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Sample records for abnormal anal cytology

  1. Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalences and Factors Associated with Abnormal Anal Cytology in HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Cohort from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Paula M.; Lake, Jordan E.; Levi, José Eduardo; Coutinho, José Ricardo; de Andrade, Angela; Heinke, Thais; Derrico, Mônica; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Identifying factors, including human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, associated with abnormal anal cytology in HIV-infected women have implications for anal squamous cell cancer (SCC) prevention in HIV-infected women. Anal and cervical samples were collected for cytology, and tested for high-(HR-HPV) and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) genotypes in a cross-sectional analysis of the IPEC Women's HIV Cohort (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Multivariate log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios for factors associated with abnormal anal cytology [≥atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, (ASC-US)]. Characteristics of the 863 participants included: median age 42 years, 57% non-white, 79% current CD4+ T-cell count >350 cells/mm3, 53% HIV-1 viral load <50 copies/mL, median ART duration 5.8 years. Fifty-one percent of anal specimens contained ≥1 HR-HPV genotype; 31% had abnormal anal cytology [14% ASC-US, 11% low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion, (LSIL); 2% atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H); 4% high-grade SIL/cancer (HSIL+)]. In multivariate analysis, cervical LSIL+, nadir CD4+ T-cell count ≤50 cells/mm3, HIV-1 viral load ≥50 copies/mL, and anal HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 33, 45, 52, 56, and 58 were associated with ≥anal ASC-US (p<0.05). Abnormal anal cytology and HR-HPV prevalences were high. HIV-infected women with cervical LSIL+, low nadir CD4+ counts, or detectable HIV-1 viral loads should be a particular focus for enhanced anal SCC screening efforts. PMID:25361401

  2. Anal cytological abnormalities and epidemiological correlates among men who have sex with men at risk for HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of anal cancer, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related neoplasia, has been increasing in recent decades, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cytological changes of the anal epithelium induced by HPV can be detected through an anal pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological correlates of anal cytological abnormalities among relatively young MSM at risk for HIV-1 infection, to help clarify whether or not this population deserves further investigation to assess the presence of anal cancer precursor lesions. Methods MSM were recruited among attendees of a large STI clinic for a HIV-1 screening program. Anal samples, collected with a Dracon swab in PreservCyt, were used both for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior were collected in face-to-face interviews. Results A total of 346 MSM were recruited (median age 32 years). Overall, 72.5% of the individuals had an anal HPV infection, with 56.1% of them being infected by oncogenic HPV genotypes. Anal cytological abnormalities were found in 29.8% of the cases (16.7% ASC-US and 13.1% L-SIL). Presence of ASC-US+ was strongly associated with infection by any HPV type (OR=4.21, 95% CI: 1.97-9.23), and particularly by HPV 16 and/or 18 (OR=5.62, 95% CI: 2.33-13.81). A higher proportion of ASC-US+ was found in older MSM, in those with a higher number of lifetime partners and in those with a history of ano-genital warts. However, none of these variables or the others analyzed showed any significant association with abnormal cytological findings. Conclusions The presence of anal cytological abnormalities in about one third of the recruited MSM and their strong association with HPV infection, in particular that caused by HPV 16 and/or 18, might provide a further complement to the data that now support the introduction of HPV vaccination among MSM to protect them

  3. Prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Latini, Alessandra; Gabriella Dona, Maria; Ronchetti, Livia; Giglio, Amalia; Moretto, Domenico; Colafigli, Manuela; Laquintana, Valentina; Frasca, Mirko; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Antinori, Andrea; Cristaudo, Antonio; Giuliani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for 85% of anal cancers. Recently, anal cancer incidence has been increasing, particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cytology may be a useful tool for the detection of anal precancerous lesions. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM. Materials and Methods MSM ≥18-year-old attending an STI clinic in Rome (Italy) were enrolled. Anal cytologic samples were collected in PreservCyt (Hologic) using a Dacron swab. The Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics) was used for the detection and genotyping of 37 mucosal HPV types. Liquid-based cytological slides were obtained using a ThinPrep2000 processor (Hologic). The morphology of the anal pap-test was classified following the Bethesda 2001 guidelines. Results We enrolled 180 HIV-infected (median age 41 years, IQR 33–47) and 438 HIV-uninfected MSM (median age 32 years, IQR: 27–39). Most of the individuals were Caucasian (92.2% and 97.0%, respectively). HPV prevalence, both overall (93.3% vs 72.4%, p<.001) and by high-risk (HR) HPV types (80.5% vs 56.0%, p<.001), was significantly higher among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected individuals. HPV-multiple infections were evidenced in 48.2% of the HIV-uninfected and 76.1% of the HIV-infected MSM (p<.001). HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype in both groups (23.3% in HIV-positive and 17.6% in HIV-negative MSM). HPV6 and 84 were the most frequent low-risk types in both cohorts. Anal cytologic abnormalities were found in a significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected MSM (46.1% vs 27.9%, p<.001). H-SILs (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) were exclusively observed among the HIV-infected individuals, although at a low prevalence (1.2%). Conclusions A high prevalence of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities was evidenced in both populations. Nonetheless, HIV-infected MSM showed a

  4. Anal Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Women With a History of Lower Genital Tract Neoplasia Compared With Low-Risk Women

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Katina; Cronin, Beth; Bregar, Amy; Luis, Christine; DiSilvestro, Paul; Schechter, Steven; Pisharodi, Latha; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women with a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia with women without a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia. METHODS A cross-sectional cohort study was performed from December 2012 to February 2014. Women were recruited from outpatient clinics at an academic medical center. Women with a history of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal cytology, dysplasia, or cancer were considered the high-risk group. Women with no history of high-grade anogenital dysplasia or cancer were considered the low-risk group. Human immunodeficiency virus–positive women were excluded. Anal cytology and HPV genotyping were performed. Women with abnormal anal cytology were referred for high-resolution anoscopy. RESULTS There were 190 women in the high-risk group and 83 in the low-risk group. The high-risk group was slightly older: 57 years compared with 47 years (P=.045); 21.7% of low-risk women had abnormal anal cytology compared with 41.2% of high-risk women (P=.006). High-risk HPV was detected in the anal canal of 1.2% of the low-risk group compared with 20.8% of the high-risk group (P<.001). Among women who underwent anoscopy, no anal dysplasia was detected in the low-risk group, whereas 13.4% in the high-risk group had anal dysplasia with 4.2% having anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater (P<.001). CONCLUSION Human immunodeficiency virus–negative women with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia are more likely to have positive anal cytology, anal high-risk HPV, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal cancer screening should be considered for these high-risk women. PMID:26551180

  5. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    PubMed

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities. PMID:26514540

  6. Identification of Episomal Human Papillomavirus and Other DNA Viruses in Cytological Anal Samples of HIV-Uninfected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Latini, Alessandra; Giglio, Amalia; Venuti, Aldo; Giuliani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    To date, there have been only few studies that investigated integration of anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Most of them were conducted on HIV-infected individuals and mainly analyzed samples from high-grade lesions and invasive cancer. We aimed to investigate HPV physical status in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) with a detectable anal HPV infection, irrespective of the presence of lesions. We also sought to explore the presence of other circular DNA viruses in the anal region. Study participants were attendees of an STI screening program, which were also screened for anal HPV infection and cytological abnormalities. HPV physical status was assessed using multiply-primed RCA. HPV16-positive samples were also analyzed using E2/E6 multiplex PCR, qRT-PCR and APOT assay. RCA and virus-specific PCR were employed to investigate the presence of other DNA viruses. Anal HPV infection was detected in 76.9% of the 230 MSM enrolled. The anal cytological reports were: 129 NILM, 37 ASC-US and 28 L-SIL (36 samples were inadequate for interpretation). HPV physical status was evaluated in the 109 anal specimens that harbored one or two different HPV genotypes. Integration was observed only in one HPV16-positive sample (0.9%), in which integrate-derived viral transcripts of type B were detected. Integration occurred in chromosome 14 q. In 22 of the 53 (41.5%) mucosal HPV-negative samples, RCA restriction results would seem to indicate the presence of circular DNA viruses. Indeed, cutaneous HPV (4 samples), MCPyV (5 samples) and TTV (4 samples) were detected. In conclusion, anal HPV integration was rarely evidenced in HIV-uninfected MSM with no or mild anal cytological abnormalities, although the integration rate may have been underestimated because of the limitations of the employed assays. Other DNA viruses were detected in the anal samples of these individuals, although the significance of this occurrence needs to be assessed. PMID:23951299

  7. Anal Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men by Geographical Origin, Age, and Cytological Status in a Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Montserrat; González, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Fortúnez, Patricia; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José Ramón; Portilla, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients. PMID:23966501

  8. Anal human papillomavirus genotype distribution in HIV-infected men who have sex with men by geographical origin, age, and cytological status in a Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Torres, Montserrat; González, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Fortúnez, Patricia; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José Ramón; Portilla, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia; Ortiz, Marta

    2013-11-01

    Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients.

  9. Quantitative exfoliative cytology of abnormal oral mucosal smears.

    PubMed Central

    Cowpe, J G; Longmore, R B; Green, M W

    1988-01-01

    In this study quantitative techniques have been applied to smears collected from the buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth. The results display an encouraging success rate for identifying premalignant and malignant lesions. 'Intrapatient' normal smears provide a satisfactory control for comparison with pathological smears. Early results indicate that quantitative cytology could be of great value for monitoring and follow-up of suspicious lesions and provide an excellent additional diagnostic test for detecting early oral malignancy. PMID:3184106

  10. Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

    1987-08-06

    Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Macroscopic, cytological and bacteriological evaluation of anal sac content in normal dogs and in dogs with selected dermatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Ersilia; Martino, Piera Anna; Noli, Chiara

    2002-12-01

    Macroscopic and cytological aspects of anal sac content were evaluated in 40 normal dogs and 10 dogs each with pyoderma, Malassezia dermatitis associated with atopic dermatitis and uncomplicated atopic dermatitis. Bacteria isolated from anal sacs were compared with those from abdominal skin and hair in 20 normal dogs and 10 dogs with pyoderma. There was no difference between the groups in anal sac dimension, or in the colour, consistency or presence of granules in their content. Extracellular bacteria were found in higher numbers in diseased animals, whereas intracellular bacteria were observed in 40% of dogs with pyoderma and in only 2.5% of normal dogs. Malassezia spp. were present in 15.7% of dogs, with no difference between groups. Neutrophils were observed in 12.5% of normal dogs, 30% of dogs with Malassezia dermatitis with underlying atopic dermatitis and in 70 and 80% of dogs with pyoderma and uncomplicated atopic dermatitis, respectively. Seven bacterial species were isolated from anal sacs, with no difference between normal dogs and dogs with pyoderma. In five normal animals and in four dogs with pyoderma the same bacterial strains were isolated from anal sacs and from abdominal skin and hair. PMID:12464064

  12. A six-year experience with anal cytology in women with HPV in the lower genital tract: utility, limitations, and clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, L H; Carballo, P; Lorenzo, M C Cabral; García, A; Suzuki, V; Tatti, S; Vighi, S; Díaz, L B

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the utility and limitations of anal cytology as a screening method for women infected with human papilloma virus (HPV) in the lower genital tract. Furthermore, this study aimed to establish risk factors for pathological anal cytology/biopsy findings, the prevalence of anatomopathological lesions associated with positive anal brushings, and the frequency of concomitant lesions of the lower genital tract. A cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive study in 207 women with HPV-associated lesions of the lower genital tract and 25 women with immunosuppression was carried out. Anal cytology, high resolution anoscopy, and biopsy of suspicious lesions were performed. In total, 232 anal brushings were performed: 184 (79.3%) were negative, 24 (10.34%) showed atypical squamous cells of undeterminated significance, 18 (7.7%) showed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 6 (2.6%) showed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Cytohistological correlation was obtained for 70 cases. The sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting intraepithelial lesions was 70%, whereas the specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of the method for detecting high-grade lesions (84%) was higher, than that for detecting low-grade lesions (66%). The most frequently associated pathology was vulvar lesion. It is important to perform anal brushings in women who have had lower genital tract biopsies for HPV-associated lesions due to the high prevalence of anal lesions in such patients. Anal cytology is useful for detecting high-grade lesions but the sensitivity for detecting low-grade lesions is low. It is of the utmost importance to perform high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy in women with suspicious lesions in order to confirm the pathology.

  13. Cervical Pap Screening Cytological Abnormalities among HIV-Infected Adolescents in the LEGACY Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Setse, Rosanna W.; Siberry, George K.; Moss, William J.; Gravitt, Patti; Wheeling, Travis; Bohannon, Beverly; Dominguez, Kenneth; Consortium, Legacy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of cervical Pap screening (CPAP-S), identify factors associated with CPAP-S, and explore risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology in female adolescents with perinatally and behaviorally acquired HIV infection. Design Cross-sectional Setting LEGACY is a national observational cohort chart review study of 1478 HIV-infected persons (≤ age 24 years) managed in 22 HIV specialty clinics in the United States. Participants Sexually active females aged ≥13–24 years in the LEGACY cohort Main Outcome measures CPAP-S & abnormal cervical cytology. Results Of 231 sexually active female participants (>= 13 years) in 2006, 49% had CPAP-S documented since 2001. 58% of 113 cervical tests were abnormal (2% high-grade). In multivariable analysis, perinatal HIV infection and black race were associated with decreased likelihood of CPAP-S (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.45, 0.96 and APR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56, 0.96, respectively). Presence of any STI was independently associated with increased likelihood of CPAP-S (APR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21, 2.02). CD4+ T-lymphocyte count <200 cells/mL and previous STI were independently associated with increased likelihood of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 2.19, 95% CI 1.26, 3.78 & APR 1.94, 95% CI 1.29, 2.92, respectively). Conclusions Among sexually active HIV-infected adolescent females, prevalence of CPAP-S was low and cytology was abnormal in more than half of Pap smears. Perinatally HIV-infected, sexually active females were less likely to undergo CPAP-S than their behaviorally HIV-infected counterparts. Interventions targeted at HIV-infected adolescents and care providers are needed to improve CPAP-S in HIV-infected young women, especially those with perinatally acquired HIV infection. PMID:22088311

  14. Automatic recognition of abnormal cells in cytological tests using multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertych, A.; Galliano, G.; Bose, S.; Farkas, D. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic disease-related death worldwide, but is almost completely preventable with regular screening, for which cytological testing is a method of choice. Although such testing has radically lowered the death rate from cervical cancer, it is plagued by low sensitivity and inter-observer variability. Moreover, its effectiveness is still restricted because the recognition of shape and morphology of nuclei is compromised by overlapping and clumped cells. Multispectral imaging can aid enhanced morphological characterization of cytological specimens. Features including spectral intensity and texture, reflecting relevant morphological differences between normal and abnormal cells, can be derived from cytopathology images and utilized in a detection/classification scheme. Our automated processing of multispectral image cubes yields nuclear objects which are subjected to classification facilitated by a library of spectral signatures obtained from normal and abnormal cells, as marked by experts. Clumps are processed separately with reduced set of signatures. Implementation of this method yields high rate of successful detection and classification of nuclei into predefined malignant and premalignant types and correlates well with those obtained by an expert. Our multispectral approach may have an impact on the diagnostic workflow of cytological tests. Abnormal cells can be automatically highlighted and quantified, thus objectivity and performance of the reading can be improved in a way which is currently unavailable in clinical setting.

  15. Cytological Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Associated with Anal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Ruanpeng, Darin; Kaewpoowat, Quanhathai; Supindham, Taweewat; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Sukpan, Kornkanok; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Miura, Toshiyuki; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Songsupa, Radchanok; Wongthanee, Antika

    2016-01-01

    Background Anal cancer, one of human papillomavirus (HPV) related malignancies, has increased in recent decades, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected (HIV+) persons. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) using Papanicolau (Pap) screening among MSM in northern Thailand and its associated factors. Methods Two hundreds MSM aged ≥18 years reporting receptive anal intercourse in the prior 6 months were recruited from July 2012 through January 2013. Medical history and behavioral data were collected by staff interview and computer-assisted self interview. Anal Pap smear, HPV genotyping, and HIV testing were performed. Two pathologists blinded to HPV and HIV status reported cytologic results by Bethesda classification. Results Mean age was 27.2 years (range 18–54). Overall, 86 (43.0%) had ASIL: 28 (14.2%) with atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 1 (0.5%) with atypical squamous cells—cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), 56 (28.4%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 1 (0.5%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). ASIL was associated by univariate analysis (p ≤0.05) with older age, gender identity other than bisexual (i.e., gay men and transgender women), rectal douching, anal symptoms, genital warts, HIV positivity, and high-risk-HPV infection. However, on multiple logistic regression ASIL was associated only with high-risk HPV type (p = 0.002) and HIV infection (p = 0.01). Conclusions ASIL is quite common in high-risk MSM in northern Thailand and is associated with high-risk HPV types and HIV infection. Routine anal Pap screening should be considered, given the high frequency of ASIL, particularly in the HIV+. High resolution anoscopy (HRA), not done here, should be to confirm PAP smears whose sensitivity and specificity are quite variable. Timely HPV vaccination should be considered for this population

  16. The use of telemedicine in primary care for women with cervical cytological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Etherington, lan J; Watts, Anne D; Hughes, Elisabeth; Lester, Helen E

    2002-01-01

    Telemedicine can be used in two different ways in the context of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. The first method allows primary health-care providers to offer direct online booking of clinic appointments according to predefined algorithms based on the woman's cytological abnormality. The second method is telecolposcopy, which is designed to be used by nurses in primary care. Preliminary data confirm that such a system can be used reliably to make diagnoses. The technology is easily adaptable for realtime teleconsultation.

  17. HPV genotype prevalence in cervical specimens with abnormal cytology: a report from north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Rassu, Mario; Bertoloni, Giulio; Mengoli, Carlo; Peron, Antonella; Benedetti, Paolo; Palu', Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the prevalence of HPV DNA in cervical samples collected from 1335 women with abnormal Pap test and analysed the degree of association of HPV genotype with cervical cytological abnormality and also with patient age. The study was principally aimed at providing some cross-sectional figures on the epidemiology of HPV in our area, where the ethnic background is expected to rapidly evolve due to extensive immigration from overseas. 471 (35.3%) of the 1335 patients screened were positive for HPV DNA. A clear association was observed between cytological findings and the proportion of patients with positive HPV PCR, namely 24.0% HPV positivity in the ASCUS group (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 48.7% in LSIL group (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions), and 71.9% in HSIL group (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) (p-value < 0.001). High-risk (HR) HPV prevalence appeared to be different from other areas of the world; we have detected a high prevalence rate of HPV-16, 31, and 58 and a low prevalence rate of HPV-18 and 11. The prevalence of both HR and low risk (LR) genotype groups was clearly related to age (p-value < 0.001), since the prevalence of LR group had a nadir between 41 and 50 y of age and 2 peaks at 15-20 y and at over 60 y, while the curve of prevalence of HR genotypes displayed an almost inverse trend.

  18. Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology

    SciTech Connect

    Saccomanno, G.

    2000-06-30

    ''Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology'' was funded by the Department of Energy to monitor the health effects of radon exposure and/or cigarette smoke on uranium workers from the Colorado Plateau. The resulting Saccomanno Uranium Workers Archive and data base has been used as a source of information to prove eligibility for compensation under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act and as the source of primary data tissue for a subcontract and other collaborations with outside investigators. The latter includes a study of radon exposure and lung cancer risk in a non-smoking cohort of uranium miners (subcontract); a study of genetic markers for lung cancer susceptibility; and a study of {sup 210}Pb accumulation in the skull as a biomarker of radon exposure.

  19. Molecular analysis and conventional cytology: association between HPV and bacterial vaginosis in the cervical abnormalities of a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Peres, A L; Camarotti, J R S L; Cartaxo, M; Alencar, N; Stocco, R C; Beçak, W; Pontes-Filho, N T; Araújo, R F F; Lima-Filho, J L; Martins, D B G

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Papanicolaou smears in a Brazilian population. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on 673 samples collected from women attending public health centers in Olinda (PE, Brazil) by conventional cytology methodology and molecular analysis, PCR tests (GP5+/6+ and MY09/11). Cytological abnormalities, BV, and HPV-DNA were detected in 23 (3.4%) samples, 189 samples (28.1%), and 210 samples (31.2%), respectively. GP5+/6+ primers resulted in higher detection performance than MY09/11 primers, with 81% concordance between both primers (P < 0.0001). The occurrence of HPV-DNA and BV had ORs of 8.59 (P < 0.0001) and 2.91 (P = 0.0089) for abnormal cytology, respectively, whereas the concomitant presence of both infections showed an OR equal to 3.82 (P = 0.0054). Therefore, we observed an association between abnormal cervical cytology and HPV infection, BV, or both HPV infection and BV. These results highlight the necessity of monitoring patients presenting not only HPV, but also BV, as risk factors for cervical lesion development. PMID:26345883

  20. Anal atresia, abnormal genitalia, and absent thumb: congenital malformations associated with mosaic ring chromosome 13.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Z; Ozlu, T; Vural, M

    2013-01-01

    Because of the deletion of a segment of the chromosome during the formation of a ring, several clinical findings may be associated with ring chromosomes. Ring chromosome 13 is one of such disorders in which the genotype-phenotype correlation is stronger by virtue of the accumulating literature. It can be associated with multiple congenital abnormalities and severe mental retardation. We report a case with mosaic ring chromosome 13 whose prenatal ultrasound revealed bilateral ventriculomegaly. Anal atresia, unidentifiable external genitalia, and an absent thumb were observed in the postmortem examination.

  1. Spectral Cytopathology of Cervical Samples: Detecting Cellular Abnormalities in Cytologically Normal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Jennifer M.; Bird, Benjamin; Papamarkakis, Kostas; Miljković, Miloš; Bedrossian, Kristi; Laver, Nora; Diem, Max

    2010-01-01

    Aim Spectral Cytopathology (SCP) is a novel spectroscopic method for objective and unsupervised classification of individual exfoliated cells. The limitations of conventional cytopathology are well-recognized within the pathology community. In SCP, cellular differentiation is made by observing molecular changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm, which may or may not produce morphological changes detectable by conventional cytopathology. This proof of concept study demonstrates SCP’s potential as an enhancing tool for cytopathologists by aiding in the accurate and reproducible diagnosis of cells in all states of disease. Method Infrared spectra are collected from cervical cells deposited onto reflectively coated glass slides. Each cell has a corresponding infrared spectrum that describes its unique biochemical composition. Spectral data are processed and analyzed by an unsupervised chemometric algorithm, Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results In this blind study, cervical samples are classified by analyzing the spectra of morphologically normal looking squamous cells from normal samples and samples diagnosed by conventional cytopathology with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). SCP discriminated cytopathological diagnoses amongst twelve different cervical samples with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity. SCP also correlated two samples with abnormal spectral changes: these samples had a normal cytopathological diagnosis but had a history of abnormal cervical cytology. The spectral changes observed in the morphologically normal looking cells are most likely due to an infection with human papillomavirus, HPV. HPV DNA testing was conducted on five additional samples, and SCP accurately differentiated these samples by their HPV status. Conclusions SCP tracks biochemical variations in cells that are consistent with the onset of disease. HPV has been implicated as the cause of these changes detected spectroscopically. SCP does not depend on

  2. High grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-1-infected men screening for a multi-center clinical trial of a human papillomavirus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wilkin, Timothy; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Lensing, Shelly Y.; Stier, Elizabeth A.; Goldstone, Stephen E.; Berry, J. Michael; Jay, Naomi; Aboulafia, David M.; Einstein, Mark H.; Saah, Alfred; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) is the precursor lesion to invasive anal cancer. HPV vaccination holds great promise for preventing anal cancer. Methods We examined 235 HIV-1-infected men screening for participation in a multi-site clinical trial of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine. All participants had anal swabs obtained for HPV testing and cytology, and high resolution anoscopy with biopsies of visible lesions to assess for HGAIN. Results HPV 16 and 18 were detected in 23% and 10%, respectively; abnormal anal cytology was found in 56% and HGAIN in 30%. HGAIN prevalence was significantly higher in those with HPV 16 detection compared to those without (38% vs. 17%, P=.01). Use of antiretroviral therapy, nadir and current CD4+ cell count were not associated with abnormal anal cytology or HGAIN. Conclusion HGAIN is highly prevalent in HIV-infected men. Further studies are needed on treatment and prevention of HGAIN. PMID:23611828

  3. Rare association of human herpesvirus 6 DNA with human papillomavirus DNA in cervical smears of women with normal and abnormal cytologies.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, N; Romano, F M; Viviano, E; Vitale, F; Villafrate, M R; Perna, A M; Bonura, F; Guttadauro, R

    1996-01-01

    We investigated by nested PCR the possible association of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and human papillomavirus (HPV) genomes in the cervixes of 109 women with normal and abnormal cytological smears. HPV DNA was detected in 8.33% of 24 women with normal cytologies and in 41.1% of 85 women with abnormal cytologies; the proportion of HPV DNA was directly related to the severity of the lesions. HHV-6 DNA was found in only one patient, who had a cytological pattern of koilocytosis. The HHV-6 genome was classified by restriction enzyme analysis as variant B. The study indicates that detection of the HHV-6 genome in the cervixes of women with a wide spectrum of gynecological complaints is a rare event and rules out the possible association between HHV-6 and HPV genomes in cervical cancer lesions. PMID:8735129

  4. Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities or Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Incidence Area of Esophageal Carcinoma in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shaohong; Shen, Jinhui; Peng, Yanyan; Chen, Lechuan; Mai, Ruiqin; Zhang, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    Data of HPV genotype including 16 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and 4 low-risk HPV from 38,397 women with normal cytology, 1341 women with cervical cytology abnormalities, and 223 women with ISCC were retrospectively evaluated by a hospital-based study. The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.51%, 41.83%, and 96.86% in women with normal cytology, cervical cytology abnormalities, and ISCC, respectively. The three most common HPV types were HPV-52 (1.76%), HPV-16 (1.28%), and HPV-58 (0.97%) in women with normal cytology, whereas the most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (16.85%), followed by HPV-52 (9.55%) and HPV-58 (7.83%) in women with cervical cytology abnormalities. Specifically, HPV-16 had the highest frequency in ASC-H (24.16%, 36/149) and HSIL (35.71%, 110/308), while HPV-52 was the most common type in ASC-US (8.28%, 53/640) and LSIL (16.80%, 41/244). HPV-16 (75.78%), HPV18 (10.31%), and HPV58 (9.87%) were the most common types in women with ISCC. These data might contribute to increasing the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and providing the guide for vaccine selection for women in Shantou. PMID:27610364

  5. Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities or Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Incidence Area of Esophageal Carcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shaohong; Shen, Jinhui; Peng, Yanyan; Chen, Lechuan; Mai, Ruiqin

    2016-01-01

    Data of HPV genotype including 16 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and 4 low-risk HPV from 38,397 women with normal cytology, 1341 women with cervical cytology abnormalities, and 223 women with ISCC were retrospectively evaluated by a hospital-based study. The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.51%, 41.83%, and 96.86% in women with normal cytology, cervical cytology abnormalities, and ISCC, respectively. The three most common HPV types were HPV-52 (1.76%), HPV-16 (1.28%), and HPV-58 (0.97%) in women with normal cytology, whereas the most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (16.85%), followed by HPV-52 (9.55%) and HPV-58 (7.83%) in women with cervical cytology abnormalities. Specifically, HPV-16 had the highest frequency in ASC-H (24.16%, 36/149) and HSIL (35.71%, 110/308), while HPV-52 was the most common type in ASC-US (8.28%, 53/640) and LSIL (16.80%, 41/244). HPV-16 (75.78%), HPV18 (10.31%), and HPV58 (9.87%) were the most common types in women with ISCC. These data might contribute to increasing the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and providing the guide for vaccine selection for women in Shantou. PMID:27610364

  6. Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities or Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Incidence Area of Esophageal Carcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shaohong; Shen, Jinhui; Peng, Yanyan; Chen, Lechuan; Mai, Ruiqin

    2016-01-01

    Data of HPV genotype including 16 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and 4 low-risk HPV from 38,397 women with normal cytology, 1341 women with cervical cytology abnormalities, and 223 women with ISCC were retrospectively evaluated by a hospital-based study. The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.51%, 41.83%, and 96.86% in women with normal cytology, cervical cytology abnormalities, and ISCC, respectively. The three most common HPV types were HPV-52 (1.76%), HPV-16 (1.28%), and HPV-58 (0.97%) in women with normal cytology, whereas the most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (16.85%), followed by HPV-52 (9.55%) and HPV-58 (7.83%) in women with cervical cytology abnormalities. Specifically, HPV-16 had the highest frequency in ASC-H (24.16%, 36/149) and HSIL (35.71%, 110/308), while HPV-52 was the most common type in ASC-US (8.28%, 53/640) and LSIL (16.80%, 41/244). HPV-16 (75.78%), HPV18 (10.31%), and HPV58 (9.87%) were the most common types in women with ISCC. These data might contribute to increasing the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and providing the guide for vaccine selection for women in Shantou.

  7. Multiple human papillomavirus infections and HIV seropositivity as risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology among female sex workers in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Patel, S J; Mugo, N R; Cohen, C R; Ting, J; Nguti, R; Kwatampora, J; Waweru, W; Patnaik, P; Donders, G G; Kimani, J; Kenney, D L; Kiviat, N B; Smith, J S

    2013-03-01

    We estimated type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and examined risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology among 296 female sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya. Over half (54%) were infected with a high-risk (HR) HPV type, of which HPV16 and 52 were the most common types. HIV-1 prevalence was 23% and HIV-1 sero-positivity was associated with high-grade cervical lesions, particularly among women with CD4 count less than 500 cells/mm(3) (odds ratio [OR] = 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-24.9). Among women who had normal cytology at the time of entry into the study, the risk of having an abnormal Pap smear within one year was significantly elevated for women with multiple HPV types at study entry (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.0; 95% CI: 2.3-15.7) and with a subset of HR HPV types (aOR = 4.2; 95% CI: 1.6-11.2). Detection of multiple concurrent HPV infections may be a useful marker to identify women at risk of developing precancerous lesions in populations of high HPV prevalence.

  8. Individual and Partner Risk Factors Associated with Abnormal Cervical Cytology among Women in HIV-discordant Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Jason; Rositch, Anne F.; Koutsky, Laura; Guthrie, Brandon L.; Choi, Robert Y.; Bosire, Rose K.; Gatuguta, Ann; Smith, Jennifer S.; Kiarie, James; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Farquhar, Carey

    2014-01-01

    Individual and sexual partner characteristics may increase risk of abnormal cervical cytology among women in HIV-discordant relationships. Papanicolaou smears were obtained in a prospective cohort of Kenyan HIV-discordant couples. Of 441 women, 283 (64%) were HIV-infected and 158 (36%) were HIV-uninfected with HIV-infected partners. Overall, 79 (18%) had low-grade and 25 (6%) high-grade cervical abnormalities. Lack of male circumcision, male HSV-2 seropositivity and lower couple socioeconomic status were associated with cervical abnormalities (p<0.05). HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected male sex partners (CD4>350 cells/µL) had the lowest prevalence of high-grade cervical lesions. HIV-infected women (CD4>350 cells/µL) and HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected partners (CD4≤350 cells/µL) were at similar intermediate risk (P>0.05), and HIV-infected women (CD4≤350 cells/µL) had significantly higher risk of high-grade cervical abnormalities (p=0.05). Women in HIV-discordant relationships have high rates of cervical lesions and this may be influenced by couple-level factors, including HIV status and CD4 count of the infected partner. PMID:24047885

  9. Individual and partner risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology among women in HIV-discordant relationships.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jason; Rositch, Anne F; Koutsky, Laura; Guthrie, Brandon L; Choi, Robert Y; Bosire, Rose K; Gatuguta, Ann; Smith, Jennifer S; Kiarie, James; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Farquhar, Carey

    2014-04-01

    Individual and sexual partner characteristics may increase the risk of abnormal cervical cytology among women in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant relationships. Papanicolaou smears were obtained in a prospective cohort of Kenyan HIV-discordant couples. Of 441 women, 283 (64%) were HIV-infected and 158 (36%) were HIV-uninfected with HIV-infected partners. Overall, 79 (18%) had low-grade and 25 (6%) high-grade cervical abnormalities. Male herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seropositivity and lower couple socioeconomic status were associated with cervical abnormalities (p < 0.05). HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected male sex partners (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) had the lowest prevalence of high-grade cervical lesions. HIV-infected women (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) and HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected partners (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) were at similar intermediate risk (p > 0.05), and HIV-infected women (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) had significantly higher risk of high-grade cervical abnormalities (p = 0.05). Women in HIV-discordant relationships have high rates of cervical lesions and this may be influenced by couple-level factors, including HIV status and CD4 count of the infected partner.

  10. Human papillomavirus DNA and mRNA prevalence and association with cervical cytological abnormalities in the Irish HIV population.

    PubMed

    Loy, Aisling; McInerney, Jamie; Pilkington, Loretto; Keegan, Helen; Delamere, Sandra; Martin, Cara M; Sheils, Orla; O'Leary, John J; Mulcahy, Fiona

    2015-10-01

    The complex interplay between HIV and human papillomavirus and its link to cervical dysplasia is poorly understood. This is the first study to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus mRNA in HIV-positive women, its relationship to HIV and its potential use in the triage of cervical cancer screening in HIV-positive women. In this cross-sectional study, we included 321 HIV-positive women. In all, 28.7% had abnormal cervical cytology, 51.1% were human papillomavirus DNA-positive and 21.8% tested positive for human papillomavirus mRNA. Women with a CD4 count of <200 × 10(6)/L were more likely to test positive for human papillomavirus DNA and mRNA. Virally suppressed women were less likely to be human papillomavirus DNA-positive; however, the same did not hold true for human papillomavirus mRNA. We found the human papillomavirus mRNA screening to be more specific when screening for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion than human papillomavirus DNA at 84.53% compared to 57.36%. However, the sensitivity was less at 51.59% versus 91.07% for human papillomavirus DNA. It may be possible in the future to use human papillomavirus mRNA/DNA testing within a triage algorithm for the screening and management of cervical cancer in the HIV-positive patient.

  11. Human papillomavirus genotyping as a predictor of high-grade cervical dysplasia in women with mildly cytologic abnormalities: a two-year follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lee-Wen; Lin, Yu-Hung; Pan, Hun-Shan; Seow, Kok-Min; Lin, Ching-Yu

    2012-08-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA testing has emerged as another testing modality for women with mildly cytologic abnormalities. We conducted a two-year follow-up study of 108 women with mildly abnormal cervical cytology for detection of CIN 2/3. A cervical swab sample was obtained for HPV genotyping by a HPV blot and histologic follow-up results were correlated with HR-HPV types. Of the 108 cases, 93 (86.1%) were positive for HR-HPV DNA. HPV-16 was detected in 45.1% of patients. CIN grade 2 or 3 was confirmed in 25 (23.1%) of the 108 women during the two-year follow-up period. The two-year cumulative incidence rates of CIN 2/3 were 38.6% (17/44) among HPV-16- positive women, but only 5.6% among HR-HPV-positive women without HPV-16 or HPV-18. The sensitivity of a positive HPV-16 test for CIN 2/3 was 68.0%, the specificity was 67.5%. Our results demonstrated that the type-specific HPV-16 test increased sensitivity of detecting high-grade cervical dysplasia for women who have mildly cytologic abnormalities. The implication of the present findings is that HPV genotyping may identify women with the greatest risk of high-grade CIN.

  12. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Meyrelles, Angela Ri; Siqueira, Juliana D; Santos, Pâmela P Dos; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  13. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meyrelles, Angela RI; Siqueira, Juliana D; dos Santos, Pâmela P; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  14. The Impact of High-Risk HPV Genotypes Other Than HPV 16/18 on the Natural Course of Abnormal Cervical Cytology: A Korean HPV Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyeong A; Kim, Mi Jung; Lee, Ki-Heon; Lee, In-Ho; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Hwang, Chang-Sun; Jeong, Mi Seon; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Kang, Chun; Cho, Chi Heum; Kim, Seok Mo; Hong, Sung Ran; Kim, Ki Tae; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Jong Sup; Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) other than HPV 16/18 on the natural course of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and Methods The study population was derived from the Korean HPV cohort (2010-2014). Women aged 20 to 60 who satisfied the criteria of having both HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology of either ASC-US or LSIL were recruited from five institutions nationwide. Enrolled patients underwent cervical cytology and HPV DNA testing every 6 months. Results A total of 1,158 patients were enrolled. The 10 most common HPV types were HPV 16 (12.3%), 58 (10.0%), 56 (8.8%), 53 (8.4%), 52 (7.7%), 39 (6.2%), 18 (6.0%), 51 (5.7%), 68 (5.1%), and 66 (4.6%). Among these patients, 636 women were positive for high-risk HPVs other than HPV 16 or 18, and 429 women were followed for more than 6 months. Cytology evaluations showed progression in 15.3% of women, no change in 22.6%, and regression in 62.1% of women at 12 months. In cases of HPV 58 single infection, a more highly significant progression rate, compared to other high-risk types, was observed at 6 months (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04 to 5.30; p < 0.001) and 12 months (RR, 5.03; 95% CI, 2.56 to 9.91; p < 0.001). Conclusion HPV genotypes numbered in the 50s were frequent in Korean women with ASC-US and LSIL. HPV 58 was the second most common type, with a high progression rate of cervical cytology. PMID:26987394

  15. The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13,842 women.

    PubMed

    Bigras, G; de Marval, F

    2005-09-01

    In a study involving 13,842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negative tests were also biopsied. A total of 82 histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were reported in biopsies, all from the group with one or both tests positive. Sensitivity and specificity to detect histologic HSIL were 59 and 97% for cytology, and 97 and 92% for HPV. In total, 14% of reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histologic HSIL contained no morphologically abnormal cells despite a positive HPV test. This suggested a theoretical limit for cytology sensitivity. HPV viral load analysis of the 1143 HPV-positive samples showed a direct relationship between abnormal Pap test frequency and HPV viral load. Thus, not only does the HPV testing have a greater sensitivity than cytology but the probability of the latter being positive can also be defined as a function of the associated HPV viral load. PMID:16136031

  16. The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13 842 women

    PubMed Central

    Bigras, G; de Marval, F

    2005-01-01

    In a study involving 13 842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negative tests were also biopsied. A total of 82 histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were reported in biopsies, all from the group with one or both tests positive. Sensitivity and specificity to detect histologic HSIL were 59 and 97% for cytology, and 97 and 92% for HPV. In total, 14% of reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histologic HSIL contained no morphologically abnormal cells despite a positive HPV test. This suggested a theoretical limit for cytology sensitivity. HPV viral load analysis of the 1143 HPV-positive samples showed a direct relationship between abnormal Pap test frequency and HPV viral load. Thus, not only does the HPV testing have a greater sensitivity than cytology but the probability of the latter being positive can also be defined as a function of the associated HPV viral load. PMID:16136031

  17. Segmentation of cytoplasm and nuclei of abnormal cells in cervical cytology using global and local graph cuts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Kong, Hui; Chin, Chien Ting; Liu, Shaoxiong; Chen, Zhi; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping

    2014-07-01

    Automation-assisted reading (AAR) techniques have the potential to reduce errors and increase productivity in cervical cancer screening. The sensitivity of AAR relies heavily on automated segmentation of abnormal cervical cells, which is handled poorly by current segmentation algorithms. In this paper, a global and local scheme based on graph cut approach is proposed to segment cervical cells in images with a mix of healthy and abnormal cells. For cytoplasm segmentation, the multi-way graph cut is performed globally on the a* channel enhanced image, which can be effective when the image histogram presents a non-bimodal distribution. For segmentation of nuclei, especially when they are abnormal, we propose to use graph cut adaptively and locally, which allows the combination of intensity, texture, boundary and region information. Two concave points-based approaches are integrated to split the touching-nuclei. As part of an ongoing clinical trial, preliminary validation results obtained from 21 cervical cell images with non-ideal imaging condition and pathology show that our segmentation method achieved 93% accuracy for cytoplasm, and 88.4% F-measure for abnormal nuclei, outperforming state of the art methods in terms of accuracy. Our method has the potential to improve the sensitivity of AAR in screening for cervical cancer.

  18. Screening for Anal Cancer in Women

    PubMed Central

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Darragh, Teresa M.; Berry-Lawhorn, J. Michael; Roberts, Jennifer Margaret; Khan, Michelle J.; Boardman, Lori A.; Chiao, Elizabeth; Einstein, Mark H.; Goldstone, Stephen E.; Jay, Naomi; Likes, Wendy M.; Stier, Elizabeth A.; Welton, Mark Lane; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of anal cancer is higher in women than men in the general population and has been increasing for several decades. Similar to cervical cancer, most anal cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) and it is believed that anal cancers are preceded by anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Our goal was to summarize the literature on anal cancer, HSIL and HPV infection in women, and provide screening recommendations in women. Methods A group of experts convened by the ASCCP and the International Anal Neoplasia Society reviewed the literature on anal HPV infection, anal SIL and anal cancer in women. Results Anal HPV infection is common in women but is relatively transient in most. The risk of anal HSIL and cancer varies considerably by risk group, with HIV-infected women and those with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia (LGTN) at highest risk compared with the general population. Conclusions While there are no data yet to demonstrate that identification and treatment of anal HSIL leads to reduced risk of anal cancer, women in groups at the highest risk should be queried for anal cancer symptoms and have digital anorectal examinations to detect anal cancers. HIV-infected women and women with LGTN, may be considered for screening with anal cytology with triage to treatment if HSIL is diagnosed. Healthy women with no known risk factors or anal cancer symptoms do not need to be routinely screened for anal cancer or anal HSIL. PMID:26103446

  19. Randomized clinical evaluation of self-screening for anal cancer precursors in men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Lampinen, Thomas M; Miller, Mary Lou; Chan, Keith; Anema, Aranka; van Niekerk, Dirk; Schilder, Arn J; Taylor, Robert; Hogg, Robert S

    2006-01-01

    Background Self-collection of anorectal swab specimens could greatly facilitate the completion of prerequisite studies and future implementation of anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men (MSM). We therefore compared self- versus clinician- collection procedures with respect to specimen adequacy for cytological evaluation, concordance of paired cytological results, and concordance of cytological with biopsy results. Methods Paired self- and clinician- collected anorectal Dacron® swabs for liquid-based (Thin Prep®) cytological evaluation were collected in random sequence from a mostly HIV-1 seronegative cohort of young MSM in Vancouver. Slides were reviewed by one cytopathologist. Presence of any cytological abnormality (atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, ASCUS, or above) prompted referral for high-resolution anoscopy and possible biopsy. Results Among 222 patient-clinician specimen pairs, most were adequate for cytological evaluation, though self-collected specimens were less likely to be so (83% versus 92%, McNemar's test p < 0.001). Cytological abnormalities, noted in 47 (21%) of self-collected and 47 (21%) of clinician-collected specimens (with fair agreement, kappa = 0.414) included, respectively: ASCUS (5%, 5%), and low-grade (13%, 13%) and high-grade (3%, 3%) squamous intraepithelial lesions. Among 12 men with biopsy-confirmed high-grade neoplasia, most had abnormal cytological results (including 6 patient and 9 clinician swabs) but few (2 patient and 1 clinician swab) were high-grade. Conclusion Self-collection of anorectal swab specimens for cytologic screening in research and possibly clinical settings appears feasible, particularly if specimen adequacy can be further improved. The severity of biopsy-confirmed anorectal disease is seriously underestimated by cytological screening, regardless of collector. PMID:16549010

  20. The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC): design and methods of a three-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer is increasing in men who have sex with men (MSM). Screening for the presumed cancer precursor, high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in a manner analogous to cervical cancer screening has been proposed. Uncertainty remains regarding anal HPV natural history and the role of anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) as screening tests. Well-designed cohort studies are required to address these issues. Methods/design The SPANC study is a prospective study of the epidemiology of low-risk and high-risk anal HPV infection and related cytological and histological abnormalities in HIV-negative and HIV-positive homosexual men aged 35 years and over. The study aims to recruit 600 men from community-based settings in Sydney, Australia. There are six study visits over three years. At the first five visits men undergo a digital ano-rectal examination (DARE), an anal “Papanicolaou” (Pap) test for HPV detection, genotyping and anal cytology, followed by HRA and directed biopsy of any visible abnormalities. The men also complete a behavioural questionnaire before each visit. Questions include a detailed history of sexual behaviour, of anal symptoms, possible anal cancer risk factors and validated quality of life and psychosocial questions. Questionnaires are also completed 2 weeks and 3 months following the provision of test results and include questions on participant experience during the procedure and post-procedure symptoms, including pain and bleeding in addition to quality of life/ psychosocial outcomes. Discussion Recruitment for the study began in September 2010 and will conclude in mid-2015, with follow up continuing to 2018. Thus far, over 350 men have been recruited from a variety of community-based settings and are broadly representative of the target screening population. The SPANC study is one of only a small number of cohort studies globally to perform HPV

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    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Anal Cancer Anal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Anal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Anal Cancer Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention Screening ...

  3. Anal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... common type of anal cancer. It starts in cells that line the anal canal and grow into the deeper tissue. Cloacogenic carcinoma. Almost all the rest of anal cancers are tumors that start in cells lining the area between the anus and rectum. ...

  4. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Shinwon; Cho, Heerim; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Eun ju; Lee, Su jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Ki Hyung; Moon, Eunsoo; Cho, Hong Je

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. Methods A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour. Results A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM) and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW). Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001). High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4%) than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002). The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%), HPV 18 (9.9%), and HPV 58 (5%) in MSM, and HPV 58(11%) and HPV 16 (8.9%) in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001). Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001). In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection. Conclusion Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age. PMID:27548632

  5. Defensive anality and anal narcissism.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1985-01-01

    This paper aims at demonstrating a currently beleaguered assumption: the central importance, the continuing vitality, and the appropriate complexity of Freud's theory of the drives and of his idea of the primacy of the body ego. It is not enough to consider man a thinking machine or a social being; his animal nature must be given a central place in psychology. The paper postulates that 'anal or sphincter defensiveness' is one of the precursors of the repression barrier. Anality has been comparatively neglected in recent psychoanalytic literature, and so has its explorer, Karl Abraham. The paper's thesis is that there is a special defensive importance to anal erogeneity and libido, and to those aspects of ego and superego that are functionally operative (as the 'sadistic-anal organization' (Freud, 1917)) during the so-called 'sadistic-anal' developmental phase. Any of the psychic danger situations can evoke regression to manifestations of 'anal narcissim'--an attempt to master overwhelming feeling by a kind of emotional sphincter action, narrowing down the world to the controllable and the predictable. The basic assumption here is Fliess's idea that the attainment of anal sphincter control functions--with, as-it-were, 'psychic resonance'--as a means to master primal (murderous, cannibalistic) affect. For optimal psychic development, a proper balance must be attained between anal control of, and anal expression of, instinctual derivatives--especially of affect laden with aggression.

  6. p16INK4a immunocytochemistry versus human papillomavirus testing for triage of women with minor cytologic abnormalities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Jolien; Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Bergeron, Christine; Arbyn, Marc

    2012-10-25

    The best method for identifying women who have minor cervical lesions that require diagnostic workup remains unclear. The authors of this report performed a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16(INK4a)) immunocytochemistry compared with high-risk human papillomavirus DNA testing with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) to detect grade 2 or greater cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) and CIN3+ among women who had cervical cytology indicating atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or low-grade cervical lesions (LSIL). A literature search was performed in 3 electronic databases to identify studies that were eligible for this meta-analysis. Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of p16(INK4a) to detect CIN2+ was 83.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76.8%-88.2%) and 83.8% (95% CI, 73.5%-90.6%) in ASC-US and LSIL cervical cytology, respectively, and the pooled specificities were 71% (95% CI, 65%-76.4%) and 65.7% (95% CI, 54.2%-75.6%), respectively. Eight studies provided both HC2 and p16(INK4a) triage data. p16(INK4a) and HC2 had similar sensitivity, and p16(INK4a) has significantly higher specificity in the triage of women with ASC-US (relative sensitivity, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.89-1.01]; relative specificity, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.57-2.12]). In the triage of LSIL, p16(INK4a) had significantly lower sensitivity but higher specificity compared with HC2 (relative sensitivity, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.94]; relative specificity, 2.74 [95% CI, 1.99-3.76]). The published literature indicated the improved accuracy of p16(INK4a) compared with HC2 testing in the triage of women with ASC-US. In LSIL triage, p16(INK4a) was more specific but less sensitive.

  7. p16INK4a immunocytochemistry versus HPV testing for triage of women with minor cytological abnormalities: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roelens, Jolien; Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Bergeron, Christine; Arbyn, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background The best method to identify women with minor cervical lesions that require diagnostic work-up remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of p16INK4a immunocytochemistry compared to hrHPV DNA testing with hybrid capture II (HC2) to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+ and CIN3+) in women with a cervical cytology showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or low-grade cervical lesions (LSIL). Methods A literature search was performed in three electronic databases to identify studies eligible for this meta-analysis. Results Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of p16INK4a to detect CIN2+ was 83.2% (95%CI: 76.8–88.2%) and 83.8% (95%CI: 73.5–90.6%) in ASC-US and LSIL cervical cytology respectively; pooled specificities were 71.0% (95%CI: 65.0–76.4%) and 65.7% (95%CI: 54.2–75.6%). Eight studies provided both HC2 and p16INK4a triage data. p16INK4a and HC2 have a similar sensitivity and p16INK4a has significantly higher specificity in the triage of women with ASC-US (relative sensitivity: 0.95 (95%CI: 0.89–1.01); relative specificity: 1.82 (95%CI: 1.57–2.12)). In the triage of LSIL, p16INK4a has a significantly lower sensitivity but higher specificity compared to HC2 (relative sensitivity: 0.87 (95%CI: 0.81–0.94); relative specificity: 2.74 (1.99–3.76)). Conclusion The published literature indicates an improved accuracy of p16INK4a compared to HC2 testing in the triage of ASC-US. In LSIL triage p16INK4a is more specific but less sensitive. PMID:22700382

  8. Anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Schlichtemeier, Steven; Engel, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    An anal fissure is a common, mostly benign, condition that can be acute or chronic. The diagnosis is usually made on history and physical examination, but further investigations are sometimes necessary. Primary fissures are usually benign and located in the posterior or anterior position. Secondary fissures are lateral or multiple and often indicate a more serious underlying pathology. The management of primary anal fissures is generally non-operative and includes increased dietary fibre, sitz baths, topical ointments and botulinum toxin injections. If these treatments are ineffective the patient will need a surgical referral. Secondary anal fissures require further investigation. Multidisciplinary management is preferable and is essential in the case of malignancy. PMID:27041801

  9. Anal fissure

    PubMed Central

    Schlichtemeier, Steven; Engel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY An anal fissure is a common, mostly benign, condition that can be acute or chronic. The diagnosis is usually made on history and physical examination, but further investigations are sometimes necessary. Primary fissures are usually benign and located in the posterior or anterior position. Secondary fissures are lateral or multiple and often indicate a more serious underlying pathology. The management of primary anal fissures is generally non-operative and includes increased dietary fibre, sitz baths, topical ointments and botulinum toxin injections. If these treatments are ineffective the patient will need a surgical referral. Secondary anal fissures require further investigation. Multidisciplinary management is preferable and is essential in the case of malignancy. PMID:27041801

  10. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  11. Laser capture microdissection as a tool to evaluate human papillomavirus genotyping and methylation as biomarkers of persistence and progression of anal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Cornall, Alyssa M; Roberts, Jennifer M; Molano, Monica; Machalek, Dorothy A; Phillips, Samuel; Hillman, Richard J; Grulich, Andrew E; Jin, Fengyi; Poynten, I Mary; Templeton, David J; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Anal squamous cell carcinoma is preceded by persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and the cancer precursor, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Detection of specific HPV genotypes and HPV-related biomarkers may be an option for primary anal screening. However, more data on the natural history of HPV-related anal lesions are required. The outcomes from this study will enhance our understanding of the clinical and biological behaviour of HPV-related anal lesions and inform the development of future HPV genotype and/or biomarker screening tests. Methods and analysis HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men, aged 35 years and over, recruited from community-based settings in Sydney, Australia, attend 6 clinic visits over 3 years. At the first 5 visits, participants undergo a digital anorectal examination, an anal swab for HPV genotyping and anal cytology, and high-resolution anoscopy with directed biopsy of any visible abnormalities that are suggestive of any abnormality suspicious of SIL. Tissue sections from participants diagnosed with histologically confirmed HSIL at the baseline clinic visit will undergo laser capture microdissection, HPV detection and genotyping, and quantitation of CpG methylation in baseline and follow-up biopsies. Histological and cytological findings in combination with HPV genotyping data will be used to identify persistent HSIL. HSIL will be stratified as non-persistent and persistent based on their status at 12 months. The performance of HPV genotype and methylation status in predicting disease persistence at 12 months will be assessed, along with associations with HIV status and other covariates such as age. Ethics and dissemination The St Vincent's Hospital Ethics Committee granted ethics approval for the study. Written informed consent is obtained from all individuals before any study-specific procedures are performed. Findings from this study will be disseminated

  12. Anal fissure - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100154.htm Anal fissure - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... rectum through which passes stool during defecation. The anal sphincter is a critical mechanism for control of ...

  13. Survey of anal sphincter dysfunction using anal manometry in patients with fecal incontinence: a possible guide to therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mandaliya, Rohan; DiMarino, Anthony J.; Moleski, Stephanie; Rattan, Satish; Cohen, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the surge of new medical and surgical approaches to treat fecal incontinence, the types of sphincter abnormalities in patients with incontinence have not been well characterized. We aimed to categorize anal sphincter dysfunction using anorectal manometry in patients with fecal incontinence as a potential guide for improved treatment. Methods A retrospective review of 162 consecutive patients with fecal incontinence referred for anorectal manometry was performed. Resting anal pressure and maximal squeeze pressure were considered as measures of internal anal sphincter and external anal sphincter function respectively. Results Mean age of the patients was 63 years (13-89); females (81.5%) and males (18.5%). 74% of the patients had sphincter dysfunction on anorectal manometry. Internal anal sphincter dysfunction was present in 62% patients vs. external anal sphincter dysfunction present in 44% patients. 80% females had abnormal manometry vs. 44% in males (P<0.0001). Internal anal sphincter dysfunction was present in 68% females vs. 37% in males (P=0.0026). Conclusions Overall, abnormal anorectal manometry studies revealed that internal anal sphincter dysfunction is the most common finding, alone or in combination with external anal sphincter dysfunction. We suggest that anorectal manometry may be important to delineate anal sphincter function prior to using newer therapeutic mechanical devices. Future studies using pharmacological agents to increase internal anal sphincter tone may be of clinical importance. Finally, the classification of fecal incontinence based on the type of sphincter dysfunction may be an improved guide in the selection of newer agents in treating fecal incontinence. PMID:26423466

  14. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥ 30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥ CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥ CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥ CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥ 50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  15. Anal Warts and Anal Intradermal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Echenique, Ignacio; Phillips, Benjamin R.

    2011-01-01

    For the last five millennia we have been dealing with the annoyance of verrucas. Anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States and is increasing in incidence. As in other gastrointestinal conditions, HPV infection can lead to a stepwise transition from normal cells to dysplastic cells and then to invasive anal cancer. Knowledge of the natural history of HPV infection, risk factors, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic methods gives us the tools to adequately prevent, evaluate, treat, and counsel our patients. In this review, the authors detail the diagnosis, management, and treatment of anal condyloma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia with a focus on prevention, early detection, and treatment using current data and technology. PMID:22379403

  16. Anal condyloma acuminatum.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Tonna

    2009-01-01

    Anal condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV) that affects the mucosa and skin of the anorectum and genitalia. Anal condyloma acuminatum is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted disease in the United States. To date, there are more than 100 HPV types, with HPV-6, HPV-10, and HPV-11 predominately found in the anogenital region and causing approximately 90% of genital warts. Risk factors for anal condyloma acuminatum include multiple sex partners, early coital age, anal intercourse, and immunosuppression. Transmission occurs by way of skin-to-skin contact through sexual intercourse, oral sex, anal sex, or other contact involving the genital area. The virus may remain latent for months to years until specific mechanisms cause production of viral DNA, leading to the presentation of anal condyloma acuminatum.Patients with anal condyloma acuminatum may be asymptomatic or present with presence of painless bumps, itching, and discharge or bleeding. It is not uncommon to have involvement of more than one area, and multiple lesions may also be present and extend into the anal canal or rectum. To date, there is no serologic testing or culture to detect anal condyloma acuminatum; therefore, diagnosis is made clinically or by detection of HPV DNA. Multiple factors determine the choice of treatment, which may range from patient-applied medications to surgical intervention. Despite treatment choice, recurrence rates are high, indicating the importance of patient education on prevention of HPV infection and reinfection. Unfortunately, at this time, no cure exists for anal condyloma acuminatum; however, recently Gardasil and Cervarix (in Australia only) vaccines have become available and are showing promising results. PMID:19820442

  17. [Turning points in cytology].

    PubMed

    Scharf, J H

    1990-01-01

    There is given a concise and woodcut-like survey over the history of cytology with was born by the pioneering of Hooke, Grew, Malpighi, and van Leeuwenhoek at the end of XVIIth century and three crises of this science. The first crisis of cytology resulted from barren discussions of the so-called preformation hypothesis and the monadism of Leibniz. These philosophical speculations caused a melting away of the concrete facts during the XVIIth century. After the rebuilding of cytology by Meyen and Brown during the XIXth century's early thirties and the propounding of the early cell-theory by Schleiden and Schwann, the second crisis was provoked since Schleiden and Schwann, clearer than Meyen, kept the hypothesis of equivocal or spontaneous generation that was alive since Aristotéles. This 2nd crisis showed a belated sequel in the middle of XXth century brought about by sloppy investigations of Lepesinskaja. The third crisis concerns the question whether there is or whether there is not existent a membran enveloping every animal cell. Whereas Schwann himself presupposed the cell membran as an integral part of each cell, Max Schultze negates its existence. After the creation of the membran theory of synapse by Sherrington, the neuron theory by Ramón y Cajal, and the membran theory of narcosis by Meyer and Overton, the negation of the cell membran was being combined successively with the neovitalistic hypothesis of neuronal networks of Bethe and others. This spectre could really wiped out not before the modern histochemistry and electron microscopy were established in the fifties of our century.

  18. [Turning points in cytology].

    PubMed

    Scharf, J H

    1990-01-01

    There is given a concise and woodcut-like survey over the history of cytology with was born by the pioneering of Hooke, Grew, Malpighi, and van Leeuwenhoek at the end of XVIIth century and three crises of this science. The first crisis of cytology resulted from barren discussions of the so-called preformation hypothesis and the monadism of Leibniz. These philosophical speculations caused a melting away of the concrete facts during the XVIIth century. After the rebuilding of cytology by Meyen and Brown during the XIXth century's early thirties and the propounding of the early cell-theory by Schleiden and Schwann, the second crisis was provoked since Schleiden and Schwann, clearer than Meyen, kept the hypothesis of equivocal or spontaneous generation that was alive since Aristotéles. This 2nd crisis showed a belated sequel in the middle of XXth century brought about by sloppy investigations of Lepesinskaja. The third crisis concerns the question whether there is or whether there is not existent a membran enveloping every animal cell. Whereas Schwann himself presupposed the cell membran as an integral part of each cell, Max Schultze negates its existence. After the creation of the membran theory of synapse by Sherrington, the neuron theory by Ramón y Cajal, and the membran theory of narcosis by Meyer and Overton, the negation of the cell membran was being combined successively with the neovitalistic hypothesis of neuronal networks of Bethe and others. This spectre could really wiped out not before the modern histochemistry and electron microscopy were established in the fifties of our century. PMID:2080255

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  20. Informatics applied to cytology

    PubMed Central

    Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

  1. [Imprint cytology. Advantages and possibilities].

    PubMed

    Müller, H A

    1976-01-01

    Imprint cytology is a special variation of applied cytology, which can be used for quite different purposes. In scientific research cytologic imprints are very apt for cytophotometric measurements of DNA contents in nuclei as well as for karyologic studies, for instance on the different distribution of chromatin in the nuclei of benign and malignant tumors. Furthermore, imprint cytology is of great importance in teaching and learning results of aspiration biopsies, as the cellular patterns obtained with both methods are looking identical and moreover every imprint can be compared with the corresponding histologic slide. Last but not least in diagnostic procedures cytologic imprints are very helpful as an adjuvant to frozen and paraffin sections: They set off also very discrete changes and make possible diagnostic statements in a shorter time than it is possible with histologic slides.

  2. Relationship Among Anal Sphincter Injury, Patulous Anal Canal, and Anal Pressures in Patients with Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, David; Harvey, Doris M.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The anal sphincters and puborectalis are routinely imaged with an endoanal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coil, which does not assess co-aptation of the anal canal at rest. Using a MRI torso coil, we identified a patulous anal canal in some patients with anorectal disorders. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between anal sphincter and puborectalis injury, a patulous anal canal, and anal pressures. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 119 patients who underwent MRI and manometry analysis of anal anatomy and pressures, respectively, from February 2011 through March 2013 at the Mayo Clinic. Anal pressures were determined by high-resolution manometry, anal sphincter and puborectalis injury was determined by endoanal MRI, and anal canal integrity was determined by torso MRI. Associations between manometric and anatomical parameters were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Fecal incontinence (55 patients, 46%) and constipation (36 patients. 30%) were the main indications for testing; 49 patients (41%) had a patulous anal canal, which was associated with injury to more than 1 muscle (all P≤.001) and internal sphincter (P<.01), but not puborectalis (P=.09) or external sphincter (P=.06) injury. Internal (P<.01) and external sphincter injury (P=.02) and a patulous canal (P<.001), but not puborectalis injury, predicted anal resting pressure. A patulous anal canal was the only significant predictor (P<.01) of the anal squeeze pressure increment. Conclusions Patients with anorectal disorders commonly have a patulous anal canal, associated with more severe anal injury, anal resting pressure, and squeeze pressure increment. It is therefore important to identify patulous anal canal because it appears to be a marker of not only anal sphincter injury but disturbances beyond sphincter injury, such as damage to the anal cushions or anal denervation. PMID:25869638

  3. Heterosexual anal sexuality and anal sex behaviors: a review.

    PubMed

    McBride, Kimberly R; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-03-01

    Little research addresses the role of anal sexuality and anal sexual behaviors as a widely practiced but relatively less frequent element of a heterosexual sexual repertoire. However, the importance of anal sex in sexual health is increasingly well-defined by epidemiological and clinical studies. This article reviews existing data on a range of heterosexual anal sex practices and provides conceptual and methodological recommendations for new research.

  4. Encopresis and anal masturbation.

    PubMed

    Aruffo, R N; Ibarra, S; Strupp, K R

    2000-01-01

    Current pediatric and psychiatric studies on encopresis and its treatment are heavily influenced by mechanical, physiological, and behavioral considerations. Although psychodynamic treatment has generally been considered to be of little benefit, and its findings suspect, the authors suggest that a psychodynamic approach adds substantially to the understanding of some cases of encopresis; that the anal sensations and anal erotic feelings reported by a number of encopretic children are intense, and that the encopretic symptom, soiling, in these children is the result of a conscious form of anal masturbation in which the fecal mass is used for stimulation; and that any study of encopresis is incomplete that does not include what encopretic children, engaged in a sound therapeutic relationship, know and say about their soiling. The authors further suggest that physical treatments of those children whose encopresis is psychologically driven may be contraindicated. The presence of a large stool does not in itself substantiate a physical illness. Further research is needed to elucidate the prevalence of anal masturbation in encopretic children. PMID:11212192

  5. Cervical cytology screening convenient for the workforce.

    PubMed

    Andren, S M

    1991-01-01

    The study describes the demographic details and smear results of women attending a Well Woman Clinic in an Occupational Health setting over a two year period. The clinic is located close to the place of work, run during working hours, and operated by a doctor and nurse. Charging fees acceptable to women attending or their employers, the service has made a modest profit and offers scope for increasing the income against fixed costs. The age range attending is older than commonly found at screening clinics. The abnormal smear detection rate, 115 per 1000 is high while the proportion of inadequate results at 50 per 1000 compares favourably with other clinics. In an area with 13 per cent Asian population, only 5 per cent of attenders were Asian but of these one fifth had abnormal smears. A cervical cytology screening facility timed and located for the convenience of the working woman is found to attract a group of women in the older age range who have a high abnormal smear rate, and those who fail to attend elsewhere. PMID:1779673

  6. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Khushboo; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Kardam, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cytological artifacts are important to learn because an error in routine laboratory practice can bring out an erroneous result. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed fixation and morphological discrepancies created by deliberate addition of extraneous factors on the interpretation and/or diagnosis of an oral cytosmear. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out using papanicolaou and hematoxylin and eosin-stained oral smears, 6 each from 66 volunteer dental students with deliberate variation in fixation delay timings, with and without changes in temperature, undue pressure while smear making and intentional addition of contaminants. The fixation delay at room temperature was carried out at an interval of every 30 minutes, 1 day and 1 week and was continued till the end of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The temperature variations included 60 to 70°C and 3 to 4°C. Results: Light microscopically, the effect of delayed fixation at room temperature appeared first on cytoplasm followed by nucleus within the first 2 hours and on the 4th day, respectively, till complete cytoplasmic degeneration on the 23rd day. However, delayed fixation at variable temperature brought faster degenerative changes at higher temperature than lower temperature. Effect of extraneous factors revealed some interesting facts. Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy. PMID:24648667

  7. Conjunctival impression cytology fails to detect subclinical vitamin A deficiency in young children.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Mahalanabis, D; Wahed, M A; Islam, M; Habte, D; Khaled, M A; Alvarez, J O

    1995-07-01

    Thirty-four asymptomatic children, ages 5-35 mo, were studied to compare the conjunctival impression cytology technique with the relative dose response test in detection of subclinical vitamin A deficiency. Conjunctival smears were collected from the infero-temporal-bulbar conjunctiva of each eye with a strip of cellulose acetate filter paper and transferred onto a glass slide. Venous blood was drawn at 0 and 5 h after administration of an oral dose of 1000 micrograms of retinol palmitate (relative dose response test). An increase in serum retinol concentration (> or = 20%) in the 5-h value was considered indicative of an inadequate liver store of vitamin A and hence subclinical vitamin A deficiency. Of the 34 children, 26 (76.5%) had moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition. Only three children (9%) had abnormal conjunctival impression cytology, whereas 23 (68%) had abnormal relative dose response. Even more striking was the finding that only two of the 23 children with abnormal relative dose response had abnormal conjunctival impression cytology. The results suggest that the conjunctival impression cytology test has poor agreement with the relative dose response test results in assessing vitamin A status in young children. If relative dose response is considered an acceptable reference method for assessing vitamin A status, then the conjunctival impression cytology test cannot be considered a valid measure of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in this population. PMID:7616303

  8. Cytological evaluation of Apiaceae Lindl. from Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with cytological studies on 31 populations covering 17 species belonging to 10 genera of Apiaceae from Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in the two species as Chaerophyllum capnoides (n = 11) and Heracleum brunonis (n = 11), along with additional cytotypes for Pimpinella acuminata (n = 9) and Sium latijugum (n = 12) have been reported for the first time on world-wide basis. The genus Pleurospermum, although cytologically worked out earlier from outside India, its species densiflorum (n = 11) makes first representation of the genus from India. Besides, the chromosome number in Chaerophyllum aromaticum (n = 11) have been worked out for the first time from India. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Chaerophyllum villosum, Pimpinella achilleifolia and Sium latijugum while abnormal meiotic course has been observed in all the studied populations of Chaerophyllum acuminatum, C. aromaticum, C. capnoides, Pimpinella acuminata, P. diversifolia, Pleurospermum densiflorum and Vicatia coniifolia. Such taxa are marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, formation of laggards and bridges resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. The occurrence of structural heterozygosity has been recorded in the Chaerophyllum acuminatum and C. aromaticum. The effect of these abnormalities is clearly seen on the pollen size and fertility. PMID:25181856

  9. Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by cervical cytology among women in Brasov, Romania.

    PubMed

    Moga, Marius Alexandru; Irimie, Marius; Oanta, Alexandru; Pascu, Alina; Burtea, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in triggering cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women worldwide, is well established. Romania ranks in first place in Europe in terms of the incidence of cervical cancer. Geographical widespread data on HPV type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening programmes. In this study we aimed to identify the prevalence of HPV genotypes and to establish correlations with abnormal cervical cytology among the female population of Brasov County, Romania. A total of 1,000 women aged 17.3-57 years, attending routine cervical examination in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Brasov, Romania, and undergoing both cytological examination and HPV genotyping were screened. Infection with 35 different HPV genotypes was detected in 39.6% of cytological specimens. Overall HPV infections were highest in young women under 25 years (p<0.0001), in which cervical cytological abnormalities also reached the highest prevalence. Patients infected by HPV-16 or HPV-18 showed the highest prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities. Some 48.2% of women with abnormal cytology were infected with high-risk HPV types whereas less than 3% of them were infected only with low-risk HPV types. Our study showed that the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection among Romanian women is higher compared to other studies in other geographic areas. Thus, we consider that in areas where there is an increased prevalence of high-risk HPV infections, HPV genotyping should be performed in all women aged between 18 and 45 years, and Pap test should be performed every 6 months in women with high-risk HPV infection, even those with previous normal cervical cytology.

  10. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  11. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

  12. [Cytologic diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Kirdan, G V; Biriukov, Iu V; Nikolaeva, E P

    1990-08-01

    The efficacy of examination of various cytologic material in patients with mesothelioma was analysed. A total of 48 studies were carried out in 24 patients. Examination of transthoracic aspiration material obtained from the tumor and pleural cavity exudate yielded the best results. When mesothelioma of the pleura is suspected, care should be taken to collect material from different areas of the tumor, bearing in mind the significance of discovering different components of the tumor in it. On grounds of study of various cytologic material, a malignant tumor or adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 43% and mesothelioma in 48% of patients.

  13. Screening for Cervical Cancer Precursors With p16/Ki-67 Dual-Stained Cytology: Results of the PALMS Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections, can provide high sensitivity for CIN2+ in screening while maintaining high specificity. Results were compared with Pap cytology and HPV testing. Methods A total of 27349 women 18 years or older attending routine cervical cancer screening were prospectively enrolled in five European countries. Pap cytology, p16/Ki-67 immunostaining, and HPV testing were performed on all women. Positive test results triggered colposcopy referral, except for women younger than 30 years with only positive HPV test results. Presence of CIN2+ on adjudicated histology was used as the reference standard. Two-sided bias-corrected McNemar P values were determined. Results The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology positivity rates were comparable with the prevalence of abnormal Pap cytology results and less than 50% of the positivity rates observed for HPV testing. In women of all ages, dual-stained cytology was more sensitive than Pap cytology (86.7% vs 68.5%; P < .001) for detecting CIN2+, with comparable specificity (95.2% vs 95.4%; P = .15). The relative performance of the tests was similar in both groups of women: younger than age 30 and 30 years or older. HPV testing in women 30 years or older was more sensitive than dual-stained cytology (93.3% vs 84.7%; P = .03) but less specific (93.0% vs 96.2%; P < .001). Conclusions The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology combines superior sensitivity and noninferior specificity over Pap cytology for detecting CIN2+. It suggests a potential role of dual-stained cytology in screening, especially in younger women where HPV testing has its limitations. PMID:24096620

  14. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  15. Anal anatomy and normal histology.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Priti

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  16. Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Shyam Prasad; Ramani, Pratibha; Nainani, Purshotam

    2013-01-01

    Context: Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. Aims: The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Settings and Design: Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) stain, PAP (Papanicolaou) stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected) oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people) were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. Results: The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells) in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93%) in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Conclusion: Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant) cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and screening a

  17. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC) is a modified technique that was used in the current study. Aims: To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of apparently normal mucosa from healthy subjects were selected for the study. The first sample was taken and spread on the slide by the conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for seven parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, and inflammatory cells. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between CLBC and conventional cytology with parameters such as adequate cellularity (P = 0.001), clear background (P = 0.001), uniform distribution (0.005), cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation (P = 0). The presence of mucus and inflammatory cells was minimal as the samples were collected from healthy subjects. Conclusion: CLBC has better efficacy over the conventional method in all the parameters analyzed. PMID:27756981

  18. Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch

    MedlinePlus

    Restorative proctocolectomy; Ileal-anal resection; Ileal-anal pouch; J-pouch; S-pouch; Pelvic pouch; Ileal-anal pouch; Ileal ... RD, Mahmoud N, Maron DJ, Ross HM, Rombeau J. Colon and rectum. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, ...

  19. Do We Know What Causes Anal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... anal cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes anal cancer? Researchers have found some risk factors that increase ... now being done to learn how HPV might cause anal cancer. There is good evidence that HPV causes many ...

  20. Aspiration cytology of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Geisinger, K R; Weidner, N

    1986-08-01

    Although mass lesions of the salivary glands are readily accessible to examination by fine-needle aspiration, the use of this modality has been limited. In part, this may be related to the difficulty differentiating between benign and malignant neoplasms in some cytologic specimens. Marked atypia in reactive non-neoplastic epithelium also could result in a false-positive diagnosis. In addition, aspiration of hypocellular material from cystic neoplasms, eg, well-differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma, may lead to false-negative cytologic reports. However, the diagnostic specificities claimed by a number of authors for this method are excellent. Furthermore, aspirates of certain specific neoplasms may yield highly distinctive cellular samples, such as the uniform tumor cells and extracellular hyaline spheres in many adenoid cystic carcinomas. Another example is the characteristic transition between the epithelial and myoepithelial cells of pleomorphic adenomas, which may contain prominent myxoid matrical material. With the increasing recognition of such features, the reported levels of diagnostic accuracy are improving.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of screening for anal cancer using regular digital ano-rectal examinations in men who have sex with men living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason J; Fairley, Christopher K; Carroll, Susan; Walker, Sandra; Chen, Marcus; Read, Tim; Grulich, Andrew; Bradshaw, Catriona; Kaldor, John; Clarke, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV is an important issue but there are no consistent guidelines for how to screen for this cancer. In settings where screening with anal cytology is unavailable, regular anal examinations have been proposed in some guidelines but their cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods Our objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of regular anal examinations to screen for anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM living in Australia using a probabilistic Markov model. Data sources were based on the medical literature and a clinical trial of HIV-positive MSM receiving an annual anal examination in Australia. The main outcome measures for calculating effectiveness were undiscounted and discounted (at 3%) lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Base-case analysis estimated the average cost of screening for and management of anal cancer ranged from $195 for no screening to $1,915 for lifetime annual screening of men aged ≥ 50. Screening of men aged ≥ 50 generated ICERs of $29,760 per QALY gained (for screening every four years), $32,222 (every three years) and $45,484 (every two years). Uncertainty for ICERs was mostly influenced by the cost (financially and decrease in quality of life) from a false-positive result, progression rate of anal cancer, specificity of the anal examination, the probability of detection outside a screening program and the discount rate. Conclusions Screening for anal cancer by incorporating regular anal examinations into routine HIV care for MSM aged ≥ 50 is most likely to be cost-effective by conventional standards. Given that anal pap smears are not widely available yet in many clinical settings, regular anal exams for MSM living with HIV to detect anal cancer earlier should be implemented. PMID:26942721

  2. [Surgery of anal fistulas].

    PubMed

    Ricchi, E; Carriero, A; Spallanzani, A; Fundarò, S; Heydari, A; Piccoli, M; Gelmini, R

    1997-06-01

    The authors report a study on 120 patients with anal fistula (111 males and 9 females). The average age was 44.3 years (median 44, SD +/- 14.807). 64.1% of patients had an intersphincteric fistula, 23.3% hanal transphincteric fistula, 1.6% a suprasphincteric fistula, 7.5% a horseshoe fistula and the 3.3% an extrasphincteric fistula. We treated 14 patients (11.66%) with direct surgical treatment. The other 106 had various types of treatment depending on the localisation and the involvement of the anorectal sphincter. We had 11 cases (9.1%) of complications, such as recurrence in 5 patients (4.1%) transitory incontinence in 2 cases (1.6%) and finally postoperative bleeding in 3 patients (2.5%). PMID:9324655

  3. Impression Cytology with Transfer in xerophthalmia and conjunctival diseases.

    PubMed

    Resnikoff, S; Luzeau, R; Filliard, G; Amedee-Manesme, O

    1992-11-01

    During a countrywide survey, we assessed the prevalence of clinical signs of xerophthalmia and of major conjunctival diseases in a randomized sample of 2,445 subjects representative of the population of the Republic of Djibouti. On a part of this sample, conjunctival Impression Cytology with Transfer (ICT) test and a plasma retinol determination were performed. Xerophthalmia as a public health problem was displayed by clinical signs (Bitot's spots, corneal scars among preschool children), low plasma retinol levels and ICT test results: 9.3% with deficient cytology in the rural area and 12.3% in the urban one (age-standardized rates). Results of ICT were related to age (p < 0.00001). Vitamin A deficiency was prevalent not only in preschool children but also up to 15 years. Moreover, ICT results are influenced by conjunctival diseases: compared to age-matched controls, there were more abnormal cytologies among patients with trachomatous inflammation (p = 0.025), conjunctivitis (p = 0.024) or Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (p = 0.015). Thus ICT shouldn't be performed among children with conjunctival diseases. In the region under study conjunctival diseases had high rates of prevalence: 16.4% of trachomatous scarrings in the urban area (standardized rate), 8% of conjunctivitis among rural preschool children, and 5% of Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis among children between 5 and 14 years in both areas. PMID:1490836

  4. The cytology of giant solitary trichoepithelioma

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Divya, KN

    2010-01-01

    Giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST) is a rare trichogenic tumor, which may present as a pigmented lesion. An 80-year-old man was diagnosed to have giant solitary trichoepithelioma on fine-needle aspiration cytology. The cytological findings represented the histological features. The recognition of GST is important because of its close resemblance to basal cell carcinoma and other skin adnexal tumors – clinically, cytologically and histologically. PMID:21187885

  5. Cytologic study of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, T; Kanamaru, T; Shingaki, S; Mizutani, H; Nakajima, T

    1980-02-01

    Cytologic examination was performed on 22 known oral tumors of glandular origin. Cytologically, the cells of benign pleomorphic adenomas and an adenolymphoma could easily be identified as of benign tumor origin, but cytologic determination of malignancy was difficult in 11 of 14 malignant tumors due to lack of malignant features. A precise and comparative study of the morphologic details of the tumor cells with the histologic findings, however, seemed to suggest a possibility of determining the histologic type even in smear preparations.

  6. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  7. Education and training in cytology in Europe.

    PubMed

    Tötsch, M

    2016-10-01

    Education and training in cytology in Europe is hampered by the fact that there is no homogenous programme across Europe. This can be observed for (Cyto)Pathologists and Cytotechnologists. However, lack of workforce and lack of a pan-European Cytology diploma are decreasing motivation among junior staff to dedicate their professional interests to cytology. Cytology and histology are complementary approaches for the diagnosis or exclusion of disease in patients and there are many individual efforts of National Societies to maintain competencies in cytology by workshops, seminars, tutorials and congresses. Furthermore, professional organizations such as the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) - Section Pathology are working together in order to develop a pan-European Cytology diploma. The EFCS is part supported by EU funding in this endeavour. Activities are ongoing in the fields of training (Eurocytology) and examination (QUATE Aptitude Test - Quality Assurance, Training and Examination) or both (Cy-Test). Modern techniques such as Webatlas with teaching modules in cytology and Tele(cyto)pathology are more and more integrated in daily teaching activities resulting in standardization of cytology in Europe. PMID:27650599

  8. Conjunctival impression cytology: bright hope of children.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A practical method of screening for pre-clinical xerophthalmia due to vitamin A deficiency, called conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), is described as it is being used in a training stage in the Philippines. The noninvasive technic consists of touching the conjunctiva with a filter paper disc, and fixing and staining the disc on a slide for histology. Normally goblet cells with mucin spots are seen among sheets of epithelial cells. In abnormal conjunctiva from vitamin A deficient individuals, the epithelial cells are enlarged, and goblet cells are lacking. These specimens may be obtained from areas of the conjunctiva that appear clinically normal. The equipment needed is millipore paper, a hand-held suction pump with 5 feet of tubing, tissue or gauze, screw-top vials, labels, fixative, Papanicolaou stain, and a microscope. Vitamin A supplements can be given to affected children, or to the whole population at risk. With CIC training materials donated by International Center for Epidemiologic and Preventive Ophthalmology (ICEPO) at the Wilmer Institute, and the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, the 1st training class was certified by the Nutrition Center of the Philippines. Twice yearly training of physicians and technologists has been recommended.

  9. The impact of positive peritoneal cytology on prognosis in patients with cervical cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang-Hee; Kim, Soo-Nyung; Shim, Seung-Hyuk; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Sun-Joo; Oh, In-Kyeong; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact of positive peritoneal cytology on the prognosis of cervical cancer is controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to determine its impact on recurrence, and to investigate correlations between abnormal cytology and/or lymph node metastasis in cervical cancer. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted through July 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by standard meta-analysis techniques with the fixed-effects models, if there was no significant statistical heterogeneity across studies by using I2. Results: Of 303 studies retrieved, 6 were included in the meta-analysis. These six case–control observational studies included 1360 cervical cancer patients who showed negative peritoneal cytology and 64 who showed positive peritoneal cytology. Over the combined study period, 20 of 45 in the positive peritoneal cytology group experienced recurrence, whereas 88 of 539 controls did. The meta-analysis based on the fixed-effects model indicated a significant increase in the risk of recurrence in the positive peritoneal cytology group relative to the control group (OR: 4.47; 95% CI: 2.33–8.58, P<0.001, I2=0.0%). Moreover, the results of our meta-analysis suggested that the positive peritoneal cytology group displayed more lymph node metastasis than the negative peritoneal cytology group (OR: 3.73; 95% CI: 2.13–6.53, P<0.001, I2=0.0%). Conclusions: Although based mainly on retrospective observational studies, our meta-analysis indicates that abnormal peritoneal cytology may be strongly associated with poor prognosis in patients with cervical cancer. Future research should verify this relationship through prospective observational studies over a longer term. PMID:26225551

  10. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject.

  11. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Barbeiro, Sandra; Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject. PMID:27626027

  12. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject. PMID:27626027

  13. [Cytological observation on pollen abortion of genetic male sterile mutant induced by space flight in maize].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi Zhao; Cao, Mo Ju; Rong, Ting Zhao; Pan, Guang Tang; Tang, Qi Lin; Zhu, Ying Guo

    2007-10-01

    In order to understand the cytological mechanism of pollen abortion of genetic male sterile mutant induced by space flight in maize, the sister cross population were used for sterility analysis and cytological observation. Intact anther observation, isolated cells observation and paraffin section were adopted in this research. The results showed that pollen abortion occured mostly in dyad stage of meiosis in genetic male sterile mutant. The dyad were degenerated with abnormal shape. In late anther developing stage, the tapetal cells were giant vacuolated and delayed degeneration. The pollen mother cells (PMC) began to dissolve and degenerate in a few anther before meiosis.

  14. Cytology of the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2014-03-01

    Common usage of fine-needle aspirate (FNA) for salivary gland lesions is the preoperative determination of whether a lesion is neoplastic, its lineage, and if neoplastic, whether it is low grade/benign, or high grade. Immunohistochemical stains can be performed on cell blocks to determine lineage and help refine diagnosis, although their performance is not always equivalent to that seen in surgical specimens. Several characteristic translocations have been described in various entities in these categories, and these can be evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the future, high-throughput next-generation sequencing panels may further refine cytologic diagnosis in salivary tumors.

  15. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  16. Modern management of anal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Limura, Elsa; Giordano, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Ideal surgical treatment for anal fistula should aim to eradicate sepsis and promote healing of the tract, whilst preserving the sphincters and the mechanism of continence. For the simple and most distal fistulae, conventional surgical options such as laying open of the fistula tract seem to be relatively safe and therefore, well accepted in clinical practise. However, for the more complex fistulae where a significant proportion of the anal sphincter is involved, great concern remains about damaging the sphincter and subsequent poor functional outcome, which is quite inevitable following conventional surgical treatment. For this reason, over the last two decades, many sphincter-preserving procedures for the treatment of anal fistula have been introduced with the common goal of minimising the injury to the anal sphincters and preserving optimal function. Among them, the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure appears to be safe and effective and may be routinely considered for complex anal fistula. Another technique, the anal fistula plug, derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa, is safe but modestly effective in long-term follow-up, with success rates varying from 24%-88%. The failure rate may be due to its extrusion from the fistula tract. To obviate that, a new designed plug (GORE BioA®) was introduced, but long term data regarding its efficacy are scant. Fibrin glue showed poor and variable healing rate (14%-74%). FiLaC and video-assisted anal fistula treatment procedures, respectively using laser and electrode energy, are expensive and yet to be thoroughly assessed in clinical practise. Recently, a therapy using autologous adipose-derived stem cells has been described. Their properties of regenerating tissues and suppressing inflammatory response must be better investigated on anal fistulae, and studies remain in progress. The aim of this present article is to review the pertinent literature, describing the advantages and limitations of

  17. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Anal Cancer Screening in an Urban HIV Clinic: Provider Perceptions and Practice.

    PubMed

    Sowah, Leonard Anang; Buchwald, Ulrike K; Riedel, David J; Gilliam, Bruce L; Khambaty, Mariam; Fantry, Lori; Spencer, Derek E; Weaver, Jeffery; Taylor, Gregory; Skoglund, Mary; Amoroso, Anthony; Redfield, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we sought to understand the perceptions and practice of providers on anal cancer screening in HIV-infected patients. Providers in an academic outpatient HIV practice were surveyed. Data were analyzed to determine the acceptability and perceptions of providers on anal Papanicolaou tests. Survey response rate was 55.3% (60.7% among male and 47.4% among female providers). One-third of the providers had received screening requests from patients. Female providers had higher self-rated comfort with anal Papanicolaou tests, with a mean score of 7.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7-9.5) compared to 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-5.7) for male providers, P = .02. Sixty-seven percent of male providers and 37.5% of female providers would like to refer their patients for screening rather than perform the test themselves. Only 54.2% of our providers have ever performed anal cytology examination. Our survey revealed that not all providers were comfortable performing anal cancer screening for their patients.

  19. FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cotter, Shane E.; Grigsby, Perry W. . E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu; Siegel, Barry A.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Surgical staging and treatment of anal carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy. In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the anal canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved anal carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT. Patients ranged in age from 30 to 89 years. Nine men were HIV-positive. Treatment was with standard Nigro regimen. Results: [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) detected 91% of nonexcised primary tumors, whereas CT visualized 59%. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal uptake in pelvic nodes of 5 patients with normal pelvic CT scans. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal nodes in 20% of groins that were normal by CT, and in 23% without abnormality on physical examination. Furthermore, 17% of groins negative by both CT and physical examination showed abnormal uptake on FDG-PET/CT. HIV-positive patients had an increased frequency of PET-positive lymph nodes. Conclusion: [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography detects the primary tumor more often than CT. FDG-PET/CT detects substantially more abnormal inguinal lymph nodes than are identified by standard clinical staging with CT and physical examination.

  20. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  1. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  2. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  3. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  4. Surgery for Crohn's anal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Sugita, A; Koganei, K; Harada, H; Yamazaki, Y; Fukushima, T; Shimada, H

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the features of Crohn's anal fistulas and to evaluate the efficacy of seton treatment. In 119 patients with Crohn's disease, the incidence of anal fistula was 56% (67/119), with no significant difference in the incidence among patients with ileitis, colitis, and ileocolitis. "Intractable" anal fistulas were found in 17% of patients with ileitis, compared to 64% of those with colitis (P = 0.051) and 68% of those with ileocolitis (P = 0.014). Seton treatment, i.e., non-cutting, long-term seton drainage, was performed for 21 patients (5 with intersphincteric, and 16 with transsphincteric fistulas). In the 16-month follow up, 9 patients required redrainage for recurrent fistulous abscess, mainly because of progressive colorectal disease. Finally, a good result was obtained in 17 of the 21 patients (81%) and no recurrent fistulous abscess developed in the 8 patients in whom all setons were removed. Anal continence was preserved in all the patients. These results indicate that anal fistulas with Crohn's ileitis were cured more easily than those with colitis or ileocolitis, and that seton treatment was effective for intersphincteric fistula with multiple fistula openings and for transphincteric fistulas in patients exhibiting remission of intestinal Crohn's disease. PMID:8563879

  5. Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori in gastric brushing cytology.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, P R; Carrozza, M J; Ruggiero, F M; Calafati, S A; Jann, R C

    1992-01-01

    Helicobacter (formerly Campylobacter) pylori is frequently associated with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and has been implicated as an etiologic agent. Identification of H. pylori is important for specific treatment with antibiotics and bismuth compounds. We studied 27 patients who presented with symptoms of gastritis or peptic ulcer on whom paired gastric biopsies and gastric brushings for cytology had been performed. Biopsies were stained with H & E and Warthin-Starry or Giemsa for H. pylori. Previously, Papanicolaou-stained brushings were restained with Giemsa and reviewed blindly by two cytologists. Cytologic examination revealed the characteristic 1-3 mu curved or spiral gram-negative bacilli embedded in mucus in 12 of 27 (44%) of cases. Biopsies showed H. pylori in 13 of 27 (48%) of cases. Cytology and histology were concordant in 22 of 27 (81%) of cases. Three cases were positive on biopsy, negative on cytology; two of these were unsatisfactory cytology specimens. Two cases were positive on cytology, negative on biopsy, apparently sampling artifacts. Papanicolaou-stained slides were scored for several morphologic parameters; numbers of acute and chronic inflammatory cells and degree of cytologic atypia. None of these were predictive of the presence of H. pylori. We conclude that Giemsa-stained gastric brushings are a useful complement to gastric biopsies in establishing the diagnosis of H. pylori.

  6. [Information technologies in clinical cytology (a lecture)].

    PubMed

    Shabalova, I P; Dzhangirova, T V; Kasoian, K T

    2010-07-01

    The lecture is devoted to the urgent problem that is to increase the quality of cytological diagnosis, by diminishing the subjectivism factor via introduction of up-to-date computer information technologies into a cytologist's practice. Its main lines from the standardization of cytological specimen preparation to the registration of a cytologist's opinion and the assessment of the specialist's work quality at the laboratories that successfully use the capacities of the current information systems are described. Information technology capabilities to improve the interpretation of the cellular composition of cytological specimens are detailed. PMID:20799410

  7. [Day surgery for anal disease].

    PubMed

    Takano, M

    2000-10-01

    Historically, patients with anal diseases treated on a day surgery basis had inadequate cure rates and a high complication rate. After World War II, modern treatment methods were learned from the UK and USA and improved in Japan. However, the improved radical methods were so complex that approximately 2 weeks' hospitalization was needed. Recently, day surgery for various diseases including hemorrhoids has been recommended by the Japanese ministry of Health and Welfare. However, the characteristics of anal anatomy and physiology make the smooth healing of wounds difficult and tend to cause postoperative pain, bleeding, infection, prolonged healing time, etc. To prevent such difficulties, care must be well planned following the critical path of informed consent, careful surgery, postoperative observation, and management at home. However, hospital staff in charge of such surgery are under so much stress that only patients with less severe anal disease without local or systemic complications should be selected for day surgery.

  8. Conservative treatment for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Anal incontinence (AI) in adults is a troublesome condition that negatively impacts upon quality of life and results in significant embarrassment and social isolation. The conservative management of AI is the first step and targets symptomatic relief. The reported significant improvement with conservative treatments for AI is close to 25% and involves prescribed changes in lifestyle habits, a reduced intake of foods that may cause or aggravate diarrhea or rectal urgency, and the use of specific anti-diarrheal agents. The use of a mechanical barrier in the form of an anal plug and the outcomes and principles of pelvic kinesitherapies and biofeedback options are outlined. This review discusses a gastroenterologist's approach towards conservative therapy in patients referred with anal incontinence. PMID:24759347

  9. Cytological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Susan J; Sanchez-Moran, Eugenio; Franklin, F Chris H

    2009-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology and in the genetics of Arabidopsis thaliana have led to this organism becoming an important model for the analysis of meiosis in plants. Cytogenetic investigations are pivotal to meiotic studies and a number of technological improvements for Arabidopsis cytology have provided a range of tools to investigate chromosome behaviour during meiosis. This chapter includes protocols on basic cytology, FISH analysis, immunocytology, a procedure for a meiotic time course and electron microscopy.

  10. THE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF GASTRIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Charles D.; Johnson, William D.; Wilbur, Richard S.; Lack, Arthur J.

    1961-01-01

    Established centers find that cytological study of gastric washings with saline or chymotrypsin, adequately performed, is a valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of early and curable gastric carcinoma. Our experience with a small series of 150 patients, studied by saline gastric washing, has emphasized the difficulties of collection and the particular importance of obtaining, by repeated washings if necessary, an adequate specimen of gastric epithelial cells for diagnosis, before an opinion is given. It seems likely that the cytological method will be of future value in study of the natural history of gastric malignant disease and in detection of its surface lesions in their earliest form in asymptomatic, known-susceptible persons. Further, it should become a complementary part of the “stomach profile” in gastric diagnostic problems, where roentgenologic and gastroscopic studies may be expected to reveal the older, necrotic, or infiltrative lesions; cytological study, the earlier and more superficial stages of disease. PMID:13862364

  11. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Zaharopoulos, P; Wong, J Y

    1992-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was performed in seven cases of fibromatosis of variable types with tumorous clinical presentation. These included: four cases of musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis, two in posterior neck muscles, one in anterior neck muscles and one in intercostal muscles; one case of fibromatosis of the breast; and two cases of fibromatosis colli in neonates. In all cases the specimens contained connective tissue with many fibroblast-like cells, lacking features which could indicate a malignant lesion. The findings in these cases indicate that, although by FNA cytology in fibromatoses a specific diagnosis for each pathologic entity may not be easily reached, in the proper clinical setting the cytologic findings can be of sufficient relevance to offset the need for an open tissue biopsy, where there are valid reasons against a surgical intervention.

  12. [Hemorrhoidal disease accompanied by anal prolapsus and its treatment methods].

    PubMed

    Dzhavalov, É A; Khalilova, L F

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate specifications of the surgery, its post-operative period and complications in patients with traditional hemorrhoidectomy which is a procedure performed by using a linear stapler along with a circular resection of prolapsed mucosal and sub-mucosal layers of lower rectal ampulla with the utilization of Longo technique. The study was conducted with the participation of 398 patients with the hemorrhoidal disease accompanied by anal prolapsus of which 338 (84%) were composed of males and 65 (16%) of females. Out of 398 patients, 308 (77%) underwent stapler hemorrohidectomy using linear stapler, 74 (19%) patients had conventional hemorrhoidectomy with the utilization of electric coagulation and 16 (4%) of them received circular hemorroidopexy using Longo technique. According to the data obtained during this research linear stapler use in the treatment of hemorroidal desease, accompanied by anal prolapses is an effective and technically simple solution to the problem. This method is implemented quickly, allows to cover greater part of abnormally changed cavernous tissue and conduct persist lifting of anal canal mucosal layer. It is also a safe method without any disease relapses.

  13. [Hemorrhoidal disease accompanied by anal prolapsus and its treatment methods].

    PubMed

    Dzhavalov, É A; Khalilova, L F

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate specifications of the surgery, its post-operative period and complications in patients with traditional hemorrhoidectomy which is a procedure performed by using a linear stapler along with a circular resection of prolapsed mucosal and sub-mucosal layers of lower rectal ampulla with the utilization of Longo technique. The study was conducted with the participation of 398 patients with the hemorrhoidal disease accompanied by anal prolapsus of which 338 (84%) were composed of males and 65 (16%) of females. Out of 398 patients, 308 (77%) underwent stapler hemorrohidectomy using linear stapler, 74 (19%) patients had conventional hemorrhoidectomy with the utilization of electric coagulation and 16 (4%) of them received circular hemorroidopexy using Longo technique. According to the data obtained during this research linear stapler use in the treatment of hemorroidal desease, accompanied by anal prolapses is an effective and technically simple solution to the problem. This method is implemented quickly, allows to cover greater part of abnormally changed cavernous tissue and conduct persist lifting of anal canal mucosal layer. It is also a safe method without any disease relapses. PMID:24781070

  14. Tumor Response and Survival Predicted by Post-Therapy FDG-PET/CT in Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Julie K.; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Myerson, Robert J.; Fleshman, James W.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the response to therapy for anal carcinoma using post-therapy imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and to compare the metabolic response with patient outcome. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 53 consecutive patients with anal cancer. All patients underwent pre- and post-treatment whole-body FDG-PET/computed tomography. Patients had been treated with external beam radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Whole-body FDG-PET was performed 0.9-5.4 months (mean, 2.1) after therapy completion. Results: The post-therapy PET scan did not show any abnormal FDG uptake (complete metabolic response) in 44 patients. Persistent abnormal FDG uptake (partial metabolic response) was found in the anal tumor in 9 patients. The 2-year cause-specific survival rate was 94% for patients with a complete vs. 39% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p = 0.0008). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 95% for patients with a complete vs. 22% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p < 0.0001). A Cox proportional hazards model of survival outcome indicated that a complete metabolic response was the most significant predictor of progression-free survival in our patient population (p = 0.0003). Conclusions: A partial metabolic response in the anal tumor as determined by post-therapy FDG-PET is predictive of significantly decreased progression-free and cause-specific survival after chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer.

  15. Carcinoma in ectopic breast: a cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shailaja; Sehgal, Shivali; Rai, Preeti; Agarwal, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic breast carcinoma in the axillary region is rare with an incidence ranging from 0.3-6%. We report a case of infiltrating duct carcinoma in an adult female arising in aberrant breast tissue in the axilla diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. There was history of recent increase in size of the lump which was otherwise present for the past 5 years. This case highlights the role fine needle aspiration cytology can play in the early diagnosis of malignant transformation of lumps.

  16. Nasseem Husain: homage to a pioneer of cytology automation.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, G; Herbert, A

    2015-08-01

    Dr Oliver Anthony Nasseem Husain, who died on 22 September 2014, aged 90 years, was one of the great names of European cytology, a pioneer of automated cervical screening and a founding member of both the British Society for Clinical Cytology (BSCC) and the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS). The life of this one remarkable man involved much of the pioneering work, which is reviewed in this article, that has brought conventional cytology to the complex multimodal discipline it is today.

  17. [Anal fissure--a new therapy concept].

    PubMed

    Hetzer, F H; Baumann, M; Röthlin, M

    2000-08-24

    The anal fissure is one of the most frequent causes for anal pain. Conservative treatment usually consists of laxatives, local anesthetics and nitroglycerin cream. These therapies have a high recurrency rate. Surgical interventions, i.e. manual dilatation and sphincterotomy are fraught with the danger of fecal incontinence. The completely reversible effect of botulinum toxin injection opens new possibilities in the treatment of anal fissures. Its use is discussed as part of a 3-stage therapeutic regimen.

  18. Cisplatin and Fluorouracil Compared With Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Inoperable Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Anal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-22

    Anal Basaloid Carcinoma; Anal Canal Cloacogenic Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Anal Canal Carcinoma; Recurrent Anal Canal Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Anal Canal Cancer; Stage IV Anal Canal Cancer

  19. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  20. [Who performs gynecological cytology and how?].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, D; Neumann, H H

    2015-11-01

    Since 1971 German women aged 20 years and older can annually participate in the gynecological cancer screening program free of charge. As part of this program a cervical smear is taken for testing. The Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, GBA) is planning to change this system so that women aged over 30 years can either choose to continue with annual cytological screening using a cervical smear or can primarily opt for a human papillomavirus (HPV) test every 5 years. Women who are HPV positive will receive a supplementary cytological examination as a triage method. In Germany classification of the cytological results is based on the third revision of the Munich nomenclature (Münchner Nomenklatur, MN III), which has been in operation since 1 January 2015. The number of accredited cytology institutions and of cytologists has changed considerably since 2008. There has been a marked increase in the number of pathologists by 28.4%, which is a promising trend. The number of tests carried out has remained relatively constant; however, an increasing number of tests are now being performed in large laboratories.

  1. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  5. Limitations and value of aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M M; Hajdu, S I; Jordan, A G

    1984-03-01

    The successes of aspiration cytology have enhanced its popularity over the past few years. Now the limitations of the technique are becoming apparent. This article reviews the uses and contraindications for the detection of benign and malignant lesions in various body sites.

  6. Human papillomavirus genotypes distribution by cervical cytologic status among women attending the General Hospital of Loandjili, Pointe-Noire, Southwest Congo (Brazzaville).

    PubMed

    Boumba, Luc Magloire Anicet; Qmichou, Zineb; Mouallif, Mustapha; Attaleb, Mohammed; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Hilali, Lahoucine; Donatien, Moukassa; Ennaji, Moulay Mustapha

    2015-10-01

    HPV infection is associated with cervical cancer, one of the major public health problems in developing countries. In the Republic of Congo, despite of the high age-standardized incidence rate estimated at 25.2 per 100,000 women, molecular epidemiology data on HPV infections are very limited. We investigated HPV genotypes distribution in cervical smears among patients attending the General Hospital of Loandjili, Southwest Congo. A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted on 321 women. Liquid-based cytology samples were collected for cytological diagnosis and HPV detection. Nested-PCR was performed using MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+ primers with genotyping by direct sequencing. Type-specific PCR for HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and -33 was also used to assess multiple infections. Out of 321 women examined, 189 (58.8%) had normal cytology, 16 (5.0%) had ASCUS and 116 (36.1%) had cytological abnormalities. HPV-DNA was detected in 22 (11.6%), 6 (37.5%), and 104 (89.6%) normal cytology, ASCUS and cytological abnormalities respectively. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype regardless of cytological status followed by HPV70 in women without lesions and HPV33 among those with lesions. HR-HPV prevalence varied significantly according to the cervical cytology (P = 0.000). Among women without lesions, two peaks of HPV infections were observed in age group less than 30 years (60.0%) and in age group 50-59 years (7.1%). Age, age of first sex, multiple sexual partners and pregnancies were the risk factors for HPV infection in women without lesions. Our findings could be used as evidence data base for future epidemiological monitoring in this region.

  7. Quantitative risk stratification of oral leukoplakia with exfoliative cytology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Li, Jianying; Liu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Xudong; Khawar, Waqaar; Zhang, Xinyan; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Test outcome is reported as "negative", "atypical" (defined as abnormal epithelial changes of uncertain diagnostic significance), and "positive" (defined as definitive cellular evidence of epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma). The major challenge is how to properly manage the "atypical" patients in order to diagnose OSCC early and prevent OSCC. In this study, we collected exfoliative cytology data, histopathology data, and clinical data of normal subjects (n=102), oral leukoplakia (OLK) patients (n=82), and OSCC patients (n=93), and developed a data analysis procedure for quantitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This procedure involving a step called expert-guided data transformation and reconstruction (EdTAR) which allows automatic data processing and reconstruction and reveals informative signals for subsequent risk stratification. Modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Among the several models tested using resampling methods for parameter pruning and performance evaluation, Support Vector Machine (SVM) was found to be optimal with a high sensitivity (median>0.98) and specificity (median>0.99). With the SVM model, we constructed an oral cancer risk index (OCRI) which may potentially guide clinical follow-up of OLK patients. One OLK patient with an initial OCRI of 0.88 developed OSCC after 40 months of follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed a statistical method for qualitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This method may potentially improve cost-effectiveness of clinical follow-up of OLK patients, and help design clinical chemoprevention trial for high-risk populations.

  8. Increased anal basal pressure in chronic anal fissures may be caused by overreaction of the anal-external sphincter continence reflex.

    PubMed

    van Meegdenburg, Maxime M; Trzpis, Monika; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M A

    2016-09-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a painful disorder caused by linear ulcers in the distal anal mucosa. Even though it counts as one of the most common benign anorectal disorders, its precise etiology and pathophysiology remains unclear. Current thinking is that anal fissures are caused by anal trauma and pain, which leads to internal anal sphincter hypertonia. Increased anal basal pressure leads to diminished anodermal blood flow and local ischemia, which delays healing and leads to chronic anal fissure. The current treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure is either lateral internal sphincterotomy or botulinum toxin injections. In contrast to current thinking, we hypothesize that the external, rather than the internal, anal sphincter is responsible for increased anal basal pressure in patients suffering from chronic anal fissure. We think that damage to the anal mucosa leads to hypersensitivity of the contact receptors of the anal-external sphincter continence reflex, resulting in overreaction of the reflex. Overreaction causes spasm of the external anal sphincter. This in turn leads to increased anal basal pressure, diminished anodermal blood flow, and ischemia. Ischemia, finally, prevents the anal fissure from healing. Our hypothesis is supported by two findings. The first concerned a chronic anal fissure patient with increased anal basal pressure (170mmHg) who had undergone lateral sphincterotomy. Directly after the operation, while the submucosal anesthetic was still active, basal anal pressure decreased to 80mmHg. Seven hours after the operation, when the anesthetic had completely worn off, basal anal pressure increased again to 125mmHg, even though the internal anal sphincter could no longer be responsible for the increase. Second, in contrast to previous studies, recent studies demonstrated that botulinum toxin influences external anal sphincter activity and, because it is a striated muscle relaxant, it seems reasonable to presume that it affects the striated

  9. Anal HPV/HIV co-infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men: a cross-sectional survey from three cities in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangwei; Li, Mufei; Yang, Yu; Zhong, Xiang; Feng, Boxuan; Xin, Henan; Li, Zhen; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is linked to anal warts and anal cancer, is common among men who have sex with men (MSM), especially among those HIV positives. MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited from mainland China. Blood and anal cytologic samples were collected for HIV-1 serological test and HPV genotyping. A total of 889 eligible participations were included. The genotyping results of HPV were available for 822 participants (92.46%), 65.32% of which were positive for the targeted 37 HPV types. Prevalence of infection with any type of HPV was higher among HIV-infected participants (82.69%) as compared to HIV-uninfected participants (62.81%) (p < 0.01). HPV06 (15.45%), HPV18(13.50%), HPV16 (11.44%), and HPV11 (10.71%) were the most frequent types identified in the study population. Ever had paid sex with man was found to be independent predictor for HPV positivity with an adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 2.34 (1.16–4.74). Anal HPV positivity was observed to be independently associated with HIV infection with an adjusted OR of 3.03 (1.76–5.21) in the study population. In conclusion, the prevalence of anal HPV infection was observed to be common among MSM from mainland China, and it was significantly associated with the status of HIV infection. PMID:26892938

  10. Infusing Swanson's Theory of caring into an advanced practice nursing model for an infectious diseases anal dysplasia clinic.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Richard L; Corless, Inge B; Davis, Sheila M; Kwong, Jeffrey J

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing among HIV-infected men and women. The process of screening for anal dysplasia and the management of abnormal findings are currently and most often based on a medical model. The needs of these patients, however, go well beyond medical care. A more comprehensive and holistic approach to health care is, therefore, required. Given the scope of practice of advanced practice nurses who are involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with anal dysplasia, it is appropriate for them to assume leadership roles in addressing the needs of these patients. This article describes the application of a theory of caring to create an advanced practice nursing model of care for HIV-infected men and women in infectious diseases anal dysplasia clinics. PMID:22035527

  11. Genetic Abnormalities in Biliary Brush Samples for Distinguishing Cholangiocarcinoma from Benign Strictures in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Timmer, Margriet R.; Lau, Chiu T.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Fockens, Paul; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Calpe, Silvia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease and is strongly associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The lack of efficient diagnostic methods for CCA is a major problem. Testing for genetic abnormalities may increase the diagnostic value of cytology. Methods. We assessed genetic abnormalities for CDKN2A, TP53, ERBB2, 20q, MYC, and chromosomes 7 and 17 and measures of genetic clonal diversity in brush samples from 29 PSC patients with benign biliary strictures and 12 patients with sporadic CCA or PSC-associated CCA. Diagnostic performance of cytology alone and in combination with genetic markers was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve analysis. Results. The presence of MYC gain and CDKN2A loss as well as a higher clonal diversity was significantly associated with malignancy. MYC gain increased the sensitivity of cytology from 50% to 83%. However, the specificity decreased from 97% to 76%. The diagnostic accuracy of the best performing measures of clonal diversity was similar to the combination of cytology and MYC. Adding CDKN2A loss to the panel had no additional benefit. Conclusion. Evaluation of MYC abnormalities and measures of clonal diversity in brush cytology specimens may be of clinical value in distinguishing CCA from benign biliary strictures in PSC. PMID:27127503

  12. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    PubMed Central

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  13. Impression Cytology of the Lid Wiper Area.

    PubMed

    Muntz, Alex; van Doorn, Kevin; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Jones, Lyndon W

    2016-01-01

    Few reports on the cellular anatomy of the lid wiper (LW) area of the inner eyelid exist and only one report makes use of cytological methods. The optimization of a method of collecting, staining and imaging cells from the LW region using impression cytology (IC) is described in this study. Cells are collected from the inner surface of the upper eyelid of human subjects using hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes, and stained with cytological dyes to reveal the presence of goblet cells, mucins, cell nuclei and various degrees of pre- and para-keratinization. Immunocytochemical dyes show cell esterase activity and compromised cell membranes by the use of a confocal scanning laser microscope. Up to 100 microscopic digital images are captured for each sample and stitched into a high-resolution, large scale image of the entire IC span. We demonstrate a higher sensitivity of IC than reported before, appropriate for identifying cellular morphologies and metabolic activity in the LW area. To our knowledge, this is the first time this selection of fluorescent dyes was used to image LW IC membranes. This protocol will be effective in future studies to reveal undocumented details of the LW area, such as assessing cellular particularities of contact lens wearers or patients with dry eye or lid wiper epitheliopathy. PMID:27584693

  14. Results of sputum, cytology among workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer and to poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed

    Maltoni, C; Lodi, P

    1981-10-01

    The results of systematic cytological sputum examinations of 3,380 Italian VC-PVC industry workers and of 2,287 workers in other industries at different potential risk and chosen as control groups are reported. The results indicate an increase in cellular abnormalities and dysplasias in the epithelium of the respiratory tract among VC-PVC workers. These data are in line with experimental results showing that VC produces lung tumors in mice and with early epidemiological evidence among exposed workers.

  15. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Stier, Elizabeth A; Chigurupati, Nagasudha L; Fung, Leslie

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. High risk populations include HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive women and heterosexual men and women with a history of cervical cancer. HPV has been detected in over 90% of anal cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine has been demonstrated to prevent vaccine associated persistent anal HPV infections as well as anal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3 (AIN2+) in young MSM not previously infected. A retrospective analysis also suggests that qHPV vaccination of older MSM treated for AIN2+ may significantly decrease the risk of recurrence of the AIN2+. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. Thus, the 9-valent HPV vaccine, when administered to boys and girls prior to the onset of sexual activity, should effectively prevent anal cancer. PMID:26933898

  16. Anal erogeneity: the goose and the rat.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1982-01-01

    A case is presented in which the patient's traumatically derived intense anal erogeneity (associated with traumatic anxiety as well as with castration anxiety) inhibited his phallic sensations and potency and also his power to sustain productive thought. His passive cravings were disguised and reacted against in his compulsive-exhibitionistically phallic role of a Don Juan. He described at least two levels of anal feelings: a dangerous but exciting, tolerable or even pleasurable tension associated with the imago of the goose; and an unbearable, terrifying overcharged level embodied in the imago of the rat. (He had read of, and had felt himself identified with, Freud's Rat Man.) Contrasts are presented with François Rabelais' account of the instinctual development and anal training of Gargantua, in which the connotations of the goose lead to a happy anal, phallic and intellectual control. Generalizations are ventured about the crucial attainment of command over the anal sphincter for the taming of 'primal affect'(Fliess). With early psychopathology there is a defensive overcathexis of anal control (and of anal mechanisms and character traits) to try to contain over-stimulation. In contrast true anal mastery contributes to the acquisition of optimal genital feelings and functioning and to the capacity for sustaining integrative thinking so necessary for 'owning' one's affects and impulses, and therefore for a feeling of identity. Finally, some remarks of Freud on Rabelais are reviewed in relation to levels of urethral erogeneity, seen as developmental way stations between the anal and the phallic, and partaking of both.

  17. Cytological features of carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini in voided urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Ishikawa, Masashi; Haba, Reiji

    2009-09-01

    Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini (CCDB) is a rare histological type of renal cell carcinoma. This article describes the cytological features of CCDB in voided urine, confirmed on the basis of the histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The CCDB cells occurred singly in loose aggregates and in small clusters, occasionally in a rosette-like structure. There were various types of cancer cells, including round to oval, spindle, and tadpole-like cells. The nuclei usually showed coarse chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and lacy to vacuolated cytoplasm. CCDB of the kidney is a rare cytodiagnostic challenge in voided urine cytology alone. When the cytological diagnosis is considered, it is necessary to perform immunocytochemistry and correlate the clinical history and imaging studies.

  18. Bacterial Pericarditis Accompanied by Sudden Cardiac Tamponade After Transbronchial Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Imai, Yukihiro; Tomii, Keisuke

    2016-04-01

    A 48-year-old man was referred for an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Transbronchial needle aspiration cytology was performed at the mediastinal necrotic lymph node #7, and he was diagnosed as having small cell carcinoma. Fifteen days after bronchoscopy, sudden cardiac tamponade occurred and pericardial drainage suggested a diagnosis of bacterial pericarditis. He was successfully treated by drainage and administration of antibiotics. Complication of bacterial pericarditis associated with bronchoscopy is rare. However, physicians should watch for the appearance of this condition for up to 3 weeks after bronchoscopy, especially in cases with necrotic lymph nodes. PMID:27058720

  19. Quality control for normal liquid-based cytology: Rescreening, high-risk HPV targeted reviewing and/or high-risk HPV detection?

    PubMed Central

    Depuydt, Christophe E; Arbyn, Marc; Benoy, Ina H; Vandepitte, Johan; Vereecken, Annie J; Bogers, Johannes J

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to compare the number of CIN2+cases detected in negative cytology by different quality control (QC) methods. Full rescreening, high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV)-targeted reviewing and HR HPV detection were compared. Randomly selected negative cytology detected by BD FocalPoint™ (NFR), by guided screening of the prescreened which needed further review (GS) and by manual screening (MS) was used. A 3-year follow-up period was available. Full rescreening of cytology only detected 23.5% of CIN2+ cases, whereas the cytological rescreening of oncogenic positive slides (high-risk HPV-targeted reviewing) detected 7 of 17 CIN2+ cases (41.2%). Quantitative real-time PCR for 15 oncogenic HPV types detected all CIN2+ cases. Relative sensitivity to detect histological CIN2+ was 0.24 for full rescreening, 0.41 for HR-targeted reviewing and 1.00 for HR HPV detection. In more than half of the reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histological CIN2+cases no morphologically abnormal cells were detected despite a positive HPV test. The visual cut-off for the detection of abnormal cytology was established at 6.5 HR HPV copies/cell. High-risk HPV detection has a higher yield for detection of CIN2+ cases as compared to manual screening followed by 5% full review, or compared to targeted reviewing of smears positive for oncogenic HPV types, and show diagnostic properties that support its use as a QC procedure in cytologic laboratories. PMID:18544049

  20. ABC3 Part I: a review of the guidelines for terminology, classification and management of cervical cytology in England.

    PubMed

    Smith, J H F

    2012-12-01

    The provision of guidance on cytology reporting and evaluation, first outlined in 1995 with the publication of Achievable Standards, Benchmarks for Reporting, and Criteria for Evaluating Cervical Cytopathology (ABC), and subsequently revised and expanded in a second edition in 2000, has been pivotal to the success of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP), ensuring that standards are upheld, and that rigorous evaluation and quality assurance take place. In the last decade, major changes to the NHSCSP, notably the adoption of revised age ranges and screening intervals for all women in England, implementation of liquid-based cytology and, most recently, the decision to introduce high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing for triage of low-grade and borderline (equivalent to 'atypical') cytological abnormalities and test of cure after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) determined that an updated version of ABC was required. The third edition of ABC recommends adoption, with minor modification, of the revised British Society for Clinical Cytology terminology and provides guidance on the management of abnormal cytology results linked to this terminology taking account of HR-HPV testing. To accommodate these changes, expanded result codes, which are electronic codes used to transfer management information to central computers for follow-up, call and recall of individual women, have been developed. Further guidance on specimen adequacy is also provided. Revised performance indicators are described and explained in a separate article by R. Blanks in this issue of Cytopathology. All the changes in ABC3 are designed to support the mission statement of the NHSCSP that 'the objective of cervical screening is to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality by screening with a high sensitivity for the detection of CIN2 or worse, whilst maintaining a high specificity'. PMID:23173804

  1. Cytology training in the UK: a training centre prospective.

    PubMed

    Dudding, N

    2016-10-01

    Training in both cervical and non-gynaecological cytology in the UK has never faced a more challenging environment. A national reconfiguration of cervical cytology services has focussed resources on large centres and damaged the traditional links and overlapping roles within non-gynaecological cytology. The UK is now at significant risk of falling behind most European countries in the use of non-gynaecological cytology. The UK currently has five training centres which are approved by the NHS Screening programme for training in cervical cytology; the planned introduction of HPV primary screening and the subsequent dramatic reduction in cervical cytology workload will increase pressure on the remaining training schools. Funding is variable across the country as is the degree of diversification that training schools have undertaken to try to ensure a viable future. It is vital for the future of cytology in the UK that the strong network of training schools remain to ensure the quality of the laboratory service as the UK moves towards HrHPV primary screening. There is no doubt that the training school roles will change and new technology embraced to deliver training fit for the changing role of cytology in healthcare but this will require funding and recognition of the vital role the training centres play in the delivery of high quality training in both cervical and non-gynaecological cytology. PMID:27650600

  2. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of Citrus clementina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidization. The study included comparisons of their ploidy, homozygosity, genome integrity, and gene dosage, using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, SSR marker genotyping, and array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH). Results Chromosome counting and flow cytometry revealed that ESP and FRA were haploid, but ITA was tri-haploid. Homozygous patterns, represented by a single peak (allele), were observed among the three plants at almost all SSR loci distributed across the entire diploid donor genome. Those few loci with extra peaks visualized as output from automated sequencing runs, generally low or ambiguous, might result from amplicons of paralogous members at the locus, non-specific sites, or unexpected recombinant alleles. No new alleles were found, suggesting the genomes remained stable and intact during gametogenesis and regeneration. The integrity of the haploid genome also was supported by array-CGH studies, in which genomic profiles were comparable to the diploid control. Conclusions The presence of few gene hybridization abnormalities, corroborated by gene dosage measurements, were hypothetically due to the segregation of hemizygous alleles and minor genomic rearrangements occurring during the haploidization procedure. In conclusion, these plants that are valuable genetic and breeding materials contain completely homozygous and essentially intact genomes. PMID:24020638

  3. The Correlation of Routine Tear Function Tests and Conjunctival Impression Cytology in Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prachi; Kumar, Manoj; Ranjan, Somesh; Kumar, Manjushri; Verma, Pratima

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To establish the strength of the association between routine tear function tests and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and to determine whether they simulate the morphological and cytological changes that occur on the ocular surface in dry eye. What are the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of these tests when CIC is considered the gold standard? Methods The tear film profile included tear film break up time (TBUT), Schirmer's-1, Rose Bengal scores (RBS), and impression cytology. CIC samples were obtained from the inferior bulbar conjunctiva and stained with periodic acid-Schiff and counter stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results The mean Schirmer's value was 11.66 ± 5.90 in patients and 17.17 ± 2.97 in controls (p < 0.001). The mean TBUT in participants was 8.88 ± 3.54 and 13.53 ± 2.12 in controls (p < 0.001). Patients had a mean goblet cell density (GCD) of 490 ± 213, while the value for controls was 1,462 ± 661 (p < 0.001). Abnormal CIC was observed in 46.7% cases of dry eye and in 32.8% of controls. The correlation coefficient (L) for Schirmer's was 0.2 and 0.24 for participants and controls, respectively, while TBUT values were 0.26 and 0.38, RBS were 0.5 and 0.5, and GCD was 0.8 and 0.6 in cases and controls, respectively. Conclusions GCD, RBS, and TBUT were better predictors of morphological and cytological changes in the conjunctiva than Schirmer's in dry eye syndrome. The sensitivity of tear function tests in diagnosing dry eye was TBUT > Schirmer's > RBS, and the specificity was Schirmer's > TBUT > RBS in decreasing order when CIC was considered the gold standard. PMID:24688254

  4. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth. PMID:26712673

  5. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  6. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  7. Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions are frequent among young HIV-infected men who have sex with men followed up at the Spanish AIDS Research Network Cohort (CoRIS-HPV).

    PubMed

    González, Cristina; Torres, Montserrat; Benito, Amparo; Del Romero, Jorge; Rodríguez, Carmen; Fontillón, María; Trastoy, Mónica; Viciana, Pompeyo; Del Amo, Julia; Ortiz, Marta; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz

    2013-09-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the baseline prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and associated risk factors in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in a Spanish ongoing multicenter cohort. CoRIS-HPV started in 2007, nested in the Spanish AIDS Research Network Cohort (CoRIS). Anal liquid cytology testing was performed. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection was determined, and positive samples were genotyped. We analyzed all subjects up to April 2011. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 551 subjects with baseline anal liquid cytologies were analyzed; 37.0% negative for intraepithelial lesion, 9.0% atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS), 41.0% low-grade SIL, 4.0% high-grade SIL and 9.0% inadequate. Prevalence of anal SIL (excluding ASCUS) in valid samples (n = 450) was 54.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.9-59.3). Globally HR-HPV prevalence was 81.7% (95% CI = 78.0-85.2). Multiple infections (≥2 HR-HPV genotypes) were documented in 77.7% (95% CI = 73.1-82.0). The only risk factor associated with anal SIL was the number of HR-HPV types; MSM with five or more HR-HPV genotypes had an odds ratio (OR) of anal SIL seven times greater (OR = 7.4; 95% CI = 2.8-19.6) than those with one HR-HPV genotype. No associations were found for age, educational level, smoking, geographical origin, CD4 T-cell count, antiretroviral treatment or number of sexual partners. The prevalence of anal SIL in young HIV-positive MSM is high, and the main risk factor is multiple infections with HR-HPV types.

  8. Concurrent evaluation of visual, cytological and HPV testing as screening methods for the early detection of cervical neoplasia in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Surendra S.; Dinshaw, Ketayun; Amin, Geetanjali; Goswami, Smriti; Patil, Sharmila; Chinoy, Roshini; Kane, S.; Kelkar, Rohini; Muwonge, Richard; Mahé, Cédric; Ajit, Dulhan; Sankaranarayanan, R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Naked eye visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA (VIAM), visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing were evaluated as screening methods for the detection of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) of the uterine cervix in a cross-sectional study in Mumbai, India. METHODS: Cytology, HPV testing, VIA, VIAM and VILI were carried out concurrently for 4039 women aged 30-65 years. All women were investigated with colposcopy and biopsies were taken from 939 women who had colposcopic abnormalities. The reference standard for final disease status was histology or negative colposcopy. The presence of HSIL was confirmed in 57 women (1.4%). The test characteristics for each method were calculated using standard formulae. RESULTS: The sensitivities of cytology, HPV testing, VIA, VIAM and VILI were 57.4%, 62.0%, 59.7%, 64.9%, and 75.4%, respectively (differences were not statistically significant). The specificities were 98.6%, 93.5%, 88.4%, 86.3%, and 84.3%, respectively. Adding a visual test to cytology or HPV testing in parallel combination resulted in a substantial increase in sensitivity, with a moderate decrease in specificity. The parallel combination of VILI and HPV testing resulted in a sensitivity of 92.0% and a specificity of 79.9%. CONCLUSION: As a single test, cytology had the best balance of sensitivity and specificity. Visual tests are promising in low-resource settings, such as India. The use of both VIA and VILI may be considered where good quality cytology or HPV testing are not feasible. The sensitivity of cytology and HPV testing increased significantly when combined with VIA or VILI. PMID:15798842

  9. Proctology - diseases of the anal region.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Proctology is a medical subspecialty that encompasses diseases of the perianal region, anal canal, and rectum. Dermatologists play a pivotal role in this realm, as inflammatory perianal disorders, infectious and sexually transmitted diseases, as well as perianal tumors and their precursor lesions fall within the core competency of dermatology. In a concise manner, the present article highlights all relevant disease groups in the field of proctology. With a particular focus on aspects pertinent to dermatologists, this includes inflammatory disorders, "classic" proctologic diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, malignancies of the anal region, as well as pathogen-induced diseases. Despite the wide variety of disorders, there are only five key symptoms prompting patients to consult a proctologist, including anal pruritus and burning, discharge, bleeding, pain, and foreign body sensation. A simple algorithm, which incorporates these symptoms as well as key clinical features, may assist in quickly establishing the correct diagnosis in everyday clinical practice. PMID:27027745

  10. HPV infection, anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal cancer: current issues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is well known as the major etiological agent for ano-genital cancer. In contrast to cervical cancer, anal cancer is uncommon, but is increasing steadily in the community over the last few decades. However, it has undergone an exponential rise in the men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV + groups. HIV + MSM in particular, have anal cancer incidences about three times that of the highest worldwide reported cervical cancer incidences. Discussion There has therefore traditionally been a lack of data from studies focused on heterosexual men and non-HIV + women. There is also less evidence reporting on the putative precursor lesion to anal cancer (AIN – anal intraepithelial neoplasia), when compared to cervical cancer and CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). This review summarises the available biological and epidemiological evidence for HPV in the anal site and the pathogenesis of AIN and anal cancer amongst traditionally non-high risk groups. Summary There is strong evidence to conclude that high-grade AIN is a precursor to anal cancer, and some data on the progression of AIN to invasive cancer. PMID:22958276

  11. LIGHT MICROSCOPE OBSERVATIONS ON CYTOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF NITRATE, PHOSPHATE, AND SILICATE DEFICIENCY IN FOUR MARINE CENTRIC DIATOMS.

    PubMed

    Holmes, R W

    1966-12-01

    Cytological changes induced by nitrate or phosphate limitation were reproducible and readily visible by phase contrast microscopy in Coscinodiscus wailesii, Ditylum brightwellii, Rhizosolenia hebetata f. semi-spina, Skeletonema costatum, and Stephanopyxis turris. These effects included changes in chromatophore number and shape, pyrenoid location, and mitochondrial abundance and appearance. In S. costatum, a diatom containing only 1 chromatophore, only nitrogen-deficient cells could be recognized. Silicate deficiency prevented cell division almost entirely. When a few cells did divide in the presence of low silicate, abnormalities in valve structure occurred in some cells. Cytological differences with N and P deficiency may permit a rough assessment of the physiological condition of the same or similar species in natural diatom communities. PMID:27053480

  12. [Tamoxifen and cervico-vaginal cytology].

    PubMed

    Ayoubi, J M; Monrozies, X; Ayoubi, F; Charasson, T; Reme, J M

    1994-04-01

    The impact of tamoxifen on the genital tract was assessed by cervico-vaginal cytology. Fifty two post-menopausal patients treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer were regularly monitored, with a pre-treatment reference smear showing a profoundly menopausal status, followed by an anual smear. Smears returned to a functional status in 44% of patients after 2 to 5 years treatment. The agonist effect of tamoxifen appears to be beyond any doubt, and responsible for certain adverse reactions. This should not bring into question the usefulness of the drug, but indicates the need for regular monitoring and, in the presence of a functional smear, further investigation by vaginal ultrasonography is essential in order to evaluate the status of the endometrium. PMID:8036383

  13. Iatrogenic calcinosis cutis: A rare cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sawke, Gopal Krishna; Rai, Tina; Sawke, Nilima

    2016-01-01

    Calcinosis cutis is an uncommon condition characterized by the deposition of calcium salts in the subcutaneous tissues of the body. Calcifications can also occur in a variety of other clinical settings and can be subjected to fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Since cutaneous calcific deposits may clinically mimic a tumor, it is feasible to diagnose them by FNA cytology (FNAC). We reported a case of calcinosis cutis by FNA in a 36-year-old male who presented with a solitary subcutaneous nodule in cubital fossa. Smears showed amorphous granular material consistent with calcium and occasional histiocytes. The diagnosis was confirmed when cytosmears were subjected to a special stain such as the von Kossa stain.

  14. Associations between sexually transmitted infections, high-risk human papillomavirus infection, and abnormal cervical Pap smear results in OB/GYN outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the meaning and usefulness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) test when caring for patients who have abnormal cervical cytology and/or positive high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test results. Methods Among patients who underwent liquid-based cervical cytology and HPV DNA tests at the Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient clinic, 800 patients who showed abnormal cervical cytology were compared with 200 patients in the control group. Both groups were simultaneously tested via multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for seven types of STI-causative microorganisms. Results The positive rate of high-risk HPV infection in total STIs positive group was 1.47 times higher than that of total STIs negative group. The probability of a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) was significantly higher in patients testing positive for total STIs (1.46 times), Chlamydia trachomatis (3.21 times), or Mycoplasma genitalicum (3.58 times) than in those testing negative. The total STIs positive rate was significantly higher for those having a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) when high-risk HPV test result was negative. Conclusion Correlations were present not only between STIs and high-risk HPV infection but also between abnormal cervical cytology and STIs. Therefore, additional evaluation of STIs will be helpful to appropriately diagnose and treat patients with abnormal cervical cytology, positive results on high-risk HPV DNA test, or a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US despite negative high-risk HPV DNA test result. PMID:27329197

  15. What's New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for anal cancer What’s new in anal cancer research and treatment? Important research ... cancer cells is expected to help scientists develop new drugs to fight this disease. Early detection Ongoing ...

  16. Improved segmentation of abnormal cervical nuclei using a graph-search based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shaoxiong; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Sonka, Milan

    2015-03-01

    Reliable segmentation of abnormal nuclei in cervical cytology is of paramount importance in automation-assisted screening techniques. This paper presents a general method for improving the segmentation of abnormal nuclei using a graph-search based approach. More specifically, the proposed method focuses on the improvement of coarse (initial) segmentation. The improvement relies on a transform that maps round-like border in the Cartesian coordinate system into lines in the polar coordinate system. The costs consisting of nucleus-specific edge and region information are assigned to the nodes. The globally optimal path in the constructed graph is then identified by dynamic programming. We have tested the proposed method on abnormal nuclei from two cervical cell image datasets, Herlev and H and E stained liquid-based cytology (HELBC), and the comparative experiments with recent state-of-the-art approaches demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

  17. [Cytologic diagnosis of salivary gland lesions by fine needle aspiration].

    PubMed

    Fu, X W

    1989-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology was used in diagnosis of 504 major and minor salivary gland lesions. In 180 cases with satisfactory specimens, cytologic diagnosis was contrasted with pathohistologic findings. There were 150 benign lesions (including 124 tumors and 26 cases of other lesions) and 30 malignant tumors. The total correspondence rate was 94.5%. The rate of misdiagnosis was 5.5%. Cytologic appearance of various salivary gland tumors is described and the significance of distribution of mucus is discussed. The misdiagnosed cases were mainly in the early stage.

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, G; Verma, A K; Sood, N; Khurana, N

    1994-07-01

    247 salivary gland lesions were subjected to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology; 179 were designated as neoplastic lesions and 68 as non-neoplastic. Based on cytomorphologic features, the neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions were subcategorised. All but 36 of the neoplastic lesions were subjected to histopathologic study. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytology for neoplastic lesions was 91%. The sensitivity rate for detecting malignant tumours was 87.8% and the specificity 98.0%. There was 100% sensitivity for cytodiagnosis of benign tumours. The high sensitivity and specificity of cytodiagnosis makes FNA cytology a valuable diagnostic modality in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions.

  19. Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

  20. [Diagnostics and conservative treatment of anal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Geile, Dorothea; Osterholzer, Georg; Rosenberg, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Anal incontinence is diagnosed primarily by clinical and proctologic examination. Etiological factors of the disease are found in 85% of the patients by additional examinations. Motility dysfunction of colon and rectum has to be excluded (stenosis, dyschezia, internal hernias). Because anal incontinence is a multifactorial disease as a rule, the single compounds have to be diagnosed and have to undergo therapy. Accordingly, useful investigations are: endorectal ultrasound (defect of muscle, inflammatory or tumour infiltration), manometry (alteration of either anal resting pressure and/or anal squeezing pressure) and surface electromyography (ability of contraction, duration of contraction, strength). Neurophysiological examinations are: needle electromyography, pudendal nerve latency time measurement (PNLT). The occurrence of nerve damage determines the outcome of operative intervention! Conservative treatment is indicated in 80 to 90% of all patients, even higher when one includes all patients in the perioperative period. Possible therapy modalities are: nutrition consultation, physiotherapy, pelvic floor training, biofeedback training of pelvic floor and sphincter muscles, electrostimulation and the combination of both (EMG-triggered electrostimulation). Short-term results are satisfying in up to 85% of patients, but later, successful results depend on the patient's willingness or ability to continue training, and on his/her age.

  1. Midwestern Rural Adolescents' Anal Intercourse Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; McKinney, Molly; Ward, Britney

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of anal intercourse and its associated risk behaviors in a sample of Midwestern, predominantly white rural adolescents. Most of the research on this activity has been local or regional studies, with urban East and West Coast racial and ethnic minority adolescents. Methods: A…

  2. Study of Operated Patients of Lateral Internal Anal Sphincterotomy for Chronic Anal Fissure

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harshad Shankarlal; Chavda, Jagdish; Parikh, Jayesh; Naik, Nehal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anal fissure causes significant morbidity in the population. It is proposed that elevated sphincter pressures may cause ischaemia of the anal lining and this may be responsible for the pain of anal fissures and their failure to heal. When pharmacologic therapy fails or fissures recur frequently, lateral internal sphincterotomy is the surgical treatment of choice. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis was done of admitted and operated patients of anal fissure by lateral anal internal sphincterotomy either by open or closed technique between April 2010 and November 2011 in Gujarat Medical Education & Research Society Medical College, Sola, Ahmedabad, India. The follow-up data of all patients was evaluated for pain relief, recurrence, wound infection, incontinence to flatus or stool or both for a period of up to 6 months. Results: Wound infection rate was 10.3% in open method and 4.2% in closed method. Incontinence to flatus was 8.3% in closed method and 3.4% in open method. This was temporary and controlled within a 1 week. Incontinence to stool was 3.4% in open method which was temporary and controlled within 2 weeks while none in closed method. None of the patients in either group had come with recurrence within 6 months follow-up. Conclusion: Lateral anal internal sphincterotomy is safe regarding long term incontinence and effective regarding recurrence. PMID:24551659

  3. Normal versus Abnormal Genital Findings in Children: How Well Do Examiners Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Joyce A.; Wells, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Preselected colposcopic photographs of the anogenital area of 16 patients were shown to 170 medical examiners, who rated their level of suggestion or indication of penetrating injury. Agreement between the participants and experts was higher on the abnormal cases than on the normal cases, and higher on genital findings than on anal findings.…

  4. Adenomatoid tumor of testis: A rare cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, M; Dayal, P; Gupta, C; Mahajan, NC

    2013-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumor is a benign neoplasm of the male and female genital tracts arising from mesothelial cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays a pivotal role in its preoperative diagnosis. Therefore, it is imperative that pathologists should be well aware of its cytological features so as to avoid erroneous diagnosis and hence prevent unnecessary surgical interventions. We hereby, present a case of adenomatoid tumor of testis in a 41 year male diagnosed by FNAC and later confirmed by histopathological examination. PMID:23661947

  5. Diagnosis of filariasis on cytology: a series of 24 cases.

    PubMed

    Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Singhal, Niti; Mohan, Harsh

    2014-04-01

    Filariasis has a worldwide distribution, with a special predilection for tropical and subtropical areas. The microfilaria wanders in lymphatics and can be accidentally trapped in the needle during fine-needle aspiration cytology, thus leading to its incidental detection. This is a retrospective study of 24 cases of microfilarial infestation diagnosed on cytology. Accurate recognition and detection of the parasite leads to the institution of specific treatment and prevents chronic manifestations of the disease.

  6. Dysregulation of Autophagy Contributes to Anal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carchman, Evie H.; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Meske, Louise; Lambert, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that removes and recycles unnecessary/dysfunctional cellular components, contributing to cellular health and survival. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process that responds to several intracellular signals, many of which are deregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection through the expression of HPV-encoded oncoproteins. This adaptive inhibitory response helps prevent viral clearance. A strong correlation remains between HPV infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus, particularly in HIV positive and other immunosuppressed patients. We hypothesize that autophagy is inhibited by HPV–encoded oncoproteins thereby promoting anal carcinogenesis (Fig 1). Materials and Methods HPV16 transgenic mice (K14E6/E7) and non-transgenic mice (FVB/N), both of which do not spontaneously develop anal tumors, were treated topically with the chemical carcinogen, 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), to induce anal cancer. The anuses at different time points of treatment (5, 10, 15 and 20 weeks) were analyzed using immunofluorescence (IF) for two key autophagy marker proteins (LC3β and p62) in addition to histological grading. The anuses from the K14E6/E7 mice were also analyzed for visual evidence of autophagic activity by electron microscopy (EM). To see if there was a correlation to humans, archival anal specimens were assessed histologically for grade of dysplasia and then analyzed for LC3β and p62 protein content. To more directly examine the effect of autophagic inhibition on anal carcinogenesis, nontransgenic mice that do not develop anal cancer with DMBA treatment were treated with a known pharmacologic inhibitor of autophagy, chloroquine, and examined for tumor development and analyzed by IF for autophagic proteins. Results Histologically, we observed the progression of normal anoderm to invasive SCC with DMBA treatment in K14E6/E7 mice but not in nontransgenic

  7. Cytological, molecular mechanisms and temperature stress regulating production of diploid male gametes in Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuhong; Mo, Xijun; Gui, Min; Wu, Xuewei; Jiang, Yalian; Ma, Lulin; Shi, Ziming; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs.

  8. A Virtual Microscopy System to Scan, Evaluate and Archive Biomarker Enhanced Cervical Cytology Slides

    PubMed Central

    Grabe, Niels; Lahrmann, Bernd; Pommerencke, Thora; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although cytological screening for cervical precancers has led to a reduction of cervical cancer incidence worldwide it is a subjective and variable method with low single-test sensitivity. New biomarkers like p16 that specifically highlight abnormal cervical cells can improve cytology performance. Virtual microscopy offers an ideal platform for assisted evaluation and archiving of biomarker-stained slides. Methods: We first performed a quantitative analysis of p16-stained slides digitized with the Hamamatsu NDP slide scanner. From the results an automated algorithm was created to reliably detect cells, nuclei and p16-stained cells. The algorithm's performance was evaluated on two complete slides and tiles from 52 independent slides (11,628, 4094 and 25,619 cells/clusters, respectively). Results: We achieved excellent performance to discriminate unstained cells from nuclei and biomarker-stained cells. The automated algorithm showed a high overall and positive agreement (99.0–99.7% and 70.9–83.4%, respectively) with the gold standard and had a very high sensitivity (89.1–100.0%) and specificity (98.9–100.0%) to detect biomarker-stained cells. Conclusions: We implemented a virtual microscopy system allowing highly efficient automated prescreening and archiving of biomarker-stained slides. Based on the initial results, we will evaluate the performance of our system in large epidemiologic studies against disease endpoints. PMID:20208139

  9. Cervical cytology service in Nigeria: providers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Adesina, O A; Babarinsa, I A; Fawole, O A; Oladokun, A; Adeniji, A R; Adewole, I F

    2003-07-01

    It has been noted that efforts to organise an effective screening programme in developing countries will have to find adequate financial resources, develop the infrastructure, train the necessary manpower and elaborate surveillance mechanisms. In our study, we set out to determine (a) just how frequent is cervical cancer, to warrant the investment of funds in screening programmes; (b) what proportion of surveyed health facilities offer a cervical cytology screening programme; and (c) what basic facilities are currently available where such programmes exist? A pretested, self-completed questionnaire was sent to heads of department of obstetrics and gynaecology in public tertiary and secondary care hospitals in Nigeria as well as major mission hospitals. The response rate was 63%, monthly consultations included a mean of 114 (+/-11.7) new gynaecological patients and an average of 5 (4.7+/-0.8) cervical cancer cases. One-half of the institutions had a hospital-based cervical screening programme with an average of 27 patients being screened monthly. Finance was the main difficulty encountered in maintaining a screening service. Only four had a certified gynaecological oncologist. In conclusion, there is dismal utilisation of available services and a dearth of trained specialists should any cervical cancer screening programme be considered. PMID:12881085

  10. Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888

  11. Urine: beyond cytology for detection of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Pattari, Sanjib Kumar; Dey, Pranab

    2002-09-01

    In the present review we discuss various ancillary modalities for detection of malignancies in urine samples, with an emphasis on urothelial carcinomas. Flow cytometry, bladder tumor antigen (BTA), nuclear matrix protein (NMP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), human chorionic gonadotrophic (HCG), telomerase, and other techniques are discussed. DNA FCM is a relatively costly and sophisticated technique. It has a practical application in the diagnosis of bladder cancer among subjects at high risk and is of value in monitoring the course of the disease and anticipating recurrence following conservative treatment. The BTA test is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive adjunct to cystoscopy and the results of the test are equivalent or superior to those of voided urinary cytology. NMP-22 immunoassay is a useful diagnostic test for predicting recurrence of urothelial malignancy. It is also a cost-effective and sensitive screening test for detecting tumor in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Beta-HCG estimation in urine samples appears to be an efficient diagnostic marker for the assessment of distant metastasis in bladder carcinoma rather than a screening test. Other ancillary techniques such as detection of expression of cytokeratin 20 by RT-PCR, MMP-9 estimation, and fluorescent in situ hybridization and telomerase activity are rarely applied clinically in routine urinary samples and are not cost-effective.

  12. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: cytological and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Greenstone, M; Rutman, A; Dewar, A; Mackay, I; Cole, P J

    1988-05-01

    Thirty patients with functional and/or morphological abnormalities of respiratory tract cilia were identified. The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia was based on observed abnormalities of ciliary ultrastructure or beating in vitro (beat pattern, beat frequency or percentage of motile cilia). Beat frequency and motility indices approached the normal range in some cases and suggests that the term 'immotile cilia syndrome' is not appropriate. Morphological abnormalities were most commonly due to deficiency of dynein arms, affecting the outer arms (n = 7), inner arms (n = 3) or both (n = 10). Examples of radial spoke and microtubular defects were also identified but in seven subjects ciliary ultrastructure was normal. In six patients paired samples of nasal and bronchial cilia were obtained and showed consistent abnormalities of motility and ultrastructure. Adenosine triphosphate and adenosine triphosphatase did not restore in vitro motility when added to dynein deficient cilia. The clinical picture was of life-long sinusitis and recurrent bronchial infection but the spectrum was broader than that encompassed by Kartagener's triad (dextrocardia, sinusitis and bronchiectasis). Fourteen patients had normal cardiac situs and definite or highly suggestive evidence of bronchiectasis was present in only 17 patients. Radiological evidence of sinusitis was common but absence of frontal sinuses was not universal. Chronic serous otitis media was a frequent finding but deafness was rarely profound. Fertility problems were common but were not universal in female subjects. Lung function testing revealed evidence of airflow obstruction but this was mild in most cases. PMID:2975807

  13. Urine cytology. It is still the gold standard for screening?

    PubMed

    Brown, F M

    2000-02-01

    Urine cytology remains the gold standard for bladder cancer screening. It is the test against which all others are compared when evaluating potential bladder tumor markers. The answer to whether urine cytology possess the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity to retain consideration as the best screening device depends on the goals of the clinical practice. Urine cytology has excellent specificity with few false-positive cases. Its overall sensitivity is poor, but this drawback is explained for the most part by poor criteria for identifying well-differentiated, low-grade TCC. The natural history of such lesions is the occurrence of multiple superficial recurrences in 70% to 80% of patients, with only a minority (10% to 15%) progressing to muscle invasive or metastatic disease. Because patients with low-grade TCC are at low risk for progression, they are monitored primarily for the development of a subsequent tumor. One might argue that the detection of new low-grade lesions is of secondary importance to the early detection of disease progression. The performance characteristics of urine cytology in this regard are much improved. Urine cytology often results in the identification of high-grade malignant cells even before a cystoscopically distinguishable gross lesion is present. Routinely diagnosing grade I TCC may be clinically irrelevant. Ancillary techniques to improve the sensitivity of urine cytology have been insufficiently additive to have much clinical value. Several promising bladder tumor markers have been investigated as potential screening tools and are summarized in Table 3. BTA, nuclear matrix proteins, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products share lower specificities than urine cytology and may have high rates of false positivity. Telomerase is highly sensitive and highly specific but is not readily available as a point-of-service test. Hyaluronidase and hyaluronic acid are promising prognostic markers, but hyaluronidase does not

  14. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  15. Chromosomal gains and genomic loss of p53 and p16 genes in Barrett's esophagus detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Mona; Skacel, Marek; Gramlich, Terry L; Brainard, Jennifer A; Rice, Thomas W; Goldblum, John R; Connor, Jason T; Casey, Graham; Legator, Mona S; Tubbs, Raymond R; Falk, Gary W

    2004-05-01

    Endoscopic brush cytology is a promising surveillance technique for Barrett's esophagus. Ancillary markers are sought to increase the sensitivity of cytology and allow identification of patients at increased risk for disease progression. To determine if there are specific genetic changes in Barrett's esophagus with associated high-grade dysplasia/intramucosal adenocarcinoma compared to those without dysplasia, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on cytologic specimens using probes to chromosomes and genomic regions previously described as altered in this disease. We studied archival brush cytology slides from 40 Barrett's esophagus patients: 21 with biopsy-proven high-grade dysplasia/carcinoma and 19 with no dysplasia and a minimum 5 years of negative follow-up. Centromeric enumeration probes (CEP) for chromosomes 6, 7, 11, and 12, and locus-specific probes (LSI) for 9p21 (p16 gene), and 17p13.1 (p53 gene) loci along with their corresponding CEP (9 and 17, respectively) were used in this study. A positive FISH result was defined as the presence of cells with >2 CEP signals or with a loss of the LSI signals relative to their corresponding CEP. p53 locus loss and/or aneusomy of chromosomes 6, 7, 11, and 12 abnormalities could be detected by FISH in routinely processed endoscopic brush cytology specimens from 95% of biopsy-positive cases with a specificity of 100%. Interestingly, all five cases with cytologic changes classified as indefinite for dysplasia from patients with a positive biopsy showed changes by FISH. Loss of the p16 locus was seen commonly in patients both with and without dysplasia/carcinoma. Selected biomarkers from this study merit further investigation to determine their potential to detect genetic changes in patients with Barrett's esophagus prior to the development of high-grade dysplasia. PMID:15017433

  16. Inconclusive or erroneous fine-needle aspirates of breast with adequate and representative material: a cytologic/histologic study.

    PubMed

    Shabb, Nina S; Boulos, Fouad I; Chakhachiro, Zaher; Abbas, Jaber; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W

    2014-05-01

    Adequately cellular and representative fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) of breast have a high diagnostic accuracy. There is, however, a recognized category designated as "gray zone" where a definitive diagnosis cannot be reached. We reviewed our experience in this category to identify useful diagnostic parameters. Twenty-four such FNAs with surgical follow-up were retrieved from AUBMC files (2003-2009). Cytology slides were reviewed blindly. All cases were females, 29-73 years. There were three erroneous and 21 inconclusive diagnoses. The majority (15) was invasive adenocarcinomas: two cribriform, four tubular, one lobular, and eight not otherwise specified. The remaining cases were papillary and fibroepithelial tumors (three each), ductal carcinoma in situ, cribriform (two), and one adenomyoepithelioma (AME). Useful diagnostic features included: (1) Biphasic cell population with focal nuclear atypia and intranuclear and cytoplasmic vacuolar inclusions (AME). (2) Complex clusters of epithelial cells with cribriform architecture (cribriform carcinoma). (3) Rigid tubular epithelial structures with abrupt change in diameter, ending in pointed tips with abnormal branching (tubular carcinoma). (4) Cellular stromal fragments (fibroepithelial tumors). (5) Papillary fibrovascular cores, columnar cells, and three-dimensional papillary epithelial fragments (papillary tumors). Myoepithelial cells classically described in benign aspirates were not always a discriminatory factor. The "gray zone" in breast FNA is usually due to overlapping cytologic features of some benign and malignant lesions. Useful distinguishing cytologic features are described.

  17. Diagnostic cellular abnormalities in neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of the epidermis: a morphological and statistical study

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Saurabh; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Andres, Christian; Gui, Jiang; Elston, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Distinguishing cellular abnormalities in reactive and malignant lesions is challenging. We compared the incidence and severity of cytological abnormalities in malignant/premalignant and benign epidermal lesions. Methods One hundred fifty-two biopsies representing 69 malignant/premalignant squamous lesions and 83 benign conditions were studied. Cytological features, including nuclear hyperchromasia, nuclear overlap (crowding), irregular nuclei, high nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, delicate inconspicuous nucleoli, clumped chromatin, pleomorphic parakeratosis, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and necrotic keratinocytes, were evaluated and graded. Statistical analysis was performed. Results Irregular nuclei, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous single prominent nucleoli, nuclear overlap (crowding), pleomorphic parakeratosis, nuclear hyperchromasia, necrotic keratinocytes, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and coarse chromatin were seen more frequently in malignant neoplasms (p < 0.05). Abnormal mitotic figures, although uncommon (20.3%), were only noted in the malignant/premalignant group. Certain cytological features were common among both malignant and benign lesions, suggesting that they are of little value. Conclusion In the setting of an atypical cutaneous squamous proliferation, nuclear irregularity, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, crowding and hyperchromasia are the most useful indicators of malignancy. In contrast, mitotic figures, necrotic cells and coarse chromatin are less useful. The presence of abnormal mitotic figures is very helpful when present; however, their overall rarity limits their utility. PMID:23398548

  18. Helicobacter pylori in gastroduodenal diseases: rapid identification by endoscopic brush cytology.

    PubMed

    De Francesco, F; Nicòtina, P A; Picciotto, M; Martines, F; Ferlazzo, G; d'Aquino, A

    1993-08-01

    Previous reports showed Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in type B gastritis-affected stomachs. This study was carried out to compare H. pylori staining effectiveness on biopsy to brush cytology. Tissue and brush parallel samples of gastric mucosa with abnormal or normal appearances were examined: 57.6% H. pylori-positive pieces from the antrum and 19.2% from the body were found, versus 65.3% and 25% H. pylori-positive brush smears, respectively. H. pylori resembling organisms were mainly related to chronic and acute antral inflammations and were often associated with higher amounts of round-shaped cocco-bacteria. In addition, H. pylori direct stain on brushing is proposed as the most rapid and reliable method for the routine diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection, in both ulcer or nonulcer gastritis.

  19. Comparison between anal endosonography and digital examination in the evaluation of anal fistulae.

    PubMed

    Choen, S; Burnett, S; Bartram, C I; Nicholls, R J

    1991-04-01

    A prospective trial was performed comparing the accuracy of digital examination and anal endosonography in defining the anatomy of anal fistulae. Before operation 38 consecutive patients were assessed by the consultant in charge of the case, by a research fellow and by anal endosonography involving two radiologists. These findings were compared with the operative findings. Consultants correctly identified 26 of 33 internal openings, 29 of 34 primary tracks and 15 of 21 secondary tracks. The research fellow correctly identified 26 internal openings, 24 primary tracks and 10 secondary tracks. There was no significant difference between the accuracy of consultants and the research fellow. Anal endosonography identified 10 internal openings based on initial criteria. This rose to 24 when revised ultrasonographic criteria were applied. There was no statistical difference between consultant assessment and anal ultrasonography in correctly identifying intersphincteric and transphincteric tracks. Ultrasonography is unable to assess primary superficial, suprasphincteric and extrasphincteric tracks or secondary supralevator and infralevator tracks. Consultant assessment of secondary supralevator and infralevator tracks was correct in 78 per cent of cases. PMID:2032103

  20. Anal Cancer: An Examination of Radiotherapy Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Glynne-Jones, Rob; Lim, Faye

    2011-04-01

    The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9811, ACCORD-03, and ACT II Phase III trials in anal cancer showed no benefit for cisplatin-based induction and maintenance chemotherapy, or radiation dose-escalation >59 Gy. This review examines the efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiation (CRT) in anal cancer, and discusses potential alternative radiotherapy strategies. The evidence for the review was compiled from randomized and nonrandomized trials of radiation therapy and CRT. A total of 103 retrospective/observational studies, 4 Phase I/II studies, 16 Phase II prospective studies, 2 randomized Phase II studies, and 6 Phase III trials of radiotherapy or chemoradiation were identified. There are no meta-analyses based on individual patient data. A 'one-size-fits-all' approach for all stages of anal cancer is inappropriate. Early T1 tumors are probably currently overtreated, whereas T3/T4 lesions might merit escalation of treatment. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy or the integration of biological therapy may play a role in future.

  1. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Cytology Specimen Management, Triage and Standardized Reporting of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Bishop Pitman, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in pancreas cytology specimen sampling methods have enabled a specific cytologic diagnosis in most cases. Proper triage and processing of the cytologic specimen is pivotal in making a diagnosis due to the need for ancillary testing in addition to cytological evaluation, which is especially true in the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Newly proposed terminology for pancreaticobiliary cytology offers a standardized language for reporting that aims to improve communication among patient caregivers and provide for increased flexibility in patient management. This review focuses on these updates in pancreas cytology for the optimal evaluation of solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:26265683

  3. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  4. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2–VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear. All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed. A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.001). The diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  5. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.001).The diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  6. Clinical evaluation of cytological diagnosis of nasopharyngeal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Molinari, R; Pilotti, S; Rilke, F

    1978-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1975 cytological examination was applied to the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal malignancies in a series of 216 consecutive patients who had either a tumour in the nasopharynx or clinical signs of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, or who were locally asymptomatic but had enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Smears were taken by introducing a small rough pad of compressed gauze through the mouth into the nasopharynx with an upward-angled forceps. In each case the cytological smear was taken immediately before biopsy; often, a lymph node was removed subsequently. When morphological diagnoses were doubtful and histological findings were at variance with positive cytological findings, the patients were reexamined clinically, and diagnosis was postponed. The case material was made up of 90 nasopharyngeal carcinomas, 24 lymphomas, one malignant melanoma, one adenoid cystic carcinoma and 100 patients without malignancies. Cytological findings from the first smear were positive in 77.8% of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, in 66.6% of lymphomas and in the cases of melanoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. There were no false-positive results. When the nasopharyngeal carcinomas were subdivided into undifferentiated carcinomas of the nasopharyngeal type and squamous-cell carcinomas, cytological findings were positive in ,0% and 73%, respectively. Positivity of histological findings was distributed as follows: 91.7% for malignant lymphomas, 86.6% for undifferentiated carcinomas and 86.6% for squamous-cell carcinomas. With respect to clinical suspicion of malignancy, positive cytological findings were obtained in 50% of clinically occult cases and in 84.6% of patients with obvious malignancies; intermediate figures were found for clinically doubtful (64.3%) and for highly suspicious (77.8%) cases. Cyto-histological concordance was shown in 70% of cases; false-negative histological results were obtained in 7.8% and false-negative cytological results in 16.6% of cases. Combined cyto

  7. Cytological grading of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Filippo; Sabattini, Silvia; Bettini, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    A cytological grading for mast cell tumours (MCTs) would be highly desirable, allowing to select the most appropriate therapeutic intervention prior to surgery. This study evaluates the applicability on fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the novel Kiupel grading system, based on number of mitoses, multinucleated cells, bizarre nuclei and presence of karyomegaly. Fifty consecutive cases with pre-operative cytological diagnosis were included. In cytological specimens, approximately 1000 cells were evaluated, and the histological grade was assessed on the corresponding resected specimens. On cytology, the above parameters were significantly different between histologically low-grade and high-grade tumours (P < 0.001). The cytograding correctly predicted the histological grade in 47 cases (accuracy, 94%; sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 97.3%). Two high-grade MCTs (4%) were not detected on cytology. The cytograding can provide helpful insights to assist clinical decisions in most cases. However, the risk of underestimation in a minority of patients represents a limit to the overall utility of the technique.

  8. The role of intraoperative scrape cytology in vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Inuganti, Renuka Venkata; Mettu, Rami Reddy; Surath, Harsha Vardhan; Surath, Amarnath

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess the adequacy of intraoperative scrape cytology during percutaneous vertebroplasty by correlating results with corresponding histopathology. Settings and Design: Vertebroplasty is a procedure increasingly used to treat painful vertebral compression fractures. The history and presentation of osteoporotic fractures are straightforward, but difficulty arises in differentiating infective from neoplastic lesions, especially in cases where the magnetic resonance imaging is equivocal. The procedure involves injection of polymethyl methacrylate (bone cement) into the pathological vertebral body and gives dramatic pain relief. It is indicated in osteoporotic and neoplastic lesions but contraindicated in infections. Hence, intraoperative evaluation of a specimen is essential to aid in the decision of performing vertebroplasty. Subjects and Methods: A total of 128 patients with vertebral lesions underwent core biopsy and scrape cytology from June 2006 to June 2015. Based on the findings of cytological examination, malignant lesions were subjected to vertebroplasty. In lesions with infective etiology, vertebroplasty was abandoned and antibiotic or antituberculous therapy started. Results: The overall diagnostic accuracy of scrape cytology was excellent with 97.58% cases correlating with the final histopathological diagnosis. Specificity was 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and negative predictive value was 33.33%. Conclusion: Scrape cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate cytodiagnostic technique and should be routinely utilized in vertebral lesions for intraoperative consultation and decision making during vertebroplasty. PMID:27298628

  9. Californium-252 brachytherapy for anal and ano-rectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, B.; Maruyama, Y.; Proudfoot, W.; Malcolm, A.

    1986-01-01

    Surgery has historically been the standard treatment for anal, ano-rectal and rectal carcinoma but is prone to local or regional failure. Over the past 15 years there has been increasing interest in and success with radiation therapy and combined chemoradiotherapy for treatment of anal and ano-rectal cancers. Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with external beam teletherapy has been investigated for anal and ano-rectal lesions at the Univ. of Kentucky with encouraging results.

  10. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  11. Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions.

    PubMed

    Brugge, William; Dewitt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

    2014-04-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18-month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas.

  12. Cytological diagnosis of chondroblastoma: diagnostic challenge for the cytopathologist.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Kafil; Qadri, Shagufta; Sen Ray, Prasenjit; Sherwani, Rana K

    2014-05-29

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon osseous neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumours. It characteristically arises in the epiphysis or epimetaphyseal region of long bones and has been reported to affect people of all ages with slight male predilection. WHO has defined chondroblastoma as 'a benign, cartilage-producing neoplasm usually arising in the epiphyses of skeletally immature patients'. The authors document the cytological features on fine-needle aspiration cytology of a chondroblastoma which appeared as a lytic lesion in the upper end of the right fibula, an uncommon site, in an 18-year-old male patient. X-ray feature combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology favoured the diagnosis of chondroblastoma, which was further confirmed by histopathological examination.

  13. CD-ROM transnational training program in cervical cytology (CYTOTRAIN).

    PubMed

    Marsan, C; Coleman, D V; Branca, M; Cochand-Priollet, B; Molinié, V

    2001-01-01

    The Transnational Training Programme in Cervical Cytology (CYTOTRAIN) is a 3-yr project funded by the European Commission to harmonize training and quality standards in cervical screening across the European Union. The aim of the program is to develop new approaches in initial and continuing vocational training, particularly in the area of life-long learning with the aim of meeting national, regional, and local needs. We present a new approach to training in cervical cytology, using an interactive program of cytological images. The method used to prepare the program and the problems encountered are described. The authors have the feeling that giving details of the organizational and management structure adopted for the project implementation might help other pathologists realize more or less similar CD-ROM training programs in their own field of activity.

  14. Cytological diagnosis of chondroblastoma: diagnostic challenge for the cytopathologist.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Kafil; Qadri, Shagufta; Sen Ray, Prasenjit; Sherwani, Rana K

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon osseous neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumours. It characteristically arises in the epiphysis or epimetaphyseal region of long bones and has been reported to affect people of all ages with slight male predilection. WHO has defined chondroblastoma as 'a benign, cartilage-producing neoplasm usually arising in the epiphyses of skeletally immature patients'. The authors document the cytological features on fine-needle aspiration cytology of a chondroblastoma which appeared as a lytic lesion in the upper end of the right fibula, an uncommon site, in an 18-year-old male patient. X-ray feature combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology favoured the diagnosis of chondroblastoma, which was further confirmed by histopathological examination. PMID:24876212

  15. [Cytological changes in patients with diabetes mellitus and corneal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Raica, D; Turlea, M; Ciocmăreanu, M; Haidar, A; Demian, C; Jinga, F

    1999-01-01

    There were studied 11 diabetic patients, insulin dependents, from 4 were with juvenile diabetes mellitus. These were hospitalized in the Dept. Ophthalm. of the City Hospital of Arad, during 1996-1998, admitted with the diagnosis of corneal ulcer. There were made samples of the gathered secretion from the level of conjunctiva and of the grataj material, gathered at the level of the edges of the corneal ulcer. All samples were stained with the BPT-Drăgan method. There are described cytologic alterations, insisting on details that indicate the severity of the corneal disease. There are taken into consideration cytologic aspects in relationship with the clinical outcome of the disease, pointing out the cellular alterations which announce a nonfavourable prognosis. Cytologic results can improve the diagnosis and they are involved in therapeutic schedule. PMID:10641114

  16. Esophageal atresia and anal atresia in a newborn with heterotaxia combined with other congenital defects

    PubMed Central

    Smigiel, Robert; Misiak, Blazej; Golebiowski, Waldemar; Lebioda, Arleta; Dorobisz, Urszula; Zielinska, Marzena; Patkowski, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Heterotaxia (HTX) is a heterogeneous group of laterality defects characterized by abnormal discordance of asymmetric thoracic and abdominal organs. Esophageal anomalies occur rarely in HTX cases although additional defects associated with esophageal atresia are common. We report on a rare case of a neonate with HTX and multiple congenital malformations as well as specific facial dysmorphism, corresponding only to a few cases described in literature. Clinical examination of the proband revealed esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula, anal atresia, abdominal situs inversus, dextrocardia with complex congenital heart defect and left lung agenesis. A complex genetic analysis revealed no genetic abnormalities. Despite extensive diagnostic procedures, the cause of the laterality sequence disruption remains unclear, indicating its multifactorial etiology.

  17. Esophageal atresia and anal atresia in a newborn with heterotaxia combined with other congenital defects.

    PubMed

    Smigiel, Robert; Misiak, Blazej; Golebiowski, Waldemar; Lebioda, Arleta; Dorobisz, Urszula; Zielinska, Marzena; Patkowski, Dariusz

    2012-03-01

    Heterotaxia (HTX) is a heterogeneous group of laterality defects characterized by abnormal discordance of asymmetric thoracic and abdominal organs. Esophageal anomalies occur rarely in HTX cases although additional defects associated with esophageal atresia are common. We report on a rare case of a neonate with HTX and multiple congenital malformations as well as specific facial dysmorphism, corresponding only to a few cases described in literature. Clinical examination of the proband revealed esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula, anal atresia, abdominal situs inversus, dextrocardia with complex congenital heart defect and left lung agenesis. A complex genetic analysis revealed no genetic abnormalities. Despite extensive diagnostic procedures, the cause of the laterality sequence disruption remains unclear, indicating its multifactorial etiology. PMID:27625802

  18. Anal squamous cell carcinoma: An evolution in disease and management

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Marc C; Maykel, Justin; Johnson, Eric K; Steele, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Anal cancer represents less than 1% of all new cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. Yet, despite the relative paucity of cases, the incidence of anal cancer has seen a steady about 2% rise each year over the last decade. As such, all healthcare providers need to be cognizant of the evaluation and treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma. While chemoradiation remains the mainstay of therapy for most patients with anal cancer, surgery may still be required in recurrent, recalcitrant and palliative disease. In this manuscript, we will explore the diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. PMID:25278699

  19. Carcinoma of the anal canal: radiation or radiation plus chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, B.J.

    1983-09-01

    An editorial is presented which discusses the treatment of carcinoma of the anal canal. Following the initial report of the successful preoperative use of combined chemotherapy and radiation by Nigro in 1974, several centers have confirmed the effectiveness of such combinations either as preoperative or as definitive treatment of anal carcinomas, and many patients are now being referred for radiation therapy. The article by Cantril in this issue describe the successful treatment of anal carcinomas by radiation alone, and raises the important issue of whether radiation plus chemotherapy is more effective treatment than radiation alone for squamous or cloacogenic carcinomas arising in the anal canal or perianal area. Several studies are cited.

  20. Risk of Anal Cancer in People Living with HIV: Addressing Anal Health in the HIV Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Walker, Crystal Martin; Likes, Wendy; Bernard, Marye; Kedia, Satish; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Anal health and anal cancer are rarely addressed in HIV primary care. We sought to understand factors that impeded or promoted addressing anal health in HIV primary care from providers' perspectives. In this exploratory study, HIV primary care providers from the Mid-South region of the United States participated in brief individual interviews. We analyzed transcribed data to identify barriers and facilitators to addressing anal health. Our study sample included five physicians and four nurse practitioners. The data revealed a number of barriers such as perception of patient embarrassment, provider embarrassment, external issues such as time constraints, demand of other priorities, lack of anal complaints, lack of resources, and gender discordance. Facilitators included awareness, advantageous circumstances, and the patient-provider relationship. Anal health education should be prioritized for HIV primary care providers. Preventive health visits should be considered to mitigate time constraints, demands for other priorities, and unequal gender opportunities. PMID:27080925

  1. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  2. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  4. Using cytology to increase small animal practice revenue.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a useful, noninvasive test with practical foundations in high-quality medicine and applications to practice building. Cytology will generate practice revenue whether assessed in-house or sent to a clinical pathologist. Thorough in-house evaluation is adequate in some cases, but expert opinion is important in many cases. Specimen slides should at least be reviewed in-house for assessment of cellularity and potential artifacts before submission to a reference laboratory. Reference laboratories also provide special stains and advanced molecular diagnostics to help further characterize many neoplastic processes, search for organisms, identify pigments, and address other important aspects of the lesion. PMID:24144097

  5. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast. An overview.

    PubMed

    Naylor, B

    1988-01-01

    With the development of the Breast Care Center in the University of Michigan, we experienced over a 4-year period a 1,200% increase in the number of breast aspirates received annually in our cytopathology laboratory. During this period, as newcomers to breast aspiration cytology, we achieved an 81.4% positive diagnosis rate in 161 cases of breast cancer without any false positives. This article reviews our experience with fine-needle aspiration cytology of the breast with particular reference to (a) procurement of specimens, (b) cytopathology of benign lesions, (c) cytopathology of malignant lesions, and (d) advantages of the procedure.

  6. Adenocarcinoma of the anal canal: A report of two cases with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Medha Pradip; Momin, Yasmin Altaf; Pandav, Amitkumar Bapuso; Sulhyan, Kalpana Ranjitsingh

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the anal canal accounts for about 20% of all anal canal cancers. It is subclassified into two types. (1) Colorectal type, which arises from the mucosa above dentate line and (2) extramucosal type, which includes adenocarcinoma arising in anorectal fistulae and adenocarcinoma arising from anal glands. Anal gland adenocarcinomas are extremely rare. In this article, we present two cases of anal adenocarcinoma, one colorectal type, and other anal gland carcinoma along with review of literature. PMID:27510691

  7. Comparative study of manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique and direct smear technique (conventional) on fine-needle cytology/fine-needle aspiration cytology samples

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prajkta Suresh; Gadkari, Rasika Uday; Swami, Sunil Y.; Joshi, Anil R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology technique enables cells to be suspended in a liquid medium and spread in a monolayer, making better morphological assessment. Automated techniques have been widely used, but limited due to cost and availability. Aim: The aim was to establish manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material and compare its results with conventional technique. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined cells trapped in needles hub used for the collection of FNAC samples. 50 cases were examined by the MLBC technique and compared with the conventional FNAC technique. By centrifugation, sediment was obtained and imprint was taken on defined area. Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) staining was done. Direct smears and MLBC smears were compared for cellularity, background, cellular preservation, and nuclear preservation. Slides were diagnosed independently by two cytologists with more than 5 years’ experience. Standard error of proportion was used for statistical analysis. Results: Cellularity was low in MLBC as compared with conventional smears, which is expected as remnant material in the needle hub was used. Nuclei overlap to a lesser extent and hemorrhage and necrosis was reduced, so cell morphology can be better studied in the MLBC technique. P value obtained was <0.05. Conclusion: This MLBC technique gives results comparable to the conventional technique with better morphology. In a set up where aspirators are learners, this technique will ensure adequacy due to remnant in needle hub getting processed PMID:25210235

  8. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations.

  9. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  10. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma of the fibula.

    PubMed

    Malukani, Kamal; Nandedkar, Shirish S; Yeshwante, Prashant; Rihal, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor typically seen in long bones, especially femur, tibia and proximal humerus. Extracortical soft tissue invasion or metastasis is rarely seen. We report here a unique case of chondroblastoma of the fibula with extracortical soft tissue invasion. Differential diagnosis on cytology is discussed.

  12. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma of the fibula.

    PubMed

    Malukani, Kamal; Nandedkar, Shirish S; Yeshwante, Prashant; Rihal, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor typically seen in long bones, especially femur, tibia and proximal humerus. Extracortical soft tissue invasion or metastasis is rarely seen. We report here a unique case of chondroblastoma of the fibula with extracortical soft tissue invasion. Differential diagnosis on cytology is discussed. PMID:25745297

  13. Intraoperative Squash Cytologic Features of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Nasit, Jitendra; Vaghsiya, Viren; Hiryur, Srilaxmi; Patel, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature. Loose cohesive clusters of large polygonal cells containing an eccentric nucleus, evenly distributed granular chromatin, distinct to prominent nucleoli, and moderate to the abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a hair-like fibrillar background are the key cytologic features of SEGA. Other important features are moderate anisonucleosis and frequent binucleation and multinucleation. The absence of mitoses, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation are important negative features. Other consistent features are cellular smears, few dispersed cells, few spindly strap-like cells, rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, and perivascular pseudorosettes. PMID:27013816

  14. Intraoperative Squash Cytologic Features of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra; Vaghsiya, Viren; Hiryur, Srilaxmi; Patel, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature. Loose cohesive clusters of large polygonal cells containing an eccentric nucleus, evenly distributed granular chromatin, distinct to prominent nucleoli, and moderate to the abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a hair-like fibrillar background are the key cytologic features of SEGA. Other important features are moderate anisonucleosis and frequent binucleation and multinucleation. The absence of mitoses, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation are important negative features. Other consistent features are cellular smears, few dispersed cells, few spindly strap-like cells, rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, and perivascular pseudorosettes. PMID:27013816

  15. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events.

  16. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., negative or within normal limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  17. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, changes or... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  18. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, changes or... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  19. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, changes or... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  20. Cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nagel, H; Hotze, H J; Laskawi, R; Chilla, R; Droese, M

    1999-06-01

    The cytomorphologic features in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies from 31 primary and 33 recurrent adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) were investigated. The correct FNA diagnosis was established in 24 of 31 primary ACC (77%). The diagnostic clue in aspirates from ACC are large globules of extracellular matrix, partially surrounded by basaloid tumor cells. In FNAs with predominance of basaloid tumor cells, but lacking characteristic globules, all other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors of epithelial-myoepithelial differentiation should be considered in the cytologic diagnosis. Pleomorphic adenoma is most frequently confused with ACC, and therefore, the cytologic findings in FNAs from 50 pleomorphic adenomas were compared with those diagnosed as ACC. Furthermore, rare neoplasms of salivary glands with epithelial-myoepithelial cell differentiation, including basal-cell adenoma and carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, as well as some nonsalivary gland neoplasms presenting an adenoid cystic pattern, must be considered. The cytologic features of these entities are discussed in detail with respect to the cytologic diagnostic criteria of ACC.

  1. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and... participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears... enrolled in a proficiency testing program approved by CMS by January 1, 1995, if available in the State...

  2. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and... participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears... enrolled in a proficiency testing program approved by CMS by January 1, 1995, if available in the State...

  3. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and... participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears... enrolled in a proficiency testing program approved by CMS by January 1, 1995, if available in the State...

  4. [The anal incontinence-- study on 20 operated cases].

    PubMed

    Iusuf, T; Sârbu, V; Grasa, C; Cristache, C; Botea, F

    2001-01-01

    The authors present 20 cases operated for anal incontinence. Two techniques were performed: direct repair (18 cases) and Musset-Cottrell procedure (2 cases). The results were excellent in 12 cases, good in 5 cases and satisfactory in 3 cases. The method of choice seems to be the direct repair of the anal sphincter after a proper local and general preparation. PMID:12731180

  5. Controversies in the treatment of common anal problems

    PubMed Central

    Sagap, Ismail; Remzi, Feza H

    2006-01-01

    Treating common benign anal diseases has evolved towards more outpatient procedures with better outcome. However, minimizing post-procedure morbidities such as pain and the avoidance incontinence remain the most significant concerns. We introduce some controversies and highlight the developments in current surgical practice for the treatment of common anal problems. PMID:16718832

  6. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  7. Performance of the Aptima high-risk human papillomavirus mRNA assay in a referral population in comparison with Hybrid Capture 2 and cytology.

    PubMed

    Clad, Andreas; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Weinschenk, Johanna; Grote, Ruth; Rahmsdorf, Janina; Freudenberg, Nikolaus

    2011-03-01

    This study compared the Aptima human papillomavirus (HPV) (AHPV; Gen-Probe Incorporated) assay, which detects E6/E7 mRNA from 14 high-risk types, the Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA (HC2; Qiagen Incorporated) test, and repeat cytology for their ability to detect high-grade cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ [CIN2+]) in women referred to colposcopy due to an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. A total of 424 clinical specimens, stored in liquid-based cytology (LBC) vials at room temperature for up to 3 years, were tested by repeat cytology, the AHPV assay, and the HC2 test. Assay results were compared to each other and to histology results. The overall agreement between the AHPV assay and the HC2 test was 88.4%. The sensitivity (specificity) of cytology, the HC2 test, and the AHPV assay for the detection of CIN2+ was 84.9% (66.3%), 91.3% (61.0%), and 91.7% (75.0%) and for the detection of CIN3+ was 93.9% (54.4%), 95.7% (46.0%), and 98.2% (56.3%), respectively. Of the disease-positive specimens containing high-risk HPV (HR HPV) DNA as determined by Linear Array (Roche Diagnostics), the AHPV assay missed 3 CIN2 and 1 microfocal CIN3 specimen, while the HC2 test missed 6 CIN2, 4 CIN3, and 1 cervical carcinoma specimen. The AHPV assay had a sensitivity similar to but a specificity significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than the HC2 test for the detection of CIN2+. The AHPV assay was significantly more sensitive (P = 0.0041) and significantly more specific (P = 0.0163) than cytology for the detection of disease (CIN2+).

  8. Spontaneous variation of anal "resting" pressure in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Enck, P; Eggers, E; Koletzko, S; Erckenbrecht, J F

    1991-11-01

    To investigate anal sphincter performance during sleep and after a meal, a two-channel micro-transducer probe was used for 12-h stationary recording of basal anal pressure overnight in eight healthy male volunteers. It was shown that the basal anal pressure ("resting" pressure) exhibits three distinct patterns of cyclic activity changes in all subjects: a long-term rhythm with a prominent decrease of pressure during which sleep was approximately circadian, an ultradian rhythm of approximately 20 to 40 min in length that was more prominent at night, and spontaneous relaxations of the sphincter tone occurring between 3 and 20 times per hour with the maximum frequency after breakfast. These data indicate that the anal sphincter is a dynamic structure not often at rest. Long-term anorectal manometry may be supplementary to short-term clinical evaluation of anal sphincter performance in healthy subjects as well as in patients with defecation disorders.

  9. Update on anal fistulae: Surgical perspectives for the gastroenterologist

    PubMed Central

    Tabry, Helena; Farrands, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Anal fistulae are common and debilitating; they are characterized by severe pain and discharge. They arise following infection near the anal canal, or as a primary event from an abscess in the abdomen, fistulating into the vagina or perianal skin. The term ‘cryptoglandular’ is given to abscesses arising from the anal glands. For many years, the treatment of choice was to lay open the fistula; however, this risks causing incontinence with potentially devastating consequences. Alternative surgical treatments include setons, fibrin glue, collagen plugs and flaps to cover the internal fistula opening. These have achieved varying degrees of success, as will be discussed. The present review also discusses anal fistulae in light of much recently published literature. Currently, anal fistulae remain challenging and require specialist expertise; however, new treatment options are on the horizon. PMID:22175058

  10. Cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kędra, Bożena; Chomczyk, Monika; Złotkowski, Marcin; Stokowska, Wanda; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Bicz, Mieczysław; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Charkiewicz, Radosław; Czajka, Piotr; Chyczewski, Lech; Zimnoch, Lech; Kędra, Bogusław

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of malignant gastrointestinal cancers in Poland has been constantly growing, which has led to an intensification of the search for new markers of the early clinical stage of this disease. The oral cavity,as the first part of the gastrointestinal tract, has a very important role. The oral cavity presents symptoms of both typically stomatological and systemic diseases. Oral cancers, benign or malignant, may originate and grow in any of the tissues of the mouth, and within this small area they may be of varied clinical, histological and biological features. These can be lesions typically observed in the oral cavity, but also characteristic of cases where the symptoms occur both in the mouth and in other body parts. The aim of this study was to present a cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer and to compare the cytological picture with that obtained from a group of patients with no cancer, using the Papanicolaou classification and the Bethesda system. The study was conducted in 126 patients treated surgically in the II General and Gastroenterological Surgery Clinic between 2006 and 2008. All patients were divided into two groups based on the type of lesions. In both of the studied groups, more than half of the patients did not present any abnormalities in the mucosa of the mouth, lips and cheeks in the physical examination. None of the patients had erosion, ulceration or lesions typical of leukoplakia or lichen planus. No malignant cells were detected in either of the studied groups, and there were no well-defined lesions found in the oral cavity that would distinguish the patients with gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:23042267

  11. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  12. P16INK4a: a potential diagnostic adjunct for prediction of high-grade cervical lesions in liquid-based cytology: with HPV testing and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y P; Abdul Raub, S H; Mohd Dali, A Z H; Kassim, F; Visvalingam, V; Zakaria, Z; Kamaluddin, M A; Noor Akmal, S

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and its precursors. Increased expression of high-risk hrHPV viral oncogenes in abnormal cells might increase the expression of p16INK4a. We aimed to determine the role of p16INK4a in detecting hrHPV-transformed epithelial cells in liquid-based cervical cytology, and compared the results with hrHPV DNA testing by realtime polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-seven cytological samples were tested for p16INK4a immunomarker and hrHPV DNA. Test performance of both tests was determined by comparing sensitivity, specificity and predictive values using available histological follow-up data as gold standard. Of 57 samples, 36 (63.2%) showed immunoreactivity for p16INK4a and 43 (75.4%) were hrHPV-infected. A fairly low concordance rate (k = 0.504) between p16INK4a immunolabelling and hrHPV DNA status was noted. For prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and worse lesions, p16INK4a had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.5% and 60%; whereas hrHPV DNA testing had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 20%. Dual testing by combining p16INK4a and hrHPV showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 33.3%. In conclusion, p16INK4a is useful in predicting severity of the cytological abnormalities. Although p16INK4a is more specific but less sensitive than hrHPV in detecting high-grade cervical lesions, a combination of both tests failed to demonstrate significant improvement in diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Larger-scale prospective studies are required to assess further whether this biomarker should be routinely used as primary screening tool independently or in combination with hrHPV testing to improve diagnostic accuracy in cervical cytology. PMID:27568665

  13. P16INK4a: a potential diagnostic adjunct for prediction of high-grade cervical lesions in liquid-based cytology: with HPV testing and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y P; Abdul Raub, S H; Mohd Dali, A Z H; Kassim, F; Visvalingam, V; Zakaria, Z; Kamaluddin, M A; Noor Akmal, S

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and its precursors. Increased expression of high-risk hrHPV viral oncogenes in abnormal cells might increase the expression of p16INK4a. We aimed to determine the role of p16INK4a in detecting hrHPV-transformed epithelial cells in liquid-based cervical cytology, and compared the results with hrHPV DNA testing by realtime polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-seven cytological samples were tested for p16INK4a immunomarker and hrHPV DNA. Test performance of both tests was determined by comparing sensitivity, specificity and predictive values using available histological follow-up data as gold standard. Of 57 samples, 36 (63.2%) showed immunoreactivity for p16INK4a and 43 (75.4%) were hrHPV-infected. A fairly low concordance rate (k = 0.504) between p16INK4a immunolabelling and hrHPV DNA status was noted. For prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and worse lesions, p16INK4a had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.5% and 60%; whereas hrHPV DNA testing had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 20%. Dual testing by combining p16INK4a and hrHPV showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 33.3%. In conclusion, p16INK4a is useful in predicting severity of the cytological abnormalities. Although p16INK4a is more specific but less sensitive than hrHPV in detecting high-grade cervical lesions, a combination of both tests failed to demonstrate significant improvement in diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Larger-scale prospective studies are required to assess further whether this biomarker should be routinely used as primary screening tool independently or in combination with hrHPV testing to improve diagnostic accuracy in cervical cytology.

  14. Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

  15. [Cytological, etiological and prognostic aspects of male infertility. Attempt at classification apropos of 1,303 cases].

    PubMed

    Alexandre, C

    Study of 1303 cases of male sub-fertility led to a certain number of practical conclusions: - From a diagnostic viewpoint, the "fertility" of an individual, which is difficult to assess, depends more on the motility than the number of spermatozoa. This is most faithfully reflected in the crossed penetration test which defines the quality of penetration of a control mucus. The value of electron microscopic cytological study in the case of total asthenospermia or major monomorphous teratospermia, reflecting an irreversible constitutional abnormality of the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon, is emphasised. - From a therapeutic viewpoint, recent progress has involved the technique of surgical treatment for varicocoele as well as hormone therapy. It is essential not to neglect empirical "minor aids" indicated in the case of unexplained abnormalities (homologous artifical insemination in the case of abnormalities in the volume of the ejaculate, retard androgen therapy in the case of polyzoospermia). - From a prognostic viewpoint. The distinction must be drawn between aetiologies of good prognosis (80% of our success) responsible for transient abnormalities in spermatogenesis (infections, metabolic disturbances, varicocoele) and aetiologies with an unfavourable prognosis since they cause tubulopathies of greater or lesser severity with a lesional impairment of spermatogenesis.

  16. Changing patterns of treatment for chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Farouk, R; Gunn, J; Duthie, G S

    1998-05-01

    To assess changing patterns of treatment for chronic anal fissure, a retrospective analysis of treatment for chronic anal fissure within one hospital between January 1990 and December 1996 was undertaken. A total of 221 patients received treatment for a chronic anal fissure in this period, of whom 209 had a surgical procedure. Manual dilatation of the anus was performed in 21 patients (10%) and has not been performed since 1995. Lateral internal sphincterotomy was performed in 183 patients (88%) and continues to be the mainstay of treatment. Five female patients (2%) were identified as having a sphincter defect by anal manometry combined with endoanal ultrasound and were treated by an anal advancement flap. From 1996 onwards, 15 patients (7%) were treated by topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) paste as the first line of treatment. Of these patients, nine have experienced healing of their fissure, and three have had relief of pain without healing of the fissure. Three have gone on to have a lateral internal sphincterotomy. Lateral internal sphincterotomy remains the primary form of treatment for chronic anal fissure. GTN cream has increasingly been offered as preliminary treatment over the last 12 months. Perioperative use of endoanal ultrasound allowed identification of patients who may be at high risk of postoperative incontinence from a sphincterotomy. An anal advancement flap has been used as an alternative surgical approach for these patients.

  17. Improving sensitivity of cervical cytology by removal of cervical secretions before sampling: a prospective study in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Curiel-Valdés, JJ; Briones-Pimentel, J; Bandala, C

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of cervical cytology is suboptimal, especially in developing countries such as Mexico, despite available guidelines aimed at improving this. When obtaining cervical samples, whether the samples are taken from the transformation zone and whether abnormal cells are missing must be considered. Cervical secretions (CS) are always present in variable proportions, and when cleaning the cervix, better samples may be obtained. In this study, we analyzed samples obtained with or without cleaning the cervix, and compared their contents in order to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these two methods. Methods: Of 500 patients who underwent cytology and colposcopy, 271 (54.2%) required a second opinion due to a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). CS was removed and compared with the clean, second sample (SS) using in both liquid-based cytology. The quality of samples according to the Bethesda System, the presence of CIN, and inflammatory reactions were recorded. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated using biopsy as the gold standard. Results: The SS resulted in a higher proportion of adequate samples being obtained (97.6% vs. 44.8%), and in increased sensitivity (88.2% vs. 58.8%). CIN was detected in the SS 26% more often than in the CS (34 vs. 27 samples), whereas inflammatory reactions were noted more often in the CS (91.4% vs. 74%). Conclusion: Cervical sampling including CS results in lower sensitivity and CIN detection rates, and in more inflammatory reactions. By excluding CS from cervical samples, the sensitivity could be improved and the false negative rate could be reduced. PMID:25337232

  18. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Sampling in Cytological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pinki, Pandey; Alok, Dixit; Ranjan, Aggarwal; Nanak Chand, Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an established out- patient procedure used in primary diagnosis of palpable thyroid lesions. A modified technique fine needle capillary sampling (FNCS) obviates the need of suction, is less painful, patient friendly and reported to overcome the problem of inadequate and bloody specimens. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and quality of FNCS with that of conventional FNAC in the lesions of thyroid. Methods: One hundred patients, presenting between January 2011 to December 2012 at Cytopathology Department of M M Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, with diffuse and nodular thyroid lesions were enrolled with both the techniques being executed on the patients, beginning with FNA followed by FNCS. The smears were scored using five objective parameters i.e. background blood, cellular material, cellular degeneration, cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture, in a single blind setting by a cyto-pathologist. The results were analyzed using Student’s test for paired data and chi- square analysis. Results: A highly significant differences (P<0.001) in favor of FNCS was observed for the background blood, cellular material and retention of architecture while total score favored FNA for cellular degeneration and degree of cellular trauma. Total scores and average score per case for FNCS was significantly better (P<0.001) than FNA. FNCS technique yielded more diagnostically superior and lesser number of unsatisfactory smears whereas greater number of diagnostically adequate samples was obtained by FNA technique. Conclusion: FNCS offers more number of diagnostically better quality smears. Both techniques could be supplementary on many occasions and substitutive on a few. Combination of the two techniques could offer better diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26516325

  19. Ultrasound imaging of the anal sphincter complex: a review.

    PubMed

    Abdool, Z; Sultan, A H; Thakar, R

    2012-07-01

    Endoanal ultrasound is now regarded as the gold standard for evaluating anal sphincter pathology in the investigation of anal incontinence. The advent of three-dimensional ultrasound has further improved our understanding of the two-dimensional technique. Endoanal ultrasound requires specialised equipment and its relative invasiveness has prompted clinicians to explore alternative imaging techniques. Transvaginal and transperineal ultrasound have been recently evaluated as alternative imaging modalities. However, the need for technique standardisation, validation and reporting is of paramount importance. We conducted a MEDLINE search (1950 to February 2010) and critically reviewed studies using the three imaging techniques in evaluating anal sphincter integrity.

  20. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women. PMID:26997018

  1. Thyroid aspiration cytology: a "cell pattern" approach to interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayar, R; Frost, A R

    2001-05-01

    The key to the interpretation of thyroid fine needle aspiration is largely dependent on the recognition of various morphologic patterns of epithelial cells, usually follicular cells, and background elements, such as colloid. These morphologic patterns consist of 3 parts: 1) The arrangement of cells with respect to one another, 2) The cytologic features of individual cells, and 3) The presence of background elements. The cellular arrangements generally encountered in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid include the follicular patterns (macro-/normo-follicular and micro-follicular), the papillary pattern, the syncytial pattern, the dispersed cell pattern, and the cystic pattern. This article approaches some of the differential diagnostic challenges encountered while interpreting thyroid aspiration cytology by focusing first on the overall cellular arrangement to generate a differential diagnosis and then narrowing that differential by assessing cellular features of individual cells and the presence of background elements. PMID:11403258

  2. Thyroid aspiration cytology: a "cell pattern" approach to interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayar, R; Frost, A R

    2001-05-01

    The key to the interpretation of thyroid fine needle aspiration is largely dependent on the recognition of various morphologic patterns of epithelial cells, usually follicular cells, and background elements, such as colloid. These morphologic patterns consist of 3 parts: 1) The arrangement of cells with respect to one another, 2) The cytologic features of individual cells, and 3) The presence of background elements. The cellular arrangements generally encountered in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid include the follicular patterns (macro-/normo-follicular and micro-follicular), the papillary pattern, the syncytial pattern, the dispersed cell pattern, and the cystic pattern. This article approaches some of the differential diagnostic challenges encountered while interpreting thyroid aspiration cytology by focusing first on the overall cellular arrangement to generate a differential diagnosis and then narrowing that differential by assessing cellular features of individual cells and the presence of background elements.

  3. Frequency of "blue bodies" in pulmonary cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Kung, I T; Hsu, C; Chan, S C; Leung, B S; Ng, D W

    1987-12-01

    To determine the frequency of occurrence of "blue bodies" (BBs), 2,010 pulmonary cytology specimens (1,403 sputum and 607 bronchial specimens) from 1985 were reviewed. The smears were examined microscopically by transmitted and polarized light. BBs were extracellular structures, occurring most commonly in clusters but sometimes conglomerated. With Papanicolaou stain, they had a characteristic birefringent laminated brown core and a nonbirefringent blue rim. Chemical microanalysis and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis revealed that their chemical composition was calcium carbonate. A total of 233 specimens contained BBs, with a frequency of 10.5% in bronchial specimens and 12% in sputum. Only 8.6% of the BBs had co-existent pulmonary malignancy. We concluded that BBs were common structures in pulmonary cytology and were not associated with pulmonary malignancy or pulmonary fibrosis in our series. They must be distinguished from contaminants, staining artifacts, and parasitic ova.

  4. The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Jamie L.; Paterson, Joyce; Liu, Weiguo; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Acanthamoeba keratitis remains a difficult diagnosis despite advances in genetic and imaging technologies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of cytology smears for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods. This is a case study of the diagnostic course for a patient with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results. A 40-year-old male with poor contact lens hygiene presented with severe left eye pain. Slit lamp examination showed two peripheral ring infiltrates without an epithelial defect. The epithelium over both infiltrates was removed with a Kimura spatula. Half of the sample was smeared on a dry microscope slide and the other half was submitted for Acanthamoeba culture and PCR. Both culture and PCR were negative for Acanthamoeba, but hematoxylin and eosin stain of the smear revealed double-walled cysts. Conclusion. H&E staining of corneal cytology specimens is an efficient and readily available test for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:27403362

  5. [Comparative histological and cytological characteristics of peripheral lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zolotarevskiĭ, V B; Kogan, E A; Ablitsov, Iu A

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral pulmonary carcinoma was analysed retrospectively histologically, histochemically, and cytologically. The examination material (smears taken at percutaneous thoracic aspirational biopsy, resected lung or lung lobe) had been obtained from 113 patients with PPC among whom 85 patients underwent pulmon- or lobe-ectomy. Cytological examination of specimens from percutaneous thoracic biopsy allowed the diagnosis of PPC to be established in 90.6% of cases and to determine correctly the histological type of cancer in 85.7%. No regular correlation between the levels of tissue and cellular differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was found. Argyrophilic granules (Grimelius reaction) were detected in cells of combined oat cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of transitional type. Because of the existence of combined tumors in the lungs consisting of cells of different types of differentiation it is suggested that complex histological types of pulmonary carcinoma can develop from a common polypotent precursor cell.

  6. Unexpected cytological diagnosis of two cases of echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Giuffré, G; Mondello, P; Inferrera, A; Furchì, A; Gentile, H M; Speciale, G

    1993-01-01

    The Authors report two cases of hydatid cysts localized in the soft tissues of the thigh and in para-renal region respectively. In both cases the cystic nature of the lesion was revealed by echography while the common serologic and hematologic preoperative tests did not show pathologic values. The working diagnosis was traumatic or developmental lesion and the patients were undergone to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology which permitted to make the unexpected diagnosis of hydatid cysts. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for echinococcus, done at the time in monitoring the disease, was positive only in one case. Although the routine use of FNA cytology for the diagnosis of echinococcosis should be discouraged, this procedure may represent a real aid in the definitive diagnose of clinically unsuspected hydatid cysts.

  7. Study of benign superficial cysts by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Roy, M; Bhattacharyya, A; Sanyal, S; Dasgupta, S

    1995-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology of 213 cases of different cystic lesions from various regions of body and different superficial organs was analysed in an attempt to present the experience of the authors in the diagnosis of such lesions. The predominant lesion diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology was adnexal cyst/sebaceous cyst (41 cases) followed by vascular hamartoma (40 cases) and thyroglossal cyst (9 cases). One hundred fifty-eight (74.2%) out 213 cases were confirmed histopathologically. There was false negative diagnosis in 14 cases (6.6%). The remaining 41 (19.2%) cases did not turn up for further treatment. The fallacies that have been recorded in the diagnosis of thyroid cysts, salivary gland cysts and breast cysts in respect of papillary cystic thyroid carcinoma, muco-epidermoid carcinoma of salivary gland and intraductal carcinoma with fibrocystic disease of breast respectively have been highlighted in the present study.

  8. Benign and malignant neoplasms of myoepithelial cells: cytologic findings.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, E; Ames, E D; Manivel, J C; Stanley, M W

    1993-12-01

    We report two myoepithelial cell neoplasms; a salivary gland tumor was malignant and a breast neoplasm was benign. Both were studied histologically, immunohistochemically, cytologically, and ultrastructurally. The malignant myoepithelioma recurred twice and metastasized to one regional lymph node. This tumor was infiltrative with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. It was composed of malignant-appearing spindle and plasmacytoid cells. Both types of cells were immunoreactive to muscle specific actin, S-100 protein, cytokeratin, vimentin, and neuron-specific enolase. Ultrastructurally, features of myoepithelial cells were seen. Fine-needle aspirate smears showed spindle and plasmacytoid cells, numerous mitoses, and malignant-appearing nuclei. Spindle-cell adenomyoepithelioma of the breast, a small well-circumscribed firm nodule, featured multiple lobules of spindle cells associated with clear-cell glands at the lobular periphery. Histologically and cytologically, the lesion was cellular but appeared benign. The differential diagnosis of myoepithelial neoplasms is discussed.

  9. Maxillary odontogenic myxoma: a diagnostic pitfall on aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeta; Jain, Shyama; Gupta, Sunita

    2002-08-01

    A painless, slow-growing cheek swelling in a young male clinically considered a salivary gland mass was aspirated. Cytology smears were hypocellular. The striking feature was abundant myxoid material with a few monomorphic oval cells, interpreted as myxoid variant of pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequent CT scan was suggestive of a malignant tumor but biopsy confirmed it as myxoma. Myxoma of the jaw is a rare benign tumor that has a tendency for bone destruction, invasion into surrounding structures, and a relatively high recurrence rate. Maxillary myxoma is less frequent but behaves more aggressively than in the mandible, as it spreads through the maxillary sinus. Cytologically, it should be differentiated from other tumors showing predominant myxoid change. Awareness of potential diagnostic pitfalls and careful evaluation of clinical and radiological data is necessary to narrow the differential diagnosis.

  10. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Qizilbash, A H; Sianos, J; Young, J E; Archibald, S D

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the major salivary glands was performed on 160 patients. In 146 patients with satisfactory samples, the cytologic diagnosis was correlated with clinical follow-up and histologic findings. There were 122 benign lesions, including 47 tumors. There were 24 malignant lesions, 10 of which were primary and 14 metastatic. The overall accuracy was 98%. The sensitivity of the technique was 87.5%. There was no false-positive diagnosis. There were three false-negative diagnoses due to sampling errors and inexperience during the initial period of the study. This study documents that needle aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary glands is accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless to the patient.

  11. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  12. Ciliated pancreatic foregut cyst: MRI, EUS, and cytologic features.

    PubMed

    Alessandrino, Francesco; Allard, Felicia D; Mortelé, Koenraad J

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated foregut cysts are extremely uncommon pancreatic cystic lesions, with-to the best of our knowledge-only five cases previously reported in the English literature. We report herein on a case of a ciliated foregut cyst of the pancreas connected with the duct of Wirsung. The magnetic resonance imaging, endoultrasonographic, and cytologic features are described and a brief review of literature is also presented. PMID:26526788

  13. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    PubMed

    Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-Tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage) was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg). Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94). miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  14. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  15. Aspiration cytology of metastatic chordoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E C; McKinney, S; Banks, H; Fulks, R M

    1983-01-01

    A patient with previously diagnosed sacrococcygeal chordoma presented with multiple skin nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate from one of these nodules showed syncytial clusters of hyperchromatic cells surrounded by extracellular mucin. The characteristic physaliphorous cells, although present in a biopsy of the primary sacrococcygeal tumor, were not observed in the aspirate or on histopathologic examination of three excised skin metastases. That chordoma metastases may lack physaliphorous cells should be recognized.

  16. Evolution and cytological diversification of the green seaweeds (Ulvophyceae).

    PubMed

    Cocquyt, Ellen; Verbruggen, Heroen; Leliaert, Frederik; De Clerck, Olivier

    2010-09-01

    The Ulvophyceae, one of the four classes of the Chlorophyta, is of particular evolutionary interest because it features an unrivaled morphological and cytological diversity. Morphological types range from unicells and simple multicellular filaments to sheet-like and complex corticated thalli. Cytological layouts range from typical small cells containing a single nucleus and chloroplast to giant cells containing millions of nuclei and chloroplasts. In order to understand the evolution of these morphological and cytological types, the present paper aims to assess whether the Ulvophyceae are monophyletic and elucidate the ancient relationships among its orders. Our approach consists of phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) of seven nuclear genes, small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA and two plastid markers with carefully chosen partitioning strategies, and models of sequence evolution. We introduce a procedure for fast site removal (site stripping) targeted at improving phylogenetic signal in a particular epoch of interest and evaluate the specificity of fast site removal to retain signal about ancient relationships. From our phylogenetic analyses, we conclude that the ancestral ulvophyte likely was a unicellular uninucleate organism and that macroscopic growth was achieved independently in various lineages involving radically different mechanisms: either by evolving multicellularity with coupled mitosis and cytokinesis (Ulvales-Ulotrichales and Trentepohliales), by obtaining a multinucleate siphonocladous organization where every nucleus provides for its own cytoplasmic domain (Cladophorales and Blastophysa), or by developing a siphonous organization characterized by either one macronucleus or millions of small nuclei and cytoplasmic streaming (Bryopsidales and Dasycladales). We compare different evolutionary scenarios giving rise to siphonous and siphonocladous cytologies and argue that these did not necessarily evolve from a multicellular

  17. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Young, J A; Smallman, L A; Thompson, H; Proops, D W; Johnson, A P

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-eight fine needle aspirates from 79 salivary gland lesions in 77 patients were examined. The overall diagnostic sensitivity was 84% and the specificity 98.41%. When the 14 unsatisfactory specimens were excluded the sensitivity rose to 95.45%. Correct identification of the disease process was possible in nearly 80% of cases with a final benign diagnosis. The histological tumour type was correctly predicted in 75% of the malignancies. In the others the cytological diagnosis was anaplastic malignant neoplasm.

  18. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  19. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  20. [The immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration cytology].

    PubMed

    Chang, M C; Ho, W L

    1993-11-01

    From December 1990 to November 1992, 2005 cases of immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology were performed, of which 727 cases were confirmed by surgical pathology. A mobile cytologic laboratory (a cart loaded with a dual viewing microscope, Liu's staining solutions, hair dryer, and slides) can be moved to the Out-patient Department, wards and Computed Tomography room, where clinicians perform aspiration and pathologists read smears. Immediate verbal diagnoses are documented to patients' charts and listed in cytopathologic files. Immediate interpretation in this entire series yielded a sensitivity 92.5%; specificity, 98.1%; false-positive rate, 1.1%; false-negative rate, 3.2%; positive predictive value (PV), 97.3%; negative PV, 94.7% and efficiency, 95.7%. The cause of false-negative results in the 23 cases probably came from the hesitation in making an immediate diagnosis. Most of these cases were malignant lymphoma or breast carcinoma. The roles of immediate cytodiagnosis are (1) to decrease the inadequate rate of FNA specimens; (2) to render preliminary diagnosis for clinicians to make decisions; (3) to provide on-site teaching material for both clinicians and pathology residents to better understand clinicopathological correlations; (4) to act as the initial diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of a superficial palpable mass. This study shows that immediate interpretation for FNA cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate and noninvasive diagnostic procedure that can be routinely used for superficial palpable masses.

  1. Brush cytology: a reliable method to detect Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Dalla Libera, M; Pazzi, P; Carli, G; Contato, E; Piva, I; Scagliarini, R; Merighi, A; Ricci, N; Gullini, S

    1996-06-01

    This study was conducted to verify the reliability of brush cytology in detecting Helicobacter pylori in an unselected group of patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD). Endoscopy was performed on 416 consecutive patients: group A, 94 with active DU; group B, 176 patients with DU after omeprazole (n = 78), ranitidine (n = 43), or triple anti-H. pylori therapy (n = 55); and group C, 146 patients with NUD. During endoscopy, the gastric mucosa was brushed and two biopsy samples from the antrum and body were obtained for histology. In 65 patients, culture of the brush-collected materials also was performed as was that from of biopsy samples. The overall frequency of H. pylori presence detected by brush cytology was significantly higher compared with that of histology (p < 0.001), particularly in group A (p < 0.05), group C (p < 0.05), and in patients with DU after omeprazole treatment (p < 0.01), but not in patients with DU after ranitidine or anti-H. pylori treatment. The overall frequency of H. pylori-positive cultures from the brush-collected material was higher compared with cultures from the biopsy samples (38.5% vs. 24.6%), particularly in the NUD group (32.6% vs. 16.3%). Brush cytology is more sensitive than histology, besides being faster and cheaper, for the assessment of H. pylori infection, particularly when the density of the bacteria is low.

  2. Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?

    PubMed

    Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  3. Can We Confidently Diagnose Pilomatricoma with Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology?

    PubMed Central

    WONG, Yin-Ping; MASIR, Noraidah; SHARIFAH, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical ‘lymphadenopathy’, and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. ‘Ghost cells’ were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic ‘ghost cells’ and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  4. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Viguer, José M; Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; López-Ferrer, Pilar; Banaclocha, Marcos; Vicandi, Blanca

    2005-04-01

    Cytological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were reviewed in an attempt to select cytological criteria that permit a specific recognition of metastases. For this purpose, 54 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedures from 43 patients with NPC were analyzed. Thirty-two (59.3%) procedures were performed before the histological diagnosis. In 25 (46.3%) procedures, smears showed many neoplastic single cells, clusters, and abundant lymphoid cells (mixed pattern). A dissociated (single cell) pattern consisting of individual neoplastic and lymphoid cells was seen in 18 (33.3%) cases. Finally, 11 (20.4%) cases showed cohesive epithelial clusters (cohesive pattern) without relevant cellular dissociation or lymphoid cells. Squamous-cell differentiation was seen in three of these cases. Most single neoplastic cells presented as large, pleomorphic naked nuclei. Other interesting findings were granulomas (n = 3), prominent eosinophilic infiltrates (n = 4), and suppurative changes (n = 5). In most smears with mixed and dissociated patterns, a nasopharyngeal origin could be suggested. On the contrary, those smears with a cohesive pattern were indistinguishable from other head and neck carcinomas. The presence (on cervical lymph nodes) of a dissociated or mixed (single cells and groups) architectural pattern of large, anaplastic cells and naked nuclei accompanied by an abundant lymphoid component is highly suggestive of undifferentiated NPC. Cytology offers a rapid diagnosis, establishes the necessity of a complete cavum examination, and helps in avoiding unnecessary and harmful biopsies. PMID:15754369

  5. Urine cytology of micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    A case of micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) of urinary bladder is presented, in which the urine smear was studied in detail in an attempt to better characterize the cytologic findings of MPC. When the voided urine was examined in low power, cancer cells were scattered in the specimens as compact papillary/spheroidal clusters composed of pleomorphic cancer cells. Solitary carcinoma cells were occasionally observed. High power view of the smear revealed that the papillae/spheroids consisted of high-grade urothelial carcinoma cells. The cancer cells had pleomorphic nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin and thickened, irregular nuclear membrane, and thick cytoplasm. Histologically, the tumor in the resected bladder appeared as small nests with surrounding hallo both in the luminal surface and in the site of wall involvement. These tightly bound papillary/spheroidal clusters comprised of highly atypical cancer cells were the most specific cytologic finding in the urine of MPC, which were considered as a key diagnostic clue of MPC. The background of the urine smear showed numerous granulocytes and bacilli compatible with cystitis, which is a previously known complication of MPC. Differential diagnoses of MPC from those with pertinent cytologic findings such as conventional UC (including glandular differentiation), and primary/secondary adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder are discussed with a brief review of literature.

  6. Diagnostic challenges in aspiration cytology of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Schindler, S; Nayar, R; Dutra, J; Bedrossian, C W

    2001-05-01

    The main goal of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of salivary gland lesions is to assist the clinician in the management of patients who present with a mass lesion. Cytologic examination aims to determine, if a process is inflammatory and/or reactive, benign or malignant neoplasm and if possible renders a specific diagnosis. It has been argued that in the area of salivary gland tumors, surgical management relies less heavily on a specific preoperative diagnosis, because almost all neoplastic salivary gland lesions will undergo surgical excision. However, knowing beforehand if a lesion is malignant or benign, will aid in planning surgery and may prompt or postpone decisions for surgical intervention. The salivary glands are unique in their histologic complexity and morphological variability of tumors, which is reflected in the cytologic material. In addition to the overlapping morphologic patterns of salivary gland tumors, they also represent relatively rare lesions, thus making it more difficult to acquire diagnostic expertise in FNA. Other than approaching salivary gland tumors by a description of single entities in their benign and malignant categories, we favor a more practical approach to diagnosis based on the key morphologic features noted in FNAs. This article addresses differential diagnoses according to the predominant cytologic presentation with attention to the cell type and size, nature of the cytoplasm, and the smear background.

  7. Chondroid syringoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bipin

    2010-01-01

    Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region. It used to be previously called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components. There are only few case reports describing the fine needle aspiration cytologic features of chondroid syringoma for diagnosis. We studied a 20-year-old male case from Taplejung district of Nepal came to Otorhinolaryngology out patient department with the complaints of painless, progressively enlarging swelling on the dorsum of nose. On examination, 2.0 x 2.0 cm, firm, non-tender swelling was seen on the right side of dorsum of nose. Overlying skin was normal, and the swelling was fixed to the skin but freely mobile over underlying structure. A clinical diagnosis of dermoid cyst was entertained, and the case was subjected to FNAC. FNA yielded mucoid material which on microscopy showed clusters of round cells with moderate to abundant cytoplasm embedded in chondromyxoid ground substance. The nuclei were monomorphic, centrally to eccentrically located and had fine chromatin. On the basis of these cytologic features, a diagnosis of chondroid syringoma was made. We concluded that Chondroid syringoma may be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in the swelling of head and neck region and the diagnosis can be easily confirmed or ruled out by means of fine needle aspiration cytology.

  8. The Application of Molecular Diagnostics to Stained Cytology Smears.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Maja H; Adler, Esther; Hakima, Laleh; Grunblatt, Eli; Pieri, Evan; Seymour, Andrew; Khader, Samer; Cajigas, Antonio; Suhrland, Mark; Goswami, Sumanta

    2016-05-01

    Detection of mutational alterations is important for guiding treatment decisions of lung non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid nodules with atypical cytologic findings. Inoperable lung tumors requiring further testing for staging and thyroid lesions often are diagnosed using only cytology material. Molecular diagnostic tests of these samples typically are performed on cell blocks; however, insufficient cellularity of cell blocks is a limitation for test performance. In addition, some of the fixatives used while preparing cell blocks often introduces artifacts for mutation detection. Here, we applied qClamp xenonucleic technology and quantitative RT-PCR to cells microdissected directly from stained cytology smears to detect common alterations including mutations and translocations in non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid lesions. By using this approach, we achieved a 1% molecular alteration detection rate from as few as 50 cells. Ultrasensitive methods of molecular alteration detection similar to the one described here will be increasingly important for the evaluation of molecular alterations in clinical scenarios when only tissue samples that are small are available. PMID:26921541

  9. Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?

    PubMed

    Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized.

  10. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  12. Anal Cancer Rates Rising in Many Parts of The World

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Health Disparities HPV Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Anal Cancer Health Disparities HPV About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  13. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  14. Changes in anal sphincter tone at induction of anaesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, M. J.; Tomlinson, P. A.; Ubhi, C. S.; Wright, J.; Hardcastle, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in anal pressure have been monitored during the induction of anaesthesia. Falls in pressure accompany loss of consciousness following bolus doses of commonly used intravenous and inhalational anaesthetic agents. Subsequent rises in pressure towards pre-anaesthetic levels are usually associated with the time taken to correct responses and initial recovery. Premedication, including anticholinergic drugs in conventional dosage, does not affect anal pressure. PMID:3408160

  15. Anal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan José; Suárez, Erick

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer. PMID:23781623

  16. Relation between sampling device and detection of abnormality in cervical smears: a meta-analysis of randomised and quasi-randomised studies.

    PubMed Central

    Buntinx, F.; Brouwers, M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic yield of different sampling devices used in cervical screening. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomised and quasi-randomised studies. SETTING: All randomised and quasi-randomised studies comparing the yield of cytological or histological abnormalities when two or more different sampling devices were used. SUBJECTS: 85,000 patients included in 29 studies reported in 28 papers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pooled relative risk and 95% confidence interval of the yield of mild dysplasia or worse in smears recovered by each sampling method versus each other method with which it was compared; sensitivity or positive predictive value, or both, of cytological versus histological results in six studies from which sufficient data were available. RESULTS: There were no substantial differences in the yield of cytological abnormalities between the Ayre spatula, the Cytobrush, and the cotton swab used alone. There were also no substantial differences in the yield of cytological abnormalities between the extended tip spatula, the Ayre spatula combined with the Cytobrush or cotton swab, or the Cervex brush. The Ayre spatula, Cytobruah, or cotton swab used alone generally performed significantly worse than the combinations, the extended tip spatula, or the Cervex brush. There were no substantial differences in sensitivity or positive predictive value between the sampling methods. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the use of either the extended tip spatula, a combination of any spatula plus the Cytobrush or cotton swab, or the Cervex brush for cervical screening. PMID:8942687

  17. Unprotected anal Intercourse among Iranian Intra-Venous Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Mirabi, Parvaneh; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Moazen, Babak; Sehat, Mahmoud; Rezazadeh, Majid; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected anal intercourse among Iranian male heterosexual Intra-Venous Drug Users (IDUs). Methods: In a cross-sectional study 360 male heterosexual IDUs were sampled from streets of eight different geographical parts of Iran. Variables such as socio-demographics, HIV knowledge (10 items), and HIV attitude (16 items) were entered to a logistic regression to determine the predictors of unprotected anal intercourse during the past month. Results: From all, 20.8% reported unprotected anal intercourse during the past month. HIV knowledge was not significantly different among IDUs with and without unprotected anal intercourse. High age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.954, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.916–0.992] was associated with a lower likelihood of unprotected anal intercourse, while being not married (OR = 2.301, 95% CI = 1.151–4.601), and high perceived HIV risk (OR = 1.776, 95% CI = 1.376–2.290) were associated with a higher likelihood of unprotected anal intercourse. Conclusion: Although the results might not be generalizable to all Iranian IDUs, this study findings may still be helpful for design and implementation of public health programs in Iran to prevent sexual transmission of HIV through IDUs. PMID:24350203

  18. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  20. [Epithelium and anal glands in rectal pouches and fistula. Histologic studies of swine with congenital anal atresia].

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, W; Kluth, D; Lierse, W

    1989-02-01

    The epithelial coating of the rectal pouch and fistula was studied morphologically in 33 newborn piglets with high and low forms of anal atresia and was found to be similar to the epithelial coating of the anal canal in normal piglets: the typical epithelium of the rectum changed its character into transitional epithelium at the region of the internal sphincter which surrounded the fistulae in all animals. In the caudal part of the fistula the transitional epithelium was followed by squamous epithelium. Only in male piglets with deformities and recto-urethral fistulae no squamous epithelium was found. In these cases transitional epithelium covered all parts of the fistula and the region of the internal sphincter. Anal glands were found in all animals, with or without anorectal malformations. They always invaded the internal sphincter. According to our morphological studies the fistula in anorectal malformations represents an ectopic anal canal.

  1. Benign dermal eccrine cylindroma. A pitfall in the cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bondeson, L; Lindholm, K; Thorstenson, S

    1983-01-01

    Aspiration cytology from four benign dermal eccrine cylindromas and five adenoid cystic carcinomas were compared. These two lesions were found to have so much in common morphologically that they may be indistinguishable on a purely cytologic basis. Accordingly, we recommend a restricted excision to obtain a histopathologic diagnosis before more extensive surgery is performed whenever a lesion is cytologically consistent with adenoid cystic carcinoma but clinically shows a picture that does not exclude dermal eccrine cylindroma.

  2. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  3. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  4. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of chondroid syringoma of fore arm: Report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Pal, Subrata; Sengupta, Sanjay; Jana, Sritanu; Bose, Kingshuk

    2014-07-01

    Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of sweat glands with microscopic resemblance to the salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma. Cytology is rarely utilized for preoperative assessment of these slow-growing, small, nodular lesions. Definitive cytological diagnosis is also quite difficult, and majority of the aspirates are evaluated as benign adnexal tumors leading to mandatory histopathological examination for pinpoint diagnosis. Here, we report a case of chondroid syringoma of forearm, which was diagnosed by cytology and also confirmed after histopathological examination. Pinpoint cytological diagnosis can help early formulation of necessary management protocol.

  5. Fine needle aspiration cytologic findings in a benign lymphoepithelial lesion with microcalcifications. A case report.

    PubMed

    Günhan, O; Celasun, B; Doğan, N; Onder, T; Pabuşçu, Y; Finci, R

    1992-01-01

    Aspiration cytologic findings in a case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLL) of the parotid gland are presented. The aspirate contained a polymorphous lymphoid population, histiocytes, myoepithelial and ductal epithelial cells and numerous bluish, calcified bodies. A cytologic diagnosis of benign nonneoplastic lesion, consistent with chronic sialadenitis and microlithiasis, was made. The clinical impression of neoplasia was inconsistent with the cytologic findings. Subsequent histologic examination showed classic BLL with microcalcifications as an unexpected feature. The value and limitations of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of nonneoplastic salivary gland lesions and the differential diagnosis of BLL are discussed.

  6. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  7. The rodent estrous cycle: characterization of vaginal cytology and its utility in toxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jerome M; Murr, Ashley S; Cooper, Ralph L

    2007-04-01

    While an evaluation of the estrous cycle in laboratory rodents can be a useful measure of the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian reproductive axis, it can also serve as a way of insuring that animals exhibiting abnormal cycling patterns are disincluded from a study prior to exposure to a test compound. Assessment of vaginal cytology in regularly cycling animals also provides a means to establish a comparable endocrine milieu for animals at necropsy. The procedure for obtaining a vaginal smear is relatively non-invasive and is one to which animals can become readily accustomed. It requires few supplies, and with some experience the assessments can be easily performed in fresh, unstained smears, or in fixed, stained ones. When incorporated as an adjunct to other endpoint measures, a determination of a female's cycling status can contribute important information about the nature of a toxicant insult to the reproductive system. In doing so, it can help to integrate the data into a more comprehensive mechanistic portrait of the effect, and in terms of risk assessment, may provide some indication of a toxicant's impact on human reproductive physiology.

  8. [Epidemiological, clinical, cytologic and immunophenotypic aspects of acute leukemia in children: the experience at the hematology laboratory of IBN SINA University Hospital Center].

    PubMed

    Doumbia, Mariam; Uwingabiye, Jean; Bissan, Aboubacar; Rachid, Razine; Benkirane, Souad; Masrar, Azlarab

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological, cytologic and immunophenotypic aspects of acute leukemias (AL) in children diagnosed at IBN SINA University Hospital Center and to determine the concordance between cytology and immunophenotyping results. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the hematology laboratory of IBN SINA University Hospital Center between June 2012 and May 2014. Among the 104 cases with diagnosed AL, 52% were boys with a sex-ratio H/F= 1.32, the average age was 5.7 years. The distribution of different types of AL was: lymphoid AL (LAL) (74%), myeloid (AML) (20.2%), biphenotypic AL (BAL) (65.8%). Among the LALs, 78% were classified as B LAL and 22% as T LAL. Clinical signs were mainly presented with tumor syndrome (73.1%), fever (61%) and hemorrhagic syndrome (50%). The most common blood count abnormalities were: thrombopenia (89.4%), anemia (86.5%), hyperleukocytosis (79.8%). The rate of peripheral and bone marrow blasts was statistically higher for LAL than for AML and BAL (p <0.001). The rate of relapse and mortality was 21.2% and 16. 3% respectively. Concordance rate between the results of cytology and of immunophenotyping was 92.7% for LAL and 82.6% for AML. Diagnosis of AL is always based primarily on cytology. Immunophenotyping allowed us to make a better distinction between acute leukemias. The management of paediatric AL is a major health problem which requires specialized care centers. PMID:27516823

  9. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus infection with different cervical cytological features among women undergoing health examination at the National Cancer Institute, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Laowahutanont, Piyawat; Karalak, Anant; Wongsena, Metee; Loonprom, Komson; Pukcharoen, Phuttalak; Jamsri, Paphawin; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn

    2014-01-01

    High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is important in cervical cancer screening for triage colposcopy. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR HPV infection with different cervical cytological features among women undergoing health examination. A total of 2,897 women were retrospectively evaluated between May 2011 to December 2011. DNA was extracted from residual specimens collected during routine liquid-based cytology tests at the National Cancer Institute. Overall, HR HPV prevalence was 9.3% including 1.6% of HPV-16 and 0.4% of HPV-18. Of all 270 HPV positive samples, 211 (78.1% were HR-HPV non 16/18; 47 (17.4%) were HPV-16 and 12 (4.4%) were HPV-18. The prevalence of HPV infection was similar in all age groups, although a higher rate was observed in women age 31-40 years. Among women with normal cytology, HR HPV positive were found in 6.7%. In abnormal cytology, HR HPV were found 46.7% in atypical squamous cells (ASC), 54.8% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 80.0% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). HPV-16 was detected in 8.6%, 6.4% and 12.0% of ASC, LSIL and HSIL, respectively. The results of this study provide baseline information on the HPV type distribution, which may be useful for clinicians to decide who should be monitored or treated more aggressively.

  10. Aqueous exposure to the progestin, levonorgestrel, alters anal fin development and reproductive behavior in the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed

    Frankel, Tyler E; Meyer, Michael T; Orlando, Edward F

    2016-08-01

    Endogenous progestogens are important regulators of vertebrate reproduction. Synthetic progestins are components of human contraceptive and hormone replacement pharmaceuticals. Both progestogens and progestins enter the environment through a number of sources, and have been shown to cause profound effects on reproductive health in various aquatic vertebrates. Progestins are designed to bind human progesterone receptors, but they also have been shown to strongly activate androgen receptors in fish. Levonorgestrel (LNG) activates fish androgen receptors and induces development of male secondary sex characteristics in females of other species. Although behavior has been postulated to be a sensitive early indicator of exposure to certain environmental contaminants, no such research on the reproductive behavior of gestagen-exposed fish has been conducted to date. The goal of our study was to examine the exposure effects of a human contraceptive progestin, LNG, on the reproductive development and behavior of the viviparous eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Internal fertilization is a requisite characteristic of viviparous species, and is enabled by an androgen driven elongation of the anal fin into the male gonopodium (i.e., phallus). In this study, we exposed adult mosquitofish to ethanol (EtOH control), 10ng/L, and 100ng/L LNG for 8d using a static replacement exposure design. After 8d, a subset of males and females from each treatment were examined for differences in the 4:6 anal fin ratio. In addition, paired social interaction trials were performed using individual control males and control females or females treated 10ng/L or 100ng/L LNG. Female mosquitofish exposed to LNG were masculinized as evidenced by the elongation of the anal fin rays, a feature normal to males and abnormal to females. LNG caused significant increases in the 4:6 anal fin ratios of female mosquitofish in both the 10ng/L and 100ng/L treatments, although these differences were not

  11. Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. Topical therapies have the advantage of being nonsurgical and are well suited for treating widespread multifocal disease. Topical treatments have the disadvantage of requiring extended treatment courses and causing a symptomatic

  12. JC Virus T-Antigen Expression in Anal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Sonia; Deveraj, Bikash; Miyai, Katsumi; Luo, Linda; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Boland, C. Richard; Goel, Ajay; Carethers, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Anal carcinoma is thought driven by HPV infection through interrupting function of cell regulatory proteins such as p53 and pRb. JCV expresses a T-antigen (T-Ag) that causes malignant transformation through development of aneuploidy and interaction with some of the same regulatory proteins as HPV. JCV T-Ag is present in brain, gastric and colon malignancies, but has not been evaluated in anal cancers. We examined a cohort of anal cancers for JCV T-Ag and correlated this with clinicopathologic data. Methods Archived anal carcinomas were analyzed for JCV T-Ag expression. DNA from tumor and normal tissue was sequenced for JCV with viral copies determined by qPCR and Southern blotting. HPV and MSI status was correlated with JCV T-Ag expression. Results Of 21 cases of anal cancer (mean age 49 years, 38% female), 12 (57%) were in HIV-positive individuals. All 21 cancers expressed JCV T-Ag, including 9 HPV-negative specimens. More JCV copies were present in cancer vs. surrounding normal tissue (mean 32.54 copies/μg DNA vs. 2.98 copies/μg DNA, P=0.0267). There was no correlation between disease stage and viral copies, nor between viral copies and HIV-positive or -negative status (28.7 vs. 36.34 copies/μg DNA, respectively, P=0.7804). In subset analysis, we found no association between JCV T-Ag expression and HPV or MSI status. Conclusions Anal carcinomas uniformly express JCV T-Ag and contain more viral copies compared to surrounding normal tissue. JCV and its T-Ag oncogenic protein, presumably through interruption of cell regulatory proteins, may play a role in anal cancer pathogenesis. PMID:24048785

  13. HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in anal carcinomas worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, L; Saunier, M; Alvarado, I; Quirós, B; Salmeron, J; Shin, HR; Pirog, E; Guimerà, N; Hernández, GA; Felix, A; Clavero, O; Lloveras, B; Kasamatsu, E; Goodman, MT; Hernandez, BY; Laco, J; Tinoco, L; Geraets, DT; Lynch, CF; Mandys, V; Poljak, M; Jach, R; Verge, J; Clavel, C; Ndiaye, C; Klaustermeier, J; Cubilla, A; Castellsagué, X; Bravo, IG; Pawlita, M; Quint, W; Muñoz, N; Bosch, FX; Sanjosé, S

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the human papillomaviruses (HPV) types in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16INK4a expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in cancer dataset. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95%CI:85.1–91.0%) and in 95.4% of AIN 2/3 (95%CI:84.2–99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16INK4a overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers. In view of HPV DNA results and high proportion of p16INK4a overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions. PMID:24817381

  14. Impression Cytology in Different Types of Contact Lens Users.

    PubMed

    Iskeleli, Guzin; Arici, Ceyhun; Deger Bilgec, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Serap Arslan, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    This study compared tear function tests and cytologic changes on the conjunctival surface in asymptomatic patients wearing contact lens of different materials. Included in this study were 40 eyes wearing daily wear 4 week replacement hydrogel (H) lenses, 32 eyes wearing silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses, 18 eyes wearing rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lenses, and 21 healthy eyes (no lenses) as the control group. Epithelial morphology of the conjunctival surface was evaluated, based on Nelson classification with conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), after the tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were performed. The mean values of the Schirmer and TBUT tests were significantly higher in the control group than in the other lens groups (p < 0.001). Grade 0 was the most frequent CIC in the control group (66.7%) and least frequent in the SiH lens group (40.6%); grade I was least frequent in the control and RGP groups (33.3%) and most frequent in the SiH lens group (40.6%). Moreover, grade 2 was most frequent in the SiH lens group (18.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in goblet cell densities between the groups (p = 0.462). In addition to the different Schirmer and TBUT test results between contact lens wearers and healthy non-wearers, some cytologic changes may occur on the ocular surface with direct mechanical effects of contact lenses. This simple and noninvasive technique may be used to evaluate the ocular surface with regard to intolerance to contact lenses. PMID:27350951

  15. Cytologic diagnosis of generalized cutaneous sporotrichosis in a hunting hound.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Joseph A; Cook, Heather E; Gill, Amy F; Ryan, Kirk A; Sirninger, Jeffrey

    2007-03-01

    A 1-year-old male Foxhound/Walker Hound mix was presented to the small animal internal medicine service at Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine with a 6-week history of progressive, multifocal, ulcerative and draining, well-circumscribed lesions in a generalized distribution. Prior to referral, a presumptive diagnosis was made of sterile pyogranulomatous disease; immunosuppressive therapy was instituted but resulted in clinical deterioration. At presentation, the dog had marked neutropenia (1100 neutrophils/microL), and a mild toxic left shift (400 bands/microL). Cytologic findings in the exudates from a draining skin lesion included high numbers of markedly degenerate neutrophils (about 95% of nucleated cells) as well as low numbers of macrophages, small mature lymphocytes, and eosinophils. Low numbers of intracellular (within neutrophils and macrophages) and extracellular, pleomorphic, cigar-to-ovoid shaped organisms ( approximately 3x9 microm) consistent with Sporothrix were observed. Histopathologic examination of a skin biopsy showed marked, chronic, active, ulcerative, pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis, with intralesional yeast consistent with Sporothrix sp. The etiologic agent was confirmed as Sporothrix schenckii by macerated tissue fungal culture. The patient was treated with itraconazole, enrofloxacin, and clindamycin, with clinical resolution occurring over a 3-month period. This case is a rare example of the cytologic diagnosis of Sporothrix schenckii in a canine patient. Diagnosis of canine sporotrichosis is often challenging and usually requires tissue culture, as infected dogs typically harbor very few organisms. The patient's prior immunosuppressive therapy likely contributed to higher numbers of organisms in exudates from the cutaneous lesions, facilitating cytologic diagnosis. PMID:17311202

  16. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  17. Atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae of the endometrium. Cytologic and histopathologic confrontations.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, M; Cristea, A; Samoilescu, M; Alexandrescu, M; Virtej, P; Andronescu, A

    1977-01-01

    By cytologic and histopathologic confrontations performed in uterine curettage products, 34 atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae were comparatively analysed with 38 malignant proliferations of the endometrium. The confrontation was made with the aim of knowing the diagnosis significance of some atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae lesions, finally correlated with the diagnosis established on histerectomy pieces. The significance of anomalies and/or atypies generated by disorders occurred in the cytodifferentiation of glandular cells and of those of the covering epithelium of the endometrium are discussed as well as the value of methods for the early diagnosis of the malignant process at the level of endometrium.

  18. The endoskeletal structures in arthropods: cytology, morphology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Bitsch, Colette; Bitsch, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The paper proposes an overview of the endoskeletal structures of the head and trunk in the different arthropod groups: Chelicerata, Crustacea, Myriapoda and Hexapoda (=Insecta s.l.). Two major endoskeletal systems are reported with their cytological characteristics: those made up of connective tissue derived from muscular tendons, and those consisting of cuticular rods or plates arising from integumentary ingrowths. The morphological value of the various endoskeletal structures, their possible homologies in different groups, and their presumed evolutionary changes are discussed. This survey may be considered as a first step to use morphological characteristics of the endoskeleton in future cladistic analyses to assess the phylogeny of arthropods. PMID:18088953

  19. Colostrum in menopause effects on vaginal cytology/symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tucci, S; Mancini, R; De Vitis, C; Noto, A; Marra, E; Lukic, A; Giovagnoli, M R; Moscarini, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of three weeks of daily colostrum cream on vaginal cytology and local symptoms related to menopause. Genito-urinary symptoms and cell morphology were analyzed at time 0 (T0) and after three weeks (16 +/- days since the end of treatment) at time 1 (T1). Dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and maturation index (MI) reached a statistically significant difference between T0 and T1. The results proved to be an alternative treatment for vaginal distress caused by lack of hormones in patients in which hormonal treatment is contraindicated.

  20. Aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Dani, A A; Kotwal, M N; Kherdekar, M S

    1994-07-01

    FNAC of the major salivary glands was performed on 72 patients during a period of two and a half years. In 64 patients samples were satisfactory. The cytologic diagnosis was correlated with histology available in 36 cases. 21 out of 22 benign lesions and 12 out 4 malignant lesions were correctly identified rendering a diagnostic accuracy of 91 percent. The pitfalls of FNAC of salivary gland lesions are reflected by the overall false positive rate of 5.5 percent of false negative rate of 2.7 percent. Diagnostic pitfalls are due to variability of tumor morphology which makes sampling & interpretation difficult. Multiple sampling and increasing experience help to minimize errors.

  1. Management of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear and colposcopy in pregnancy: an evidenced-based review.

    PubMed

    Fleury, A C; Birsner, M L; Fader, A N

    2012-04-01

    Women diagnosed with abnormal Papanicolau smears or cervical abnormalities during pregnancy present a challenge to health care providers, as conventional management guidelines appropriate for the non-pregnant population may be contraindicated. The physiologic effects of pregnancy that may result in greater difficulty with the colposcopic examination include increased cervical mucus production that may obscure visualization, cervical hyperemia, gland prominence, and eversion of the columnar epithelium. The squamo-columnar junction may also be difficult to visualize in early pregnancy, but will often evert as the pregnancy continues. Because of these changes, cervical dysplasia may have a more prominent appearance in the gravid patient. Therefore, colposcopy should be performed by a skilled examiner with expertise in the cervical changes of pregnancy. The primary goal of colposcopy during pregnancy is to exclude the presence of invasive cancer, and thus, many cervical lesions may be followed with serial cytology and colposcopy during pregnancy or by deferring further colposcopic examination until the postpartum period. Cervical biopsy should be avoided unless a malignancy is suspected and endocervical sampling is contraindicated. Herein, we present a contemporary, evidence-based review of the colposcopic examination and guidelines for triaging and evaluating abnormal cervical cytology and lesions that are diagnosed during pregnancy.

  2. The gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers reduces anal tone when injected in the anal sphincter of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Rogelio; Lagos, Néstor; Lattes, Karinna; Azolas, Carlos García Rodrigo; Bocic, Gunther; Cuneo, Aldo; Chiong, Hector; Jensen, Cristian; Henríquez, Ana I; Fernández, Cristian

    2004-01-01

    The primary clinical symptom of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning is acute paralytic illness produced by paralyzing toxins. Paralytic shellfish poison is formed by a mixture of phycotoxins and their toxicity is due to its reversible binding to a receptor site on the voltage-gated sodium channel on excitable cells, thus blocking neuronal transmission. We studied the effect of the gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers by local infiltration in the anal internal sphincter of healthy voluntary adults in order to reduce anal tone. The toxin was injected after prior clinical evaluation, anoscopy and anorectal manometry. Post injection clinical examination, electromyography and anorectal manometry were performed. Resting and voluntary contraction pressures were measured and the anorectal inhibitory and anocortical reflexes were tested by manometry. Blood and urine samples were obtained from each participant, and hemogram, basic metabolic panel, and urinalysis were done both before and one week after the injection. This study shows, for the first time, that gonyautoxin 2/3 reduces the anal tone by relaxing the anal sphincters in 100 % of the participants. Manometric recordings showed a significant decrease in anal maximal voluntary contraction pressure after the toxin injection, dropping to 55.2+/-6.2 % and 47.0+/-6.8% (Mean Value+/-Std.Dev.) of the baseline values at 2 minutes and at 24 hours respectively after the injection. Post-injection electromyography showed that activity of the muscle was abolished. We conclude that local administration of gonyautoxin 2/3 to the anal sphincter produces immediate relaxation and a statistically significant decrease in the anal tone (p <0.001). PMID:15515965

  3. All's Well That Ends Well: Shakespeare's treatment of anal fistula.

    PubMed

    Cosman, B C

    1998-07-01

    Textual and contextual evidence suggests that the French king's fistula, a central plot device in Shakespeare's play All's Well That Ends Well, is a fistula-in-ano. Anal fistula was known to the lay public in Shakespeare's time. In addition, Shakespeare may have known of the anal fistula treatise of John Arderne, an ancestor on Shakespeare's mother's side. Shakespeare's use of anal fistula differs from all previous versions of the story, which first appeared in Boccaccio's Decameron and from its possible historical antecedent, the fistula of Charles V of France. This difference makes sense given the conventions of Elizabethan comedy, which included anal humor. It is also understandable when one looks at what wounds in different locations mean in European legend. In this light, it is not surprising that subsequent expurgations treat Boccaccio's and Shakespeare's fistulas differently, censoring only Shakespeare's. This reading has implications for the staging of All's Well That Ends Well, and for our view of the place of anal fistulas in cultural history.

  4. Modern Perspectives in the Treatment of Chronic Anal Fissures

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, R; Parker, MC

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anal fissures are commonly encountered in routine colorectal practice. Developments in the pharmacological understanding of the internal anal sphincter have resulted in more conservative approaches towards treatment. Simple measures are often effective for early fissures. Glyceryl trinitrate is well established as a first-line pharmacological therapy. The roles of diltiazem and botulinum, particularly as rescue therapy, are not well understood. Surgery has a defined role and should not be discounted completely. METHODS Data were obtained from Medline publications citing ‘anal fissure’. Manual cross-referencing of salient articles was conducted. We have sought to highlight various controversies in the management of anal fissures. FINDINGS Acute fissures may heal spontaneously, although simple conservative measures are sufficient. Idiopathic chronic anal fissures need careful evaluation to decide what therapy is suitable. Pharmacological agents such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), diltiazem and botulinum toxin have been subjected to most scrutiny. Though practices in the UK vary, GTN or diltiazem would be suitable as first-line therapy with botulinum toxin used as rescue treatment. Sphincterotomy is indicated for unhealed fissures; fissurectomy has been revisited and advancement flaps have a role in patients in whom sphincter division is not suitable. PMID:17688717

  5. Nicorandil associated anal ulcers: an estimate of incidence

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, HS; Barakat, T; Moussa, O; Babu, H; Slaughter, T; Palmer, JG; Hinson, FL

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Nicorandil is a commonly prescribed antianginal medication that has been found to be associated with painful anal ulceration. The incidence of this complication is unknown. We have used the best data available to us to make an estimate of this figure in a health district with a remarkably stable population of approximately 200,000 people. METHODS Using an electronic search of all letters generated from colorectal and gastroenterology clinics as well as endoscopy reports from January 2004 to November 2010, patients with anal ulceration who were taking nicorandil were identified. Other causes of ulceration were excluded by biopsy in the majority of cases. The central hospital and community pharmacy database was interrogated to estimate the number of patients who were prescribed nicorandil over a six-year period (2004-2010). RESULTS A total of 30 patients (24 men, 6 women) with a median age of 79.5 years were identified who fulfilled the criteria of: taking nicorandil; having no other identified cause for anal ulceration; and achieving eventual healing after withdrawal of nicorandil. In the six-year period an estimated mean of 1,379 patients were prescribed nicorandil each year. The mean annual incidence of anal ulcers among nicorandil users is therefore calculated to be in the region of 0.37%. CONCLUSIONS Anal ulceration appears to occur in approximately four in every thousand patients prescribed nicorandil each year. Prescribing physicians should explain the risk of this unpleasant complication to their patients. PMID:22507720

  6. The anal personality: self-disclosure, negativism, self-esteem, and superego severity.

    PubMed

    Fischer, R E; Juni, S

    1982-02-01

    Psychoanalytic implications of anal characterology were operationalized, and an experimental situation devised to test hypotheses of various aspects of interpersonal behavior. Subjects selected for the study had been found to score either high or low on Kline's (Ai3) Anality Scale. Self-disclosure and disclosure reciprocity were shown to be negative functions of anality: productivity and superego measures were also shown to be functions of anality. Self-esteem and socio-economic status did not relate to anality levels, while the hypothesis linking anality with negativism was only partially confirmed. Implications for psychoanalytic and social psychology research are discussed.

  7. Cytological and Comparative Proteomic Analyses on Male Sterility in Brassica napus L. Induced by the Chemical Hybridization Agent Monosulphuron Ester Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

    2013-01-01

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

  8. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M.O.L.P.; Heráclio, S.A.; Coelho, A.V.C.; Acioly, V.L.; Souza, P.R.E.; Correia, M.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases). The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001). The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (χ2=5.28; P=0.02), and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. PMID:26247400

  9. Comparative image analysis of conventional and thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Manabu; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Nishimura, Yukari; Machida, Daisuke; Toyonaga, Masumi; Tsunoda, Shinpei; Ohbu, Makoto

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the differences in cytologic findings between conventional and thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology to introduce the thin-layer method into routine cytology. Eighty patients who had undergone endometrial cytology and biopsy on the same day were selected and we compared the cytological findings between conventional- and thin-layer preparations (TLP) in endometrial cytology. The numbers of neutrophils and cell clusters in the thin-layer method were lower than those in the conventional smear (CSS) method. The average number of neutrophils in endometrioid adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal morphology endometrium and endometrial hyperplasia. Regarding the shape of the cell clusters, ball-like patterns and round-edged cell clusters were not identified in CSS. The average number of clusters in CSS was significantly greater than that using the TLP. The average of the nuclear area in CSS was significantly larger than that using the TLP, indicating that the nuclear areas in CSS were more uneven than that using the TLP. In the future, it is expected that liquid-based cytology will be applied to the cytological diagnosis of a variety of lesions. The influence on cells due to fixation is considerable in liquid-based preparations. Therefore, if we strive to pick up the differences between CSS and TLP of endometrial samples, the diagnostic accuracy of the latter could be improved.

  10. Combined Cytological and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway Involved in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Tube Growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Sheng, Xianyong; Shu, Zaifa; Li, Dongqin; Pan, Junting; Ye, Xiaoli; Chang, Pinpin; Li, Xinghui; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule plays crucial roles in many abiotic stresses in plant development processes, including pollen tube growth. Here, the signaling networks dominated by NO during cold stress that inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth are investigated in vitro. Cytological analysis show that cold-induced NO is involved in the inhibition of pollen tube growth along with disruption of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) gradient, increase in ROS content, acidification of cytoplasmic pH and abnormalities in organelle ultrastructure and cell wall component distribution in the pollen tube tip. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs)-related to signaling pathway, such as NO synthesis, cGMP, Ca(2+), ROS, pH, actin, cell wall, and MAPK cascade signal pathways, are identified and quantified using transcriptomic analyses and qRT-PCR, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above cytological results. Taken together, these findings suggest that a complex signaling network dominated by NO, including Ca(2+), ROS, pH, RACs signaling and the crosstalk among them, is stimulated in the C. sinensis pollen tube in response to cold stress, which further causes secondary and tertiary alterations, such as ultrastructural abnormalities in organelles and cell wall construction, ultimately resulting in perturbed pollen tube extension.

  11. Combined Cytological and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway Involved in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weidong; Sheng, Xianyong; Shu, Zaifa; Li, Dongqin; Pan, Junting; Ye, Xiaoli; Chang, Pinpin; Li, Xinghui; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule plays crucial roles in many abiotic stresses in plant development processes, including pollen tube growth. Here, the signaling networks dominated by NO during cold stress that inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth are investigated in vitro. Cytological analysis show that cold-induced NO is involved in the inhibition of pollen tube growth along with disruption of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ gradient, increase in ROS content, acidification of cytoplasmic pH and abnormalities in organelle ultrastructure and cell wall component distribution in the pollen tube tip. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs)-related to signaling pathway, such as NO synthesis, cGMP, Ca2+, ROS, pH, actin, cell wall, and MAPK cascade signal pathways, are identified and quantified using transcriptomic analyses and qRT-PCR, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above cytological results. Taken together, these findings suggest that a complex signaling network dominated by NO, including Ca2+, ROS, pH, RACs signaling and the crosstalk among them, is stimulated in the C. sinensis pollen tube in response to cold stress, which further causes secondary and tertiary alterations, such as ultrastructural abnormalities in organelles and cell wall construction, ultimately resulting in perturbed pollen tube extension. PMID:27148289

  12. Picture archiving and communication systems in digital cytology.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sandra; Grigioni, Mauro; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Balzano, Simone; Giansanti, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a fundamental feature of digital cytology relevant to the implementation of the technology in the hospital net services: the electronic recording of the virtual slides (VS) in the hospital information system (HIS) through a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Starting from the digital cytology (D-CYT) state of art and considering the most important products in the field, particular attention has been devoted in this review to the comparison with the digital radiology (D-RAD). Two main indications emerged from the study: 1. there is not a standard in the digital files relevant to the virtual slides in D-CYT, while in D-RAD the standard digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), introduced by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), has been adopted from several years; 2. the PACS in D-CYT are not standardized from manufacturers. The study makes a proposal of a useful software architecture to improve the PACS integration for D-CYT applications, with potentialities in the HIS.

  13. Cytological and physiological changes in orthodox maize embryos during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bin; Wang, Ruling; Cheng, Hongyan; Song, Songquan

    2010-03-01

    Cytological and physiological changes during cryopreservation were studied in maize embryos at 35 days after pollination (DAP). Both dehydration and freezing caused cytological damage, such as plasmolysis, swelled mitochondria, increased heterochromatin, and nuclear shrinkage. Dehydration alone slightly impaired plasma membrane integrity while a drastic increase in electrolyte leakage was observed after freezing of embryos with moisture content above 23%. Damage to cellular ultrastructure and plasmalemma integrity was negatively related to moisture content in unfrozen embryos and positively related in frozen embryos. The pattern of changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes differed from one another during dehydration and/or freezing-thawing treatment. Dehydration increased activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) but decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR). Freezing further decreased GR and SOD activity and resulted in extremely low DHAR activity. Embryos at intermediate moisture contents had low catalase (CAT) activity before freezing but highest CAT activity after freeze-thaw. Both dehydration and freezing promoted membrane lipid peroxidation which resulted in an approximately threefold increase at most in the malondialdehyde content in postthaw embryos. Changes in viability of postthaw embryos can be closely related to damage in cellular ultrastructure and plasmalemma integrity but directly related neither to antioxidants nor lipid peroxidation levels. PMID:19904484

  14. Sexual polyploidization in plants – cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

  15. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FIBER TYPES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Geraldine F.; Padykula, Helen A.

    1966-01-01

    A comparative investigation of the mammalian diaphragm has revealed a correlation between certain cytological aspects of red and white muscle fibers and functional activity. This skeletal muscle presents the advantage of a similar and constant function among the mammals, but its functional activity varies in a quantitative manner. Both the rate of breathing (and hence the rate of contraction of the diaphragm) and metabolic activity are known to be inversely related to body size; and this study has demonstrated a relationship between cytological characteristics of the diaphragm and body size of the animal. Small fibers rich in mitochondria (red fibers) are characteristic of small mammals, which have high metabolic activity and fast breathing rates; and large fibers with relatively low mitochondrial content predominate in large mammals, which have lower metabolic activity and slower breathing rates. In mammals with body size intermediate between these two groups (including the laboratory rat), the diaphragm consists of varying mixtures of fiber types. In general, the mitochondrial content of diaphragm fibers is inversely related to body size. It appears, then, that the red fiber reflects a high degree of metabolic activity or a relatively high rate of contraction within the range exhibited by this muscle. PMID:5950272

  16. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dey, Pranab; Amir, Thasneem; Jogai, Sanjay; Al Jussar, Aisha

    2005-04-01

    In this article we described the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of five cases of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). There were four cases of metastatic lymph nodes and one case of metastatic skin lesion. All of the TCC cases were primarily in the urinary bladder and were high grade on histopathology (grade 3). Three cases showed bladder muscle involvement and two cases showed superficial TCC at the time of primary diagnosis. FNAC smears showed abundant cellularity. The cells were present in discrete and small syncytial clusters. Nuclear position of the cell was central to eccentric. Many cells showed prominent nucleoli. Cercariform cells (CCs) were noted in four cases. These cells are malignant cells with a nucleated globular body and a unipolar nontapering cytoplasmic process. Two cases showed intranuclear inclusions. Prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles were noted in three cases. In addition, cell cannibalism and attempted pearl formations were noted in two cases.In conclusion, clinical history along with the certain cytological features such as the presence of CCs, cells with eccentric nuclei, and intranuclear inclusions are helpful to diagnose metastatic TCC on FNAC material. PMID:15754372

  17. Insight to neoplastic thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Rangaswamy, M; Narendra, KL; Patel, S; Gururajprasad, C; Manjunath, GV

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a valuable adjunct to pre-operative screening in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and in most cases, it can distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Aim: To study the cytology of neoplastic thyroid lesions to minimize surgical intervention and for confirmation of the diagnosis by histopathological study. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of thyroid FNAC smears were analyzed and cyto-histopathological correlation was done in 47 cases. Galen and Gambino's method was used to calculate the sensitivity and positive predictive value. Results: Of the 100 cases, 90 were diagnosed as neoplastic lesions by FNAC and ten cases as non-neoplastic lesions, which turned out to be neoplasms on histopathological study. Among 100 cases, 47 were biopsied and subjected to histopathological study. The sensitivity of FNAC was 75.60%, and positive predictive value was 83.78% for malignant lesions. Conclusions: FNAC is a rapid, efficient, cost-effective, relatively painless procedure with a high diagnostic accuracy. It has high rate of sensitivity and positive predictive value in diagnosing thyroid neoplastic lesions. Hence, it is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:23661936

  18. Lectin cytochemistry in the exfoliative cytology of uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Remani, P; Pillai, K R; Haseenabeevi, V M; Ankathil, R; Bhattathiri, V N; Nair, M K; Vijayakumar, T

    1994-01-01

    A lectin was isolated from the seeds of jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) and purified using a column of immobilized N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. This jack fruit lectin (JFL) was then conjugated to horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) type VI and used to study the cell surface carbohydrate profile of the cytological smears of the uterine cervix using diaminobenzidine as substrate. Cervical smears from 15 healthy individuals and 65 patients with dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and carcinoma of uterine cervix were used for the study. Normal cells showed weak binding in the membrane as well as cytoplasm, whereas carcinomatous cells showed strong binding towards JFL. Carcinoma in situ cells showed a binding pattern similar to that of carcinoma. Dysplastic cells showed difference in binding in mild, moderate and severe dysplasia. The intensity of binding increased with the severity of the dysplasia. The nature and intensity of binding of jack fruit lectin with cancer tissues suggest that this lectin may be of use as a diagnostic aid in exfoliative cytology.

  19. Anal encirclement with polypropylene mesh for rectal prolapse and incontinence.

    PubMed

    Sainio, A P; Halme, L E; Husa, A I

    1991-10-01

    Seventeen selected patients (mean age, 74 years)--14 with rectal prolapse and 3 with persisting anal incontinence after previous operations--underwent high anal encirclement with polypropylene mesh. There was no operative mortality. Prolapse recurred in 2 (15 percent) of the 13 patients followed up for 6 months or more (mean, 3.5 years). Three (27 percent) of the 11 patients with associated anal incontinence improved functionally, as did the three operated on for persisting incontinence, but only one patient regained normal continence. No breakage, cutting out, or infection related to the mesh was observed. Because of the risk of fecal impaction encountered in three of our patients, the procedure is not advocated for severely constipated patients. Despite the somewhat disappointing results regarding restoration of continence, we find this method useful in patients with rectal prolapse who are unfit for more extensive surgery, in controlling the prolapse to an acceptable degree. PMID:1914725

  20. Anal carcinoma and HIV infection: is it time for screening?

    PubMed

    Herranz-Pinto, P; Sendagorta-Cudós, E; Bernardino-de la Serna, J I; Peña-Sánchez de Rivera, J M

    2014-03-01

    A 38-year-old white man had a 10-year history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (A3), with no episodes of opportunistic diseases and in good immunologic recovery (CD4 cell count: 450 and indetectable HIV viral load) while on HAART. He presented with a two-month history of mild anal symptoms, including pruritus and episodic bleeding. He referred past episodes of anal warts, self-treated with several topical compounds, all proven unsuccessful. Perianal examination showed erythema and scratching. A 0.5cm sized tumor, with infiltration at the base was detected on digital exam, located at 15mm from the anal margin. Local biopsy driven by high-resolution anuscopy (AAR) yielded a final diagnosis of infiltrative epidermoid carcinoma. Might that neoplasia have been prevented?

  1. MRI of anal cancer: assessing response to definitive chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gourtsoyianni, S; Goh, V

    2014-02-01

    Anal cancer is an uncommon malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract but has a relatively good prognosis with an 80% 5-year overall survival. In this article, we review the role of MRI for assessing treatment response in anal cancer after completion of definitive chemoradiotherapy. New generation MRI scanners with optimal-phased array body coils, resulting in better signal to noise and improved contrast and spatial resolution, have contributed to high-resolution imaging in clinical practice enabling visualization of relevant anatomy including the sphincter complex, adjacent structures, mesorectal and pelvic lymph nodes with a diameter down to 2 mm. Multiplanar, high-resolution T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted sequences have a role in initial locoregional staging of anal SCC, assisting radiotherapy planning, as well as in assessing response to treatment and treatment-related complications. PMID:24072381

  2. A case of langerhans cell histiocytosis with anal fistula.

    PubMed

    Akbayram, Sinan; Akgun, Cihangir; Ozen, Suleyman; Kaya, Avni; Tuncer, Oguz; Yuca, Sevil Ari; Caksen, Huseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2009-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an uncommon clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of Langerhans cells with local infiltration of tissues and organ destruction. LCH takes many clinical forms, affecting different systems and different sites in the same system with variable outcomes. Bone, skin, lymph node, pituitary, liver, lung, bone marrow and spleen involvement can be seen in patients with LCH. Involvement of the perianal site is rare. In this article, a 16-month-old boy with multiple organ involvement including skin, liver, lung, and bone is presented. Aside from these systemic involvements, he also had a simple anal fistula. According to our best knowledge, this case of LCH with anal fistula is only the second to be reported in childhood. We would like to emphasize that LCH may be associated with anal fistula; therefore, we suggest that patients with LCH should be examined for this condition. PMID:20505285

  3. Treatment of peri-anal fistula in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Giuseppe S; Di Carlo, Sara; Tema, Giorgia; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Maggi, Giulia; Biancone, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Anal fistulas are a common manifestation of Crohn’s disease (CD). The first manifestation of the disease is often in the peri-anal region, which can occur years before a diagnosis, particularly in CD affecting the colon and rectum. The treatment of peri-anal fistulas is difficult and always multidisciplinary. The European guidelines recommend combined surgical and medical treatment with biologic drugs to achieve best results. Several different surgical techniques are currently employed. However, at the moment, none of these techniques appear superior to the others in terms of healing rate. Surgery is always indicated to treat symptomatic, simple, low intersphincteric fistulas refractory to medical therapy and those causing disabling symptoms. Utmost attention should be paid to correcting the balance between eradication of the fistula and the preservation of fecal continence. PMID:25309057

  4. Two cases of matrix-producing carcinoma showing chondromyxoid matrix in cytological specimens

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-producing carcinoma (MPC) is extremely rare. Limited reports have described the cytological aspects of MPC. Herein, we present 2 cases of MPC, both of which showed ring-enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and chondromyxoid matrix on cytological specimens. In these cases, the diagnosis of MPC was preoperatively suspected. Recognizing extracellular matrix as chondromyxoid matrix on the cytological specimen is important in making a distinction between MPC and mucinous carcinoma. They share some features on cytology and MRI (ring-enhancement) but have different prognoses and involve different approaches for obtaining histological specimens for neoadjuvant therapy. The reason for the different approaches for obtaining the histological specimens is that tumor cells usually distribute peripherally in MPC in contrast to the relatively uniform distribution of mucinous carcinoma. Therefore, it would be helpful if the diagnosis of MPC can be suspected by examination of the cytological specimen. PMID:26379985

  5. Acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf exhibiting Darier disease-like cytological features.

    PubMed

    Harman, M; Durdu, M; İbiloğlu, I

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between acrokeratosis verruciformis (AVH; also known as Hopf disease) and Darier disease (DD) has been debated for several decades. There is still substantial controversy over the characterization and association of AVH with DD. Certain histopathological features overlapping with those of DD have been demonstrated in patients with AVH. Although cytological findings have been described in DD, no study has identified the cytological changes in AVH. We report a case of AVH exhibiting a DD-like cytological manifestation. The samples from the most prominent lesions were examined by split-skin smear test. Cytological examination showed acantholytic keratinocytes, dyskeratotic acantholytic cells, corps ronds and grains. Histopathological examination showed compact hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, slight acanthosis, circumscribed epidermal elevations resembling church spires, and a cleft in the granular layer with several acantholytic cells. Our case indicates that the cytological findings of AVH are similar to those of DD. PMID:27663152

  6. Aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of head and neck masses: the early Christchurch experience.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D S; Allison, R S; Robertson, M S; Hamer, J W

    1989-12-13

    Fine needle aspiration cytology has been performed on patients presenting with head and neck masses in Christchurch since mid-1985. The results of an initial 120 aspirations were reviewed. Histology was available to compare with the cytology result in 58% of cases. Clinical review was used to assess the accuracy of the cytology result in the remaining cases. The majority of the masses aspirated were of benign origin (72%). The cytological diagnosis was accurate in 79% of cases. Of the remaining aspirates, 13% were inaccurate and 8% nondiagnostic. The sensitivity for malignant lesions was 100%, with 86% specificity (for benign lesions). Particular diagnostic difficulty was found in the differentiation between some salivary gland tumours, and the assessment of aspirates from neck masses after combined therapy (radiotherapy and surgery). Fine needle aspiration cytology is of considerable value in the management of head and neck masses.

  7. Brush cytology with immunocytochemical evaluation of VEGF expression versus biopsy in clinically precancerous laryngeal lesions: can we diagnose laryngeal cancer only with brush cytology?

    PubMed

    Chatziavramidis, Angelos; Tsinaslanidou, Zinovia; Valeri, Rozalia; Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Constantinidis, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is the most common SCC of the head and neck. The high incidence of this malignancy and the low survival rate necessitate the development of novel diagnostic approaches. Aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic value of laryngeal brush cytology combined with VEGF immunocytochemistry versus histopathology of clinically precancerous lesions of the larynx. Material and Methods. Thirty patients with precancerous or suspected malignant laryngeal lesions underwent microlaryngoscopy, during which samples were taken for cytological, immunocytochemical, and histological analysis. Cytology and histology results were classified as follows: benign lesions, atypia/moderate dysplasia, and malignancy, whereas the expression of VEGF was evaluated as strong, moderate, weak, and zero expression, based on the percentage of cells stained. Results. The cytology results were in accordance with the histology results in 86.7% of the patients. The exfoliative cytology's sensitivity was estimated at 85% and its specificity at 90%. Its positive prognostic value was 94%, while its negative prognostic value was 75%. The additional immunocytochemical evaluation of VEGF expression increased all the noted parameters. Discussion. Exfoliative cytology of laryngeal lesions is a minimal-invasive, easily applicable procedure during microlaryngoscopy and reliable in terms of diagnostic value. Under certain conditions it could be held also in local anesthesia. Concurrent immunocytochemical analysis of VEGF expression further enhances its diagnostic value. PMID:26457244

  8. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  9. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  10. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  11. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  12. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  13. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  14. Human anal motility while fasting, after feeding, and during sleep.

    PubMed

    Orkin, B A; Hanson, R B; Kelly, K A; Phillips, S F; Dent, J

    1991-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the human anal sphincter responds dynamically to changing physiological states. In 19 healthy human subjects, intraluminal anal canal pressure was measured with a 5-cm perfused sleeve sensor during the day while fasting (3 hours) and after feeding (3 hours) and at night during sleep (8 hours). Daytime mean anal canal pressures (+/- SEM) while fasting (50 +/- 3 mm Hg) were similar to those after feeding (49 +/- 3 mm Hg) and to those at night during sleep (49 +/- 3 mm Hg). Marked minute-to-minute variations in mean pressure occurred in all three periods, however, as did large phasic increases and decreases in pressure (greater than 20 mm Hg) and small phasic changes in pressure less than 20 mm Hg (anal slow waves). The minute-to-minute variations in mean pressure were greater during the awake fed state (4 +/- 1 mm Hg/min) than at night during sleep (2 +/- 1 mm Hg/min; P less than 0.03), as were the number of large phasic waves per minute (increases in pressure: awake, fed = 0.5 +/- 1 waves/min, night = 0.3 +/- 0.1 waves/min, P less than 0.05; decreases in pressure: awake, fed = 0.4 +/- 0.1 waves/min, night = 0.2 +/- 0.1 waves/min, P less than 0.05). Anal small waves had a similar frequency of about 17 waves/min in all three states. In conclusion, the anal sphincter maintains a continuous pressure barrier to rectal outflow both during the day and at night during sleep. However, marked minute-to-minute variations in mean pressure and large phasic increases and decreases in pressure do occur. Both are fewer at night during sleep.

  15. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    PubMed Central

    Almobarak, Ahmed O; Elhoweris, Mohammed H; Nour, Hilmi M; Ahmed, Mohammed Abd Allah M; Omer, Al-Fadhil Alobeed; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pelvic inflammatory disease is one of the major causes of infertility in females. Also, women with infertility are at high-risk of developing cervical intraepithelial lesions or even carcinoma. Aim: To assess the prevalence and patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in cervical smears in Sudanese infertile and fertile women. Materials and Methods: The present study included 200 cases (women with infertility) of age group 20-60 years who had routine pap smear. A total of 700 fertile women constituted the control group. Results: Among the 200 infertile women, 93.5% reported as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), and 6.5% were epithelial cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and above). In the control group 96.6% of the smears reported as NILM and 3.4% as epithelial cell abnormalities. The percentage of abnormal pap smears in the infertile women was significantly higher when compared with the control group. Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology. PMID:23833398

  16. Steinert's syndrome presenting as anal incontinence: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Myotonic dystrophy (MD) or Steinert's syndrome is a rare cause of chronic diarrhea and anal incontinence. In the presence of chronic diarrhea and fecal incontinence with muscle weakness, neuromuscular disorders such as myotonic dystrophy should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Case Presentation We present the case of a 45-year-old Turkish man with Steinert's syndrome, who was not diagnosed until the age of 45. Conclusions In clinical practice, the persistence of diarrhea and fecal incontinence with muscle weakness should suggest that the physician perform an anal manometric study and electromyography. Neuromuscular disorders such as myotonic dystrophy should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:21838873

  17. HIV infection connected to rising anal cancer rates in men in the U.S.

    Cancer.gov

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contributes substantially to the epidemic of anal cancer in men, but not women in the United States, according to new research from NCI. Chart shows overall incidence rates of anal cancers in general population

  18. Triaging HPV-positive women with normal cytology by p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology testing: baseline and longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Uijterwaal, Margot H; Polman, Nicole J; Witte, Birgit I; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Rijkaart, Dorien; Berkhof, Johannes; Balfoort-van der Meij, G A M A; Ridder, Ruediger; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2015-05-15

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening results in a 2-5% lower specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) compared to Pap cytology. To identify HPV-positive women with CIN2+, we retrospectively evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal performance of p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology in HPV-positive women with normal cytology participating in population-based cervical screening. Conventional Pap cytology specimens of 847 of these women derived from the VUSA-Screen study were dual-stained for p16/Ki-67. Cross-sectional clinical performance in detecting CIN3 or worse (CIN3+), and CIN2+ was compared to that of baseline HPV genotyping. Moreover, 5-year cumulative incidence risks (CIR) for CIN3+ (CIN2+) were determined. The sensitivity of p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology for CIN3+ (CIN2+) was 73.3% (68.8%) with a specificity of 70.0% (72.8%). HPV16/18 genotyping showed a sensitivity for CIN3+ (CIN2+) of 46.7% (43.8%), with a specificity of 78.3% (79.4%). The 5-year CIR for CIN3+ in HPV-positive women with normal cytology was 6.9%. Testing these women with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology resulted in a significantly lower CIN3+ 5-year CIR of 3.3% (p = 0.017) in case of a negative test result. A negative HPV16/18 genotyping test result also led to a lower 5-year CIN3+ CIR of 3.6%. p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology detects more than 70% of underlying CIN3+ lesions in HPV-positive women with normal cytology at baseline and is therefore suitable for triaging these women to colposcopy. Furthermore, the CIN3+ 5-year CIR of 3.3% after a negative dual-stain result is significantly lower compared to the 5-year CIR of 6.9% in women without p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology triage.

  19. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  20. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  1. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  2. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  3. Human papillomavirus testing versus cytology in primary cervical cancer screening: End-of-study and extended follow-up results from the Canadian cervical cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Isidean, Sandra D; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Gilbert, Laura; Reid, Stephanie L; Rodrigues, Isabel; Ferenczy, Alex; Ratnam, Sam; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial was a randomized controlled trial comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and Papanicolaou cytology to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grades 2 or worse (CIN2+) among women aged 30-69 years attending routine cervical cancer screening in Montreal and St. John's, Canada (n = 10,154). We examined screening and prognostic values of enrollment cytologic and HPV testing results. Extended follow-up data were available for St. John's participants (n = 5,754; 501,682.6 person-months). HPV testing detected more CIN2+ than cytology during protocol-defined (82.9 vs. 44.4%) and extended (54.2 vs. 19.3%) follow-up periods, respectively. Three-year risks ranged from 0.87% (95% CI: 0.37-2.05) for HPV-/Pap- women to 35.77% (95% CI: 25.88-48.04) for HPV+/Pap+ women. Genotype-specific risks ranged from 0.90% (95% CI: 0.40-2.01) to 43.84% (95% CI: 32.42-57.24) among HPV- and HPV16+ women, respectively, exceeding those associated with Pap+ or HPV+ results taken individually or jointly. Ten-year risks ranged from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.60-2.19) for HPV-/Pap- women to 26.05% (95% CI: 15.34-42.13) for HPV+/Pap+ women and genotype-specific risks ranged from 1.13% (95% CI: 0.59-2.14) to 32.78% (95% CI: 21.15-48.51) among women testing HPV- and HPV16+, respectively. Abnormal cytology stratified risks most meaningfully for HPV+ women. Primary HPV testing every 3 years provided a similar or greater level of reassurance against disease risks as currently recommended screening strategies. HPV-based cervical screening may allow for greater disease detection than cytology-based screening and permit safe extensions of screening intervals; genotype-specific testing could provide further improvement in the positive predictive value of such screening. PMID:27538188

  4. Anal lesions presenting in a cohort of child gastroenterological examinations. Implications for sexual traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Houdu, Sora; Darviot, Estelle; Buchaillet, Céline; Baron, Céline

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the anal lesions found in children during a pediatric gastroenterology consultation when the reason for the complaint was related to a digestive disease. This prospective descriptive study included 100 children under 15 years of age over a 13-month period, consulting due to digestive symptoms. The children were under 8 years old (90%) and 25% were under 3.1 years old. Constipation was the most frequent reason for consultation (69%). Fifty-one anal lesions were observed, of which 58.8% were anal fissures, 15.7% were skin tags and 5.8% were venous congestions related to straining. Anal fissures and skin tags were located at the median line, according to the clock-face method in supine position. No child had more than two anal lesions. No anal dilatation, sphincter hypotonia, anal scars, anal lacerations or bruises were found. The two most common anal lesions were anal fissures and skin tags. These anal lesions were mainly observed at the median line and were due to constipation. No cases of multiple anal lesions were found in terms of common digestive diseases. PMID:25882145

  5. The Role of Polymerase Chain Reaction of High-Risk Human Papilloma Virus in the Screening of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in the Anal Mucosa of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Males Having Sex with Males

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Rivero-Rodriguez, Mar; Gil-Anguita, Concepción; Esquivias, Javier; López-Castro, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Taboada, Jessica; de Hierro, Mercedes López; López-Ruiz, Miguel A.; Martínez, R. Javier; Llaño, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the advantages of cytology and PCR of high-risk human papilloma virus (PCR HR-HPV) infection in biopsy-derived diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL = AIN2/AIN3) in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). Methods This is a single-centered study conducted between May 2010 and May 2014 in patients (n = 201, mean age 37 years) recruited from our outpatient clinic. Samples of anal canal mucosa were taken into liquid medium for PCR HPV analysis and for cytology. Anoscopy was performed for histology evaluation. Results Anoscopy showed 33.8% were normal, 47.8% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), and 18.4% HSIL; 80.2% had HR-HPV. PCR of HR-HPV had greater sensitivity than did cytology (88.8% vs. 75.7%) in HSIL screening, with similar positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 20.3 vs. 22.9 and 89.7 vs. 88.1, respectively. Combining both tests increased the sensitivity and NPV of HSIL diagnosis to 100%. Correlation of cytology vs. histology was, generally, very low and PCR of HR-HPV vs. histology was non-existent (<0.2) or low (<0.4). Area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve analysis of cytology and PCR HR-HPV for the diagnosis of HSIL was poor (<0.6). Multivariate regression analysis showed protective factors against HSIL were: viral suppression (OR: 0.312; 95%CI: 0.099-0.984), and/or syphilis infection (OR: 0.193; 95%CI: 0.045-0.827). HSIL risk was associated with HPV-68 genotype (OR: 20.1; 95%CI: 2.04-197.82). Conclusions When cytology and PCR HR-HPV findings are normal, the diagnosis of pre-malignant HSIL can be reliably ruled-out in HIV-positive patients. HPV suppression with treatment protects against the appearance of HSIL. PMID:25849412

  6. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cantril, S.T.; Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N/sub 0/ patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease.

  7. Rhizomelia with anal atresia and anophthalmia: a new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ozlem, Giray; Elçin, Bora; Ayfer, Ulgenalp; Oguz, Ateş; Erdener, Ozer; Derya, Erçal

    2008-01-01

    We report a newborn who presented with an unreported combination of anophthalmia, anal atresia, rhizomelia, dextrocardia and corpus callosum agenesis. Clinical and postmortem findings did not match any previously described syndromes with the type of anomalies seen in this patient. We suggested that this combination of congenital malformations might represent a new syndrome.

  8. Carcinoma of the anal canal and flow cytometric DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, N. A.; Beart, R. W.; Weiland, L. H.; Cha, S. S.; Lieber, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Using flow cytometric DNA analysis of paraffin embedded tissue, DNA histograms were successfully obtained from the anal cancers of 117 patients. DNA diploid patterns were given by 82 cancers (70%) and DNA non-diploid patterns by 35 cancers (30%): 15 DNA aneuploid, 20 DNA tetraploid. Well differentiated squamous cell cancers were mainly DNA diploid, while a larger proportion of poorly differentiated and small cell cancers were DNA non-diploid. The large majority of stage A cancers were DNA diploid. A greater proportion of tumours that had invaded through the anal sphincter or had lymph node metastases or distant spread were DNA non-diploid. Prognosis was slightly poorer for patients with DNA non-diploid cancers when compared to patients with DNA diploid tumours (P = 0.08) and significantly poorer for individuals with DNA aneuploid anal cancers (P = 0.037). However, in a multivariate analysis model, the DNA ploidy pattern of an anal cancer was not of independent prognostic significance alongside tumour histology and tumour stage. PMID:2803916

  9. Spectinomycin in the treatment of anal gonorrhea: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Felman, Y M; William, D C; Corsaro, M C

    1978-01-01

    The authors conducted a retrospective study of 125 male patients treated for anal gonorrhea with 4 g of spectinomycin in a social hygiene clinic. Of those treated, nine (7.2%) still had cultures positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae when tested again five to 14 days after treatment.

  10. Barr body in fine needle aspiration cytology of ovarian malignancies.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pallavi; Dey, Pranab

    2012-11-01

    The Barr body is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell. It is readily identified as plano-convex structure of 2-3 micron in diameter on the periphery of the nuclear membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of Barr body count in malignant ovarian tumors on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. In this retrospective study, Barr body was counted in FNAC smears of 20 successive malignant ovarian lesions and expressed as percentage. Mean (±SD) Barr body score was 2.4 ± 2.58. Minimum Barr body count was 1 and maximum was 9. The gross reduction of Barr body in ovarian neoplasms is an interesting cytomorphologic finding.

  11. Fibromatosis Colli - A Rare Cytological Diagnosis In Infantile Neck Swellings

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba; Husain, Musharraf

    2014-01-01

    Fibromatosis colli or sternocleidomastoid tumour is a rare cause of benign neck mass in infants. It is a self limiting fibroblastic lesion usually presenting with torticollis and a history of birth trauma.It is one of the few causes in which Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is indicated in a neonate to confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate it from other congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic causes. FNAC provides a rapid, cost-effective, reliable, non invasive method of diagnosis resulting in conservative management of these lesions. We present two interesting cases of neck swelling in infants where FNAC performed as the first diagnostic procedure was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis of fibromatosis colli thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:25584233

  12. Cytological characterization of Vicia oroboides Wulfen in Jacq.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Frediani, M; Ravalli, C; Venora, G; Cremonini, R

    2009-07-01

    Vicia oroboides, a rare taxon belonging to section Atossa of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by means of cytological and karyological methods with the aim of both characterising this species and integrating our knowledge on phylogeny of subgenus Vicia. Automated karyotype analysis and nuclear DNA content have been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by fluorochrome staining to evidence heterochromatic blocks along the chromosome complement. The chromosome number is in line with the values of the species of section Atossa; the GC- and AT-rich sites were identified by CMA and DAPI staining. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, provide information about the phylogenetic position of this species inside the subgenus Vicia. DNA content is reported for the first time.

  13. The cytology of a thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Mei; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Tseng, Chih-En

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the thyroid is rare. Before this report, only four cases of thyroid GCT have been reported, none of which presented a cytopathological examination. In this paper, we report the fine needle aspiration cytology and pathological analysis of a thyroid GCT from a 12-year-old girl who presented with a painless neck mass. The tumor cells were single, in syncytial clusters, or pseudofollicles, contained small round, oval, or spindle nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, and a large amount of grayish, granular fragile cytoplasm. The background contained granular debris and naked nuclei. A differential diagnosis of thyroid GCT with more frequent thyroid lesions containing cytoplasmic granules, including Hurthle cells, macrophages, follicular cells, and cells of black thyroid syndrome, was also performed.

  14. Myelography and cytology in the treatment of medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, M.; Reigel, D.H.

    1981-06-01

    Eight of 22 children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma had asymptomatic spinal cord involvement detected by myelography. Two additional patients had demonstrable spinal cord lesions at the time of relapse in the posterior fossa. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology results were inaccurate in predicting cord involvement. Seven patients have relapsed 9 to 69 months from completion of radiotherapy. Three had initial cord involvement and also had subsequent cord involvement at the time of intracranial relapse or afterwards. Frontal lobe involvement as the initial site of relapse occurred in 3 patients. Computerized tomography has been valuable in the early detection of intracranial relapse. Three children are alive and well 10, 18 and 19 months, respectively, from time of relapse. All were retreated with radiotherapy in conjunction with misonidazole and subsequent chemotherapy.

  15. Intermediate filament: structure, function, and applications in cytology.

    PubMed

    Dey, Pranab; Togra, Jyoti; Mitra, Suvradeep

    2014-07-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) constitutes an important cytoskeletal component in nearly all the vertebrate cells. IFs are present both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. They play an important role in providing mechanical strength of the cell and tissue, growth and regeneration, cell survival and apoptosis, and finally cell migration. IFs are also expressed differentially in different body tissues. Therefore, judicious use of IF may provide the diagnosis and confirmation of different malignancies. This is particularly helpful in the diagnosis of metastatic malignant tumor from an unknown primary. Expression of IFs particularly cytokeratin and vimentin is also related to prognosis of tumors. In this review, we have discussed the basic structure, dynamics, distribution of IF in cells, and its role in diagnosis of cytology. Possible prognostic roles of IF are also discussed.

  16. DICOM-compatible format for analytical cytology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    1998-04-01

    The addition of a list mode data type to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard, DICOM will enhance the storage and transmission of digital microscopy data and extend DICOM to include flow cytometry data. This would permit the present International Society for analytical Cytology Flow Cytometry Standard to be retired. DICOM includes: image graphics objects, specifications for describing: studies, reports, the acquisition of the data, work list management, and the individuals involved (physician, patient, etc.) The glossary of terms (objects) suitable for use with DICOM has been extended to include the collaborative effort of Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) and Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine (SNOMED) to create a consistent, unambiguous clinical reference terminology. It also appears that DICOM will be a significant part of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture, CORBA.

  17. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Daniele; Grigioni, Mauro; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Bondi, Arrigo; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2010-01-01

    The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT) in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues); the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS) implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities). The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  18. Cytologic diagnosis of acinic-cell carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nagel, H; Laskawi, R; Büter, J J; Schröder, M; Chilla, R; Droese, M

    1997-05-01

    The cytologic findings in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies obtained from 40 primary and 18 recurrent acinic-cell carcinomas (ACC) were retrospectively analyzed. Cytomorphologically, ACC is characterized by acinar differentiated tumor cells. In addition to these diagnostic clue cells, other types of neoplastic cells including vacuolated cells, cells resembling oncocytes, and nonspecific glandular cells are encountered. A pronounced lymphocytic reaction is a hallmark in 10% of ACC aspirates. Both the variety of tumor cell differentiation and the pronounced lymphocytic reaction observed in ACC aspirates may result in confusion with other salivary gland lesions. The differential diagnosis of ACC encompasses adenocarcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumor, sebaceous lymphadenoma, benign lymphoepithelial lesion, sialoadenosis, sialadenitis caused by radiotherapy, and lymphadenitis. Primary ACCs were correctly diagnosed in 68%; additionally, ACC was suspected or included in the differential diagnosis in 15%. Increased familiarity with the spectrum of cytomorphologic findings and the potential diagnostic pitfalls in ACC will improve the cytodiagnosis of this neoplasm.

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology: utilization in pediatric pathology.

    PubMed

    Layfield, L J; Reichman, A

    1990-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration can serve as the initial diagnostic modality for a wide variety of lesions within the pediatric age group. The utility of the technique depends on the clinical setting and histologic type of tumor under study. FNA is most valuable for staging and conformation of metastatic spread in small round cell malignancies. The use of aspiration cytology as the initial diagnostic procedure for these neoplasms is more controversial since this technique may deprive the clinician of valuable information (histologic subtype, oncogene status) now available only by examination of large tissue biopsies. Similarly, FNA can serve as a triage technique for the separation of patients harboring thyroid nodules or enlarged lymph nodes into operative candidates and non-operative candidates. As cytopathologists become more familiar with the appearance of pediatric neoplasms, this diagnostic technique will become more widely used, reducing the need for operative intervention in the diagnosis of many benign and reactive lesions.

  20. Intraoperative imprint cytology of ovarian transitional cell (Brenner) tumors: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit Inder; Rosen, Lauren; Reddy, Vijaya B; Bitterman, Pincas; Stemm, Matthew H; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Literature on fine-needle aspiration of ovarian transitional cell tumor or Brenner tumors is sparse and mostly confined to isolated case reports of metastatic transitional cell tumors. We undertook a retrospective study of intraoperative imprint cytology of ovarian transitional cell tumors to better define the cytologic features of this uncommon ovarian tumor. Between 2005 and 2012, a total of 19 ovarian transitional cell tumors were recorded in our surgical pathology files, 10 of which had concomitant imprint cytologic material available for review. The 10 patients included in this study ranged in age between 43 and 73 years (mean age: 54 years). Nine neoplasms were histologically benign and one was borderline. Nine cases had satisfactory cytologic material for review. The cytologic features can be summarized as follows: the eight benign tumors showed abundant naked nuclei in the background, small and large clusters of tumor cells, abundant cytoplasm, smooth nuclear membranes, and lack of nuclear pleomorphism and mitoses. Single plasmacytoid cells with dense blue abundant cytoplasm, perinuclear vacuoles, nucleoli, microfollicle formation, nuclear grooves, binucleation/multinucleation, and extracellular eosinophilic material were some of the other features that were appreciated. The cytologic features of the one case of borderline transitional cell tumor were similar to those of the benign tumors except for the presence of rare mitoses, easily identifiable nuclear pleomorphism and irregular nuclear membranes. This study highlights some characteristic cytologic features of benign/borderline transitional cell tumors of the ovary which can be of help in recognizing this uncommon neoplasm.

  1. Effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lateral cervical nonthyroid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Iacob, Alina; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Ormenişan, Alina; Mezei, Tibor; Sin, Anca; Tilinca, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Given that the clinical and radiological examinations of lateral cervical masses are not always sufficient for deciding on appropriate management, the cytological examination of the material obtained by fine-needle aspiration might be an efficient tool in the preoperative investigation of these lesions. In this prospective cross-sectional study we evaluated the efficacy and diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the assessment of lateral cervical nonthyroid tumors, by comparing its results with those of histopathology. A total of 58 patients with lateral cervical masses were included. Preoperative cytological results were compared with the histopathologic examination of surgical specimens. Both cytology and histology indicated that malignant tumors outnumbered benign lesions (62% vs 38%), with 88.9% of malignancies presenting in patients aged >50 years, but cytology was less effective at differentiating between benign and nontumor lesions. Cytology had 76.5% specificity and 78.1% sensitivity for identifying malignant lateral cervical lesions, and there was a concordance between the two diagnostic tests (McNemar test, P = 0.17, κ = 0.50, P <0.001). Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a simple, quick, and effective procedure that can aid in the preoperative evaluation of lateral cervical masses by differentiating benign tumors and inflammatory processes from malignancies and thus help in determining a subsequent therapeutic strategy. PMID:27495074

  2. Automation-assisted cervical cancer screening in manual liquid-based cytology with hematoxylin and eosin staining.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Kong, Hui; Ting Chin, Chien; Liu, Shaoxiong; Fan, Xinmin; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping

    2014-03-01

    Current automation-assisted technologies for screening cervical cancer mainly rely on automated liquid-based cytology slides with proprietary stain. This is not a cost-efficient approach to be utilized in developing countries. In this article, we propose the first automation-assisted system to screen cervical cancer in manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) slides with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, which is inexpensive and more applicable in developing countries. This system consists of three main modules: image acquisition, cell segmentation, and cell classification. First, an autofocusing scheme is proposed to find the global maximum of the focus curve by iteratively comparing image qualities of specific locations. On the autofocused images, the multiway graph cut (GC) is performed globally on the a* channel enhanced image to obtain cytoplasm segmentation. The nuclei, especially abnormal nuclei, are robustly segmented by using GC adaptively and locally. Two concave-based approaches are integrated to split the touching nuclei. To classify the segmented cells, features are selected and preprocessed to improve the sensitivity, and contextual and cytoplasm information are introduced to improve the specificity. Experiments on 26 consecutive image stacks demonstrated that the dynamic autofocusing accuracy was 2.06 μm. On 21 cervical cell images with nonideal imaging condition and pathology, our segmentation method achieved a 93% accuracy for cytoplasm, and a 87.3% F-measure for nuclei, both outperformed state of the art works in terms of accuracy. Additional clinical trials showed that both the sensitivity (88.1%) and the specificity (100%) of our system are satisfyingly high. These results proved the feasibility of automation-assisted cervical cancer screening in MLBC slides with H&E stain, which is highly desirable in community health centers and small hospitals.

  3. Tracheal Endoscopic and Cytological Findings and Blood Examination Results in Thoroughbred Racehorses Suspected to have Lower Respiratory Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    KUSANO, Kanichi; HOBO, Seiji; ODE, Hirotaka; ISHIKAWA, Yuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Cytology of tracheal aspirates, tracheal endoscopic and blood tests were carried out to 86 Thoroughbred racehorses presenting coughs or poor performance which were suspected to have lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) to assess the conditions of the disorders. Racehorses were classified into coughing (66 horses) and non-coughing (20 horses) groups based on clinical symptoms. Nine Thoroughbred racehorses without respiratory abnormality were used as controls. Assessment of grades of airway mucus, cytology of tracheal aspirates and serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen (Fbg) and pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) measurements were performed. Relationships between age, gender and racing careers were also investigated to understand the characteristics of LRTD in racehorses. Mean age was significantly higher in non-coughing group compared to coughing group. Existence of racing career and number of starts were significantly greater in non-coughing group compared to coughing group. On the other hand, grades of airway mucus were significantly higher in coughing group compared to control group. Percentages of neutrophils in tracheal aspirates were significantly higher in coughing group compared to non-coughing and control groups. SAA, Fbg and SP-D were higher in coughing group compared to non-coughing and control groups indicating that condition of coughing group is in the acute phase. Positive rate of inflammatory airway disease was significantly higher in coughing and non-coughing groups compared to control group. It was concluded that carrying out comprehensive evaluation including investigation on SAA, Fbg and SP-D analysis with airway assessment to Thoroughbred racehorses which were suspected to have LRTD are useful procedure to understand the pathological condition which aid to initiate appropriate treatment, prognosis judgment or to advise trainers to consider altering training regimen. PMID:24833960

  4. [Histopathology and cytology of supposedly benign tumors of the ovary].

    PubMed

    Sevestre, H; Ikoli, J-F; Al Thakfi, W

    2013-12-01

    Most tumors of the ovary presumed benign according to clinical, biological and imaging data are cysts. A cyst is a newly formed cavity lined by epithelium. It tends to enlarge, and can undergo torsion, rupture and haemorrhage. Most prevalent cystic lesions, i.e. inclusion cysts, serous or mucinous cystadenomas, endometriotic cysts, mature teratoma and other cysts are described. Diagnostic methods of cytology and pathology are described and evaluated: intraoperative examination of cystic and peritoneal fluids are not recommended; intraoperative consultation can be performed on solid parts or implants, if the pathologist is familiar with these lesions, or if primary carcinoma is known. The value of intraoperative examination is good in benign and cancer cases, but unsatisfactory in borderline lesions, especially of mucinous type. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue can be performed to preserve tumoral and normal tissue in Biobank for research protocol, or to maintain fertility through follicle preservation, in aseptic conditions. Transfer of samples towards the pathology laboratory can be performed either and preferably in fresh state, or in vacuum sealed bags at +4°C allowing a 2-day delay, or after immersion in a 15 × volume of 4% formalin. Cytological samples must be collected on citrate and sent immediately to the pathology laboratory, or fixed volume/volume in of absolute alcohol. The pathologist and the surgeon must collaborate to obtain good practice: intact labelled sample, accompanied by clinical information, transfer according to best local conditions, judicious use of intraoperative examination, knowing its possibilities and limitations, no excess delay of pathology report, even in difficult cases requiring expert opinion.

  5. Intraoperative examination of sentinel lymph nodes using scrape cytology.

    PubMed

    Mannell, Aylwyn; Wium, Brunton; Thatcher, Charles

    2014-08-08

    Background. In breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is widely used to assess the axilla when the nodes appear normal on palpation and ultrasonography. When the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are negative, no further dissection is required. Surgical dissection or radiotherapy of the axilla is indicated for macrometastases, as well as adjuvant therapy for macrometastases and micrometastasic spread.Aim. To determine the accuracy of scrape cytology (SC) for intraoperative examination of the SLNs.Methods. SLNB was performed in 100 patients with early breast cancer in whom the axillary nodes appeared normal on clinical examination and ultrasonography. None of the patients with negative SLNs or SLNs with micrometastases only (N1mic, 0.2 - 2 mm) had further axillary dissection. Patients with SLNs containing macrometastases (N1, >2 mm) underwent axillary lymph node dissection. The results of intraoperative cytology were compared with the histopathological findings on examination of serial paraffin-embedded sections of the SLNs.Results. Intraoperative SC identified SLN metastases in 20 patients: 17 had macrometastases and 3 micrometastases. Histopathological examination of the SLNs found macrometastases in 18 patients and micrometastases in 6. SC had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100% for the detection of macrometastases. For micrometastatic spread, the sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 100%, respectively.Conclusion. SC is a rapid, sensitive technique for detection of macrometastases in the SLNs of women with breast cancer. The overall accuracy in identification of any metastatic spread (N1mic, N1) to the SLNs was 85%, rising to 94% in SLNs with macrometastases.

  6. The subthalamic nucleus. Part I: development, cytology, topography and connections.

    PubMed

    Marani, Enrico; Heida, Tjitske; Lakke, Egbert A J F; Usunoff, Kamen G

    2008-01-01

    This monograph (Part I of two volumes) on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) accentuates the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology focuses on the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types present in the STN. The cytochemistry encompasses enzymes, NO, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins, and receptors (dopamine, cannabinoid, opioid, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, cholinergic, and calcium channels). The ontogeny of the subthalamic cell cord is also reviewed. The topography concerns the rat, cat, baboon and human STN. The descriptions of the connections are also given from a historical point of view. Recent tracer studies on the rat nigro-subthalamic connection revealed contralateral projections. Part II of the two volumes (volume 199) on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) starts with a systemic model of the basal ganglia to evaluate the position of the STN in the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathways. A summary of in vitro studies is given, describing STN spontaneous activity as well as responses to depolarizing and hyperpolarizing inputs and high-frequency stimulation. STN bursting activity and the underlying ionic mechanisms are investigated. Deep brain stimulation used for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease is discussed in terms of the elements that are influenced and its hypothesized mechanisms. This part of the monograph explores the pedunculopontine-subthalamic connections and summarizes attempts to mimic neurotransmitter actions of the pedunculopontine nucleus in cell cultures and high-frequency stimulation on cultured dissociated rat subthalamic neurons. STN cell models--single- and multi-compartment models and system-level models are discussed in relation to subthalamic function and dysfunction. Parts I and II are compared. PMID:18727483

  7. Diagnosis of bile duct cancer by bile cytology: usefulness of post-brushing biliary lavage fluid

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Keiko; Nagata, Kaori; Ohno, Sachiyo; Uesaka, Katsuhiko; Mori, Keita; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathologic evidence of biliary diseases can be obtained from cytology in addition to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP); however, the diagnostic effectiveness is not satisfactory. Study aim: This retrospective, single-center study evaluated the efficacy of various sampling methods for the cytologic diagnosis of bile duct cancer. Patients and methods: Biliary samples included bile that was simply aspirated, brush smear, brush-rinsed saline, and post-brushing biliary lavage fluid. A set of samples was compared for cytologic efficacy in 76 patients with surgically proven bile duct cancer and in 50 patients with benign biliary stricture. Results: The cytologic sensitivity for diagnosing biliary cancer was 34 % with aspirated bile, 32 % with brush smear, 43 % with brush-rinsed saline, and 70 % with post-brushing biliary lavage fluid, in contrast to the null false-positive result in the benign cases. The sensitivity of cytology was significantly higher with post-brushing lavage fluid than with the other three sampling methods (P < 0.0001), and post-brushing lavage fluid improved the cumulative sensitivity by 24 % (P = 0.002). The sensitivity of biliary cytology was also associated with the amount of aspirated bile (P = 0.01) and with the aspiration site (P = 0.03). The rate of cancer positivity in a cytology set differed according to the tumor macroscopic type (85 % in the protruding type vs. 40 % in the flat type; P = 0.003), and according to the size of the cancer (87 % for tumors ≥ 50 mm vs. 66 % for tumors < 50 mm; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Post-brushing biliary lavage fluid cytology provides superior diagnostic efficacy, and its addition to ERCP procedures is recommended for obtaining cytologic evidence of bile duct cancer. PMID:26357678

  8. The Cytological Grading of Malignant Neoplasms of The Breast and Its Correlation With The Histological Grading

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Vidya; R., Rangaswamy; V., Geethamani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is one of the leading causes of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology. Nuclear grading is an important prognostic factor. It is important to grade breast carcinomas, which will provide valuable information to the treating oncologists to plan their management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytological grading and typing with the histological grading and typing and the regional lymph node metastasis. Methodology: This retrospective and prospective study was done on 60 cases with malignant and suspicious diagnoses on FNAC, which had histopathological correlations, from January 2004 to December 2007. The cytological grading was done by Robinson's Method and the histopathological grading was done by the modified Scarff Bloom Richardson method. Cytological and histological typings were also done. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software: The Chi square test was used and a contingency tale analysis (cross tabs procedure) was also done. Results: The cytohistological grading correlation was accurate in 7 cases (100%) of grade 1, 22 cases (71%) of grade 3 and 9 cases (42.9%) of grade 2 cancers. The accuracy was 62.7% (P < 0.001). A higher cytological grade was associated with a nodal metastasis. (cc : 0.399, P < .006) The cytological typing was accurate in 44 cases out of the 60 cases. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cytological grade correlated well with the histological grading accuracy (62.7%) and a higher grade was associated with a nodal metastasis (P < 0.006), Hence the cytological grading and typing should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports and they can be of great value in guiding the choice of the treatment protocols. PMID:23905097

  9. Identifying the best therapy for chronic anal fissure

    PubMed Central

    Madalinski, Mariusz H

    2011-01-01

    Chronic anal fissure (CAF) is a painful tear or crack which occurs in the anoderm. The optimal algorithm of therapy for CAF is still debated. Lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) is a surgical treatment, considered as the ‘gold standard’ therapy for CAF. It relieves CAF symptoms with a high rate of healing. Chemical sphincterotomy (CS) with nitrates, calcium blockers or botulinum toxin (BTX) is safe, with the rapid relief of pain, mild side-effects and no risk of surgery or anesthesia, but is a statistically less effective therapy for CAF than LIS. This article considers if aggressive treatment should only be offered to patients who fail pharmacological sphincterotomy. Aspects of anal fissure etiology, epidemiology and pathophysiology are considered with their meaning for further management of CAF. A molecular model of chemical interdependence significant for the chemistry of CAF healing is examined. Its application may influence the development of optimal therapy for CAF. BTX is currently considered the most effective type of CS and discussion in this article scrutinizes this method specifically. Although the effectiveness of BTX vs. LIS has been discussed, the essential focus of the article concerns identifying the best therapy application for anal fissure. Elements are presented which may help us to predict CAF healing. They provide rationale for the expansion of the CAF therapy algorithm. Ethical and economic factors are also considered in brief. As long as the patient is willing to accept the potential risk of fecal incontinence, we have grounds for the ‘gold standard’ (LIS) as the first-line treatment for CAF. The author concludes that, when the diagnosis of the anal fissure is established, CS should be considered for both ethical and economic reasons. He is convinced that a greater understanding and recognition of benign anal disorders by the GP and a proactive involvement at the point of initial diagnosis would facilitate the consideration of CS at

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  11. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting as a peri-anal abscess.

    PubMed

    Jayasekera, Hasanga; Gorissen, Kym; Francis, Leo; Chow, Carina

    2014-01-01

    A non-healing peri-anal abscess can be difficult to manage and is often attributed to chronic disease. This case documents a male in his seventh decade who presented with multiple peri-anal collections. The abscess cavity had caused necrosis of the internal sphincter muscles resulting in faecal incontinence. Biopsies were conclusive for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A de-functioning colostomy was performed and the patient was initiated on CHOP-R chemotherapy. Anal lymphoma masquerading as a peri-anal abscess is rare. A high degree of suspicion must be maintained for an anal abscess which does not resolve with conservative management. PMID:24898408

  12. Nervous control of the internal anal sphincter of the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Bouvier, M; Gonella, J

    1981-01-01

    1. The effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent nerve stimulation on the activity of longitudinal and circular coats of th anal sphincteric area have been studied on acute animals using extracellular electrical recordings. In addition, the effect of intramural sympathetic nerves stimulation has been investigated on anal sphincteric circular muscle, with the sucrose gap technique. 2. Hypogastric nerve stimulation elicited in anal sphincteric circular muscle slow time course depolarization responses (latency 200-400 msec) which were abolished by alpha-adrenergic blockers (dihydroergotamine, phentolamine). 3. Stimulation of the parasympathetic outflow to the internal anal sphincter (second ventral sacral root: VS2) inhibited spontaneous electrical activity of the circular muscle. Pharmacological arguments lead to the conclusion that the inhibition induced by VS2 stimulation is mediated through intramural non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (purinergic) inhibitory neurones. 4. Rectal distension caused an inhibition of the anal sphincteric circular muscle activity which persisted in the presence of atropine, phentolamine and propranolol, indicating that this inhibition was produced by non-adrenergic non-cholinergic intramural neurones. 5. VS2 stimulation produced only an activation of the longitudinal muscle of the sphincteric area, which was abolished by hexamethonium and atropine; in contrast, hypogastric nerve stimulation gave rise to an inhibition which was blocked by propranolol. These results indicate that the longitudinal muscle receives (1) an excitatory innervation from preganglionic parasympathetic nerves connected with intramural cholinergic neurones, and (2) an inhibitory sympathetic innervation from noradrenergic axons running in the hypogastric nerves. No inhibitory no-adrenergic non-cholinergic innervation was observed in the longitudinal muscle in response to VS2 stimulation. 6. The results obtained from simultaneous stimulation of VS2 and

  13. Cytology of plasma cell rich effusion in cases of plasma cell neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Gochhait, Debasis; Dey, Pranab; Verma, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple myeloma or plasmacytoma resulting in malignant effusion is rarely described in literature. Aims: In this paper, we have studied the seven rare cases of plasma cell infiltration in effusion fluid. Materials and Methods: We studied six cases of pleural fluid and one case of ascetic fluid. Detailed cytological features, clinical history, bone marrow examinations, serum electrophoresis, and immunofixation data were analyzed. Result: There were two cases of plasmacytoma, four cases of multiple myeloma, and one case of plasmablastic lymphoma. On cytology, all the cases showed excess plasma cells along with mesothelial cells and lymphocytes on effusion cytology smear. Conclusion: Plasma cell rich effusion in cases of plasma cell tumor is rare. However, on cytology these cases do not pose much problem if relevant history is known.

  14. [Assessment of applicability of archived cytological lung cancer specimens for molecular genetic analysis].

    PubMed

    Mityushkina, N V; Ievleva, A G; Poltoratsky, A N; Ivantsov, A O; Budovsky, A I; Novik, V I; Imyanitov, E N

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of lung tumors is often essential for the proper choice of therapy. EGFR mutation is a well-known marker of sensitivity to gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib; ALK-translocations make tumor sensitive to several ALK inhibitors; low intratumoral expression of DNA repair genes (ERCC1, BRCA1, etc.) may increase the therapeutic index of platinum-based drugs. Usually these markers are evaluated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. The goal of this work was to assess utility of archived cytological lung cancer specimens as an alternative source of material for molecular genetic testing. We analyzed paired histological and cytological lung adenocarcinoma specimens. Comparison of results within the pairs showed that cytological material can be used instead of histological material for qualitative analyses (detection of EGFR mutations or ALK-translocations); however, gene expression measurements, obtained by quantitative real-time PCR, may differ significantly in histological and cytological samples from the same patient.

  15. Salivary gland anlage tumor: cytologic features in a case examined by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Bondeson, L; Andreasson, L; Olsson, M; Rausing, A

    1997-06-01

    The cytologic features in fine-needle aspirates from a rare benign nasopharyngeal salivary gland anlage tumor in a newborn boy are described and commented on, regarding therapeutically important differential diagnoses.

  16. Tumors and Tumorlike Conditions of the Anal Canal and Perianal Region: MR Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Surabhi, Venkateswar R; Menias, Christine O; Amer, Ahmed M; Elshikh, Mohamed; Katabathina, Venkata S; Hara, Amy K; Baughman, William C; Kielar, Ania; Elsayes, Khaled M; Siegel, Cary L

    2016-01-01

    Tumors and tumorlike conditions of the anus and perianal region originate from the anal canal and anal margin or result from direct extension of tumors from adjacent organs. The anatomy of the anal canal is complex, and its different histologic characteristics can lead to diverse pathologic conditions. The anal canal extends from the anorectal junction to the anal verge. The World Health Organization classification of anal canal tumors includes (a) anal intraepithelial neoplasia, the precursor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and (b) invasive tumors. Invasive tumors are further classified on the basis of cell type as epithelial tumors (SCC, adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma), nonepithelial tumors, carcinoid tumors, melanoma, and secondary tumors (direct spread from rectal, cervical, or prostate carcinoma). The anal margin, or perianal skin, lies outside the anal verge and encompasses a radius of 5 cm from the anal verge. Tumors in the anal margin are classified according to the World Health Organization classification of skin tumors. Anal margin tumors include SCC, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also known as Bowen disease, adenocarcinoma and its precursor Paget disease, basal cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma (Buschke-Löwenstein tumor), which is a rare variant of SCC. Imaging plays an important role in the evaluation, staging, and follow-up of patients with anal and perianal tumors. However, because of the overlap in imaging features among these diverse entities, a definitive diagnosis is best established at histopathologic examination. Nevertheless, familiarity with the pathogenesis, imaging features, and treatment of these tumors can aid radiologic diagnosis and guide appropriate patient treatment. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27618320

  17. [Possibilities of clinico-cytological diagnosis in contagious equine metritis (CEM)].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, E; Selbitz, H J; Schieck, R; Friedrich, U; Schulz, J

    1991-05-01

    Clinical, bacteriological and serological examinations on a 6 years old pony mare were performed. Cytological alterations in the genital tract were also recorded. A cellular reaction was seen after infection with T. equigenitalis. This reaction is an evidence for infection but it is not specific for this organism. Cytological studies should be performed on mares especially in cases of latent infections to complete bacteriological examination and to prevent false positive or negative results. PMID:1872793

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Slack, R W; Croft, C B; Crome, L P

    1985-04-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful technique in the management of patients with masses in the head and neck, which is usually performed in co-operation with a specialized cytopathologist. It has not until recently been an investigation used frequently by British otolaryngologists. This study shows that an aspiration cytology service may be run with the aid of a general histopathologist and demonstrates that it is a valuable aid to diagnosis even without the services of a specialized cytopathologist. PMID:4028473

  19. Histopathology-like categories based on endometrial imprint cytology in dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Seema N.; Panchal, Nirav S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytology of the endometrium is an underused technique in diagnostic pathology. It has been used in the past for endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Only few studies have used cytology in the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Endometrial imprint cytology has been rarely used except for application of immunocytochemistry in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate whether it is possible to assign histopathology-like diagnosis by imprint cytology and also to evaluate its usefulness in the assessment of patients of dysfunctional uterine bleeding of low clinical suspicion. Materials and Methods: Imprint smears were made from 93 curettage materials during a study of DUB. Blinded analysis of imprint smears was performed by using McKenzie's criteria and some criteria devised for the requirements of this study. Results of cytology were correlated with histopathology. Statistical analysis was carried out by GraphpadInStat Demo. Results: Majority of the patterns classifiable in histopathology could also be classified in this study on imprint cytology. The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology in the detection of endometrial patterns in DUB patients were 91.23% and 83.87%, respectively, although the sensitivities and specificities differ according to the phase of endometrium. Conclusion: Histopathology-like categories can be assigned on imprint smears in the diagnosis of DUB. Endometrial imprint cytology can be helpful in centers where histopathology laboratories are not available and even in well-established institutes. It is possible to improve the sensitivity and specificity with better imprinting techniques. PMID:26229245

  20. Integration of Tablet Technologies in the e-Laboratory of Cytology: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Although tablet systems are becoming a powerful technology, particularly useful in every application of medical imaging, to date no one has investigated the acceptance and performance of this technology in digital cytology. The specific aims of the work were (1) to design a health technology assessment (HTA) tool to assess, in terms of performance and acceptance, the introduction of tablet technologies (wearable, portable, and non portable) in the e-laboratories of cytology and (2) to test the tool in a first significant application of digital cytology. Materials and Methods: An HTA tool was proposed operating on a domain of five dimensions of investigation comprising the basic information of the product of digital cytology, the perceived subjective quality of images, the assessment of the virtual navigation on the e-slide, the assessment of the information and communication technologies features, and the diagnostic power. Six e-slides regarding studies of cervicovaginal cytology digitalized by means of an Aperio (www.aperio.com) scanner and uploaded onto the www.digitalslide.it Web site were used for testing the methodology on three different network connections. Results: Three experts of cytology successfully tested the methodology on seven tablets found suitable for the study in their own standard configuration. Specific indexes furnished by the tool indicated both a high degree of performance and subjective acceptance of the investigated technology. Conclusions: The HTA tool thus could be useful to investigate new tablet technologies in digital cytology and furnish stakeholders with useful information that may help them make decisions involving the healthcare system. From a global point of view the study demonstrates the feasibility of using the tablet technology in digital cytology. PMID:25290667

  1. Imprint cytology on microcalcifications excised by Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: A rapid preliminary diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Fotou, Maria; Oikonomou, Vassiliki; Zagouri, Flora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Nonni, Afroditi; Athanassiadou, Pauline; Drouveli, Theodora; atsouris, Efstratios; Kotzia, Evagelia; Zografos, George C

    2007-01-01

    Background To evaluate imprint cytology in the context of specimens with microcalcifications derived from Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy (VABB). Patients and methods A total of 93 women with microcalcifications BI-RADS 3 and 4 underwent VABB and imprint samples were examined. VABB was performed on Fischer's table using 11-gauge Mammotome vacuum probes. A mammogram of the cores after the procedure confirmed the excision of microcalcifications. For the application of imprint cytology, the cores with microcalcifications confirmed by mammogram were gently rolled against glass microscope slides and thus imprint smears were made. For rapid preliminary diagnosis Diff-Quick stain, modified Papanicolaou stain and May Grunwald Giemsa were used. Afterwards, the core was dipped into a CytoRich Red Collection fluid for a few seconds in order to obtain samples with the use of the specimen wash. After the completion of cytological procedures, the core was prepared for routine histological study. The pathologist was blind to the preliminary cytological results. The cytological and pathological diagnoses were comparatively evaluated. Results According to the pathological examination, 73 lesions were benign, 15 lesions were carcinomas (12 ductal carcinomas in situ, 3 invasive ductal carcinomas), and 5 lesions were precursor: 3 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and 2 cases of lobular neoplasia (LN). The observed sensitivity and specificity of the cytological imprints for cancer were 100% (one-sided, 97.5% CI: 78.2%–100%). Only one case of ADH could be detected by imprint cytology. Neither of the two LN cases was detected by the imprints. The imprints were uninformative in 11 out of 93 cases (11.8%). There was no uninformative case among women with malignancy. Conclusion Imprint cytology provides a rapid, accurate preliminary diagnosis in a few minutes. This method might contribute to the diagnosis of early breast cancer and possibly attenuates patients' anxiety. PMID

  2. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of terminal duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Frierson, H F; Covell, J L; Mills, S E

    1987-06-01

    The cytologic features of terminal duct carcinoma of the palate, as observed in a fine-needle aspiration specimen, are described and contrasted with the cytologic features reported for benign mixed tumor, basal-cell adenoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Terminal duct carcinoma, at times, may be difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish from adenoid cystic carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration specimens. In most instances, this distinction may not be important.

  3. Sensitive detection of tumour cells in effusions by combining cytology and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH).

    PubMed

    Fiegl, M; Massoner, A; Haun, M; Sturm, W; Kaufmann, H; Hack, R; Krugmann, J; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Grünewald, K; Gastl, G

    2004-08-01

    Diagnosis of malignant cells in effusions is important for staging procedures and resulting therapeutic decisions. Cytodiagnostics in effusions is sometimes difficult since reactive mesothelial cells can mimic malignant cells. We used fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in single-colour or if appropriate in dual-colour evaluation to detect chromosomal aberrations in effusion cells as markers of malignancy, to raise the diagnostic yield. Cytologic and FISH evaluations--by using probes representing several chromosomes always including chromosomes 11 and 17--were performed in 358 effusion fluids. Cytology was positive for malignancy in 44.4% of all effusions, whereas FISH was positive in 53.9% (P=0.0001). The combination of cytology and FISH was diagnostic for malignancy in 60.9% of effusions. Diagnostic superiority of FISH was demonstrated in effusions from breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and in effusions from the entire group of gynaecological and gastrointestinal carcinomas. In transudates (effusion protein <2.5 g dl(-1)), malignant cells were detectable by cytology, FISH, and combined use of both methods in 18.6, 30, and 37.1% of effusions, respectively, suggesting that cytologic and molecular analysis should be performed also with transudates. In conclusion, FISH in combination with conventional cytology is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for detecting malignant cells in effusions.

  4. Yield of closed pleural biopsy and cytology in exudative pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Zuberi, Faisal Faiyaz; Zuberi, Bader Faiyaz; Ali, Syed Khalid; Hussain, Sagheer; Mumtaz, Farhana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine diagnostic yield of Closed Pleural Biopsy (CPB) and Cytology in Exudative Pleural Effusion (PE). Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted at Chest Unit-II & Medical Unit-IV of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi Pakistan from January 2011 till December 2014. Results: Ninety-four patients with exudative PE were finally included. The mean age (SD) was 44.0 (13.8) years. Overall Specific Diagnosis was reached in 76/94 patients; 46 Tuberculosis PE (TPE) & 30 Malignant PE (MPE). CPB diagnosed all TPE patients alone and 28/30 of MPE. Cytology diagnosed only 10/30 patients of MPE with 8 patients having both CPB & Cytology positive for malignancy whereas in the remaining two cases only Cytology positive. The sensitivity of CPB in detecting TPE and MPE was 93.9% and 82.4% respectively whereas specificity for both was 100%. The diagnostic yield of cytology in detecting MPE is only (33.3%). The diagnostic yield of CPB for TPE and MPE is 100% and 93.3% respectively. The overall specific diagnostic yield of CPB is 78.7%. Conclusion: CPB is better than pleural fluid cytology alone with the later adding little to diagnostic yield when both combined in distinguishing TPE from MPE, the two main differential of exudative PE in a TB-Endemic country. PMID:27182239

  5. High prevalence of cervical dysplasia in STD clinic patients warrants routine cytologic screening.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, R M; Holmes, K K; Kiviat, N; Barker, E; Eschenbach, D A; DeJong, R

    1980-01-01

    The results of routine cervical cytology screening at a Planned Parenthood Center (PPC) clinic were compared to those at a nearby sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Seattle. Cervical cytologic findings were consistent with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), grades 1 (mild dysplasia), 2 (moderate dysplasia), or 3 (severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ) in 502 (5.9 per cent) of 8,504 PPC patients and 87 (11.4 per cent) of 764 STD patients (p = .001). This rate for STD patients is five times that reported for the general population. Sixty-three PPC patients and 31 STD patients with screening smears consistent with CIN 1 or 2 underwent further prospective study by us, including repeated cytologic and colposcopic examinations. Thirty-seven (59 per cent) of 63 PPC patients and 26 (84 per cent) of 31 STD patients (p = .02) had at least on additional smear or colposcopy consistent with CIN and were advised to undergo cervical biopsy. Among those who underwent recommended biopsy, CIN was confirmed histologically in 15 (50 per cent) of 30 PPC patients and 11 (61 per cent) of 18 STD patients. Thus, the proportion of patients who had screening cytologic findings consistent with CIN, the proportion with persistent cytologic or colposcopic findings consistent with CIN on retesting, and the proportion of those biopsied who had histologically confirmed CIN, all were higher for STD than for PPC patients. There is a serious need for cytologic screening in STD clinics throughout the nation. PMID:6893526

  6. Challenges faced in the clinical application of artificial anal sphincters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-hui; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Shuang; Luo, Yun

    2015-09-01

    Fecal incontinence is an unresolved problem, which has a serious effect on patients, both physically and psychologically. For patients with severe symptoms, treatment with an artificial anal sphincter could be a potential option to restore continence. Currently, the Acticon Neosphincter is the only device certified by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, the clinical safety and efficacy of the Acticon Neosphincter are evaluated and discussed. Furthermore, some other key studies on artificial anal sphincters are presented and summarized. In particular, this paper highlights that the crucial problem in this technology is to maintain long-term biomechanical compatibility between implants and surrounding tissues. Compatibility is affected by changes in both the morphology and mechanical properties of the tissues surrounding the implants. A new approach for enhancing the long-term biomechanical compatibility of implantable artificial sphincters is proposed based on the use of smart materials. PMID:26365115

  7. Anal cancer treatment: Current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ghosn, Marwan; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Abdayem, Pamela; Antoun, Joelle; Nasr, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancers (AC) are relatively rare tumors. Their incidence is increasing, particularly among men who have sex with other men due to widespread infection by human papilloma virus. The majority of anal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, and they are treated according to stage. In local and locally advanced AC, concomitant chemoradiation therapy based on mitomycin C and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the current best treatment, while metastatic AC, chemotherapy with 5-FU and cisplatin remains the gold standard. There are no indications for induction or maintenance therapies in locally advanced tumors. Many novel strategies, such as targeted therapies, vaccination, immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy are in clinical trials for the treatment of AC, with promising results in some indications. PMID:25741135

  8. Innovations in chronic anal fissure treatment: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Aaron; Tan, Kok-Yang; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2010-01-01

    A chronic anal fissure is a common perianal condition. This review aims to evaluate both existing and new therapies in the treatment of chronic fissures. Pharmacological therapies such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), Diltiazem ointment and Botulinum toxin provide a relatively non-invasive option, but with higher recurrence rates. Lateral sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for treatment. Anal dilatation has no role in treatment. New therapies include perineal support devices, Gonyautoxin injection, fissurectomy, fissurotomy, sphincterolysis, and flap procedures. Further research is required comparing these new therapies with existing established therapies. This paper recommends initial pharmacological therapy with GTN or Diltiazem ointment with Botulinum toxin as a possible second line pharmacological therapy. Perineal support may offer a new dimension in improving healing rates. Lateral sphincterotomy should be offered if pharmacological therapy fails. New therapies are not suitable as first line treatments, though they can be considered if conventional treatment fails. PMID:21160880

  9. Challenges faced in the clinical application of artificial anal sphincters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-hui; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Shuang; Luo, Yun

    2015-09-01

    Fecal incontinence is an unresolved problem, which has a serious effect on patients, both physically and psychologically. For patients with severe symptoms, treatment with an artificial anal sphincter could be a potential option to restore continence. Currently, the Acticon Neosphincter is the only device certified by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, the clinical safety and efficacy of the Acticon Neosphincter are evaluated and discussed. Furthermore, some other key studies on artificial anal sphincters are presented and summarized. In particular, this paper highlights that the crucial problem in this technology is to maintain long-term biomechanical compatibility between implants and surrounding tissues. Compatibility is affected by changes in both the morphology and mechanical properties of the tissues surrounding the implants. A new approach for enhancing the long-term biomechanical compatibility of implantable artificial sphincters is proposed based on the use of smart materials.

  10. Contact sensitization in the anal and genital area.

    PubMed

    Bauer, A; Oehme, S; Geier, J

    2011-01-01

    We analysed the patch test results in 1,374 patients suffering from dermatoses in the anogenital area (n = 561 genital dermatoses, n = 470 anal dermatoses, n = 343 anogenital dermatoses) patch tested in 44 dermatological departments of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology from 2004 to 2008. All other patients patch tested during this time period without anogenital dermatoses formed the control group (n = 49, 142). Of the total study group, 662 (48.2%) patients were male. 179 (13%) had a past or present atopic dermatitis. The vast majority of the patients was older than 40 years (n = 989, 72%). Suspected allergen sources were first of all topical medicaments, followed by cosmetics, cleansing agents, clothes, rubber products, systemic medicaments and disinfectants. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 409 (29.8%) of the tested patients. Patients with anogenital dermatoses were sensitized mainly to active agents of topical medicaments, in particular bufexamac (5.3%). Sensitization pattern and sensitization rates observed in patients with genital and anal involvement differed significantly. Patients with anal disease had significantly higher sensitization rates for bufexamac (9.4 vs. 1.1%), fragrance mix I (8.7 vs. 4.2%) and II (4.5 vs. 2.6%), propolis (5.4 vs. 1.9%) and methyldibromoglutaronitrile (6.3 vs. 4.1%). Patients with chronic anal dermatoses seem to have a higher risk to develop sensitizations to topically applied products and drugs than patients with genital dermatoses. Recommended patch test series (German Contact Dermatitis Research Group) are standard series, local anaesthetics series, topical antibiotics, antimycotics, steroids, ointment bases and preservative series as well as the patients' own products.

  11. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection. PMID:26810061

  12. Management of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) in subsequent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Evans, C; Archer, R; Forrest, A; Barrington, J

    2014-08-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are common and may greatly affect a patient's quality of life. There is very little information regarding optimum management in future pregnancies. Based upon anecdotal experience, this study describes the recommendations of a cohort of consultant obstetricians in the UK, in this clinical situation. There is limited adherence to the available national guidelines due to the absence of available equipment and expertise to perform endo-anal ultrasound and manometry. Elective episiotomy is still recommended by a small number of obstetricians but the majority of patients are routinely followed-up. Caesarean section is only advised for asymptomatic patients with a previous stage 4 tear, and for any symptomatic patient with a previous stage 3 or 4 tear, irrespective of subgrade. A request for elective caesarean section is likely to be granted, irrespective of OASIS grade. The use of postpartum endo-anal ultrasound would help identify those women in whom a further vaginal delivery is unlikely to exacerbate any symptoms of faecal incontinence. PMID:24800795

  13. Carcinoma of the anal sac glands in ranch mink.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J

    1985-05-01

    During a 14-year period, carcinoma of the anal sac apocrine glands was found in 52 pastel and 8 sapphire mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. The pastel mink varied in age from 72 to 135 months (mean age 108 months), the sapphire mink from 63 to 100 months (mean age 81 months). All but one pastel mink were females. The primary tumor varied in size from masses that caused bulges in the perineum to those that were found only after microscopic examination of the anal sac glands. Although the primary tumor grew mainly by expansion with little local infiltration, 41 of the 60 tumors had metastasized to the regional lymph nodes and sometimes also to more distant sites. The striking propensity of the carcinoma to metastasize while still small, even microscopic, often resulted in massive secondary growths, notably in the iliac lymph nodes. Hypercalcemia did not accompany the carcinoma. Its varied microscopic appearance included solid, glandular, squamous cell, and spindle or round cell components. Combinations of them formed mixed or complex histologic patterns, no doubt largely attributable to neoplastic proliferation of myoepithelial cells and squamous metaplasia of the apocrine gland epithelium. Although its cause remains obscure, the carcinoma appeared to arise from small foci of hyperplastic apocrine glands, sometimes in relation to both anal sacs. The tumor is a common and distinctive expression of neoplasia in older ranch mink.

  14. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  15. Conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and HIV risk in five East African communities.

    PubMed

    Duby, Zoe; Colvin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual anal sex is underresearched and little understood, particularly in the African context. Existing prevalence data indicate that heterosexual anal sex is a widespread practice, yet little is known about the way in which it is conceptualized and understood. Describing findings from qualitative research conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, we shed light on conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and its relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These findings suggest that penile-anal sex is practiced by men and women in Africa for a range of reasons, including virginity maintenance, contraception, fulfillment of male pleasure, relationship security, menstruation, in the presence of vaginal complications, financial gain, fidelity, and prestige. Despite anal sex being the most efficient way to transmit HIV sexually, there is widespread lack of knowledge about its risks. These findings describe the ways in which anal sex is conceptualized in five East African communities, highlighting how penile-anal intercourse is often not considered "sex" and how the omission of anal sex in safe-sex messaging is interpreted as meaning that anal sex is safe. In light of its frequency and risks, greater attention must be paid to heterosexual anal sex in Africa to ensure a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  16. Cytological and molecular characterization of Vicia barbazitae Ten. & Guss.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Frediani, M; Gelati, M T; Venora, G; Giorgetti, L; Caputo, P; Cremonini, R

    2012-07-01

    Vicia barbazitae, a taxon belonging to section Vicia of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by cytological, karyological and molecular methods with the aim of both proposing a general characterisation of this species and studying the relationships among the species of section Vicia . Phylogenetic relationships among the species of the section Vicia and those of the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia and Atossa were also analysed. Automated karyotype analysis has been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by sequence-specific fluorochrome staining. Fluorescent chromosome banding showed CMA(+)/DAPI(-) NOR-associated heterochromatin in the satellite pair. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, the dendrogram of linkage distance constructed on 37 chromosome parameters, as well as the molecular data based on internal transcribed spacer sequences provided information about phylogenetic position of this species inside the section Vicia and among the species belonging to the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia, Atossa and Vicia. From our karyological and molecular results, it emerges that V. barbazitae can be considered a natural member of section Vicia.

  17. Combined biochemical and cytological analysis of membrane trafficking using lectins.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gareth W; Kail, Mark; Hollinshead, Michael; Vaux, David J

    2013-10-01

    We have tested the application of high-mannose-binding lectins as analytical reagents to identify N-glycans in the early secretory pathway of HeLa cells during subcellular fractionation and cytochemistry. Post-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pre-Golgi intermediates were separated from the ER on Nycodenz-sucrose gradients, and the glycan composition of each gradient fraction was profiled using lectin blotting. The fractions containing the post-ER pre-Golgi intermediates are found to contain a subset of N-linked α-mannose glycans that bind the lectins Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), and Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) but not lectins binding Golgi-modified glycans. Cytochemical analysis demonstrates that high-mannose-containing glycoproteins are predominantly localized to the ER and the early secretory pathway. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that GNA colocalizes with the ER marker protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and the COPI coat protein β-COP. In situ competition with concanavalin A (ConA), another high-mannose specific lectin, and subsequent GNA lectin histochemistry refined the localization of N-glyans containing nonreducing mannosyl groups, accentuating the GNA vesicular staining. Using GNA and treatments that perturb ER-Golgi transport, we demonstrate that lectins can be used to detect changes in membrane trafficking pathways histochemically. Overall, we find that conjugated plant lectins are effective tools for combinatory biochemical and cytological analysis of membrane trafficking of glycoproteins.

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: the added value of cytology.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Marie; Dossier, Claire; Fenneteau, Odile; Couque, Nathalie; Da Costa, Lydie

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old boy hospitalized into the emergency room for influenza pneumonia infection. The evolution was marked by a respiratory distress syndrome, a severe hemolytic anemia, associated with thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. First, a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been judiciously suggested due to the classical triad: kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. But, strikingly, blood smears do not exhibit schizocytes, but instead ghosts and hemighosts, some characteristic features of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Our hypothesis has been confirmed by enzymatic dosage and molecular biology. The unusual initial aplastic feature of this anemia could be the result of a transient erythroblastopenia due to the viral agent, at the origin of the G6PD crisis on a background of a major erythrocyte anti-oxydant enzyme defect. This case of G6PD defect points out the continuously importance of the cytology, which was able to redirect the diagnosis by the hemighost and ghost detection.

  19. The solution to the cytological paradox of isomorphy

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Cells with polyploid nuclei are generally larger than cells of the same organism or species with nonpolyploid nuclei. However, no such change of cell size with ploidy level is observed in those red algae which alternate isomorphic haploid with diploid generations. The results of this investigation reveal the explanation. Nuclear DNA content and other parameters were measured in cells of the filamentous red alga Griffithsia pacifica. Nuclei of the diploid generation contain twice the DNA content of those of the haploid generation. However, all cells except newly formed reproductive cells are multinucleate. The nuclei are arranged in a nearly perfect hexagonal array just beneath the cell surface. When homologous cells of the two generations are compared, although the cell size is nearly identical, each nucleus of the diploid cell is surrounded by a region of cytoplasm (a "domain") nearly twice that surrounding a haploid nucleus. Cytoplasmic domains associated with a diploid nucleus contain twice the number of plastids, and consequently twice the amount of plastid DNA, than is associated with the domain of a haploid nucleus. Thus, doubling of ploidy is reflected in doubling of the size and organelle content of the domain associated with each nucleus. However, cell size does not differ between homologous cells of the two generations, because total nuclear DNA (sum of the DNA in all nuclei in a cell) per cell does not differ. This is the solution to the cytological paradox of isomorphy. PMID:3818798

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: the added value of cytology.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Marie; Dossier, Claire; Fenneteau, Odile; Couque, Nathalie; Da Costa, Lydie

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old boy hospitalized into the emergency room for influenza pneumonia infection. The evolution was marked by a respiratory distress syndrome, a severe hemolytic anemia, associated with thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. First, a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been judiciously suggested due to the classical triad: kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. But, strikingly, blood smears do not exhibit schizocytes, but instead ghosts and hemighosts, some characteristic features of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Our hypothesis has been confirmed by enzymatic dosage and molecular biology. The unusual initial aplastic feature of this anemia could be the result of a transient erythroblastopenia due to the viral agent, at the origin of the G6PD crisis on a background of a major erythrocyte anti-oxydant enzyme defect. This case of G6PD defect points out the continuously importance of the cytology, which was able to redirect the diagnosis by the hemighost and ghost detection. PMID:27101632

  1. Relationship between prostatomegaly, prostatic mineralization, and cytologic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Christina A; Westropp, Jodi L; Pollard, Rachel E

    2009-01-01

    Canine prostatic disease is commonly evaluated with abdominal ultrasound and radiographs. Mineralization of the prostate is often reported, but the clinical relevance of this finding is currently not known. The-purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between ultrasonographic and radiographic prostate mineralization and the final diagnosis. Medical records of 55 dogs with evidence of prostatomegaly or prostatic mineralization and a cytologic diagnosis were evaluated. Radiographs and ultrasound images were assessed for caudal retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, vertebral lesions, or other signs of metastasis, and mineralization was assessed semiquantitatively. Twenty-two of 55 (40%) dogs had prostatic neoplasia. Regarding neoplasia, mineralization in neutered dogs had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 50%, and a sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 100%, respectively. Mineralization in intact dogs had a PPV of 22%, an NPV of 96%, and a sensitivity and specificity of 67% and 77%, respectively. All neutered dogs with prostatomegaly but not prostatic neoplasia had bacterial prostatitis and were castrated within the previous 3 months. Intact dogs with prostatomegaly and mineralization but not neoplasia had paraprostatic cysts (n = 3), benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 2) or prostatitis (n = 2). Mineralization score was not indicative of neoplasia. In conclusion, neutered dogs with prostatic mineralization were very likely to have prostatic neoplasia. Intact dogs were unlikely to have prostatic neoplasia if no mineralization was found on radiographs or ultrasound.

  2. SOME CYTOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENIC PROPERTIES OF SPHEROPLASTS OF CANDIDA ALBICANS

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, George S.; Friedman, Lorraine; Kofroth, Judith F.

    1964-01-01

    Kobayashi, George S. (Tulane University, New Orleans, La.), Lorraine Friedman, and Judith F. Kofroth. Some cytological and pathogenic properties of spheroplasts of Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 88:795–801. 1964.—Spheroplasts of Candida albicans were prepared by use of an enzymatic mixture from the digestive tract of the snail Helix pomatia. Untreated cells exhibited well-defined cell walls, whereas such structures were absent from spheroplasts. The intravenous inoculation of either spheroplasts or intact cells into rabbits produced a fever which was apparent within 30 min, the “immediate” fever response characteristic of microbial endotoxin. Cell-wall fragments of enzyme-treated cells did not induce a convincing pyrogenic response. When the inoculum was viable, body temperatures did not return to normal but remained elevated until death of the animal 1 or more days later, exhibiting the “delayed” fever of infection. The gross pathological picture in animals succumbing to infection by viable spheroplasts was similar to that obtained with untreated yeast cells. Images PMID:14208520

  3. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of a primary ectopic meningioma.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Arif; Gokden, Murat; Hanna, Ehab Y

    2002-05-01

    Meningiomas are benign tumors derived from arachnoid cells. Most commonly an intracranial lesion, meningiomas may be found extracranially in various anatomic sites. A 23-yr-old white female presented with left-sided palpable mass located submucosally in the floor of the mouth. CT scan revealed no evidence of mass elsewhere in the head and neck region. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed loose and cohesive cellular fragments with lobular growth pattern and uniform round or ovoid cells. The diagnosis of low-grade salivary gland neoplasm, not further classified, was made. The tumor was locally excised. The differential diagnoses of an extracranial meningioma and pleomorphic adenoma were discussed at the frozen section. Based on light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic (EM) findings, the final diagnosis of an ectopic meningioma was rendered. Ectopic meningiomas may pose a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and cytopathologists. It is easily forgotten in the list of differential diagnosis at an ectopic site. Primary ectopic meningioma in a region containing salivary gland(s) may mimic benign and low-grade malignant salivary gland tumors in FNAC.

  4. Straight ileo-anal anastomosis with myectomy as an alternative to ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in restorative proctocolectomy.

    PubMed

    Landi, E; Landa, L; Fianchini, A; Marmorale, C; Piloni, V

    1994-04-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with various types of reservoir is widely used in the elective surgery of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Both, advantages and disadvantages of this procedure are well known and documented. Straight ileo-anal anastomosis (IAA) yields unsatisfactory clinical results due to the lack of storage capacity of the distal ileum and the frequency of bowel movements related to high pressure ileal waves. In an attempt to create an alternative to the above procedures, we have performed a straight ileo-anal anastomosis with two rectangular (10 cm x 1 cm) myectomies down to 2 cm, above the anastomotic line. The two myectomies are spaced at 120 degrees to each other and to the mesenteric border of the ileal loop. The rationale of this approach is to reduce the peristaltic drive of the ileum by weakening the muscular wall. This study presents the results in three patients operated on with this new method in the last year.

  5. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  6. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ in the anal canal diagnosed by magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shigetsugu; Doyama, Hisashi; Yamada, Shinya; Tominaga, Kei; Ota, Ryosuke; Yoshikawa, Akane; Kotake, Masanori; Ohno, Hideki; Kurumaya, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    A 60-year-old female underwent screening colonoscopy. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) without magnification showed a 20-mm, well-demarcated brownish area located close to the dentate line of the anal canal. Conventional white-light imaging revealed an ill-defined, flat lesion with scattered reddish spots at the same site. Magnifying endoscopy with NBI (M-NBI) revealed abnormal microvessels with dilatation, tortuosity, caliber change and various shapes that were similar to the intrapapillary capillary loop patterns seen in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in situ. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed, and on histological examination, the resected specimen showed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ and clear surgical margins. Thus, NBI is an efficient method for detecting superficial SCC in the anal canal and M-NBI may be useful for determining the extent of the lesion. During screening colonoscopy, the anal region should be carefully observed using NBI, as early detection offers a greater opportunity for ESD which is a less invasive procedure.

  7. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  8. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  9. Basal-cell adenoma of the salivary gland: a benign adenoma that cytologically mimics adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stanley, M W; Horwitz, C A; Henry, M J; Burton, L G; Lowhagen, T

    1988-01-01

    We describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology of two cases of basal-cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland. Both consisted of groups of small uniform cells with scant cytoplasm and occasional single cells. Small amounts of metachromatic stroma were present in smears from one case. The cytologic and histologic similarities between (BCA) and the solid type of adenoid cystic carcinoma are emphasized. Unequivocal distinction between these two entities may not be possible by cytologic criteria alone.

  10. Comparative yield of endocervical and metaplastic cells. Two sampling techniques: wooden spatula and cytology brush.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, L.; Jordan, J.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two sampling techniques in their ability to obtain endocervical and metaplastic cells from the Papanicolaou smear. DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial comparing the criterion standard of a wooden spatula to a cytology brush. SETTING: Community-based family medicine clinic in London, Ont. PATIENTS: Consecutive sample of 102 women aged 15 to 58 years requiring a Pap smear between October 1992 and October 1993 who presented to the office of their family physician and were assessed by one resident or one faculty physician. INTERVENTIONS: A Pap smear was obtained from each participant using first the wooden spatula and then the cytology brush. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of Pap smears done in the study population that contained endocervical or metaplastic cells. RESULTS: Endocervical cell yield was significantly greater using the cytology brush (93.1%) than using the spatula (61.8%) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in metaplastic cell yield between the cytology brush (71.6%) and the spatula (63.7%). At least one of these cell types was identified on 95.1% of cytology brush samples and on 79.4% of spatula samples (P < 0.001). The resident and faculty physician were not significantly different in their rate of detecting endocervical or metaplastic cells. CONCLUSIONS: Adding a cytology brush sample to the Pap smear resulted in a significant increase in the rate of Pap smears that detected cells. The cytology brush was significantly better than the spatula for detecting endocervical cells (P < 0.001), but not significantly better for detecting metaplastic cells. PMID:8520238

  11. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions: routine diagnostic experience in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nguansangiam, Sudarat; Jesdapatarakul, Somnuek; Dhanarak, Nisarat; Sosrisakorn, Krittika

    2012-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is well accepted as a safe, reliable, minimal invasive and cost-effective method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. This study evaluated the accuracy and diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in Thailand. A consecutive series of 290 samples from 246 patients during January 2001-December 2009 were evaluated from the archive of the Anatomical Pathology Department of our institution and 133 specimens were verified by histopathologic diagnoses, obtained with material from surgical excision or biopsy. Cytologic diagnoses classified as unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious for malignancy and malignant were compared with the histopathological findings. Among the 133 satisfactory specimens, the anatomic sites were 70 (52.6%) parotid glands and 63 (47.4 %) submandibular glands. FNA cytological diagnoses showed benign lesions in 119 cases (89.5 %), suspicious for malignancy in 3 cases (2.2 %) and malignant in 11 cases (8.3%). From the subsequent histopathologic diagnoses, 3/133 cases of benign cytology turned out to be malignant lesions, the false negative rate being 2.2 % and 1/133 case of malignant cytology turned out to be a benign lesion, giving a false positive rate was 0.8%. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97.0% (95% CI, 70.6%-99.4%), 81.3% (95% CI, 54.4%-96.0%), 99.1% (95% CI, 95.4%-100%), 92.9% (95% CI, 66.1%-99.8), 97.5% (95% CI, 92.8%-99.5%), respectively. This study indicated that FNA cytology of salivary gland is a reliable and highly accurate diagnostic method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. It not only provides preoperative diagnosis for therapeutic management but also can prevent unnecessary surgery.

  12. Obstetrical Anal Sphincter Injuries (OASIS): Prevention, Recognition, and Repair.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Marie-Andrée; Pierce, Marianne; Alter, Jens-Erik W; Chou, Queena; Diamond, Phaedra; Epp, Annette; Geoffrion, Roxana; Harvey, Marie-Andrée; Larochelle, Annick; Maslow, Kenny; Neustaedter, Grace; Pascali, Dante; Pierce, Marianne; Schulz, Jane; Wilkie, David; Sultan, Abdul; Thakar, Ranee

    2015-12-01

    Objectif : Analyser les données probantes traitant des lésions obstétricales du sphincter anal (LOSA) en ce qui concerne leur diagnostic, les techniques visant leur réparation et les résultats de l’intervention. Formuler des recommandations permettant d’éclairer les conseils offerts aux patientes ayant connu des LOSA en ce qui a trait à la voie d’accouchement à privilégier dans le cadre des grossesses subséquentes. Options : Les fournisseurs de soins obstétricaux qui comptent des patientes ayant connu des LOSA disposent de l’option de réparer le sphincter anal en faisant appel à la méthode de suture « bout à bout » (end-to-end) ou à la méthode « en paletot » (overlapping). Ils pourraient également être appelés à conseiller des femmes ayant déjà connu des LOSA en ce qui a trait à la voie d’accouchement à privilégier pour les grossesses subséquentes. Issues : Le critère d’évaluation était la continence anale à la suite d’une réparation primaire de LOSA et à la suite d’un accouchement subséquent. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans Medline, EMBASE et The Cochrane Library en mai 2011 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. anal canal, obstetrics, obstetric labour complication, pregnancy complication, treatment outcome, surgery, quality of life) et de mots clés (p. ex. obstetrical anal sphincter injur*, anus sphincter, anus injury, delivery, obstetrical care, surgery, suturing method, overlap, end-to-end, feces incontinence) appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux études observationnelles et aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs. Aucune restriction n’a été imposée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en septembre 2014. La littérature grise (non

  13. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  14. Extramedullary hematopoiesis in a case of benign mixed mammary tumor in a female dog: cytological and histopathological assessment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is defined as the presence of hematopoietic stem cells such as erythroid and myeloid lineage plus megakaryocytes in extramedullary sites like liver, spleen and lymph nodes and is usually associated with either bone marrow or hematological disorders. Mammary EMH is a rare condition either in human and veterinary medicine and can be associated with benign mixed mammary tumors, similarly to that described in this case. Case presentation Hematopoietic stem cells were found in a benign mixed mammary tumor of a 7-year-old female mongrel dog that presents a nodule in the left inguinal mammary gland. The patient did not have any hematological abnormalities. Cytological evaluation demonstrated two distinct cell populations, composed of either epithelial or mesenchymal cells, sometimes associated with a fibrillar acidophilic matrix, apart from megakaryocytes, osteoclasts, metarubricytes, prorubricytes, rubricytes, rubriblasts, promyelocytes, myeloblasts. Histological examination confirmed the presence of an active hematopoietic bone marrow within the bone tissue of a benign mammary mixed tumor. Conclusions EMH is a rare condition described in veterinary medicine that can be associated with mammary mixed tumors. It's detection can be associated with several neoplastic and non-neoplastic mammary lesions, i.e. osteosarcomas, mixed tumors and bone metaplasia. PMID:20846427

  15. Imaging cervical cytology with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) coupled with an IR-FEL.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Diane E; Morais, Camilo L M; Lima, Kássio M G; Trevisan, Julio; Siggel-King, Michele R F; Craig, Tim; Ingham, James; Martin, David S; Heys, Kelly A; Kyrgiou, Maria; Mitra, Anita; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Theophilou, Georgios; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Cricenti, Antonio; Luce, Marco; Weightman, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women, especially in the developing world. Increased synthesis of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids is a pre-condition for the rapid proliferation of cancer cells. We show that scanning near-field optical microscopy, in combination with an infrared free electron laser (SNOM-IR-FEL), is able to distinguish between normal and squamous low-grade and high-grade dyskaryosis, and between normal and mixed squamous/glandular pre-invasive and adenocarcinoma cervical lesions, at designated wavelengths associated with DNA, Amide I/II and lipids. These findings evidence the promise of the SNOM-IR-FEL technique in obtaining chemical information relevant to the detection of cervical cell abnormalities and cancer diagnosis at spatial resolutions below the diffraction limit (≥0.2 μm). We compare these results with analyses following attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy; although this latter approach has been demonstrated to detect underlying cervical atypia missed by conventional cytology, it is limited by a spatial resolution of ~3 μm to 30 μm due to the optical diffraction limit. PMID:27406404

  16. Imaging cervical cytology with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) coupled with an IR-FEL

    PubMed Central

    Halliwell, Diane E.; Morais, Camilo L. M.; Lima, Kássio M. G.; Trevisan, Julio; Siggel-King, Michele R. F.; Craig, Tim; Ingham, James; Martin, David S.; Heys, Kelly A.; Kyrgiou, Maria; Mitra, Anita; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Theophilou, Georgios; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Cricenti, Antonio; Luce, Marco; Weightman, Peter; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women, especially in the developing world. Increased synthesis of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids is a pre-condition for the rapid proliferation of cancer cells. We show that scanning near-field optical microscopy, in combination with an infrared free electron laser (SNOM-IR-FEL), is able to distinguish between normal and squamous low-grade and high-grade dyskaryosis, and between normal and mixed squamous/glandular pre-invasive and adenocarcinoma cervical lesions, at designated wavelengths associated with DNA, Amide I/II and lipids. These findings evidence the promise of the SNOM-IR-FEL technique in obtaining chemical information relevant to the detection of cervical cell abnormalities and cancer diagnosis at spatial resolutions below the diffraction limit (≥0.2 μm). We compare these results with analyses following attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy; although this latter approach has been demonstrated to detect underlying cervical atypia missed by conventional cytology, it is limited by a spatial resolution of ~3 μm to 30 μm due to the optical diffraction limit. PMID:27406404

  17. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of primary granulosa cell tumor of the adrenal gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hameed, A; Coleman, R L

    2000-02-01

    Extraovarian granulosa cell tumors are extremely rare. We report on a primary granulosa cell tumor of the adrenal gland. A 69-yr-old African-American female presented with a 1-yr history of irregular uterine bleeding and a palpable right abdominal mass. CT scan showed a 9.0-cm suprarenal mass as well as an enlarged uterus. CT-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the adrenal mass was interpreted as a malignant neoplasm. She underwent exploratory laparotomy, right nephrectomy, and hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings of the adrenal mass were characteristic of a granulosa cell tumor. The uterus contained multiple leiomyomas. The endometrium showed simple hyperplasia. Both fallopian tubes and ovaries showed no pathologic abnormality. There was no evidence of tumor elsewhere. Although rare, extraovarian granulosa cell tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adrenal tumors in women showing the FNA features described herein, especially when there is evidence of excessive estrogen production. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2000;22:107-109.

  18. Low interobserver agreement in cytology grading of mucinous pancreatic neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, Carlie; Edelweiss, Marcia; Tong, Leung Chu; Magda, Joanna; Oen, Handy; Sigel, Keith; Zakowski, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying high grade features in pancreatic mucinous neoplasms (MN) is important for patient management. It is not clear if MNs can be graded with reproducibility in routine practice. We evaluated interobserver variability in grading MNs and identification of neoplastic mucin in endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA). Methods We created a 54 case grading set from histologically confirmed MNs (N=44) and nonmucinous lesions (NML) with abundant gastrointestinal contamination (N=10). Six observers received a tutorial, reviewed pre-screened slides, and recorded: 1) a diagnosis according to a 6-tiered system (TS) (nondiagnostic (NDX), atypical (ATP), mucinous cyst low grade (LG), mucinous cyst high grade (HG), suspicious for adenocarcinoma (SSPA), positive for adenocarcinoma (PA)); 2) a diagnosis with cyst fluid CEA (CEADX); and 3) the presence of neoplastic mucin. Interobserver agreement (IOA ) was evaluated by calculation of Kappa coefficients. Diagnostic accuracy was not evaluated. Results IOA was lowest for 6-TS (K=0.13, P<.001). CEADX was available for 18 (33%) cases, including 6/24 (25%) of LG. CEADX modestly improved IOA for combined tiers of the 6-TS with ATP and LG as separate categories. The highest IOA was with a 3-TS (NDX, ATP/LG, HG/SSPA/PA; K=0.28, P<.001) and various 4-TS (K=0.22-0.23). IOA was low for neoplastic mucin (K=0.15, P<.001). Conclusions In a study using simulated cytology practice, observers showed fair IOA for grading MNs and low IOA for identifying neoplastic mucin. Knowledge of cyst fluid CEA level modestly improved IOA for low grade lesions. PMID:25355052

  19. A centralised cytology screening programme for cervical cancer in Florence.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, D; Carli, S; Cecchini, S; Venturini, A; Piazzesi, G; Buiatti, E

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a centralised population based cervical cytology screening programme. DESIGN--The study was a case-control investigation. SETTING--Cases and controls were confined to the province of Florence. PARTICIPANTS--191 out of 208 cases of cervical cancer in women less than 75 years old at diagnosis in the period 1982-85 were interviewed. For each case three living controls were selected, strictly matched by year of birth and district of residence; in all 573 controls were eventually identified. Of these, 15 had had a hysterectomy (2.6%) and were excluded, and a further 18 (3.2%) did not take part for other reasons, leaving a total of 540 controls. MEASUREMENT AND RESULTS--Screening history was taken from a computerised archive for both cases and controls. A mail questionnaire was used to collect information on several potential confounding variables. For women screened only once in comparison with those never screened, the reduction in risk was about 70% (odds ratio 0.29. 95% confidence limits 0.15-0.55), while the reduction was even greater for those screened twice or more. No trend of increasing risk with increasing interval since last test was shown: considering separately women who had only had one test and those who had had two or more tests, the risk estimates were stable across different time intervals since the last test. CONCLUSIONS--There is a strong protective effect against developing invasive cervical cancer through participation in the screening programme. PMID:2348148

  20. Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology*

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Jéssica; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Rocha, Cristiane Cinara; Ferreira, Samira Cardoso; Zimmermann, Célia Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik). Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls). From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two were stained with Diff-Quik. The slides were read independently by two trained researchers blinded to the identification of the slides. The reliability for cell counting using the two techniques was evaluated by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Agreement in the identification of neutrophilic and eosinophilic sputum between the observers and between the stains was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: In our comparison of the two staining techniques, the ICCs indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.98-1.00), as well as substantial agreement for lymphocyte counts (ICC: 0.76-0.83). Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.96-0.99), whereas it was moderate to substantial for lymphocyte counts (ICC = 0.65 and 0.75 for the two observers, respectively). Interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophilic and neutrophilic sputum using the two techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa range: 0.91-1.00). Conclusions: The use of Diff-Quik can be considered a reliable alternative for the processing of sputum samples. PMID:25029648

  1. Early integration of high copy HPV16 detectable in women with normal and low grade cervical cytology and histology

    PubMed Central

    Kulmala, S‐M A; Syrjänen, S M; Gyllensten, U B; Shabalova, I P; Petrovichev, N; Tosi, P; Syrjänen, K J; Johansson, B C

    2006-01-01

    Background Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA has been considered a late event in cervical carcinogenesis. However, integrated forms of HPV were recently detected in cancer precursor lesions using a new real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the deletions at the 3362–3443 region of HPV16 E2 Objective To study the frequency of HPV16 DNA integration in cervical lesions and compare the sensitivity of an additional upstream region of the E2 ORF (2962–3138) in detecting HPV integration. Methods Using the TaqMan based PCR, HPV16 positive DNA samples were analysed in 164 cervical scrapings from women participating in a multicentre screening trial. Biopsy confirmation was available in 62 cases. Results Primers targeting the 3362–3443 region detected the majority of E2 deletions. In only 23% of the samples was the E2 upstream region equal or better target than the 3362–3443 region. Mixed (episomal/integrated) pattern was the most prevalent physical state of HPV16, also present in PAP smears with normal morphology. Pure integrated form was most prevalent in HSIL and cancer lesions, but also detectable in low grade abnormalities (NSIL, ASC‐US, LSIL). Women with only integrated HPV16 were almost 10 years older than those with episomal HPV16. Viral load of integrated HPV16 was related to cytological abnormality (p = 0.003) but not to histology. Conclusions Integrated HPV16 is present in low grade cervical lesions, mostly mixed with the episomal form. Women with the pure integrated form of HPV16 are older than those with the other forms. PMID:16484445

  2. Anal Pap Screening for HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: Practice Improvement.

    PubMed

    Welbeck, Monique

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) have the highest rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer when compared to HIV-uninfected MSM and when compared to HIV-infected heterosexual men and women. Despite significantly increasing rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM, in many settings, no standard protocol is in place to screen for anal dysplasia in this high-risk group. A practice improvement project was conducted at a primary care health center to educate the HIV health care team about anal Pap screening in an effort to increase provider knowledge and rates of anal Pap screening performed as part of primary comprehensive care for HIV-infected MSM. Increased health care provider knowledge of anal Pap screening within this setting resulted in increased anal Pap screening for HIV-infected MSM. Routine screening leads to improved surveillance and treatment of precancerous lesions, decreasing morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected MSM.

  3. Cytologic findings in cervical smears in patients using intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-provera) for contraception.

    PubMed

    Volk, E E; Jax, J M; Kuntzman, T J

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the findings in cervical smears associated with intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) contraception. Seventy-four cervical smears of reproductive-age patients on Depo-Provera were reviewed for cytologic abnormalities, predominant cell type, and intermediate cell glycogenation (extensive (EGly) = navicular cells / glycogenation in 10 or more high-powered fields (hpf); moderate (MGly) = 5-10 hpf; and focal (FGly) = less than 5 hpf). A control group of 38 nonpregnant patients without hormonal therapy was reviewed. Study group patients' (SGP) age ranged from 16-44 years (average 28.1); control group patients (CGP) from 17-42 years (average 29.4). Time since last menstrual period (LMP) for the SGP was 16.9 months (range 1-96); LMP for CGP was 18.2 days (range 5-33). Four (5.4%) SGP had squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), four (5.4%) atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), and one (1.4%) atypical repair. No CGP had SIL or ASCUS. Seventy-three (98.6%) SGP had intermediate cell (IC) predominance; one had parabasal cell predominance. Of the CGP, 28 (73.7%) had IC predominance, nine (23.7%) superficial cell (SC) predominance and one (2.6%) had near equal IC and SC. EGly was seen in 22 (29.7%) SGP; two (5.3%) in CGP (chi-square 7.53; 0.95 = 3.84). MGly was seen in 29 (39.2%) SGP; 10 (26.3%) in CG. FGly was seen in 17 (22.9%) SGP; 14 (36.8%) in CGP. No glycogenation was seen in six (8.1%) SGP; 12 (31.6%) in CGP. Time since LMP was inversely proportional to glycogenation in SGP: EGly-LMP 11.6 months; MGly-LMP 14.9 months; FGly-LMP 15.0 months; and no glycogenation-LMP 22.5 months. Glycogenation of IC appears inversely proportional to Depo-Provera effect. EGly due to recent Depo-Provera administration mimics changes associated with pregnancy.

  4. Study of lymph node lesions with fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology along with immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manna, Asim Kumar; Mondal, Rajib Kumar; Pathak, Swapan

    2013-05-01

    Lymphadenopathy is one of the commonest clinical presentations of the patients attending hospital outdoor. Aetiology varies from Inflammatory process to malignant conditions. Fine needle aspiration cytology has become an integral part of the initial diagnosis. Histology remains the gold standard. But there exists some gray zones both in cytology and histology where immunohistochemistry plays a major role for final diagnosis. In this study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the importance of immunohistochemistry in this field. Fifty cases were studied. Clinical history was noted and examination done. All cases were examined both cytologically and histologically. Immunocytochemistry was done in all the cases by monoclonal antibody against p53 and Ki67. The results were tabulated and analysed according to unpaired 't' test. Reactive hyperplasia was present in maximum number followed by tuberculosis, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. All of these lesions showed statistically significant difference in p53 and Ki67 expression both in cytology and in histology. To conclude, fine needle aspiration cytology is an adjuvant to histology for early diagnosis and immunohistochemistry can help us in the gray zones.

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date. PMID:27528421

  6. A robust biomarker of differential correlations improves the diagnosis of cytologically indeterminate thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rueda, Hugo; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Hugo; Trevino, Victor

    2016-05-01

    The fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules and subsequent cytological analysis is unable to determine the diagnosis in 15 to 30% of thyroid cancer cases; patients with indeterminate cytological results undergo diagnostic surgery which is potentially unnecessary. Current gene expression biomarkers based on well-determined cytology are complex and their accuracy is inconsistent across public datasets. In the present study, we identified a robust biomarker using the differences in gene expression values specifically from cytologically indeterminate thyroid tumors and a powerful multivariate search tool coupled with a nearest centroid classifier. The biomarker is based on differences in the expression of the following genes: CCND1, CLDN16, CPE, LRP1B, MAGI3, MAPK6, MATN2, MPPED2, PFKFB2, PTPRE, PYGL, SEMA3D, SERGEF, SLC4A4 and TIMP1. This 15-gene biomarker exhibited superior accuracy independently of the cytology in six datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) thyroid dataset. In addition, this biomarker exhibited differences in the correlation coefficients between benign and malignant samples that indicate its discriminatory power, and these 15 genes have been previously related to cancer in the literature. Thus, this 15-gene biomarker provides advantages in clinical practice for the effective diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date.

  8. A study of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions with histopathological corroboration.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Anjali; Das, Tushar Kanti; Raha, Kalpana; Hati, Ganesh Chandra; Mitra, Pradip Kumar; Dasgupta, Anjali

    2005-06-01

    The diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration cytology as initial work up of salivary gland enlargement was assessed in one hundred and eighty-five salivary gland specimens over three years period and corroborated with histopathology, whenever feasible. All smears were evaluated according to cell size, amount of cytoplasm, cytologic atypia and presence of lymphocytes. (a) Variable cytologic appearances of pleomorphic salivary adenoma were observed. (b) Cellular pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma showed basaloid cell features. (c) Tumours with intermediate size cells and bland cytology included low grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma and cystic lesions. (d) Warthin's tumour, oncocytoma, salivary duct carcinoma and high grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma revealed large cells and abundant cytoplasm with or without atypia. A major diagnostic categories were inflammatory lesions (n = 7 5), cystic lesions (n = 9), benign tumours (n = 81), malignant neoplasms (n = 1 8) and normal acinar pattern (n = 2). Malignant tumours included muco-epidermoid carcinoma (n = 5), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 3), acinic cell carcinoma (n = 2), adenocarcinoma (n= 2), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), undifferentiated carcinoma (n= 4) and malignant lymphoma (n = 1). Histopathological correlation was possible in 40% of benign and 80% of malignant neoplasms. The overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were very high. So it can be concluded that fine needle aspiration cytology can play important role in early diagnosis and subsequent therapeutic planning of salivary gland lesions.

  9. Review of fine-needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland neoplasms, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mukunyadzi, Perkins

    2002-12-01

    The widespread use of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of salivary gland lesions in many centers is testimony to its usefulness and acceptance as a diagnostic technique. Many pertinent questions concerning a mass arising in the salivary gland can be answered by evaluation of FNA cytologic material, and these include whether the mass is truly of salivary gland origin, whether the lesion is inflammatory or neoplastic, and if neoplastic, whether benign or malignant. On diagnosis of a neoplastic salivary gland lesion, the next important issue is to correctly classify the tumor, particularly if malignant. Specific cytologic diagnoses can be achieved in the majority of cases, thus enabling the clinician and patient to make appropriate informed decisions. The cytologic evaluation of salivary gland tumors, however, is limited by the wide range and heterogeneous nature of benign and malignant tumors arising in this area, many of which share similar or show overlapping cytologic features, making the diagnosis of rare tumors problematic. In this review, the cytologic features of the major salivary gland neoplasms, the differential diagnoses, and the salient points that, if examined carefully, help achieve a specific diagnosis are discussed.

  10. All lesions great and small, part 2. Diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

    2014-06-01

    This is the second in a two-part review of diagnostic cytopathology in veterinary medicine. As in human medicine, cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization. In this second part, the diagnostic applications of cytology in respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, endocrine, ocular, and central nervous system tissues are discussed with a section describing fluid analysis in veterinary medicine. As noted in the previous manuscript, which characterized the cytology of the skin/subcutis, musculoskeletal, and lymphoid tissues, the interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, including familiarity with the frequency and clinical progression of diseases, both of which can be influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. Similar to part one, this review focuses on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse) and highlights lesions that are either unique to veterinary species or have relevant correlates in people. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when appropriate. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not an exhaustive archive of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates and unique entities in veterinary practice.

  11. A rare case of leiomyoma of the internal anal sphincter

    PubMed Central

    Sturiale, Alessandro; Fabiani, Bernardina; Naldini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Leiomyoma is a benign tumour which derives from the smooth muscle fibres and it may occurs in every site in which this type of muscle is present. Among all benign soft tissue tumours it represents almost 3.8% and its pathogenesis remains still unknown. Presentation of case The present case is about a 62 year old woman referred to our centre complaining anal and perineal pain which increase after defecation in association with the appearance of a nodule in the perianal region fixed to the anal sphincter. A 360° tridimensional transanal ultrasound was performed and it showed an anterior nodular thickening of the internal anal sphincter. After an inconclusive preoperative biopsy and a counselling with the patient, the surgeons decided to proceed with the surgical excision. The immunohistochemical examination confirmed the preoperative suspicion of leiomyoma. At 1 year follow-up the patient had not tumour-related symptoms or fecal incontinence and any signs of local recurrence at ultrasound imaging were demonstrated. Discussion Leiomyomas are relatively insensitive to chemotherapy whereby surgery is the treatment of choice and it should be adequate to the site and dimension of the lesion achieving a complete resection with free margins. A further close follow-up is needed too. Conclusion Nowadays there is not a gold standard technique to treat such kind of lesions and the decision of the best surgical approach should depend on the dimension and site. In fact, surgery aims to the oncological outcome trying also to minimize the possible post-operative functional complications. PMID:27078867

  12. Biomaterials in the Treatment of Anal Fistula: Hope or Hype?

    PubMed Central

    Scoglio, Daniele; Walker, Avery S.; Fichera, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Anal fistula (AF) presents a chronic problem for patients and colorectal surgeons alike. Surgical treatment may result in impairment of continence and long-term risk of recurrence. Treatment options for AFs vary according to their location and complexity. The ideal approach should result in low recurrence rates and minimal impact on continence. New technical approaches involving biologically derived products such as biological mesh, fibrin glue, fistula plug, and stem cells have been applied in the treatment of AF to improve outcomes and decrease recurrence rates and the risk of fecal incontinence. In this review, we will highlight the current evidence and describe our personal experience with these novel approaches. PMID:25435826

  13. Unexpected Anal Squamous Cells Carcinoma after Open Hemorrhoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Navarra; Valentina, Abruzzese; Federico, Sista; Renato, Pietroletti

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o'clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area. PMID:25922781

  14. Unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma after open hemorrhoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Luca, Navarra; Valentina, Abruzzese; Federico, Sista; Renato, Pietroletti

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o'clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area.

  15. Malignant melanoma of the anal canal: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Barbus, Roxana; Rancea, Alin; Fetica, Bogdan; Spârchez, Zeno

    2009-01-01

    This article is one case report of 49 year-old woman diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the anal canal. The tumor was detected at early stage and initially treated with local excision, followed by adjuvant interstitial brachytherapy. Since the patient complained of painful local ulceration and atypical cells were found at biopsy, abdominoperineal resection of the rectum was performed and a sterile specimen was obtained, proving the efficacy of adjuvant brachytherapy for local control. Patient is now considered disease free for 30 months after primary treatment.

  16. A rare case of myeloid sarcoma presenting as anal fissure

    PubMed Central

    VECCHIO, R.; INTAGLIATA, E.; FIUMARA, P.F.; VILLARI, L.; MARCHESE, S.; CACCIOLA, E.

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is a tumor composed of myeloblasts occurring at an extramedullary site. It may develop in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic syndrome, sometimes preceding onset of the systemic disease. Frequent sites of myeloid sarcoma are bones or various soft tissues. Gastrointestinal involvement is very rare. We report a unique case of myeloid sarcoma presenting as a painful anal fissure, in a patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia. The diagnosis was achieved by a surgical excisional biopsy and immunoistochemical staining. PMID:26712260

  17. Adynamic and dynamic muscle transposition techniques for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Barišić, Goran; Krivokapić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Gracilis muscle transposition is well established in general surgery and has been the main muscle transposition technique for anal incontinence. Dynamization, through a schedule of continuous electrical stimulation, converts the fatigue-prone muscle fibres to a tonic fatigue-resistant morphology with acceptable results in those cases where there is limited sphincter muscle mass. The differences between gluteoplasty and graciloplasty, as well as the techniques and complications of both procedures, are outlined in this review. Overall, these techniques are rarely carried out in specialized units with experience, as there is a high revision and explantation rate. PMID:24759348

  18. Detection of EGFR and KRAS Mutation by Pyrosequencing Analysis in Cytologic Samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    EGFR and KRAS mutations are two of the most common mutations that are present in lung cancer. Screening and detecting these mutations are of issue these days, and many different methods and tissue samples are currently used to effectively detect these two mutations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations by pyrosequencing method, and compared the yield of cytology versus histology specimens in a consecutive series of patients with lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR and KRAS mutation results of 399 (patients with EGFR mutation test) and 323 patients (patients with KRAS mutation test) diagnosed with lung cancer in Konkuk University Medical Center from 2008 to 2014. Among them, 60 patients had received both EGFR and KRAS mutation studies. We compared the detection rate of EGFR and KRAS tests in cytology, biopsy, and resection specimens. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 29.8% and 8.7% of total patients, and the positive mutation results of EGFR and KRAS were mutually exclusive. The detection rate of EGFR mutation in cytology was higher than non-cytology (biopsy or resection) materials (cytology: 48.5%, non-cytology: 26.1%), and the detection rate of KRAS mutation in cytology specimens was comparable to non-cytology specimens (cytology: 8.3%, non-cytology: 8.7%). We suggest that cytology specimens are good alternatives that can readily substitute tissue samples for testing both EGFR and KRAS mutations. Moreover, pyrosequencing method is highly sensitive in detecting EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung cancer patients. PMID:27478332

  19. Detection of EGFR and KRAS Mutation by Pyrosequencing Analysis in Cytologic Samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, So-Young; Park, Hyung-Kyu; Oh, Seo-Young; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Kye-Young; Kim, Wan-Seop

    2016-08-01

    EGFR and KRAS mutations are two of the most common mutations that are present in lung cancer. Screening and detecting these mutations are of issue these days, and many different methods and tissue samples are currently used to effectively detect these two mutations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations by pyrosequencing method, and compared the yield of cytology versus histology specimens in a consecutive series of patients with lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR and KRAS mutation results of 399 (patients with EGFR mutation test) and 323 patients (patients with KRAS mutation test) diagnosed with lung cancer in Konkuk University Medical Center from 2008 to 2014. Among them, 60 patients had received both EGFR and KRAS mutation studies. We compared the detection rate of EGFR and KRAS tests in cytology, biopsy, and resection specimens. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 29.8% and 8.7% of total patients, and the positive mutation results of EGFR and KRAS were mutually exclusive. The detection rate of EGFR mutation in cytology was higher than non-cytology (biopsy or resection) materials (cytology: 48.5%, non-cytology: 26.1%), and the detection rate of KRAS mutation in cytology specimens was comparable to non-cytology specimens (cytology: 8.3%, non-cytology: 8.7%). We suggest that cytology specimens are good alternatives that can readily substitute tissue samples for testing both EGFR and KRAS mutations. Moreover, pyrosequencing method is highly sensitive in detecting EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung cancer patients.

  20. Utility of peritoneal washing cytology in staging and prognosis of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms: a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Whitney; Madan, Rashna; O'Neil, Maura; Tawfik, Ossama W; Fan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic significance of peritoneal washing cytology in gynecologic neoplasms is controversial. The presence of neoplastic cells in peritoneal washings is currently part of the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging systems in cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without metastasis beyond the pelvis. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in which cytologic studies were performed. The utility of cytology in tumor staging and the relationship between cytology results and patient outcome are studied. All cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in our institution between July 2002 and July 2012 were reviewed. Primary tumor characteristics including type and pelvic extension were collected, categorized, and correlated with peritoneal washing cytology. Final tumor staging was reviewed and the impact of positive cytology was evaluated. A total of 120 cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without extrapelvic metastasis were identified within the study period. Peritoneal washing cytology was positive in 24% (29/120) of neoplasms and upstaged the tumor 83% (24/29) of the time when positive. Overall, 20% (24/120) of reviewed cases were upstaged based on positive cytology results. Peritoneal washing cytology remains a useful staging tool for ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms limited to the pelvic cavity. Positive cytology results in upstaging in a significant proportion of the cases regardless of the tumor type. A larger study is needed to analyze follow-up data to determine if upstaging based on positive cytology adversely affects outcome. PMID:27180061

  1. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  2. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  3. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  4. Investigation of anal motor characteristics of the sensorimotor response (SMR) using 3-D anorectal pressure topography

    PubMed Central

    Cheeney, Gregory; Remes-Troche, Jose M.; Attaluri, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Desire to defecate is associated with a unique anal contractile response, the sensorimotor response (SMR). However, the precise muscle(s) involved is not known. We aimed to examine the role of external and internal anal sphincter and the puborectalis muscle in the genesis of SMR. Anorectal 3-D pressure topography was performed in 10 healthy subjects during graded rectal balloon distention using a novel high-definition manometry system consisting of a probe with 256 pressure sensors arranged circumferentially. The anal pressure changes before, during, and after the onset of SMR were measured at every millimeter along the length of anal canal and in 3-D by dividing the anal canal into 4 × 2.1-mm grids. Pressures were assessed in the longitudinal and anterior-posterior axis. Anal ultrasound was performed to assess puborectalis morphology. 3-D topography demonstrated that rectal distention produced an SMR coinciding with desire to defecate and predominantly induced by contraction of puborectalis. Anal ultrasound showed that the puborectalis was located at mean distance of 3.5 cm from anal verge, which corresponded with peak pressure difference between the anterior and posterior vectors observed at 3.4 cm with 3-D topography (r = 0.77). The highest absolute and percentage increases in pressure during SMR were seen in the superior-posterior portion of anal canal, reaffirming the role of puborectalis. The SMR anal pressure profile showed a peak pressure at 1.6 cm from anal verge in the anterior and posterior vectors and distinct increase in pressure only posteriorly at 3.2 cm corresponding to puborectalis. We concluded that SMR is primarily induced by the activation and contraction of the puborectalis muscle in response to a sensation of a desire to defecate. PMID:21109594

  5. Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brugge, William R; De Witt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology, including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of sampling techniques in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas.

  6. Fibroma of the tendon sheath: A diagnostic dilemma on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra G; Dhruva, Gauravi

    2015-01-01

    Fibroma of the tendon sheath (FTS) is an uncommon benign soft tissue tumor (STS) of the tendon sheath. Clinical and radiological features are not distinctive enough to clinch the diagnosis preoperatively. Although histological features are well described, diagnostic cytological features of FTS are still lacking. Till date only two reports describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings of FTS. The present case is a 50-year-old female who presented with a slow growing nodule on the right thigh over a period of 2 years. FNAC revealed low cell yield with loose clusters of fibrotic spindle cells and stellate cells intermingled with fibro-collagenous and myxoid matrix. Few cells showed mild degree of nuclear atypia. Necrosis and atypical mitoses were not seen. Cytology findings were suggestive of benign/low-grade fibroblastic or fibromyxoid lesion. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of FTS. This article discusses the diagnostic role of FNAC in FTS with its differential diagnosis PMID:26729987

  7. Cytological and bacteriological evaluation of transendoscopic guttural pouch lavages in clinically healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Dobesova, Olga; Bezdekova, Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-eight guttural pouch lavages from 19 clinically healthy horses were collected transendoscopically. Cytological examination and bacteriological culture of the samples were carried out. All 38 lavages assessed for cytology contained less than five per cent neutrophils and could be termed as cytologically 'normal'. In none of the lavages did the neutrophil count vary between five and 25 per cent or exceed 25 per cent, which are the borderlines for being termed 'reactive' or 'pathological', respectively. Epithelial cells were the most commonly represented cell type in all lavages. Bacteriological culture was positive in 16 out of 38 lavages, but specific pathogenic bacteria were not cultivated in any of them, and only transient microflora was present. Although the relationship between the presence of specific bacteria, neutrophil count and total cell count could not be statistically evaluated due to the absence of 'reactive' and 'pathological' lavages, transendoscopic lavage appears to be a reliable method for obtaining a sample for bacteriological culture. PMID:27342089

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Krishnappa, Amita; Shobha, S N; Shankar, S Vijay; Aradhya, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC.

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Krishnappa, Amita; Shobha, SN; Shankar, S Vijay; Aradhya, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC. PMID:27011442

  10. Female infertility: role of vaginal hormonal cytology, endometrial biopsy and endocrinological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Nishat; Singh, Mamta; Verma, Manju; Bansal, Vandana

    2006-03-01

    Female infertility can be categorised into those who fail to ovulate (anovulatory infertility) because of some defect at hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and those who are ovulatory (ovulatory infertility), but are infertile because of some lesion present in genital tract. The role of vaginal hormonal cytology, endometrial biopsy and endocrinological evaluation in the detection of ovulation and various ovulatory dysfunction was studied in 42 infertile female patients. On the basis of cytological findings, of the 42 patients, 14 were found to be ovulatory, 26 anovulatory (which include 5 cases of atrophic changes) and 2 inconsistent due to inflammatory changes. Endometrial biopsy showed evidence of ovulation in 15, anovulation in 27 cases. Hormonal evaluation indicated some sort of endocrinological disorders in 15 patients, which may underlie anovulatory infertility in these patients, while results were within normal range in the rest 27 patients. Results of vaginal cytology and endometrial biopsy showed correlation in respect to ovulation in 93.33% of the cases.

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cervical lymph node involvement by ovarian serous borderline tumor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longwen; Butler, Kristina A; Bell, Debra A

    2016-01-01

    Serous borderline tumor (SBT) involving a cervical lymph node is extremely rare. In addition, fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the involved cervical lymph node shares tremendous morphologic similarity with other low-grade papillary carcinomas. Thus, it can be easily misdiagnosed as metastatic carcinoma. A 42-year-old female had a history of bilateral SBT and postbilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She presented with left cervical lymphadenopathy 6 months later. FNA cytology showed a low-grade papillary neoplasm with psammoma bodies. Needle core biopsy along with immunostains was diagnostic of cervical lymph node involvement (LNI) of SBT. although extremely rare, cervical LNI can be found in patients with SBTs. FNA cytology, sometimes, is indistinguishable from metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma. Cell block or needle core biopsy is essential to make the correct diagnosis. PMID:27563339

  12. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cervical lymph node involvement by ovarian serous borderline tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Longwen; Butler, Kristina A.; Bell, Debra A.

    2016-01-01

    Serous borderline tumor (SBT) involving a cervical lymph node is extremely rare. In addition, fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the involved cervical lymph node shares tremendous morphologic similarity with other low-grade papillary carcinomas. Thus, it can be easily misdiagnosed as metastatic carcinoma. A 42-year-old female had a history of bilateral SBT and postbilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She presented with left cervical lymphadenopathy 6 months later. FNA cytology showed a low-grade papillary neoplasm with psammoma bodies. Needle core biopsy along with immunostains was diagnostic of cervical lymph node involvement (LNI) of SBT. although extremely rare, cervical LNI can be found in patients with SBTs. FNA cytology, sometimes, is indistinguishable from metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma. Cell block or needle core biopsy is essential to make the correct diagnosis. PMID:27563339

  13. [Chronic irritative urinary syndrome. Diagnostic value of cystoscopy, urinary cytology and biopsy].

    PubMed

    Guzmán Esquivel, J; Manzanilla, H; Zungri Telo, E; Da Silva, E A

    1997-01-01

    Chronic irritative urinary syndrome (CIUS), is a diagnostic concern for urologists from the moment that it becomes chronic and there is no etiologic diagnostic available. The objective of this study is to find out the diagnostic value of Cystoscopy, Urinary cytology and Biopsy of the vesical mucosa. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted in 30 patients who developed CIUS. Cystoscopy showed visible damage in 7 patients (31.8%); urinary cytology, 22 patients with cytologic changes (73.3%); and vesical biopsy, 24 patients with histologic changes (80.0%). The authors conclude that CIUS occurs more frequently in females than in males, the age range with higher incidence are 43 and 45 years. The most common diagnosis are unspecific chronic inflammatory changes followed by metaplasia. PMID:9494162

  14. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Krishnappa, Amita; Shobha, S N; Shankar, S Vijay; Aradhya, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC. PMID:27011442

  15. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here. PMID:16556320

  16. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology vs. the Postoperative Histology - the Continuing Need for Multi-Disciplinary Approach?

    PubMed

    Gill, G; Kalyanasundaram, K; Varughese, G; Wilson, P; Varadhan, L

    2016-07-01

    We set out to investigate the concordance rates that were observed between fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) compared with that of the post operative histology obtained for thyroid nodules over an 8 year period at a large university hospital.A retrospective analysis of 355 cases was conducted; patients operated for hyperthyroidism were excluded for the purposes of this study. We identified malignancy in a total of 101 cases (28%) The chance of malignancy with 2 Thy1 specimens was 5% in this study and 9% was observed in those with a Thy 2 FNA. On the converse, 7% of patient had malignant cytology on FNA though post-operative histology turned out to be benign.This therefore highlights the potential for discordance between thyroid FNA cytology and post-operative histology in the assessment of any thyroid nodule and thus reinforcing the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the assessment of all thyroid nodules. PMID:27223871

  17. The role of cytology in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; da Silva, Hilton Justino; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2012-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature of the last decade on the role of cytology in the evaluation of musculoskeletal neoplasms, and its diagnostic accuracy. A search was carried out on the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO, selecting articles in which cytology was used in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Limits were used for English, Spanish and Portuguese, and only articles published since 2000 were selected. 757 articles were retrieved, 24 of which were selected based on criteria of inclusion and exclusion. It was concluded that although promising in the assessment of musculoskeletal neoplasms, cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than histological evaluation of such lesions. PMID:24453581

  18. A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future.

  19. A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future. PMID:22807413

  20. [Echography and cytology in the study of spreading pathology of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Gozzi, G; Di Bonito, L; Bazzocchi, M; Vasciaveo, A; Bassini, A; Bellis, G B

    1990-09-01

    The contribution of the combined use of US and cytology is evaluated in the diagnosis of masses in the salivary glands and adjacent structures. US had 87.2% sensitivity in locating the mass; its accuracy in defining both physical structure and benign/malignant nature of the lesion was 91% and 74%, respectively. Thus US, after demonstrating a lesion, does not always allow the exact definition of its characteristic. In many of these cases, other imaging modalities do not help either. In our series of cases, cytology allowed an unquestionable diagnosis to be made in 87.2% of cases, and the combined use of US and cytology rose the figure to 97%. The only limitation is the evaluation of the deep extent of large masses: in such cases CT or, if available, MR imaging are recommended.

  1. Two Unusual Cases of Acinic Cell Carcinoma: Role of Cytology with Histological Corelation.

    PubMed

    Das, Rumpa; Nath, Gorakh; Bohara, Sangita; Bhattacharya, Aarti Biswajit; Gupta, Vivek

    2016-08-01

    Acinic Cell Carcinoma (AcCC) is a slow growing, malignant tumour of salivary glands, predominantly found in parotid gland and rarely in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. Rarely, the tumour can arise in Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue (HSGT) and can present bilaterally. Synchronous contralateral tumour or tumour arising in HSGT is easily missed clinically. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is an important preoperative diagnostic investigation in cases of AcCC. Sometimes its diagnosis on cytology is very difficult and it is easily misdiagnosed as benign, affecting the long term prognosis. Here, we present two unusual cases of AcCC. One developed in HSGT and the other was synchronous bilateral. Though the histological features of AcCC appear to be characteristic but clinical suspicion and cytological features have been described as equally important for preoperative diagnosis. Present cases highlight the importance of a cytopathologist who plays an important role in its preliminary diagnosis.

  2. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: Cytological diagnosis of an uncommon tumor.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Amoolya; Rao, Madhuri; Geethamani, V; Shetty, Archana C

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland, displaying monomorphic basaloid cells without a myxochondroid component, representing 1-3% of all salivary gland neoplasms seen predominantly in women over 50 years of age. It is uncommon in young adults. Cytodiagnosis of basaloid tumors chiefly basal cell adenoma of the salivary gland, is extremely challenging. The cytological differential diagnoses range from benign to malignant, neoplastic to non- neoplastic lesions. Histopathological examination is a must for definitive diagnosis, as these entities differ in prognosis and therapeutic aspects. We present a 22-years-old male with this uncommon diagnosis with a discussion on the role of cytological diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, minimally invasive method for the preoperative diagnosis of various types of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. The knowledge of its pitfalls and limitations contributes to a more effective approach to treatment.

  3. Abnormal Development of Tapetum and Microspores Induced by Chemical Hybridization Agent SQ-1 in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility. PMID:25803723

  4. Abnormal development of tapetum and microspores induced by chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility.

  5. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  6. Peri-anal implantation of bioengineered human internal anal sphincter constructs intrinsically innervated with human neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Shreya; Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Gilmont, Robert R.; Somara, Sita; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Bitar, Khalil N.

    2014-01-01

    Background The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is a major contributing factor to anal canal pressure and is required for maintenance of rectoanal continence. IAS damage or weakening results in fecal incontinence. We have demonstrated that bioengineered intrinsically innervated human IAS tissue replacements possess key aspects of IAS physiology, like generation of spontaneous basal tone and contraction/relaxation in response to neurotransmitters. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of implantation of bioengineered IAS constructs in the peri-anal region of athymic rodents. Methods Human IAS tissue constructs were bioengineered from isolated human IAS circular smooth muscle cells and human enteric neuronal progenitor cells. Upon maturation of the bioengineered constructs in culture, they were implanted surgically into the perianal region of athymic rats. Growth factor was delivered to the implanted constructs through a microosmotic pump. Implanted constructs were retrieved from the animals 4 weeks post-implantation. Results Animals tolerated the implantation well, and there were no early postoperative complications. Normal stooling was observed during the implantation period. Upon harvest, implanted constructs were adherent to the perirectal rat tissue, and appeared healthy and pink. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed neovascularization. Implanted smooth muscle cells maintained contractile phenotype. Bioengineered constructs responded to neuronally evoked relaxation in response to electrical field stimulation and vasoactive intestinal peptide, indicating the preservation of neuronal networks. Conclusions Our results indicate that bioengineered innervated IAS constructs can be used to augment IAS function in an animal model. This is a regenerative medicine based therapy for fecal incontinence that would directly address the dysfunction of the IAS muscle. PMID:24582493

  7. [Comparison of the Conventional Centrifuged and Filtrated Preparations in Urine Cytology].

    PubMed

    Sekita, Nobuyuki; Shimosakai, Hirofumi; Nishikawa, Rika; Sato, Hiroaki; Kouno, Hiroyoshi; Fujimura, Masaaki; Mikami, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The urine cytology test is one of the most important tools for the diagnosis of malignant urinary tract tumors. This test is also of great value for predicting malignancy. However, the sensitivity of this test is not high enough to screen for malignant cells. In our laboratory, we were able to attain a high sensitivity of urine cytology tests after changing the preparation method of urine samples. The differences in the cytodiagnosis between the two methods are discussed here. From January 2012 to June 2013, 2,031 urine samples were prepared using the conventional centrifuge method (C method) ; and from September 2013 to March 2015, 2,453 urine samples were prepared using the filtration method (F method) for the cytology test. When the samples included in category 4 or 5, were defined as cytological positive, the sensitivities of this test with samples prepared using the F method were significantly high compared with samples prepared using the C method (72% vs 28%, p<0.001). The number of cells on the glass slides prepared by the F method was significantly higher than that of the samples prepared by the C method (p<0.001). After introduction of the F method, the number of f alse negative cases was decreased in the urine cytology test because a larger number of cells was seen and easily detected as atypical or malignant epithelial cells. Therefore, this method has a higher sensitivity than the conventional C method as the sensitivity of urine cytology tests relies partially on the number of cells visualized in the prepared samples. PMID:27133882

  8. Subacute granulomatous (De Quervain's) thyroiditis: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and ultrasonographic characteristics of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Çigdem; Paksoy, Nadir; Gök, Nazlı D; Yazal, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SGT) is an inflammatory disease that presents with different clinical and cytological characteristics. Although the diagnosis is generally made clinically, imaging methods and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may provide assistance, particularly in atypical cases. The objective of this study is to reveal the ultrasonographic (USG) and cytological characteristics of SGT. Materials and Methods: The clinical, USG and cytological findings of 21 cases diagnosed with SGT were reviewed. Results: Ultrasonographic data was available in 20 cases. A hypoechoic thyroid nodule with irregular margins was detected in 12 of the 20 total cases. Of these, 9 cases complained about pain in the thyroid lodge and generally had unilateral lesions, heterogeneous and hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins, rather than nodular lesions, which were seen in 7 cases. Cytologically, the multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) found in all cases were accompanied by a dirty background containing varying numbers of granulomatous structures, including isolated epithelioid histiocytes, proliferated/regenerated follicle epithelium cells and inflammatory cells and colloid. Conclusion: Though hypoechoic and heterogeneous areas with irregular margins are strongly associated with thyroiditis, SGT may also appear as painful or painless hypoechoic, solid nodules and generate challenges in differential diagnosis. Although the most remarkable characteristic observed in FNA cytology was the presence of multiple MNGCs with cytoplasm, a dirty background accompanied by mild-moderate cellularity, degenerated-proliferated follicular epithelium cells, rare epithelioid granulomas and mixed type inflammatory cells are characteristic for SGT. The assessment of these radiological and cytological findings in conjunction with clinical findings will assist in the achievement of an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26085833

  9. Cytological grading: An alternative to histological grading in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Namala, Srilekha; Guduru, Vijay Srinivas; Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Devi, Sabitha; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horrati; Udayashankar, Urmila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronuclei (MN) in oral exfoliative cells have been shown to indicate a disparaging change in genetic information of the cell. Recent studies showed correlation between the frequency of MN and severity of this damage. Grading of lesions can be used to determine the austerity of this damage. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) individuals and to cytologically grade the frequency of MN in cytological smears and to correlate it with histological grading. The objective is to ascertain whether MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells can be a parameter for grading of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study group comprises of 40 subjects (20 controls and 20 OSCC patients) in the age group of 45-85 years. Materials and Methods: The cytosmear was obtained from each group and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Twenty cells from each slide were counted for MN and cytological grade of OSCC was assigned based on the average frequency of MN. Cytological grade was correlated with histological grading and the data were recorded. Student's t-test and Spearman's correlation were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Average frequency of MN was 2.5 times higher in OSCC patients when compared to that in controls and the difference was found to be highly significant. Sixty percent correlation was found between cytological grade and histological grade of OSCC and the difference between them was not significant. Conclusions: Cytological grading can be used in grading OSCC, and MN insinuates genotoxic damage occurring in the epithelial cells.

  10. A cohort study of cervical screening using partial HPV typing and cytology triage.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Mark; Hyun, Noorie; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Katki, Hormuzd; Fetterman, Barbara; Gage, Julia C; Cheung, Li C; Befano, Brian; Poitras, Nancy; Lorey, Thomas; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology for cervical screening. However, to incorporate HPV tests into screening, risk-stratification ("triage") of HPV-positive women is needed to avoid excessive colposcopy and overtreatment. We prospectively evaluated combinations of partial HPV typing (Onclarity, BD) and cytology triage, and explored whether management could be simplified, based on grouping combinations yielding similar 3-year or 18-month CIN3+ risks. We typed ∼9,000 archived specimens, taken at enrollment (2007-2011) into the NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) HPV Persistence and Progression (PaP) cohort. Stratified sampling, with reweighting in the statistical analysis, permitted risk estimation of HPV/cytology combinations for the 700,000+-woman KPNC screening population. Based on 3-year CIN3+ risks, Onclarity results could be combined into five groups (HPV16, else HPV18/45, else HPV31/33/58/52, else HPV51/35/39/68/56/66/68, else HPV negative); cytology results fell into three risk groups ("high-grade," ASC-US/LSIL, NILM). For the resultant 15 HPV group-cytology combinations, 3-year CIN3+ risks ranged 1,000-fold from 60.6% to 0.06%. To guide management, we compared the risks to established "benchmark" risk/management thresholds in this same population (e.g., LSIL predicted 3-year CIN3+ risk of 5.8% in the screening population, providing the benchmark for colposcopic referral). By benchmarking to 3-year risk thresholds (supplemented by 18-month estimates), the widely varying risk strata could be condensed into four action bands (very high risk of CIN3+ mandating consideration of cone biopsy if colposcopy did not find precancer; moderate risk justifying colposcopy; low risk managed by intensified follow-up to permit HPV "clearance"; and very low risk permitting routine screening.) Overall, the results support primary HPV testing, with management of HPV-positive women using partial HPV typing and cytology.

  11. Does subdivision of the "atypical" urine cytology increase predictive accuracy for urothelial carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Hossain, Deloar

    2014-12-01

    Urine cytology is routinely used for early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with hematuria or a history of urothelial carcinoma, but its clinical utility is greatly diminished by a high frequency of "atypical" specimens, reportedly around 20% in the literature. We compared our results with double-stained urine cytology specimens (papanicolaou and acid hematoxylin stains) with published results with only a single or double papanicolaou stain. The acid hematoxylin stain enhanced nuclear chromatin staining, eliminated significant background debris, and improved visibility of diagnostic cells in the presence of obscuring blood. Medical records of all urine cytologies received between 2005 and 2012 in our laboratories were reviewed. The study group consisted of all cases with bladder biopsy follow-up within one year of cytology. Of 43,131 urine cytologies diagnosed in our laboratories, biopsy follow-up results were available within one year in 10,473 cases, including 852 for symptoms and 1,461 for follow-up of bladder cancer. An additional 6,427 cases had cystoscopy results in which no biopsy was obtained. Cases were classified as negative (81.6%), atypical, favor reactive (2.9%), atypical, favor neoplastic (7.3%), suspicious (5.7%), and malignant (2.5%), with subsequent frequencies for urothelial cancer on biopsy of 13.3%, 31.1%, 37.6%, 53.6%, and 74.3%, respectively. No significant difference was found if atypical was subdivided into two categories: favor reactive and favor neoplastic. Subdivision of the atypical category did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Addition of the acid hematoxylin stain decreased the incidence of atypical urine cytologies from about 20% to 10.2%. PMID:24838797

  12. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kusum; Kapila, Kusum

    2002-04-01

    This retrospective study was carried out to review the cases diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma in major or minor salivary glands and determine the difficulties encountered on typing this tumour on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Over a 19-year period (1982-2000) 488 pleomorphic adenomas were diagnosed on FNAC from different sites (parotid - 372 cases, submandibular - 95 cases; oral cavity - 21 cases). Histology was available in 232 cases. Twenty-nine cases where a histological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was made but the cytological diagnosis was variable were also reviewed. In 216 of the 232 cases a good cytohistological correlation was available. On review only 4 of the 16 cases initially diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma on FNAC where the histology revealed a different tumour were categorized as pleomorphic adenoma, while 3 each were classified as adenoid cystic carcinoma and benign tumour ?type, and 2 each were diagnosed to be muco-epidermoid carcinoma, monomorphic adenoma and acinic cell carcinoma. On review of the FNAC smears from 29 cases where a histological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was available while the cytological diagnosis was variable, only 11 (38%) were categorized as pleomorphic adenoma. In the majority of the remaining cases the cytological diagnosis did not alter markedly, 7 of 10 cases where the tumour could not be typed on cytology initially could not be typed even on review. In conclusion, FNAC is an ideal, fairly accurate preoperative procedure for the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas. Certain diagnostic problems occur in differentiating pleomorphic adenomas from adenoid cystic carcinoma, monomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma is difficult to identify on FNAC and in our series all 4 such cases on histology were considered benign on cytology. PMID:11952751

  13. Prognostic impact of cytological fluid tumor markers in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Arthur; Hur, Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Sae Rom; Suh, Young Joo; Im, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Lee, Jae Seok; Shim, Hyo Sup; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2016-03-01

    The serum tumor markers CYFRA 21-1, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are useful in diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cytologic tumor markers obtained during needle aspiration biopsies (NAB) of lung lesions are useful for NSCLC diagnosis. This study investigated the incremental prognostic value of cytologic tumor markers compared to serum tumor markers. This prospective study included 253 patients diagnosed with NSCLC by NAB with cytologic tumor marker analysis. Levels of cytologic CYFRA 21-1, CEA, SCCA, and their serum counterparts were followed up for survival analysis. Optimal cutoff values for each tumor marker were obtained for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) analyses. All patients were followed up for a median of 22.8 months. Using cutoff values of 0.44 ng/ml for C-SCCA, 2.0 ng/ml for S-SCCA, and 3.3 ng/ml for S-CYFRA, a multivariate analysis revealed that high S-SCCA (hazard ratio, HR, 1.84) and high C-SCCA (HR, 1.63) were independent predictive factors of OS. The 3-year overall survival rate was 55 vs. 80 % for high and low C-SCCA, respectively. Cytologic tumor marker level detection is easily obtainable and provides prognostic information for NSCLC. Cytologic tumor markers provide comparable prognostic information relative to serum tumor markers, with C-SCCA acting as a strong prognostic factor of overall survival and PFS. PMID:26432331

  14. Diagnostic value of liquid‐based cytology with fine needle aspiration specimens for cervical lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Takashi; Akahane, Toshiaki; Ohnuki, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Kamada, Hajime; Harabuchi, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Shinya; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical lymphadenopathy is a symptom that is frequently seen among outpatients, and it is important to differentiate malignant lesions from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has been widely used for the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy. However, some limitations of the diagnostic accuracy using conventional smear (CS) cytology have been pointed out. The diagnostic value of liquid‐based cytology (LBC) with FNA specimens has not yet been fully proven. Methods Forty‐two patients with cervical lymphadenopathy who underwent FNA with CS cytology from 2007 to 2011 and 123 patients who underwent FNA with LBC utilizing LBCPREP2™ from 2011 to 2015 were studied. Diagnostic values were compared between the CS and the LBC groups. Results Of the total 165 patients representing the combined CS and LBC groups, 81 (49.1%) were diagnosed as benign lymph node and 84 (50.9%) were malignant diseases including 37 (22.4%) of metastatic carcinoma except for thyroid carcinoma, 30 (18.2%) of metastatic thyroid carcinoma, and 17 (10.3%) of malignant lymphoma. The overall statistical values including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the CS were 75%, 100%, 100%, 78.9%, and 87.1%, respectively, whereas those values for LBC were 91.2%, 100%, 100%, 90.7%, and 95.3%, respectively. The sensitivity of LBC for malignant diseases tended to be higher than that of CS cytology (p = 0.081). Conclusion LBC with FNA specimens from cervical lymphadenopathy is a useful and reliable method for the diagnosis of malignant diseases, especially of metastatic carcinomas, due to its increased sensitivity compared with CS cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:169–176. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26748563

  15. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kusum; Kapila, Kusum

    2002-04-01

    This retrospective study was carried out to review the cases diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma in major or minor salivary glands and determine the difficulties encountered on typing this tumour on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Over a 19-year period (1982-2000) 488 pleomorphic adenomas were diagnosed on FNAC from different sites (parotid - 372 cases, submandibular - 95 cases; oral cavity - 21 cases). Histology was available in 232 cases. Twenty-nine cases where a histological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was made but the cytological diagnosis was variable were also reviewed. In 216 of the 232 cases a good cytohistological correlation was available. On review only 4 of the 16 cases initially diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma on FNAC where the histology revealed a different tumour were categorized as pleomorphic adenoma, while 3 each were classified as adenoid cystic carcinoma and benign tumour ?type, and 2 each were diagnosed to be muco-epidermoid carcinoma, monomorphic adenoma and acinic cell carcinoma. On review of the FNAC smears from 29 cases where a histological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was available while the cytological diagnosis was variable, only 11 (38%) were categorized as pleomorphic adenoma. In the majority of the remaining cases the cytological diagnosis did not alter markedly, 7 of 10 cases where the tumour could not be typed on cytology initially could not be typed even on review. In conclusion, FNAC is an ideal, fairly accurate preoperative procedure for the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas. Certain diagnostic problems occur in differentiating pleomorphic adenomas from adenoid cystic carcinoma, monomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma is difficult to identify on FNAC and in our series all 4 such cases on histology were considered benign on cytology.

  16. Preoperative Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Ovarian Lesions- Is It a Rapid and Effective Diagnostic Modality?

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Saikat; Chaudhuri, Snehamay; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Khandakar, Binny; Mandal, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The deep seated ovarian lesions unapproachable by unguided aspiration cytology were easily done under ultrasound guidance. It gave a before hand cytological diagnosis of the lesion to the surgeon determining the modality of treatment for the patient. Aim To find the diagnostic accuracy of the method of ultrasound guided cytological assessment of ovarian lesion. Materials and Methods The study was conducted as a prospective observational study over a period of one year, in hospital setting, where ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration had been used to aspirate ovarian lesions, giving a rapid cytological diagnosis. In 43 sample cases, aspiration of fluid done from ovarian lesions were followed by cyto-centrifugation and staining by May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou (Pap) stain providing a cytological opinion regarding benign/malignant nature of the lesion and further categorization. Later the cytological diagnosis was compared with final histopathological diagnosis, taking it as a gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided aspiration and cytological analysis were high, 96%, 76.92% and 89.47% respectively as calculated by comparing the cytological diagnosis with histological diagnosis, taking it as gold standard. Conclusion This method has evolved as a highly sensitive, rapid, simple and effective modality for screening and as well as accurate preoperative diagnosis of ovarian lesions. PMID:27134878

  17. Anal sphincter injuries during hemorrhoidectomy: a multi center study.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Rezvan; Mahjoubi, Bahar; Kadivar, Maryam; Azizi, Rasoul; Zahedi-Shoolami, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhoidectomy is the treatment of choice for patients with third or fourth-degree hemorrhoids. Although the majority of surgeons believe that surgical hemorrhoidectomy is the most effective approach with excellent results in the management of hemorrhoid disease, but hemorrhoidectomy is not a simple procedure. One of the complications of this surgery is an injury to anal sphincters that can lead to incontinency in some patients. In this study, we aimed to reveal the percentage of external and internal anal sphincter injuries in surgical hemorrhoidectomy. We prospectively enrolled 128 patients from April 2006 to February 2007. They underwent hemorrhoidectomy in three general hospitals in Tehran. All patients were in grade III or IV and underwent open hemorrhoidectomy (Milligan-Morgan). After surgery, all resected material was histopathologically examined by two expert pathologists and the results confirmed by other one if there is any discrepancy. From all specimens which sent to the pathology department 15.8% (21 Pts.) had muscle fibers that Smooth muscle fibers were seen in 80.5% (17 Pts.) of them and striated muscle fibers were found in 19.5% (4 Pts.). Although hemorrhoidectomy is a safe and effective method for treatment of hemorrhoid, but the inadvertent removal of smooth and striated muscle during open hemorrhoidectomy had raised concerns about its effects on postoperative anorectal function.

  18. The hero, the anima and the claustrum: anality and idealization.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Owen, William

    2012-04-01

    Joe Redfearn's (1979) classic paper 'The captive, the treasure, the hero and the anal stage of development' is recognized as seminal to the development of Jungian thought about anality, particularly its integration with mainstream (Freudian, Kleinian) psychoanalytic perspectives. This paper develops such an approach through drawing on contributions from Meltzer, Green, Bion, Chasseguet-Smirgel and Kernberg. More specifically, it is argued that over-investment in hero and anima archetypal configurations may represent an attempt to replace the resource of the internal parental couple that, at the level of unconscious phantasy, has been destroyed by the aggrieved child's attack on the primal scene. Unless this usually dissociated sadism can be integrated, the creative epistemophilic instinct may remain blunted, giving rise, through projective identification, to the adoption of a pseudo-adult identity based on appropriation or assertion. This in turn may lead to manic attempts to reach authentic ('animating') experience through the (often erotized) excitement of heroic endeavour. Consideration of both Redfearn's and the author's own clinical material demonstrates how close attention to process as well as content is fundamental to revealing and addressing such likely-to-be dissociated scenarios. PMID:22444354

  19. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Smaglo, Brandon G.; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Meyer, Joshua E.; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  20. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Smaglo, Brandon G; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Meyer, Joshua E; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M

    2015-12-22

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  1. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

    PubMed

    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  2. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology in diagnosis of salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Mondal, A; Das, M M; Mukherjee, P K

    1989-05-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of salivary gland tumours was performed in 97 patients. Histological confirmation was available in all cases except 9 cases of sialo-adenitis which responded to antibiotics. Accuracy of cytological diagnosis in exact categorisation of benign and malignant tumours was 93.7% and 91.1% respectively. False negative was 4.1%. The overall accuracy was 95.8%. There was no false positive report. Exact classification of tumour was made in 94.1% cases, ie, 80 out of 85 tumours. No complication was encountered in this procedure.

  3. Assessment of vitamin A deficiency in Republic of Malawi by impression cytology method.

    PubMed

    Escoute, A J; Chirambo, M C; Luzeau, R; Amedée-Manesme, O

    1991-01-01

    During a countrywide survey, we assessed the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency by impression cytology method with transfer in a randomized sample of 650 representative of the children's population of the Republic of Malawi. A vitamin A deficiency was indicated by the results of the ophthalmic examination (XN = 1,4%; X2 = 0,2%) and the ICT test (22% with deficient cytology). Results of ICT were related to age. Vitamin A deficiency seems to be a public health problem in the Republic of Malawi. PMID:1856038

  4. Identification of a Novel Human Papillomavirus, Type HPV199, Isolated from a Nasopharynx and Anal Canal, and Complete Genomic Characterization of Papillomavirus Species Gamma-12

    PubMed Central

    Oštrbenk, Anja; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Hošnjak, Lea; Li, Jingjing; Deng, Qiuju; Šterbenc, Anja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The novel human papillomavirus type 199 (HPV199) was initially identified in a nasopharyngeal swab sample obtained from a 25 year-old immunocompetent male. The complete genome of HPV199 is 7,184 bp in length with a GC content of 36.5%. Comparative genomic characterization of HPV199 and its closest relatives showed the classical genomic organization of Gammapapillomaviruses (Gamma-PVs). HPV199 has seven major open reading frames (ORFs), encoding five early (E1, E2, E4, E6, and E7) and two late (L1 and L2) proteins, while lacking the E5 ORF. The long control region (LCR) of 513 bp is located between the L1 and E6 ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis additionally confirmed that HPV-199 clusters into the Gamma-PV genus, species Gamma-12, additionally containing HPV127, HV132, HPV148, HPV165, and three putative HPV types: KC5, CG2 and CG3. HPV199 is most closely related to HPV127 (nucleotide identity 77%). The complete viral genome sequence of additional HPV199 isolate was determined from anal canal swab sample. Two HPV199 complete viral sequences exhibit 99.4% nucleotide identity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first member of Gamma-PV with complete nucleotide sequences determined from two independent clinical samples. To evaluate the tissue tropism of the novel HPV type, 916 clinical samples were tested using HPV199 type-specific real-time PCR: HPV199 was detected in 2/76 tissue samples of histologically confirmed common warts, 2/108 samples of eyebrow hair follicles, 2/137 anal canal swabs obtained from individuals with clinically evident anal pathology, 4/184 nasopharyngeal swabs and 3/411 cervical swabs obtained from women with normal cervical cytology. Although HPV199 was found in 1.4% of cutaneous and mucosal samples only, it exhibits dual tissue tropism. According to the results of our study and literature data, dual tropism of all Gamma-12 members is highly possible. PMID:26375679

  5. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  6. Anal Intercourse and Sexual Risk Factors among College Women, 1993-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Diana; Ellingson, Lyndall; Votaw, Karen S.; Schaefer, Elizabeth Ann

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine trends and sexual risk behaviors associated with anal intercourse among college women over an 8-year period. Methods: A sexual activity questionnaire was used to collect data from 813 students enrolled in a women's health course. Results: Thirty-two percent of the women had engaged in anal intercourse, and this measure was…

  7. Resisting the "Condom Every Time for Anal Sex" Health Education Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for anal sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for anal sex") were sought.…

  8. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions. PMID:26645338

  9. Extraction of DNA from exfoliative cytology specimens and its suitability for analysis by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D P; Payne, J; Bell, S; Lewis, F A; Taylor, G R; Peel, K R; Sutton, J; Quirke, P

    1990-01-01

    The extraction of DNA from archival exfoliative cytology samples would allow the molecular biological analysis of this readily available material using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We have quantitatively and qualitatively studied the extraction of DNA from a variety of cytological preparations. For both fresh and archival cervical smears, overnight incubation with proteinase K produces high yields of high molecular weight DNA, but simply boiling the samples produces DNA suitable for PCR amplification of a single copy gene. Increasing the proteinase K incubation to several days allows the extraction of DNA from fixed and stained archival cytology slides from a variety of sites. The extracted DNA was again suitable for PCR analysis. Fresh and archival cytological material can be utilized for molecular biological study of disease processes using PCR. Archival cytological material is probably the best source of DNA and RNA after stored frozen tissue.

  10. Cytological effects of Tc on young soybean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.W.; Onasch, M.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Soybean seedlings (Glycine max cv. Williams) were exposed for 24 to 67 h to {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}- (Tc) at various concentrations in dilute culture solution. Reduced primary leaf midrib length was observed with 67-h exposures to greater than or equal to 6.0 mu M Tc. Cellular effects were consistently observed by a light microscope after 43-h or longer exposure to 6.6 microM Tc and higher concentrations. At lower Tc levels, abnormal cells were interspersed among cells of normal appearance. Abnormal cells displayed blockshaped nuclei which were more densely stained by Harris' hematoxylineosin Y than controls; such cells frequently demonstrated incipient plasmolysis. The number of affected cells increased with dose; both nuclei and cytoplasm demonstrated greater staining intensity and more severe plasmolysis at higher levels. At levels of greater than or equal to 13.2 Tc, cellular damage was extensive. Cells were reduced in size and were highly plasmolysed; cell walls were distorted, and intercellular spaces were reduced or became nonexistent. Mitotic activity was observed at Tc levels less than or equal to 9.9 microM. Observed Tc cellular effects are attributed principally to the alteration of membrane permeability characteristics.

  11. [Radiological diagnosis of constipation and anal incontinence caused by changes in the pelvic floor and anal sphincter. Our experience with 38 patients with constipation with or without incontinence].

    PubMed

    Parrella, R E; Brizi, M G; Giannasio, T; Natale, L; Posi, G; Vulpio, C

    1987-11-01

    Rectal constipation, anal incontinence and constipation combined with incontinence, are often caused by organic or simply functional changes in the pelvic floor and sphincteric apparatus. Therefore morphological as well as manometric and electromyographic studies of these anatomical parts are required. This is possible by combining two techniques: Intestinal Transit Time (ITT) and Defecatory Proctogram with Balloon (DPB). Personal experience of 38 patients with constipation with or without incontinence is reported. The results lead to the following conclusions: 1) ITT is a simple and non-invasive radiological technique that provides us with objective evidence of an impairment, i.e. constipation, whose symptoms are often only subjective; especially it allows us to identify rectal constipation, that can be caused by impairment of the anal sphincteric apparatus. 2) Using an uroprophylactic with a collar that adapts to the size of the anal duct, DPB always permits visualisation of the duct with good representation of the recto-anal angle, whose changes may be the expression of organic or only functional impairments of the anal sphincteric apparatus. Increasing use of the two radiological techniques is therefore recommended in the diagnosis of alterations of the pelvic floor or anal sphincter.

  12. The magnetic anal sphincter: a new device in the management of severe fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Mantoo, Surendra; Meurette, Guillaume; Podevin, Juliette; Lehur, Paul-Antoine

    2012-09-01

    The authors aim to report the concept and technique of implantation and the first results of the clinical use of the magnetic anal sphincter (MAS) in the management of fecal incontinence (FI). The MAS device is designed to augment the native anal sphincter. The implant is a series of titanium beads with magnetic cores linked together with independent titanium wires. To defecate, the force generated by straining separates the beads to open up the anal canal. The technique of implantation is simple with no requirement of adjustments. The MAS has a role in the management of severe FI. The device has acceptable and comparable adverse effects to other therapies. FI and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scores are significantly improved in the short term. The MAS offers a simple and less invasive option of anal reinforcement. It is one step further in the quest for an ideal artificial anal sphincter device. PMID:23116075

  13. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Saroj; Krishna, Rama; Prabhakar, Parimi; Panyam, Swarup; Anand, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Results: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%). The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%), clout/influence of the client (45%), risk of losing client (27%), and forced sex (1.2%). Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98%) while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP. PMID:22529447

  14. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  15. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  16. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  17. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  18. Demonstration of sperm head shape abnormality and clastogenic potential of cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Gautam, A K; Agarwal, K R; Shah, B A; Saiyad, H N

    2004-04-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice were administered ip. suspension solution of cypermethrin in 0.15% DMSO at the doses of 30 mg, 60 mg and 90 mg/kg b. wt. daily for 5 days. Another group of animals was injected cyclophosphamide ip. (60 mg/kg b. wt.) in similar manner which served as positive control. Effect of cypermethrin on body and testes weight and sperm head morphology was studied. Clastogenic potential of cypermethrin was studied by using modified Allium test. The cytological changes were studied in the root tip cells of Allium cepa after 3 days treatment with three different concentration of cypermethrin (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 microg/ml). The results revealed that body weight gain was considerably reduced in higher dose groups, but the testicular weight did not change significantly in any of the cypermethrin treated groups. However, a significant elevation in the number of abnormal shape of sperm head was noticed in higher dose groups as compared to control. It was observed that the abnormality in the shape of sperm head was dose-dependent. The cytological changes in the root tip cells of Allium cepa indicated that cypermethrin is having toxic effects on the root tip cells in the form of stickiness of chromosomes and also affect the mitotic activity. This study suggest that cypermethrin may have the potential to induce adverse effects on sperm head shape morphology of mouse as well as clastogenic effects on root tip cells of Allium cepa. PMID:15529877

  19. A novel cytologic sampling technique to diagnose subclinical endometritis and comparison of staining methods for endometrial cytology samples in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pascottini, O B; Dini, P; Hostens, M; Ducatelle, R; Opsomer, G

    2015-11-01

    The present article describes a study of the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows having two principal aims: first, to validate a novel technique for taking endometrial cytology samples to diagnose subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. Second, to compare the percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in cytology samples stained with Diff-Quik versus a specific staining method for PMNs, naphthol-AS-D-chloroacetate-esterase (CIAE). In the first experiment, Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 204) were used to take two cytology samples at the same time using the conventional cytobrush (CB) and the new cytotape (CT). Both devices were assembled within the same catheter allowing sampling at the same time, and approximately at the same location. Cytotape consisted of a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape rolled on the top of an insemination catheter covered with a double guard sheet. Parameters used to evaluate both methods were: PMNs percentage, total cellularity, quality of the smears, and red blood cell contamination. The concordance correlation coefficient analysis was used to assess agreement between continuous and Pearson chi-square tests for categorical variables. Agreement between the percentage of PMNs in both methods was good ρ = 0.84 (0.79, 0.87) with a minor standard error of 2%. Both methods yielded similar total cellularity (P = 0.62). Cytotape yielded better quality smears with more intact cells (P < 0.01) while samples that were taken by CB were more likely to be bloody (P < 0.01). Hence, CT and CB methods yielded smears with a similar PMNs percentage and a total number of cells, but CT provided smears with higher quality and significantly less blood contamination. For the second experiment, 114 duplicate cytology slides were stained using both Diff-Quik and CIAE. Agreement between PMNs percentage in both staining techniques was good ρc = 0.84 (0.78, 0.89) with a standard error of only 2%. Hence, Diff-Quik was confirmed as an easy, fast

  20. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605