and the cause of their early demise remains unclear. Because Hhex is expressed in the developing blood islands at E7.0 in the endothelium of the developing vasculature and heart at E9.0-9.5, and in the ventral foregut endoderm at E8.5-9.0, it has been postulated to play a critical role in heart and vascular development. We show here, for the first time, that a null mutation of Hhex results in striking abnormalities of cardiac and vascular development which include: (1) defective vasculogenesis, (2) hypoplasia of the right ventricle, (3) overabundant endocardial cushions accompanied by ventricular septal defects, outflow tract abnormalities and atrio-ventricular (AV) valve dysplasia and (4) aberrant development of the compact myocardium. The dramatic enlargement of the endocardial cushions in the absence of Hhex is due to decreased apoptosis and dysregulated epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT). Interestingly, vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) levels in the hearts of Hhex(-/-) mice were elevated as much as three-fold between E9.5 and E11.5, and treatment of cultured Hhex(-/-) AV explants with truncated soluble Vegfa receptor 1, sFlt-1, an inhibitor of Vegf signaling, completely abolished the excessive epithelial-mesenchymal transformation seen in the absence of Hhex. Therefore, Hhex expression in the ventral foregut endoderm and/or the endothelium is necessary for normal cardiovascular development in vivo, and one function of Hhex is to repress Vegfa levels during development.

  12. Abnormal lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue of patients with muscular dystrophy: In vitro, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy based observation in early phase of the disease.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Yadav, Ramakant; Mukherjee, Somnath; Pal, Lily; Sinha, Neeraj

    2017-05-01

    Qualitative (assignment of lipid components) and quantitative (quantification of lipid components) analysis of lipid components were performed in skeletal muscle tissue of patients with muscular dystrophy in early phase of the disease as compared to control/normal subjects. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy based experiment was performed on the lipid extract of skeletal muscle tissue of patients with muscular dystrophy in early phase of the disease and normal individuals for the analysis of lipid components [triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic, linolenic and linoleic acid)]. Specimens of muscle tissue were obtained from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) [n=11; Age, Mean±SD; 9.2±1.4years; all were males], Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) [n=12; Age, Mean±SD; 21.4±5.0years; all were males], facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) [n=11; Age, Mean±SD; 23.7±7.5years; all were males] and limb girdle muscular dystrophy-2B (LGMD-2B) [n=18; Age, Mean±SD; 24.2±4.1years; all were males]. Muscle specimens were also obtained from [n=30; Mean age±SD 23.1±6.0years; all were males] normal/control subjects. Assigned lipid components in skeletal muscle tissue were triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), total cholesterol (CHOL) and unsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic, linolenic and linoleic acid)]. Quantity of lipid components was observed in skeletal muscle tissue of DMD, BMD, FSHD and LGMD-2B patients as compared to control/normal subjects. TG was significantly elevated in muscle tissue of DMD, BMD and LGMD-2B patients. Increase level of CHOL was found only in muscle of DMD patients. Level of PL was found insignificant for DMD, BMD and LGMD-2B patients. Quantity of TG, PL and CHOL was unaltered in the muscle of patients with FSHD as compared to control/normal subjects. Linoleic acids were significantly reduced in muscle tissue of DMD, BMD, FSHD and LGMD-2B as compared to normal

  13. The level of serum lipids, vitamin E and low density lipoprotein oxidation in Wilson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rodo, M; Czonkowska, A; Pulawska, M; Swiderska, M; Tarnacka, B; Wehr, H

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the level of lipids and of the main serum antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), and to evaluate the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation in Wilson's disease patients. It was assumed that enhanced LDL peroxidation caused by high copper levels could contribute to the injury of liver and other tissues. The group investigated comprised 45 individuals with Wilson's disease treated with penicillamine or zinc salts and a control group of 36 healthy individuals. Lipids were determined by enzymatic methods, alpha-tocopherol by high performance liquid chromatography, the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in vitro by absorption changes at 234 nm during 5 h and end-products of LDL lipid oxidation as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. In Wilson's disease patients total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly lower compared with the control group. No difference in LDL oxidation in vitro between the patients and the controls was stated. enhanced susceptibility of isolated LDL for lipid peroxidation in vitro was not observed in Wilson's disease patients. One cannot exclude, however, that because of low alpha-tocopherol level lipid peroxidation in the tissues can play a role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in this disease.

  14. Higher rates and clustering of abnormal lipids, obesity, and diabetes mellitus in psoriatic arthritis compared with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Labitigan, Monalyn; Bahče-Altuntas, Asena; Kremer, Joel M; Reed, George; Greenberg, Jeff D; Jordan, Nicole; Putterman, Chaim; Broder, Anna

    2014-04-01

    We compared the prevalence and the clustering of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) components (obese body mass index [BMI; ≥30 kg/m(2) ], hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipids, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus) in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) Registry. We included CORRONA participants with a rheumatologist-confirmed clinical diagnosis of PsA or RA with complete data. We used a modified definition of MetS that did not include insulin resistance, waist circumference, or blood pressure measurements. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, and race. In the overall CORRONA population, the rates of diabetes mellitus and obesity were significantly higher in PsA compared with RA. In 294 PsA and 1,162 RA participants who had lipids measured, the overall prevalence of MetS in PsA versus RA was 27% versus 19%. The odds ratio (OR) of MetS in PsA versus RA was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.05-1.96, P = 0.02). The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was higher in PsA compared with RA (38% versus 28%; OR 1.51 [95% CI 1.15-1.98], P = 0.003). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was also higher in PsA compared with RA (15% versus 11%; OR 1.56 [95% CI 1.07-2.28], P = 0.02) in the adjusted model. Similarly, higher rates of hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes mellitus were observed in the subgroup of PsA and RA patients with obese BMI. Compared with RA, PsA is associated with higher rates of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. A Rice Bran Oil Diet Improves Lipid Abnormalities and Suppress Hyperinsulinemic Responses in Rats with Streptozotocin/Nicotinamide-Induced Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Tsui-Wei; Ma, Chien-Ya; Cheng, Hsing-Hsien; Chen, Ya-Yen; Lai, Ming-Hoang

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rats were divided into two groups: the control group (15% soybean oil, contains 0 g γ-oryzanol and 0 g γ-tocotrienol/150 g oil for 5 weeks) and the RBO group (15% RBO, contains 5.25 g γ-oryzanol and 0.9 g γ-tocotrienol/150 g oil for 5 weeks). Compared with the control group, the RBO group had a lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration, ratio of total to high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, hepatic cholesterol concentration, and area under the curve for insulin. The RBO group had a higher high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and greater excretion of fecal neutral sterols and bile acid than did the control group. RBO may improve lipid abnormalities, reduce the atherogenic index, and suppress the hyperinsulinemic response in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced T2DM. In addition, RBO can lead to increased fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion. PMID:19590704

  16. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  17. Severity of psychosis syndrome and change of metabolic abnormality in chronic schizophrenia patients: severe negative syndrome may be related to a distinct lipid pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Chen, S-F; Hu, T-M; Lan, T-H; Chiu, H-J; Sheen, L-Y; Loh, E-W

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic abnormality is common among schizophrenia patients. Some metabolic traits were found associated with subgroups of schizophrenia patients. We examined a possible relationship between metabolic abnormality and psychosis profile in schizophrenia patients. Three hundred and seventy-two chronic schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics for more than 2 years were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A set of metabolic traits was measured at scheduled checkpoints between October 2004 and September 2006. Multiple regressions adjusted for sex showed negative correlations between body mass index (BMI) and total score and all subscales; triglycerides (TG) was negatively correlated with total score and negative syndrome, while HDLC was positively correlated with negative syndrome. When sex interaction was concerned, total score was negatively correlated with BMI but not with others; negative syndrome was negatively correlated with BMI and positively with HDLC. No metabolic traits were correlated with positive syndrome or general psychopathology. Loss of body weight is a serious health problem in schizophrenia patients with severe psychosis syndrome, especially the negative syndrome. Schizophrenia patients with severe negative syndrome may have a distinct lipid pathophysiology in comparison with those who were less severe in the domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Arlien-Søborg, Mai C; Schmedes, Astrid S; Stokholm, Z A; Grynderup, M B; Bonde, J P; Jensen, C S; Hansen, Å M; Frederiksen, T W; Kristiansen, J; Christensen, K L; Vestergaard, J M; Lund, S P; Kolstad, H A

    2016-10-01

    Occupational and residential noise exposure has been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Alteration of serum lipid levels has been proposed as a possible causal pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides when accounting for well-established predictors of lipid levels. This cross-sectional study included 424 industrial workers and 84 financial workers to obtain contrast in noise exposure levels. They provided a serum sample and wore portable dosimeters that every 5-s recorded ambient noise exposure levels during a 24-h period. We extracted measurements obtained during work and calculated the full-shift mean ambient noise level. For 331 workers who kept a diary on the use of a hearing protection device (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the mean full-shift noise exposure level at the ear. Mean ambient noise level was 79.9 dB (A) [range 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.8 dB (A) [range 55.0-94.2]. Ambient and at-the-ear noise levels were strongly associated with increasing levels of triglycerides, cholesterol-HDL ratio, and decreasing levels of HDL-cholesterol, but only in unadjusted analyses that did not account for HPD use and other risk factors. No associations between ambient or at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels were observed. This indicates that a causal pathway between occupational and residential noise exposure and cardiovascular disease does not include alteration of lipid levels.

  19. Plasma selenium, zinc, copper and lipid levels in postmenopausal Turkish women and their relation with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Deniz Cemgil; Coskun, Ayhan; Ozer, Ali; Kilinc, Metin; Atalay, Filiz; Arikan, Tugba

    2011-12-01

    It has been shown that the trace elements and lipids play role in the growth, development and maintenance of bones. We aimed to investigate serum selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lipid (total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) levels in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, osteopenia and in healthy controls, and to determine the relationship between Se, Zn, Cu and lipid parameters and bone mineral density (BMD). The study included 107 postmenopausal women; 35 healthy (group 1), 37 osteopenic (group 2) and 35 osteoporotic (group 3). The women in all three groups were carefully matched for body mass index (BMI). Serum concentrations of Se, Zn and Cu were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plasma Se, Cu, Zn and lipid levels were similar in all groups (p > 0.05). When we combined the women in each of the three groups, and considered them as one group (n = 107) we found a positive correlation between BMI and lumbar vertebra BMD, femur neck BMD, femur total BMD; a positive correlation between TG and femur neck BMD, femur total BMD; a positive correlation between Zn and lumbar vertebra BMD (total T score) (p < 0.05). There was no correlation between Se, Cu, Zn, P and lipid parameters (p > 0.05). Although BMI has a positive effect on BMD, trace elements and lipids, except Zn and TG, did not directly and correlatively influence BMD. Further studies are needed to clarify the role and relationship of trace elements and lipid parameters in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  20. Association of APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Celap, Ivana; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Nikolac, Nora; Kackov, Sanja; Katalinic, Darko

    2013-10-01

    Significant abnormalities in lipid metabolism are frequently present in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hypertriglyceridemia, a highly proatherogenic state, is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. Genetic polymorphism APOA5 -1131T>C has been recognized as a significant contributor to hypertriglyceridemia in both healthy and diabetic populations. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphism with the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in patients with T2DM. In total, 234 DNA samples from patients with T2DM were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method. Serum lipid levels were measured using standard laboratory methods. Obtained APOA5 -1131T>C genotype frequencies were 89% (T/T) and 11% (T/C+C/C). There was no significant association between APOA5 -1131T>C genotypes and triglyceride levels (1.90 mM [1.32-2.74] vs. 1.78 mM [1.54-3.05] for T/T vs. T/C+C/C genotype; p=0.553), HDL cholesterol levels (1.30 mM [1.10-1.40] vs. 1.30 mM [1.05-1.40] for T/T vs. T/C+C/C; p=0.534), and LDL cholesterol levels (3.1 mM [2.3-3.8] vs. 3.0 mM [2.2-3.5] for T/T vs. T/C+C/C; p=0.313). Our results suggest that hypertriglyceridemia in patients with T2DM is not likely to be associated with the APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphism.

  1. Serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels during antipsychotics treatment in Parkinson's disease and related psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Wichart, Ildiko

    2006-01-01

    Weight gain is a common adverse effect associated with the use of most typical and atypical antipsychotic. Aim of this study was to investigate serum prolactin, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, such high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related psychosis during long-term medication with atypical antipsychotic. The study population comprised 40 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: olanzapine (n=10), risperidone (n=10), seroquel (n=10) monotherapy, a group of 10 patients receiving only antiparkinson drugs and a control group of 8 healthy persons. The patients were evaluated at baseline and at the sixth and twelfth week according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels. Treatment of patients with olanzapine caused marked increase of serum LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels (p<0,02). No changes in HDL concentrations. There was positive relationship between serum leptin, lipid levels and BMI. However, treatment of patients with seroquel did not cause changes in serum prolactin, leptin, lipids, and lipoproteins levels. Our results suggest that treatment of patients with PD-related psychosis with seroquel appears to have minimal influence on serum leptin, prolactin, lipids, lipoproteins and BMI compared with olanzapine and risperidone.

  2. Relationship between plasma adropin levels and body composition and lipid characteristics amongst young adolescents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin-Biou; Chu, Nain-Feng; Lin, Fu-Huang; Hsu, Jhu-Ting; Chen, Pi-Yun

    Adropin is a 76 amino acid peptide hormone with a molecular weight of 4999.9Da that may be associated with energy homeostasis, insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in mice and human. There is only a few studies that examine plasma adropin levels and body composition in children. This study is to evaluate the relationship between plasma adropin levels, body composition and lipid variables amongst young adolescents in Taiwan. We examined 492 adolescents (269 females and 223 males) ranging from 12 to 15 years old, with a mean age of 13.6 years. Body composition was measured using impedance method by Tanita-BC418. Plasma lipid variables were measured using standard methods and plasma adropin levels were measured using the ELISA method. There was no significant difference in plasma adropin levels between males and females (3.52 vs. 3.58ng/ml). Plasma adropin levels were negatively correlated with fat free mass (r=-0.12, p<0.01). More interestingly, children with higher plasma adropin levels had lower waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) and lower body fat percentage by mass. Furthermore, there is no difference in lipid profiles in high vs. low adropin subjects. Plasma adropin levels are not consistency associated with body composition and no association with lipid variables amongst Taiwanese adolescents. The role of adropin in the development of obesity is still not clear, and further studies are need especially for children. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Huang, Lianzhen; Hu, Jianping; Li, Tao

    2002-08-01

    To observe the effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats, according to serum TG, TC level, 40 male Wistar rats are divided into four groups (normal control group, high fat control group, silkworm pupa oil group and silkworm pupa oil + VE group). The rats are fed different diets and six weeks later, serum lipids level and platelet function are measured. The results show that (1) Compared with high fat control group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C level, AI value, Platelet aggregability, plasma TXB2 level and T/P ratio decrease significantly while HDL-C level and 6-k-PGF1 level increase in silkworm pupa oil group; (2) Serum TC, LDL-C level, T/P ratio and platelet aggregability are significantly lower in silkworm pupa oil + VE group than in silkworm pupa oil group. It is suggested that silkworm pupa oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid can reduce serum lipids level and inhibit platelet aggregation, which is more effective with the supplementation with VE.

  4. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  5. Dietary silymarin supplementation promotes growth performance and improves lipid metabolism and health status in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fed diets with elevated lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Peizhen; Ji, Hong; Ye, Yuantu; Zhang, Baotong; Chen, Yongsheng; Tian, Jingjing; Liu, Pin; Chen, Liqiao; Du, Zhenyu

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate whether silymarin supplementation influences growth, lipid metabolism, and health status in grass carp fed elevated dietary lipid levels. The juvenile fish (27.43 ± 0.17 g/tail) were fed six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets in a factorial design containing 0, 100, or 200 mg kg -1 silymarin (SM0, SM100, SM200) associated with either 4 or 8 % lipid level (low lipid, LL, and high lipid, HL, respectively) for 82 days. The results showed that both dietary silymarin supplementation and high lipid level significantly enhanced growth performance (WG, SGR), protein efficiency ratio, and feed utilization. Silymarin supplementation significantly reduced the VSI, hepatic lipid content, and the total bilirubin concentration in the serum. The gallbladdersomatic index displayed higher in the SM100 groups than SM200 groups. Serum total cholesterol content exhibited lower in the SM100 groups than SM0 groups. Meanwhile, significant interactions were shown for hepatic gene expression of HSL and CPT1 by two factors, and SM100 group had higher hepatic gene expression of HSL and CPT1 in fish fed with the HL diets. The SM100 groups up-regulated hepatic gene expressions of HMGCR and CYP7A1 compared with the SM0 groups. Silymarin supplementation notably reduced the elevated serum MDA content induced by HL treatments. Thus, silymarin supplementation markedly promoted growth and protein efficiency, suppressed lipid accumulation, and improved health status in grass carp fed with high-lipid diets, which might be associated with its enhancement of lipolysis and β-oxidation, antioxidant capacity.

  6. Inverse correlation among organochlorine pesticide levels to total lipid serum contents: a preliminary study in Veracruz, México.

    PubMed

    Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next β-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations.

  7. Raised D-dimer levels in acute sickle cell crisis and their correlation with chest X-ray abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Javeed; Mughal, Inam; Hassan, Hilali; Al Mekki, Taj E.; Chapunduka, Zivani; Hassan, Imad S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Setting: Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Adult patients (12 years and older) admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. Results: 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9%) of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. Conclusion: D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray. PMID:21063468

  8. Raised D-dimer levels in acute sickle cell crisis and their correlation with chest X-ray abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Dar, Javeed; Mughal, Inam; Hassan, Hilali; Al Mekki, Taj E; Chapunduka, Zivani; Hassan, Imad S A

    2010-10-08

    Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Prospective longitudinal study. Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Adult patients (12 years and older) admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9%) of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray.

  9. Enhancement of lipid production in two marine microalgae under different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Adenan, Nurul Salma; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Shariff, M

    2016-07-01

    Microalgae are important food sources for aquaculture animals. Among the different factors which influence the biochemical composition of microalgae, nitrogen and phosphorus are two of the most important nutrient sources for growth and development. The present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency on lipid production of Chlorella sp. and Chaetoceros calcitrans. Early stationary phase culture of these species were exposed to different stress levels of nitrogen and phosphorus (25%, 50% and 75% of the full NO(3)-N and PO(4)-P concentration in the Conway media), and solvent extraction and gas-liquid chromatography methods were performed for analysis of lipid and fatty acid composition. The results revealed that lipid production in these two species significantly increased (P<0.05) as nitrogen and phosphorus decreased. The fatty acid proportion remained unaffected under nitrogen deficiency, while phosphorus limitation resulted in a decrease of saturated fatty acids and promoted a higher content of omega-3 fatty acids in these species. The protein and carbohydrate levels were also altered under limited nutrients. Therefore, these conditions could be used for enhanced lipid production in microalgae for aquaculture and other industrial applications.

  10. Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Incidence of Abnormal Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emily D.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Kavanagh, Anne M.; Stevenson, Christopher E.; Oldenburg, Brian F.; Shaw, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the role of area-level socioeconomic status (SES) on the development of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) using national, population-based data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study is a national, population-based, longitudinal study of adults aged ≥25 years. A sample of 4,572 people provided complete baseline (1999 to 2000) and 5-year follow-up (2004 to 2005) data relevant for these analyses. Incident AGM was assessed using fasting plasma glucose and 2-h plasma glucose from oral glucose tolerance tests, and demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were collected by interview and questionnaire. Area SES was defined using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the relationship between area SES and incident AGM, with adjustment for covariates and correction for cluster design effects. RESULTS Area SES predicted the development of AGM, after adjustment for age, sex, and individual SES. People living in areas with the most disadvantage were significantly more likely to develop AGM, compared with those living in the least deprived areas (odds ratio 1.53; 95% CI 1.07–2.18). Health behaviors (in particular, physical activity) and central adiposity appeared to partially mediate this relationship. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that characteristics of the physical, social, and economic aspects of local areas influence diabetes risk. Future research should focus on identifying the aspects of local environment that are associated with diabetes risk and how they might be modified. PMID:22619081

  11. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipid Peroxidation and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels in Gastric Cancer at Pathologic Stages

    PubMed Central

    Tüzün, Sefa; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Kemik, Ahu Sarbay; Kemik, Özgür

    2012-01-01

    Objective: High levels of TGF-β1 and enhanced TGF-β1 receptor signaling are related to the pathology of gastric cancer. This effect is caused by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation products. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of TGF-β1 and lipid peroxidation products in gastric cancer patients and their correlation with pathologic stage. Material and Methods: Lipid peroxidation products and TGF-β1 levels were studied in the serum samples of 50 gastric cancer patients and 18 control subjects. Results: HNE-protein adducts and TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in T2, T3 and T4 gastric cancers than in either the T1 stage or controls (p<0.001). Pathologic stage was correlated with TGF-β1 levels (r=0.702, p<0.05). Conclusion: These markers production may contribute to tumor angiogenesis and aid in the prognosis of the gastric cancer. PMID:25207013

  13. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  14. Dietary Lipid Levels Influence Lipid Deposition in the Liver of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) by Regulating Lipoprotein Receptors, Fatty Acid Uptake and Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Liao, Kai; Wang, Tianjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lipid accumulation has been observed in fish fed a high-lipid diet. However, no information is available on the mechanism by which dietary lipid levels comprehensively regulate lipid transport, uptake, synthesis and catabolism in fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to gain further insight into how dietary lipids affect lipid deposition in the liver of large yellow croaker(Larimichthys crocea). Fish (150.00±4.95 g) were fed a diet with a low (6%), moderate (12%, the control diet) or high (18%) crude lipid content for 10 weeks. Growth performance, plasma biochemical indexes, lipid contents and gene expression related to lipid deposition, including lipoprotein assembly and clearance, fatty acid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism, were assessed. Growth performance was not significantly affected. However, the hepato-somatic and viscera-somatic indexes as well as plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased in fish fed the high-lipid diet. In the livers of fish fed the high-lipid diet, the expression of genes related to lipoprotein clearance (LDLR) and fatty acid uptake (FABP11) was significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of genes involved in lipoprotein assembly (apoB100), triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism (DGAT2, CPT I) was significantly down-regulated compared with fish fed the control diet, and hepatic lipid deposition increased. In fish fed the low-lipid diet, the expression of genes associated with lipoprotein assembly and clearance (apoB100, LDLR, LRP-1), fatty acid uptake (CD36, FATP1, FABP3) and triacylglycerol synthesis (FAS) was significantly increased, whereas the expression of triacylglycerol catabolism related genes (ATGL, CPT I) was reduced compared with fish fed the control diet. However, hepatic lipid content in fish fed the low-lipid diet decreased mainly due to low dietary lipid intake. In summary, findings of this study provide molecular

  15. Dietary Lipid Levels Influence Lipid Deposition in the Liver of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) by Regulating Lipoprotein Receptors, Fatty Acid Uptake and Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jing; Liao, Kai; Wang, Tianjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lipid accumulation has been observed in fish fed a high-lipid diet. However, no information is available on the mechanism by which dietary lipid levels comprehensively regulate lipid transport, uptake, synthesis and catabolism in fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to gain further insight into how dietary lipids affect lipid deposition in the liver of large yellow croaker(Larimichthys crocea). Fish (150.00±4.95 g) were fed a diet with a low (6%), moderate (12%, the control diet) or high (18%) crude lipid content for 10 weeks. Growth performance, plasma biochemical indexes, lipid contents and gene expression related to lipid deposition, including lipoprotein assembly and clearance, fatty acid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism, were assessed. Growth performance was not significantly affected. However, the hepato-somatic and viscera-somatic indexes as well as plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased in fish fed the high-lipid diet. In the livers of fish fed the high-lipid diet, the expression of genes related to lipoprotein clearance (LDLR) and fatty acid uptake (FABP11) was significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of genes involved in lipoprotein assembly (apoB100), triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism (DGAT2, CPT I) was significantly down-regulated compared with fish fed the control diet, and hepatic lipid deposition increased. In fish fed the low-lipid diet, the expression of genes associated with lipoprotein assembly and clearance (apoB100, LDLR, LRP-1), fatty acid uptake (CD36, FATP1, FABP3) and triacylglycerol synthesis (FAS) was significantly increased, whereas the expression of triacylglycerol catabolism related genes (ATGL, CPT I) was reduced compared with fish fed the control diet. However, hepatic lipid content in fish fed the low-lipid diet decreased mainly due to low dietary lipid intake. In summary, findings of this study provide molecular

  16. Associations between serum lipid levels and suicidal ideation among Korean older people.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee-Young; Kang, Gaeun; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Jae-Min

    2016-01-01

    There have been inconsistent reports on the relationships between lipids and suicidality, and studies conducted in older adults are rare. This study examined associations between serum lipid levels and suicidal ideation in an older population. This study used data obtained from a representative Korean sample of 4265 people age 65 years or older who completed a self-administered questionnaire about suicidal ideation over the last year. The fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured and categorized into lower, intermediate (reference), and upper quartiles. A complex sample logistic regression stratified by gender was performed to determine the associations between serum lipid levels and suicidal ideation after controlling for covariates including age, education, marital status, current smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, diagnosed depression, antidepressant use, and lipid-lowering therapies. In this study, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in an older Korean population was 22.9% (SE=0.9%). The prevalence was significantly higher in women than in men, 27.7% (1.2%) vs. 15.9% (1.1%) respectively. After adjusting for covariates, lower triglyceride levels were significantly associated with a decreased risk of suicidal ideation (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.43-0.99) among men but no significant associations were observed among women. Additionally, there were no significant associations between any other measure of cholesterol levels and suicidal ideation in either men or women. Cross-sectional design cannot infer temporality or the effects of changes in variables. These results support the association between lower triglyceride levels and a reduced risk of suicidal ideation among Korean men over 65. Further studies are necessary to investigate gender difference and the biological mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with plasma lipid levels: The rural Chinese cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Junmei; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Han, Chengyi; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Bingyuan; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Dongdong; Liu, Xuejiao; Hu, Dongsheng

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk and plasma lipid levels in rural Chinese. Each lipid variable was divided into quartiles and dichotomized by clinical cutoff points. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of T2DM risk and plasma lipid levels and explore the interaction between plasma lipid levels and other risk factors. 11,929 participants were included in the analysis. We documented 720 incident cases of T2DM over 70,720.84 person-years of follow-up, for an incidence of 10.18/1,000 person-years. In the multivariable-adjusted model, risk of T2DM was increased with the highest versus lowest quartiles of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) levels and TC/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG/HDL-C ratios. The HRs (95% CIs) for the fourth quartiles, for example, were 1.34 (1.03-1.74), 2.32 (1.73-3.13), 1.66 (1.23-2.25), and 1.84 (1.38-2.45), respectively. In addition, risk of T2DM was increased with high TG level and TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios by clinical cutoffs. The HRs (95% CIs) were 1.50 (1.25-1.80), 1.24 (1.03-1.48), and 1.44 (1.18-1.75), respectively. Risk of T2DM was associated with interactions between all lipid variables and age and BMI. TG level and TG/HDL-C ratio additionally interacted with gender (all P interaction  < 0.0001). Risk of T2DM was increased with elevated serum levels of TC and TG and TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and also with interactions between high TC and TG levels and TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and age and BMI in a rural Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise effects on fitness, lipids, glucose tolerance and insulin levels in young adults.

    PubMed

    Israel, R G; Davidson, P C; Albrink, M J; Krall, J M

    1981-07-01

    The effect of 3 different physical training programs on cardiorespiratory (cr) fitness, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, and scapular skinfold thickness was assessed in 64 healthy college men. Training sessions were held 4 times a week for 5 weeks. The cr fitness improved significantly and skinfold thickness decreased following the aerobic, the pulse workout (interval training), and the anaerobic training compared to the control group. Skinfold thickness, plasma insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly intercorrelated before and after training. The exercise programs had no significant effect on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose tolerance, or insulin levels. Change in adipose mass was thus dissociated from change in plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations. It was concluded that in young men plasma triglycerides, the lipid component mostly readily reduced by exercise, were too low to be reduced further by a physical training program.

  19. Maintenance of improved lipid levels following attendance at a cardiovascular risk reduction clinic: a 10-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Glen J; Olson, Kari L; Panich, Nicole E; Majumdar, Sumit R; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Gilchrist, Dawna M; Damani, Ali; Francis, Gordon A

    2008-01-01

    Background: Specialty cardiovascular risk reduction clinics (CRRC) increase the proportion of patients attaining recommended lipid targets; however, it is not known if the benefits are sustained after discharge. We evaluated the impact of a CRRC on lipid levels and assessed the long-term effect of a CRRC in maintaining improved lipid levels following discharge. Methods: The medical records of consecutive dyslipidemic patients discharged ×6 months from a tertiary hospital CRRC from January 1991 to January 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in patients’ lipid levels between the final CRRC visit and the most recent primary care follow-up. A worst-case analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of the patients in whom the follow-up lipid profiles post-discharge from the CRRC were not obtained. Results: Within the CRRC (median follow-up = 1.28 years in 1064 patients), we observed statistically significant improvements in all lipid parameters. In the 411 patients for whom post-discharge lipid profiles were available (median follow-up = 2.41 years), there were no significant differences observed in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), or triglycerides since CRRC discharge; however, there were small improvements in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TC:HDL ratio (p < 0.05 for both). The unadjusted worst-case analysis (653 patients with no follow-up lipid profiles) demonstrated statistically significant worsening of all lipid parameters between CRRC discharge and the most recent follow-up. However, when the change in lipid parameters between the baseline and the most recent follow-up was assessed in this analysis, the changes in all lipid parameters were significantly improved (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a CRRC can improve lipid levels and suggests that these benefits are sustained once patients are returned to the care of their primary physician. PMID

  20. Mildly elevated lactate levels are associated with microcirculatory flow abnormalities and increased mortality: a microSOAP post hoc analysis.

    PubMed

    Vellinga, Namkje A R; Boerma, E Christiaan; Koopmans, Matty; Donati, Abele; Dubin, Arnaldo; Shapiro, Nathan I; Pearse, Rupert M; van der Voort, Peter H J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Bafi, Tony; Fries, Michael; Akarsu-Ayazoglu, Tulin; Pranskunas, Andrius; Hollenberg, Steven; Balestra, Gianmarco; van Iterson, Mat; Sadaka, Farid; Minto, Gary; Aypar, Ulku; Hurtado, F Javier; Martinelli, Giampaolo; Payen, Didier; van Haren, Frank; Holley, Anthony; Gomez, Hernando; Mehta, Ravindra L; Rodriguez, Alejandro H; Ruiz, Carolina; Canales, Héctor S; Duranteau, Jacques; Spronk, Peter E; Jhanji, Shaman; Hubble, Sheena; Chierego, Marialuisa; Jung, Christian; Martin, Daniel; Sorbara, Carlo; Bakker, Jan; Ince, Can

    2017-10-18

    Mildly elevated lactate levels (i.e., 1-2 mmol/L) are increasingly recognized as a prognostic finding in critically ill patients. One of several possible underlying mechanisms, microcirculatory dysfunction, can be assessed at the bedside using sublingual direct in vivo microscopy. We aimed to evaluate the association between relative hyperlactatemia, microcirculatory flow, and outcome. This study was a predefined subanalysis of a multicenter international point prevalence study on microcirculatory flow abnormalities, the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (microSOAP). Microcirculatory flow abnormalities were assessed with sidestream dark-field imaging. Abnormal microcirculatory flow was defined as a microvascular flow index (MFI) < 2.6. MFI is a semiquantitative score ranging from 0 (no flow) to 3 (continuous flow). Associations between microcirculatory flow abnormalities, single-spot lactate measurements, and outcome were analyzed. In 338 of 501 patients, lactate levels were available. For this substudy, all 257 patients with lactate levels ≤ 2 mmol/L (median [IQR] 1.04 [0.80-1.40] mmol/L) were included. Crude ICU mortality increased with each lactate quartile. In a multivariable analysis, a lactate level > 1.5 mmol/L was independently associated with a MFI < 2.6 (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7, P = 0.027). In a heterogeneous ICU population, a single-spot mildly elevated lactate level (even within the reference range) was independently associated with increased mortality and microvascular flow abnormalities. In vivo microscopy of the microcirculation may be helpful in discriminating between flow- and non-flow-related causes of mildly elevated lactate levels. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01179243 . Registered on August 3, 2010.

  1. Ghrelin and lipid levels in panic disorder before and after treatment and their relationship with agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Gul, Isil Gogcegoz; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Karlidag, Rifat; Turkoz, Yusuf

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate serum ghrelin (GHR) levels and lipid profile in panic disorder (PD), with and without agoraphobia, and to compare these parameters before and after treatment. The GHR and lipid profiles were measured in blood samples taken from 31 PD patients with agoraphobia, 22 PD patients without agoraphobia, and 53 control group subjects. 23 of the 53 patients who were prescribed 20 to 40 mg/day paroxetine had continued treatment. The 23 patients who had continued treatment were measured again at the end of twelve weeks. The GHR and triglyceride (TRG), total cholesterol (Total-C), low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-C) levels were higher in the PD with agoraphobia group than the PD without agoraphobia and control groups. The 23 patients that had continued their treatment were re-evaluated, and the serum GHR, Total-C levels, and BMI after treatment were significantly decreased, compared to the values before treatment. There may be a pathophysiological relationship between the GHR and lipid profiles that interact with each other in PD. In fact, this relationship was more marked in PD with agoraphobia than in PD without agoraphobia.

  2. Lipid and C-reactive Protein Levels as Risk Factors for Hearing Loss in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Annie N.; Matthews, Lois J.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the role of cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers, lipids and C-reactive protein, in age-related hearing loss over time. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Research laboratories at an academic medical center. Subjects and Methods In total, 837 older adults (mean age 67.5 years) were included. Primary dependent variables were puretone thresholds (pure-tone average [PTA]), including “narrow” PTA (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz), “broad” PTA (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 kHz), low-frequency PTA (0.25, 0.5, 1 kHz), and high-frequency PTA (2, 3, 4, 6, 8 kHz). Repeated-measures mixed regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid levels with PTAs over time. Results In a cross-sectional sample of 837 subjects, modest associations were found between triglycerides and all PTAs. Weak associations were observed between the ratio of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein and narrow PTA, broad PTA, and high-frequency PTA. However, when assessing changes in hearing and lipids over time in a longitudinal analysis, no significant associations between hearing and lipids remained. PTAs and CRP were not statistically associated when controlling for age and sex. Conclusion Associations between hearing and blood lipids have been the focus of scientific inquiry for more than 50 years. The current results suggest that the association is either spurious or too small to be of consequence in the assessment and treatment of hearing loss in older adults. Inquiry into other potential risk factors for age-related hearing loss and associations with CVD may prove more fruitful. PMID:23322627

  3. T wave abnormalities, high body mass index, current smoking and high lipoprotein (a) levels predict the development of major abnormal Q/QS patterns 20 years later. A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Christina Strom; Byberg, Liisa; Sundstrom, Johan; Lind, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Background Most studies on risk factors for development of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been based on the clinical outcome of CHD. Our aim was to identify factors that could predict the development of ECG markers of CHD, such as abnormal Q/QS patterns, ST segment depression and T wave abnormalities, in 70-year-old men, irrespective of clinical outcome. Methods Predictors for development of different ECG abnormalities were identified in a population-based study using stepwise logistic regression. Anthropometrical and metabolic factors, ECG abnormalities and vital signs from a health survey of men at age 50 were related to ECG abnormalities identified in the same cohort 20 years later. Results At the age of 70, 9% had developed a major abnormal Q/QS pattern, but 63% of these subjects had not been previously hospitalized due to MI, while 57% with symptomatic MI between age 50 and 70 had no major Q/QS pattern at age 70. T wave abnormalities (Odds ratio 3.11, 95% CI 1.18–8.17), high lipoprotein (a) levels, high body mass index (BMI) and smoking were identified as significant independent predictors for the development of abnormal major Q/QS patterns. T wave abnormalities and high fasting glucose levels were significant independent predictors for the development of ST segment depression without abnormal Q/QS pattern. Conclusion T wave abnormalities on resting ECG should be given special attention and correlated with clinical information. Risk factors for major Q/QS patterns need not be the same as traditional risk factors for clinically recognized CHD. High lipoprotein (a) levels may be a stronger risk factor for silent myocardial infarction (MI) compared to clinically recognized MI. PMID:16519804

  4. The influence of coping with perceived racism and stress on lipid levels in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mwendwa, Denee T; Sims, Regina C; Madhere, Serge; Thomas, Joneis; Keen, Larry D; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L

    2011-07-01

    Lipid dysregulation is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and is attributed to numerous biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Psychological stress has been examined as a predictor of lipid dysregulation; however, the role of coping with perceived racism, a stressor unique to the African American experience, has not been addressed. The current study sought to determine the impact of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism and perceived daily stress on lipid levels in African Americans. The sample consisted of 122 African American participants who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Data were collected as part of an ongoing study entitled Stress and Psychoneuroimmunological Factors in Renal Health and Disease at Howard University Hospital. Through canonical analysis, distinct profiles of African American lipid function emerged with body mass index, age, and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism being associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively. Results from linear regression analyses showed that greater endorsement of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism items predicted higher levels of LDL (B = .24, p < .05). This relationship was not mediated by pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the stress response system such as cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and IL-6. The relationship between elevated levels of LDL and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism suggests that African Americans may be at increased risk for CVD due to the unique stress encountered by racism in our culture. Behavioral pathways used to counteract the negative effects of perceived discrimination may better explain this relationship. Further research is necessary to determine other biobehavioral and pathophysiological mechanisms that explain this relationship.

  5. The Influence of Coping With Perceived Racism and Stress on Lipid Levels in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mwendwa, Denee T.; Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Thomas, Joneis; Keen, Larry D.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lipid dysregulation is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and is attributed to numerous biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Psychological stress has been examined as a predictor of lipid dysregulation; however, the role of coping with perceived racism, a stressor unique to the African American experience, has not been addressed. The current study sought to determine the impact of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism and perceived daily stress on lipid levels in African Americans. Methods The sample consisted of 122 African American participants who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Data were collected as part of an ongoing study entitled Stress and Psychoneuroimmunological Factors in Renal Health and Disease at Howard University Hospital. Results Through canonical analysis, distinct profiles of African American lipid function emerged with body mass index, age, and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism being associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively. Results from linear regression analyses showed that greater endorsement of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism items predicted higher levels of LDL (β = .24, p < .05). This relationship was not mediated by pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the stress response system such as cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and IL-6. Conclusion The relationship between elevated levels of LDL and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism suggests that African Americans may be at increased risk for CVD due to the unique stress encountered by racism in our culture. Behavioral pathways used to counteract the negative effects of perceived discrimination may better explain this relationship. Further research is necessary to determine other biobehavioral and pathophysiological mechanisms that explain this relationship. PMID

  6. Ethnic disparities in the risk of colorectal adenomas associated with lipid levels: a retrospective multiethnic study.

    PubMed

    Davis-Yadley, Ashley H; Lipka, Seth; Shen, Huafeng; Devanney, Valerie; Swarup, Supreeya; Barnowsky, Alex; Silpe, Jeff; Mosdale, Josh; Pan, Qinshi; Fridlyand, Svetlana; Sreeharshan, Suhas; Abraham, Albin; Viswanathan, Prakash; Krishnamachari, Bhuma

    2015-03-01

    Although data exists showing that uncontrolled lipid levels in white and black patients is associated with colorectal adenomas, there are currently no studies looking only at the Hispanic population. With the rapid increase in the Hispanic population, we aimed to look at their risk of colorectal adenomas in association with lipid levels. We retrospectively analyzed 1473 patients undergoing colonoscopy from 2009 to 2011 at a community hospital. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-squared for categorical variables and t test for continuous variables with age-, gender-, and race-adjusted odds ratios. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate 95 % confidence intervals (CI). SAS 9.3 software was used to perform all statistical analysis. In our general population, there was an association with elevated triglyceride levels greater than 150 and presence of multiple colorectal adenomas with odds ratio (OR) 1.60 (1.03, 2.48). There was an association with proximal colon adenomas and cholesterol levels between 200 and 239 with OR 1.57 (1.07, 2.30), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels of greater than 130 with OR 1.54 (1.04, 2.30). There was no association between high-density lipoproteins (HDL) levels and colorectal adenomas. The Hispanic population showed no statistical correlation between elevated triglycerides, cholesterol, or LDL with the presence, size, location, or multiplicity of colorectal adenomas. We found a significant correlation between elevated lipid levels and colorectal adenomas in white and black patients; however, there was no such association in the Hispanic population. This finding can possibly be due to environmental factors such as dietary, colonic flora, or genetic susceptibility, which fosters further investigation and research.

  7. Systematic evaluation of environmental factors: persistent pollutants and nutrients correlated with serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chirag J; Cullen, Mark R; Ioannidis, John PA; Butte, Atul J

    2012-01-01

    Background Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Although genome-wide association studies are currently testing the genetic factors systematically, testing and reporting one or a few factors at a time can lead to fragmented literature for environmental chemical factors. We screened for correlation between environmental factors and lipid levels, utilizing four independent surveys with information on 188 environmental factors from the Centers of Disease Control, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, collected between 1999 and 2006. Methods We used linear regression to correlate each environmental chemical factor to triglycerides, LDL-C and HDL-C adjusting for age, age2, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status and body mass index. Final estimates were adjusted for waist circumference, diabetes status, blood pressure and survey. Multiple comparisons were controlled for by estimating the false discovery rate and significant findings were tentatively validated in an independent survey. Results We identified and validated 29, 9 and 17 environmental factors correlated with triglycerides, LDL-C and HDL-C levels, respectively. Findings include hydrocarbons and nicotine associated with lower HDL-C and vitamin E (γ-tocopherol) associated with unfavourable lipid levels. Higher triglycerides and lower HDL-C were correlated with higher levels of fat-soluble contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans). Nutrients and vitamin markers (e.g. vitamins B, D and carotenes), were associated with favourable triglyceride and HDL-C levels. Conclusions Our systematic association study has enabled us to postulate about broad environmental correlation to lipid levels. Although subject to confounding and reverse causality bias, these findings merit evaluation in additional cohorts. PMID:22421054

  8. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Melatonin enhances lipid production in Monoraphidium sp. QLY-1 under nitrogen deficiency conditions via a multi-level mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongteng; Li, Dafei; Xu, Jun-Wei; Zhao, Peng; Li, Tao; Ma, Huixian; Yu, Xuya

    2018-07-01

    In this study, melatonin (MT) promoted lipid accumulation in Monoraphidium sp. QLY-1 under nitrogen deficiency conditions. The lipid accumulation increased 1.22- and 1.36-fold compared with a nitrogen-starved medium and a normal BG-11 medium, respectively. The maximum lipid content was 51.38%. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the presence of melatonin was lower than that in the control group, likely because of the high antioxidant activities. The application of melatonin upregulated the gibberellin acid (GA) production and rbcL and accD expression levels but downregulated the abscisic acid (ABA) content and pepc expression levels. These findings demonstrated that exogenous melatonin could further improve the lipid production in Monoraphidium sp. QLY-1 by regulating antioxidant systems, signalling molecules, and lipid biosynthesis-related gene expression under nitrogen deficiency conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Personality and lipid level differences associated with homosexual and bisexual identity in men.

    PubMed

    Snyder, P J; Weinrich, J D; Pillard, R C

    1994-08-01

    Self-identified homosexual (n = 30), bisexual (n = 29), and heterosexual (n = 31) men were compared on measures of gender-typical behavior, sex role, ego strength, and lipid levels. Homosexual men differed significantly from the heterosexual men on the gender-typical behavior and feminine sex-role measure (both in adulthood and in childhood), and several trends and significant differences were found on the biochemical measures of lipid levels (especially when 7 obese men were removed from the analyses). As a rule, the bisexual men were different from the heterosexual men on the above measures, but were indistinguishable from the homosexual men. Bisexuals differed from both of the other two groups, however, by scoring lower on the ego strength scale and by reporting themselves to be more often troubled, lonely, and depressed. We caution that the lipid analyses were made on single blood samples and require an extended replication; however, we report the data because of their possible theoretical interest and because they replicate work of 20 years ago.

  11. The effect of olive oil-based ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels in epileptic children.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur

    2016-03-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet.

  12. [Study on the dynamic variations and influencing factors of serum lipid levels during pregnancy and postpartum].

    PubMed

    Xu, D; Liang, C; Chen, L; Wu, X D; He, J

    2018-04-25

    Objective: To study the variations and influencing factors of serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: A retrospective study was performed among 5 020 healthy singleton (95.10%, 4 774/5 020) and twin (4.90%, 246/5 020) women who had delivery in Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2016. Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum of all the cases were collected. Both singleton and twin pregnant women were divided into advanced age and appropriate age groups, and then data of serum sample were assigned to 3 groups according to the gestation weeks, which were second trimester pregnancy (24-28 gestation weeks) , third trimester pregnancy (32-41 gestation weeks) and postpartum (within 72 hours after delivery) . The serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels in each groups were compared. Results: (1) Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during the second trimester pregnancy, third trimester pregnancy and postpartum were higher than levels of non-pregnancy in both singleton and twin groups (all P< 0.05) . (2) Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels in the third trimester pregnancy group were higher than those of second trimester pregnancy group in both advanced age and appropriate aged women regardless singleton or twin pregnancy (all P< 0.05) . The 95% CI of serum lipid levels in each group during second and third trimester pregnancy were as follows: in appropriate aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.07-4.13 and 1.52-7.21 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 2.77-12.11 and 4.44-9.36 mmol/L. In advanced aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.28-4.61 and 1.70-7.80 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.35-8.40 and 4.46-9.35 mmol/L; in appropriate aged twin group, the triglycerides levels were 1.39-7.16 and 1.90-9.29 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.99-12.16 and 4.52-10.07 mmol/L; in advanced

  13. Is hepatic lipid metabolism of beef cattle influenced by breed and dietary silage level?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the

  14. Loci influencing lipid levels and coronary heart disease risk in 16 European population cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Aulchenko, Yurii S; Ripatti, Samuli; Lindqvist, Ida; Boomsma, Dorret; Heid, Iris M; Pramstaller, Peter P; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Wilson, James F; Spector, Tim; Martin, Nicholas G; Pedersen, Nancy L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Johansson, Åsa; Marroni, Fabio; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Jonasson, Inger; Pattaro, Cristian; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nick; Pichler, Irene; Hicks, Andrew A; Falchi, Mario; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Geus, Eco J C; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John; Magnusson, Patrik; Saharinen, Juha; Perola, Markus; Silander, Kaisa; Isaacs, Aaron; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Oostra, Ben A; Elliott, Paul; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sabatti, Chiara; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Kronenberg, Florian; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H-Erich; Smit, Johannes H; McCarthy, Mark I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Peltonen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies of lipids have been conducted in samples ascertained for other phenotypes, particularly diabetes. Here we report the first GWA analysis of loci affecting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides sampled randomly from 16 population-based cohorts and genotyped using mainly the Illumina HumanHap300-Duo platform. Our study included a total of 17,797-22,562 persons, aged 18-104 years and from geographic regions spanning from the Nordic countries to Southern Europe. We established 22 loci associated with serum lipid levels at a genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8), including 16 loci that were identified by previous GWA studies. The six newly identified loci in our cohort samples are ABCG5 (TC, P = 1.5 × 10-11; LDL, P = 2.6 × 10-10), TMEM57 (TC, P = 5.4 × 10-10), CTCF-PRMT8 region (HDL, P = 8.3 × 10-16), DNAH11 (LDL, P = 6.1 × 10-9), FADS3-FADS2 (TC, P = 1.5 × 10-10; LDL, P = 4.4 × 10-13) and MADD-FOLH1 region (HDL, P = 6 × 10-11). For three loci, effect sizes differed significantly by sex. Genetic risk scores based on lipid loci explain up to 4.8% of variation in lipids and were also associated with increased intima media thickness (P = 0.001) and coronary heart disease incidence (P = 0.04). The genetic risk score improves the screening of high-risk groups of dyslipidemia over classical risk factors. PMID:19060911

  15. Serum lipid levels and steroidal hormones in women runners with irregular menses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D L; Snead, D B; Seip, R L; Weltman, J Y; Rogol, A D; Weltman, A

    1997-02-01

    This study compared the lipid profile of women runners with menstrual cycle irregularities with their normally menstruating counterparts. Relationships among selected steroid hormones and serum lipid levels in 10 eumenorrheic (EU) and 8 oligo-/amenorrheic (O/A) women runners and 6 eumenorrheic controls (CON) were examined. Serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone (Prog), and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations were determined in daily blood samples for 21 days, and integrated concentrations were calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2, HDL3, triglycerides (Trig), and apolipoproteins A-1, A-II, and B. The O/A group had significantly lower E2 and Prog than EU or CON groups. Women in the CON group had lower HDL-C and HDL3 than the runners. With all women grouped together, E2 was not significantly correlated with any measured blood lipid parameters. On the other hand, DHEAS was significantly correlated with HDL-C, HDL2, and apolipoprotein A-I. These data demonstrate that women runners, regardless of menstrual cycle status, exhibit higher HDL-C concentrations than CON and supports previous research reporting a positive association between DHEAS and HDL-C.

  16. Effect of some medicinal plants on plasma antioxidant system and lipid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2005-05-01

    Several inflammatory diseases are thought to be related to oxidative injury and free oxygen radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of heart disease and aging. To investigate the effects of daily intake of medicinal plants on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and lipid profiles in rat, 28 rats were randomly divided into four groups and administered with three plant extracts (0.2 g/kg body weight): Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower), Rosa hybrida (flower) and with saline as a control. After 3 weeks, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels in plasma were measured. The SOD activity of the Piper cubeba group and the catalase activity of the Piper cubeba and Rosa hybrida groups were significantly increased compared with the control group, while the SOD and catalase activities of the Physalis angulata group were not significantly changed (p<0.05). TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was significantly lower in all experimental groups compeered with the control group. No significant changes occurred in the TG, total- and LDL-cholesterol of all groups, but the HDL-cholesterol of the Physalis angulata group was significantly increased. This study showed that the intake of medicinal plants in rats results in an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and HDL-cholesterol, and a decrease in malondialdehyde, which may reduce the risk of inflammatory and heart disease. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Levels of total lipids, cholesterol and progesterone during estrus synchronization and pregnancy in sheep].

    PubMed

    Krajnicáková, M; Bekeová, E; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I

    1993-01-01

    Our investigations were concerned with dynamic changes in total lipids (CL), cholesterol (CHOL) and progesterone (P4) in blood serum of sheep in the period of oestrus synchronization treatment and during mating and gravidity. Our experiment was carried out using 10 animals housed under the conditions of productive rearing. Blood samples were taken from v. jugularis on day of swab application (day 0) and on days 3 and 7 of the action of Agelin vaginal swabs, on day of insemination, and on days 7, 14, 17 and in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th month of gravidity. Blood serum was used to determine total lipids and cholesterol by means of Bio-Lachema tests, and P4 concentrations employing RIA-test-Prog kits (URVJT, Kosice). A statistically significant decrease in concentrations of total lipids (Fig. 1, Tab. I) in sheep blood serum was recorded on day of insemination (P < 0.05) compared to day 0, with the value 1.59 +/- 0.31 g/l of serum, and in the 3rd month of gravidity (P < 0.01), at concentrations 1.36 +/- 0.38 g/l of serum. The determined decrease in their values in the mentioned period can be modulated by the mutually changing ratio of steroid hormones or by inhibition of synthesis of lipoproteins responsible for changes in total plasma lipids. Changes in cholesterol concentrations (Fig. 2, Tab. I) during the introduction of swabs were insignificant and ranged from 1.60 +/- 0.42 to 1.73 +/- 0.33 mmol/l of serum. An insignificant increase in cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05), with its highest levels 1.98 +/- 0.43 mmol/l of serum, was recorded in the 3rd month of gravidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Android and gynoid fat percentages and serum lipid levels in United States adults.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that fat distribution is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of android and gynoid fat percentages with lipid profiles to determine whether android and/or gynoid fat percentages are associated with serum lipid levels. A population-based cross-sectional study. Five thousand six hundred and ninety-six adults (20 years and older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. The regional body composition in the android and gynoid regions was defined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The estimation of lipid risk profiles included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) -cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Regardless of gender, android and gynoid body fat percentages were positively and significantly correlated with BMI and waist circumference. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, dyslipidaemia and BMI, increases in android fat percentage were significantly associated with total cholesterol, TG and HDL cholesterol in males, and total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in females. The gynoid fat percentages showed a positive correlation with total cholesterol in males, whereas gynoid fat accumulation in females showed a favourable association with TG and HDL cholesterol. The observed associations differed according to ethnic groups. Our results suggest that regional fat distribution in the android and gynoid regions have different effects on lipid profiles, and that fat in the android region, rather than the gynoid region, may be an important factor in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of dissolved oxygen level on cell growth and total lipid accumulation in the cultivation of Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2011-07-01

    The total amount of lipids produced in Rhodotorula glutinis is a subject which has attracted increasing attention due to the potential biodiesel conversion from these microbial oils. The effects of the dissolved oxygen (DO) level in lipid accumulation were examined in this study. Variations of different medium volumes (30, 40 and 50ml) and shaking speed (60, 150 and 210rpm) in the flask trials were adopted to explore the DO effects on lipid production. All of the results revealed that a low DO could retard cell growth, while enhancing lipid accumulation. The 5l-fermentor results also confirm that a low DO (25 ± 10%) batch could have higher lipid content than that of high DO batch (60 ± 10%). Nevertheless, the DO level would not obviously affect the lipid composition profile. Oleic acid (C18:1) was the primary fatty acid in both batches. Due to the slow biomass growth rate resulting from the low DO, a two-stage DO controlled strategy (consisting of a high DO stage and following a low DO stage) was performed to improve the cell growth and lipid accumulation simultaneously. However, the strategy was not successful on the enhancement of total lipid production as compared to other batches. Conclusively, even a low DO could retard cell growth; the total production of lipids in the batch with low DO was higher that of the high DO batch due to the enhancement of lipid accumulation. Therefore, the batch operation of R. glutinis at the low DO was suggested for the purpose of lipid production. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mesh-free based variational level set evolution for breast region segmentation and abnormality detection using mammograms.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Kanchan L; Bajpai, Manish K; Khanna, Pritee; Giakos, George

    2018-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of abnormal region is a crucial task in computer-aided detection system using mammograms. In this work, an automatic abnormality detection algorithm using mammographic images is proposed. In the preprocessing step, partial differential equation-based variational level set method is used for breast region extraction. The evolution of the level set method is done by applying mesh-free-based radial basis function (RBF). The limitation of mesh-based approach is removed by using mesh-free-based RBF method. The evolution of variational level set function is also done by mesh-based finite difference method for comparison purpose. Unsharp masking and median filtering is used for mammogram enhancement. Suspicious abnormal regions are segmented by applying fuzzy c-means clustering. Texture features are extracted from the segmented suspicious regions by computing local binary pattern and dominated rotated local binary pattern (DRLBP). Finally, suspicious regions are classified as normal or abnormal regions by means of support vector machine with linear, multilayer perceptron, radial basis, and polynomial kernel function. The algorithm is validated on 322 sample mammograms of mammographic image analysis society (MIAS) and 500 mammograms from digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) datasets. Proficiency of the algorithm is quantified by using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 93.96%, 95.01%, and 94.48%, respectively, are obtained on MIAS dataset using DRLBP feature with RBF kernel function. Whereas, the highest 92.31% sensitivity, 98.45% specificity, and 96.21% accuracy are achieved on DDSM dataset using DRLBP feature with RBF kernel function. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Serum lipid, uric acid and glucose levels in urban black males doing manual or clerical work.

    PubMed

    Botha, J L; Irwig, L M; Joffe, B I; Mendelsohn, D; Seftel, H C

    1981-08-15

    Serum lipid, uric acid and glucose levels were measured in four groups of Black male factory workers 1 hour after an oral glucose load. These groups comprised non-obese manual, obese manual, non-obese clerical and obese clerical workers. Obese men had significantly higher serum uric acid, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and lower high=density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels than non-obese men. Serum glucose and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol values were also higher in obese than in non-obese men, but the differences were not significant. Clerical workers had higher levels than manual workers for most of the biochemical variables measured, but only in the case of uric acid was the difference significant. Possible reasons for the fact that the effect of occupation on the variables was slight are briefly discussed.

  2. Early changes of blood lipid levels during psychotropic drug treatment as predictors of long-term lipid changes and of new onset dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Delacrétaz, Aurélie; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Saigi Morgui, Nuria; Glatard, Anaïs; Thonney, Jacques; Solida-Tozzi, Alessandra; Kolly, Stéphane; Gallo, Sylfa Fassassi; Baumann, Philipp; Berney, Sylvie; Zulauff, Sandrine Valloton; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Hasler, Roland; Ebbing, Karsten; von Gunten, Armin; Conus, Philippe; Eap, Chin B

    Cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia represent a major health issue in psychiatry. Many psychotropic drugs can induce a rapid and substantial increase of blood lipid levels. This study aimed to determine the potential predictive power of an early change of blood lipid levels during psychotropic treatment on long-term change and on dyslipidemia development. Data were obtained from a prospective study including 181 psychiatric patients with metabolic parameters monitored during the first year of treatment and with adherence ascertained. Blood lipid levels (ie, total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C], and fasting triglycerides [TGs]) were measured at baseline and after 1, 3, and/or 12 months of treatment. Receiver-operating characteristic analyses indicated that early (ie, after 1 month of psychotropic treatment) increases (≥5%) for TC, LDL-C, TG, and non-HDL-C and decrease (≥5%) for HDL-C were the best predictors for clinically relevant modifications of blood lipid levels after 3 months of treatment (≥30% TC, ≥40% LDL-C, ≥45% TG, ≥55% non-HDL-C increase, and ≥20% HDL-C decrease; sensitivity 70%-100%, specificity 53%-72%). Predictive powers of these models were confirmed by fitting longitudinal multivariate models in the same cohort (P ≤ .03) as well as in a replication cohort (n = 79; P ≤ .003). Survival models showed significantly higher incidences of new onset dyslipidemia (TC, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C hypercholesterolemia, HDL-C hypocholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia) for patients with early changes of blood lipid levels compared to others (P ≤ .01). Early modifications of blood lipid levels following prescription of psychotropic drugs inducing dyslipidemia should therefore raise questions on clinical strategies to control long-term dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published

  3. Effects of eslicarbazepine acetate on lipid profile and sodium levels in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pulitano, Patrizia; Franco, Valentina; Mecarelli, Oriano; Brienza, Marianna; Davassi, Chiara; Russo, Emilio

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that treatment with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs is associated with increased serum lipid levels. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel antiepileptic drug specifically designed with the objective to identify carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine analogues with favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. The present study aimed to assess the changes in lipid profile and sodium levels in patients with epilepsy taking ESL as adjunctive therapy. This report describes a retrospective cohort study of 36 adult patients with epilepsy, taking ESL as an add-on treatment. The laboratory values assessed prior and after (range 6-18 months) ESL treatment were sodium levels, total cholesterol (TC), low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins and triglycerides. TC and LDL values were significantly decreased already after at least six months of therapy with ESL (191.3±29.6 vs 179.7±29.2mg/dl, p <0.0001 and 114.58±22.7 vs 103.11±19.46mg/dl, p <0.0001 respectively). HDL values before and during ESL treatment were significantly increased (57.5± 9.1 vs 63.9±8.3mg/dl; p<0.0001). No statistically significant changes have been found in triglycerides and sodium values. Add-on therapy with ESL, in contrast to the negative effects observed with traditional older carboxamides, positively affects lipid metabolism profile in patients with epilepsy over an average follow-up of 11 months. Further research is needed to confirm the obtained results with a focus on a comprehensive assessment of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of climatic factors on plasma lipid levels: A 5-year longitudinal study in a large Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Lin, Haiyan; Zhang, Shigang; Ren, Jianwei; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Mansen; Zhang, Qunye

    2016-01-01

    The rules and mechanisms of seasonal changes in plasma lipid levels, which may be related to annual rhythmicity of incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases, are still controversial. The objectives of this study were to study the effects of climatic factors on plasma lipid levels and to preliminarily reveal mechanisms of annual rhythmicity of plasma lipid levels. A longitudinal study was performed using health examination data of 5 consecutive years (47,270 subjects) in Jinan, China. The climate in Jinan is typical temperate continental monsoon climate with huge temperature difference between winter and summer (>30°C). After considering and adjusting those classical lipid-associated risk factors, such as age, gender, diet, exercise, blood pressure, body weight, change of body weight, body mass index, glycemia, alanine aminotransferase, and creatinine, only air temperature could still significantly affect plasma lipid levels among the main climatic factors (humidity, precipitation, and so forth). For men, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was decreased significantly 0.35, 0.18, and 0.06 mmol/L, respectively, whereas triglyceride was increased significantly 0.12 mmol/L for every 10°C increase in air temperature. For women, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased notably 0.73 and 0.32 mmol/L, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased significantly 0.26 mmol/L for every 10°C increase in air temperature, whereas triglyceride was not significantly affected by air temperature. Air temperature is an independent risk factor for plasma lipid levels besides those classical lipid-associated risk factors. The annual air temperature fluctuations might be an important mechanism of the seasonal changes of lipids. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of soybean lipid infusion on triglyceride and unbound free fatty acid levels in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Thomas; Kleinfeld, Alan; Huber, Andrew; Weinberger, Barry; Memon, Naureen; Joe Shih, Weichung; Carayannopoulos, Mary; Oh, William

    2018-04-18

    To determine the plasma triglyceride (TG) and unbound free fatty acid (FFAu) levels in infants treated with increasing dosages of soybean lipid, intralipid (IL), infusion. TG and FFAu levels were measured in 78 preterm infants (BW 500-2000 g; GA 23-34 weeks) using the fluorescent probe ADIFAB2 and enzymatic method. The infants' BW was 1266.2 ± 440.7 g and GA 28.8 ± 3.1 weeks. TG levels were 77.4 ± 50 mg/dL, 140.2 ± 188 mg/dL (p < .04 compared to levels during low dose IL infusion) and 135.6 ± 118 mg/dL (p < .004), respectively during increased IL rates. FFAu levels were 17.7 ± 13 nM, 47.3 ± 102.8 nM (p = .07) and 98 ± 234 nM (p = .03). TG levels correlated with IL dose, the rate of IL administration, and FFAu levels. TG and FFAu levels were higher in infants below 28 weeks' gestation Conclusions: Increasing dosage of IL is associated with increasing levels of TG and FFAu, especially in infants below 29 weeks of gestation. The increased level of FFAu suggests inefficient cellular utilization.

  6. C-reactive protein and homocysteine levels are associated with abnormal heart rate recovery in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cemil; Akgül, Ebru; Pabuccu, Recai

    2010-06-01

    To determine heart rate recovery (HRR) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its relation to C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Sixty-eight women with PCOS and 68 healthy women were included this study. Heart rate recovery was evaluated. We measured serum levels of CRP and Hcy. The presence of insulin resistance was investigated using homeostasis model assesment (HOMA-IR). Heart rate recovery, CRP, Hcy. Heart rate recovery was significantly decreased in women with PCOS compared with control group women. Subjects with abnormal HRR had significantly greater levels of CRP and Hcy. The PCOS patients with HRR in the top tertile compared with the bottom quartile tended to have lower mean CRP and Hcy levels. The HRR was significantly and negatively correlated with age, CRP, Hcy, HOMA-IR, and body mass index. C-reactive protein and Hcy are independent determinants of HRR. The CRP and Hcy levels may affect the development and progression of abnormal HRR in PCOS. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low serum free thyroxine level is correlated with lipid profile in depressive patients with suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Peng, Rui; Dai, Wen; Li, Yan

    2018-05-24

    The present research was carried out to observe the relationships between serum free triiothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and lipid profile and suicide risk in depressive subjects. Serum concentrations of albumin, total bilrubin, uric acid, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), FT3, FT4 and TSH were measured in 271 patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (202 subjects without suicidal behavior and 69 suicide attempters). A significant decrease in serum TC, TG and FT4 levels was found in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder compared with non-suicide attempters (all p < 0.0025). For the other biochemical factors levels (albumin, total bilrubin, uric acid, HDL, LDL, hs-CRP, FT3, and TSH), there were no significant differences between suicide attempters and non-suicide attempters. Relativity analysis suggested that FT4 is positively and significantly correlated with TC (p < 0.0025); TSH is positively associated with HDL (p < 0.0025). Univariate analysis showed that serum TC and FT4 abundances are correlated with the suicide attempts in major depressive subjects. This research demonstrated that the levels of serum TC, TG, and FT4 levels in suicidal patients were greatly decreased compared with patients without suicidal behavior. These findings support the hypothesis that low serum FT4 level affects lipid profile in major depressive patients with suicidal attempt. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of aging on serum levels of lipid molecular species as determined by lipidomics analysis in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Noriaki; Kato, Yuki; Yokozeki, Kyosuke; Sawada, Shuji; Sakurai, Ryota; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji; Goda, Nobuhito; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2018-06-06

    Aging is known to be associated with increased risk of lipid disorders related to the development of type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence revealed that change of lipid molecule species in blood is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, changes in lipid molecular species induced by aging are still unknown. We assessed the effects of age on the serum levels of lipid molecular species as determined by lipidomics analysis. Serum samples were collected from ten elderly men (71.7 ± 0.5 years old) and women (70.2 ± 1.0 years old), ten young men (23.9 ± 0.4 years old), and women (23.9 ± 0.7 years old). Serum levels of lipid molecular species were determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based lipidomics analysis. Our mass spectrometry analysis revealed increases in the levels of multiple triacylglycerol molecular species in the serum of elderly men and women. Moreover, serum levels of total ester-linked phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were increased by aging. In contrast, serum levels of specific ether-linked PC and PE molecular species were lower in elderly individuals than in young individuals. Our finding indicates that specific lipid molecular species, such as ether- and ester- linked phospholipids, may be selectively altered by aging.

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine for lowering blood lipid levels: A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; AlBedah, Abdullah M N; Khalil, Mohamed M K; AlQaed, Meshari S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this article is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for lowering blood lipid levels (BLL). Eight electronic databases were searched until March 2016. Additionally, all the retrieved references were inspected manually for further relevant papers. Systematic reviews were considered eligible, if they included patients of any age and/or gender with elevated blood lipid levels using any type of CAM. We used the Oxman and AMSTAR criteria to critically appraise the methodological quality of the included SRs. Twenty-seven SRs were included in the analyses. The majority of the SRs were of high methodological quality (mean Oxman score=4.81, SD=4.88; and the mean AMSTAR score=7.22, SD=3.38). The majority of SRs (56%) arrived at equivocal conclusions (of these 8 were of high quality); 7 SRs (37%) arrived at positive conclusions (of these 6 were of high quality), and 2 (7%) arrived at negative conclusions (both were of high quality). There was conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of garlic; and promising evidence for yoga. To conclude, the evidence from SRs evaluating the effectiveness of CAM in lowering BLL is predominantly equivocal and confusing. Several limitations exist, such as variety of doses and preparations, confounding effects of diets and lifestyle factors, or heterogeneity of the primary trials among others. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Potential Mechanisms Leading to the Abnormal Lipid Profile in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Versus Healthy Volunteers and Reversal by Tofacitinib†, ‡

    PubMed Central

    Fleischmann, Roy; Davignon, Jean; Schwartz, Howard; Turner, Scott M.; Beysen, Carine; Milad, Mark; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Luo, Zhen; Kaplan, Irina V.; Riese, Richard; Zuckerman, Andrea; McInnes, Iain B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Systemic inflammation is proposed to play a fundamental role in the altered lipid metabolism associated with RA; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We undertook this study to compare cholesterol and lipoprotein kinetics in patients with active RA with those in matched healthy volunteers. Methods This was a phase I open‐label mechanism‐of‐action study. Cholesterol and lipoprotein kinetics were assessed with 13C‐cholesterol and 13C‐leucine infusions. RA patients were reevaluated after receiving oral tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily for 6 weeks. Results Levels of high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A‐I (Apo A‐I) as well as HDL cholesterol particle number were lower in RA patients (n = 36) than in healthy volunteers (n = 33). In contrast, the cholesterol ester fractional catabolic rate was higher in RA patients, but no differences were observed in cholesterol ester transfer protein, cholesterol ester production rate, HDL‐associated Apo A‐I fractional catabolic rate, or LDL‐associated Apo B fractional catabolic rate. Following tofacitinib treatment in RA patients, the cholesterol ester fractional catabolic rate decreased and cholesterol levels increased. The decrease in cholesterol ester fractional catabolic rate correlated significantly with the increase in HDL cholesterol. Additionally, HDL cholesterol particle number increased and markers of HDL cholesterol function improved. Conclusion This is the first study to assess cholesterol and lipoprotein kinetics in patients with active RA and matched healthy volunteers. The data suggest that low cholesterol levels in patients with active RA may be driven by increases in cholesterol ester catabolism. Tofacitinib treatment reduced cholesterol ester catabolism, thereby increasing cholesterol levels toward those

  11. Acute effects of feeding fructose, glucose and sucrose on blood lipid levels and systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Jameel, Faizan; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2014-12-16

    Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between fructose consumption and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Mechanisms by which dietary fructose mediates metabolic changes are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of fructose, glucose and sucrose consumption on post-postprandial lipemia and low grade inflammation measured as hs-CRP. This was a randomized, single blinded, cross-over trial involving healthy subjects (n=14). After an overnight fast, participants were given one of 3 different isocaloric drinks, containing 50 g of either fructose or glucose or sucrose dissolved in water. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post intervention for the analysis of blood lipids, glucose, insulin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Glucose and sucrose supplementation initially resulted in a significant increase in glucose and insulin levels compared to fructose supplementation and returned to near baseline values within 2 hours. Change in plasma cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol (measured as area under curve, AUC) was significantly higher when participants consumed fructose compared with glucose or sucrose (P<0.05). AUC for plasma triglyceride levels however remained unchanged regardless of the dietary intervention. Change in AUC for hs-CRP was also significantly higher in subjects consuming fructose compared with those consuming glucose (P<0.05), but not sucrose (P=0.07). This study demonstrates that fructose as a sole source of energy modulates plasma lipids and hsCRP levels in healthy individuals. The significance of increase in HDL-cholesterol with a concurrent increase in LDL-cholesterol and elevated hs-CRP levels remains to be delineated when considering health effects of feeding fructose-rich diets. ACTRN12614000431628.

  12. Blood lipid and lipoprotein levels: relationships with educational level and region of residence in the French SU.VI.MAX study.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, E; Czernichow, S; Bertrais, S; Paillard, F; Tichet, J; Galan, P; Castetbon, K; Hercberg, S

    2005-06-01

    Blood lipid profile of French men and women obtained from the general population is not well known. Furthermore, the association between these lipids, as a function of other potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and sociodemographic factors such as age, educational level, and region of residence is not well studied in large samples in Europe. Data on French healthy volunteers, aged between 40 and 65 years for men (n = 5141) and 35 and 65 years for women (n = 7876) were obtained from the "Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants" (SU.VI.MAX) study, a primary prevention trial. Baseline blood samples were collected in 1994-1995 and analyzed for cholesterol, triglyceride, apolipoproteins (apo)-B and -A1. The results were analyzed separately for men and women as a function of age, educational level, and area of residence. Overall, blood lipid levels for men and women did not differ significantly from those reported in other Western industrialized countries. Except for triglyceride in men, all blood lipids were statistically different among ages. In women, cholesterol, apo-A1, and apo-B showed a significant decrease with educational level. Statistical differences were found in both genders between blood lipids and lipoproteins among regions of residence. Even if differences between region of residence were found in blood lipid levels, this cannot explain the North-East to South gradient in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in France nor differences between France and other industrialized Western countries.

  13. Serum levels of inhibin A and inhibin B in women with normal and abnormal luteal function.

    PubMed

    Yamoto, M; Imai, M; Otani, H; Nakano, R

    1997-05-01

    To determine whether serum inhibin A and inhibin B concentrations are lower in patients with luteal dysfunction than in women with normal luteal function. Serum samples were collected from seven healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. Serum samples on days +5 to +9 after the LH surge were collected from patients with luteal dysfunction. The diagnosis of luteal dysfunction was based on a luteal phase duration less than 11 days and a single midluteal progesterone level below 10 ng/mL. Serum levels of inhibin A, inhibin B, progesterone, estradiol (E2), FSH, and LH were measured. The serum inhibin A levels were increased toward the late follicular phase. The levels reached a maximum during the midluteal phase, followed by a fall during the late luteal phase. The serum inhibin B levels were high during the follicular phases and the early luteal phase. The levels decreased during the midluteal and late luteal phases. Serum levels (mean +/- standard error of the mean) of inhibin A in patients with luteal dysfunction were significantly lower than those in women during the midluteal phase (26.2 +/- 2.9 compared to 41.9 +/- 2.8 pg/mL; P < .01) in addition to the expected decrease in serum progesterone levels (6.3 +/- 0.7 compared to 14.7 +/- 1.2 ng/mL; P < .01). Serum inhibin B levels did not differ significantly between normal women and those with luteal dysfunction. There also were no significant differences in the E2, FSH, and LH levels. Levels of inhibin A, but not of inhibin B, may reflect the human luteal function.

  14. Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Marvelle, Amanda F; Li, Jin; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Feranil, Alan B; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Li, Yun; Adair, Linda S; Mohlke, Karen L

    2013-11-01

    Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10⁻⁶) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10⁻⁴), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control.

  15. Comparison between sitagliptin and nateglinide on postprandial lipid levels: The STANDARD study.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yuichi; Kaga, Hideyoshi; Hayashi, Shinu; Kitazawa, Toru; Iimura, Yuko; Ohno, Makoto; Yoshitsugu, Michiyasu; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Hiyoshi, Toru

    2013-02-15

    .24 kg/m(2)). Fasting levels of HbA1c, glycated albumin, 1.5-anhydroglucitol, and blood glucose, as well as the blood glucose levels at one and three hours postprandially, improved in both groups after 12 wk of treatment, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, the glucagon level at one hour postprandially (P = 0.040) and the diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01) only showed a significant decrease in the sitagliptin group. In the nateglinide group, there was no significant change in the AUC of Apo B48, the glucagon level at one hour postprandially, the fasting triglyceride level, or the diastolic blood pressure. Body weight was unchanged in both groups. However, the AUC of Apo B48 at three hours postprandially showed a significant decrease in the sitagliptin group from 2.48 ± 0.11 at baseline to 1.94 ± 0.78 g/L per hour after 12 wk (P = 0.019). The fasting triglyceride level also decreased significantly in the sitagliptin group (P = 0.035). With regard to lipid-related markers other than Apo B48 and fasting triglycerides, no significant changes were observed with respect to Apo A1, Apo B, or Apo C3 in either group. No adverse events occurred in either group. Sitagliptin significantly improves some lipid parameters while having a comparable effect on blood glucose to nateglinide. A large-scale prospective study of sitagliptin therapy is warranted.

  16. Comparison between sitagliptin and nateglinide on postprandial lipid levels: The STANDARD study

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Yuichi; Kaga, Hideyoshi; Hayashi, Shinu; Kitazawa, Toru; Iimura, Yuko; Ohno, Makoto; Yoshitsugu, Michiyasu; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Hiyoshi, Toru

    2013-01-01

    group: 21.39 ± 2.24 kg/m2). Fasting levels of HbA1c, glycated albumin, 1.5-anhydroglucitol, and blood glucose, as well as the blood glucose levels at one and three hours postprandially, improved in both groups after 12 wk of treatment, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, the glucagon level at one hour postprandially (P = 0.040) and the diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01) only showed a significant decrease in the sitagliptin group. In the nateglinide group, there was no significant change in the AUC of Apo B48, the glucagon level at one hour postprandially, the fasting triglyceride level, or the diastolic blood pressure. Body weight was unchanged in both groups. However, the AUC of Apo B48 at three hours postprandially showed a significant decrease in the sitagliptin group from 2.48 ± 0.11 at baseline to 1.94 ± 0.78 g/L per hour after 12 wk (P = 0.019). The fasting triglyceride level also decreased significantly in the sitagliptin group (P = 0.035). With regard to lipid-related markers other than Apo B48 and fasting triglycerides, no significant changes were observed with respect to Apo A1, Apo B, or Apo C3 in either group. No adverse events occurred in either group. CONCLUSION: Sitagliptin significantly improves some lipid parameters while having a comparable effect on blood glucose to nateglinide. A large-scale prospective study of sitagliptin therapy is warranted. PMID:23493856

  17. Outcomes of patients with altered level of consciousness and abnormal electroencephalogram: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Paula Rodrigues; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Naves, Pedro Vicente Ferreira; Ladeia-Frota, Carol; Caboclo, Luís Otávio

    2017-01-01

    , respectively, p = 0.049]. Hospital LOS, in-hospital mortality and frequency of unfavorable outcomes did not differ between Ictal patients treated exclusively with AEDs or IVADs. In patients with acute altered consciousness and abnormal routine EEG, antiepileptic treatment did not improve outcomes regardless of the presence of periodic, rhythmic or ictal EEG patterns.

  18. Outcomes of patients with altered level of consciousness and abnormal electroencephalogram: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Naves, Pedro Vicente Ferreira; Ladeia-Frota, Carol; Caboclo, Luís Otávio

    2017-01-01

    .9%) vs. 11/36 (30.6%) patients, respectively, p = 0.049]. Hospital LOS, in-hospital mortality and frequency of unfavorable outcomes did not differ between Ictal patients treated exclusively with AEDs or IVADs. Conclusion In patients with acute altered consciousness and abnormal routine EEG, antiepileptic treatment did not improve outcomes regardless of the presence of periodic, rhythmic or ictal EEG patterns. PMID:28886073

  19. Serum lipid levels and suicidality: a meta-analysis of 65 epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Xie, Guoming; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association between serum lipid levels and suicidality, as evidence from previous studies has been inconsistent. Methods We identified relevant studies by searching Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1980 to Dec. 5, 2014). Studies assessing the association between serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or triglycerides (TG) levels and suicidality were included. We used a random-effects model to take into account heterogeneity among studies. Results We included 65 studies with a total of 510 392 participants in our analysis. Compared with the nonsuicidal patients, suicidal patients had significantly lower serum TC (weighted mean difference [WMD] −22.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] −27.95 to −16.75), LDL-C (WMD −19.56, 95% CI −26.13 to −12.99) and TG (WMD −23.40, 95% CI −32.38 to −14.42) levels, while compared with the healthy controls, suicidal patients had significantly lower TC (WMD −24.75, 95% CI −27.71 to −21.78), HDL-C (WMD −1.75, 95% CI −3.01 to −0.48) and LDL-C (WMD −3.85, 95% CI −7.45 to −0.26) levels. Furthermore, compared with the highest serum TC level category, a lower serum TC level was associated with a 112% (95% CI 40%–220%) higher risk of suicidality, including a 123% (95% CI 24%–302%) higher risk of suicide attempt and an 85% (95 CI 7%–221%) higher risk of suicide completion. The cut-off values for low and high serum TC level were in compliance with the categories reported in the original studies. Limitations A major limitation of our study is the potential heterogeneity in most of the analyses. In addition, the suicidal behaviour was examined using different scales or methods across studies, which may further explain heterogeneity among the studies. Conclusion We identified an inverse association

  20. Plasma lipid levels predict dysglycemia in a biracial cohort of nondiabetic subjects: Potential mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Owei, Ibiye; Umekwe, Nkiru; Wan, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia and dysglycemia are etiologically associated, but the direction, chronology, and mechanisms of the association are not fully understood. We, therefore, analyzed data from 335 healthy adults (184 black, 151 white) enrolled in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study. Subjects underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were enrolled if they had normal fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels. Assessments during year 1 included anthropometry, fasting lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Thereafter, OGTT was assessed annually for 5.5 years. The primary outcome was occurrence of prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) or diabetes. During a mean follow-up of 2.62 years, 110 participants (32.8%) developed prediabetes (N = 100) or diabetes (N = 10). In multivariate logistic regression models, higher baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels and lower HDL cholesterol levels significantly increased the risk of incident prediabetes. The combined relative risk (95% confidence interval [CI]) of prediabetes for participants with lower baseline HDL cholesterol (10th vs. 90th percentile), higher LDL cholesterol (90th vs. 10th percentile) and high triglycerides levels (90th vs. 10th percentile) was 4.12 (95% CI 1.61–10.56), P = 0.0032. At baseline, lipid values showed significant associations with measures of adiposity, glycemia, insulin sensitivity, and secretion. In both ethnic groups, waist circumference correlated positively with triglycerides and inversely with HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.0004–<0.0001); fasting plasma glucose correlated positively with triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels and inversely with HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.006–<0.0001); insulin sensitivity correlated positively with HDL cholesterol and inversely with triglyceride levels (P < 0.0001), and insulin secretion correlated positively with triglycerides

  1. The relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cihan; Cengiz, Hüseyin; Yeşil, Ali; Ekin, Murat; Yaşar, Levent

    2017-12-01

    Many postmenopausal women experience hot flashes, night sweats, non-specific emotional and psychological distresses. Our aim was to investigate the relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity using the menopause rating scale (MRS). A cross-sectional study was performed at our outpatient clinic with natural postmenopausal women. A total of 444 women were included in this study. The basic characteristics of the study population, such as age, gravidity, parity, time to menopause onset and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Venous blood samples were collected from subjects after overnight fasting. The levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, estradiol (E2), progesterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEA-S) were analyzed. The MRS questionnaire validated for the Turkish population was used to assess the menopausal symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference between mild and severe total symptom scores for TG, and elevated TG levels were observed in the severe group (p = 0.04). Elevated testosterone levels were observed with severe psychological symptom and total symptom scores. There were significant differences in progesterone level in psychological, urogenital, and total scores and lower levels were seen in severe symptom groups. There was a significant negative correlation between urogenital symptom scores and progesterone levels (p < 0.001). Elevated levels of testosterone were related to severe psychological symptom and total menopausal symptom scores. A decrease in progesterone levels was related to high psychological, urogenital and total menopausal symptom scores. Elevated TG levels were also related to the total severe symptom scores.

  2. Association of lifestyle with serum lipid levels: a study of middle-aged Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Nakamura, K; Suzuki, K

    2000-07-01

    Cross-sectional associations between lifestyle and serum lipid levels were examined in 1591 Japanese male office workers aged 35 to 59 years in Osaka, Japan. From multiple linear regression analyses, significant correlates with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and Log triglyceride levels and the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol were, in the order of relative importance: BMI, alcohol intake (negative) and age for LDL cholesterol level; BMI (negative), cigarette smoking (negative), alcohol intake, consideration for nutritional balance, hours of brisk walking, hours of walking at an ordinary pace and physical exercise for HDL cholesterol level; BMI, cigarette smoking, consideration for nutritional balance (negative), hours of work (negative), alcohol intake and coffee drinking (negative) for Log triglyceride level; and BMI, alcohol intake (negative), cigarette smoking, consideration for nutritional balance (negative), age, hours of brisk walking (negative) and the frequency of snack intake between meals for the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Our data suggest that obesity, cigarette smoking and snack intake between meals are atherogenic whereas alcohol consumption, consideration for nutritional balance and walking long hours, especially at a brisk pace, are anti-atherogenic in middle-aged Japanese men.

  3. Effect of dietary choline levels on growth performance, lipid deposition and metabolism in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi; Wei, Chuan-Chuan; Ye, Han-Mei; Zhao, Hai-Ping; Song, Yu-Feng; Wu, Kun

    2016-12-01

    The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect and mechanism of dietary choline levels on growth performance and lipid deposition of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Dietary choline was included at three levels of 239.2 (control (without extra choline addition), 1156.4 and 2273.6mg choline per kg diet, respectively) and fed to yellow catfish (mean initial weight: 3.45±0.02g mean±standard errors of mean (SEM)) for 8weeks. Fish fed the diet containing 1156.4mgkg -1 choline showed the higher weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed intake (FI), but the lower feed conversion rate (FCR), than those in control and highest choline group. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) and hepatic lipid content declined with increasing dietary choline levels. Muscle lipid content was the lowest for fish fed adequate choline diets and showed no significant difference between other two groups. Choline contents in liver and muscle increased with increasing dietary choline levels. Dietary choline levels significantly influenced mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid homeostasis in muscle and liver, such as CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase a (CCTa), phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyl-transferase (PEMT), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), apolipoprotein b (APOBb), apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and effects of dietary choline levels on lipid deposition and metabolism were tissue-specific. Different responses of these genes at the mRNA levels partially explained the profiles of lipid deposition in liver and muscle for fish fed different choline diets. To our knowledge, this is the first to explore the effect of dietary choline level on mRNA expression of these genes, which provides new insights into choline nutrition in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fertilization stimulates an increase in inositol trisphosphate and inositol lipid levels in Xenopus eggs.

    PubMed

    Snow, P; Yim, D L; Leibow, J D; Saini, S; Nuccitelli, R

    1996-11-25

    Previous experiments from our lab have suggested that the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is required for sperm-induced egg activation in Xenopus laevis. Here we measure the endogenous production of both Ins(1,4,5)P3 and PIP2 during the sperm-induced and ionomycin-induced calcium wave in the egg and find that both increase following fertilization. Ins(1,4,5)P3 increases 3.2-fold from an unfertilized egg level of 0.13 pmole per egg (0.29 microM) to a peak of 0.42 pmole per egg (0.93 microM) as the calcium wave reaches the antipode in the fertilized egg. This continuous production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 during the time that the Ca2+ wave is propagating across the egg suggests the involvement of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in wave propagation. This increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 is smaller in ionomycin-activated eggs than in sperm-activated eggs, suggesting that the sperm-induced production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 involves a PIP2 hydrolysis pathway that is not simply raising intracellular Ca2+. While one might expect PIP2 levels to fall as a result of hydrolysis, we find that PIP2 actually increases 2-fold. The total lipid fraction in unfertilized egg exhibits 0.8 pmole PIP2 per egg and this increases to 1.5 pmole as the calcium wave reaches the antipode. The PIP2 concentration peaks 2 min after the completion of the calcium wave at 1.8 pmole per egg. The amount of PIP2 in the animal and vegetal hemispheres of the egg was also measured by cutting frozen eggs in half. The vegetal hemisphere contained twice the amount of PIP2 as the animal hemisphere but it also contained twice the amount of lipid. Thus, there was an equivalent amount of PIP2 normalized to lipid in each hemisphere. Isolated animal and vegetal hemisphere cortices exhibit similar PIP2 concentrations, suggesting that the 2-fold higher total PIP2 in the vegetal half is not due to a gradient of PIP2 in the plasma membrane, but rather implies that cytoplasmic organelle membranes also contain PIP2.

  5. Genetic Association and Interaction Analysis of USF1 and APOA5 on Lipid Levels and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Naukkarinen, Jussi; Kristiansson, Kati; Ripatti, Samuli; Kauttu, Tuuli; Silander, Kaisa; Salomaa, Veikko; Perola, Markus; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Barter, Philip J.; Ehnholm, Christian; Peltonen, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Objective USF1 is a ubiquitous transcription factor governing the expression of numerous genes of lipid and glucose metabolism. APOA5 is a well-established candidate gene regulating triglyceride (TG) levels and has been identified as a downstream target of upstream stimulatory factor. No detailed studies about the effect of APOA5 on atherosclerotic lesion formation have been conducted, nor has its potential interaction with USF1 been examined. Methods and Results We analyzed allelic variants of USF1 and APOA5 in families (n=516) ascertained for atherogenic dyslipidemia and in an autopsy series of middle-aged men (n=300) with precise quantitative measurements of atherosclerotic lesions. The impact of previously associated APOA5 variants on TGs was observed in the dyslipidemic families, and variant rs3135506 was associated with size of fibrotic aortic lesions in the autopsy series. The USF1 variant rs2516839, associated previously with atherosclerotic lesions, showed an effect on TGs in members of the dyslipidemic families with documented coronary artery disease. We provide preliminary evidence of gene-gene interaction between these variants in an autopsy series with a fibrotic lesion area in the abdominal aorta (P=0.0028), with TGs in dyslipidemic coronary artery disease subjects (P=0.03), and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.008) in a large population cohort of coronary artery disease patients (n=1065) in which the interaction for TGs was not replicated. Conclusion Our findings in these unique samples reinforce the roles of APOA5 and USF1 variants on cardiovascular phenotypes and suggest that both genes contribute to lipid levels and aortic atherosclerosis individually and possibly through epistatic effects. PMID:19910639

  6. Effect of onsite dietitian counseling on weight loss and lipid levels in an outpatient physician office.

    PubMed

    Welty, Francine K; Nasca, Melita M; Lew, Natalie S; Gregoire, Sue; Ruan, Yuheng

    2007-07-01

    We examined the effect of an outpatient office-based diet and exercise counseling program on weight loss and lipid levels with an onsite dietitian who sees patients at the same visit with the physician and is fully reimbursable. Eighty overweight or obese patients (average age 55 +/- 12 years, baseline body mass index 30.1 +/- 6.4 kg/m(2)) with > or =1 cardiovascular risk factor (86%) or coronary heart disease (14%) were counseled to exercise 30 minutes/day and eat a modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet (saturated fat <7%, polyunsaturated fat to 10%, monounsaturated fat to 18%, low in glycemic index and sodium and high in fiber, low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables). Weight, body mass index, lipid levels, and blood pressure were measured at 1 concurrent follow-up visit with the dietitian and physician and > or =1 additional follow-up with the physician. Maximum weight lost was an average of 5.6% (10.8 lb) at a mean follow-up of 1.75 years. Sixty-four (81%) of these patients maintained significant weight loss (average weight loss 5.3%) at a mean follow-up of 2.6 years. Average decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 9.3%, average decrease in triglycerides was 34%, and average increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 9.6%. Systolic blood pressure was lowered from 129 to 126 mm Hg (p = 0.21) and diastolic blood pressure from 79 to 75 mm Hg (p = 0.003). In conclusion, having a dietitian counsel patients concurrently with a physician in the outpatient setting is effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss and is fully reimbursable.

  7. Hypereosinophilia with abnormal T cells, trisomy 7 and elevated TARC serum level.

    PubMed

    Roumier, A S; Grardel, N; Laï, J L; Becqueriaux, I; Ghomari, K; de Lavareille, A; Roufosse, F; Prin, L; Capron, M

    2003-07-01

    The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare heterogeneous disorder, characterized by persistent blood eosinophilia with possible organ involvement. We describe here the case of a 20-year-old atopic male presenting chronic hypereosinophilia and eczema since childhood. Biological findings included hypereosinophilia (9.5 x 10(9)/L), hyperlymphocytosis (10.9 x 10(9)/L), polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and elevated IgE serum level. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphoid cells showed a population of CD2+CD3-CD4+TCRab-TCRgd- lymphocytes. These cells displayed a Th0/Th2 cytokine profile, and a clonal TCR rearrangement pattern. A high serum TARC level was observed. Karyotype studies on blood stimulated culture or lymph nodes revealed a cellular hyperdiploïd clone 47, XY, +7. To our knowledge, this chromosomal aberration has never been reported in such case.

  8. Prevalence of abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase levels in type 2 diabetic patients in Iran.

    PubMed

    Meybodi, M A; Afkhami-Ardekani, M; Rashidi, M

    2008-09-15

    This study was performed to estimate prevalence of transaminase levels in type 2 diabetic patients and identify contributing risk factors. In this cross-sectional study 348 patients with type 2 diabetes, who attended the diabetic clinic of Yazd Diabetes Research Center, were studied from October 2004 to December 2005. Patients with history of viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse and use of drug such as Amiodarone, Bleomycin, methotrexate, tamoxifen and sodium valporate was excluded. To examine the relationships between ALT, AST in individuals with type II diabetes and relation to various metabolic parameters like triglyceride, cholesterol, age, duration of diabetes, gender and BMI. Of 348 patients that entered the study, mean age was 58.8 +/- 11.5. Elevated ALT and AST were found in 10.4 and 3.3% of type 2 diabetic patients, respectively. Although the prevalence of elevated ALT increased with increasing age, FBS and triglyceride levels in subjects, but it was not statistically significant. There was a significant association between elevated ALT and gender as well as diabetes duration. The prevalence of elevated of ALT in type 2 diabetic patients is 1.6 times higher than general population in Iran unrelated to age, BMI, glycemic control, triglyceride levels. Identification risk factors and mechanisms of these elevations are very important and require further evaluation.

  9. Type 3 deiodinase deficiency results in functional abnormalities at multiple levels of the thyroid axis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Arturo; Martinez, M Elena; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Van Sande, Jacqueline; Refetoff, Samuel; Galton, Valerie Anne; St Germain, Donald L

    2007-12-01

    The type 3 deiodinase (D3) is a selenoenzyme that inactivates thyroid hormones and is highly expressed during development and in the adult central nervous system. We have recently observed that mice lacking D3 activity (D3KO mice) develop perinatal thyrotoxicosis followed in adulthood by a pattern of hormonal levels that is suggestive of central hypothyroidism. In this report we describe the results of additional studies designed to investigate the regulation of the thyroid axis in this unique animal model. Our results demonstrate that the thyroid and pituitary glands of D3KO mice do not respond appropriately to TSH and TRH stimulation, respectively. Furthermore, after induction of severe hypothyroidism by antithyroid treatment, the rise in serum TSH in D3KO mice is only 15% of that observed in wild-type mice. In addition, D3KO animals rendered severely hypothyroid fail to show the expected increase in prepro-TRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Finally, treatment with T(3) results in a serum T(3) level in D3KO mice that is much higher than that in wild-type mice. This is accompanied by significant weight loss and lethality in mutant animals. In conclusion, the absence of D3 activity results in impaired clearance of T(3) and significant defects in the mechanisms regulating the thyroid axis at all levels: hypothalamus, pituitary, and thyroid.

  10. Influence of abnormally high leptin levels during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in progeny mice.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Elena N; Chepeleva, Elena V; Panchenko, Polina E; Bazhan, Nadezhda M

    2013-12-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) increases blood leptin levels in C57BL preobese pregnant mice without affecting other metabolic characteristics. We investigated the influence of the A(y) mutation or leptin injection at the end of pregnancy in C57BL mice on metabolic phenotypes and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in offspring. In both C57BL-A(y) and leptin-treated mice, the maternal effect was more pronounced in male offspring. Compared with males born to control mothers, males born to A(y) mothers displayed equal food intake (FI) but decreased body weight (BW) gain after weaning, equal glucose tolerance, and enhanced FI-to-BW ratios on the standard diet but the same FI and BW on the high-fat diet. Males born to A(y) mothers were less responsive to the anorectic effect of exogenous leptin and less resistant to fasting (were not hyperphagic and gained less weight during refeeding after food deprivation) compared with males born to control mothers. However, all progeny displayed equal hypothalamic expression of Agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and equal plasma leptin and glucose levels after food deprivation. Leptin injections in C57BL mice on day 17 of pregnancy decreased BW in both male and female offspring but inhibited FI and DIO only in male offspring. Our results show that hyperleptinemia during pregnancy has sex-specific long-term effects on energy balance regulation in progeny and does not predispose offspring to developing obesity.

  11. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kurihara, Takashi; Hirasawa, Akira; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Miyata, Atsuro; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-12-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO) mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9-10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC-MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteomics analysis of high lipid-producing strain Mucor circinelloides WJ11: an explanation for the mechanism of lipid accumulation at the proteomic level.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Zan, Xinyi; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2016-02-11

    The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is attracting considerable interest as it produces oil rich in γ-linolenic acid. Nitrogen (N) deficiency is a common strategy to trigger the lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. Although a simple pathway from N depletion in the medium to lipid accumulation has been elucidated at the enzymatic level, global changes at protein levels upon N depletion have not been investigated. In this study, we have systematically analyzed the changes at the levels of protein expression in M. circinelloides WJ11, a high lipid-producing strain (36 %, lipid/cell dry weight), during lipid accumulation. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that N depletion increased the expression of glutamine synthetase, involved in ammonia assimilation, for the supply of cellular nitrogen but decreased the metabolism of amino acids. Upon N deficiency, many proteins (e.g., fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, pyruvate kinase) involved in glycolytic pathway were up-regulated while proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (e.g., isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA ligase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase) were down-regulated, indicating this activity was retarded thereby leading to a greater flux of carbon into fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, transaldolase and transketolase, which participate in the pentose phosphate pathway, were up-regulated, leading to the increased production of NADPH, the reducing power for fatty acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, protein and nucleic acid metabolism were down-regulated and some proteins involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, molecular chaperone and redox homeostasis were up-regulated upon N depletion, which may be the cellular response to the stress produced by the onset of N deficiency. N limitation increased those expressions of the proteins involved in ammonia assimilation but decreased that

  13. Effects of dietary coconut oil, butter and safflower oil on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lathosterol levels.

    PubMed

    Cox, C; Sutherland, W; Mann, J; de Jong, S; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this present study was to determine plasma levels of lathosterol, lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins during diets rich in butter, coconut fat and safflower oil. The study consisted of sequential six week periods of diets rich in butter, coconut fat then safflower oil and measurements were made at baseline and at week 4 in each diet period. Forty-one healthy Pacific island polynesians living in New Zealand participated in the trial. Subjects were supplied with some foods rich in the test fats and were given detailed dietary advice which was reinforced regularly. Plasma lathosterol concentration (P < 0.001), the ratio plasma lathosterol/cholesterol (P=0.04), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.001) and apoB (P<0.001) levels were significantly different among the diets and were significantly lower during coconut and safflower oil diets compared with butter diets. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and apoA-levels were also significantly (P< or =0.001) different among the diets and were not significantly different between buffer and coconut diets. These data suggest that cholesterol synthesis is lower during diets rich in coconut fat and safflower oil compared with diets rich in butter and might be associated with lower production rates of apoB-containing lipoproteins.

  14. Recovery of motor deficit, cerebellar serotonin and lipid peroxidation levels in the cortex of injured rats.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Gonzalez-Pina, Rigoberto; Alfaro-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Nekrassov-Protasova, Vladimir; Durand-Rivera, Alfredo; Montes, Sergio; Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso

    2010-10-01

    The sensorimotor cortex and the cerebellum are interconnected by the corticopontocerebellar (CPC) pathway and by neuronal groups such as the serotonergic system. Our aims were to determine the levels of cerebellar serotonin (5-HT) and lipid peroxidation (LP) after cortical iron injection and to analyze the motor function produced by the injury. Rats were divided into the following three groups: control, injured and recovering. Motor function was evaluated using the beam-walking test as an assessment of overall locomotor function and the footprint test as an assessment of gait. We also determined the levels of 5-HT and LP two and twenty days post-lesion. We found an increase in cerebellar 5-HT and a concomitant increase in LP in the pons and cerebellum of injured rats, which correlated with their motor deficits. Recovering rats showed normal 5-HT and LP levels. The increase of 5-HT in injured rats could be a result of serotonergic axonal injury after cortical iron injection. The LP and motor deficits could be due to impairments in neuronal connectivity affecting the corticospinal and CPC tracts and dysmetric stride could be indicative of an ataxic gait that involves the cerebellum.

  15. Rutin exhibits hepatoprotective effects in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by reducing hepatic lipid levels and mitigating lipid-induced oxidative injuries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingsheng; Pan, Ran; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Fuli; Hu, Linfeng; Ding, Bin; Zhu, Linwensi; Xia, Yongliang; Dou, Xiaobing

    2017-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive accumulation of hepatic lipids and oxidative injury of hepatocytes. Rutin is a natural flavonoid with significant roles in combating cellular oxidative stress and regulating lipid metabolism. The current study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying rutin's hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Rutin treatment was applied to male C57BL/6 mice maintained on a high-fat diet and HepG2 cells challenged with oleic acid. Hepatic lipid accumulation was evaluated by triglyceride assay and Oil Red O staining. Oxidative hepatic injury was assessed by malondialdehyde assay, superoxide dismutase assay and reactive oxygen species assay. The expression levels of various lipogenic and lipolytic genes were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. In addition, liver autophagy was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In both fat-challenged murine liver tissues and HepG2 cells, rutin treatment was shown to significantly lower triglyceride content and the abundance of lipid droplets. Rutin was also found to reduce cellular malondialdehyde level and restore superoxide dismutase activity in hepatocytes. Among the various lipid-related genes, rutin treatment was able to restore the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) and its downstream targets, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and 2 (CPT-1 and CPT-2), while suppressing those of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), diglyceride acyltransfase 1 and 2 (DGAT-1 and 2), as well as acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, rutin was shown to repress the autophagic function of liver tissues by down-regulating key autophagy biomarkers, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The experimental data demonstrated that rutin could reduce triglyceride content and mitigate oxidative injuries in fat

  16. Normal adiponectin levels despite abnormal glucose tolerance (or diabetes) and inflammation in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hammana, I; Malet, A; Costa, M; Brochiero, E; Berthiaume, Y; Potvin, S; Chiasson, J-L; Coderre, L; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2007-06-01

    Circulating adiponectin levels are negatively associated with glucose intolerance, inflammation and central adiposity. Since these conditions are common in cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether adiponectin values are altered in these patients. To determine if CF patients have altered adiponectin levels and if these levels correlate with glucose tolerance categories (normal, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD)), insulin resistance or inflammatory markers such as fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP). Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed and adiponectin levels were measured in 90 CF patients not known to be diabetic and 15 healthy controls matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Inflammatory markers, serum albumin concentrations and the clinical status of CF patients (i.e. pulmonary function) were also examined. CF pathology was characterized by a high prevalence (43.5%) of glucose tolerance abnormalities: 26.5% of IGT and 17.0% of newly diagnosed CFRD. CF patients also presented systemic inflammation as revealed by a significant increase of fibrinogen (P=0.029) in all patients and higher CRP levels in CFRD patients compared to the controls (P<0.05). On the other hand, CF and control subjects had similar albumin serum concentration. While CF patients and controls had similar serum adiponectin values, women had significantly higher hormone levels than men (P<0.001). Adiponectin levels did not correlate with glucose tolerance, inflammatory markers or insulin resistance. On the other hand, they correlated positively with both total and HDL-cholesterol (P<0.001). CF patients did not show any alterations in adiponectin levels despite insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and sub clinical chronic inflammation. Thus, CF appears to be one of the rare conditions in which discordance between adiponectin values and insulin resistance or inflammation is evident.

  17. Guar gum effects on food intake, blood serum lipids and glucose levels of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Frias, A C; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of guar gum derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% soluble fiber, 7.6% insoluble fiber, 2.16% crude protein, 0.78% total lipids, 0.54% ash and 9.55% moisture) on food intake, levels of blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose and LDL and HDL-cholesterol were studied. The effects of guar gum on indices of protein absorption and utilization were also investigated. Diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% (w/w) guar gum or 10% and 20% cellulose powder (reference) were fed to normal rats for 60 days. The rats fed the guar gum diets showed significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower levels of blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, reduced food intake and body weight gain. Furthermore, a concomitant increase in HDL-cholesterol with a substantial elevation of the HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio were noted. Guar gum decreased blood serum glucose only during the first month of the experiment, and no changes in the indices of protein absorption and utilization were found. The guar gum caused a 10% increase in the small intestine length and a 25% retardation in the intestinal transit. The results of this research suggested that guar gum could potentially be effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and obesity in humans.

  18. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and abnormal geometric patterns of left ventricle in untreated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Elbasan, Zafer; Gür, Mustafa; Sahin, Durmuş Yıldıray; Kırım, Sinan; Akyol, Selahattin; Kuloğlu, Osman; Koyunsever, Nermin Yıldız; Seker, Taner; Kıvrak, Ali; Caylı, Murat

    2014-01-01

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive patients. Relationship between NT-proBNP level and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is well known in hypertensive patients. However, the studies investigating relationship between LV geometric patterns and serum NT-proBNP level have conflicting results and are in a limited number. The goal of the present study is to investigate relation between NT-proBNP and abnormal LV geometric patterns in untreated hypertensive patients. Measurements were obtained from 273 patients with untreated essential hypertension (mean age = 51.7 ± 5.8 years) and 44 healthy control subjects (mean age; 51.3 ± 4.7). Four different geometric patterns (NG: normal geometry; CR: concentric remodelling; EH: eccentric hypertrophy; CH: concentric hypertrophy) were determined according to LV mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness. NT-proBNP and other biochemical markers were measured in all subjects. The highest NT-proBNP levels were determined in the CH group compared with the control group and other geometric patterns (p < 0.05). NT-proBNP levels of all geometric patterns were higher than the control group (p < 0.05, for all). NT-proBNP levels were similar between CR and NG groups (p > 0.05). NT-proBNP was independently associated with LV geometry (β = 0.304, p = 0.003) and LVMI (β = 0.266, p = 0.007) in multiple linear regression analysis. Serum NT-proBNP level was independently associated with LVMI and LV geometry in untreated hypertensive patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  19. Lipodystrophy, lipid profile changes, and low serum retinol and carotenoid levels in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Battistini, Tânia Regina Beraldo; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo; de Souza, Fabíola Isabel Suano; Pitta, Tassiana Sacchi; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Hix, Sonia; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Tardini, Priscila Chemiotti; dos Santos, Valter Pinho; Lopez, Fábio Ancona

    2010-06-01

    To assess serum retinol and levels of carotenoids in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to correlate low serum retinol and carotenoid levels with the presence of lipodystrophy, lipid profile changes, lipid peroxidation, and insulin resistance. A cross-sectional, controlled observational study was carried out with 30 children and adolescents with AIDS (mean age 9.1 y) receiving antiretroviral therapy (median length of treatment 28.4 mo), including 30 uninfected healthy controls matched for age and gender. Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed to determine nutritional status, presence of lipodystrophy, serum concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), glycemia, and serum insulin (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, cutoff point >3). Statistical analysis was done with chi-square test and Student's t test. Lipodystrophy was observed in 53.3% of patients with AIDS, and dyslipidemia was detected in 60% and 23% of subjects with human immunodeficiency virus and control subjects, respectively (P = 0.004). A higher prevalence of retinol deficiency (60% versus 26.7%, P = 0.009) and beta-carotene deficiency (23.3% versus 3.3%, P = 0.026) was found in the group with human immunodeficiency virus than in the control group. No correlation was found for low retinol and beta-carotene levels, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, or lipodystrophy in children and adolescents with AIDS. Despite the high frequency of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies, it was not possible to demonstrate a correlation of these findings with lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. More studies are needed to investigate the causes of retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies in this population and the clinical

  20. Smoking habits and plasma lipid peroxide and vitamin E levels in never-treated first-episode patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    2000-03-01

    Lipid peroxidation may be increased in schizophrenia, due to the illness, lifestyle or medication. To determine plasma lipid peroxide levels and serum vitamin E and A levels in first-episode never-treated people with schizophrenia and in controls. Thirty in-patients with a first episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform psychosis were recruited, as were controls matched for gender, age, smoking and dietary status. Blood samples were taken, smoking status was recorded and body mass index measured. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in plasma peroxide levels. Seventy-three per cent of the patients smoked. Patients who smoked had a higher mean lipid peroxide level than non-smokers. Seventy-seven per cent of patients and 70% of controls had a ratio of vitamin E to cholesterol of less than 5. Body mass index was lower in patients than in controls. As a result of the high prevalence of smoking this group shows increased lipid peroxidation. Low serum ratios of vitamin E to cholesterol in both patients and controls suggest an unsatisfactory diet.

  1. Regular Exercise and Plasma Lipid Levels Associated with the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teramoto, Masaru; Golding, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of regular exercise on the plasma lipid levels that contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), of 20 sedentary men who participated in an exercise program over 20 consecutive years. The men, whose initial ages ranged from 30-51 years, participated in the University of Nevada-based exercise program for an average of 45…

  2. Effect of aluminum chloride on blood glucose level and lipid profile in normal, diabetic and treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Konda, Venugopala Rao; Eerike, Madhavi; Chary, R Prasanth; Arunachalam, Ruckmani; Yeddula, Venkata Ramana; Meti, Vinayak; Devi, T Sobita

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess evaluate the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) on blood glucose and lipid levels in normal, diabetic, and glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six each. Group I was normal control, Groups II and III were given AlCl 3 50 and 100 mg/kg, and Group IV to VII were administered with streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Group IV was diabetic control, Group V in addition was given AlCl 3 50 mg/kg, Group VI glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), and Group VII glibenclamide and AlCl 3 (50 mg/kg) per-oral daily for 28 days. Blood glucose and lipid levels were estimated at base line, after diabetes was set in and on the last day of study. Histopathological changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney were studied. No significant change was observed in blood glucose and lipid levels in Group I. Group II and III showed a dose-dependent significant increase in blood glucose was observed. Group V had a reduction in blood glucose but not to the nondiabetic level. Group VI had significant reduction in blood sugar. In Group VII, treated with glibenclamide and AlCl 3 , there was no significant change in blood glucose reduction compared to Group VI. Lipid levels were reduced in groups treated with AlCl 3 and glibenclamide and not in other groups. Gross tissue damage was seen in pancreas in STZ group and in liver and kidney in AlCl 3 groups. AlCl 3 administration in Wistar rats caused in significant hyperglycemia in normal rats, hypoglycemia in diabetic rats, and did not influenced hypoglycemic effect of glibenclamide and in addition, resulted in reduction in lipid levels.

  3. Ideal cardiovascular health predicts lower risk of abnormal liver enzymes levels in the Chilean National Health Survey (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Hackney, Anthony C; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-01-01

    High levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as fatty liver index (FLI) has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between gamma-GT, ALT, and fatty liver index FLI levels across a gradient number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics in a representative sample of adults from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-2010. Data from 1,023 men and 1,449 women (≥ 15 years) from the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed. Ideal cardiovascular health was defined as meeting ideal levels of the following components: four behaviours (smoking, body mass index, physical activity and diet adherence) and three factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting glucose). Adults were grouped into three categories according to their number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics: ideal (5-7 metrics), intermediate (3-4 metrics), and poor (0-2 metrics). Blood levels of gamma-GT and ALT were measured and the FLI was calculated. A higher number of ideal cardiovascular health index metric was associated with lower gamma-GT, ALT and FLI (p from trend analysis <0.001). Also, adults meeting at least 3-4 metrics were predicted less likely to have prevalence of abnormal levels of gamma-GT and FLI (p<0.001) compared to adults who met only 0-2 metrics. These findings reinforce the usefulness of the ideal cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association as a tool to identify target subjects and promote cardiovascular health in South-American adults.

  4. Ideal cardiovascular health predicts lower risk of abnormal liver enzymes levels in the Chilean National Health Survey (2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Anthony C.

    2017-01-01

    High levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as fatty liver index (FLI) has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between gamma-GT, ALT, and fatty liver index FLI levels across a gradient number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics in a representative sample of adults from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010. Data from 1,023 men and 1,449 women (≥ 15 years) from the Chilean Health Survey 2009–2010 were analyzed. Ideal cardiovascular health was defined as meeting ideal levels of the following components: four behaviours (smoking, body mass index, physical activity and diet adherence) and three factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting glucose). Adults were grouped into three categories according to their number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics: ideal (5–7 metrics), intermediate (3–4 metrics), and poor (0–2 metrics). Blood levels of gamma-GT and ALT were measured and the FLI was calculated. A higher number of ideal cardiovascular health index metric was associated with lower gamma-GT, ALT and FLI (p from trend analysis <0.001). Also, adults meeting at least 3–4 metrics were predicted less likely to have prevalence of abnormal levels of gamma-GT and FLI (p<0.001) compared to adults who met only 0–2 metrics. These findings reinforce the usefulness of the ideal cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association as a tool to identify target subjects and promote cardiovascular health in South-American adults. PMID:29049384

  5. Effect of low levels of lipid oxidation on the curvature, dynamics, and permeability of lipid bilayers and their interactions with cationic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwankyu; Malmstadt, Noah

    2018-04-01

    Lipid bilayers composed of saturated and unsaturated lipids, oxidized lipids, and cholesterol at concentrations of 0–18 mol% oxidized lipid were simulated, showing that the presence of oxidized lipid increases bilayer disorder, curvature, and lateral dynamics at low oxidized-lipid concentrations of 18 mol% or less. The aldehyde terminal of a shortened oxidized-lipid tail tends to interact with water and thus bends toward the bilayer-water interface, in agreement with previous experiments and simulations. In particular, water molecules pass through the oxidized bilayer without pore formation, implying passive permeability. A single nanoparticle, which consists of 300 polystyrene (PS) chains with cationic terminals, added to this bilayer simulation induces negative bilayer curvature and inserts to the bilayer, regardless of the oxidized-lipid concentration. Hydrophobic monomers and cationic terminals of the PS particle interact respectively with lipid tails and headgroups, leading to the wrapping of either lipid monolayer or bilayer along the particle surface. These results indicate that lipid oxidation increases membrane curvature and permeability even at such a low concentration of oxidized lipid, which supports the experimental observations regarding the passive permeability of oxidized bilayer, and also that oxidized lipids of low concentration do not significantly influence the insertion of a cationic PS particle to the bilayer.

  6. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. ( U. dioica ) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica . Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  7. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. Results: The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28078249

  8. The association between serum lipid levels, suicide ideation, and central serotonergic activity in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2014-04-01

    There is some evidence that low lipid levels cause suicide in depressed patients. The purpose of this study was to identify whether low serum lipid levels are associated with suicide ideation or are correlated with central serotonin function. Auditory processing for the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) was measured in 73 outpatients with major depressive disorder. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered on the same day as measurement of the LDAEP. In addition, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured. All subjects had received antidepressant monotherapy. The depressed subjects were divided into those with and without suicide ideation according to the score for HAMD item 3 or BDI item 9. TG levels differed significantly between the two groups, whereas body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and LDAEP did not. The scores for HAMD item 3 and BDI item 9 were negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.045 and 0.026, respectively). The LDAEP was negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.012). Although there was tendency toward a negative correlation between the LDAEP and serum LDL, it did not reach statistical significance (p=0.068). The cross-sectional design of this study means that baseline serum lipid levels were not measured. The findings of this study revealed a relationship between TG and suicide ideation that is independent of both BMI and body weight. Furthermore, serum lipid levels were associated with central serotonergic activity, as assessed using the LDAEP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), alpha-tocopherol and lipid levels in plasma of captive wild mammals and birds.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, F J; Uehlein-Harrell, S; von Hegel, G; Wiesner, H

    1991-02-01

    Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), vitamin E and lipids were determined in a wide variety of wild mammals and birds held in captivity. In mammals plasma levels of vitamin A were generally below 500 ng/ml and those of vitamin E were highly variable (0.1-2 micrograms/ml). In primates, vitamin E levels were 3 to 8 micrograms/ml. Whereas in Marsupialia, Chiroptera, primates, Rodentia, Proboscidea, Sirenia, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla only retinol was found, retinyl esters (basically retinol palmitate/oleate) represented 10 to 50% of the total plasma vitamin A in some birds of the order Ciconiiformes and Falconiformes. Retinol levels in birds were higher compared to mammals (500-2,000 ng/ml). The same was true for lipids as well as for vitamin E levels (1-26 micrograms/ml) in the plasma of birds.

  10. Some case studies of skewed (and other ab-normal) data distributions arising in low-level environmental research.

    PubMed

    Currie, L A

    2001-07-01

    Three general classes of skewed data distributions have been encountered in research on background radiation, chemical and radiochemical blanks, and low levels of 85Kr and 14C in the atmosphere and the cryosphere. The first class of skewed data can be considered to be theoretically, or fundamentally skewed. It is typified by the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times for nuclear counting events for a Poisson process. As part of a study of the nature of low-level (anti-coincidence) Geiger-Muller counter background radiation, tests were performed on the Poisson distribution of counts, the uniform distribution of arrival times, and the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times. The real laboratory system, of course, failed the (inter-arrival time) test--for very interesting reasons, linked to the physics of the measurement process. The second, computationally skewed, class relates to skewness induced by non-linear transformations. It is illustrated by non-linear concentration estimates from inverse calibration, and bivariate blank corrections for low-level 14C-12C aerosol data that led to highly asymmetric uncertainty intervals for the biomass carbon contribution to urban "soot". The third, environmentally, skewed, data class relates to a universal problem for the detection of excursions above blank or baseline levels: namely, the widespread occurrence of ab-normal distributions of environmental and laboratory blanks. This is illustrated by the search for fundamental factors that lurk behind skewed frequency distributions of sulfur laboratory blanks and 85Kr environmental baselines, and the application of robust statistical procedures for reliable detection decisions in the face of skewed isotopic carbon procedural blanks with few degrees of freedom.

  11. Correlation of plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and inducible nitric oxide gene expression among women with cervical abnormalities and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, A Pavani; Rao, Meera; Vedantham, Haripriya; Kalpana, Basany; Poli, Usha Rani; Marks, Morgan A; Sujatha, M

    2016-01-30

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a soluble factor involved in chronic inflammation, may modulate cervical cancer risk among HPV infected women. The aim of the study was to measure and correlate plasma nitrite/nitrate levels with tissue specific expression of iNOS mRNA among women with different grades of cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Tissue biopsy and plasma specimens were collected from 120 women with cervical neoplasia or cancer (ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer) and 35 women without cervical abnormalities. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from biopsy and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of the same study subjects were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on the promoter region and Ser608Leu (rs2297518) in exon 16 of the iNOS gene. Differences in iNOS gene expression and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were compared across disease stage using linear and logistic regression analysis. Compared to normal controls, women diagnosed with HSIL or invasive cancer had a significantly higher concentration of plasma nitrite/nitrate and a higher median fold-change in iNOS mRNA gene expression. Genotyping of the promoter region showed three different variations: A pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT) n, -1026T > G (rs2779249) and a novel variant -1153T > A. These variants were associated with increased levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate across all disease stages. The higher expression of iNOS mRNA and plasma nitrite/nitrate among women with pre-cancerous lesions suggests a role for nitric oxide in the natural history of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Abnormal troponin I levels in a thalassemia major patient with high ferritin concentration, permanent atrial fibrillation and without acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-01-21

    Thalassemia is a congenital hemoglobinopathy leading to anemia because of impaired erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis. Thalassemia major patients are transfusion dependent and it results in iron accumulation. The heart is one of the major organs affected with iron overload and iron induced cardiac dysfunction (pump and conduction abnormalities) remains the number one cause of death among thalassemia major patients. It has been reported that a high ferritin concentration is related to high troponin levels in hemodialysis patients receiving more intravenous iron sucrose. Abnormal troponin I levels have also been reported without acute coronary syndrome. We present a case of abnormal troponin I levels in Thalassemia major patient with high ferritin concentration, permanent atrial fibrillation and without acute coronary syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of abnormal troponin I levels in a Thalassemia major patient with high ferritin concentration and without acute coronary syndrome and also this case focuses attention on the importance of the correct evaluation of abnormal troponin I levels. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  14. Zonal differences in the distribution and morphology of lipid droplets using 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine to lower cholesterol level in the rat adrenal.

    PubMed

    Szabó, D; Somogyi, J; Acs, Z; Mihály, K

    1980-01-01

    The effect of reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels on adrenocortical lipid droplets have been examined by treating adult rats with 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine (4-APP), a drug that inhibits hepatic secretion of lipoproteins. Lowering the blood cholesterol level and the cholesterol content of the adrenals was associated with a marked reduction in the lipid droplets and with a simultaneous increase in their electron density in the inner cortical zones. In the zona glomerulosa cells, no perceptible differences were found in the quantity and morphology of lipid droplets. These data suggest that reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels do not affect lipids located in the zona glomerulosa and in the inner cortical zones in the same way, probably due to differences in their intracellular lipid dynamism. Noteworthy, that in spite of the marked lipid depletion, the adrenal glands retained their responsiveness to ACTH stimulation.

  15. Prenatal malnutrition and lead intake produce increased brain lipid peroxidation levels in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Cedillo, Brenda Gabriela; Díaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Montes, Sergio; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Ríos, Camilo; Beltrán-Campos, Vicente; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Díaz-Cintra, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead intoxication (Pb) have adverse effects on neuronal development; one of the cellular mechanisms involved is a disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. In the developing brain, the vulnerability of neuronal membrane phospholipids is variable across the different brain areas. This study assesses the susceptibility of different brain regions to damage by quitar tissue oxidative stress and lead quitar concentrations to determine whether the combined effect of prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead (Pb) intoxication is worse than the effect of either of them individually. M was induced with an isocaloric and hypoproteinic (6% casein) diet 4 weeks before pregnancy. Intoxication was produced with lead acetate in drinking water, from the first gestational day. Both the M and Pb models were continued until the day of birth. Four brain regions (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebellum) were dissected out to analyze the lipid peroxidation (LP) levels in four groups: normally nourished (C); normally nourished but intoxicated with lead (CPb); malnourished (M); and M intoxicated with lead (MPb). Dam body and brain weights were significantly reduced in the fourth gestational week in the MPb group. Their pups had significantly lower body weights than those in the C and CPb groups. The PbM group exhibited significant increases of lead concentration and LP in all areas evaluated. A potentiation effect of Pb and M on LP was found in the cerebellum. This study provides information on how environmental conditions (intoxication and malnutrition) during the intrauterine period could differentially affect the development of neuronal plasticity and, in consequence, alter adult brain functions such as learning and memory.

  16. The environmental contaminant tributyltin leads to abnormalities in different levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in female rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; Santos-Silva, Ana Paula; Rodrigues-Pereira, Paula; Paiva-Melo, Francisca Diana; de Lima Junior, Niedson Correa; Teixeira, Mariana Pires; Soares, Paula; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Munstock; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; Miranda-Alves, Leandro

    2018-06-11

    Tributyltin is a biocide used in nautical paints, aiming to reduce fouling of barnacles in ships. Despite the fact that many effects of TBT on marine species are known, studies in mammals have been limited, especially those evaluating its effect on the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to TBT on the HPT axis in female rats. Female Wistar rats received vehicle, TBT 200 ng kg -1 BW d -1 or 1000 ng kg -1 BW d -1 orally by gavage for 40 d. Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, liver and blood samples were collected. TBT200 and TBT1000 thyroids showed vacuolated follicular cells, with follicular hypertrophy and hyperplasia. An increase in epithelial height and a decrease in the thyroid follicle and colloid area were observed in TBT1000 rats. Moreover, an increase in the epithelium/colloid area ratio was observed in both TBT groups. Lower TRH mRNA expression was observed in the hypothalami of TBT200 and TBT1000 rats. An increase in Dio1 mRNA levels was observed in the hypothalamus and thyroid in TBT1000 rats only. TSH serum levels were increased in TBT200 rats. In TBT1000 rats, there was a decrease in total T4 serum levels compared to control rats, whereas T3 serum levels did not show significant alterations. We conclude that TBT exposure can promote critical abnormalities in the HPT axis, including changes in TRH mRNA expression and serum TSH and T4 levels, in addition to affecting thyroid morphology. These findings demonstrate that TBT disrupts the HPT axis. Additionally, the changes found in thyroid hormones suggest that TBT may interfere with the peripheral metabolism of these hormones, an idea corroborated by the observed changes in Dio1 mRNA levels. Therefore, TBT exposition might interfere not only with the thyroid axis but also with thyroid hormone metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Arginine supplementation modulates pig plasma lipids, but not hepatic fatty acids, depending on dietary protein level with or without leucine.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta Sofia Morgado Dos Santos; Rolo, Eva Sofia Alves; Pires, Virgínia Maria Rico; Alfaia, Cristina Maria Riscado Pereira Mateus; Coelho, Diogo Francisco Maurício; Lopes, Paula Alexandra Antunes Brás; Martins, Susana Isabel Vargas; Pinto, Rui Manuel Amaro; Prates, José António Mestre

    2017-05-30

    In the present study, the effect of arginine and leucine supplementation, and dietary protein level, were investigated in commercial crossbred pigs to clarify their individual or combined impact on plasma metabolites, hepatic fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of lipid sensitive factors. The experiment was conducted on fifty-four entire male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace crossbred) from 59 to 92 kg of live weight. Each pig was randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatments (n = 9). The treatments followed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, providing two levels of arginine supplementation (0 vs. 1%) and three levels of basal diet (normal protein diet, NPD; reduced protein diet, RPD; reduced protein diet with 2% of leucine, RPDL). Significant interactions between arginine supplementation and protein level were observed across plasma lipids. While dietary arginine increased total lipids, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in NPD, the inverse effect was observed in RPD. Overall, dietary treatments had a minor impact on hepatic fatty acid composition. RPD increased 18:1c9 fatty acid while the combination of leucine and RPD reduced 18:0 fatty acid. Arginine supplementation increased the gene expression of FABP1, which contributes for triacylglycerols synthesis without affecting hepatic fatty acids content. RPD, with or without leucine addition, upregulated the lipogenic gene CEBPA but downregulated the fat oxidation gene LPIN1. Arginine supplementation was responsible for a modulated effect on plasma lipids, which is dependent on dietary protein level. It consistently increased lipaemia in NPD, while reducing the correspondent metabolites in RPD. In contrast, arginine had no major impact, neither on hepatic fatty acids content nor on fatty acid composition. Likewise, leucine supplementation of RPD, regardless the presence of arginine, promoted no changes on total fatty acids in

  18. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI. Copyright © 2012

  19. Associations of the APOC3 rs5128 polymorphism with plasma APOC3 and lipid levels: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongyan; Zhu, Liren; Richa, Mudwari; Li, Ping; Yang, Yang; Li, Suping

    2015-04-18

    Studies of the association between the apolipoprotein C3 gene (APOC3) rs5128 polymorphism and plasma levels of apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) and lipids have reported apparently conflicting findings. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the associations of the rs5128 polymorphism with fasting APOC3 and lipid levels. The following information was abstracted for each study: ethnicity, age, sex, health condition, sample size, genotyping and lipid assay methods, mean and standard deviation or standard error by genotypes for APOC3 and lipid variables. There were 42 eligible studies with 23846 subjects included in this meta-analysis. A dominant model was used for this meta-analysis. The results showed that the carriers of the variant allele G had higher levels of APOC3 [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-0.31, P<0.00001], triglycerides (TG) (SMD: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.23-0.44, P<0.00001), total cholesterol (TC) (SMD: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.09-0.22, P<0.00001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (SMD: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.04-0.17, P=0.001) than the non-carriers. No significant association between the APOC3 rs5128 polymorphism and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was detected under the dominant model (SMD: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.06-0.01, P=0.156). The results from the present meta-analysis demonstrate a significant association between the APOC3 rs5128 polymorphism and higher levels of APOC3, TG, TC and LDL-C, but further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  20. Red palm oil supplementation does not increase blood glucose or serum lipids levels in Wistar rats with different thyroid status.

    PubMed

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Vaněčková, I; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2018-05-04

    Red palm oil (RPO) is a rich natural source of antioxidant vitamins, namely carotenes, tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, it contains approximately 50 % saturated fatty acids the regular consumption of which could negatively modify lipid profile. The aim of our study was to test whether 7 weeks of RPO supplementation (1 g/kg body weight/day) would affect blood glucose and lipid metabolism in adult male Wistar rats with altered thyroid status. We induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rats by oral administration of either methimazole or mixture of thyroid hormones. Different thyroid status (EU - euthyroid, HY - hypothyroid and HT - hyperthyroid) was characterized by different serum thyroid hormones levels (total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine), changes in the activity of a marker enzyme of thyroid status - liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and altered absolute and relative heart weights. Fasting blood glucose levels were higher in HT rats in comparison with EU and HY rats, but the changes caused by RPO supplementation were not significant. The achievement of the HY status significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol, as well as with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 2.43+/-0.15, 1.48+/-0.09, 0.89+/-0.08 mmol/l, compared to EU: 1.14+/-0.06, 0.77+/-0.06, 0.34+/-0.05 mmol/l and HT: 1.01+/-0.06, 0.69+/-0.04, 0.20+/-0.03 mmol/l, respectively. RPO supplementation did not increase significantly levels of blood lipids but tended to increase glutathione levels in the liver. In conclusion, RPO supplementation did not induce the presumed deterioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in rats with three well-characterized alterations in thyroid status.

  1. [Prospective study of gluco-lipidic hormone and peptide levels in morbidly obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Bruna, Marcos; Gumbau, Verónica; Guaita, Marcos; Canelles, Enrique; Mulas, Claudia; Basés, Carla; Celma, Isabel; Puche, José; Marcaida, Goitzane; Oviedo, Miguel; Vázquez, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Different hormones and peptides involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism have been studied in relation to morbid obesity and its variation after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study is toevaluate variations in different molecules related to glico-lipidic metabolism during the first year after sleeve gastrectomy in morbidly obese patients. Prospective study in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy between November 2009 and January 2011. We analyzed changes in different clinical, anthropometric and analytic parameters related with glico-lipidic metabolism in all patients in the preoperative period, first postoperative day, fifth day, one month, 6 months and one year after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. We included 20 patients, 60% were women with a median of age of 45 years. Median of body mass index (IMC) was 48,5 kg/m(2) and 70% had obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (SAOS), 65% arterial hypertension (HTA), 45% dyslipidemia and 40% diabetes mellitus. One year after surgery, the percentage of excess of BMI loss was 72% and the rate of cure or improvement of dyslipidemia was 100%, diabetes 87,5%, HTA 84,6% and SAOS 57,1%. At this time, glycemia levels decreased significantly (P<.001), and levels of IGF-1 and HDL-cholesterol increased significantly. Levels of adiponectine increased and leptine (P=.003), insulin (P=.004) and triglycerides (P=.016) decreased significantly one year after the surgery. ACTH levels (that decreased during first 6 months after surgery), glycosilated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol had no changes one year after surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy is a surgical technique with good results of weight loss and cure of comorbidities. This procedure induces significant modifications in blood levels of glico-lipidic metabolism related peptides and hormones, such as glucose, IGF-1, insulin, leptin, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction between VEGF receptor-2 gene polymorphisms and dietary patterns on blood glucose and lipid levels in Chinese Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Shidoji, Yoshihiro; Hon, Wei Min; Masaki, Motofumi

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases is increasing and gene-diet interaction studies are limited among the Malaysian population. This study was conducted to evaluate the association and interaction effects of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2(VEGFR2) gene polymorphisms and dietary patterns on anthropometric and biochemical risk factors of chronic diseases in 179 Chinese Malaysian adults. Genotyping of rs1870377 and rs2071559 was performed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes. Dietary patterns were constructed from the food frequency questionnaire using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements: body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure and biomarkers: blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipids were obtained. Two dietary patterns: 'Balanced diet' and 'Meat, rice and noodles diet' (MRND) were extracted. MRND was associated with higher BMI, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipids, while T alleles in both rs1870377 and rs2071559 were associated with higher blood lipids (p < 0.05). The interaction of MRND and rs1870377 had a borderline effect on blood HbA1c after adjusting for confounders (p = 0.057). A dietary pattern of MRND and VEGFR2 gene polymorphisms were both associated with increased health risks of lifestyle-related chronic diseases particularly blood glucose and lipid levels in Chinese Malaysian adults. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  4. Effect of an empowerment-based nutrition promotion program on food consumption and serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemic Thai elderly.

    PubMed

    Boonyasopun, Umaporn; Aree, Patcharaporn; Avant, Kay C

    2008-06-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of an empowerment-based nutrition promotion program on food consumption and serum lipid levels among hyperlipidemic Thai elderly. Fifty-six experimental subjects received the program; 48 control subjects maintained their habitual lifestyle. The statistical methods used were the t-test, Z-test, and chi2/Fisher's exact test. After the program, the consumption of high saturated fat, cholesterol, and simple sugar diets was significantly lower for the experimental group than for the control group. The percentage change of the serum total cholesterol of the experimental subjects was significantly higher than that of the control subjects. The number of experimental subjects that changed from hyperlipidemia to normolipidemia significantly increased compared to that for the control subjects. The implementation of this program was related to an improvement in food consumption and serum lipid levels among hyperlipidemic Thai elderly and, therefore, has implications for practice.

  5. Maternal Serum Lipid, Estradiol, and Progesterone Levels in Pregnancy, and the Impact of Placental and Hepatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the

  6. Effect of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaves extract on blood glucose and plasma lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Xue Tong; Zhang, Hai Yan; Yao, Hui Yuan; Zhang, Hui

    2010-08-09

    To investigate the hypoglycemic effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaves (VBTL) extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. After administration of VBTL extract for 4 weeks, the body weight, organ weight, blood glucose (BG), insulin and plasma lipid levels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were measured. Body weights of diabetic mice treated with VBTL extract were partly recovered. The BG levels of AEG (diabetic mice treated with VBTL aqueous extract) were reduced to 91.52 and 85.82% at week 2 and week 4, respectively (P<0.05), while those of EEG (diabetic mice treated with VBTL ethanolic extract) were reduced slightly (P>0.05). The insulin levels of AEG and EEG were obviously higher (P<0.05) than those of MC (diabetic mice in model control group). Comparing with MC, AEG and EEG had significantly lower (P<0.05) TC or TG levels and similar HDL-cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol levels. In comparison with non-diabetic control mice, AEG had similar plasma lipid levels except higher LDL-cholesterol level, while EEG had higher TC, TG and LDL-cholesterol levels and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Both aqueous and ethanolic extract of VBTL possess a potential hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison between swallowing and chewing of garlic on levels of serum lipids, cyclosporine, creatinine and lipid peroxidation in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Abbas; Argani, Hassan; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Mahdavi, Reza

    2005-05-19

    Hyperlipidemia and increased degree of oxidative stress are among the important risk factors for Atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients (RTR). The Medical treatment of hyperlipidemia in RTR because of drugs side effects has been problematic, therefore alternative methods such as using of Garlic as an effective material in cholesterol lowering and inhibition of LDL Oxidation has been noted. For evaluation of garlic effect on RTR, 50 renal transplant patients with stable renal function were selected and divided into 2 groups. They took one clove of garlic (1 gr) by chewing or swallowing for two months, after one month wash-out period, they took garlic by the other route. Results indicated that although lipid profile, BUN, Cr, serum levels of cyclosporine and diastolic blood pressure did not change, Systolic blood pressure decreased from 138.2 to 132.8 mmHg (p=0.001) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased from 2.4 to 1.7 nmol/ml (p=0.009) by swallowing route, Cholesterol decreased from 205.1 to 195.3 mg/dl (p=0.03), triglyceride decreased from 195.7 to 174.8 mg/dl (p=0.008), MDA decreased from 2.5 to 1.6 nmol/ml (p=0.001), systolic blood pressure decreased from 137.5 to 129.8 mmHg (p=0.001), diastolic blood pressure decreased from 84.6 to 77.6 mmHg (p=0.001) and Cr decreased from 1.51 to 1.44 mg/dl (p=0.03) by chewing route too. However HDL, LDL and cyclosporine serum levels had no significant differences by both of swallowing and chewing routes. We conclude that undamaged garlic (swallowed) had no lowering effect on lipid level of serum. But Crushed garlic (chewed) reduces cholesterol, triglyceride, MDA and blood pressure. Additionally creatinine reduced without notable decrease in cyclosporine serum levels may be due to cyclosporine nephrotoxicity ameliorating effect of garlic.

  8. A study of the comparative effects of hawthorn fruit compound and simvastatin on lowering blood lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Xu, Hou-En; Ryan, Damien

    2009-01-01

    This project studied the lowering blood lipids effect in atherosclerotic ApoE-deficient mice. Group A mice (n = 6), fed with a normal diet, served as the negative control. The experimental groups used mice fed with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) for eight weeks, and then selected for inclusion in the study on the basis of high blood lipid levels and the formation of atherosclerotic lesion plaque, which was indicated by an ultrasound biomicroscopy test. Eighteen mice met the selection criteria (atherosclerotic mice with high blood lipid levels) and these were randomly assigned into three groups B, C and D (n = 6). Group B fed with a HCD, served as the positive control. The intervention Group C was fed with HCD and Simvastatin. The intervention Group D was fed with a HCD and Hawthorn fruit compound (HFC includes Hawthorn and Kiwi fruit extract) for eight weeks. The results showed that after feeding on a HCD, Group B had significantly higher blood lipid levels compared to Group A and this confirmed the validity of Group A and Group B controls in this study. The results also showed that compared to Group B, in both Group C and D, there was a significant reduction in triglyceride and in the ratio between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and serum cholesterol. Moreover a reduction of LDL-C was evident in Group D, whereas a similar effect did not occur in Group C. The results indicate that HFC can be considered for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of atherosclerosis.

  9. The impact of low-frequency and rare variants on lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    Surakka, Ida; Horikoshi, Momoko; Mägi, Reedik; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Marullo, Letizia; Ferreira, Teresa; Miraglio, Benjamin; Timonen, Sanna; Kettunen, Johannes; Pirinen, Matti; Karjalainen, Juha; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hägg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Isaacs, Aaron; Ladenvall, Claes; Beekman, Marian; Esko, Tõnu; Ried, Janina S; Nelson, Christopher P; Willenborg, Christina; Gustafsson, Stefan; Westra, Harm-Jan; Blades, Matthew; de Craen, Anton JM; de Geus, Eco J; Deelen, Joris; Grallert, Harald; Hamsten, Anders; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Hyppönen, Elina; Karssen, Lennart C; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mihailov, Evelin; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Perola, Markus; Pers, Tune H; Peters, Annette; Rung, Johan; Smit, Johannes H; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Tobin, Martin D; Tsernikova, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Viikari, Jorma S; Willems, Sara M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lind, Lars; Gieger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Slagboom, P Eline; Groop, Leif; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Boomsma, Dorret I; Power, Christine; Raitakari, Olli T; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Stefansson, Kari; Franke, Lude; Ikonen, Elina; Kallioniemi, Olli; Pietiäinen, Vilja; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Palotie, Aarno; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P; Prokopenko, Inga; Ripatti, Samuli

    2016-01-01

    Using a genome-wide screen of 9.6 million genetic variants achieved through 1000 Genomes imputation in 62,166 samples, we identify association to lipids in 93 loci including 79 previously identified loci with new lead-SNPs, 10 new loci, 15 loci with a low-frequency and 10 loci with missense lead-SNPs, and, 2 loci with an accumulation of rare variants. In six loci, SNPs with established function in lipid genetics (CELSR2, GCKR, LIPC, and APOE), or candidate missense mutations with predicted damaging function (CD300LG and TM6SF2), explained the locus associations. The low-frequency variants increased the proportion of variance explained, particularly for LDL-C and TC. Altogether, our results highlight the impact of low-frequency variants in complex traits and show that imputation offers a cost-effective alternative to re-sequencing. PMID:25961943

  10. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  11. Physical activity, sedentary behavior time and lipid levels in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2015-08-11

    Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. While many studies have investigated general physical activity (PA) in relation to blood lipid levels, the current study aimed to examine the intensity of activity, including sedentary behavior time, and time spent engaging in moderate and intense PA, with concentrations of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Participants comprised 1331 individuals, aged 18 to 70 years, from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors (screen time on a workday and a day off, and total sitting time on a work day), and moderate and intense PA, were related to levels of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample, and then with stratification according to BMI (normal weight versus overweight/obese). Both lower screen time during days off and higher intense PA time were significantly associated with higher HDL-cholesterol after full adjustment for socio-demographic factors, dietary factors and smoking (both p < 0.05). In normal weight individuals, consistent positive relations between triglycerides, LDL, and total cholesterol with all sedentary behavior time variables were observed (all p < 0.05; adjusted for age, education, gender). There were no statistically significant associations between any intensity level of PA or sedentary behavior time variable and lipid levels in those overweight or obese. Spending less time in sedentary behaviors, and engaging in medium levels of intense physical activity may be associated with a more favorable blood lipid profile, particularly with regard to levels of HDL and triglycerides.

  12. Effect of apolipoprotein C3 genetic polymorphisms on serum lipid levels and the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Ma, Junpeng; Li, Hao; Liu, Yi; You, Chao

    2015-05-22

    Serum lipid levels are associated with the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Genetic variants in the apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) gene were associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two genetic variants (1100 C/T and 3238 C/G) of APOC3 on serum lipid levels and risk of ICH. A prospective hospital-based case-control design and logistic regression analysis were utilized. We enrolled 150 ICH patients and 150 age- and gender-matched controls. The APOC3 gene polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). ICH patients had a significantly higher frequency of APOC3 3238 GG genotype [odds ratio (OR)=.97, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.20, 7.38; P=0.02] and APOC3 3238 G allele (OR=.53, 95% CI=1.03, 2.27; P=0.04) than controls. The APOC3 3238 G allele was significantly associated with increasing plasma TG levels and VLDL levels both in ICH cases (P=0.01) and controls (P=0.02). No association was found between APOC3 1100 C/T polymorphisms and ICH. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature that the APOC3 3238 GG genotype and G allele might contribute to an increased risk of ICH as a result of its effect on serum lipid levels.

  13. The effects of yellow soybean, black soybean, and sword bean on lipid levels and oxidative stress in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jae Soon; Han, Young Sun; Lee, Sang Sun

    2010-04-01

    Soy isoflavones have been reported to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. However, the effects of dietary consumption of soybean have not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effects of consuming yellow soybeans, black soybeans (Glycine max), or sword beans (Canavalia gladiate) on lipid and oxidative stress levels in an ovariectomized rat model. Forty-seven nine-week-old female rats were ovariectomized, randomly divided into four groups, and fed one of the following diets for 10 weeks: a diet supplemented with casein (NC, n = 12), a diet supplemented with yellow soybean (YS, n = 12), a diet supplemented with black soybean (BS, n = 12), or a diet supplemented with sword bean (SB, n = 11). Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in the BS and SB groups were significantly lower than that in the NC group. Notably, the BS group had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels than the other groups. Hepatic total lipid levels were significantly lower in the YS and SB groups, and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the SB group than in the NC group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly higher in the groups fed beans compared to the NC group. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were also significantly lower in the BS and SB groups than the NC group. In conclusion, our results suggest that consumption of various types of beans may inhibit oxidative stress in postmenopausal women by increasing antioxidant activity and improving lipid profiles. Notably, intake of black soybean resulted in the greatest improvement in risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  14. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Increased levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators and enhanced local mast cell proliferation in canine atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the precise pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is unknown, an immune dysregulation that causes Th2-predominant inflammation and an intrinsic defect in skin barrier function are currently the two major hypotheses, according to the so-called outside-inside-outside model. Mast cells (MCs) are involved in AD both by releasing Th2 polarizing cytokines and generating pruritus symptoms through release of histamine and tryptase. A link between MCs and skin barrier defects was recently uncovered, with histamine being found to profoundly contribute to the skin barrier defects. Palmitoylethanolamide and related lipid mediators are endogenous bioactive compounds, considered to play a protective homeostatic role in many tissues: evidence collected so far shows that the anti-inflammatory effect of palmitoylethanolamide depends on the down-modulation of MC degranulation. Based on this background, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to determine if the endogenous levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators are changed in the skin of AD dogs compared to healthy animals; (b) to examine if MC number is increased in the skin of AD dogs and, if so, whether it depends on MC in-situ proliferation. Results The amount of lipid extract expressed as percent of biopsy tissue weight was significantly reduced in AD skin while the levels of all analyzed bioactive lipid mediators were significantly elevated, with palmitoylethanolamide showing the highest increase. In dogs with AD, the number of MCs was significantly increased in both the subepidermal and the perifollicular compartments and their granule content was significantly decreased in the latter. Also, in situ proliferation of MCs was documented. Conclusions The levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators were shown to increase in AD skin compared to healthy samples, leading to the hypothesis that they may be part of the body’s innate mechanisms to

  17. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur population in Kashgar area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z B; Xue, Z X; Wu, X J; Wang, T M; Li, Y H; Song, X L; Chao, X F; Wang, G; Nazibam, Nurmamat; Ayxamgul, Bawudun; Gulbahar, Elyas; Zhou, Z Y; Sun, B S; Wang, Y Z; Wang, M

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar prefecture in southern area of Xinjiang. Methods: A total of 5 078 local residents aged ≥18 years (42.56 % were men) selected through cluster random sampling in Kashgar were surveyed by means of questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory test, and 521 diabetes patients were screened. Results: The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in diabetes patients was 59.50 % (310/521) with adjusted rate as 49.39 % . Age ≥65 years, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity increased the risk for dyslipidemia by 0.771 times (95 % CI : 1.015-3.088), 1.132 times (95 % CI : 1.290-3.523), 1.688 times (95 % CI : 1.573-4.592) and 0.801 times (95 % CI : 1.028-3.155) respectively. Compared with males, female was a protective factor for dyslipidemia ( OR =0.507, 95 %CI : 0.334-0.769). The overall normal rate of blood lipids level including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for type 2 diabetes patients was 11.13 % . Female, higher BMI and abdominal obesity were the factors influencing the overall normal blood lipids level. The normal rate of LDL-C level decreased with increase of age, BMI and waist circumferences (trend test χ (2)=18.049, P <0.001; trend test χ (2)=10.582, P =0.001; χ (2)=19.081, P <0.001), but increased with educational level (trend test χ (2)=9.764, P =0.002). Conclusion: The prevalence of dyslipidemia in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar was high, however, the overall normal rate of blood lipid level was relatively low. Obesity was the most important risk factor for dyslipidemia in this area. More attention should be paid to dyslipidemia prevention in women.

  19. The effects of an instant haw beverage on lipid levels, antioxidant enzyme and immune function in hyperlipidemia patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jidi; Xue, Bin; Li, Keji; Shi, Jingda; Krempin, D; Zhu, M; Garland, C

    2002-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of an instant haw beverage in regulating lipid disturbance, enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and immune function. Data was collected from 60 hyperlipidemic subjects. In this crossover design, each subject randomly received either the instant haw beverage (100 ml corresponding to 3 g of haw powder or 30 g of fresh haw fruit plus the carrier-guar gum plus some starch) or placebo (guar gum 1.5 g plus some starch as the carrier of the beverage) twice daily. Each supplementation lasted 31 days with a 28-day washout period between treatments. The instant haw beverage significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (9.6%), triglyceride (12.1%), LDLC (18%) while significantly increased SOD activities (7.5%). The placebo was shown to have positive results in some of the lipid profiles, though the effects of the instant haw beverage demonstrated greater significance. Serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased and SOD activity significantly increased only as subjects were supplemented with the instant haw beverage while no significant changes were seen with placebo. Supplementation with the instant haw beverage positively affects blood lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune function in individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  20. Effect of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth, nutrient utilization and whole-body composition of blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Nine semi-purified diets were prepared with three levels each of protein (300, 350 and 400 g/kg) and lipid (60, 80 and 100 g/kg) and fed ad libitum to Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings (0.61 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups (10 fish/replicate) for 90 days to determine optimum dietary protein and lipid levels. Twenty-seven flow-through fibre-reinforced plastic tanks (200 l capacity each with 100 l of water) were used for rearing the fish. The dietary protein, lipid and their interactions had significant effects (p < 0.05) on weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, nutrient retention and digestibility, but not on hepato- and viscerosomatic indexes (p > 0.05). Dietary protein and the interaction of protein with lipid had significant effect (p < 0.05) on whole-body dry matter, lipid and energy contents, but not on protein and ash contents (p > 0.05). But, the dietary lipid had significant (p < 0.05) effect on whole-body dry matter, protein, lipid and energy contents except the ash contents (p > 0.05). For each level of dietary protein, the increase in dietary lipid resulted significant increase (p < 0.05) in whole-body lipid contents without affecting the protein and ash contents (p > 0.05). Based on better growth and dietary performances, the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels of blue gourami fingerling are 350 and 80 g/kg diet respectively. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Consumption of pomegranate juice decreases blood lipid peroxidation and levels of arachidonic acid in women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kojadinovic, Milica I; Arsic, Aleksandra C; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina D; Konic-Ristic, Aleksandra I; Kardum, Nevena Dj; Popovic, Tamara B; Glibetic, Marija D

    2017-04-01

    Pomegranate juice is a rich source of polyphenols and is thus a promising dietary antioxidant with numerous health-promoting effects. These include a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health that could be partly attributed to the effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of pomegranate juice for 6 weeks could modify lipid peroxidation and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocytes in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-three women, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups: the intervention group, in which each participant consumed 300 mL of juice per day for 6 weeks; and a control group. A statistically significant decrease in the relative amount of arachidonic acid (P < 0.05) and an increase in the relative amount of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) were observed in the intervention group at the end of the consumption period. In addition, pomegranate juice significantly increased the relative amount of total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05), and significantly decreased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (P < 0.05). The status of blood lipids and the values for blood pressure were not changed during the study. The results obtained indicate a positive impact of the consumption of pomegranate juice on lipid peroxidation and fatty acid status in subjects with metabolic syndrome and suggest potential anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Variation in the levels of pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein in maternal serum from chromosomally abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Graham, G W; Crossley, J A; Aitken, D A; Connor, J M

    1992-06-01

    Human pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP1) was assayed retrospectively in stored maternal serum (MS) samples from 82 chromosomally abnormal pregnancies and 377 matched controls. The median MSSP1 concentration in 48 Down's syndrome pregnancies was significantly elevated at 1.17 multiples of the control median (MOM), and significantly reduced (0.5 MOM) in a group of eight cases of unbalanced translocations. There was no significant difference in median SP1 concentrations in cases of trisomy 18, trisomy 13, balanced translocations, or sex chromosome abnormalities. A comparison with human chorionic gonadotrophin results in the same series of samples indicates that SP1 is a less sensitive predictor of Down's syndrome pregnancies.

  3. Alexithymia, suicidal ideation, and serum lipid levels among drug-naïve outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; Serroni, Nicola; Marini, Stefano; Rapini, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Valchera, Alessandro; Iasevoli, Felice; Mazza, Monica; Signorelli, Maria; Aguglia, Eugenio; Perna, Giampaolo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Varasano, Paola A; Pressanti, Gabriella Lucidi; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    As obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common psychiatric disorder with a significant suicide risk, the individuation of potential biomarkers of suicidality, such as cholesterol levels, may enable recognition of at-risk subjects. Therefore, the aims of this study were to: 1) evaluate potential differences in clinical and laboratory parameters between patients with and without alexithymia and compare them with healthy controls; and 2) investigate which clinical and laboratory variables were associated with suicidal ideation. 79 drug-naïve adult outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were recruited. Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), suicidal ideation was assessed with the Scale for Suicide Ideation, and depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Serum lipid levels of 40 healthy controls were also evaluated. Alexithymic patients had altered serum lipid levels in comparison with non-alexithymics and healthy controls. Using a linear regression model, the presence of symmetry/ordering obsessions and compulsions, lower HDL-C levels, and difficulty in identifying feelings dimension of the TAS-20 were associated with higher suicidal ideation. Alexithymic individuals with OCD may exhibit dysregulation of the cholesterol balance, which in turn may be linked to suicidal ideation. Further prospective studies are required to elucidate this potential association.

  4. C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Nsaiba, Mohamed Jalloul; Lapointe, Marc; Mabrouk, Hajer; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude; Jrad, Besma Bel Hadj; Cianflone, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Excessive activation of complement is associated with many diseases including schizophrenia. Investigation of C3 polymorphisms, circulating C3, cleavage product ASP/C3adesArg, and lipid metabolism. Cross-sectional analysis. C3 genotyping (CC vs GG for R102L) was performed on 434 Tunisian people consisting of 272 schizophrenic (SZ) patients and 162 control subjects. In a age- and gender-matched subgroups of the three genotypes (131 SZ and 112 NOR), plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol (C), LDL-C, HDL-C, ASP, and complement C3 were measured. C3 gene polymorphism influences BMI and plasma C3, ASP, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C among SZ patients (p < 0.05-0.0001), with increasing values demonstrated from CC (common form) to CG (heterozygote form) to GG (rare homozygote) forms. Significant correlations between plasma C3 and BMI, triglyceride, HDL-C and ASP (p < 0.05-0.0001) were observed, while ASP correlated with BMI and LDL-C (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, respectively) in SZ patients. Further, proportional conversion of C3 to ASP (%ASP/C3) also increased (p < 0.0001, GG>CG>CC). C3 polymorphisms and plasma C3, ASP and %ASP/C3 correlated with lipid parameters in this SZ population, suggesting that factors predisposing patients to schizophrenia are permissive for complement pathway activation and dyslipidemic influences.

  5. Experimental and modeling studies showing the effect of lipid type and level on flavor release from milk-based liquid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Deborah D; Pollien, Philippe; Watzke, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study two key parameters of the lipid phase that influence flavor release-lipid level and lipid type-and to relate the results to a mass balance partition coefficient-based mathematical model. Release of 10 volatile compounds from milk-based emulsions at 10, 25, and 50 degrees C was monitored by 1-min headspace sampling with a solid-phase microextraction fiber, followed by GC-MS analysis. As compared to the observations for milk fat, changing to a lipophilic lipid (medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) and adding a monoglyceride-based surfactant did not influence the volatiles release. However, increasing the solid fat content was found to increase the release. At 25 degrees C, and even more so at 10 degrees C, concurrent with an increase in their solid fat content, hydrogenated palm fat emulsions showed increased flavor release over that observed for emulsions made with coconut oil, coconut oil with surfactant, milk fat, and MCT. However, at 50 degrees C, when hydrogenated palm fat emulsions had zero solid fat content, there was no difference in flavor release from that observed for milk fat emulsions. Varying milk fat at nine levels between 0 and 4.5% showed a systematic dependence of the release on the lipid level, dependent on compound lipophilicity. Close correlations were found between the experimental and model predictions with lipid level and percent liquid lipid as variables.

  6. Severe Alterations in Lipid Composition of Frontal Cortex Lipid Rafts from Parkinson’s Disease and Incidental Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Santpere, Gabriel; Marín, Raquel; Torrent, Laia; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains that provide a highly saturated and viscous physicochemical microenvironment to promote protein–lipid and protein–protein interactions. We purified lipid rafts from human frontal cortex from normal, early motor stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and incidental Parkinson’s disease (iPD) subjects and analyzed their lipid composition. We observed that lipid rafts from PD and iPD cortices exhibit dramatic reductions in their contents of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (22:6-n3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Also, saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) were significantly higher than in control brains. Paralleling these findings, unsaturation and peroxidability indices were considerably reduced in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Lipid classes were also affected in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Thus, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were increased in PD and iPD, whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides and plasmalogen levels were considerably diminished. Our data pinpoint a dramatic increase in lipid raft order due to the aberrant biochemical structure in PD and iPD and indicate that these abnormalities of lipid rafts in the frontal cortex occur at early stages of PD pathology. The findings correlate with abnormal lipid raft signaling and cognitive decline observed during the development of these neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21717034

  7. Abnormal mRNA Expression Levels of Telomere-Binding Proteins Represent Biomarkers in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoshan; Yan, Rongdi; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Bin; Sun, Hu; Cui, Xing

    2017-08-02

    As evidence was shown that abnormal shortening of telomeres begins to accumulate in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the mRNA expression levels of telomere-binding proteins (TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1) and the risk level in MDS. There were 40 patients with MDS and 40 normal controls in this study. Methods including telomere content assays and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to examine the mRNA levels of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1 in patients with MDS. Compared to the normal group used as a control, the mRNA expression levels of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 of the patients with MDS were decreased, whereas their levels of TRF1/TRF2 and TIN2 were increased. A positive correlation was found between the TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 mRNA expression levels and the risk level of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the World Health Organization Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) criteria; however, a negative correlation was found between RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression levels and the risk levels of IPSS and WPSS criteria. Because the reduction of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2 mRNA expression and the increase of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression are closely related to the risk levels of the IPSS and WPSS criteria in MDS, it is thought that these telomere-binding proteins could lead to abnormal telomere length and function, which cause chromosomal abnormalities in MDS. With this evidence, we suggest that those proteins' mRNA expressions could be used as biomarkers for the assessment of the risk degree of MDS patients.

  8. Low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with lipid profile in depressive patients with long symptom duration.

    PubMed

    Peng, Rui; Li, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the association between serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with lipid profile in depressive disorder. A total of 370 depressive individuals aged 18 years and above were recruited in this cross-section study. All participants underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and recorded the duration of their symptoms. The serum levels of total cholesterol (TCH), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), lipoprotein A (Lp(a)), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and TSH levels were determined and the ratios of TCH/HDL-C were assessed. Depressed subjects with a symptom duration ≥3 years had higher TG levels, increased TCH/HDL-C ratios and lower levels of HDL-C, FT4 and TSH compared with depressive patients with a symptom duration <3 years. Correlation analysis displayed that TSH is positively and significantly associated with TCH and LDL-C (p<0.05); the above FT4 and FT3 are negatively, significantly and respectively associated with TCH/HDL-C (p<0.05) and TCH, HDL-C, LDL-C (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that serum TG and TSH levels are associated with depressive symptom duration. According to our results,These findings indicate that low serum TSH levels are associated with lipid profile, TG and TSH levels have significant association with symptom duration in depressive patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Second-trimester IL-15 and IL-18 levels in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with normal karyotypes and with chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz-Blok, Dominika; Florjański, Jerzy; Zalewski, Jerzy; Blok, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the behavior of interleukin 15 (IL-15) and 18 (IL-18) in the amniotic fluid in the second trimester of gestations complicated by chromosomal defects in the fetus. Likewise, it has not yet been established whether a fetus with chromosome abnormalities creates its immunity mechanisms in the same way as a fetus with a normal karyotype. The aim of this work was to assess the concentration of IL-15 and IL-18 in the amniotic fluid in the second trimester of gestation in fetuses with normal karyotypes and with chromosome abnormalities. The material consisted of 51 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from genetic amniocenteses carried out between the 15th and the 19th weeks of gestation. On the basis of cytogenetic screening, two groups were singled out: Group I--45 fetuses with normal karyotypes, and Group II--6 fetuses with abnormal karyotypes. The concentrations of IL-15 and IL-18 in the amniotic fluid were assessed with ready-made assays and analyzed, and the results from both groups were compared. The differences between the IL-15 levels in the amniotic fluid from Groups I and II proved to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.054). However, the average IL-18 levels in the amniotic fluid of the fetuses with normal karyotypes were significantly higher than in the amniotic fluid of the fetuses with chromosome abnormalities (p = 0.032). Some defense mechanisms in the second trimester of gestation in fetuses with chromosome abnormalities may develop in a different way than in fetuses with normal karyotypes.

  10. Correlations Between Anthropometry and Lipid Profile in Women With PCOS.

    PubMed

    Kiranmayee, Donthu; Kavya, Kothapalli; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Sriharibabu, Manne; Madhuri, Gadi Leela Jaya; Venu, Swargam

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive age women and is associated with both reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. Recent studies have demonstrated an early onset of abnormal cardiovascular risk profile in women with PCOS. Abnormal lipid profile patterns are common in women with PCOS, and these abnormalities are not uniform in all populations. Anthropometry is a simple and commonly used research tool for assessing metabolic risk in women with PCOS. Therefore, this study examined the correlations between anthropometric parameters and lipid profile in women with PCOS. The objectives of the study were (1) To study the anthropometric profile of women with PCOS, (2) To examine the lipid profile pattern of these women with PCOS and (3) To see whether there exists any correlation between these anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. This observational cross-sectional study examined anthropometry and lipid profile in 86 married women with PCOS in the age group of 18-35 years and correlated them by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. More than 80% of the women with PCOS demonstrated abnormal anthropometric parameters, and in more than 70% women, lipid abnormalities such as low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Significant positive correlations were seen between body mass index (BMI) and triglycerides ( P ≤ 0.001) and waist circumference (WC) and triglycerides ( P ≤ 0.029). Negative correlations were observed between BMI and HDL cholesterol ( P ≤ 0.013). This study revealed that BMI and WC are the most important anthropometric parameters correlated to dyslipidemia in the south Indian women with PCOS.

  11. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid-induced generation of liver lipid peroxides is not suppressed further by elevated levels of glutathione in ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Seiji; Kubo, Kazuhiro; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Saito, Morio

    2006-04-01

    We examined the effects of ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH; experiment 1) and of GSH in acetaminophen-fed rats (experiment 2) on dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced tissue lipid peroxidation. In experiment 1, AsA-requiring Osteogenic Disorder Shionogi/Shi-od/od (ODS) rats were fed soybean protein diets containing DHA (10.0% total energy) and AsA at 50 (low) or 300 (normal) mg/kg without (low) or with (normal) methionine at 2 g/kg for 32 d. In experiment 2, ODS rats were fed diets containing DHA (7.8% total energy) and acetaminophen (4 g/kg) with different levels of dietary methionine (low, moderate, high, and excessive at 0, 3, 6, and 9 g/kg, respectively) for 30 d. Tissue lipid peroxides and antioxidant levels were determined. In experiment 1, liver lipid peroxide levels in the low-AsA group were lower than those in the normal-AsA group, but kidney and testis lipid peroxide levels in the low-AsA group were higher than those in the normal-AsA group. Dietary methionine tended to decrease tissue lipid peroxide levels but did not decrease vitamin E (VE) consumption. In experiment 2, a high level of methionine (6 g/kg) decreased liver lipid peroxide levels and VE consumption. However, generation of tissue lipid peroxides and VE consumption were not decreased further by a higher dose of methionine (9 g/kg). Higher than normal levels of dietary methionine are not necessarily associated with decreased dietary DHA-induced generation of tissue lipid peroxides and VE consumption except that the GSH requirement is increased in a condition such as acetaminophen feeding.

  12. Serum lipid levels for a multicultural population in Auckland, New Zealand: results from the Diabetes Heart and Health Survey (DHAH) 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Gentles, Dudley; Metcalf, Patricia; Dyall, Lorna; Scragg, Robert; Sundborn, Gerhard; Schaaf, David; Black, Peter N; Jackson, Rodney T

    2007-11-09

    To describe mean serum lipid concentrations for Maori, Pacific people (mostly of Samoan, Tongan, Niuean, or Cook Islands origin), and Others (mostly New Zealand-born Europeans), and to identify risk factors for an adverse lipid profile. A cross-sectional survey of adults aged between 35-74 years within the Auckland area. There were 1006 Maori, 996 Pacific people, and 2021 'Others' Fasting blood samples were collected from participants, and total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and triglycerides were measured. Maori and Pacific people had similar mean serum total and LDL cholesterol levels but lower HDL levels and higher total to HDL cholesterol ratios compared to Others (adjusted for age and gender). Maori also had higher triglycerides than Others. High BMI and cigarette smoking were positively associated with unfavourable lipid profiles, while current alcohol drinking and vigorous leisure time activity were associated with increased HDL cholesterol and lower total to HDL cholesterol ratios. Over 90% of all ethnic groups had total cholesterol levels above currently accepted optimal levels (>4 mmol/L) and two-thirds were above 5 mmol/L. While 30% of Others had a total to HDL cholesterol ratio above the 'optimal' threshold of 4.5, 40% of Maori and 44% of pacific people were above this level. This is the first study to simultaneously assess lipid levels in Maori, Pacific people, and Others in one population-based study. Despite similar total and LDL cholesterol levels in all ethnic groups; overweight, obesity, and current cigarette smoking were the main risk factors for their adverse lipid profiles. Engaging in leisure-time activity and alcohol consumption (and not surprisingly lipid-lowering drugs) were associated with better lipid profiles. We confirm that the main lipid-related cardiovascular disease risk in Maori and Pacific people is due to their low HDL and high triglyceride levels.

  13. Lipid levels are associated with a regulatory polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter (MAOA-uVNTR).

    PubMed

    Brummett, Beverly H; Boyle, Stephen H; Siegler, Ilene C; Zuchner, Stephan; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Williams, Redford B

    2008-02-01

    The monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) gene plays a vital role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters, e.g, serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. A polymorphism in the promoter region (MAOA-uVNTR) affects transcriptional efficiency. Allelic variation in MAOA-uVNTR has been associated with body mass index (BMI). We extended previous work by examining relations among this polymorphism and serum lipid levels. The sample consisted of 74 males enrolled in a study of caregivers for relatives with dementia. Regression models, adjusted for age, race, group status (caregiver/control), and cholesterol lowering medication (yes/no), were used to examine associations between high verses low MAOA-uVNTR activity alleles and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, LDL/HDL ratio, triglycerides, and BMI. Higher total cholesterol (p<0.03), LDL/HDL ratio (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.02), and VLDL (p<0.02) were associated with low activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles. HDL and LDL were modestly related to MAOA-uVNTR activity, however, they did not reach the conventional significance level (p<0.07 and p<0.10, respectively). BMI (p<0.74) was unrelated to MAOA-uVNTR transcription. The present findings suggest that MAOA-uVNTR may influence lipid levels and individuals with less active alleles are at increased health risk.

  14. Prospective associations among cereal intake in childhood and adiposity, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M; Bauserman, Robert; Barton, Bruce A

    2009-10-01

    Cereal consumption is a common dietary behavior that has been associated with positive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine prospective associations between cereal intake in childhood and percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence. In this longitudinal investigation (data collected 1987-1997), data were analyzed for the 2,379 girls who participated in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. The cumulative percent of days that each girl consumed cereal during childhood (based on 3-day food diaries collected during six study visits between ages 11.5 and 18.6 years) was examined in relation to percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity measured at age 18.6 years. Results indicated that nearly all girls (90.1%) reported eating cereal and 18.7% reported eating cereal on half or more of the days reported in the food diaries. Girls who ate cereal on a greater percentage of days during childhood had lower percent body fat and total cholesterol, and were more likely to exhibit high levels of physical activity and less television viewing during Study Year 10 (P values<0.05). Further research should explore lifestyle issues related to cereal consumption.

  15. The role of red dragon fruit peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus) to improvement blood lipid levels of hyperlipidaemia male mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernawati; Setiawan, N. A.; Shintawati, R.; Priyandoko, D.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to know the role of red dragon fruit peel powder to total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and weight in the male hyperlipidaemic Balb-C mice (Mus musculus). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) and four replicates for each dose treatments. Samples were 24 male mice that divided into six groups i.e. positive and negative controls, doses of 50; 100; 150 and 200 mg/kgBW/days red dragon fruit peel powder. Before being given treatment, mice were given feed containing high fat for 20 days until experiencing conditions hyperlipidaemia. The red dragon fruit peel powder was given at oral with used gavage for 30 days. Blood samples were taken from the tail on vena caudalis. Blood lipid samples were analysed at enzymatic with BIOLABO kits. The results of this study indicate that after administration of red dragon fruit peel powder total cholesterol levels, triglycerides and LDL-c decreased, along with increasing doses of red dragon fruit peel powder for 30 days. Furthermore showed that dragon fruit powder can increase HDL-c levels. The conclusion of this research was The red dragon fruit peel powder can improve blood lipid level of male Balb-c mice hyperlipidaemia.

  16. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  17. Integrated analysis, transcriptome-lipidome, reveals the effects of INO-level (INO2 and INO4) on lipid metabolism in yeast.

    PubMed

    Chumnanpuen, Pramote; Nookaew, Intawat; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-10-16

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes containing UASINO sequences are regulated by the Ino2/Ino4 and Opi1 transcription factors, and this regulation controls lipid biosynthesis. The expression level of INO2 and INO4 genes (INO-level) at different nutrient limited conditions might lead to various responses in yeast lipid metabolism. In this study, we undertook a global study on how INO-levels (transcription level of INO2 and INO4) affect lipid metabolism in yeast and we also studied the effects of single and double deletions of the two INO-genes (deficient effect). Using 2 types of nutrient limitations (carbon and nitrogen) in chemostat cultures operated at a fixed specific growth rate of 0.1 h-1 and strains having different INO-level, we were able to see the effect on expression level of the genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and the fluxes towards the different lipid components. Through combined measurements of the transcriptome, metabolome, and lipidome it was possible to obtain a large dataset that could be used to identify how the INO-level controls lipid metabolism and also establish correlations between the different components. In this study, we undertook a global study on how INO-levels (transcription level of INO2 and INO4) affect lipid metabolism in yeast and we also studied the effects of single and double deletions of the two INO-genes (deficient effect). Using 2 types of nutrient limitations (carbon and nitrogen) in chemostat cultures operated at a fixed specific growth rate of 0.1 h-1 and strains having different INO-level, we were able to see the effect on expression level of the genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and the fluxes towards the different lipid components. Through combined measurements of the transcriptome, metabolome, and lipidome it was possible to obtain a large dataset that could be used to identify how the INO-level controls lipid metabolism and also establish correlations between the different components. Our analysis

  18. Serum Lipid Levels in Relation to Consumption of Yogurt: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Bong-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Eun; Park, Kyong-Min; Park, Kye-Yeung; Park, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum lipid levels in Korean adults after consumption of different types of yogurt. Methods Study subjects were 3,038 individuals (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Yogurt intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire by using the 24-hour recall method. We conducted complex samples general linear analysis with adjustment for covariates. Results The serum triglyceride levels in the group consuming viscous yogurt were lower than those in the group consuming non-viscous yogurt. Conclusion Consumption of viscous yogurt is associated with low serum triglyceride levels in Korean adults. PMID:29026484

  19. Transcript level coordination of carbon pathways during silicon starvation-induced lipid accumulation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Sarah R.; Gle, Corine; Abbriano, Raffaela M.; ...

    2016-02-04

    Diatoms are one of the most productive and successful photosynthetic taxa on Earth and possess attributes such as rapid growth rates and production of lipids, making them candidate sources of renewable fuels. Despite their significance, few details of the mechanisms used to regulate growth and carbon metabolism are currently known, hindering metabolic engineering approaches to enhance productivity. To characterize the transcript level component of metabolic regulation, genome-wide changes in transcript abundance were documented in the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana on a time-course of silicon starvation. Growth, cell cycle progression, chloroplast replication, fatty acid composition, pigmentation, and photosynthetic parameters were characterizedmore » alongside lipid accumulation. Extensive coordination of large suites of genes was observed, highlighting the existence of clusters of coregulated genes as a key feature of global gene regulation in T. pseudonana. The identity of key enzymes for carbon metabolic pathway inputs (photosynthesis) and outputs (growth and storage) reveals these clusters are organized to synchronize these processes. Coordinated transcript level responses to silicon starvation are probably driven by signals linked to cell cycle progression and shifts in photophysiology. A mechanistic understanding of how this is accomplished will aid efforts to engineer metabolism for development of algal-derived biofuels.« less

  20. An evaluation of homocysteine, C-reactive protein, lipid levels, neutrophils to lymphocyte ratio in postmenopausal osteopenic women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhua; Huang, Zheren; Tang, Shanshan; Wei, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Zhifen

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the risk coefficients of serum homocysteine (hcy), lipid levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophils to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in postmenopausal osteopenic women were determined. We enrolled 269 patients with postmenopausal women from Hangzhou No.1 Hospital gynecological clinic, who aged 45 to 60 years old and never received menopause hormone therapy. According to the bone mineral density determination results, subjects were divided into normal group (n  =  128), osteopenia group (n  =  141). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum hcy, CRP and lipid indexes were determined by enzyme chemiluminescence immunoassay. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of those variables (menopausal age, duration of menopause, LDL, CRP, hcy and NLR) were found significant (p  <  0.05). Menopausal age, duration of menopause, LDL, CRP, hcy and NLR variables were found statistically significant in the analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROCs). The present study shows that menopause age, duration of menopause, serum LDL, CRP, hcy and NLR levels are risk factors for postmenopausal osteopenic women, which may be used as the indicators of bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  1. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention.

  2. Analysis of the effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides on serum lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anniston, Alabama, is the site of a former Monsanto plant where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured from 1929 until 1971. Residents of Anniston are known to have elevated levels of PCBs. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that levels of the various lipid components (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) are differentially associated with concentrations of total PCBs and total pesticides, and further that different congeners, congener groups and different pesticides do not have identical associations in serum samples obtained from Anniston residents in a cross-sectional study. Methods Fasting serum samples were obtained from 575 residents of Anniston who were not on any lipid-lowering medication and were analyzed for 35 PCB congeners, nine chlorinated pesticides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Associations between toxicant concentrations and lipid levels were determined using multiple linear regression analysis. Results We observed that elevated serum concentrations of lipids were associated with elevated serum concentrations of ΣPCBs and summed pesticides in analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercising status. The strongest associations were seen for PCB congeners with three, four, or at least eight substituted chlorines. Mono-ortho substituted congeners 74 and 156, di-ortho congeners 172 and 194, and tri- and tetra-ortho congeners 199, 196–203, 206 and 209 each were significantly associated with total lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Serum concentrations of HCB and chlordane also had strong associations with lipid components. Conclusions Increased concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides are associated with elevations in total serum lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides, but the patterns are different for different groups of PCBs and different pesticides. These

  3. Effect of L-thyroxine treatment versus a placebo on serum lipid levels in patients with sub-clinical hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Meng, Zhaowei; Jia, Qiang; Ren, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is a common disease and whether L-thyroxine replacement treatment improves serum lipid levels in affected patients remains controversial. Thus, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to assess the effect of L-thyroxine therapy on serum lipid levels in sub-clinical hyperthyroidism. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing continuous data, published until July 2015 were retrieved from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar and Embase databases and subjected to meta-analysis using Review Manager software version 5.2 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Seven RCTs comprising 319 patients were included. The overall methodological quality of the RCTs was good. Statistical analysis revealed that serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased after L-thyroxine treatment [mean difference (MD): −0.23; 95% confidence interval: −0.44, −0.03; P=0.02], while changes of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were not significant (MD: −0.18, P=0.09; MD: −0.02, P=0.78; and MD: −0.06, P=0.14, respectively). In conclusion, the meta-analysis performed in the present study revealed that compared with placebo treatment, L-thyroxine significantly improved serum LDL-C levels in patients with sub-clinical hypothyroidism, while not significantly affecting TC, TG and HDL-C levels. PMID:27699011

  4. Gender specific effect of LIPC C-514T polymorphism on obesity and relationship with plasma lipid levels in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Dandan; Ling, Jie; Lu, Wenhui; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic lipase (LIPC) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in lipoprotein catabolism pathways involved in the development of obesity. The C-514T polymorphism in the promoter region is associated with decreased LIPC activity. We performed a case-controlled study (850 obese children and 2119 controls) and evaluated the association between LIPC C-514T polymorphism, obesity and plasma lipid profile in Chinese children and adolescents. Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis of all results from published studies as well as our own data. A significant association between the polymorphism and obesity is observed in boys (P = 0.042), but not in girls. And we observed a significant relationship of the polymorphism with total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) independent of obesity in boys. The T allele carriers have higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in obese boys, and triglyceride (TG), TC and LDL-C in non-obese girls (all P < 0.05). In the meta-analysis, under dominant model the T allele increased body mass index (BMI) level in boys, while it decreased BMI in girls, and increased the levels of TC both in the overall and subgroups, TG and HDL-C in the overall and boys, and LDL-C in the overall (all P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the T allele might carry an increased risk of obesity in Chinese boys. The meta-analysis suggests that T allele acts as a risk allele for higher BMI levels in male childhood, while it is a protective allele in female childhood. And the polymorphism is associated with the levels of plasma lipids, which may be modulated by obesity and gender. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  5. Polyphenols of Salix aegyptiaca modulate the activities of drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, and level of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Nauman, Mohd; Kale, R K; Singh, Rana P

    2018-03-07

    Salix aegyptiaca is known for its medicinal properties mainly due to the presence of salicylate compounds. However, it also contains other beneficial phytochemicals such as gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin. The aim of the study was to examine the redox potential, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of these phytochemicals along with acetylsalicylic acid. The redox potential and antioxidant activity of gallic acid, quercetin, rutin, vanillin and acetylsalicylic acid were determined by oxidation-reduction potential electrode method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In ex vivo studies, antioxidant activity of these phytochemicals was determined by lipid peroxidation and carbonyl content assay in the liver of mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by protein denaturation method. Six-week old C57BL/6 mice treated with gallic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) and acetylsalicylic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) to investigate their in vivo modulatory effects on the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and level of lipid peroxidation in liver. The order of ability to donate electron and antioxidant activity was found to be: gallic acid > quercetin > rutin > vanillin > acetylsalicylic acid. In ex vivo studies, the similar pattern and magnitude of inhibitory effects of these phytochemicals against peroxidative damage in microsomes and protein carbonyl in cytosolic fraction were observed. In in vivo studies, gallic acid and acetylsalicylic acid alone or in combination, enhanced the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes as well as antioxidant enzymes and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver. These findings show a close link between the electron donation and antioxidation potential of these phytochemicals, and in turn their biological activity. Gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin were found to be better electron donors and

  6. The effect of acute café latte ingestion on fasting serum lipid levels in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Atanaz; Auttapibarn, Clint; Hong, Sung Hee; Larson, Tyler J; Hayworth, Katelyn H; Ito, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    Many patients drink café latte as part of their habitual morning routine to start their day and may be unable to skip this step before drawing a fasting blood sample for cholesterol testing. However, it is unknown what the acute effects of consuming a café latte are on fasting serum lipids just before blood sampling. This was a prospective, open-label study with the primary objective of evaluating the acute effect of a 12-oz café latte (2% milk) on calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and secondary objectives of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, and fasting blood glucose (FBG). A 10-hour fasting lipid profile was obtained before and 30 minutes after subjects consumed the café latte. Forty-nine adult participants (34 females; age [mean ± SD] 32.2 ± 13.2 years) were studied. No significant changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C, or non-HDL-C were observed after coffee consumption. Triglyceride significantly decreased from a median of 76.0 to 75.0 mg/dL (P = .002). HDL-C and FBG increased from a mean of 54.4 ± 12.7 to 56.4 ± 14.5 mg/dL (P = .015) and 87.2 ± 7.0 to 97.3 ± 12.9 mg/dL (P < .001), respectively. Consumption of 12 oz. of café latte within one hour of blood draw did not result in a significant change in LDL-C or non-HDL-C in young, nonobese healthy individuals. However, FBG levels increased by almost 12%. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Statin Use and Serum Lipid Levels Are Associated With Survival Outcomes After Surgery for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Ahmed Q; Jiang, Lai; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Lotan, Yair; Gahan, Jeffrey C; Hynan, Linda S; Gupta, Neil; Raj, Ganesh V; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Margulis, Vitaly

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the association of statin use and preoperative serum lipid parameters with oncologic outcomes following surgery for renal cell carcinoma. A total of 850 patients who underwent surgery for localized renal cell carcinoma at our institution from 2000 to 2012 were included. Use of statins, preoperative serum lipid profile, and comprehensive clinicopathologic features were retrospectively recorded. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were employed to compare survival outcomes. There were 342 statin users and 508 non-users. Median follow-up was 25.0 months. Statin users were older, had greater body mass index, and had worse performance status than non-users. Tumor pathologic characteristics were balanced between groups. Five-year recurrence free survival (RFS) was 77.9% for non-users compared with 87.6% for statin users (P = .004). After adjustment for clinicopathologic variables, statin use was independently associated with improved RFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.86, P = .011) and overall survival (HR 0.45, 95%CI 0.28-0.71, P = .001). In patients with available serum lipid parameters (n = 193), 5-year RFS was 83.8% for patients with triglycerides <250 mg/dL compared with 33.3% for those with triglycerides >250 mg/dL (P <.0001). Elevated serum triglycerides (>250 mg/dL) was independently associated with worse RFS (HR 2.69, 95%CI 1.22-5.93, P = .015) on multivariate analysis. Statin use was independently associated with improved survival, whereas elevated serum triglyceride levels correlated with worse oncologic outcomes in this cohort. These findings warrant validation in prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Glucose, lipid, and lipoprotein levels in sheep naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Kozat, Süleyman; Denizhan, Vural

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate serum glucose, lipid, and lipoprotein in sheep naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Ten healthy sheep and 15 infected with F. hepatica were used in study. Serum concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and serum activities of AST, ALT, GGT, and LDH were measured using a Roche-Cobas Integra 800 auto-analyzer. At day 0 (prior to treatment) and on the 28th day (after treatment) the serum concentrations of TP, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, and VLDL values in sheep with F. hepatica were significantly lower than those of the control group, while serum activities of AST, ALT, GGT, and LDH of lambs with F. hepatica were significantly higher than those of the control group. At day 56 (after treatment), none of the variables was significantly different between control sheep and those that received treatment for fascioliasis (P > 0.05). Nutritional management may be used to reduce the impact of fascioliasis.

  9. Future directions in lipid therapies.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Cholesterol management to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease is a major public health concern. Despite widespread recognition of lipid abnormalities as cardiovascular risk factors, significant cardiovascular event reductions with cholesterol-lowering therapies, and dissemination of treatment guidelines, most high-risk patients are not at target lipid levels. In addition to lifestyle changes, four major drug classes are available to modify lipid levels: fibrates, niacin, resins, and statins. High efficacy and tolerability in clinical trials make statins the most widely prescribed of these agents. Newer, more potent members of this class and novel formulations of niacin and resins may provide more effective therapy for dyslipidemia with fewer side effects. Several agents in development (cholesterol-absorption inhibitors and ACAT inhibitors) exploit mechanisms of action complementary to those of current treatments and combined with statins may produce greater improvements in lipid profiles than are now possible. These innovations should enable a greater number of patients to achieve more aggressive cholesterol goals, thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular events.

  10. Association between lipid levels and major adverse cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis compared to non-rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Liao, Katherine P; Liu, Jun; Lu, Bing; Solomon, Daniel H; Kim, Seoyoung C

    2015-05-01

    Lower levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol may be associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to determine whether the complex relationship between levels of LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and CV risk is different in RA patients as compared to non-RA controls. Using data from a US health insurance plan (2003-2012), we conducted a cohort study that included patients with RA and non-RA control subjects matched with regard to age, sex, and index date. The nonlinearity of associations between lipid levels and incidence of major adverse CV events (MACE) was tested. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine for an interaction between lipid levels and RA status in relation to the risk of MACE, after adjustment for CV risk factors. In total, 16,085 RA patients and 48,499 non-RA controls were studied. The mean age was 52.6 years and 78.6% were women. The relationship between LDL cholesterol levels and incidence of MACE was nonlinear and similar between RA patients and non-RA controls (P for interaction = 0.72). No significant increase in CV risk was observed between the lowest quintile of LDL cholesterol levels (≤91.0 mg/dl) and the second, third, or fourth quintiles, whereas the highest quintile (>190.0 mg/dl) conveyed a 40% increase in risk of MACE (hazard ratio [HR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.17-1.68). The relationship between HDL cholesterol levels and incidence of MACE was also nonlinear and similar between RA patients and non-RA controls (P for interaction = 0.39). Compared to the lowest quintile of HDL cholesterol levels, each successive quintile was associated with a reduced risk of MACE (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.48-0.72 for lowest quintile [≤43.0 mg/dl] versus highest quintile [>71.0 mg/dl]). The complex relationship between LDL cholesterol levels, HDL cholesterol levels, and risk of MACE was nonlinear in RA patients

  11. First trimester maternal lipid levels and serum markers of small- and large-for-gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Parlakgumus, Huriye Ayse; Aytac, Pinar Caglar; Kalaycı, Hakan; Tarim, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    To investigate if first trimester lipids, sonographic parameters and serum markers are related to small- and large-for-gestational age (SGA, LGA) infants. This study was conducted at Baskent University Adana Research Center between December 2009 and July 2011 and enrolled 433 women. Blood samples were drawn to measure fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, fβ-hCG and pregnancy associated protein-A (PAPP-A) at the first trimester. Crown rump length and nuchal translucency were measured as suggested by the fetal medicine foundation. LGA group was significantly taller (p = 0.016) and SGA group had significantly greater BMI (0.025). SGA fetuses were born at a significantly earlier gestational age (p = 0.001). Univariate analysis revealed that LGA group had significantly lower cholesterol (p = 0.038) and LDL levels (p = 0.041). PAPP-A was significantly lower in SGA Group compared with LGA Group (0.027). After controlling for age, parity, height, pre-pregnant BMI, weight gain during pregnancy and fasting blood sugar, none of the lipids, serum markers or sonographic parameters was related to LGA. PAPP-A was the only parameter significantly associated with SGA after multivariate analysis (p = 0.008). PAPP-A was significantly associated with SGA after controlling for confounders.

  12. Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels[S

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ying; Marvelle, Amanda F.; Li, Jin; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Feranil, Alan B.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Li, Yun; Adair, Linda S.; Mohlke, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10−8) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10−6) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10−4), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control. PMID:24023260

  13. Real-time intravascular photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging of lipid-laden plaque at speed of video-rate level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Jie; Cao, Yingchun; Zhang, Yi; Kole, Ayeeshik; Wang, Pu; Yu, Guangli; Eakins, Gregory; Sturek, Michael; Chen, Weibiao; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2017-03-01

    Intravascular photoacoustic-ultrasound (IVPA-US) imaging is an emerging hybrid modality for the detection of lipidladen plaques by providing simultaneous morphological and lipid-specific chemical information of an artery wall. The clinical utility of IVPA-US technology requires real-time imaging and display at speed of video-rate level. Here, we demonstrate a compact and portable IVPA-US system capable of imaging at up to 25 frames per second in real-time display mode. This unprecedented imaging speed was achieved by concurrent innovations in excitation laser source, rotary joint assembly, 1 mm IVPA-US catheter, differentiated A-line strategy, and real-time image processing and display algorithms. By imaging pulsatile motion at different imaging speeds, 16 frames per second was deemed to be adequate to suppress motion artifacts from cardiac pulsation for in vivo applications. Our lateral resolution results further verified the number of A-lines used for a cross-sectional IVPA image reconstruction. The translational capability of this system for the detection of lipid-laden plaques was validated by ex vivo imaging of an atherosclerotic human coronary artery at 16 frames per second, which showed strong correlation to gold-standard histopathology.

  14. Serum lipid levels were related to socio-demographic characteristics in a German population-based child cohort.

    PubMed

    Dathan-Stumpf, Anne; Vogel, Mandy; Rieger, Kristin; Thiery, Joachim; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland

    2016-08-01

    Socio-demographic factors affect the development and lives of children and adolescents. We examined links between serum lipids and apolipoproteins and socio-demographic factors in the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases Child (LIFE Child) study. The Winkler index and the Family Affluence Scale were used to define characteristics of the social status of 938 boys and 860 girls aged from birth to 19 years. We then used univariate and multivariate regression analyses to examine the socio-demographic impact on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol triglycerides and apolipoproteins A1 (ApoA1) and B (ApoB). No significant influences on the Winkler index or the Family Affluence Scale were observed regarding the concentrations of serum lipids for total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol. However, and most importantly, children and adolescents with high social status and high family affluence showed significantly higher HDL cholesterol and ApoA1 levels than those with lower individual totals. A higher Winkler index was associated with significantly lower values for triglycerides and ApoB. Adolescents with higher family wealth and social status showed a lower cardiovascular risk profile, as measured by the concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides as well as ApoA1 and B. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  16. Iodine nutrition status and prevalence of abnormal TSH levels in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years in the autonomous community of the Basque Country.

    PubMed

    Arrizabalaga, Juan José; Jalón, Mercedes; Espada, Mercedes; Cañas, Mercedes; Arena, José María; Vila, Lluís

    2018-05-01

    An epidemiological study conducted between 1988 and 1992 showed iodine deficiency and endemic goiter in the schoolchildren of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. 1) To ascertain the iodine nutrition status of schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, and 2) to estimate the prevalence of abnormal TSH levels in capillary blood. The study was conducted on 497 schoolchildren selected by random sampling. Median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC) was used to assess iodine nutritional status, and the reference interval derived from the study population was used to estimate the prevalence of abnormal TSH levels. The mUIC (P 25 -P 75 ) was 140 (82-217) μg/L. A higher value was found in those who used iodized salt at home than in those who did not (146 [85-222] versus 126 μg/L [73-198], P<0.05). It was also higher in those who consumed 2 or more daily servings of milk and yogurt than in those taking less than 2 servings (146 [87-225] versus 110 μg/L [66-160], P<0.0001). Abnormal TSH levels were found in 2% of children. There was no correlation between TSH levels in capillary blood and urinary iodine concentrations (R=0.082; P=0.076). Schoolchildren aged 6-7 years of the autonomous community of the Basque Country have an adequate iodine nutrition status. Use of iodized salt at home and daily consumption of milk and yogurt were associated to the highest UICs. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Lipid Sources Influence Fatty Acid Composition in Tissue of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea) by Regulating Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Min; Li, Yi; Lu, You; Hou, Yingmei; Zhou, Qicun

    2017-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), rapeseed oil (RO) and peanut oil (PO), respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13.77±0.07g) were stocked in 15 floating net cages (1.5m×1.5m×2.0m). Fish fed the diets containing RO and LO had lower weight gain and specific growth rates than those fed the FO, SO and PO diets. Survival, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, viscerasomatic index and condition factor were not significantly affected by different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the diet containing FO had higher lipid content in whole body compared with the other groups, whereas fish fed the SO diet had the lowest muscle lipid content. Fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver reflected the fatty acid composition of the diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly influenced by different dietary lipid sources, while total protein, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase or malondialdehyde in plasma were not affected by the different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the LO diet had lower adipose triglyceride lipase and fatty acid synthase activities in liver than those fed the diets containing FO and RO, while the LO diet resulted in the highest hepatic carnitine palmitoultransferase-1 activity. Hepatic gene relative expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in fish fed PO diet was significantly higher than all other groups, whereas fish fed the SO and LO diets had lower relative expression levels of lipoprotein

  18. Chronic treatment of (R)-α-lipoic acid reduces blood glucose and lipid levels in high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin-induced metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ghelani, Hardik; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Nammi, Srinivas

    2017-06-01

    (R)- α -lipoic acid ( ALA ), an essential cofactor in mitochondrial respiration and a potential antioxidant, possesses a wide array of metabolic benefits including anti-obesity, glucose lowering, insulin-sensitizing, and lipid-lowering effects. In this study, the curative effects of ALA (100 mg/kg) on a spectrum of conditions related to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes ( T2D ) were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome and T2D . The marked rise in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and VLDL-cholesterol in the blood of HFD-fed and low-dose STZ-injected rats were significantly reduced by ALA treatment. Furthermore, ALA treatment significantly increased the serum HDL-cholesterol levels and tended to inhibit diabetes-induced weight reduction. Mathematical computational analysis revealed that ALA also significantly improved insulin sensitivity and reduced the risk of atherosclerotic lesions and coronary atherogenesis. This study provides scientific evidence to substantiate the use of ALA to mitigate the glucose and lipid abnormality in metabolic syndrome and T2D .

  19. Dissecting metabolic behavior of lipid over-producing strain of Mucor circinelloides through genome-scale metabolic network and multi-level data integration.

    PubMed

    Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Kingkaw, Amornthep; Yang, Junhuan; Song, Yuanda; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2018-09-05

    Lipid accumulation is an important cellular process of oleaginous microorganisms. To dissect metabolic behavior of oleaginous Zygomycetes, the lipid over-producing strain, Mucor circinelloides WJ11, was subjected for omics-scale analysis. The genome annotation was improved and used for construction of genome-scale metabolic network of WJ11 strain. Then, the quality of the metabolic network was enhanced by incorporating gene and protein expression data. In addition to the known oleaginous genes, our results showed a number of newly identified unique genes of WJ11 strain, which involved in central carbon metabolism, lipid, amino acid and nitrogen metabolisms. The systematic compilations indicated the additional metabolic routes with the involvement in supplying precursors (acetyl-CoA, NADPH and fatty acyl substrate) for fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, amino acid metabolism played a substantial role in responsive mechanism of the fungal cells to nutrient imbalance circumstance through lipogenesis as the finding of reporter metabolites (l-methionine, l-glutamate, l-aspartate, l-asparagine and l-glutamine) at lipid-accumulating stage. The cooperative function of certain lipid-degrading enzymes at the particular growth stage was elucidated by integrating the metabolic networks with gene expression data. The unique feature of carotenoid biosynthetic route in WJ11 strain was also identified by protein domain analysis. Taken together, there were cross-functional metabolisms in regulating lipid biosynthesis and retaining high level of cellular lipids in the representative of lipid over-producing strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Aronia melanocarpa extract reduces blood pressure, serum endothelin, lipid, and oxidative stress marker levels in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Broncel, Marlena; Kozirog, Marzena; Duchnowicz, Piotr; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Sikora, Joanna; Chojnowska-Jezierska, Julita

    2010-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that anthocyanins may exert pleiotropic effects. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of Aronia melanocarpa extract on blood pressure and serum concentration of endothelin-1 (ET-1), lipids, glucose, uric acid, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dysmutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reacting substrates, TBARS) in erythrocytes of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). The study comprised 22 healthy volunteers and 25 patients with MS. Patients with MS were treated with aronia extract (3 x 100 mg/day) for two months. The above parameters were measured. After two months of therapy, statistically significant decreases were observed in SBP (143.40+/-7.87 vs. 131.83+/-12.24 mmHg, p<0.001), DBP (87.20+/-9.9 vs. 82.13+/-10.33 mmHg, p<0.05), ET-1 (2.44+/-0.51 vs. 1.74+/-0.42 pg/ml, p<0.001), TC (242.80+/-34.48 vs. 227.96+/-33.07 mg/dl, p<0.001), LDL-C (158.71+/-35.78 vs. 146.21+/-34.63 mg/dl, p<0.01), TG (215.92+/-63.61 vs. 187.58+/-90 mg/dl, p<0.05), TBARS (0.0712+/-0.0191 vs. 0.0362+/-0.0135 micromol/g-Hb, p<0.001), and CAT (261.30+/-59.78 vs. 213.34+/-47.36 U/mg-Hb) and significant increases in SOD (2380.63+/-419.91 vs. 3066.53+/-542.24 U/g-Hb, p<0.001), GSH-Px (12.60+/-5.97 vs. 19.18+/-9.09 U/g-Hb, p<0.01), and fibrinogen levels (249.20+/-27.17 vs. 276.67+/-57.41 mg/dl, p<0.05) compared with the baseline values. Aronia extract may be of benefit to patients with MS. This seems to result from the influence of anthocyanins and possibly other flavonoids on blood pressure, serum level of ET-1, lipids, and oxidative status (GSH-Px, SOD, TBARS).

  1. Subchronic cadmium exposure upregulates the mRNA level of genes associated to hepatic lipid metabolism in adult female CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yan; Fu, Lin; Feng, Yu-Jie; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2018-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a persistent environmental and occupational contaminant that accumulates in humans and shows adverse effects on health. Accumulating evidence reveals that environmental Cd exposure is associated with hepatic lipid accumulation and metabolic alterations in adult male mice. However, whether Cd exposure induces hepatic lipid accumulation and metabolic alterations in female mice remains poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Cd exposure on insulin resistance, hepatic lipid accumulation and associated metabolic pathways. Female CD1 mice were administrated with CdCl 2 (10 and 100 mg l -1 ) by drinking water. We found that Cd exposure did not induce obesity, insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation. By contrary, mice in the Cd-100 mg l -1 group presented a significant reduction of the glucose area under the curve during the glucose tolerance test. However, there was a significant elevation in the mRNA level of Fasn and Scd-1, which were critical genes during hepatic fatty acid synthesis. Moreover, hepatic Fabp1 and Fabp4, two genes for hepatic fatty acid uptake were upregulated in Cd-treated mice. Of interest, Lpl, a key gene for hepatic lipoprotein lysis, was also upregulated in Cd-treated mice. Collectively, our results suggest that Cd exposure upregulated mRNA level of genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism although there was no insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation shown in the present study. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Blood pressure and blood lipid levels among vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and non-vegetarian native Africans.

    PubMed

    Famodu, A A; Osilesi, O; Makinde, Y O; Osonuga, O A

    1998-10-01

    Several epidemiological studies have implicated hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridaemia as a dietary risk factor in the etiology of vascular disease. To date, there are virtually no blood lipid data available for Negroid Black African Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarians. This study was undertaken to gain a preliminary and better understanding of the relationships between BP, blood lipids, and diets in adults at the Seventh-Day Adventist Seminary of West Africa, Ilisan-Remo, Nigeria. Three randomly selected groups of the Nigerian populace with different dietary habits were investigated. The Seventh-Day Adventist Seminary of West Africa was the study area. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum glucose were estimated using standard methods. The vegetarians (VEGs) had significantly lower body weight 75.0 +/- 1.9 kg than the semi-vegetarians (SEMI-VEGs) 77.3 +/- 1.8 kg (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the blood pressure (BP) of the three groups studied, although the VEGs exhibited lower systolic BP. The VEGs had significantly lower serum total cholesterol and triglycerides (p < 0.05), than non-vegetarians (NON-VEGs). The SEMI-VEGs had blood triglycerides values in between NON-VEGs and VEGs levels but these were not significant. There were no differences in blood glucose in the three groups. The vegetarian diet as well as the African natural diet are associated with lower levels of important cardiovascular disease risk factors. The significantly lower cardiovascular disease risk factors in vegetarian African Adventists could be a protective measure against the development of premature IHD and CVD incidence.

  3. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Jenna; Winter, Matthew J; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob; Owen, Stewart F; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA is pharmacologically active in carp and has the potential to invoke PPARα-related responses in fish exposed in the environment, particularly considering that CFA may represent just one of a number of PPAR-active compounds present to which wild fish may be exposed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Jenna; Winter, Matthew J.; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob; Owen, Stewart F.; Tyler, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA is pharmacologically active in carp and has the potential to invoke PPARα-related responses in fish exposed in the environment, particularly considering that CFA may represent just one of a number of PPAR-active compounds present to which wild fish may be exposed. PMID:25749508

  5. Effects of Diet High in Palmitoleic Acid on Serum Lipid Levels and Metabolism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    cholesterol , high - density a typical American diet. lipoprotein cholesterol , and triglyceride ...group imbalance resulting from density lipoprotein ( HDL ) cholesterol , and triglyceride dropouts or exclusions during the run-in or early in the levels...Circulation 1997;95:69-75. 15. Austin MA, Rodriguez BL, McKnight B, JD Curb. Low- density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size and plasma triglyceride ( TG

  6. Structural Abnormalities and Learning Impairments Induced by Low Level Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency: A Cross-Fostering Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Severe reductions in thyroid hormones (TH) during development alter brain structure and impair learning. Uncertainty surrounds both the impact oflower levels of TH disruption and the sensitivity of available metrics to detect neurodevelopmental deficits of this disruption. We ha...

  7. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B.; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M.; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K.; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21−/− mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine’s beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26858359

  8. Reduced levels of folate transporters (PCFT and RFC) in membrane lipid rafts result in colonic folate malabsorption in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on folate transport across the colonic apical membranes (CAM) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 1 g/kg body weight/day ethanol (20%) solution orally for 3 months and folate transport was studied in the isolated colon apical membrane vesicles. The folate transport was found to be carrier mediated, saturable, with pH optima at 5.0. Chronic ethanol ingestion reduced the folate transport across the CAM by decreasing the affinity of transporters (high Km) for the substrate and by decreasing the number of transporter molecules (low Vmax) on the colon luminal surface. The decreased transport activity at the CAM was associated with down-regulation of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and the reduced folate carrier (RFC) which resulted in decreased PCFT and RFC protein levels in the colon of rats fed alcohol chronically. Moreover, the PCFT and the RFC were found to be distributed in detergent insoluble fraction of the CAM in rats. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of the PCFT and the RFC protein with lipid rafts (LR). Chronic alcoholism decreased the PCFT and the RFC protein levels in the CAM LR in accordance with the decreased synthesis. Hence, we propose that downregulation in the expression of the PCFT and the RFC in colon results in reduced levels of these transporters in colon apical membrane LR as a mechanism of folate malabsorption during chronic alcoholism. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Lerin, Carles

    2016-04-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21(-/-) mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine's beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Discovery of Novel Lipid Profiles in PCOS: Do Insulin and Androgen Oppositely Regulate Bioactive Lipid Production?

    PubMed

    Li, Shengxian; Chu, Qianqian; Ma, Jing; Sun, Yun; Tao, Tao; Huang, Rong; Liao, Yu; Yue, Jiang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Lihua; Xue, Xinli; Zhu, Mingjiang; Kang, Xiaonan; Yin, Huiyong; Liu, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome showing clinical features of an endocrine/metabolic disorder, including hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derivatives, both tightly linked to PCOS and obesity, play important roles in inflammation and reproduction. This study aimed to investigate serum lipid profiles in newly diagnosed patients with PCOS using lipidomics and correlate these features with the hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS and obesity. Thirty-two newly diagnosed women with PCOS and 34 controls were divided into obese and lean subgroups. A PCOS rat model was used to validate results of the human studies. Serum lipid profiles, including phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and bioactive lipids, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography-MS. Elevation in phosphatidylcholine and a concomitant decrease in lysophospholipid were found in obese patients with PCOS vs lean controls. Obese patients with PCOS had decreased PUFA levels and increased levels of long-chain saturated fatty acids vs lean controls. Serum bioactive lipids downstream of arachidonic acid were increased in obese controls, but reduced in both obese and lean patients with PCOS vs their respective controls. Patients with PCOS showed abnormal levels of phosphatidylcholine, FFAs, and PUFA metabolites. Circulating insulin and androgens may have opposing effects on lipid profiles in patients with PCOS, particularly on the bioactive lipid metabolites derived from PUFAs. These clinical observations warrant further studies of the molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of PCOS and obesity. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  11. Correlation of compliance to statin therapy with lipid profile and serum HMGCoA reductase levels in dyslipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Grover, Abhinav; Rehan, Harmeet Singh; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Yadav, Madhur

    The efficacy of statin therapy may be lost or vary with reduction in compliance and intensity of statin therapy. To study and correlate the quantitative effect of compliance on lipid profile and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA-R) levels in dyslipidemic patients. Compliance to different intensity of statin therapy assessed by pill count was correlated with serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and HMGCoA-R. Out of 200 patients, 160 received moderate intensity statin therapy whereas 40 were on high intensity statin therapy. The overall mean compliance of patients was 56.7%. The compliance of patients on moderate intensity statin therapy was higher (56.8%) than those on high intensity (56.4%) (p=0.92). There was significant inverse correlation (p<0.05) between compliance and TC, TG, LDL-C and HMGCoA-R levels and positive correlation (p<0.05) with HDL-C levels. The mean serum HMGCoA-R levels did not fall below 9-10ng/mL when compliance to either moderate or high intensity statin therapy was increased above 60%. It is appropriate to improve the compliance to existing statin therapy than switching over to higher intensity statin therapy. Estimation of HMGCoA-R levels may be explored as a surrogate marker to monitor and assess the compliance of patients to statin therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Lipid changes and their relationship with vitamin D levels in children under 18 years with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zambrana-Calví, Gabriela D R; Palomo-Atance, Enrique; Gourdet, Marie E; León-Martín, Alberto; Ballester-Herrera, María José; Giralt-Muiña, Patricio

    2016-03-01

    To analyze lipid changes and their relationship with 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OH-D) levels in patients under 18 years old with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). A cross-sectional, descriptive study. Patients under 18 years with T1DM were enrolled by consecutive, nonrandomized sampling. Data collected included sex, age, pubertal stage, time since T1DM onset, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 25-OH-D, total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Results were stratified by sex, age, and pubertal stage. Data were analyzed using SPSS(®). Ninety patients with a mean age of 11.7 ± 3.6 years (51.1% males) and mean HbA1c levels of 7.5 ± 1.3% were enrolled. Of these, 26.6% had 25-OH-D levels<20 ng/mL and 13.3% 25-OH-D levels ≤ 15 ng/mL. No differences were found in 25-OH-D between patients with overweight or obesity and the rest. HDL-C levels<40 ng/mL were found in 1.1%, 34.4% had LDL-C levels ≥ 100 mg/dL, and 2.2% had TG levels ≥ 150 mg/dL. Patients with 25-OH-D<20 ng/mL had higher TG levels than the rest (76.80 ± 45.62 vs 57.55 ± 26.08; P=.04) in the multivariate analysis controlled for BMI, waist circumference, and HbA1c. A correlation was found between 25-OH-D and TG levels (-0.230; P=.029). Patients in our population with vitamin D deficiency had higher TG levels. Long-term follow-up should be performed to understand the potential impact of such levels on diabetes-related complications. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The Association between genetic variations of CHI3L1, levels of the encoded glycoprotein YKL-40 and the lipid profile in a Danish population.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Stine Brinkløv; Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Vestergaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 seems to play a role in atherosclerosis and is elevated in patients with obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the YKL-40 encoding gene, CHI3L1, are associated with inter-individual YKL-40 levels. One study has described an association between a promoter polymorphism of CHI3L1 and levels of low density lipoprotein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of YKL-40 on lipid parameters by determining the association between polymorphisms of CHI3L1, serum YKL-40 and levels of the differentiated lipid profile in a Danish general population. 12 SNPs of CHI3L1 were genotyped, and serum YKL-40 and parameters of the lipid profile were measured in 2,656 Danes. Lipid profile and genotypes were available in another Danish population (n = 6,784) for replication. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels increased with increasing YKL-40 quartile (both p<0.0001), and YKL-40 correlated with triglyceride levels (β = 0.15, p<0.0001). Low density lipoprotein levels increased slightly from the 1(st) to the 3(rd) quartile (p = 0.006). The highest YKL-40 quartile was associated with a greater risk of hypercholesterolemia compared to the lowest YKL-40 quartile (odds ratio 1.36, p = 0.009). Minor homozygosity of rs12123883 was associated with higher triglyceride levels (p = 0.022) and a higher prevalence of low high density lipoprotein (p = 0.012), but these associations could not be confirmed in the replication population. Serum YKL-40 correlates with triglyceride levels in a representative group of the general Danish population. No consistent associations between SNPs of CHI3L1 and lipid levels could be documented.

  14. Abnormal expression and mutation of p53 in cervical cancer--a study at protein, RNA and DNA levels.

    PubMed

    Ngan, H Y; Tsao, S W; Liu, S S; Stanley, M

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this study are to document the status of p53 expression and mutation in cervical cancer at protein, RNA and DNA levels and to relate this to the presence of HPV. Biopsy specimens from one hundred and three squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and histologically normal ectocervix were analysed. Fresh tissues were extracted for protein, RNA and DNA and flash frozen tissue cryostat sectioned for immunohistochemical staining. HPV DNA status was determined by PCR using L1 consensus primers and typed for HPV 16 and 18 with E6 specific primers. p53 expression was determined at the protein level by Western blotting on protein extracts and at RNA level by Northern blotting. There was no p53 overexpression or mutation detectable in the protein extracts. Three of 65 (4.6%) of the carcinomas were positive for p53 by immunostaining with the polyclonal antibody CM1. Overexpression at the RNA level was detected in 2 of 32 (6.3%) carcinomas. p53 mutation was screened for by PCR/SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) followed by sequencing to define the site of mutation. Two of the cervical cancers (2.0%) showed mutation in p53 in exons 7 or 8. The mutation rate in HPV positive tumours was 1.2% (1/81) and in HPV negative tumours was 5.2% (1/19). p53 overexpression or mutation does not seem to play a significant role in cervical carcinomas.

  15. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human.

  16. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human. PMID:27124472

  17. Dealcoholized red wine containing known amounts of resveratrol suppresses atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits without affecting plasma lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhirong; Zou, Jiangang; Cao, Kejiang; Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Huang, Yuanzhu; Wu, Joseph M

    2005-10-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This phenomenon is based on data from epidemiological observations known as the French paradox, and has been attributed to CHD-protective phytochemicals, e.g. resveratrol in red wine. Since red wine also contains alcohol, it is conceivable that alcohol interacts with resveratrol to elicit the observed cardioprotective effects. To determine whether resveratrol has alcohol-independent affects, we compared cardioprotective properties of dealcoholized Chinese red wine with alcohol-containing Chinese red wine having comparable amounts of resveratrol, using a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model and resveratrol as a reference. Animals fed a high cholesterol (1.5%) diet were simultaneously given water containing resveratrol (3 mg/kg/day) or red wine (4 ml/kg/day) containing 3.98 mg/l and 3.23 mg/l resveratrol for regular and dealcoholized red wine, respectively, for a 12-week duration. Total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the plasma were measured before and after the cholesterol challenge. Atherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic aorta were evaluated using histochemical methods. Vascular and endothelial functions in the femoral artery were also assessed by ultrasonographic image analysis. High cholesterol-fed animals showed a significant increase in plasma levels of total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglycerides, compared to those fed a regular diet. Dietary cholesterol-elicited lipid changes were similarly observed in animals concurrently fed dealcoholized red wine, red wine or resveratrol. In contrast, whereas atherosclerotic lesions were clearly evident in specimens prepared from the thoracic aorta of high cholesterol-fed animals, the size, density, and mean area of atherosclerotic plaques, and thickness of the intima layer were significantly reduced in rabbits given dealcoholized red wine, red wine, or resveratrol. These results were in

  18. Higher BNP levels within physiological range correlate with beneficial nonfasting lipid profiles in the elderly: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Tao; Mori, Masayuki; Yu, Xue-Feng; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2016-01-05

    Emerging studies indicate that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a well-known biomarker for heart failure, also plays pivotal roles in metabolic control. Circulating BNP levels progressively increase as ages grow older. However, the association between BNP levels and lipid metabolism in the elderly remains unknown. A total of 680 eligible volunteers (male/female: 334/346) aged between 60 and 80 years old without overt heart failure (BNP <100 pg/ml) were enrolled. Random nonfasting venous samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. The subjects were stratified based on BNP quartiles: BNP Q1 (range: 2.2-9.0 pg/ml), Q2 (9.1-20.4 pg/ml), Q3 (20.5-44.4 pg/ml) and Q4 (44.6-99.7 pg/ml). Difference of metabolic parameters was compared among the subjects grouped by BNP quartiles. Univariate correlation and multiple linear regression were performed to analyze the association between BNP levels and metabolic parameters. The odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for dyslipidemia in subjects within BNP Q1-3 relative to subjects within BNP Q4 were calculated. Circulating BNP levels positively correlated with age, while negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), eGFR and non-HDL. Subjects with lower BNP quartiles had significantly elevated prevalence of dyslipidemia, including hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-LDL-emia and hypercholesterolemia. The OR of hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia for subjects within BNP Q1-2 significantly increased relative to BNP Q4. The elderly people with higher BNP levels have significantly reduced risks for nonfasting dyslipidemia. Verification of the cause-effect relationship between BNP and dyslipidemia may bring therapeutic implications.

  19. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  20. Thymidine kinase 2 deficiency-induced mitochondrial DNA depletion causes abnormal development of adipose tissues and adipokine levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. © 2011 Villarroya et al.

  1. Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Causes Abnormal Development of Adipose Tissues and Adipokine Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R.; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. PMID:22216345

  2. Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Heltshe, Sonya L; Nuckols, John R; Sabra, Mona M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Airola, Matt; Holford, Theodore R; Zhang, Yawei; Ward, Mary H

    2012-02-17

    Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of drinking water supplies, especially in agricultural areas. Nitrate intake from drinking water and dietary sources can interfere with the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially impacting thyroid function. We assessed the relation of estimated nitrate levels in well water supplies with thyroid health in a cohort of 2,543 Old Order Amish residing in Lancaster, Chester, and Lebanon counties in Pennsylvania for whom thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured during 1995-2008. Nitrate measurement data (1976-2006) for 3,613 wells in the study area were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and we used these data to estimate concentrations at study participants' residences using a standard linear mixed effects model that included hydrogeological covariates and kriging of the wells' residuals. Nitrate levels estimated by the model ranged from 0.35 mg/L to 16.4 mg/L N-NO3(-), with a median value of 6.5 mg/L, which was used as the cutpoint to define high and low nitrate exposure. In a validation analysis of the model, we calculated that the sensitivity of the model was 67% and the specificity was 93%. TSH levels were used to define the following outcomes: clinical hyperthyroidism (n = 10), clinical hypothyroidism (n = 56), subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 25), and subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 228). In women, high nitrate exposure was significantly associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32). Nitrate was not associated with subclinical thyroid disease in men or with clinical thyroid disease in men or women. Although these data do not provide strong support for an association between nitrate in drinking water and thyroid health, our results do suggest that further exploration of this hypothesis is warranted using studies that incorporate individual measures of both dietary and drinking water nitrate intake.

  3. Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of drinking water supplies, especially in agricultural areas. Nitrate intake from drinking water and dietary sources can interfere with the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially impacting thyroid function. Methods We assessed the relation of estimated nitrate levels in well water supplies with thyroid health in a cohort of 2,543 Old Order Amish residing in Lancaster, Chester, and Lebanon counties in Pennsylvania for whom thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured during 1995-2008. Nitrate measurement data (1976-2006) for 3,613 wells in the study area were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and we used these data to estimate concentrations at study participants' residences using a standard linear mixed effects model that included hydrogeological covariates and kriging of the wells' residuals. Nitrate levels estimated by the model ranged from 0.35 mg/L to 16.4 mg/L N-NO3-, with a median value of 6.5 mg/L, which was used as the cutpoint to define high and low nitrate exposure. In a validation analysis of the model, we calculated that the sensitivity of the model was 67% and the specificity was 93%. TSH levels were used to define the following outcomes: clinical hyperthyroidism (n = 10), clinical hypothyroidism (n = 56), subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 25), and subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 228). Results In women, high nitrate exposure was significantly associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32). Nitrate was not associated with subclinical thyroid disease in men or with clinical thyroid disease in men or women. Conclusions Although these data do not provide strong support for an association between nitrate in drinking water and thyroid health, our results do suggest that further exploration of this hypothesis is warranted using studies that incorporate individual measures of both dietary and drinking water nitrate intake. PMID:22339761

  4. Hereditary and acquired abnormalities in erythrocyte phosphofructokinase activity: the close association with altered 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels.

    PubMed

    Tarui, S; Kono, N; Kuwajima, M; Kitani, T

    1980-01-01

    Specific deficiency of erythrocyte phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity in Type VII glycogenosis presents a good model for the analysis of the relationship between 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) level and glycolysis in erythrocytes since glycolytic flow is partially blocked at the regulatory step. Enzymatic analyses of glycolytic intermediates of erythrocytes from a patient with Type VII glycogenosis demonstrated that 2,3 DPG is markedly decreased in parallel with fructose-1,6-phosphate (FDP). In acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis and uremic acidosis a fall in 2,3 DPG is also associated with a marked reduction in FDP. On the other hand, in respiratory alkalosis glycolytic intermediates shift to the opposite direction and forward crossover at PFK step appears, being associated with an elevation of 2,3 DPG. These data indicate a close relationship between 2,3 DPG level and PFK activity in erythrocytes. At least in acidosis and alkalosis the alteration in 2,3 DPG level may well be explained by changes in PFK activity caused mainly through allosteric mechanism. In addition, twelve cases with hereditary PFK deficiency in muscle and erythrocytes reported in the world are reviewed and discussed briefly.

  5. Effects of levetiracetam in lipid peroxidation level, nitrite-nitrate formation and antioxidant enzymatic activity in mice brain after pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A A; Almeida, J P C; Freitas, R M; Nascimento, V S; Aguiar, L M V; Júnior, H V N; Fonseca, F N; Viana, G S B; Sousa, F C F; Fonteles, M M F

    2007-05-01

    : Oxidative stress has been implicated in a large number of human degenerative diseases, including epilepsy. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a new antiepileptic agent with broad-spectrum effects on seizures and animal models of epilepsy. Recently, it was demonstrated that the mechanism of LEV differs from that of conventional antiepileptic drugs. Objectifying to investigate if LEV mechanism of action involves antioxidant properties, lipid peroxidation levels, nitrite-nitrate formation, catalase activity, and glutathione (GSH) content were measured in adult mice brain. The neurochemical analyses were carried out in hippocampus of animals pretreated with LEV (200 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min before pilocarpine-induced seizures (400 mg/kg, s.c.). The administration of alone pilocarpine, 400 mg/kg, s.c. (P400) produced a significant increase of lipid peroxidation level in hippocampus. LEV pretreatment was able to counteract this increase, preserving the lipid peroxidation level in normal value. P400 administration also produced increase in the nitrite-nitrate formation and catalase activity in hippocampus, beyond a decrease in GSH levels. LEV administration before P400 prevented the P400-induced alteration in nitrite-nitrate levels and preserved normal values of catalase activity in hippocampus. Moreover, LEV administration prevented the P400-induced loss of GSH in this cerebral area. The present data suggest that the protective effects of LEV against pilocarpine-induced seizures can be mediated, at least in part, by reduction of lipid peroxidation and hippocampal oxidative stress.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays a role in the regulation of liver and plasma lipid levels in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Scheving, Lawrence A; Zhang, Xiuqi; Garcia, Oscar A; Wang, Rebecca F; Stevenson, Mary C; Threadgill, David W; Russell, William E

    2014-03-01

    Dsk5 mice have a gain of function in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), caused by a point mutation in the kinase domain. We analyzed the effect of this mutation on liver size, histology, and composition. We found that the livers of 12-wk-old male Dsk5 heterozygotes (+/Dsk5) were 62% heavier compared with those of wild-type controls (+/+). The livers of the +/Dsk5 mice compared with +/+ mice had larger hepatocytes with prominent, polyploid nuclei and showed modestly increased cell proliferation indices in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. An analysis of total protein, DNA, and RNA (expressed relative to liver weight) revealed no differences between the mutant and wild-type mice. However, the livers of the +/Dsk5 mice had more cholesterol but less phospholipid and fatty acid. Circulating cholesterol levels were twice as high in adult male +/Dsk5 mice but not in postweaned young male or female mice. The elevated total plasma cholesterol resulted mainly from an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The +/Dsk5 adult mouse liver expressed markedly reduced protein levels of LDL receptor, no change in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and a markedly increased fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Increased expression of transcription factors associated with enhanced cholesterol synthesis was also observed. Together, these findings suggest that the EGFR may play a regulatory role in hepatocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism in adult male mice, explaining why elevated levels of EGF or EGF-like peptides have been positively correlated to increased cholesterol levels in human studies.

  7. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations.

  8. Serum bioactive and immunoreactive luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in women with cycle abnormalities, with or without polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Fauser, B C; Pache, T D; Lamberts, S W; Hop, W C; de Jong, F H; Dahl, K D

    1991-10-01

    Serum steroid, gonadotropin, and alpha-subunit levels were assessed in 35 women with cycle abnormalities [11 with and 24 without polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) according to strict clinical and biochemical criteria] and 8 regularly cycling women in the early (cycle day 3 or 4) and mid (cycle day 7 or 8) follicular phase. LH and FSH levels were estimated using two immunological techniques [RIA and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)] and in vitro bioassays (BIO), using mouse Leydig cells and rat granulosa cells, respectively. In PCOD patients mean alpha-subunit, free androgen index [FAI; testosterone x 100/sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)], androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol (E2) were significantly elevated compared to levels in the early follicular phase of control cycles and non-PCOD patients. In addition, in PCOD patients mean IRMA-LH and RIA-LH levels were distinctly increased (2.8- to 3.6 fold, respectively; both comparisons, P less than 0.001) compared to control values, but in the same order of magnitude (1.3- to 1.4-fold increments) as that in non-PCOD patients. However, the median BIO-LH level in PCOD patients was 5.9-fold higher than that in non-PCOD patients and 4.0-fold higher than the BIO-LH in the early follicular phase of control women. Consequently, the median BIO/IRMA-LH ratio was 4.8-fold higher in PCOD patients compared to non-PCOD patients. In women with cycle abnormalities, individual BIO/IRMA-LH ratios correlated with BIO-LH (rs = 0.48), FAI (rs = 0.39), free estrogens (E2/SHBG ratios; rs = 0 0.47), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (rs = 0.60) concentrations. Mean IRMA-, RIA-, and BIO-FSH levels and BIO/IRMA-FSH ratios were not significantly different when various groups were compared. Although RIA- and IRMA-LH levels showed good correlation (rs = 0.88), RIA-LH levels were consistently higher, resulting in distinctly higher RIA-LH/FSH ratios (mean, 4.5) compared to IRMA-LH/FSH ratios (median, 1.8) in PCOD patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT

  9. High levels of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators lipoxins and resolvins and declining docosahexaenoic acid levels in human milk during the first month of lactation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The fatty acid mixture of human milk is ideal for the newborn but little is known about its composition in the first few weeks of lactation. Of special interest are the levels of long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs), since these are essential for the newborn’s development. Additionally, the LCPUFAs arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are precursors for lipid mediators which regulate inflammation. Methods We determined the composition of 94 human milk samples from 30 mothers over the first month of lactation for fatty acids using GC-MS and quantified lipid mediators using HPLC-MS/MS. Results Over the four weeks period, DHA levels decreased, while levels of γC18:3 and αC18:3 steadily increased. Intriguingly, we found high concentrations of lipid mediators and their hydroxy fatty acid precursors in human milk, including pro-inflammatory leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipoxin A4 (LXA4), resolvin D1 (RvD1) and resolvin E1 (RvE1). Lipid mediator levels were stable with the exception of two direct precursors. Conclusions Elevated levels of DHA right after birth might represent higher requirements of the newborn and the high content of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators and their precursors may indicate their role in neonatal immunity and may be one of the reasons for the advantage of human milk over infant formula. PMID:23767972

  10. Influence of diet with kale on lipid peroxides and malondialdehyde levels in blood serum of laboratory rats over intoxication with paraquat.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Elżbieta; Bodziarczyk, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Organism's lipid peroxidation is one of the most often examined and known physiological process evoked by free radicals. It concerns oxidation reaction of unsaturated fatty acid and/or other lipids leading to lipid oxidation products (LOP), which as a result of further changes generate among others the malondialdehyde molecules. The aim of the work was an estimation if raw or cooked kale addition to rat's diet influences antioxidant defense efficiency in their organisms in comparison to rats fed with standard AIN-93G diet. The experiment was conducted with 36 Wistar strain, male rats over 21 days. The rats were divided into 3 groups (each 12 stuck) which were fed with: standard diet AIN-93G (2 groups), AIN-93G diet with 10% addition of raw kale (2 groups), and AIN-93G with 10% addition of cooked lyophilised kale. The total content of polyphenols (FC method) and antioxidant activity (ABTS+•) were previously determined in raw and then in cooked kale. On the 20th day of experiment, half of rats (6 stuck) of each kind of the diet were injected intraperitoneally by the solution of paraquat (PQ) in physiological salt to evoke the oxidative stress. The next day animals were stunned and blood from their hearts was sampled. In the obtained serum, the levels of lipid oxidation products (LOP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. It was observed that in blood serum of rats fed with modified diet with raw and cooked lyophilised kale addition the lipid oxides level was lower in comparison to control group fed with standard diet (p < 0.05). It was found that intoxication with paraquat caused growth of MDA and LOP levels in blood serum of all rats in comparison to not intoxicated groups but that growth was the lowest in group fed diet with cooked kale addition. Diet with kale, both raw and cooked, efficiently inhibited the lipid peroxidation process in rats' organisms, ongoing during natural metabolism and during evoked oxidative stress.

  11. Levels of cytokines in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, but not in plasma, are associated with levels of markers of lipid peroxidation in breath of ventilated ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Margit; Leopold, Jan Hendrik; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Knobel, Hugo H; Weda, Hans; Nijsen, Tamara M E; Vink, Teunis J; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2015-09-03

    Alkanes and alkenes in the breath are produced through fatty acid peroxidation, which is initialized by reactive oxygen species. Inflammation is an important cause and effect of reactive oxygen species. We aimed to evaluate the association between fatty acid peroxidation products and inflammation of the alveolar and systemic compartment in ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Volatile organic compounds were measured by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the breath of newly ventilated ICU patients within 24 h after ICU admission. Cytokines were measured in non-directed bronchial lavage fluid (NBL) and plasma by cytometric bead array. Correlation coefficients were calculated and presented in heatmaps.93 patients were included. Peroxidation products in exhaled breath were not associated with markers of inflammation in plasma, but were correlated with those in NBL. IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α concentration in NBL showed inverse correlation coefficients with the peroxidation products of fatty acids. Furthermore, NBL IL-10, IL-13, GM-CSF and IFNγ demonstrated positive associations with breath alkanes and alkenes. Correlation coefficients for NBL cytokines were high regarding peroxidation products of n-6, n-7 and particularly in n-9 fatty acids.Levels of lipid peroxidation products in the breath of ventilated ICU patients are associated with levels of inflammatory markers in NBL, but not in plasma. Alkanes and alkenes in breath seems to be associated with an anti-inflammatory, rather than a pro-inflammatory state in the alveoli.

  12. Biodistribution of small interfering RNA at the organ and cellular levels after lipid nanoparticle-mediated delivery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bin; Keough, Ed; Matter, Andrea; Leander, Karen; Young, Stephanie; Carlini, Ed; Sachs, Alan B; Tao, Weikang; Abrams, Marc; Howell, Bonnie; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura

    2011-08-01

    Chemically stabilized small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be delivered systemically by intravenous injection of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) in rodents and primates. The biodistribution and kinetics of LNP-siRNA delivery in mice at organ and cellular resolution have been studied using immunofluorescence (IF) staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). At 0.5 and 2 hr post tail vein injection of Cy5-labeled siRNA encapsulated in LNP, the organ rank-order of siRNA levels is liver > spleen > kidney, with only negligible accumulation in duodenum, lung, heart, and brain. Similar conclusions were drawn by using qPCR to measure tissue siRNA levels as a secondary end point. siRNA levels in these tissues decreased by more than 10-fold after 24 hr. Within the liver, LNPs delivered siRNA to hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and sinusoids in a time-dependent manner, as revealed by IF staining and signal quantitation methods established using OPERA/Columbus software. siRNA first accumulated in liver sinusoids and trafficked to hepatocytes by 2 hr post dose, corresponding to the onset of target mRNA silencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization methods were used to detect both strands of siRNA in fixed tissues. Collectively, the authors have implemented a platform to evaluate biodistribution of siRNA across cell types and across tissues in vivo, with the objective of elucidating the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship to guide optimization of delivery vehicles. © The Author(s) 2011

  13. Biodistribution of Small Interfering RNA at the Organ and Cellular Levels after Lipid Nanoparticle-mediated Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bin; Keough, Ed; Matter, Andrea; Leander, Karen; Young, Stephanie; Carlini, Ed; Sachs, Alan B.; Tao, Weikang; Abrams, Marc; Howell, Bonnie; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Chemically stabilized small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be delivered systemically by intravenous injection of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) in rodents and primates. The biodistribution and kinetics of LNP–siRNA delivery in mice at organ and cellular resolution have been studied using immunofluorescence (IF) staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). At 0.5 and 2 hr post tail vein injection of Cy5-labeled siRNA encapsulated in LNP, the organ rank-order of siRNA levels is liver > spleen > kidney, with only negligible accumulation in duodenum, lung, heart, and brain. Similar conclusions were drawn by using qPCR to measure tissue siRNA levels as a secondary end point. siRNA levels in these tissues decreased by more than 10-fold after 24 hr. Within the liver, LNPs delivered siRNA to hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and sinusoids in a time-dependent manner, as revealed by IF staining and signal quantitation methods established using OPERA/Columbus software. siRNA first accumulated in liver sinusoids and trafficked to hepatocytes by 2 hr post dose, corresponding to the onset of target mRNA silencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization methods were used to detect both strands of siRNA in fixed tissues. Collectively, the authors have implemented a platform to evaluate biodistribution of siRNA across cell types and across tissues in vivo, with the objective of elucidating the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship to guide optimization of delivery vehicles. PMID:21804077

  14. Influence of polygenic risk scores on lipid levels and dyslipidemia in a psychiatric population receiving weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Delacrétaz, Aurélie; Lagares Santos, Patricia; Saigi Morgui, Nuria; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Glatard, Anaïs; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; von Gunten, Armin; Conus, Philippe; Eap, Chin B

    2017-12-01

    Dyslipidemia represents a major health issue in psychiatry. We determined whether weighted polygenic risk scores (wPRSs) combining multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lipid levels in the general population are associated with lipid levels [high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides] and/or dyslipidemia in patients receiving weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs. We also determined whether genetics improve the predictive power of dyslipidemia. The influence of wPRS on lipid levels was firstly assessed in a discovery psychiatric sample (n=332) and was then tested for replication in an independent psychiatric sample (n=140). The contribution of genetic markers to predict dyslipidemia was evaluated in the combined psychiatric sample. wPRSs were significantly associated with the four lipid traits in the discovery (P≤0.02) and in the replication sample (P≤0.03). Patients whose wPRS was higher than the median wPRS had significantly higher LDL, TC, and triglyceride levels (0.20, 0.32 and 0.26 mmol/l, respectively; P≤0.004) and significantly lower HDL levels (0.13 mmol/l; P<0.0001) compared with others. Adding wPRS to clinical data significantly improved dyslipidemia prediction of HDL (P=0.03) and a trend for improvement was observed for the prediction of TC dyslipidemia (P=0.08). Population-based wPRSs have thus significant effects on lipid levels in the psychiatric population. As genetics improved the predictive power of dyslipidemia development, only 24 patients need to be genotyped to prevent the development of one case of HDL hypocholesterolemia. If confirmed by further prospective investigations, the present results could be used for individualizing psychotropic treatment.

  15. Effects of a soybean nutrition bar on the postprandial blood glucose and lipid levels in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Urita, Yoshihisa; Noda, Tsuneyuki; Watanabe, Daisuke; Iwashita, Soh; Hamada, Koichiro; Sugimoto, Motonobu

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the influence of a soybean nutrition bar made from whole soy powder on the blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels in comparison with a test cookie with the same amount of energy in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the cross-over designed study, meal tolerance tests using the soybean nutrition bar and test cookie were performed. Two kinds of test meals were used: Study 1 80 kcal, Study 2 592 kcal. The blood glucose response was significantly lower in the soybean nutrition bar trial than in the cookie trial (Studies 1 and 2, p < 0.001). The blood insulin response was also significantly lower in the soybean nutrition bar trial than in the cookie trial (Study 2, p < 0.001). The blood triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid responses were not significantly different between the two trials, nor were the changes in breath H₂ enrichment (Study 2). The soybean nutrition bar did not induce postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients unlike the isoenergetic test cookies.

  16. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content <50 μg/L. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), alcohol consumption and smoking, the odds ratios showed a 1.45-fold (95%CI: 0.63-3.35) increase in the group with >30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels in human erythrocytes exposed to colloidal iron hydroxide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A L; Machado, P E; Matsubara, L S

    1999-06-01

    The free form of the iron ion is one of the strongest oxidizing agents in the cellular environment. The effect of iron at different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 microM Fe3+) on the normal human red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant system was evaluated in vitro by measuring total (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reductase (GSH-Rd) activities. Membrane lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). The RBC were incubated with colloidal iron hydroxide and phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.45, at 37 degrees C, for 60 min. For each assay, the results for the control group were: a) GSH = 3.52 +/- 0.27 microM/g Hb; b) GSSG = 0.17 +/- 0.03 microM/g Hb; c) GSH-Px = 19.60 +/- 1.96 IU/g Hb; d) GSH-Rd = 3.13 +/- 0.17 IU/g Hb; e) catalase = 394.9 +/- 22.8 IU/g Hb; f) SOD = 5981 +/- 375 IU/g Hb. The addition of 1 to 100 microM Fe3+ had no effect on the parameters analyzed. No change in TBARS levels was detected at any of the iron concentrations studied. Oxidative stress, measured by GSH kinetics over time, occurs when the RBC are incubated with colloidal iron hydroxide at concentrations higher than 10 microM of Fe3+. Overall, these results show that the intact human RBC is prone to oxidative stress when exposed to Fe3+ and that the RBC has a potent antioxidant system that can minimize the potential damage caused by acute exposure to a colloidal iron hydroxide in vitro.

  19. Proximate composition and lipid stability of dourado (Salminus brasilensis, Cuvier, 1817) fillets exposed to different levels of ammonia and oxygen in vivo.

    PubMed

    Veeck, Ana Paula L; Garcia, Luciano O; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Zaniboni Filho, Evoy; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2013-08-15

    The ammonia and oxygen levels of water are physicochemical parameters that affect fish physiology. Thus, we hypothesized that in vivo exposure to stressful ammonia and oxygen levels will affect the post-mortem quality of the fish. Therefore, in this study, the effects of in vivo exposure to stressful ammonia and oxygen levels on the composition and content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in fillets from dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) and on the lipid oxidation of these fillets during frozen storage were evaluated. Short-term exposure (12 h) to stressful environmental conditions (low oxygen and high ammonia levels) did not change the composition of the flesh. However, longer exposure (15 days) to these stressful conditions caused significant changes in the composition of the flesh. Exposure to a stressful ammonia level before slaughtering increased the susceptibility of the fish fillets to lipid oxidation during frozen storage. In contrast, exposure to low oxygen levels did not increase the lipid oxidation rate of the fillets. These results indicate that the in vivo exposure to high ammonia levels may reduce the quality and stability of dourado fillets. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Modulation by geraniol of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism leading to a reduction of serum-cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Galle, Marianela; Kladniew, Boris Rodenak; Castro, María Agustina; Villegas, Sandra Montero; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Polo, Mónica; de Bravo, Margarita García; Crespo, Rosana

    2015-07-15

    Geraniol (G) is a natural isoprenoid present in the essential oils of several aromatic plants, with various biochemical and pharmacologic properties. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of action of G on cellular metabolism are largely unknown. We propose that G could be a potential agent for the treatment of hyperlipidemia that could contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of its mechanism of action on cholesterol and TG metabolism. NIH mice received supplemented diets containing 25, 50, and 75 mmol G/kg chow. After a 3-week treatment, serum total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by commercial kits and lipid biosynthesis determined by the [(14)C] acetate incorporated into fatty acids plus nonsaponifiable and total hepatic lipids of the mice. The activity of the mRNA encoding HMGCR-the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis-along with the enzyme levels and catalysis were assessed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and HMG-CoA-conversion assays, respectively. In-silico analysis of several genes involved in lipid metabolism and regulated by G in cultured cells was also performed. Finally, the mRNA levels encoded by the genes for the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), the sterol-regulatory-element-binding transcription factor (SREBF2), the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), and the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA) were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Plasma total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels plus hepatic fatty-acid, total-lipid, and nonsaponifiable-lipid biosynthesis were significantly reduced by feeding with G. Even though an up-regulation of the mRNA encoding HMGCR occurred in the G treated mouse livers, the protein levels and specific activity of the enzyme were both inhibited. G also enhanced the mRNAs encoding the LDL and VLDL receptors and reduced ACACA mRNA, without altering the transcription of the mRNA encoding the SREBF2. The following

  1. Atomistic-level study of the interactions between hIAPP protofibrils and membranes: Influence of pH and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhenyu; Zou, Yu; Zhang, Qingwen; Chen, Peijie; Ma, Buyong; Wei, Guanghong; Nussinov, Ruth

    2018-02-09

    The pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with the aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) and aggregation-mediated membrane disruption. The interactions of hIAPP aggregates with lipid membrane, as well as the effects of pH and lipid composition at the atomic level, remain elusive. Herein, using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the interactions of hIAPP protofibrillar oligomers with lipids, and the membrane perturbation that they induce, when they are partially inserted in an anionic dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) membrane or a mixed dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/DPPG (7:3) lipid bilayer under acidic/neutral pH conditions. We observed that the tilt angles and insertion depths of the hIAPP protofibril are strongly correlated with the pH and lipid composition. At neutral pH, the tilt angle and insertion depth of hIAPP protofibrils at a DPPG bilayer reach ~52° and ~1.62 nm with respect to the membrane surface, while they become ~77° and ~1.75 nm at a mixed DPPC/DPPG membrane. The calculated tilt angle of hIAPP at DPPG membrane is consistent with a recent chiral sum frequency generation spectroscopic study. The acidic pH induces a smaller tilt angle of ~40° and a shallower insertion depth (~1.24 nm) of hIAPP at the DPPG membrane surface, mainly due to protonation of His18 near the turn region. These differences mainly result from a combination of distinct electrostatic, van der Waals, hydrogen bonding and salt-bridge interactions between hIAPP and lipid bilayers. The hIAPP-membrane interaction energy analysis reveals that besides charged residues K1, R11 and H18, aromatic residues Phe15 and Phe23 also exhibit strong interactions with lipid bilayers, revealing the crucial role of aromatic residues in stabilizing the membrane-bound hIAPP protofibrils. hIAPP-membrane interactions disturb the lipid ordering and the local bilayer thickness around the peptides. Our results provide atomic-level information

  2. ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM1 Functions in Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis to Maintain Proper Reactive Oxygen Species Levels for Root Meristem Activity in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyu; Ruan, Wenyuan; Deng, Minjuan; Wang, Fang; Peng, Jinrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    Root meristem activity determines root growth and root architecture and consequently affects water and nutrient uptake in plants. However, our knowledge about the regulation of root meristem activity in crop plants is very limited. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a short root mutant in rice (Oryza sativa) with reduced root meristem activity. This root growth defect is caused by a mutation in ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM1 (AIM1), which encodes a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in β-oxidation. The reduced root meristem activity of aim1 results from reduced salicylic acid (SA) levels and can be rescued by SA application. Furthermore, reduced SA levels are associated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aim1, likely due to increased expression of redox and ROS-scavenging-related genes, whose increased expression is (at least in part) caused by reduced expression of the SA-inducible transcriptional repressors WRKY62 and WRKY76. Like SA, ROS application substantially increased root length and root meristem activity in aim1. These results suggest that AIM1 is required for root growth in rice due to its critical role in SA biosynthesis: SA maintains root meristem activity through promoting ROS accumulation by inducing the activity of WRKY transcriptional repressors, which repress the expression of redox and ROS-scavenging genes. PMID:28298519

  3. ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM1 Functions in Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis to Maintain Proper Reactive Oxygen Species Levels for Root Meristem Activity in Rice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Zhao, Hongyu; Ruan, Wenyuan; Deng, Minjuan; Wang, Fang; Peng, Jinrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Zhixiang; Yi, Keke

    2017-03-01

    Root meristem activity determines root growth and root architecture and consequently affects water and nutrient uptake in plants. However, our knowledge about the regulation of root meristem activity in crop plants is very limited. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a short root mutant in rice ( Oryza sativa ) with reduced root meristem activity. This root growth defect is caused by a mutation in ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM1 ( AIM1 ), which encodes a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in β-oxidation. The reduced root meristem activity of aim1 results from reduced salicylic acid (SA) levels and can be rescued by SA application. Furthermore, reduced SA levels are associated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aim1 , likely due to increased expression of redox and ROS-scavenging-related genes, whose increased expression is (at least in part) caused by reduced expression of the SA-inducible transcriptional repressors WRKY62 and WRKY76. Like SA, ROS application substantially increased root length and root meristem activity in aim1 These results suggest that AIM1 is required for root growth in rice due to its critical role in SA biosynthesis: SA maintains root meristem activity through promoting ROS accumulation by inducing the activity of WRKY transcriptional repressors, which repress the expression of redox and ROS-scavenging genes. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Are Better Associated to Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Blood Mononuclear Cells Rather than in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Francisco J.; De Miguel, Manuel; Carrión, Angel M.; Navas, Plácido; Sánchez Alcázar, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Methods We conducted a case–control and correlational study comparing 65 patients and 45 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring LPO in BMCs and plasma. Results We found increased LPO levels in BMCs and plasma from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001). A significant correlation between LPO in BMCs and clinical parameters was observed (r = 0.584, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.823, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.875, P<0.01 for depression in the BDI). We also found a positive correlation between LPO in plasma and clinical symptoms (r = 0.452, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.578, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.579, P<0.001 for depression in the BDI). Partial correlation analysis controlling for age and BMI, and sex, showed that both LPO in cells and plasma were independently associated to clinical symptoms. However, LPO in cells, but not LPO in plasma, was independently associated to clinical symptoms when controlling for depression (BDI scores). Discussion The results of this study suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and that LPO in BMCs rather than LPO in plasma is better associated to clinical symptoms in FM. PMID:22046409

  5. Clinical symptoms in fibromyalgia are better associated to lipid peroxidation levels in blood mononuclear cells rather than in plasma.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Mario D; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Cano-García, Francisco J; De Miguel, Manuel; Carrión, Angel M; Navas, Plácido; Sánchez Alcázar, José A

    2011-01-01

    We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients. We conducted a case-control and correlational study comparing 65 patients and 45 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring LPO in BMCs and plasma. We found increased LPO levels in BMCs and plasma from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001). A significant correlation between LPO in BMCs and clinical parameters was observed (r = 0.584, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.823, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.875, P<0.01 for depression in the BDI). We also found a positive correlation between LPO in plasma and clinical symptoms (r = 0.452, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.578, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.579, P<0.001 for depression in the BDI). Partial correlation analysis controlling for age and BMI, and sex, showed that both LPO in cells and plasma were independently associated to clinical symptoms. However, LPO in cells, but not LPO in plasma, was independently associated to clinical symptoms when controlling for depression (BDI scores). The results of this study suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and that LPO in BMCs rather than LPO in plasma is better associated to clinical symptoms in FM.

  6. Increased levels of ethane, a non-invasive, quantitative, direct marker of n-3 lipid peroxidation, in the breath of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Puri, Basant K; Ross, Brian M; Treasaden, Ian H

    2008-04-01

    This study directly assessed whether there was a change in the level of exhaled ethane, which provides a non-invasive, quantitative, direct measure of n-3 lipid peroxidation, in the breath of patients with schizophrenia. Samples of alveolar air were obtained from 20 subjects with schizophrenia and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The air samples were analyzed for ethane using mass spectrometry. The mean level of ethane in the schizophrenia sample [5.15 (S.E. 0.56) ppb] was significantly higher than that of the healthy controls [2.63 (S.E. 0.31) ppb; p<0.0005]. A further sub-analysis showed that nicotine dependence was unlikely to be the cause of this difference. These results suggest that the measurement of exhaled ethane levels may offer a non-invasive direct biomarker of increased n-3 lipid peroxidation in schizophrenia.

  7. Hsp70 and lipid peroxide levels following heat stress in Xeropicta derbentina (Krynicki 1836) (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) with regard to different colour morphs.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, A; Troschinski, S; Schwarz, S; Di Lellis, M A; Henneberg, A; Fischbach, U; Ludwig, M; Gärtner, U; Triebskorn, R; Köhler, H-R

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial snails which live under dry and hot conditions need efficient mechanisms of adaptation to counteract the problems of desiccation and over-heating. A profoundly heat tolerant snail species is the Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina, exhibiting different shell colour morphs ranging from pale white to darkly banded. Considering that dark-pigmented snails are believed to have a disadvantage due to faster heating, we investigated possible differences in the stress markers Hsp70 and lipid peroxideation between four pre-defined colour morphs which were exposed to different temperatures for eight hours. The highest Hsp70 levels were observed in response to 38-40 °C. Levels decreased when this temperature was exceeded. Snails of a pre-defined colour category 3 (with a large black band at the umbilicus side of the shell) showed the most prominent Hsp70 response. Lipid peroxideation levels also showed a maximum at 38 °C but displayed a second peak at rather high temperatures at which the Hsp70 level already had decreased (45-48 °C). Particularly pure white snails (category 1) and the most pigmented ones (category 4) were found to have different levels of lipid peroxidation at 38 °C and 45 °C compared to the other morphs. A hypothesis involving a combined two-phase defence mechanism, to which both, the Hsp70 protection system and the antioxidant defence system, may contribute, is discussed.

  8. [Effect of Electroacupuncture on Cerebro-cortex Caspase-3 Expression and Blood Lipid Levels in Hyperlipemia Rats with Cerebral Ischemia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo-Yu; Ma, Jia-Jia; Guan, Han-Yu; Tian, Yao; Ren, Xiu-Jun; Ma, Hui-Fang

    2017-04-25

    as Caspase-3 immunoactivity level were significantly increased in the model group( P <0.05), while serum HDL-C level was obviously decreased( P <0.05). After the treatment,the increased neurological score, CHO, TG and LDL-C contents, and the number of Caspase-3 positive cells and Caspase-3 immunoactivity level were considerably decreased in the EA group I and Ⅱ( P <0.05)while the decreased HDL-C level was notably increased relevant to the model group( P <0.05). The effects of the EA group I were notably superior to those of EA group Ⅱ in down-regulating the neurological score,CHO, TG and LDL-C levels and the expression of Caspase-3 protein( P <0.05). No significant differences were found between the normal control and sham operation groups in the neurological scores 20 min and 7 days after modeling and Caspase-3 expression levels ( P >0.05). H.E. staining showed a reduction of the apoptotic cells and inflammatory cells in both EA group I and Ⅱ. Both EA and EA+MA interventions can improve neurological function in HL-CI rats,which may be related to their effects in adjusting the levels of serum lipids and down-regulating the expression of cell apoptosis-related Caspase-3 protein in the ischemic cortex. Moreover, the cerebral ischemia injury may be lightened by EA-lowering hyperlipemia first.

  9. Effect of inulin-type fructans on blood lipid profile and glucose level: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Prabhakar, M; Ju, J; Long, H; Zhou, H-W

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of inulin-type fructans (ITF) on human blood lipids and glucose homeostasis associated with metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, overweight or obesity, and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) before January 2016. Human trials that investigated the effects of ITF supplementation on the lipid profile, fasting glucose and insulin were included using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty RCTs with 607 adult participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, the supplementation of ITF reduced only the low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) (mean difference (MD): -0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.29, -0.02; P=0.03) without affecting the other endpoints. Within the T2DM subgroup analysis, ITF supplementation was positively associated with a decreased fasting insulin concentration (MD: -4.01; 95% CI: -5.92, -2.09; P<0.0001) and increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (MD: 0.07; 95% CI: 0, 0.14; P=0.05). Moreover, a reduced fasting glucose tendency was identified only in the T2DM subgroup (MD: -0.42; 95% CI: -0.90, 0.06; P=0.09). There was a potential publication bias, and few trials were available for the T2DM subgroup analysis. In summary, the use of ITF may have benefits for LDL-c reduction across all study populations, whereas HDL-c improvement and glucose control were demonstrated only in the T2DM subgroup. Thus, additional, well-powered, long-term, randomized clinical trials are required for a definitive conclusion. Overall, ITF supplementation may provide a novel direction for improving the lipid profile and glucose metabolism.

  10. Mass spectrometry profiling reveals altered plasma levels of monohydroxy fatty acids and related lipids in healthy humans after controlled exposure to biodiesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Unosson, Jon; Sehlstedt, Maria; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Nording, Malin L

    2018-08-14

    Experimental human exposure studies are an effective tool to study adverse health effects from acute inhalation of particulate matter and other constituents of air pollution. In this randomized and double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the systemic effect on bioactive lipid metabolite levels after controlled biodiesel exhaust exposure of healthy humans and compared it to filtered air at a separate exposure occasion. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins, as well as endocannabinoids and related lipids, were quantified in plasma from 14 healthy volunteers at baseline and at three subsequent time points (2, 6, and 24 h) after 1 h exposure sessions. Protocols based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods were developed to detect temporal changes in circulating levels after biodiesel exhaust exposure. The exhaust was generated by a diesel engine fed with an undiluted rapeseed methyl ester fuel. Among the 51 analyzed lipid metabolites, PGF 2α , 9,10-DiHOME, 9-HODE, 5-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE, and DEA displayed significant responsiveness to the biodiesel exhaust exposure as opposed to filtered air. Of these, 9-HODE and 5-HETE at 24 h survived the 10% false discovery rate cutoff (p < 0.003). Hence, the majority of the responsive lipid metabolites were monohydroxy fatty acids. We conclude that it is possible to detect alterations in circulating bioactive lipid metabolites in response to biodiesel exhaust exposure using LC-MS/MS, with emphasis on metabolites with inflammation related properties and implications on cardiovascular health and disease. These observations aid future investigations on air pollution effects, especially with regard to cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipid and protein oxidation levels in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) and their relationship with semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Satitmanwiwat, S; Promthep, K; Buranaamnuay, K; Mahasawangkul, S; Saikhun, K

    2017-04-01

    Peroxidation damage to spermatozoa and seminal plasma has an important role in sperm quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of lipid and protein oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with varying percentage of progressive motility. Lipid and protein oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) assay and the 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Fresh semen samples were collected from Asian elephants and classified according to the percentage of motile spermatozoa into good (>60%) and poor (≤20%) motility. Results revealed that seminal plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and seminal plasma protein carbonyls (PCs) were significantly higher in poor motility than in good motility (p < .05). The MDA and PC levels in seminal plasma were negatively correlated with the percentages of progressive motility (p < .05). In addition, the negative correlation between sperm concentration and seminal plasma MDA level was investigated (p < .05). The sperm viability was also negatively correlated with sperm PC level (p < .05). This study indicated that lipid and protein oxidation has deleterious effect on semen quality of Asian elephants. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. The influence of a ten-week Nordic walking training-rehabilitation program on the level of lipids in blood in overweight and obese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Hagner-Derengowska, Magdalena; Kałużny, Krystian; Hagner, Wojciech; Kochański, Bartosz; Plaskiewicz, Anna; Borkowska, Alina; Bronisz, Agata; Budzyński, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a ten-week Nordic Walking (NW) rehabilitation program on chosen anthropometric parameters and the level of basic lipids in overweight and obese postmenopausal women’s blood. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 32 women aged 50–68 (average: 59.7 ± 5.9 years). The study was carried out following a non-randomized model and entailed NW rehabilitation 5 times a week, which lasted for 10 weeks, as well as a low-calorie 1,500 kcal diet. The therapeutic results of the study were measured through changes in anthropometric and biochemical parameters. The results were subjected to a statistical analysis. [Results] After 10 weeks of NW rehabilitation it was observed that participants lost weight and their body mass index dropped. Additionally, whereas levels of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides dropped, and the level of HDL increased. [Conclusion] Rehabilitation carried out according to the NW model resulted in statistically significant changes in basic lipids in blood which, considerably increased the percentage of persons who achieved the recommended level of blood lipids. Obese persons were characterised by a smaller rehabilitation weight loss. More intense workouts and cooperation with a dietician are required. PMID:26644639

  13. Association of the TRIB1 tribbles homolog 1 gene rs17321515 A>G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of rs17321515 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near TRIB1 gene and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs17321515 SNP and several environmental factors on serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Methods A total of 639 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 644 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotypes of the TRIB1 rs17321515 A>G SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between the two ethnic groups (P > 0.05). High- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C) levels in Han were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05 for each), the subjects with AG/GG genotypes had higher HDL-C and LDL-C levels than the subjects with AA genotype. Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB levels in Han males were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), the G carriers had higher TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB levels than the G noncarriers. HDL-C levels in Mulao males were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05), the G carriers had lower HDL-C levels than the G noncarriers. Serum HDL-C and LDL-C levels in both ethnic groups and TG levels in Han were correlated with the genotypes or alleles (P < 0.05-0.01). TG and HDL-C levels in Mulao males and TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Han males were correlated with genotypes or alleles (P < 0.05-0.001). TG and ApoA1 levels in Han females were associated with genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. Conclusions The associations of

  14. Overexpression of ACC gene from oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi enhanced the lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with increased levels of glycerol 3-phosphate substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiancai; Xu, Ronghua; Wang, Ruling; Haque, Mohammad Enamul; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-06-01

    The conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for ACC was isolated and characterized from an oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of L. starkeyi acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (LsACC1) showed that the expression levels were upregulated with the fast accumulation of lipids. The LsACC1 was co-overexpressed with the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1), which regulates lipids biosynthesis by supplying another substrates glycerol 3-phosphate for storage lipid assembly, in the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, the S. cerevisiae acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ScACC1) was transferred with GPD1 and its function was analyzed in comparison with LsACC1. The results showed that overexpressed LsACC1 and GPD1 resulted in a 63% increase in S. cerevisiae. This study gives new data in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of fatty acids and lipid biosynthesis in yeasts.

  15. Serum fatty acid composition in normal Japanese and its relationship with dietary fish and vegetable oil contents and blood lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Takebe, K; Tando, Y; Arai, Y; Yamada, N; Ishii, M; Kikuchi, H; Machida, K; Imamura, K; Terada, A

    1995-01-01

    A survey was conducted on 110 normal Japanese adults (55 men and 55 women) to determine their caloric intake, dietary fat content and its origin (animal, plant, or marine). In addition, their blood lipid levels and fatty acid compositions were examined. Men in their 30s-50s consumed 2,600-2,800 calories and 60 g of fats, while women in the same age range consumed 2,000-2,200 calories and 52-58 g of fats. In both sexes, caloric, fat, and cholesterol intakes were lower for those in their 60s but protein and crude fiber consumption remained generally unchanged. When the dietary fats were classified according to origin, men and women in their 30s were found to consume less oil of marine origin. This appeared to be the result of a western style diet for Japanese adults in their 30s. Compared with men, women exhibited lower blood lipid levels. As age increased, the total cholesterol level of the blood rose in women. Thus the blood lipid level was generally equal in the two groups in their 60s. There was a positive correlation between the blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and dietary consumption of fish oil. The marine/plant lipid ratio was positively correlated with the blood EPA/arachidonic acid ratio. Therefore, it was believed that the origin of the dietary fats consumed is a factor in determining the blood fatty acid profile. The linoleic acid (18:2), arachidonic acid (20:4), and 18:2 + 20:4 contents were negatively correlated to the total cholesterol level in the blood but positively correlated to the HDL-cholesterol level. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4 + 20:5 + 22:6) were negatively correlated with the blood triglyceride level. From the findings presented above, we concluded that dietary fats not derived from animal sources should be classified into fish and vegetable oils to evaluate their dietary significance. We also noted that Japanese in their 30s consume less fish oil, indicating the western trend in their

  16. Effect of red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides and garlic Allium sativum on plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice fed beef tallow.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Takashi; Iwai, Akiko; Yano, Toshihiro

    2004-10-01

    Antihyperlipidemia or hypocholesterolaemic and antibacterial activities of red hot pepper and garlic are well known. To determine the effect of the dietary spices ingested to suppress blood lipids on the intestinal condition, we examined plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice that were fed diets containing 19% (w/w) beef tallow and 2% red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides 'Takanotume' (RP) or garlic Allium sativum 'White' (GP) for 4-weeks. Plasma triacylglyceride level was suppressed by the spices. RP lowered cecal bacteroidaceae, a predominant bacterial group (from 9.4 to 9.0 log CFU/g), bifidobacteria (from 8.7 to 7.6 log CFU/g), and staphylococci. Although GP increased the cecal weight including their contents, significant differences were not shown in the cecal microflora. These results suggest that RP can affect the intestinal condition and host health through the disturbance of intestinal microflora. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Association of gene variants with lipid levels in response to fenofibrate is influenced by metabolic syndrome status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fenofibrate therapy reduces serum triglycerides (TG) and increases high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and thus addresses the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our hypothesis is that genetic factors contribute to the variability of lipid response to fenofib...

  18. miR-27b inhibits LDLR and ABCA1 expression but does not influence plasma and hepatic lipid levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Goedeke, Leigh; Rotllan, Noemi; Ramírez, Cristina M.; Aranda, Juan F.; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Araldi, Elisa; Fernández-Hernando, Ana; Langhi, Cedric; de Cabo, Rafael; Baldán, Ángel; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Recently, there has been significant interest in the therapeutic administration of miRNA mimics and inhibitors to treat cardiovascular disease. In particular, miR-27b has emerged as a regulatory hub in cholesterol and lipid metabolism and potential therapeutic target for treating atherosclerosis. Despite this, the impact of miR-27b on lipid levels in vivo remains to be determined. As such, here we set out to further characterize the role of miR-27b in regulating cholesterol metabolism in vitro and to determine the effect of miR-27b overexpression and inhibition on circulating and hepatic lipids in mice. Methods and Results Our results identify miR-27b as an important regulator of LDLR activity in human and mouse hepatic cells through direct targeting of LDLR and LDLRAP1. In addition, we report that modulation of miR-27b expression affects ABCA1 protein levels and cellular cholesterol efflux to ApoA1 in human hepatic Huh7 cells. Overexpression of pre-miR-27b in the livers of wild-type mice using AAV8 vectors increased pre-miR-27b levels 50–fold and reduced hepatic ABCA1 and LDLR expression by 50% and 20%, respectively, without changing circulating and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides. To determine the effect of endogenous miR-27b on circulating lipids, wild-type mice were fed a Western diet for one month and injected with 5 mg/kg of LNA control or LNA anti-miR-27b oligonucleotides. Following two weeks of treatment, the expression of ABCA1 and LDLR were increased by 10–20% in the liver, demonstrating effective inhibition of miR-27b function. Intriguingly, no differences in circulating and hepatic lipids were observed between treatment groups. Conclusions The results presented here provide evidence that short-term modulation of miR-27b expression in wild-type mice regulates hepatic LDLR and ABCA1 expression but does not influence plasma and hepatic lipid levels. PMID:26520906

  19. Relationships between anhedonia, alexithymia, impulsivity, suicidal ideation, recent suicide attempt, C-reactive protein and serum lipid levels among 122 inpatients with mood or anxious disorders.

    PubMed

    Loas, Gwenolé; Dalleau, Elodie; Lecointe, Héloïse; Yon, Valérie

    2016-12-30

    Several studies have explored the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP), serum lipid levels, risk of suicide and alexithymia or impulsivity in mood or anxiety disorders. However, to date, no study has evaluated the effects of anhedonia on these parameters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between anhedonia, alexithymia, impulsivity, suicidal ideation, recent suicide attempt, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid levels in patients with mood or anxiety disorders. One hundred and twenty-two inpatients with mood or anxiety disorders were recruited. Alexithymia and impulsivity were rated by the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-10), respectively. Anhedonia and depression were rated by the Temporal Experience Pleasure Scale (TEPS) and the Beck Depression inventory (BDI-II). The TEPS contained two subscales rating anticipatory and consummatory anhedonia. From the BDI-II an anhedonia subscale was extracted rating anhedonia-state. Trait consummatory anhedonia and state anhedonia were associated with low levels of total cholesterol or HDL and low levels of triglycerides respectively. Trait anticipatory anhedonia and state anhedonia were associated with suicidal ideations. The difficulty of identifying feelings component of alexithymia was associated with low levels of total cholesterol and LDL. A high level of suicidal ideation was associated with low levels of HDL. Higher levels of CRP were found in inpatients having recently attempted suicide compared with inpatients who had not attempted suicide. In mood and anxiety disorders, anhedonia and the "difficulty of identifying feelings" component of alexithymia (which has previously been found to be associated with suicide risk) could explain the relationship between serum lipid levels and higher suicide risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of different levels of copper and molybdenum supplements on serum lipid profiles and antioxidant status in cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Shi W; Song, Xian Z; Jia, Zhi H; Wang, Run L

    2012-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate on the effects of different levels of copper (Cu: 0, 19, and 38 mg/kg) and molybdenum (Mo: 0 and 5 mg/kg) supplements and the interaction of these two factors on serum lipid profiles and antioxidant status in cashmere goats during the cashmere fiber growing period. Thirty-six Liaoning cashmere goats (approximately 1.5 years of age; 27.53±1.38 kg of body weight) were assigned to one of six treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement. Goats were housed in individual pens and fed with Chinese wild rye- and alfalfa hay-based diet containing 4.72 mg Cu/kg, 0.16 mg Mo/kg, and 0.21 % S for 84 days. Blood samples were collected on day 84. The triglyceride concentration did not differ among treatments (P>0.05). Supplemental Cu, regardless of Mo level, decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased (P<0.05) the concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, but there were no differences (P>0.05) in these values between Cu-supplemented groups. Supplemental Cu increased (P<0.05) the activities of serum ceruloplasmin (Cp), Cu-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and decreased (P<0.05) the malondialdehyde content. The serum GSH-Px activity was also increased (P<0.05) by Mo supplementation. There was a tendency of the interaction effects of Cu and Mo on the activities of Cp (P=0.094), SOD (P=0.057), and GSH-Px (P=0.062), and goats fed with 19 mg Cu/kg in the absence of Mo tended to show the highest serum SOD activity, while goats fed with 38 mg Cu/kg with 5 mg Mo/kg tended to show the highest values of serum Cp and GSH-Px. Addition of Cu, Mo, or their interaction had no influence (P>0.05) on the activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase, and the concentrations of serum glucose and total protein. In

  1. Heterogeneous behavior of lipids according to HbA1c levels undermines the plausibility of metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes: data from a nationwide multicenter survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) may cluster in type 1 diabetes, analogously to the metabolic syndrome described in type 2 diabetes. The threshold of HbA1c above which lipid variables start changing behavior is unclear. This study aims to 1) assess the behavior of dyslipidemia according to HbA1c values; 2) detect a threshold of HbA1c beyond which lipids start to change and 3) compare the clustering of lipids and other non-lipid CVRF among strata of HbA1c individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods Effects of HbA1c quintiles (1st: ≤7.4%; 2nd: 7.5-8.5%; 3rd: 8.6-9.6%; 4th: 9.7-11.3%; and 5th: >11.5%) and covariates (gender, BMI, blood pressure, insulin daily dose, lipids, statin use, diabetes duration) on dyslipidemia were studied in 1275 individuals from the Brazilian multi-centre type 1 diabetes study and 171 normal controls. Results Body size and blood pressure were not correlated to lipids and glycemic control. OR (99% CI) for high-LDL were 2.07 (1.21-3.54) and 2.51 (1.46-4.31), in the 4th and 5th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia increased in the 5th quintile of HbA1c, OR 2.76 (1.20-6.37). OR of low-HDL-cholesterol were 0.48 (0.24-0.98) and 0.41 (0.19-0.85) in the 3rd and 4th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. HDL-cholesterol correlated positively (0.437) with HbA1c in the 3rd quintile. HDL-cholesterol and insulin dose correlated inversely in all levels of glycemic control. Conclusions Correlation of serum lipids with HbA1c is heterogeneous across the spectrum of glycemic control in type 1 diabetes individuals. LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides worsened alongside HbA1c with distinct thresholds. Association of lower HDL-cholesterol with higher daily insulin dose is consistent and it points out to a role of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in the pathophysiology of the CVRF clustering. These data suggest diverse pathophysiological processes depending on HbA1c, refuting a unified explanation for cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes. PMID

  2. Birth weight and blood lipid levels in Spanish adolescents: influence of selected APOE, APOC3 and PPARgamma2 gene polymorphisms. The AVENA Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Ortega, Francisco B; Moreno, Luis A; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Martí, Amelia; Nova, Esther; Fuentes, Miguel García; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Martínez, J Alfredo; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J

    2008-11-10

    There is increasing evidence indicating that genes involved in certain metabolic processes of cardiovascular diseases may be of particular influence in people with low body weight at birth. We examined whether the apolipoprotein (APO) E, APOC3 and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-2 (PPARgamma2) polymorphisms influence the association between low birth weight and blood lipid levels in healthy adolescents aged 13-18.5 years. A cross-sectional study of 502 Spanish adolescents born at term was conducted. Total (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein (apo) A and B, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were measured. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA were calculated. Low birth weight was associated with higher levels of TC, LDLc, apoB, Lp(a), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA in males with the APOE epsilon3epsilon4 genotype, whereas in females, it was associated with lower HDLc and higher TG levels. In males with the APOC3 S1/S2 genotype, low birth weight was associated with lower apoA and higher Lp(a), yet this association was not observed in females. There were no associations between low birth weight and blood lipids in any of the PPARgamma2 genotypes. The results indicate that low birth weight has a deleterious influence on lipid profile particularly in adolescents with the APOE epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype. These findings suggest that intrauterine environment interact with the genetic background affecting the lipid profile in later life.

  3. Levels of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf Phosphatidic Acids, Phosphatidylserines, and Most Trienoate-Containing Polar Lipid Molecular Species Increase during the Dark Period of the Diurnal Cycle.

    PubMed

    Maatta, Sara; Scheu, Brad; Roth, Mary R; Tamura, Pamela; Li, Maoyin; Williams, Todd D; Wang, Xuemin; Welti, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that plant leaf polar lipid fatty acid composition varies during the diurnal (dark-light) cycle. Fatty acid synthesis occurs primarily during the light, but fatty acid desaturation continues in the absence of light, resulting in polyunsaturated fatty acids reaching their highest levels toward the end of the dark period. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana were grown at constant (21°C) temperature with 12-h light and 12-h dark periods. Collision induced dissociation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrated that 16:3 and 18:3 fatty acid content in membrane lipids of leaves are higher at the end of the dark than at the end of the light period, while 16:1, 16:2, 18:0, and 18:1 content are higher at the end of the light period. Lipid profiling of membrane galactolipids, phospholipids, and lysophospholipids by electrospray ionization triple quadrupole MS indicated that the monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine classes include molecular species whose levels are highest at end of the light period and others that are highest at the end of the dark period. The levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylserine classes were higher at the end of the dark period, and molecular species within these classes either followed the class pattern or were not significantly changed in the diurnal cycle. Phospholipase D (PLD) is a family of enzymes that hydrolyzes phospholipids to produce PA. Analysis of several PLD mutant lines suggests that PLDζ2 and possibly PLDα1 may contribute to diurnal cycling of PA. The polar lipid compositional changes are considered in relation to recent data that demonstrate phosphatidylcholine acyl editing.

  4. Acute seizure activity promotes lipid peroxidation, increased nitrite levels and adaptive pathways against oxidative stress in the frontal cortex and striatum

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano Nobre; de França Fonteles, Marta Maria

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that the generation of free radicals in rat brain homogenates is increased following pilocarpine-induced seizures and status epilepticus (SE). This study was aimed at investigating the changes in neurochemical mechanisms such as lipid peroxidation levels, nitrite content, glutathione reduced (GSH) concentration, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the frontal cortex and the striatum of Wistar adult rats after seizures and SE induced by pilocarpine. The control group was treated with 0.9% saline and another group of rats received pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.). Both groups were sacrificed 24 h after the treatments. Lipid peroxidation level, nitrite content, GSH concentration and enzymatic activities were measured by using spectrophotometric methods. Our findings showed that pilocarpine administration and its resulting seizures and SE produced a significant increase of lipid peroxidation level in the striatum (47%) and frontal cortex (59%). Nitrite contents increased 49% and 73% in striatum and frontal cortex in pilocarpine group, respectively. In GSH concentrations were decreases of 54% and 58% in the striatum and frontal cortex in pilocarpine group, respectively. The catalase activity increased 39% and 49% in the striatum and frontal cortex, respectively. The superoxide dismutase activity was not altered in the striatum, but it was present at a 24% increase in frontal cortex. These results suggest that there is a direct relationship between the lipid peroxidation and nitrite contents during epileptic activity that can be responsible for the superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activity changes observed during the establishment of seizures and SE induced by pilocarpine. PMID:20592767

  5. Association of the rs7395662 SNP in the MADD-FOLH1 and Several Environmental Factors with Serum Lipid Levels in the Mulao and Han Populations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ke-Ke; Yin, Rui-Xing; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Huang, Ping; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Wu, Jian; Guo, Tao; Wang, Wei; Yang, De-Zhai; Lin, Wei-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rs7395662 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MADD-FOLH1 has been associated with serum lipid traits, but the results are inconsistent in different populations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of rs7395662 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Method: A total of 721 subjects of Mulao and 727 subjects of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotyping of the SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and confirmed by direct sequencing. Results: Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.01). The allelic and genotypic frequencies in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.05 for each), but there was no difference between Mulao and Han or between Mulao males and females. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB in Mulao females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05), the G allele carriers had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL-C and ApoB in Han males and TC, TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in Han females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01), the subjects with GG genotype in Han males had higher TC, TG, and ApoB and lower LDL-C levels than the subjects with AA or AG genotype, and the G allele carriers in Han females had lower TC and HDL-C levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of LDL-C and ApoB in Mulao females were correlated with the genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of HDL-C and ApoAI in Han males and HDL-C in Han females were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.01). Conclusion: The

  6. Plasma fatty acid levels and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a cross-sectional study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Sunniva V; Holven, Kirsten B; Ottestad, Inger; Dagsland, Kine N; Myhrstad, Mari C W; Ulven, Stine M

    2018-01-01

    Solid evidence indicates that intake of marine n-3 fatty acids lowers serum triglycerides and that replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. The molecular mechanisms underlying these health beneficial effects are however not completely elucidated. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) depending on the plasma levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and the SFA to PUFA ratio. Fifty-four healthy subjects were grouped into tertiles ( n  = 18) based on plasma levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and the SFA to PUFA ratio. The PBMC gene expression levels among subjects in the highest versus the lowest tertiles were compared. In total, 285 genes related to cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism were selected for this explorative study. Among the 285 selected genes, 161 were defined as expressed in the PBMCs. The plasma SFA to PUFA ratio was associated with the highest number of significantly different expressed genes (25 gene transcripts), followed by plasma n-6 fatty acid level (15 gene transcripts) and plasma n-3 fatty acid level (8 gene transcripts). In particular, genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis were significantly different expressed among subjects with high compared to low plasma SFA to PUFA ratio. Genes involved in lipid metabolism were differentially expressed in PBMCs depending on the plasma fatty acid levels. This finding may increase our understanding of how fatty acids influence lipid metabolism at a molecular level in humans.

  7. Lipids of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Susanne E; Daum, Günther

    2013-10-01

    A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria are capable of synthesizing several lipids autonomously such as phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin and in part phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid and CDP-diacylglycerol. Other mitochondrial membrane lipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sterols and sphingolipids have to be imported. The mitochondrial lipid composition, the biosynthesis and the import of mitochondrial lipids as well as the regulation of these processes will be main issues of this review article. Furthermore, interactions of lipids and mitochondrial proteins which are highly important for various mitochondrial processes will be discussed. Malfunction or loss of enzymes involved in mitochondrial phospholipid biosynthesis lead to dysfunction of cell respiration, affect the assembly and stability of the mitochondrial protein import machinery and cause abnormal mitochondrial morphology or even lethality. Molecular aspects of these processes as well as diseases related to defects in the formation of mitochondrial membranes will be described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormal meiosis in an intersectional allotriploid of Populus L. and segregation of ploidy levels in 2x × 3x progeny

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Beibei; Liu, Wanting; Li, Daili; Liao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Triploid plants are usually highly aborted owing to unbalanced meiotic chromosome segregation, but limited viable gametes can participate in the transition to different ploidy levels. In this study, numerous meiotic abnormalities were found with high frequency in an intersectional allotriploid poplar (Populus alba × P. berolinensis ‘Yinzhong’), including univalents, precocious chromosome migration, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, and precocious cytokinesis, indicating high genetic imbalance in this allotriploid. Some micronuclei trigger mini-spindle formation in metaphase II and participate in cytokinesis to form polyads with microcytes. Unbalanced chromosome segregation and chromosome elimination resulted in the formation of microspores with aneuploid chromosome sets. Fusion of sister nuclei occurs in microsporocytes with precocious cytokinesis, which could form second meiotic division restitution (SDR)-type gametes. However, SDR-type gametes likely contain incomplete chromosome sets due to unbalanced segregation of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division in triploids. Misorientation of spindles during the second meiotic division, such as fused and tripolar spindles with low frequency, could result in the formation of first meiotic division restitution (FDR)-type unreduced gametes, which most likely contain three complete chromosome sets. Although ‘Yinzhong’ yields 88.7% stainable pollen grains with wide diameter variation from 23.9 to 61.3 μm, the pollen viability is poor (2.78% ± 0.38). A cross of ‘Yinzhong’ pollen with a diploid female clone produced progeny with extensive segregation of ploidy levels, including 29 diploids, 18 triploids, 4 tetraploids, and 48 aneuploids, suggesting the formation of viable aneuploidy and unreduced pollen in ‘Yinzhong’. Individuals with different chromosome compositions are potential to analyze chromosomal function and to integrate the chromosomal dosage variation into

  9. Treadmill exercise prevents diabetes-induced increases in lipid peroxidation and decreases in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase levels in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Whi; Chae, Junghyun; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Yo Na; Yoo, Dae Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Jung, Hyo Young; Song, Wook; Hwang, In Koo; Seong, Je Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Sung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on lipid peroxidation and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) levels in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean control rats (ZLC) during the onset of diabetes. At 7 weeks of age, ZLC and ZDF rats were either placed on a stationary treadmill or made to run for 1 h/day for 5 consecutive days at 16~22 m/min for 5 weeks. At 12 weeks of age, the ZDF rats had significantly higher blood glucose levels and body weight than the ZLC rats. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were significantly higher than those of the ZLC rats whereas SOD1 levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were moderately decreased. Notably, treadmill exercise prevented the increase of blood glucose levels in ZDF rats. In addition, treadmill exercise significantly ameliorated changes in MDA and SOD1 levels in the hippocampus although SOD activity was not altered. These findings suggest that diabetes increases lipid peroxidation and decreases SOD1 levels, and treadmill exercise can mitigate diabetes-induced oxidative damage in the hippocampus.

  10. Cinnamic acid and fish flour affect wheat phenolic acids and flavonoid compounds, lipid peroxidation, proline levels under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Karadağ, Bergüzar; Yücel, Nilgün Candan

    2017-12-01

    To elucidate the physiological mechanism of salt stress mitigated by cinnamic acid (CA) and fish flour (FF) pretreatment, wheat was pretreated with 20, 50 and 100 ppm CA and 1 g/10 mL FF for 2 d and was then cultivated. We investigated whether exogenous CA + FF could protect wheat from salt stress and examined whether the protective effect was associated with the regulation of seed vigor, antioxidant defense systems, phenolic biosynthesis and lipid peroxidation. At 2 days exogenous CA did not influence seed vigor. Salt stress increased the phenolic biosynthesis, but the CA + FF-combined pretreatment enhanced the phenolic biosynthesis even more under salt stress and decreased lipid peroxidation to some extent, enhancing the tolerance of wheat to salt stress.

  11. Salt stress induced lipid accumulation in heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides: Mechanisms based on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Ge, Haiyan; Liu, Tingting; Tian, Xiwei; Wang, Zejian; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-06-20

    Salt stress as an effective stress factor that could improve the lipid content and lipid yield of glucose in the heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides was demonstrated in this study. The highest lipid content of 41.2% and lipid yield of 185.8mg/g were obtained when C. protothecoides was stressed under 30g/L NaCl condition at its late logarithmic growth phase. Moreover, the effects of salt and osmotic stress on lipid accumulation were comparatively analyzed, and it was found that the effects of NaCl and KCl stress had no significant differences at the same osmolarity level of 1150mOsm/kg with lipid contents of 41.7 and 40.8% as well as lipid yields of 192.9 and 186.8mg/g, respectively, whereas these results were obviously higher than those obtained under the iso-osmotic glycerol and sorbitol stresses. Furthermore, basing on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration, the superior performance of salt stress driving lipid over-synthesis was probably ascribed to the more ROS production as a result of additional ion effect besides the osmotic effect, subsequently mediating the alteration from carbohydrate storage to lipid accumulation in signal transduction process of C. protothecoides. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Lipid Storage Myopathy in Behçet's Disease: A Rare Cause of Elevated Serum Creatine Kinases Levels

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Sedat; Cinar, Muhammet; Karslioglu, Yıldırım; Simsek, Ismail; Erdem, Hakan; Pay, Salih; Dinc, Ayhan

    2012-01-01

    Muscular involvement in Behçet's disease is rare and there are only a few case reports in the literature. The causes of elevated muscle enzymes in a patient with Behcet's disease are many, including myositis, drug-induced myopathy, metabolic myopathy, and the disease itself. We herein have defined an algorithmic approach to a patient with Behcet's disease and elevated muscle enzymes and report a case of coexisting of lipid storage myopathy. PMID:22937450

  13. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  15. Copper excess in liver HepG2 cells interferes with apoptosis and lipid metabolic signaling at the protein level.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Yang, Huarong; Song, Zhi; Gu, Shaojuan

    2014-12-01

    Copper is an essential trace element that serves as an important catalytic cofactor for cuproenzymes, carrying out major biological functions in growth and development. Although Wilson's disease (WD) is unquestionably caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene and subsequent copper overload, the precise role of copper in inducing pathological changes remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to explore, in HepG2 cells exposed to copper, the cell viability and apoptotic cells was tested by MTT and Hoechst 33342 stainning respectively, and the signaling pathways involved in oxidative stress response, apoptosis and lipid metabolism were determined by real time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The results demonstrate dose- and time-dependent cell viability and apoptosis in HepG2 cells following treatment with 10 μM, 200 μM and 500 μM of copper sulfate for 8 and 24 h. Copper overload significantly induced the expression of HSPA1A (heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A), an oxidative stress-responsive signal gene, and BAG3 (BCL2 associated athanogene3), an anti-apoptotic gene, while expression of HMGCR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase), a lipid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism gene, was inhibited. These findings provide new insights into possible mechanisms accounting for the development of liver apoptosis and steatosis in the early stages of Wilson's disease.

  16. The effects of the aqueous extract and residue of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Ying, Le; Hong, Gaojie; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-01-01

    Matcha is a kind of powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill. In the present study, the preventive effects of the aqueous extract (water-soluble) and residue (water-insoluble) of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Mice were fed seven different experimental diets for 4 weeks: a normal diet control (NC), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.025% Matcha (MLD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha (MMD), a high-fat diet with 0.075% Matcha (MHD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha aqueous extracts (ME), and a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha residues (MR). It was found that serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels of the MHD group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. Furthermore, in the MHD group, the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was elevated, on the contrary the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was suppressed. Moreover, Matcha could significantly lower the blood glucose levels, and improve the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MAD) contents both in serum and liver; besides, the serum GSH-Px activity indicated that the oxidative stress caused by HF could be reversed by administration of Matcha. These findings suggest that Matcha has beneficial effects through the suppression of the blood glucose (BG) accumulation and promotion of the lipid metabolism and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the water-insoluble part of Matcha is suggested to play an important role in the suppression of diet-induced high levels of lipid and glucose.

  17. Occult abnormal pregnancies after first post-embryo transfer serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Bartolucci, Alison; Sueldo, Carolina; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio; Nulsen, John C

    2016-04-01

    To assess the occult pregnancy rate after "negative" first post-embryo transfer (ET) serum β-hCG results. Two-part retrospective cohort study and nested case series. University-based fertility center. A total of 1,571 negative first post-ET serum β-hCG results were included in the study; 1,326 results (primary cohort, June 2009-December 2013) were initially reported as <5 mIU/mL and 245 results (secondary cohort, January 2014-March 2015) were reported as discrete values from 1.0 to 5.0 mIU/mL. None. Rates of occult pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, and complications after negative first post-ET serum β-hCG results. A total of 88.8% (1,178/1,326) of the negative first post-ET results reported as <5 were actually <1.0 mIU/mL. Occult pregnancy was incidentally identified in 1.2% (12/1,041) of subjects with follow-up. Six had ectopic pregnancies, and seven experienced serious complications; 11 (91.7%) of the 12 occult pregnancies had a first post-ET serum β-hCG level of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL and 1 (8.3%) <1.0 mIU/mL. All pregnancies with serious complications had initial β-hCG levels of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL. Of the 245 results reported as discreet values, occult pregnancies were diagnosed in 5.5% (9/163) of subjects with follow-up. One had an ectopic pregnancy, which was treated with methotrexate. There were no serious complications in the secondary cohort. The majority of negative first post-ET serum β-hCG levels are <1.0 mIU/mL. Results from 1.0 to 5.0 mIU/mL may fail to exclude abnormal pregnancy and are associated with poor outcomes compared with β-hCG levels <1.0 mIU/mL. Serial serum β-hCG may be warranted in this population. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol and retinoid levels in plasma and liver of rats fed diets containing beta-carotene and 13-cis-retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Alam, S Q; Alam, B S

    1983-12-01

    The effect of feeding large amounts of beta-carotene and 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA) on plasma and liver levels of alpha-tocopherol, lipid peroxides and retinoids was studied. Groups of young male rats were fed semipurified diets supplemented with 0, 100 mg/kg beta-carotene, 20 and 100 mg/kg 13-cis-RA. After feeding the various diets for 11 weeks, rats were killed and the concentrations of lipid peroxides, alpha-tocopherol, and retinoids were measured in blood plasma and liver. Peroxide levels were increased and alpha-tocopherol levels were decreased in plasma as well as liver of rats fed diets containing 13-cis-RA; this effect seems to be dose dependent, beta-Carotene had no significant effect on either of the above parameters. There was a decrease in the liver and plasma concentrations of retinol in rats fed 13-cis-RA; the levels of RA were generally higher in these two groups. The results suggest that the mechanism whereby 13-cis-RA increases the tissue peroxide levels may be related to its ability to decrease alpha-tocopherol levels.

  19. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yansong; Xu, Dan; Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR andmore » immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is

  1. The evaluation of serum total sialic acid and lipid-bound sialic acid levels in chronically exposed rats to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oto, Gokhan; Ekin, Suat; Uyar, Hasan; Ozdemir, Hulya; Yıldız, Damla; Karakuş, Yagmur

    2017-04-01

    In this study, changes in serum total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) levels were examined in chronically exposed rats to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and fluoride. This study demonstrated that the TSA, LSA levels increased more in DMBA-treated groups compared to the fluoride treated groups. The result obtained has shown that the harmful effect of DMBA which is also causing more cell membrane damage on human and animal health should be taken into consideration.

  2. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Glucose Control and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cai; Yu, Xuefeng; Shao, Shiying

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies assessed the impact of marine omega-3 fatty acids on glycemic homeostasis and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but reported controversial results. Our goal was to systematically evaluate the effects of omega-3 on glucose control and lipid levels. Methods Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, the National Research Register, and SIGLE were searched to identify eligible randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Extracted data from RCTs were analyzed using STATA 11.0 statistical software with fixed or random effects model. Effect sizes were presented as weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Heterogeneity was assessed using the Chi-square test with significance level set at p < 0.1. Results 20 RCT trials were included into this meta-analysis. Among patients with omega-3 supplementation, triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly decreased by 0.24 mmol/L. No marked change in total cholesterol (TC), HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, BMI or body weight was observed. High ratio of EPA/DHA contributed to a greater decreasing tendency in plasma insulin, HbAc1, TC, TG, and BMI measures, although no statistical significance was identified (except TG). FPG levels were increased by 0.42 mmol/L in Asians. No evidence of publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis. Conclusions The ratio of EPA/DHA and early intervention with omega 3 fatty acids may affect their effects on glucose control and lipid levels, which may serve as a dietary reference for clinicians or nutritionists who manage diabetic patients. PMID:26431431

  3. Impact of polyunsaturated vegetable oils on adiponectin levels, glycaemia and blood lipids in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, double-blind intervention study.

    PubMed

    Müllner, E; Plasser, E; Brath, H; Waldschütz, W; Forster, E; Kundi, M; Wagner, K-H

    2014-10-01

    Low adiponectin levels are discussed as risk factor for cardiovascular events. This is of special importance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) because they are at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of two plant oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with different content of omega-3 fatty acids, on adiponectin levels, glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM individuals treated either with insulin or oral anti-diabetics (OAD). Ninety-two subjects with T2DM [34 treated with insulin (T2DM-Ins) and 58 treated with OAD (T2DM-OAD)] participated in this randomised, double-blind, parallel intervention study. Individuals received either 9 g of nut oil (n-3:n-6 ratio: 1.3 : 6.1) or mixed oil (n-3:n-6 ratio: 0.6 : 5.7) per day for 10 weeks. The fatty acid profile, tocopherol, adiponectin levels and parameters regarding glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed at baseline, during and after the intervention. Compliance was confirmed by significant increases in γ-tocopherol and PUFA in both oil groups. An increase in adiponectin levels in T2DM-Ins participants (+6.84% in nut oil and +4.47% in mixed oil group after 10 weeks compared to baseline) was observed, albeit not significantly different from T2DM-OAD individuals (P = 0.051). Lipid and glucose metabolism were not affected by the intervention. The present study provides evidence that a small and easy change in dietary behaviour towards better fat quality moderately increases adiponectin levels in T2DM-Ins subjects, independently of the administered plant oil. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. Quantitative trait loci that control plasma lipid levels in an F2 intercross between C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize plasma lipid phenotypes and dissect the genetic basis of plasma lipid levels in an obese DDD.Cg-A(y) mouse strain. Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly higher in the DDD.Cg-A(y) strain than in the B6.Cg-A(y) strain. In contrast, plasma total-cholesterol (CHO) levels did not substantially differ between the two strains. As a rule, the A(y) allele significantly increased TG levels, but did not increase CHO levels. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for plasma TG and CHO levels were performed in two types of F(2) female mice [F(2)A(y) (F(2) mice carrying the A(y) allele) and F(2) non- A(y) mice (F(2) mice without the A(y) allele)] produced by crossing C57BL/6J females and DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Single QTL scan identified one significant QTL for TG levels on chromosome 1, and two significant QTLs for CHO levels on chromosomes 1 and 8. When the marker nearest to the QTL on chromosome 1 was used as covariates, four additional significant QTLs for CHO levels were identified on chromosomes 5, 6, and 17 (two loci). In contrast, consideration of the agouti locus genotype as covariates did not detect additional QTLs. DDD.Cg-A(y) showed a low CHO level, although it had Apoa2(b), which was a CHO-increasing allele at the Apoa2 locus. This may have been partly due to the presence of multiple QTLs, which were associated with decreased CHO levels, on chromosome 8.

  5. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  6. Type 2 diabetic rats on diet supplemented with chromium malate show improved glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes.

  7. Type 2 Diabetic Rats on Diet Supplemented With Chromium Malate Show Improved Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes. PMID:25942313

  8. Exome chip meta-analysis identifies novel loci and East Asian-specific coding variants that contribute to lipid levels and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Peloso, Gina M; Liu, Dajiang J; Wu, Ying; Zhang, He; Zhou, Wei; Li, Jun; Tang, Clara Sze-Man; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Li, Huaixing; Long, Jirong; Guo, Xiuqing; Xu, Ming; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Chen, Yang; Liu, Xuezhen; Zhang, Yan; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Liu, Jianjun; Sun, Liang; Wang, Laiyuan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hu, Yao; Yu, Kuai; Wang, Yiqin; Cheung, Chloe Yu Yan; Wang, Feijie; Huang, Jianfeng; Fan, Qiao; Cai, Qiuyin; Chen, Shufeng; Shi, Jinxiu; Yang, Xueli; Zhao, Wanting; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Cherny, Stacey Shawn; He, Meian; Feranil, Alan B; Adair, Linda S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Du, Shufa; Varma, Rohit; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lam, Karen Siu Ling; Wong, Tien Yin; Ganesh, Santhi K; Mo, Zengnan; Hveem, Kristian; Fritsche, Lars G; Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Tse, Hung-Fat; Huo, Yong; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chen, Y Eugene; Zheng, Wei; Tai, E Shyong; Gao, Wei; Lin, Xu; Huang, Wei; Abecasis, Goncalo; Kathiresan, Sekar; Mohlke, Karen L; Wu, Tangchun; Sham, Pak Chung; Gu, Dongfeng; Willer, Cristen J

    2017-12-01

    Most genome-wide association studies have been of European individuals, even though most genetic variation in humans is seen only in non-European samples. To search for novel loci associated with blood lipid levels and clarify the mechanism of action at previously identified lipid loci, we used an exome array to examine protein-coding genetic variants in 47,532 East Asian individuals. We identified 255 variants at 41 loci that reached chip-wide significance, including 3 novel loci and 14 East Asian-specific coding variant associations. After a meta-analysis including >300,000 European samples, we identified an additional nine novel loci. Sixteen genes were identified by protein-altering variants in both East Asians and Europeans, and thus are likely to be functional genes. Our data demonstrate that most of the low-frequency or rare coding variants associated with lipids are population specific, and that examining genomic data across diverse ancestries may facilitate the identification of functional genes at associated loci.

  9. Exome chip meta-analysis identifies novel loci and East Asian-specific coding variants contributing to lipid levels and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Peloso, Gina M; Liu, Dajiang J.; Wu, Ying; Zhang, He; Zhou, Wei; Li, Jun; Tang, Clara Sze-man; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Li, Huaixing; Long, Jirong; Guo, Xiuqing; Xu, Ming; Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Chen, Yang; Liu, Xuezhen; Zhang, Yan; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Liu, Jianjun; Sun, Liang; Wang, Laiyuan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hu, Yao; Yu, Kuai; Wang, Yiqin; Cheung, Chloe Yu Yan; Wang, Feijie; Huang, Jianfeng; Fan, Qiao; Cai, Qiuyin; Chen, Shufeng; Shi, Jinxiu; Yang, Xueli; Zhao, Wanting; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Cherny, Stacey Shawn; He, Meian; Feranil, Alan B.; Adair, Linda S.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Du, Shufa; Varma, Rohit; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Shu, XiaoOu; Lam, Karen Siu Ling; Wong, Tien Yin; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Mo, Zengnan; Hveem, Kristian; Fritsche, Lars; Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Tse, Hung-fat; Huo, Yong; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chen, Y. Eugene; Zheng, Wei; Tai, E Shyong; Gao, Wei; Lin, Xu; Huang, Wei; Abecasis, Goncalo; Consortium, GLGC; Kathiresan, Sekar; Mohlke, Karen L.; Wu, Tangchun; Sham, Pak Chung; Gu, Dongfeng; Willer, Cristen J

    2017-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies have been conducted in European individuals, even though most genetic variation in humans is seen only in non-European samples. To search for novel loci associated with blood lipid levels and clarify the mechanism of action at previously identified lipid loci, we examined protein-coding genetic variants in 47,532 East Asian individuals using an exome array. We identified 255 variants at 41 loci reaching chip-wide significance, including 3 novel loci and 14 East Asian-specific coding variant associations. After meta-analysis with > 300,000 European samples, we identified an additional 9 novel loci. The same 16 genes were identified by the protein-altering variants in both East Asians and Europeans, likely pointing to the functional genes. Our data demonstrate that most of the low-frequency or rare coding variants associated with lipids are population-specific, and that examining genomic data across diverse ancestries may facilitate the identification of functional genes at associated loci. PMID:29083407

  10. The Study of Hemodialysis Effectiveness on the Change Rate of Lipid Peroxidation and L-Carnitine Level in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Isfahani, Maryam; Sheikh, Nasrin

    2010-01-01

    Carnitine is a small molecule widely present in all cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic. It is an important element in β-oxidation of fatty acids. Carnitine is a scavenger of oxygen free radicals in mammalian tissues. Lack of carnitine in a hemodialysis patient can lead to carnitine deficiency. Oxidation of fatty acids and lipid metabolism are severly affected by carnitine deficiency. Oxidative stress is defined as imbalance between formation of free radicals and antioxidative defense mechanisms. It has been proposed to play a role in many disease states. In hemodialysis patients multiple factors can lead to a a high susceptibility to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine hemodialysis effectiveness on the change rate of serum L-carnitine and lipid peroxidation. 27 patients with chronic renal failure (24-80 yrs) who undergo hemodialysis for 6-12 months were selected (M= 17, F= 10). Malondialdehyde (MDA), as an indicator of lipid peroxidation was measured colorimetrically with a standard thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. L-carnitine was measured with enzymatic UV method (ROCHE, Spectronic Genesis 2, 340 nm). The weight mean of L-carnitine before and after hemodialysis was 7.67±3.6 mg/l and 2.07±1.6 mg/l, respectively (P<0.001). The weight mean of pre-hemodialysis MDA was 4.17±1.24 µmol/l, following hemodialysis -4.98±1.2 µmol/l (P<0.001). Results showed that 55.6% of patients suffered from carnitine defciency. Serum carnitine was found to be decreased markedly after hemodialysis (P<0.001). Our findings indicated that oxidative stress in these patients is further exacerbated by hemodialysis, as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation. The relationship between serum L-carnitine and MDA before and after hemodialysis was observed (r=0.82; p<0.001; r=0.75; p<0.001). PMID:27683353

  11. Discovery of Novel Lipid Profiles in PCOS: Do Insulin and Androgen Oppositely Regulate Bioactive Lipid Production?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengxian; Chu, Qianqian; Ma, Jing; Sun, Yun; Tao, Tao; Huang, Rong; Liao, Yu; Yue, Jiang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Lihua; Xue, Xinli; Zhu, Mingjiang; Kang, Xiaonan; Yin, Huiyong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome showing clinical features of an endocrine/metabolic disorder, including hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derivatives, both tightly linked to PCOS and obesity, play important roles in inflammation and reproduction. Objective: This study aimed to investigate serum lipid profiles in newly diagnosed patients with PCOS using lipidomics and correlate these features with the hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS and obesity. Design and Setting: Thirty-two newly diagnosed women with PCOS and 34 controls were divided into obese and lean subgroups. A PCOS rat model was used to validate results of the human studies. Main Outcome Measures: Serum lipid profiles, including phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and bioactive lipids, were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography–MS. Results: Elevation in phosphatidylcholine and a concomitant decrease in lysophospholipid were found in obese patients with PCOS vs lean controls. Obese patients with PCOS had decreased PUFA levels and increased levels of long-chain saturated fatty acids vs lean controls. Serum bioactive lipids downstream of arachidonic acid were increased in obese controls, but reduced in both obese and lean patients with PCOS vs their respective controls. Conclusions: Patients with PCOS showed abnormal levels of phosphatidylcholine, FFAs, and PUFA metabolites. Circulating insulin and androgens may have opposing effects on lipid profiles in patients with PCOS, particularly on the bioactive lipid metabolites derived from PUFAs. These clinical observations warrant further studies of the molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of PCOS and obesity. PMID:27886515

  12. Color, lipid oxidation, sensory quality, and aroma compounds of beef steaks displayed under different levels of oxygen in a modified atmosphere package.

    PubMed

    Resconi, Virginia Celia; Escudero, Ana; Beltrán, José Antonio; Olleta, José Luis; Sañudo, Carlos; Campo, María del Mar

    2012-01-01

    High oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is currently used by the industry to maintain an attractive color in fresh meat. However, it can also promote lipid oxidation and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of beef steaks displayed under different levels of oxygen. For that purpose, meat was stored with 50%, 60%, and 80% of oxygen for 4 and 8 d at retail conditions. A control treatment with steaks vacuum packaged, without exposure to retail display, was included, and color, lipid oxidation, organoleptic characteristics, and aroma compounds were analyzed. Steaks displayed under high oxygen MAP with 50% of oxygen showed the lowest color stability, according to hue values. Higher oxygen levels did not necessarily correspond with higher rancidity levels in the raw meat. Thiobarbituric Acid Reacting Substances (TBARS) values were higher than 2.2 mg malonaldehyde (MDA)/kg muscle in all the samples displayed for 8 d at retail conditions. These samples exhibited the highest intensities of rancid and the least intense beef odors and flavors. The ketones: 2,3-butanedione, 2-octanone, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, and the aldehydes: pentanal, 2-methyl-butanal, and 2-furfurylthiol, 1-octen-3-ol and 2-methylpropyl-acetate, were proposed as candidates for the aroma differences between the cooked beef steaks stored under vacuum and high oxygen packs. High oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is used to increase shelf-life and color at the retail level. However, oxygen deteriorates faster some quality attributes, being a contributor to lipid oxidation that could be perceived at consumption. This study attempts to find the best gas composition in a MAP in order to maintain the color, minimizing the oxidation. Aromatically relevant chemicals have been analyzed by gas olfactometry-gas chromatography as a key to measure beef oxidation after display. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Lipids and lipid binding proteins: a perfect match.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Jan F C

    2015-02-01

    Lipids serve a great variety of functions, ranging from structural components of biological membranes to signaling molecules affecting various cellular functions. Several of these functions are related to the unique physico-chemical properties shared by all lipid species, i.e., their hydrophobicity. The latter, however, is accompanied by a poor solubility in an aqueous environment and thus a severe limitation in the transport of lipids in aqueous compartments such as blood plasma and the cellular soluble cytoplasm. Specific proteins which can reversibly and non-covalently associate with lipids, designated as lipid binding proteins or lipid chaperones, greatly enhance the aqueous solubility of lipids and facilitate their transport between tissues and within tissue cells. Importantly, transport of lipids across biological membranes also is facilitated by specific (membrane-associated) lipid binding proteins. Together, these lipid binding proteins determine the bio-availability of their ligands, and thereby markedly influence the subsequent processing, utilization, or signaling effect of lipids. The bio-availability of specific lipid species thus is governed by the presence of specific lipid binding proteins, the affinity of these proteins for distinct lipid species, and the presence of competing ligands (including pharmaceutical compounds). Recent studies suggest that post-translational modifications of lipid binding proteins may have great impact on lipid-protein interactions. As a result, several levels of regulation exist that together determine the bio-availability of lipid species. This short review discusses the significance of lipid binding proteins and their potential application as targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcohol-induced oxidative stressed rats

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, OY; Erukainure, OL; Ajiboye, JA; Adejobi, RO; Owolabi, FO; Kosoko, SB

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma. Methods Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3 000 rpm for 10 min. The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. Results Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase (87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control. Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16% at 2.5 mL/kg bw. Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity, treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity. Increased AST, ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively, treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. Conclusions The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation, catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcohol-induced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcohol-induced toxicity. PMID:23569717

  15. Carbon biofixation and lipid composition of an acidophilic microalga cultivated on treated wastewater supplied with different CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Neves, Fábio de Farias; Hoinaski, Leonardo; Rörig, Leonardo Rubi; Derner, Roberto Bianchini; de Melo Lisboa, Henrique

    2018-05-15

    This study evaluated productivity, CO 2 biofixation, and lipid content in biomass of the acidophilic microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila LAFIC-004 cultivated with five different carbon dioxide concentrations. The influence of carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient removal and pH was also investigated. Treated wastewater (secondary effluent) was used as culture medium. Five experimental setups were tested: T-0% - injection of atmospheric air (0.038% CO 2 ), T-5% (5% CO 2 ), T-10% (10% CO 2 ), T-15% (15% CO 2 ) and T-20% (20% CO 2 ). The T-5% and T-10% experiments showed the highest values of productivity and CO 2 biofixation, and maximum biomass dry weight was 0.48 ± 0.02 and 0.51 ± 0.03 g L -1 , respectively. This acidophilic microalga proved to be suitable for carbon biofixation and removal of nutrients from secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plants with high CO 2 concentration. All assays were performed without pH control. This microalga species presented high lipid content. However, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are not suitable for biodiesel use.

  16. Association of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke involving large-vessel disease and its relation to serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Sarra; Slamia, Lamia B; Ammou, Sofyan B; Mahjoub, Touhami; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2007-01-01

    A relationship between apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotype and stroke was previously suggested, but with inconsistent results. We investigated the relationships among serum lipid levels, Apo E alleles and genotypes, and stroke risk factors in 216 stroke patients and 282 age- and sex-matched controls. Fasting blood samples were collected for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride level determination and for genomic DNA extraction. Apo was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (Cfo I) analysis. Increasing levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides were associated with elevated stroke risk and was more pronounced in Apo E4-carrying subjects than in E3- and/or E2-carrying subjects. Apo 3 was significantly lower (0.546 vs 0.736; P < .001), whereas Apo 4 was higher in the stroke patients (0.370 vs 0.181; P < .001); Apo 2 was present at low but comparable frequencies. The prevalence of E3/E3 was lower and that of E4-containing phenotypes (E3/E4 and homozygous E4/E4) was higher in the stroke patients. The prevalence of the E4-containing phenotypes were significantly higher in ischemic versus hemorrhagic (P < .001) and in small-vessel versus large-vessel stroke cases (P < .001), and was associated with increased need for statin drugs (P = .040). Logistic regression models, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables including lipid profile, age, and sex, showed an significant association of apo 4 genotype with risk of stroke (P = .033). Our findings indicate that Apo 4 is an independent risk factor associated with an altered lipid profile in this study population.

  17. The effects of intermittent hypoxia on redox status, NF-κB activation, and plasma lipid levels are dependent on the lowest oxygen saturation.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Miguel; Gonzalez-Martin, María del Carmen; Vega-Agapito, Victoria; Gonzalez, Constancio; Obeso, Ana; Farré, Ramon; Agapito, Teresa; Yubero, Sara

    2013-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is described as repetitive obstructions of the upper airways during sleep, causing concomitant episodes of systemic hypoxia and associated cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies. The mechanisms generating these pathologies are controversial. Because recurrent hypoxia is the element of inadequate respiration that leads to the pathology, experimental models of OSAS consist in the exposure of the animals to intermittent hypoxia (IH) by cycling O2 percentages in their habitats. A proposed mechanism linking the IH of OSAS to pathologies is the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it has been argued that many patients seem to lack oxidative stress and that, to augment ROS in IH animals, intense hypoxia, seldom encountered in patients, has to be applied. To solve the controversy, we have exposed rats to two intensities of IH (cycles of 10 or 5% O2, 40s, and then 21% O2, 80s; 8h/day, 15 days). We then measured reduced and oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxide levels, aconitase and fumarase activities, and ROS-disposal enzyme activity in liver, brain, and lung. Liver levels of nuclear NF-κB-p65 and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as lipid levels, were also assessed. Lowest hemoglobin saturations were 91.7 ± 0.8 and 73.5 ± 1.4%. IH caused tissue-specific oxidative stress related to hypoxic intensity. Nuclear NF-κB-p65 and lipid content in the liver and CRP in the plasma all increased with IH intensity, as did both plasma triglycerides and cholesterol. We conclude that IH, even of moderate intensity, causes oxidative stress probably related to the pathologies encountered in OSAS patients. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of serum levels of C-reactive protein and lipid profiles in patients with chronic periodontitis and/or coronary heart disease in an ethnic Han population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Wu, Yafei; Ding, Yi; Meng, Sui; Ge, Song; Deng, Hui

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the relationship of coronary heart disease (CHD)-associated factors-C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profiles-with periodontitis in an ethnic Han population. Forty healthy individuals as control, 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 28 patients with CHD, and 47 patients with both CP and CHD were included in the study. Serum CRP levels, lipid profile concentrations, and three periodontal clinical parameters (probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing) were measured and analyzed. The chi-square test, Student-Newman-Keuls test, analysis of covariance, and a logistic regression analysis were used in this study. The mean CRP level of patients with CP alone was 2.4 +/- 1.5 mg/L. There were significant differences in mean serum CRP levels among groups after confounders were adjusted, with CP+CHD patients having the highest level (7.3 +/- 5.7 mg/L) and the controls the lowest (1.0 +/- 0.6 mg/L) (P < .001). Mean HDL cholesterol level of CP patients (1.1 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) was significantly lower than that of controls (1.4 +/- 0.6 mmol/L) (P < .05), although it was significantly higher than that of the other two groups with CHD (0.8 +/- 0.5 mmol/L and 0.7 +/- 0.4 mmol/L) (P < .001). Significant correlations of CRP and HDL cholesterol with the three clinical periodontal parameters were apparent (P < .05). CRP and HDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with an increased frequency of CHD in this regression model (OR = 3.7 and OR = 1.9, respectively, P < .05). In an ethnic Han population with a low normal range of serum CRP levels, chronic periodontitis is associated with increased CRP levels and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations, which suggests that there may be some relationship between periodontal inflammation and CHD.

  19. Effect of dietary levels of lipid and carbohydrate on growth performance, body composition, nitrogen excretion and plasma glucose levels in rainbow trout reared at 8 or 18 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Brauge, C; Corraze, G; Médale, F

    1995-01-01

    Trout reared at 8 or 18 degrees C were fed twice a day almost to satiation with 1 of 3 experimental diets. The diets were formulated to contain the same levels of protein (43%, dry matter (DM) basis) and digestible energy (around 15 kJ/g DM), but different carbohydrate/lipid ratios 30:7 to 23:14). Time-course studies of nitrogen excretion and glycaemia were also carried out. After 12 weeks of feeding, growth, protein retention and body composition were not influenced by the dietary treatment in trout reared at 8 degrees C. At 18 degrees C, the protein retention was not affected by dietary treatment, but the weight gain tended to be higher in trout fed the diet with the lowest carbohydrate/lipid ratio. This result was due to higher body lipid deposition in these trout. Nitrogen excretion was not influenced by dietary treatment, but was higher at 18 degrees C than at 8 degrees C because of a higher feed intake. Glycaemia increased with dietary level of digestible carbohydrate and the highest plasma glucose level was attained later at 8 degrees C in comparison to 18 degrees C.

  20. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic

  1. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Hydroxychloroquine reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus: a longitudinal evaluation of the lipid-lowering effect.

    PubMed

    Cairoli, E; Rebella, M; Danese, N; Garra, V; Borba, E F

    2012-10-01

    The influence of antimalarials on lipids in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been identified in several studies but not in many prospective cohorts. The aim of this study was to longitudinally determine the effect of antimalarials on the lipoprotein profile in SLE. Fasting total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) plasma levels were determined at entry and after 3 months of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment in a longitudinal evaluation of 24 patients with SLE. a significant decrease in TC (198 ± 33.7 vs. 183 ± 30.3 mg/dl, p = 0.023) and LDL levels (117 ± 31.3 vs. 101 ± 26.2 mg/dl, p = 0.023) were detected after the 3 months of HCQ therapy. The reduction of 7.6% in TC (p = 0.055) and 13.7% in LDL levels (p = 0.036) determined a significant decrease in the frequency of dyslipidemia (26% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.013) after HCQ therapy. This longitudinal study demonstrated the beneficial effect of antimalarials on lipids in SLE since this therapy induced a reduction of atherogenic lipoproteins.

  3. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) rs662 Polymorphism and Its Association with Serum Lipid Levels and Longevity in the Bama Zhuang Population.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Liang, Guiyun; Shi, Liwei; Liang, Xue; Long, Bingshuang; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-12-27

    BACKGROUND The present study was performed to identify the association of PON1 rs662 polymorphism with serum lipid levels and human longevity in the Bama Zhuang population. MATERIAL AND METHODS PON1 genotypes were determined by Taqman SNP Genotyping Assays in 110 long-lived inhabitants (longevity group, aged 90-110 years), 110 healthy inhabitants in Bama County (control 1 group, aged 43-82 years) and 110 healthy inhabitants in Nandan County (control 2 group, aged 28-82 years) without family history of longevity. RESULTS BMI (body mass index) and TG (serum total triglyceride) level were lower in the longevity group than in the two control groups, while the contents of serum LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and HDL-c (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and the levels of SBP (systolic blood pressure) and DBP (diastolic blood pressure) in the longevity group were higher than in the two control groups (p<0.01). Significant differences in the frequencies of three genotypes (GG, AG, and AA) were observed between the longevity group and control 2 group (χ²=15.190, p=0.001). The minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs662 was significantly higher in the longevity group than in the two control groups. The levels of HDL-c in the longevity group were different among the three genotypes (p<0.05). The levels of TG for GG and GG+AG genotypes were significantly different, while the levels of TC (total cholesterol) and HDL-c for AG and GG+AG genotypes were significantly different among the three groups (p<0.05). Serum lipid parameters were correlated with several environmental factors, including age, gender, DBP, SBP, and BMI. The association of PON1 rs662 polymorphism and serum lipid levels was different among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS PON1 polymorphism might be one of the genetic factors of longevity in the Bama Zhuang population. The PON1 rs662 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) was associated with serum HDL-c levels in the longevity group.

  4. Vitamin C-lipid metabolites: uptake and retention and effect on plasma C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL levels in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pancorbo, Dario; Vazquez, Carlos; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2008-11-01

    Previously, a novel formulation of vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) was shown to be more rapidly taken-up by human T-lymphocytes and more rapidly stimulate neurite outgrowth, fibroblast adhesion and inhibition of xenobiotic-induced T-cell hyperactivation. Here, PureWay-C serum levels were measured in healthy volunteers after oral supplementation. Plasma C-reactive protein and oxidized low density lipoprotein levels (LDL) were also measured. Healthy volunteers maintained a low vitamin C diet for 14 days and, following an overnight fast, received a single oral dose of (vitamin C) 1000 mg of either ascorbic acid (AA), calcium ascorbate (CaA), vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C), or calcium ascorbate-calcium threonate-dehydroascorbate (Ester-C). Blood samples were collected immediately prior to the oral dose administration and at various times post ingestion. Twenty-four-hour urine collections were saved for oxalate and uric acid assays. PureWay-C supplementation leads to the highest absolute serum vitamin C levels when compared to AA, CaA and Ester-C. PureWay-C provides a statistically significant greater serum level than calcium ascorbate at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours post oral supplementation whereas Ester-C shows a less but slightly statistically significant increase at only 1 and 4 hours. Oral supplementation with PureWay-C also led to a greater reduction in plasma C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL levels compared to the other vitamin C formulations. PureWay-C is more rapidly absorbed and leads to higher serum vitamin C levels and greater reduction of plasma levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers than other forms of vitamin C, including Ester-C.

  5. Association of the GALNT2 gene polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Yin, Rui-Xing; Yan, Ting-Ting; Miao, Lin; Cao, Xiao-Li; Hu, Xi-Jiang; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Lin, Wei-Xiong

    2011-09-20

    The association of UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 gene (GALNT2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles in the general population is not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of GALNT2 polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 775 subjects of Mulao nationality and 699 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the GALNT2 rs2144300 and rs4846914 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of both SNPs between the two ethnic groups, or between the males and females. The subjects with TT genotype of rs2144300 in Mulao had lower serum triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with CC genotype in females (P < 0.01). The participants with CT/TT genotype of rs2144300 in Han had lower TG and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB in males; and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in females than the participants with CC genotype (P < 0.05-0.001). The individuals with GA/AA genotype of rs4846914 in Mulao had higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels than the individuals with GG genotype in males (P < 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype of rs4846914 in Han had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels, and lower HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB than the subjects with GG genotype (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of TC in Mulao were correlated with the genotypes of rs4846914 in males (P < 0.05). The levels of ApoA1 in Han were correlated with the genotypes of both SNPs, and the

  6. Association of the GALNT2 gene polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 gene (GALNT2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles in the general population is not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of GALNT2 polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Method A total of 775 subjects of Mulao nationality and 699 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the GALNT2 rs2144300 and rs4846914 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of both SNPs between the two ethnic groups, or between the males and females. The subjects with TT genotype of rs2144300 in Mulao had lower serum triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with CC genotype in females (P < 0.01). The participants with CT/TT genotype of rs2144300 in Han had lower TG and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB in males; and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in females than the participants with CC genotype (P < 0.05-0.001). The individuals with GA/AA genotype of rs4846914 in Mulao had higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels than the individuals with GG genotype in males (P < 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype of rs4846914 in Han had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels, and lower HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB than the subjects with GG genotype (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of TC in Mulao were correlated with the genotypes of rs4846914 in males (P < 0.05). The levels of ApoA1 in Han were correlated with the genotypes

  7. Changes in whole-body fat distribution, intrahepatic lipids, and insulin resistance of obese adolescents during a low-level lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Springer, Fabian; Ballweg, Verena; Schweizer, Roland; Schick, Fritz; Ranke, Michael B; Binder, Gerhard; Ehehalt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze changes in adipose tissue (AT) distribution, intrahepatic lipids (IHL), and insulin resistance (IR) among a group of obese adolescents undergoing a 7-months low-level lifestyle intervention. Thirty-nine obese Caucasian adolescents (mean age 13.9 years, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDSLMS) 2.14) were included. AT and IHL were determined by T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and single-voxel MR spectroscopy; IR was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). The lifestyle intervention led to a reduction of both BMI-SDSLMS (boys 2.27 to 2.17; girls 2.00 to 1.82) and HOMA-IR (boys 6.1 to 4.4 (p = 0.008); girls 6.2 to 4.7 (p = 0.030)). IHL dropped in both genders (boys 7.5 to 4.3 %; girls 4.6 to 3.4 %) positively correlating with HOMA-IR (boys r = 0.52; girls r = 0.68), while in contrast visceral AT did not change significantly. Although the lifestyle intervention only slightly reduced BMI-SDSLMS, insulin sensitivity improved in both genders and came along with a marked reduction of IHL. This suggests that IHL might play the dominant role regarding insulin resistance in the youth, especially if compared to other AT compartments such as visceral AT. • MR imaging/spectroscopy can be used to evaluate body fat distribution and intrahepatic lipids in the youth. • The strength of associations between body fat compartments and insulin resistance is under scientific debate. • The study emphasizes that even a low-level lifestyle intervention has a beneficial effect. • The study suggests that intrahepatic lipids are an important factor in the development of insulin resistance.

  8. HBK-14 and HBK-15 Do Not Influence Blood Pressure, Lipid Profile, Glucose Level, or Liver Enzymes Activity after Chronic Treatment in Rats.

    PubMed

    Pytka, Karolina; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Knutelska, Joanna; Jakubczyk, Magdalena; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Kotańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Older and even new antidepressants cause adverse effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hyper- or hypoglycemia, liver injury or lipid disorders. In our previous experiments we showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists with α1-adrenolitic properties i.e. 1-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15). Here, we evaluated the influence of chronic administration of HBK-14 and HBK-15 on blood pressure (non-invasive blood pressure measurement system for rodents), lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins-LDL, high density lipoproteins-HDL, triglycerides), glucose level, and liver enzymes activity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase). We determined potential antihistaminic (isolated guinea pig ileum) and antioxidant properties (ferric reducing ability of plasma-FRAP, non-protein thiols-NPSH, stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl-DPPH) cytotoxicity. Our experiments revealed that HBK-14 and HBK-15 did not influence blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose level or liver enzymes activity in rats after 2-week treatment. We also showed that none of the compounds possessed antioxidant or cytotoxic properties at antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like doses. HBK-14 and HBK-15 very weakly blocked H1 receptors in guinea pig ileum. Positive results of our preliminary experiments on the safety of HBK-14 and HBK-15 encourage further studies concerning their effectiveness in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety disorders.

  9. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ría de Vigo, Galicia (N.W. Spain): influence of season, condition index and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2012-04-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including ΣDDTs, γ-HCH, HCB, aldrin, isodrin, trans-nonachlor, heptachlor and dieldrin, were determined in the razor clam, Ensis siliqua, collected monthly from February 2003 to April 2004 from the Islas Cíes in Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain). The sum of DDTs ranged from 2.17 to 26.9 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). Principal component analysis showed seasonal trends in the levels of some OCPs (γ-HCH and dieldrin). Pearson correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between OCP levels and the biometric parameters of condition index and body lipids.

  10. Serum Lipid Profile, Prevalence of Dyslipidaemia, and Associated Risk Factors Among Northern Mexican Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; De la Garza, Yolanda E; Villarreal, Jesus Z; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2016-11-01

    The increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the serum lipid profile, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, and associated risk factors among the North Mexican adolescent population. Two hundred and ninety-three subjects (47.8% girls) ages 11 to 16 years took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011-2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, dyslipidaemia was defined as a presence of ≥1 of the following levels (mg/dL): Total cholesterol ≥200, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40, and triglyceride ≥130. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 48.8% with no differences between sexes. Adolescents with high body mass index were more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (overweight: odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-3.77, P < 0.05; obesity: OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.11-4.41, P < 0.05) than those with normal weight. Abdominally subjects with obesity were also more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.35-3.91, P < 0.01) than their leaner counterparts. Half of Mexican adolescents living in the State of Nuevo León have at least 1 abnormal lipid concentration. Low HDL-chol level was the most common dyslipidaemia. Body mass index and abdominal obesity were associated with the prevalence of at least 1 abnormal lipid level.

  11. Serum Lipid Profile, Prevalence of Dyslipidaemia, and Associated Risk Factors Among Northern Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; De la Garza, Yolanda E.; Villarreal, Jesus Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the serum lipid profile, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, and associated risk factors among the North Mexican adolescent population. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-three subjects (47.8% girls) ages 11 to 16 years took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, dyslipidaemia was defined as a presence of ≥1 of the following levels (mg/dL): Total cholesterol ≥200, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130, non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40, and triglyceride ≥130. Results: The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 48.8% with no differences between sexes. Adolescents with high body mass index were more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (overweight: odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–3.77, P < 0.05; obesity: OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.11–4.41, P < 0.05) than those with normal weight. Abdominally subjects with obesity were also more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.35–3.91, P < 0.01) than their leaner counterparts. Conclusions: Half of Mexican adolescents living in the State of Nuevo León have at least 1 abnormal lipid concentration. Low HDL-chol level was the most common dyslipidaemia. Body mass index and abdominal obesity were associated with the prevalence of at least 1 abnormal lipid level. PMID:27379432

  12. No effect of yeast-like fungi on lipid metabolism and vascular endothelial growth factor level in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zorena, Katarzyna; Kowalewska, Beata; Szmigiero-Kawko, Małgorzata; Wąż, Piotr; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2016-12-12

    The objective of the research was to investigate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in the context of lipid metabolism and amount of yeast-like fungi colonizing the digestive tract in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The study included 45 children with T1DM and 27 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. In the study sample 33 T1DM patients were administered insulin pump therapy and 12 T1DM patients were administered multiple daily injections with insulin pen devices. All T1DM patients were free of micro- and macrovascular complications. In T1DM patients and healthy controls biochemical tests were performed and measurements of yeast-like fungi colonizing the alimentary tract were conducted. Moreover all study subjects had their serum VEGF levels measured with ELISA test. The subgroup of children and adolescents with T1DM and yeast-like fungus colony number 10^ 3 CFU/g was shown statistically significantly lower HbA1c levels, and lower but not statistically significantly total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and VEGF levels versus T1DM patients with the amount of yeast-like fungi 10^ 6 CFU/g. Moreover higher HDL levels were observed in this subgroup versus T1DM patients with the amount of yeast-like fungi 10^ 6 CFU/g although the difference was not statistically significant. Our study has shown no influence of yeast-like fungi on lipid metabolism and VEGF level in children and adolescents with T1DM. Comprehensive treatment of T1DM patients and intensive insulin therapy with help of personal insulin pumps can reduce or prevent the development of long-term diabetic complications. Further studies in this field are needed.

  13. Green tea polyphenols improve cardiac muscle mRNA and protein levels of signal pathways related to insulin and lipid metabolism and inflammation in insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bolin; Polansky, Marilyn M; Harry, Dawson; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) may reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. To explore the underlying mechanisms of action at the molecular level, we examined the effects of GTP on the cardiac mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in insulin and lipid metabolism and inflammation. In rats fed a high-fructose diet, supplementation with GTP (200 mg/kg BW daily dissolved in distilled water) for 6 wk, reduced systemic blood glucose, plasma insulin, retinol-binding protein 4, soluble CD36, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and LDL-C levels, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-6. GTP did not affect food intake, bodyweight and heart weight. In the myocardium, GTP also increased the insulin receptor (Ir), insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 (Irs1 and Irs2), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (Pi3k), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (Akt1), glucose transporter 1 and 4 (Glut1 and Glut4) and glycogen synthase 1 (Gys1) expression but inhibited phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (Pten) expression and decreased glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (Gsk3beta) mRNA expression. The sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c) mRNA, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp) mRNA and protein, Cd36 mRNA and cluster of differentiation 36 protein levels were decreased and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar)gamma mRNA levels were increased. GTP also decreased the inflammatory factors: Tnf, Il1b and Il6 mRNA levels, and enhanced the anti-inflammatory protein, zinc-finger protein, protein and mRNA expression. In summary, consumption of GTP ameliorated the detrimental effects of high-fructose diet on insulin signaling, lipid metabolism and inflammation in the cardiac muscle of rats.

  14. Effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats: A dose–response and curative effects study

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Qian; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Wu, Huiyu; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats, and dose–response and curative effects. Materials and Methods The model of type 2 diabetes rats was developed, and daily treatment with chromium malate was given for 4 weeks. A rat enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to assay glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism changes. Results The results showed that the antihyperglycemic activity increased with administration of chromium malate in a dose–dependent manner. The serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level of the chromium malate groups at a dose of 17.5, 20.0 and 20.8 μg chromium/kg bodyweight were significantly lower than that of the model, chromium trichloride and chromium picolinate groups. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucokinase levels of the chromium malate groups at a dose of 17.5, 20.0 and 20.8 μg chromium/kg bodyweight were significantly higher than that of the model, chromium trichloride and chromium picolinate groups. Chromium malate at a dose of 20.0 and 20.8 μg chromium/kg bodyweight significantly changed the total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides levels compared with the chromium trichloride and chromium picolinate groups. Conclusions The results showed that chromium malate exhibits greater benefits in treating type 2 diabetes, and the curative effect of chromium malate is superior to chromium trichloride and chromium picolinate. PMID:26221518

  15. High levels of bcl-2 protein expression do not correlate with genetic abnormalities but predict worse prognosis in patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yajun; Pan, Yi; Meng, Bin; Guan, Bingxin; Fu, Kai; Sun, Baocun; Zheng, Fang

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to investigate bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc rearrangements in patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL), especially focus on the correlation of protein expression with genetic abnormalities. Moreover, their prognostic significance was further analyzed in LBL. Protein expression and genetic abnormalities of bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc were investigated in microarrayed tumors from 33 cases of T cell LBL and eight cases of B cell lineage. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to evaluate protein expression, including bcl-2, bcl-6, c-myc, TdT, CD1α, CD34, Ki-67, PAX-5, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD20. Genetic abnormalities of bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc were detected by dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bcl-2 protein was positive in 51.2 % (21/41) of the patients, bcl-6 protein in 7.3 % (three out of 41), and c-myc protein in 78.0 % (32/41). Bcl-2 breakpoint was found in two cases by FISH analysis. There was no evidence of bcl-6 or c-myc rearrangement in patients with LBL. However, both gene gain and loss events occurred in bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc. A univariate analysis showed that stage III or IV, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and positivity for bcl-2 protein were associated with shorter survival (p<0.05). Enhanced protein expression and detectable genetic abnormalities of bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc were observed in patients with LBL. No statistical correlation was found between IHC results and cytogenetic findings. Stage III or IV, elevated LDH, and positivity for bcl-2 protein were identified as adverse prognostic factors. The patients with more adverse factors would have increasingly worse prognosis.

  16. Association of LIPC -250G>A polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association between -250G>A polymorphism in the promoter region of the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) and plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is contradictory in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. This study was designed to detect the association of LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 778 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 648 participants of Han Chinese aged 15-80 were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LIPC -250G>A was performed by polymerse chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 50.0%, 43.3% and 6.7% in Bai Ku Yao, and 35.7%, 50.6% and 13.7% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequencies of G and A alleles were 71.7% and 28.3% in Bai Ku Yao, and 61.0% and 39.0% in Han (P < 0.01). The levels of HDL-C and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Bai Ku Yao were lower in GG genotype than in GA or AA genotype (P < 0.05-0.01). The levels of TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoB in Han were lower in GG genotype than in GA or AA genotype (P < 0.05-0.01). The levels of HDL-C and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Bai Ku Yao, and the levels of HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoB in Han were correlated with genotype and/or allele (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with age, sex, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, body weight, and body mass index in both ethnic groups. Conclusions The differences in the serum lipid profiles between the two ethnic groups might partly result from

  17. Low circulating levels of IGF-1 in healthy adults are associated with reduced β-cell function, increased intramyocellular lipid, and enhanced fat utilization during fasting.

    PubMed

    Thankamony, Ajay; Capalbo, Donatella; Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Sleigh, Alison; Jørgensen, Sine Wanda; Hill, Nathan R; Mooslehner, Katrin; Yeo, Giles S H; Bluck, Les; Juul, Anders; Vaag, Allan; Dunger, David B

    2014-06-01

    Low serum IGF-1 levels have been linked to increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes. However, the physiological role of IGF-1 in glucose metabolism is not well characterized. Our objective was to explore glucose and lipid metabolism associated with variations in serum IGF-1 levels. IGF-1 levels were measured in healthy, nonobese male volunteers aged 18 to 50 years from a biobank (n = 275) to select 24 subjects (age 34.8 ± 8.9 years), 12 each in the lowest (low-IGF) and highest (high-IGF) quartiles of age-specific IGF-1 SD scores. Evaluations were undertaken after a 24-hour fast and included glucose and glycerol turnover rates using tracers, iv glucose tolerance test to estimate peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) and acute insulin and C-peptide responses (indices of insulin secretion), magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs), calorimetry, and gene expression studies in a muscle biopsy. Acute insulin and C-peptide responses, IS, and glucose and glycerol rate of appearance (Ra) were evaluated. Fasting insulin and C-peptide levels and glucose Ra were reduced (all P < .05) in low-IGF compared with high-IGF subjects, indicating increased hepatic IS. Acute insulin and C-peptide responses were lower (both P < .05), but similar peripheral IS resulted in reduced insulin secretion adjusted for IS in low-IGF subjects (P = 0.044). Low-IGF subjects had higher overnight levels of free fatty acids (P = .028) and β-hydroxybutyrate (P = .014), increased accumulation of IMCLs in tibialis anterior muscle (P = .008), and a tendency for elevated fat oxidation rates (P = .058); however, glycerol Ra values were similar. Gene expression of the fatty acid metabolism pathway (P = .0014) was upregulated, whereas the GLUT1 gene was downregulated (P = .005) in the skeletal muscle in low-IGF subjects. These data suggest that serum IGF-1 levels could be an important marker of β-cell function and glucose as well as lipid metabolic responses during

  18. Methylation on the Circadian Gene BMAL1 Is Associated with the Effects of a Weight Loss Intervention on Serum Lipid Levels.

    PubMed

    Samblas, Mirian; Milagro, Fermin I; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Martínez, J Alfredo; Garaulet, Marta

    2016-06-01

    The circadian clock system has been linked to the onset and development of obesity and some accompanying comorbidities. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, are putatively involved in the regulation of the circadian clock system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a weight loss intervention based on an energy-controlled Mediterranean dietary pattern in the methylation levels of 3 clock genes, BMAL1, CLOCK, and NR1D1, and the association between the methylation levels and changes induced in the serum lipid profile with the weight loss treatment. The study sample enrolled 61 women (body mass index = 28.6 ± 3.4 kg/m(2); age: 42.2 ± 11.4 years), who followed a nutritional program based on a Mediterranean dietary pattern. DNA was isolated from whole blood obtained at the beginning and end point. Methylation levels at different CpG sites of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NR1D1 were analyzed by Sequenom's MassArray. The energy-restricted intervention modified the methylation levels of different CpG sites in BMAL1 (CpGs 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 18) and NR1D1 (CpGs 1, 10, 17, 18, 19, and 22). Changes in cytosine methylation in the CpG 5 to 9 region of BMAL1 with the intervention positively correlated with the eveningness profile (p = 0.019). The baseline methylation of the CpG 5 to 9 region in BMAL1 positively correlated with energy (p = 0.047) and carbohydrate (p = 0.017) intake and negatively correlated with the effect of the weight loss intervention on total cholesterol (p = 0.032) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.005). Similar significant and positive correlations were found between changes in methylation levels in the CpG 5 to 9 region of BMAL1 due to the intervention and changes in serum lipids (p < 0.05). This research describes apparently for the first time an association between changes in the methylation of the BMAL1 gene with the intervention and the effects of a weight loss intervention on blood lipids levels. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. [Effects of a lipid-based nutrient supplement on hemoglobin levels and anthropometric indicators in children from five districts in Huánuco Peru].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Vásquez, Alejandro; Bado, Ricardo; Alcázar, Lorena; Aquino, Oscar; Rodríguez, Amelia; Novalbos, José Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives . To determine the effect of consumption of a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) on hemoglobin levels, anemia and anthropometric indicators in children aged six to eleven months old in five districts in the province of Ambo in the region of Huanuco, Peru. A pre-experimental, pre-post study was performed. The study population included children aged six to eleven months old in 19 health facilities in five districts with very high vulnerability to chronic malnutrition in the province of Ambo, Huanuco. Data from 147 children who received the lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) from six to eleven months old were obtained. The mean hemoglobin significantly increased by 0.67 g/dL (p<0.05), the proportion of anemia dropped by 27 percentage points (p<0.001) and the mean z score for height/age decreased by 0.12 (p<0.05). No significant differences for z scores of weight/age and weight/height at the end of the study were found. The LNS had an adherence greater than 90%, and less than 10% of children in the study reported discomfort during consumption. LNS supplementation achieved improved hemoglobin levels and reduced the prevalence of anemia in children under twelve months, which might constitute an effective alternative to prevent and control childhood anemia.

  20. Blood coagulation abnormalities in multibacillary leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Débora Santos da; Teixeira, Lisandra Antonia Castro; Beghini, Daniela Gois; Ferreira, André Teixeira da Silva; Pinho, Márcia de Berredo Moreira; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Ribeiro, Marli Rambaldi; Freire, Monica Di Calafiori; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Tovar, Ana Maria Freire; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Perales, Jonas; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Esquenazi, Danuza; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2018-03-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities. In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48%) which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7%) belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP). In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro. We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.

  1. Apolipoprotein M T-778C polymorphism is associated with serum lipid levels and the risk of coronary artery disease in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Chu, Guang; Yin, Rui-Xing

    2013-09-16

    The apolipoprotein M (APOM) T-778C gene polymorphism has been associated with serum lipid levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but the results are inconclusive. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to detect the association between the APOM T-778C polymorphism and serum lipid levels and the risk of CAD in the Chinese population. Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and CNKI were systematically searched. Data were extracted using standardized methods. The association was assessed by mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. Ten studies with 4,413 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled effects indicated that CT+CC group had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (MD:-0.36, 95% CI: -0.53 - -0.19, P < 0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.16 - -0.01, P = 0.03) than TT group. There was no difference in the levels of triglyceride (MD: 0.06, 95% CI: -0.04 - 0.15, P = 0.22) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD: 0.00, 95% CI: -0.03-0.03, P = 0.93) between TT and CT+CC groups. Pooled effects showed that CAD group had higher CT+CC genotype frequency than control group (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.62-2.39, P < 0.00001; heterogeneity test x(2) = 2.96, P = 0.71, I(2) = 0%). The results of the current meta-analysis show that the CT+CC group has higher levels of TC and LDL-C than the TT group. Moreover, there is also a prominent association between APOM T-778C polymorphism and the risk of CAD in the Chinese population, the CT+CC genotype is associated with increased risk of CAD.

  2. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  3. Gender differences in the lipid profile of dyslipidemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Anagnostopoulou, Katherine K; Damaskos, Dimitris S; Bilianou, Helen I; Mihas, Constantinos; Milionis, Haralampos J; Kostakou, Peggy M; Cokkinos, Dennis V

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the gender-associated differences in lipid profile of subjects intended to receive lipid-lowering therapy with emphasis on the associations between triglycerides (TG) and other plasma lipid variables. Lipid profiles of 1385 patients [aged 55+/-11 years, 549 women (40%)] were evaluated. Eligible subjects fulfilled one or more of the following criteria: total cholesterol (TC)>or=6.2 mmol/l, TG>or=1.7 mmol/l, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)<1.0 mmol/l. Patients were divided into subgroups according to TG and HDL-C levels. Women aged on average 3.5 years older, had higher TC and HDL-C, lower TG and a correspondingly lower TC/HDL-C ratio than men. High TG and low HDL-C in tandem appeared twice more frequently in men. Inverse correlations between HDL-C and TG levels were found to exist in the entire cohort (r=-0.354, p<0.001) and in all various subgroups. In the subgroup with TG<1.7 mmol/l, women had higher TC and HDL-C, lower TG levels and lower TC/HDL-C ratio compared with men. In the subgroup with TG>or=1.7 mmol/l, women had higher TC and HDL-C levels and lower TC/HDL ratio compared with men. In the subgroup with HDL-C>or=1.0 mmol/l women had higher HDL-C, lower TG levels and lower TC/HDL-C ratio compared with men. Elevated TG levels and low HDL-C in tandem are common lipid abnormalities in the clinical setting of primary and secondary preventions. Gender-associated differences in the lipid profile are evident in subjects presenting with dyslipidemia and might be of potential relevance for diagnostics and therapy for the prevention of atherosclerosis.

  4. [Effects of total flavonoids in Astragali Complanati Semen on liver lipid level and ERα expression on liver in hyperlipidemia rats with kidney-Yang deficiency pattern].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Ran; Wang, Jing-Xia; Fu, Lu; Yao, Jun-Kai; Li, Si-Ming; Gao, Xue-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Menopausal women appear lipid metabolism disorder with the ovarian function decline and the estrogen levels decreased. Modern clinical usually use estrogen replacement therapy and with long time application with lots of side effect appear. Traditional Chinese medicine has more secure and effective methords,using warming Yang drugs and methods. And the previous study proves the Chinese medicine Astragali Complanati Semen water extraction has a good role in regulation of blood lipids. Because of the liver is the most important organ on regulating metabolism, therefore this study aimed to evaluate the effects of total flavonoids in Astragali Complanati Semen(TFS)on liverlipid level and ERα expressionon liver in hyperlipidemia rats with kidney-Yang deficiency pattern to explore the substance basis and mechanism of Astragali Complanati Semen in regulate lipid effect and clarify traditional Chinese medicine advantages and features. This experiment uses hyperlipidemia rats with kidney-Yang deficiency pattern with bilateral ovariectomized and fed with high fat diet for 6 weeks. And rats of sham operation group and model group rats were intragastrilly(ig) with saline, estrogen group were intragastrilly with estrogen(0.2 mg·kg⁻¹). And three TFS group were intragastrilly with TFS at dose 28.5, 57, 114 mg·kg⁻¹ for 8 weeks. At the same time, TC, TG, LDL-C,HDL-C liver weight, liver index, uterine weight, uterine index, serum estrogen level, FSH levels and liver pathology, liver estrogen receptor expression were detected, weighting and calculating their organ index. The experimental results compared with the model group, TFS 114 mg·kg⁻¹ decreased the level of liver TG ( P <0.05), TC ( P <0.001) and LDL-C ( P <0.001) and increased the level of HDL-C ( P <0.05). Compared with the model group, estrogen group increased the level of blood serum ( P <0.001) and decreased the level of FSH ( P <0.001). In addition, compared with sham operation group,model group decreased the

  5. Cognition, dopamine and bioactive lipids in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Condray, Ruth; Yao, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a remarkably complex disorder with a multitude of behavioral and biological perturbations. Cognitive deficits are a core feature of this disorder, and involve abnormalities across multiple domains, including memory, attention, and perception. The complexity of this debilitating illness has led to a view that the key to unraveling its pathophysiology lies in deconstructing the clinically-defined syndrome into pathophysiologically distinct intermediate phenotypes. Accumulating evidence suggests that one of these intermediate phenotypes may involve phospholipid signaling abnormalities, particularly in relation to arachidonic acid (AA). Our data show relationships between levels of AA and performance on tests of cognition for schizophrenia patients, with defects in AA signaling associated with deficits in cognition. Moreover, dopamine may moderate these relationships between AA and cognition. Taken together, cognitive deficits, dopaminergic neurotransmission, and bioactive lipids have emerged as related features of schizophrenia. Existing treatment options for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia do not specifically target lipid-derived signaling pathways; understanding these processes could inform efforts to identify novel targets for treatment innovation. PMID:21196378

  6. The nutritional health of New Zealand vegetarian and non-vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists: selected vitamin, mineral and lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Harman, S K; Parnell, W R

    1998-03-27

    To determine whether adult non-vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists differ in selected nutrition related health aspects from adult vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists. One hundred and forty-one Seventh-day Adventist church members responded to a general health questionnaire. Forty-seven sex and age matched subjects (23 non-vegetarians and 24 vegetarians) were selected for further investigation. Blood lipids, serum vitamin B12, folate, haemoglobin and ferritin levels were measured along with stature, weight and blood pressure. A quantitative 7-day diet record was also completed. Body mass index was similar between the non-vegetarian and vegetarian groups but diastolic blood pressure was higher for non-vegetarian than vegetarian males. Even though the dietary vitamin B12 intake was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in the vegetarian group both vegetarians and non-vegetarians recorded similar serum vitamin B12 levels. The vegetarian and non-vegetarian groups had similar haemoglobin concentrations. While dietary iron intake was higher in the female vegetarian group, though predominantly in the non-haem form, the difference was not significant. Low serum ferritin levels were found in both female dietary groups even though the vegetarian group had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher vitamin C intake. Blood lipid levels were similar in the two diet groups even though the vegetarian group had a lower percentage energy contribution from total and saturated fat (p < 0.01) and consumed significantly less cholesterol. Both non-vegetarian and vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists appear likely to enjoy a lower risk of nutrition related chronic degenerative disease than the average New Zealander and have a satisfactory iron and vitamin B12 status.

  7. [The effects of simvastatin combined with different antioxidant vitamin regimens on serum lipid profile in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels].

    PubMed

    Pirat, Bahar; Korkmaz, Mehmet Emin; Eroğlu, Serpil; Tayfun, Egemen; Yildirir, Aylin; Uluçam, Melek; Ozin, Bülent; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2004-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of simvastatin versus a combination of simvastatin with vitamin C or E on serum lipid profile, particularly, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C) level, in patients with a low HDL-C level. Fifty-nine women and 49 men, who had a baseline HDL-C level equal to or lower than 40 mg/dl were randomized to one of the following study treatment groups: Group S (n=39) simvastatin 20 mg/day, Group S+C (n=33) simvastatin 20 mg/day + vitamin C 500 mg/day, and Group S+E (n=36) simvastatin 20 mg/day + vitamin E 400 IU/day. The groups' lipid profiles were obtained at baseline, 3rd and 6th months. Comparing with baseline values, total-C and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C) values significantly reduced (p<0.001) and HDL-C values significantly increased (Group S--33.9+/-3.9 mg/dl vs. 39.8+/-6.9 mg/dl, Group S+C--34.2+/-3.5 mg/dl vs. 38.1+/-6.1 mg/dl, Group S+E--33.1+/-3.6 mg/dl vs. 34.8+/-5.9 mg/dl, p<0.001) on therapy within the groups; however, there were no significant differences among the groups with regards to these parameters. The HDL-C levels increased from baseline by 14.0%, 11.7% and 10.2% in Group S, S+C, and S+E, respectively (p>0.05). A combination of simvastatin with antioxidant vitamins does not offer any beneficial effect over simvastatin alone. Particularly vitamin E seems to blunt the simvastatin induced HDL-C increase.

  8. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  9. Impaired adipose tissue lipid storage, but not altered lipolysis, contributes to elevated levels of NEFA in type 2 diabetes. Degree of hyperglycemia and adiposity are important factors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria J; Skrtic, Stanko; Katsogiannos, Petros; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Sidibeh, Cherno O; Dahgam, Santosh; Månsson, Marianne; Risérus, Ulf; Kullberg, Joel; Eriksson, Jan W

    2016-12-01

    Elevated levels of circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) mediate many adverse metabolic effects. In this work we aim to determine the impact of type 2 diabetes (T2D), glycemic control and obesity on lipolysis regulation. 20 control and 20 metformin-treated T2D subjects were matched for sex (10M/10 F), age (58±11 vs 58±9 y) and BMI (30.8±4.6 vs 30.7±4.9kg/m 2 ). In vivo lipolysis was assessed during a 3h-OGTT with plasma glycerol and NEFA levels. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies were obtained to measure mRNA and metabolite levels of factors related to lipolysis and lipid storage and to assess in vitro lipolysis in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes. Plasma NEFA AUC during the OGTT where higher 30% (P=0.005) in T2D than in control subjects, but plasma glycerol AUC and subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis in vitro were similar, suggesting that adipose tissue lipolysis is not altered. Expression in SAT of genes involved in lipid storage (FABP4, DGAT1, FASN) were reduced in T2D subjects compared with controls, but no differences were seen for genes involved in lipolysis. T2D subjects had elevated markers of beta-oxidation, α-hydroxybutyrate (1.4-fold, P<0.01) and β-hydroxybutyrate (1.7-fold, P<0.05) in plasma. In multivariate analysis, HbA1c, visceral adipose tissue volume and sex (male) were significantly associated with NEFA AUC in T2D subjects. In T2D subjects, NEFA turnover is impaired, but not due to defects in lipolysis or lipid beta-oxidation. Impaired adipose NEFA re-esterification or de novo lipogenesis is likely to contribute to higher NEFA plasma levels in T2D. The data suggest that hyperglycemia and adiposity are important contributing factors for the regulation of plasma NEFA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol and lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sozio, Margaret; Crabb, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Many new mechanisms for alcoholic steatosis have been suggested by work reported in the last five years. These include alterations of transcriptional controls of lipid metabolism, better understanding of the effects of abnormal methionine metabolism on the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, unraveling of the basis for sensitization of the Kupffer cell to lipopolysaccharide, a better understanding of the role of cytokines and adipokines in alcoholic liver disease, and implication of the innate immune and complement systems in responses to alcohol. Much of this work has been facilitated by work with knockout mice. Undoubtedly, there are interrelationships among these various pathogenic mechanisms that ultimately will provide a more cohesive picture of how heavy alcohol use deranges hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:18349117

  11. Suboptimal control of lipid levels: results from the non-interventional Centralized Pan-Russian Survey of the Undertreatment of Hypercholesterolemia II (CEPHEUS II).

    PubMed

    Boytsov, Sergey; Logunova, Natalia; Khomitskaya, Yunona

    2017-12-16

    Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) are risk factors for cardiovascular complications. This study evaluated LDL-C goal attainment in Russian clinical practice among patients with moderate to very high cardiovascular risk. The study also assessed LDL-C goal attainment in patients prescribed lipid-lowering therapy for primary compared with secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, predictors of LDL-C goal attainment, and the proportion of individuals with diabetes mellitus who achieved HbA1c < 7%. The Centralized Pan-Russian Survey on the Undertreatment of Hypercholesterolemia in Russia II (CEPHEUS II) was a multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional study conducted in the Russian Federation from September 2014 to November 2015. Participants were aged ≥ 18 years, were receiving a stable dose of lipid-lowering medication and had a moderate to very high cardiovascular risk. The primary variable was the proportion of patients reaching LDL-C goals established by the Fifth Joint European Task Force guidelines. Secondary analyses used McNemar and χ 2 tests. Data from 2703 patients were analyzed; 91.2% had a very high cardiovascular risk and 24.0% had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Overall, 17.4% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.9-18.8%) achieved LDL-C goals. Investigators estimated this proportion at 21.8% (95% CI 20.3-23.4%). LDL-C goals were achieved by more patients in the primary CVD prevention subgroup than in the secondary CVD prevention subgroup (19.7% vs 16.1%, p = 0.017). Patient-related factors associated with a decreased likelihood of achieving LDL-C goals included having ischemic heart disease or a family history of premature coronary heart disease, forgetting to take hypercholesterolemia treatment or considering it acceptable to miss prescribed doses more than once per week, and dissatisfaction with or concern about lipid-lowering therapy. Overall, 367

  12. Stability of total nutrient admixtures with lipid injectable emulsions in glass versus plastic packaging.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, David F; Silvestri, Anthony P; Bistrian, Bruce R; Mikrut, Bernard A

    2007-02-15

    The physical stability of two emulsions compounded as part of a total nutrient admixture (TNA) was studied in lipids packaged in either glass or plastic containers. Five weight-based adult TNA formulations that were designed to meet the full nutritional needs of adults with body weights between 40 and 80 kg were studied. Triplicate preparations of each TNA were assessed over 30 hours at room temperature by applying currently proposed United States Pharmacopeia (USP) criteria for mean droplet diameter, large-diameter tail, and globule-size distribution (GSD) for lipid injectable emulsions. In accordance with conditions set forth in USP chapter 729, the higher levels of volume-weighted percent of fat exceeding 5 microm (PFAT(5)) should not exceed 0.05% of the total lipid concentration. Significant differences were noted among TNA admixtures based on whether the lipid emulsion product was manufactured in glass or plastic. The plastic-contained TNAs failed the proposed USP methods for large-diameter fat globules in all formulations from the outset, and 60% had significant growth in large-diameter fat globules over time. In contrast, glass-contained TNAs were stable throughout and in all cases would have passed proposed USP limits. Certain lipid injectable emulsions packaged in plastic containers have baseline abnormal GSD profiles compared with those packaged in glass containers. When used to compound TNAs, the abnormal profile worsens and produces less stable TNAs than those compounded with lipid injectable emulsions packaged in glass containers.

  13. Effect of incremental levels of sunflower-seed oil in the diet on ruminal lipid metabolism in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, K J; Ahvenjärvi, S; Toivonen, V; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Griinari, J M

    2008-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for human health there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for enhancing the concentration of this fatty acid in ruminant-derived foods. Most evidence to date suggests that endogenous synthesis is the major source of cis-9, trans-11 in milk fat and ruminal outflow is limited and largely independent of dietary 18 : 2n-6 supply. Four lactating cows fitted with a rumen cannula were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 14 d experimental periods to examine the effects of sunflower-seed oil (SFO) as a source of 18 : 2n-6 on ruminal lipid metabolism. Cows were offered grass silage-based diets supplemented with 0, 250, 500 or 750 g SFO/d. Supplements of SFO had no effect on DM intake, milk fat or protein secretion, but increased linearly (P < 0.01) milk yield and milk lactose output and shifted (P < 0.001) rumen fermentation towards propionate at the expense of acetate. SFO supplements increased linearly (P < 0.05) the flow of 18 : 0, 18 : 1, 18 : 2n-6 and total CLA at the omasum and enhanced ruminal cis-9-18 : 1, 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3 metabolism. Flows of all-trans- (Delta4-16) and cis- (Delta9-16) 18 : 1 isomers were elevated, while increases in ruminal CLA outflow were confined to trans-8, trans-10 and geometric 9,11 and 10,12 isomers. It is concluded that supplementing grass silage-based diets with plant oils rich in 18 : 2n-6 enhances ruminal outflow of trans-11-18 : 1 and cis-9, trans-11-CLA in lactating cows.

  14. Evaluation of Serum, Urine, and Hair Chromium Levels as Indices of Chromium Exposure and the Relationship of these Indices to Serum Lipid and Insulin Levels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Janis Avril

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr) in hair, serum, and urine, and serum concentrations of insulin and lipids of a selected group of men exposed to trivalent Cr (Cr III) were compared with those of men not exposed to Cr. Seventy -three tannery workers (TW) (mean age 37 +/- 12 years) from four Southern Ontario tanneries and fifty-two control subjects (CS) (mean age 41 +/- 13 years), matched for age, race, and socioeconomic status, from the Guelph and Toronto areas participated. The median hair and serum Cr concentrations for the TW were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than for the CS (hair Cr 453 vs 124 ng/g; serum Cr 0.49 vs 0.15 ng/ml). Median urinary Cr/creatinine ratios (Cr/Cre) for the TW on Monday morning (0.83 ng/mg) and Friday afternoon (0.68 ng/mg) were also significantly higher (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively) than the median urinary Cr/Cre ratio for the urine samples collected on a Friday afternoon from the CS (0.18 ng/mg). For the TW, the median Friday urinary Cr/Cre ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.03) than the corresponding Monday Cr/Cre ratio. For the TW, urinary Cr/Cre ratios (Monday and Friday) were correlated significantly and positively with both Cr concentrations in serum (r = 0.45, p < 0.01; r = 0.71, p < 0.01, respectively) and in hair (r = 0.43, p < 0.01; r = 0.64, p < 0.01, respectively). Concentrations of Cr in hair and in serum were also significantly correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the TW and CS in serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides, or in calculated values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, %HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C. Likewise, no significant differences in serum insulin concentrations were noted between the two groups. Results of this study indicate that Cr III, from compounds used in the leather tanning industry, is absorbed and retained. Absorption of Cr III had no significant effect on serum insulin

  15. Extractions of High Quality RNA from the Seeds of Jerusalem Artichoke and Other Plant Species with High Levels of Starch and Lipid.

    PubMed

    Mornkham, Tanupat; Wangsomnuk, Preeya Puangsomlee; Fu, Yong-Bi; Wangsomnuk, Pinich; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran

    2013-04-29

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011) yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides.

  16. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P < 0.01). Patients with both OB and T2DM had the highest periostin levels. Correlation analysis showed that plasma periostin levels were positively correlated with weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  17. Effect of a modified guar gum preparation on glucose and lipid levels in diabetics and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Smith, U; Holm, G

    1982-10-01

    Six healthy volunteers and 17 diabetics (6 insulin-dependent and 11 diet- and tablet-treated) were treated with a special processed, palatable guar gum (10 g b.i.d. immediately before meals) for periods of one or three weeks or, in some cases, up to 13 weeks. A standardized test meal was given to study the effect of the fiber on postprandial glucose levels. Ten g guar was stirred in water and taken immediately before the test meal. The postprandial blood glucose levels were similar in the healthy volunteers but significantly lower in the diabetics following treatment with guar for one and three weeks, respectively. Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the diabetics after three, but not one, weeks of treatment. The lower postprandial glucose levels were coupled with attenuated and delayed insulin levels in accordance with an effect of guar gum on the rate of carbohydrate absorption. The cholesterol levels were on average reduced with 14% in the diabetics following three weeks' treatment with guar. The higher the initial cholesterol level, the greater the reduction in cholesterol; 26% reduction was achieved in four patients with initial levels above 7 mM. The alpha-lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly changed, thus an increase in the alpha-lipoprotein cholesterol/total serum cholesterol ratio was obtained. Neither plasma triglycerides nor body weights altered during treatment. The reported side-effects were as expected and were usually mild and transient (e.g. increased flatulence). The data show that guar gum also reduces postprandial glucose levels on a long-term basis and may improve the diabetic control. Additionally, treatment with this fiber leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in cholesterol levels.

  18. Circulating Levels of Hormones, Lipids, and Immune Mediators in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – A 3-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Jergović, Mladen; Bendelja, Krešo; Savić Mlakar, Ana; Vojvoda, Valerija; Aberle, Neda; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rabatić, Sabina; Sabioncello, Ante; Vidović, Anđelko

    2015-01-01

    A number of peripheral blood analytes have been proposed as potential biomarkers of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have investigated whether observed changes in biomarkers persist over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of combat-related chronic PTSD with a wide array of putative PTSD biomarkers and to determine reliability of the measurements, i.e., correlations over time. Croatian combat veterans with chronic PTSD (n = 69) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 32), all men, were assessed at two time points separated by 3 months. Serum levels of lipids, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), prolactin, and C-reactive protein were determined. Multiplex assay was used for the simultaneous assessment of 13 analytes in sera: cytokines [interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α], adhesion molecules (sPECAM-1, sICAM-1), chemokines (IL-8 and MIP-1α), sCD40L, nerve growth factor, and leptin. Group differences and changes over time were tested by parametric or non-parametric tests, including repeated measures analysis of covariance. Reliability estimates [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa] were also calculated. Robust associations of PTSD with higher levels of DHEA-S [F(1,75) = 8.14, p = 0.006)] and lower levels of prolactin [F(1,75) = 5.40, p = 0.023] were found. Measurements showed good to excellent reproducibility (DHEA-S, ICC = 0.50; prolactin, ICC = 0.79). Serum lipids did not differ between groups but significant increase of LDL-C after 3 months was observed in the PTSD group (t = 6.87, p < 0.001). IL-8 was lower in the PTSD group (t = 4.37, p < 0.001) but assessments showed poor reproducibility (ICC = −0.08). Stable DHEA-S and prolactin changes highlight their potential to be reliable markers of PTSD. Change in lipid profiles after 3 months suggests that PTSD patients may be more prone to hyperlipidemia. High

  19. A maternal Western diet during gestation and lactation modifies offspring's microbiota activity, blood lipid levels, cognitive responses, and hippocampal neurogenesis in Yucatan pigs.

    PubMed

    Val-Laillet, David; Besson, Marie; Guérin, Sylvie; Coquery, Nicolas; Randuineau, Gwénaëlle; Kanzari, Ameni; Quesnel, Hélène; Bonhomme, Nathalie; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Blat, Sophie; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Clouard, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    A suboptimal early nutritional environment ( i.e., excess of energy, sugar, and fat intake) can increase susceptibility to diseases and neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate in nonobese Yucatan minipigs ( Sus scrofa ) the impact of maternal diet [standard diet (SD) vs. Western diet (WD)] during gestation and 25 d of lactation on milk composition, blood metabolism, and microbiota activity of sows ( n = 17) and their piglets ( n = 65), and on spatial cognition ( n = 51), hippocampal plasticity ( n = 17), and food preferences/motivation ( n = 51) in the progeny. Milk dry matter and lipid content, as well as plasma total cholesterol and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations ( P < 0.05) were higher in WD than in SD sows. Microbiota activity decreased in both WD sows and 100-d-old piglets ( P < 0.05 or P < 0.10, depending on short-chain FAs [SCFAs]). At weaning [postnatal day (PND) 25], WD piglets had increased blood triglyceride and FFA levels ( P < 0.01). Both SD and WD piglets consumed more of a known SD than an unknown high-fat and -sucrose (HFS) diet ( P < 0.0001), but were quicker to obtain HFS rewards compared with SD rewards ( P < 0.01). WD piglets had higher working memory ( P = 0.015) and reference memory ( P < 0.001) scores, which may reflect better cognitive abilities in the task context and a higher motivation for the food rewards. WD piglets had a smaller hippocampal granular cell layer ( P = 0.03) and decreased neurogenesis ( P < 0.005), but increased cell proliferation ( P < 0.001). A maternal WD during gestation and lactation, even in the absence of obesity, has significant consequences for piglets' blood lipid levels, microbiota activity, gut-brain axis, and neurocognitive abilities after weaning.-Val-Laillet, D., Besson, M., Guérin, S., Coquery, N., Randuineau, G., Kanzari, A., Quesnel, H., Bonhomme, N., Bolhuis, J. E., Kemp, B., Blat, S., Le Huërou-Luron, I., Clouard, C. A maternal Western diet during gestation and

  20. Effects of chromium-enriched bacillus subtilis KT260179 supplementation on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiajun; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yayuan; Wu, Yijing

    2016-11-08

    Both chromium (Cr) and probiotic bacillus own the virtues of regulating animal metabolism and meat quality. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplemental Cr and bacillus in the form of chromium-enriched Bacillus subtilis KT260179 (CEBS) on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality. Six hundred of 1-day-old Chinese Huainan Partridge chickens were divided into four groups randomly: Control, inorganic Cr, Bacillus subtilis, and CEBS. The feed duration was 56 days. After 28 days of treatment, broiler feed CEBS or normal B. subtilis had higher body weights than control broiler, and after 56 days, chickens given either CEBS or B. subtilis had greater body weights than control broiler or those given inorganic Cr. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the CEBS group compared with the control, whereas plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly. The concentration of Cr in blood and breast muscle increased after CEBS and inorganic Cr supplementation. B. subtilis and CEBS supplementation caused a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecum, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and Salmonella decreased significantly compared to the control. Feed adding CEBS increased the lightness, redness, and yellowness of breast meat, improved the water-holding capacity, decreased the shear force and cooking loss. In all, CEBS supplementation promoted body growth, improved plasma lipid parameters, increased tissue Cr concentrations, altered cecal bacterial composition and improved breast meat quality.

  1. NO levels in diabetes mellitus: Effects of l-NAME and insulin on LCAT, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Neslihan; Akyüz, Fahrettin; Temel, Halide Edip

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease and one of the most important health problems. Several factors may be responsible for the complications of diabetes mellitus including alterations in the activities of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and also levels of nitric oxide (NO). We have investigated the effects of alterations in serum NO levels on activities of erythrocyte membran Na/K ATPase and serum LCAT enzymes. The experiments were performed on male rats divided into four groups: group 1, control (standart diet); group 2, diabetic control (single dose of 65mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ), i.p); group 3, STZ+insulin (8IU/kg/day s.c.); group 4 (STZ+l-NAME 5mg/kg/day orally). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, showed a significant increase in blood glucose and serum cholesterol (C) and triglyceride (TG). Compared to the control group with diabetic group plasma LCAT concentrations and erythrocyte membrane Na(+)/K(+) ATPase were found to be decreased. Activities of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and serum NO level were decreased with the administration of l-NAME. We observed that insulin was ameliorated in all parameters. Serum NO levels is related to erythrocyte membrane Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity. But serum NO levels did not affect the plasma LCAT activity and serum lipid profiles. Copyright © 2010 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of adiponectin-encoding gene ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms +45 and +276 on serum lipid levels after antiretroviral therapy in Japanese patients with HIV-1-infection.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideaki; Ohata, Aya; Samukawa, Sei; Ueda, Atsuhisa; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin-encoding gene ADIPOQ and changes in serum lipid levels in HIV-1-infected patients after antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART-naïve HIV-1-infected patients were recruited to this prospective analysis. SNP +45 and SNP +276 genotype was determined by direct sequencing. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyse the effects of genotype, and predisposing conditions on serum total cholesterol and triglyceride in the 4 months before and after ART initiation. The study enrolled 78 patients with HIV-1-infection (73 male, five female; age range 22-67 years). HIV-1 viral load ≥5 log10 copies/ml, baseline total cholesterol ≥160 mg/dl, and CD4(+) lymphocyte count <200/µl were associated with increased serum total cholesterol levels after ART initiation. Protease inhibitor treatment and body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) were associated with increased triglyceride levels after ART initiation. There were no significant associations between SNP +45 or SNP +276 genotype and serum total cholesterol or triglyceride levels. SNP +45 and SNP +276 genotype is not associated with changes in serum total cholesterol or triglyceride levels after ART initiation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Dietary Japanese millet protein ameliorates plasma levels of adiponectin, glucose, and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Togawa, Tubasa; Park, Kyung-Ok; Sato, Daiki; Miyakoshi, Yo; Inagaki, Kazuya; Ohmori, Norimasa; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Millet is an important food crop in Asia and Africa, but the health benefits of dietary millet are little known. This study defined the effects of dietary Japanese millet on diabetic mice. Feeding of a high-fat diet containing Japanese millet protein concentrate (JMP, 20% protein) to type 2 diabetic mice for 3 weeks significantly increased plasma levels of adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and decreased the levels of glucose and triglyceride as compared to control. The starch fraction of Japanese millet had no effect on glucose or adiponectin levels, but the prolamin fraction beneficially modulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. Considering the physiological significance of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease, our findings imply that dietary JMP has the potential to ameliorate these diseases.

  4. Lipid Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Time and International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) PSEN1 Quantitative Immunoglobulins Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Identification Red ... typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional ...