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Sample records for abnormal auditory erp

  1. ERP Study of Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing in Treatment-Refractory Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milovan, Denise L.; Baribeau, Jacinthe; Roth, Robert M.; Stip, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have demonstrated impaired auditory sensory processing in patients with schizophrenia, as reflected in abnormal mismatch negativity (MMN). We sought to extend this finding by evaluating MMN in 13 treatment-refractory patients with schizophrenia, and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Subjects…

  2. Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Audiovisual Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has recently been reported (e.g., V. van Wassenhove, K. W. Grant, & D. Poeppel, 2005) that audiovisual (AV) presented speech is associated with an N1/P2 auditory event-related potential (ERP) response that is lower in peak amplitude compared with the responses associated with auditory only (AO) speech. This effect was replicated.…

  3. Local and Global Auditory Processing: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Lisa D.; Poeppel, David

    2007-01-01

    Differential processing of local and global visual features is well established. Global precedence effects, differences in event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited when attention is focused on local versus global levels, and hemispheric specialization for local and global features all indicate that relative scale of detail is an important distinction in visual processing. Observing analogous differential processing of local and global auditory information would suggest that scale of detail is a general organizational principle of the brain. However, to date the research on auditory local and global processing has primarily focused on music perception or on the perceptual analysis of relatively higher and lower frequencies. The study described here suggests that temporal aspects of auditory stimuli better capture the local-global distinction. By combining short (40 ms) frequency modulated tones in series to create global auditory patterns (500 ms), we independently varied whether pitch increased or decreased over short time spans (local) and longer time spans (global). Accuracy and reaction time measures revealed better performance for global judgments and asymmetric interference that were modulated by amount of pitch change. ERPs recorded while participants listened to identical sounds and indicated the direction of pitch change at the local or global levels provided evidence for differential processing similar to that found in ERP studies employing hierarchical visual stimuli. ERP measures failed to provide evidence for lateralization of local and global auditory perception, but differences in distributions suggest preferential processing in more ventral and dorsal areas respectively. PMID:17113115

  4. Action-related auditory ERP attenuation: Paradigms and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Horváth, János

    2015-11-11

    A number studies have shown that the auditory N1 event-related potential (ERP) is attenuated when elicited by self-induced or self-generated sounds. Because N1 is a correlate of auditory feature- and event-detection, it was generally assumed that N1-attenuation reflected the cancellation of auditory re-afference, enabled by the internal forward modeling of the predictable sensory consequences of the given action. Focusing on paradigms utilizing non-speech actions, the present review summarizes recent progress on action-related auditory attenuation. Following a critical analysis of the most widely used, contingent paradigm, two further hypotheses on the possible causes of action-related auditory ERP attenuation are presented. The attention hypotheses suggest that auditory ERP attenuation is brought about by a temporary division of attention between the action and the auditory stimulation. The pre-activation hypothesis suggests that the attenuation is caused by the activation of a sensory template during the initiation of the action, which interferes with the incoming stimulation. Although each hypothesis can account for a number of findings, none of them can accommodate the whole spectrum of results. It is suggested that a better understanding of auditory ERP attenuation phenomena could be achieved by systematic investigations of the types of actions, the degree of action-effect contingency, and the temporal characteristics of action-effect contingency representation-buildup and -deactivation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC® EEG gaming system for measuring research quality auditory ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Mousikou, Petroula; Mahajan, Yatin; de Lissa, Peter; Thie, Johnson; McArthur, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    Background. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have proved useful in investigating the role of auditory processing in cognitive disorders such as developmental dyslexia, specific language impairment (SLI), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and autism. However, laboratory recordings of auditory ERPs can be lengthy, uncomfortable, or threatening for some participants – particularly children. Recently, a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG) system has been developed that is portable, inexpensive, and easy to set up. In this study we tested if auditory ERPs measured using a gaming EEG system (Emotiv EPOC®, www.emotiv.com) were equivalent to those measured by a widely-used, laboratory-based, research EEG system (Neuroscan). Methods. We simultaneously recorded EEGs with the research and gaming EEG systems, whilst presenting 21 adults with 566 standard (1000 Hz) and 100 deviant (1200 Hz) tones under passive (non-attended) and active (attended) conditions. The onset of each tone was marked in the EEGs using a parallel port pulse (Neuroscan) or a stimulus-generated electrical pulse injected into the O1 and O2 channels (Emotiv EPOC®). These markers were used to calculate research and gaming EEG system late auditory ERPs (P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 peaks) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) in active and passive listening conditions for each participant. Results. Analyses were restricted to frontal sites as these are most commonly reported in auditory ERP research. Intra-class correlations (ICCs) indicated that the morphology of the research and gaming EEG system late auditory ERP waveforms were similar across all participants, but that the research and gaming EEG system MMN waveforms were only similar for participants with non-noisy MMN waveforms (N = 11 out of 21). Peak amplitude and latency measures revealed no significant differences between the size or the timing of the auditory P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and MMN peaks. Conclusions

  6. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC(®) EEG gaming system for measuring research quality auditory ERPs.

    PubMed

    Badcock, Nicholas A; Mousikou, Petroula; Mahajan, Yatin; de Lissa, Peter; Thie, Johnson; McArthur, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    Background. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have proved useful in investigating the role of auditory processing in cognitive disorders such as developmental dyslexia, specific language impairment (SLI), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and autism. However, laboratory recordings of auditory ERPs can be lengthy, uncomfortable, or threatening for some participants - particularly children. Recently, a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG) system has been developed that is portable, inexpensive, and easy to set up. In this study we tested if auditory ERPs measured using a gaming EEG system (Emotiv EPOC(®), www.emotiv.com) were equivalent to those measured by a widely-used, laboratory-based, research EEG system (Neuroscan). Methods. We simultaneously recorded EEGs with the research and gaming EEG systems, whilst presenting 21 adults with 566 standard (1000 Hz) and 100 deviant (1200 Hz) tones under passive (non-attended) and active (attended) conditions. The onset of each tone was marked in the EEGs using a parallel port pulse (Neuroscan) or a stimulus-generated electrical pulse injected into the O1 and O2 channels (Emotiv EPOC(®)). These markers were used to calculate research and gaming EEG system late auditory ERPs (P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 peaks) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) in active and passive listening conditions for each participant. Results. Analyses were restricted to frontal sites as these are most commonly reported in auditory ERP research. Intra-class correlations (ICCs) indicated that the morphology of the research and gaming EEG system late auditory ERP waveforms were similar across all participants, but that the research and gaming EEG system MMN waveforms were only similar for participants with non-noisy MMN waveforms (N = 11 out of 21). Peak amplitude and latency measures revealed no significant differences between the size or the timing of the auditory P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and MMN peaks

  7. Abnormal auditory pattern perception in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Sarah M; Coffman, Brian A; Murphy, Timothy K; Butera, Christiana D; Salisbury, Dean F

    2016-10-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to deviation from physical sound parameters (e.g., pitch, duration) is reduced in individuals with long-term schizophrenia (Sz), suggesting deficits in deviance detection. However, MMN can appear at several time intervals as part of deviance detection. Understanding which part of the processing stream is abnormal in Sz is crucial for understanding MMN pathophysiology. We measured MMN to complex pattern deviants, which have been shown to produce multiple MMNs in healthy controls (HC). Both simple and complex MMNs were recorded from 27 Sz and 27 matched HC. For simple MMN, pitch- and duration-deviants were presented among frequent standard tones. For complex MMN, patterns of five single tones were repeatedly presented, with the occasional deviant group of tones containing an extra sixth tone. Sz showed smaller pitch MMN (p=0.009, ~110ms) and duration MMN (p=0.030, ~170ms) than healthy controls. For complex MMN, there were two deviance-related negativities. The first (~150ms) was not significantly different between HC and SZ. The second was significantly reduced in Sz (p=0.011, ~400ms). The topography of the late complex MMN was consistent with generators in anterior temporal cortex. Worse late MMN in Sz was associated with increased emotional withdrawal, poor attention, lack of spontaneity/conversation, and increased preoccupation. Late MMN blunting in schizophrenia suggests a deficit in later stages of deviance processing. Correlations with negative symptoms measures are preliminary, but suggest that abnormal complex auditory perceptual processes may compound higher-order cognitive and social deficits in the disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Complex Pre-Execution Stage of Auditory Cognitive Control: ERPs Evidence from Stroop Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bo; Wang, Xunda; Ma, Lin; Li, Liang; Li, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control has been extensively studied from Event-Related Potential (ERP) point of view in visual modality using Stroop paradigms. Little work has been done in auditory Stroop paradigms, and inconsistent conclusions have been reported, especially on the conflict detection stage of cognitive control. This study investigated the early ERP components in an auditory Stroop paradigm, during which participants were asked to identify the volume of spoken words and ignore the word meanings. A series of significant ERP components were revealed that distinguished incongruent and congruent trials: two declined negative polarity waves (the N1 and the N2) and three declined positive polarity wave (the P1, the P2 and the P3) over the fronto-central area for the incongruent trials. These early ERP components imply that both a perceptual stage and an identification stage exist in the auditory Stroop effect. A 3-stage cognitive control model was thus proposed for a more detailed description of the human cognitive control mechanism in the auditory Stroop tasks. PMID:26368570

  9. Auditory and Speech Processing and Reading Development in Chinese School Children: Behavioural and ERP Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Sai, Xiaoguang; Wang, Cixin; Wang, Jue; Sha, Shuying; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2005-01-01

    By measuring behavioural performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) this study investigated the extent to which Chinese school children's reading development is influenced by their skills in auditory, speech, and temporal processing. In Experiment 1, 102 normal school children's performance in pure tone temporal order judgment, tone frequency…

  10. Response to own name in children: ERP study of auditory social information processing.

    PubMed

    Key, Alexandra P; Jones, Dorita; Peters, Sarika U

    2016-09-01

    Auditory processing is an important component of cognitive development, and names are among the most frequently occurring receptive language stimuli. Although own name processing has been examined in infants and adults, surprisingly little data exist on responses to own name in children. The present ERP study examined spoken name processing in 32 children (M=7.85years) using a passive listening paradigm. Our results demonstrated that children differentiate own and close other's names from unknown names, as reflected by the enhanced parietal P300 response. The responses to own and close other names did not differ between each other. Repeated presentations of an unknown name did not result in the same familiarity as the known names. These results suggest that auditory ERPs to known/unknown names are a feasible means to evaluate complex auditory processing without the need for overt behavioral responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Response to Own Name in Children: ERP Study of Auditory Social Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Key, Alexandra P.; Jones, Dorita; Peters, Sarika U.

    2016-01-01

    Auditory processing is an important component of cognitive development, and names are among the most frequently occurring receptive language stimuli. Although own name processing has been examined in infants and adults, surprisingly little data exist on responses to own name in children. The present ERP study examined spoken name processing in 32 children (M=7.85 years) using a passive listening paradigm. Our results demonstrated that children differentiate own and close other’s names from unknown names, as reflected by the enhanced parietal P300 response. The responses to own and close other names did not differ between each other. Repeated presentations of an unknown name did not result in the same familiarity as the known names. These results suggest that auditory ERPs to known/unknown names are a feasible means to evaluate complex auditory processing without the need for overt behavioral responses. PMID:27456543

  12. Statistical learning and auditory processing in children with music training: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Mandikal Vasuki, Pragati Rao; Sharma, Mridula; Ibrahim, Ronny; Arciuli, Joanne

    2017-07-01

    The question whether musical training is associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive abilities in children is of considerable interest. In the present study, we compared children with music training versus those without music training across a range of auditory and cognitive measures, including the ability to detect implicitly statistical regularities in input (statistical learning). Statistical learning of regularities embedded in auditory and visual stimuli was measured in musically trained and age-matched untrained children between the ages of 9-11years. In addition to collecting behavioural measures, we recorded electrophysiological measures to obtain an online measure of segmentation during the statistical learning tasks. Musically trained children showed better performance on melody discrimination, rhythm discrimination, frequency discrimination, and auditory statistical learning. Furthermore, grand-averaged ERPs showed that triplet onset (initial stimulus) elicited larger responses in the musically trained children during both auditory and visual statistical learning tasks. In addition, children's music skills were associated with performance on auditory and visual behavioural statistical learning tasks. Our data suggests that individual differences in musical skills are associated with children's ability to detect regularities. The ERP data suggest that musical training is associated with better encoding of both auditory and visual stimuli. Although causality must be explored in further research, these results may have implications for developing music-based remediation strategies for children with learning impairments. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ERP evaluation of auditory sensory memory systems in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Souichi; Hayashi, Akiko; Kanno, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    Auditory sensory memory stage can be functionally divided into two subsystems; transient-detector system and permanent feature-detector system (Naatanen, 1992). We assessed these systems in persons with intellectual disability by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) N1 and mismatch negativity (MMN), which reflect the two auditory subsystems, respectively. Added to these, P3a (an ERP reflecting stage after sensory memory) was evaluated. Either synthesized vowels or simple tones were delivered during a passive oddball paradigm to adults with and without intellectual disability. ERPs were recorded from midline scalp sites (Fz, Cz, and Pz). Relative to control group, participants with the disability exhibited greater N1 latency and less MMN amplitude. The results for N1 amplitude and MMN latency were basically comparable between both groups. IQ scores in participants with the disability revealed no significant relation with N1 and MMN measures, whereas the IQ scores tended to increase significantly as P3a latency reduced. These outcomes suggest that persons with intellectual disability might own discrete malfunctions for the two detector systems in auditory sensory-memory stage. Moreover, the processes following sensory memory might be partly related to a determinant of mental development.

  14. Simultaneous ERP and fMRI of the auditory cortex in a passive oddball paradigm.

    PubMed

    Liebenthal, Einat; Ellingson, Michael L; Spanaki, Marianna V; Prieto, Thomas E; Ropella, Kristina M; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2003-08-01

    Infrequent occurrences of a deviant sound within a sequence of repetitive standard sounds elicit the automatic mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP). The main MMN generators are located in the superior temporal cortex, but their number, precise location, and temporal sequence of activation remain unclear. In this study, ERP and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained simultaneously during a passive frequency oddball paradigm. There were three conditions, a STANDARD, a SMALL deviant, and a LARGE deviant. A clustered image acquisition technique was applied to prevent contamination of the fMRI data by the acoustic noise of the scanner and to limit contamination of the electroencephalogram (EEG) by the gradient-switching artifact. The ERP data were used to identify areas in which the blood oxygenation (BOLD) signal varied with the magnitude of the negativity in each condition. A significant ERP MMN was obtained, with larger peaks to LARGE deviants and with frontocentral scalp distribution, consistent with the MMN reported outside the magnetic field. This result validates the experimental procedures for simultaneous ERP/fMRI of the auditory cortex. Main foci of increased BOLD signal were observed in the right superior temporal gyrus [STG; Brodmann area (BA) 22] and right superior temporal plane (STP; BA 41 and 42). The imaging results provide new information supporting the idea that generators in the right lateral aspect of the STG are implicated in processes of frequency deviant detection, in addition to generators in the right and left STP.

  15. Auditory-Motor Control of Vocal Production during Divided Attention: Behavioral and ERP Correlates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Fan, Hao; Li, Jingting; Jones, Jeffery A; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Baofeng; Liu, Hanjun

    2018-01-01

    When people hear unexpected perturbations in auditory feedback, they produce rapid compensatory adjustments of their vocal behavior. Recent evidence has shown enhanced vocal compensations and cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to attended pitch feedback perturbations, suggesting that this reflex-like behavior is influenced by selective attention. Less is known, however, about auditory-motor integration for voice control during divided attention. The present cross-modal study investigated the behavioral and ERP correlates of auditory feedback control of vocal pitch production during divided attention. During the production of sustained vowels, 32 young adults were instructed to simultaneously attend to both pitch feedback perturbations they heard and flashing red lights they saw. The presentation rate of the visual stimuli was varied to produce a low, intermediate, and high attentional load. The behavioral results showed that the low-load condition elicited significantly smaller vocal compensations for pitch perturbations than the intermediate-load and high-load conditions. As well, the cortical processing of vocal pitch feedback was also modulated as a function of divided attention. When compared to the low-load and intermediate-load conditions, the high-load condition elicited significantly larger N1 responses and smaller P2 responses to pitch perturbations. These findings provide the first neurobehavioral evidence that divided attention can modulate auditory feedback control of vocal pitch production.

  16. Abnormalities in auditory efferent activities in children with selective mutism.

    PubMed

    Muchnik, Chava; Ari-Even Roth, Daphne; Hildesheimer, Minka; Arie, Miri; Bar-Haim, Yair; Henkin, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Two efferent feedback pathways to the auditory periphery may play a role in monitoring self-vocalization: the middle-ear acoustic reflex (MEAR) and the medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) reflex. Since most studies regarding the role of auditory efferent activity during self-vocalization were conducted in animals, human data are scarce. The working premise of the current study was that selective mutism (SM), a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by consistent failure to speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak normally in other situations, may serve as a human model for studying the potential involvement of auditory efferent activity during self-vocalization. For this purpose, auditory efferent function was assessed in a group of 31 children with SM and compared to that of a group of 31 normally developing control children (mean age 8.9 and 8.8 years, respectively). All children exhibited normal hearing thresholds and type A tympanograms. MEAR and MOCB functions were evaluated by means of acoustic reflex thresholds and decay functions and the suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, respectively. Auditory afferent function was tested by means of auditory brainstem responses (ABR). Results indicated a significantly higher proportion of children with abnormal MEAR and MOCB function in the SM group (58.6 and 38%, respectively) compared to controls (9.7 and 8%, respectively). The prevalence of abnormal MEAR and/or MOCB function was significantly higher in the SM group (71%) compared to controls (16%). Intact afferent function manifested in normal absolute and interpeak latencies of ABR components in all children. The finding of aberrant efferent auditory function in a large proportion of children with SM provides further support for the notion that MEAR and MOCB may play a significant role in the process of self-vocalization. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Developmental sex-specific change in auditory-vocal integration: ERP evidence in children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Zhaocong; Jones, Jeffery A; Wang, Emily Q; Chen, Shaozhen; Huang, Dongfeng; Liu, Hanjun

    2013-03-01

    The present event-related potential (ERP) study examined the developmental mechanisms of auditory-vocal integration in normally developing children. Neurophysiological responses to altered auditory feedback were recorded to determine whether they are affected by age and sex. Forty-two children were pairwise matched for sex and were divided into a group of younger (10-12years) and a group of older (13-15years) children. Twenty healthy young adults (20-25years) also participated in the experiment. ERPs were recorded from the participants who heard their voice pitch feedback unexpectedly shifted -50, -100, or -200 cents during sustained vocalization. P1 amplitudes became smaller as subjects increased in age from childhood to adulthood, and males produced larger N1 amplitudes than females. An age-related decrease in the P1-N1 latencies was also found: latencies were shorter in young adults than in school children. A complex age-by-sex interaction was found for the P2 component, where an age-related increase in P2 amplitudes existed only in girls, and boys produced longer P2 latencies than girls but only in the older children. These findings demonstrate that neurophysiological responses to pitch errors in voice auditory feedback depend on age and sex in normally developing children. The present study provides evidence that there is a sex-specific development of the neural mechanisms involved in auditory-vocal integration. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of voice harmonic complexity on ERP responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    PubMed

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigated the neural mechanisms of voice pitch control for different levels of harmonic complexity in the auditory feedback. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to+200 cents pitch perturbations in the auditory feedback of self-produced natural human vocalizations, complex and pure tone stimuli during active vocalization and passive listening conditions. During active vocal production, ERP amplitudes were largest in response to pitch shifts in the natural voice, moderately large for non-voice complex stimuli and smallest for the pure tones. However, during passive listening, neural responses were equally large for pitch shifts in voice and non-voice complex stimuli but still larger than that for pure tones. These findings suggest that pitch change detection is facilitated for spectrally rich sounds such as natural human voice and non-voice complex stimuli compared with pure tones. Vocalization-induced increase in neural responses for voice feedback suggests that sensory processing of naturally-produced complex sounds such as human voice is enhanced by means of motor-driven mechanisms (e.g. efference copies) during vocal production. This enhancement may enable the audio-vocal system to more effectively detect and correct for vocal errors in the feedback of natural human vocalizations to maintain an intended vocal output for speaking. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Voice Harmonic Complexity on ERP Responses to Pitch-Shifted Auditory Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the neural mechanisms of voice pitch control for different levels of harmonic complexity in the auditory feedback. Methods Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to +200 cents pitch perturbations in the auditory feedback of self-produced natural human vocalizations, complex and pure tone stimuli during active vocalization and passive listening conditions. Results During active vocal production, ERP amplitudes were largest in response to pitch shifts in the natural voice, moderately large for non-voice complex stimuli and smallest for the pure tones. However, during passive listening, neural responses were equally large for pitch shifts in voice and non-voice complex stimuli but still larger than that for pure tones. Conclusions These findings suggest that pitch change detection is facilitated for spectrally rich sounds such as natural human voice and non-voice complex stimuli compared with pure tones. Vocalization-induced increase in neural responses for voice feedback suggests that sensory processing of naturally-produced complex sounds such as human voice is enhanced by means of motor-driven mechanisms (e.g. efference copies) during vocal production. Significance This enhancement may enable the audio-vocal system to more effectively detect and correct for vocal errors in the feedback of natural human vocalizations to maintain an intended vocal output for speaking. PMID:21719346

  20. Abnormal Auditory Gain in Hyperacusis: Investigation with a Computational Model

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Peter U.; Schaette, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Hyperacusis is a frequent auditory disorder that is characterized by abnormal loudness perception where sounds of relatively normal volume are perceived as too loud or even painfully loud. As hyperacusis patients show decreased loudness discomfort levels (LDLs) and steeper loudness growth functions, it has been hypothesized that hyperacusis might be caused by an increase in neuronal response gain in the auditory system. Moreover, since about 85% of hyperacusis patients also experience tinnitus, the conditions might be caused by a common mechanism. However, the mechanisms that give rise to hyperacusis have remained unclear. Here, we have used a computational model of the auditory system to investigate candidate mechanisms for hyperacusis. Assuming that perceived loudness is proportional to the summed activity of all auditory nerve (AN) fibers, the model was tuned to reproduce normal loudness perception. We then evaluated a variety of potential hyperacusis gain mechanisms by determining their effects on model equal-loudness contours and comparing the results to the LDLs of hyperacusis patients with normal hearing thresholds. Hyperacusis was best accounted for by an increase in non-linear gain in the central auditory system. Good fits to the average patient LDLs were obtained for a general increase in gain that affected all frequency channels to the same degree, and also for a frequency-specific gain increase in the high-frequency range. Moreover, the gain needed to be applied after subtraction of spontaneous activity of the AN, which is in contrast to current theories of tinnitus generation based on amplification of spontaneous activity. Hyperacusis and tinnitus might therefore be caused by different changes in neuronal processing in the central auditory system. PMID:26236277

  1. Hemispheric asymmetry of ERPs and MMNs evoked by slow, fast and abrupt auditory motion.

    PubMed

    Shestopalova, L B; Petropavlovskaia, E A; Vaitulevich, S Ph; Nikitin, N I

    2016-10-01

    The current MMN study investigates whether brain lateralization during automatic discrimination of sound stimuli moving at different velocities is consistent with one of the three models of asymmetry: the right-hemispheric dominance model, the contralateral dominance model, or the neglect model. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for three patterns of sound motion produced by linear or abrupt changes of interaural time differences. The slow motion (450deg/s) was used as standard, and the fast motion (620deg/s) and the abrupt sound shift served as deviants in the oddball blocks. All stimuli had the same onset/offset spatial positions. We compared the effects of the recording side (left, right) and of the direction of sound displacement (ipsi- or contralateral with reference to the side of recording) on the ERPs and mismatch negativity (MMN). Our results indicated different patterns of asymmetry for the ERPs and MMN responses. The ERPs showed a velocity-independent right-hemispheric dominance that emerged at the descending limb of N1 wave (at around 120-160ms) and could be related to overall context of the preattentive spatial perception. The MMNs elicited in the left hemisphere (at around 230-270ms) exhibited a contralateral dominance, whereas the right-hemispheric MMNs were insensitive to the direction of sound displacement. These differences in contralaterality between MMN responses produced by the left and the right hemisphere favour the neglect model of the preattentive motion processing indexed by MMN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ERP Correlates of Pitch Error Detection in Complex Tone and Voice Auditory Feedback with Missing Fundamental

    PubMed Central

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pitch of a sound is perceived in the absence of its fundamental frequency (F0), suggesting that a distinct mechanism may resolve pitch based on a pattern that exists between harmonic frequencies. The present study investigated whether such a mechanism is active during voice pitch control. ERPs were recorded in response to +200 cents pitch shifts in the auditory feedback of self-vocalizations and complex tones with and without the F0. The absence of the fundamental induced no difference in ERP latencies. However, a right-hemisphere difference was found in the N1 amplitudes with larger responses to complex tones that included the fundamental compared to when it was missing. The P1 and N1 latencies were shorter in the left hemisphere, and the N1 and P2 amplitudes were larger bilaterally for pitch shifts in voice and complex tones compared with pure tones. These findings suggest hemispheric differences in neural encoding of pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. Data from the present study suggest that the right cortical auditory areas, thought to be specialized for spectral processing, may utilize different mechanisms to resolve pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. The left hemisphere seems to perform faster processing to resolve pitch based on the rate of temporal variations in complex sounds compared with pure tones. These effects indicate that the differential neural processing of pitch in the left and right hemispheres may enable the audio-vocal system to detect temporal and spectral variations in the auditory feedback for vocal pitch control. PMID:22386045

  3. Psychopathic traits associated with abnormal hemodynamic activity in salience and default mode networks during auditory oddball task.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nathaniel E; Maurer, J Michael; Steele, Vaughn R; Kiehl, Kent A

    2018-06-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder accompanied by abnormalities in emotional processing and attention. Recent theoretical applications of network-based models of cognition have been used to explain the diverse range of abnormalities apparent in psychopathy. Still, the physiological basis for these abnormalities is not well understood. A significant body of work has examined psychopathy-related abnormalities in simple attention-based tasks, but these studies have largely been performed using electrocortical measures, such as event-related potentials (ERPs), and they often have been carried out among individuals with low levels of psychopathic traits. In this study, we examined neural activity during an auditory oddball task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a simple auditory target detection (oddball) task among 168 incarcerated adult males, with psychopathic traits assessed via the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Event-related contrasts demonstrated that the largest psychopathy-related effects were apparent between the frequent standard stimulus condition and a task-off, implicit baseline. Negative correlations with interpersonal-affective dimensions (Factor 1) of the PCL-R were apparent in regions comprising default mode and salience networks. These findings support models of psychopathy describing impaired integration across functional networks. They additionally corroborate reports which have implicated failures of efficient transition between default mode and task-positive networks. Finally, they demonstrate a neurophysiological basis for abnormal mobilization of attention and reduced engagement with stimuli that have little motivational significance among those with high psychopathic traits.

  4. On the relationship between auditory cognition and speech intelligibility in cochlear implant users: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Finke, Mareike; Büchner, Andreas; Ruigendijk, Esther; Meyer, Martin; Sandmann, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    There is a high degree of variability in speech intelligibility outcomes across cochlear-implant (CI) users. To better understand how auditory cognition affects speech intelligibility with the CI, we performed an electroencephalography study in which we examined the relationship between central auditory processing, cognitive abilities, and speech intelligibility. Postlingually deafened CI users (N=13) and matched normal-hearing (NH) listeners (N=13) performed an oddball task with words presented in different background conditions (quiet, stationary noise, modulated noise). Participants had to categorize words as living (targets) or non-living entities (standards). We also assessed participants' working memory (WM) capacity and verbal abilities. For the oddball task, we found lower hit rates and prolonged response times in CI users when compared with NH listeners. Noise-related prolongation of the N1 amplitude was found for all participants. Further, we observed group-specific modulation effects of event-related potentials (ERPs) as a function of background noise. While NH listeners showed stronger noise-related modulation of the N1 latency, CI users revealed enhanced modulation effects of the N2/N4 latency. In general, higher-order processing (N2/N4, P3) was prolonged in CI users in all background conditions when compared with NH listeners. Longer N2/N4 latency in CI users suggests that these individuals have difficulties to map acoustic-phonetic features to lexical representations. These difficulties seem to be increased for speech-in-noise conditions when compared with speech in quiet background. Correlation analyses showed that shorter ERP latencies were related to enhanced speech intelligibility (N1, N2/N4), better lexical fluency (N1), and lower ratings of listening effort (N2/N4) in CI users. In sum, our findings suggest that CI users and NH listeners differ with regards to both the sensory and the higher-order processing of speech in quiet as well as in

  5. ERP correlates of processing the auditory consequences of own versus observed actions.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Marta; Scharmach, Katrin; Bellebaum, Christian

    2018-06-01

    Research has so far focused on neural mechanisms that allow us to predict the sensory consequences of our own actions, thus also contributing to ascribing them to ourselves as agents. Less attention has been devoted to processing the sensory consequences of observed actions ascribed to another human agent. Focusing on audition, there is consistent evidence of a reduction of the auditory N1 ERP for self- versus externally generated sounds, while ERP correlates of processing sensory consequences of observed actions are mainly unexplored. In a between-groups ERP study, we compared sounds generated by self-performed (self group) or observed (observation group) button presses with externally generated sounds, which were presented either intermixed with action-generated sounds or in a separate condition. Results revealed an overall reduction of the N1 amplitude for processing action- versus externally generated sounds in both the intermixed and the separate condition, with no difference between the groups. Further analyses, however, suggested that an N1 attenuation effect relative to the intermixed condition at frontal electrode sites might exist only for the self but not for the observation group. For both groups, we found a reduction of the P2 amplitude for processing action- versus all externally generated sounds. We discuss whether the N1 and the P2 reduction can be interpreted in terms of predictive mechanisms for both action execution and observation, and to what extent these components might reflect also the feeling of (self) agency and the judgment of agency (i.e., ascribing agency either to the self or to others). © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Within-subject joint independent component analysis of simultaneous fMRI/ERP in an auditory oddball paradigm

    PubMed Central

    MANGALATHU-ARUMANA, J.; BEARDSLEY, S. A.; LIEBENTHAL, E.

    2012-01-01

    The integration of event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can contribute to characterizing neural networks with high temporal and spatial resolution. This research aimed to determine the sensitivity and limitations of applying joint independent component analysis (jICA) within-subjects, for ERP and fMRI data collected simultaneously in a parametric auditory frequency oddball paradigm. In a group of 20 subjects, an increase in ERP peak amplitude ranging 1–8 μV in the time window of the P300 (350–700ms), and a correlated increase in fMRI signal in a network of regions including the right superior temporal and supramarginal gyri, was observed with the increase in deviant frequency difference. JICA of the same ERP and fMRI group data revealed activity in a similar network, albeit with stronger amplitude and larger extent. In addition, activity in the left pre- and post- central gyri, likely associated with right hand somato-motor response, was observed only with the jICA approach. Within-subject, the jICA approach revealed significantly stronger and more extensive activity in the brain regions associated with the auditory P300 than the P300 linear regression analysis. The results suggest that with the incorporation of spatial and temporal information from both imaging modalities, jICA may be a more sensitive method for extracting common sources of activity between ERP and fMRI. PMID:22377443

  7. Auditory and motion metaphors have different scalp distributions: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Snoek, Gwenda L.; Drew, Ashley R.; Barile, Elizabeth C.; Agauas, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    While many links have been established between sensory-motor words used literally (kick the ball) and sensory-motor regions of the brain, it is less clear whether metaphorically used words (kick the habit) also show such signs of “embodiment.” Additionally, not much is known about the timing or nature of the connection between language and sensory-motor neural processing. We used stimuli divided into three figurativeness conditions—literal, metaphor, and anomalous—and two modality conditions—auditory (Her limousine was a privileged snort) and motion (The editorial was a brass-knuckle punch). The conditions were matched on a large number of potentially confounding factors including cloze probability. The electroencephalographic response to the final word of each sentence was measured at 64 electrode sites on the scalp of 22 participants and event-related potentials (ERPs) calculated. Analysis revealed greater amplitudes for metaphorical than literal sentences in both 350–500 ms and 500–650 ms timeframes. Results supported the possibility of different neural substrates for motion and auditory sentences. Greater differences for motion sentences were seen in the left posterior and left central electrode sites than elsewhere on the scalp. These findings are consistent with a sensory-motor neural categorization of language and with the integration of modal and amodal information during the N400 and P600 timeframes. PMID:25821433

  8. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    PubMed

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Korzyukov, Oleg; Roth, Thomas; Bowyer, Susan M; Drake, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP)--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS) (habitual total sleep time (TST) 7 h 32 m) vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS) (habitual TST ≤6 h). To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m) corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS), and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m) in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS), were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep), and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively). The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  9. Sleep Extension Normalizes ERP of Waking Auditory Sensory Gating in Healthy Habitually Short Sleeping Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Korzyukov, Oleg; Roth, Thomas; Bowyer, Susan M.; Drake, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP) – P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS) (habitual total sleep time (TST) 7 h 32 m) vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS) (habitual TST ≤6 h). To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m) corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS), and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m) in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS), were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep), and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively). The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas. PMID:23520548

  10. Weak Responses to Auditory Feedback Perturbation during Articulation in Persons Who Stutter: Evidence for Abnormal Auditory-Motor Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tiede, Mark K.; Guenther, Frank H.; Perkell, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous empirical observations have led researchers to propose that auditory feedback (the auditory perception of self-produced sounds when speaking) functions abnormally in the speech motor systems of persons who stutter (PWS). Researchers have theorized that an important neural basis of stuttering is the aberrant integration of auditory information into incipient speech motor commands. Because of the circumstantial support for these hypotheses and the differences and contradictions between them, there is a need for carefully designed experiments that directly examine auditory-motor integration during speech production in PWS. In the current study, we used real-time manipulation of auditory feedback to directly investigate whether the speech motor system of PWS utilizes auditory feedback abnormally during articulation and to characterize potential deficits of this auditory-motor integration. Twenty-one PWS and 18 fluent control participants were recruited. Using a short-latency formant-perturbation system, we examined participants’ compensatory responses to unanticipated perturbation of auditory feedback of the first formant frequency during the production of the monophthong [ε]. The PWS showed compensatory responses that were qualitatively similar to the controls’ and had close-to-normal latencies (∼150 ms), but the magnitudes of their responses were substantially and significantly smaller than those of the control participants (by 47% on average, p<0.05). Measurements of auditory acuity indicate that the weaker-than-normal compensatory responses in PWS were not attributable to a deficit in low-level auditory processing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with functional defects in the inverse models responsible for the transformation from the domain of auditory targets and auditory error information into the domain of speech motor commands. PMID:22911857

  11. Switching of auditory attention in "cocktail-party" listening: ERP evidence of cueing effects in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Getzmann, Stephan; Jasny, Julian; Falkenstein, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Verbal communication in a "cocktail-party situation" is a major challenge for the auditory system. In particular, changes in target speaker usually result in declined speech perception. Here, we investigated whether speech cues indicating a subsequent change in target speaker reduce the costs of switching in younger and older adults. We employed event-related potential (ERP) measures and a speech perception task, in which sequences of short words were simultaneously presented by four speakers. Changes in target speaker were either unpredictable or semantically cued by a word within the target stream. Cued changes resulted in a less decreased performance than uncued changes in both age groups. The ERP analysis revealed shorter latencies in the change-related N400 and late positive complex (LPC) after cued changes, suggesting an acceleration in context updating and attention switching. Thus, both younger and older listeners used semantic cues to prepare changes in speaker setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Data of ERPs and spectral alpha power when attention is engaged on visual or verbal/auditory imagery

    PubMed Central

    Villena-González, Mario; López, Vladimir; Rodríguez, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    This article provides data from statistical analysis of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and spectral power from 20 participants during three attentional conditions. Specifically, P1, N1 and P300 amplitude of ERP were compared when participant׳s attention was oriented to an external task, to a visual imagery and to an inner speech. The spectral power from alpha band was also compared in these three attentional conditions. These data are related to the research article where sensory processing of external information was compared during these three conditions entitled “Orienting attention to visual or verbal/auditory imagery differentially impairs the processing of visual stimuli” (Villena-Gonzalez et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27077090

  13. Abnormal auditory synchronization in stuttering: A magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yoshikazu; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ogata, Katsuya; Hagiwara, Koichi; Umezaki, Toshiro; Kenjo, Masamutsu; Nakagawa, Takashi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2017-02-01

    In a previous magnetoencephalographic study, we showed both functional and structural reorganization of the right auditory cortex and impaired left auditory cortex function in people who stutter (PWS). In the present work, we reevaluated the same dataset to further investigate how the right and left auditory cortices interact to compensate for stuttering. We evaluated bilateral N100m latencies as well as indices of local and inter-hemispheric phase synchronization of the auditory cortices. The left N100m latency was significantly prolonged relative to the right N100m latency in PWS, while healthy control participants did not show any inter-hemispheric differences in latency. A phase-locking factor (PLF) analysis, which indicates the degree of local phase synchronization, demonstrated enhanced alpha-band synchrony in the right auditory area of PWS. A phase-locking value (PLV) analysis of inter-hemispheric synchronization demonstrated significant elevations in the beta band between the right and left auditory cortices in PWS. In addition, right PLF and PLVs were positively correlated with stuttering frequency in PWS. Taken together, our data suggest that increased right hemispheric local phase synchronization and increased inter-hemispheric phase synchronization are electrophysiological correlates of a compensatory mechanism for impaired left auditory processing in PWS. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effects of Rhyme and Spelling Patterns on Auditory Word ERPs Depend on Selective Attention to Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoncheva, Yuliya N.; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    ERP responses to spoken words are sensitive to both rhyming effects and effects of associated spelling patterns. Are such effects automatically elicited by spoken words or dependent on selectively attending to phonology? To address this question, ERP responses to spoken word pairs were investigated under two equally demanding listening tasks that…

  15. Musicians Show General Enhancement of Complex Sound Encoding and Better Inhibition of Irrelevant Auditory Change in Music: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Kim, Jihyun; Herring, Caryn; Schumaker, Jennifer; MacPherson, Megan; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Using electrophysiology, we have examined two questions in relation to musical training – namely, whether it enhances sensory encoding of the human voice and whether it improves the ability to ignore irrelevant auditory change. Participants performed an auditory distraction task, in which they identified each sound as either short (350 ms) or long (550 ms) and ignored a change in sounds’ timbre. Sounds consisted of a male and a female voice saying a neutral sound [a], and of a cello and a French Horn playing an F3 note. In some blocks, musical sounds occurred on 80% of trials, while voice sounds on 20% of trials. In other blocks, the reverse was true. Participants heard naturally recorded sounds in half of experimental blocks and their spectrally-rotated versions in the other half. Regarding voice perception, we found that musicians had a larger N1 ERP component not only to vocal sounds but also to their never before heard spectrally-rotated versions. We, therefore, conclude that musical training is associated with a general improvement in the early neural encoding of complex sounds. Regarding the ability to ignore irrelevant auditory change, musicians’ accuracy tended to suffer less from the change in sounds’ timbre, especially when deviants were musical notes. This behavioral finding was accompanied by a marginally larger re-orienting negativity in musicians, suggesting that their advantage may lie in a more efficient disengagement of attention from the distracting auditory dimension. PMID:23301775

  16. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  17. The integration processing of the visual and auditory information in videos of real-world events: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Wang, Zhongning; Jin, Zhixing

    2009-09-11

    In real life, the human brain usually receives information through visual and auditory channels and processes the multisensory information, but studies on the integration processing of the dynamic visual and auditory information are relatively few. In this paper, we have designed an experiment, where through the presentation of common scenario, real-world videos, with matched and mismatched actions (images) and sounds as stimuli, we aimed to study the integration processing of synchronized visual and auditory information in videos of real-world events in the human brain, through the use event-related potentials (ERPs) methods. Experimental results showed that videos of mismatched actions (images) and sounds would elicit a larger P400 as compared to videos of matched actions (images) and sounds. We believe that the P400 waveform might be related to the cognitive integration processing of mismatched multisensory information in the human brain. The results also indicated that synchronized multisensory information would interfere with each other, which would influence the results of the cognitive integration processing.

  18. ERP Correlates of Language-Specific Processing of Auditory Pitch Feedback during Self-Vocalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhaocong; Liu, Peng; Wang, Emily Q.; Larson, Charles R.; Huang, Dongfeng; Liu, Hanjun

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the neural correlates for auditory feedback control of vocal pitch can be shaped by tone language experience. Event-related potentials (P2/N1) were recorded from adult native speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese who heard their voice auditory feedback shifted in pitch by -50, -100, -200, or -500 cents when they…

  19. Audiological characteristics of infants with abnormal transient evoked otoacoustic emission and normal auditory brainstem response.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihui; Han, Demin; Guo, Ying; Liu, Sha; Cui, Xiaoyan; Mo, Lingyan; Qi, Beier; Cai, Zhenghua; Liu, Hui; En, Hui; Guo, Liansheng

    2008-10-01

    Audiological characteristics were investigated in 81 ears of 53 infants with abnormal transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and normal auditory brainstem response (ABR). The relationship between ABR and other hearing testing methods, including 40Hz auditory event-related potential (40Hz-AERP), auditory steady state response (ASSR), distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), tympanometry, and acoustic reflex, was analyzed. Of the 81 ears, 18 ears (22.2%) were normal, while 63 ears (77.8%) were abnormal according to the tests. Testing of the 40 Hz AERP (36 ears) and ASSR (45 ears) revealed that 14 ears (38.9%) and 27 ears (60.0%) were abnormal, respectively. Testing of DPOAE in 68 ears revealed that 50 ears (73.5%) were abnormal. Testing of tympanometry in 50 ears and acoustic reflex in 47 ears revealed that 9 ears (18%) and 27 ears (57.4%) were abnormal, respectively. The present data suggests that the hearing of infants cannot be sufficiently evaluated with ABR only and that it must be evaluated with integrative audiological testing methods.

  20. The selective processing of emotional visual stimuli while detecting auditory targets: an ERP analysis.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Harald T; Stockburger, Jessica; Bublatzky, Florian; Junghöfer, Markus; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O

    2008-09-16

    Event-related potential studies revealed an early posterior negativity (EPN) for emotional compared to neutral pictures. Exploring the emotion-attention relationship, a previous study observed that a primary visual discrimination task interfered with the emotional modulation of the EPN component. To specify the locus of interference, the present study assessed the fate of selective visual emotion processing while attention is directed towards the auditory modality. While simply viewing a rapid and continuous stream of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures in one experimental condition, processing demands of a concurrent auditory target discrimination task were systematically varied in three further experimental conditions. Participants successfully performed the auditory task as revealed by behavioral performance and selected event-related potential components. Replicating previous results, emotional pictures were associated with a larger posterior negativity compared to neutral pictures. Of main interest, increasing demands of the auditory task did not modulate the selective processing of emotional visual stimuli. With regard to the locus of interference, selective emotion processing as indexed by the EPN does not seem to reflect shared processing resources of visual and auditory modality.

  1. Brain state-dependent abnormal LFP activity in the auditory cortex of a schizophrenia mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2014-01-01

    In schizophrenia, evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are impaired, which reflects the sensory deficits in this disorder, and baseline spontaneous oscillatory activity also appears to be abnormal. It has been debated whether the evoked ASSR impairments are due to the possible increase in baseline power. GABAergic interneuron-specific NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction mutant mice mimic some behavioral and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. To determine the presence and extent of sensory deficits in these mutant mice, we recorded spontaneous local field potential (LFP) activity and its click-train evoked ASSRs from primary auditory cortex of awake, head-restrained mice. Baseline spontaneous LFP power in the pre-stimulus period before application of the first click trains was augmented at a wide range of frequencies. However, when repetitive ASSR stimuli were presented every 20 s, averaged spontaneous LFP power amplitudes during the inter-ASSR stimulus intervals in the mutant mice became indistinguishable from the levels of control mice. Nonetheless, the evoked 40-Hz ASSR power and their phase locking to click trains were robustly impaired in the mutants, although the evoked 20-Hz ASSRs were also somewhat diminished. These results suggested that NMDAR hypofunction in cortical GABAergic neurons confers two brain state-dependent LFP abnormalities in the auditory cortex; (1) a broadband increase in spontaneous LFP power in the absence of external inputs, and (2) a robust deficit in the evoked ASSR power and its phase-locking despite of normal baseline LFP power magnitude during the repetitive auditory stimuli. The “paradoxically” high spontaneous LFP activity of the primary auditory cortex in the absence of external stimuli may possibly contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia-related aberrant auditory perception. PMID:25018691

  2. Family history of psychosis moderates early auditory cortical response abnormalities in non-psychotic bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jordan P; Ethridge, Lauren E; Shapiro, John R; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Thaker, Gunvant K; Clementz, Brett A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar I disorder is a disabling illness affecting 1% of people worldwide. Family and twin studies suggest that psychotic bipolar disorder (BDP) represents a homogenous subgroup with an etiology distinct from non-psychotic bipolar disorder (BDNP) and partially shared with schizophrenia. Studies of auditory electrophysiology [e.g., paired-stimulus and oddball measured with electroencephalography (EEG)] consistently report deviations in psychotic groups (schizophrenia, BDP), yet such studies comparing BDP and BDNP are sparse and, in some cases, conflicting. Auditory EEG responses are significantly reduced in unaffected relatives of psychosis patients, suggesting that they may relate to both psychosis liability and expression. Methods While 64-sensor EEGs were recorded, age- and gender-matched samples of 70 BDP, 35 BDNP {20 with a family history of psychosis [BDNP(+)]}, and 70 psychiatrically healthy subjects were presented typical auditory paired-stimuli and auditory oddball paradigms. Results Oddball P3b reductions were present and indistinguishable across all patient groups. P2s to paired-stimuli were abnormal only in BDP and BDNP(+). Conversely, N1 reductions to stimuli in both paradigms and P3a reductions were present in both BDP and BDNP(−) groups but were absent in BDNP(+). Conclusions While nearly all auditory neural response components studied were abnormal in BDP, BDNP abnormalities at early- and mid-latencies were moderated by family psychosis history. The relationship between psychosis expression, heritable psychosis risk, and neurophysiology within bipolar disorder, therefore, may be complex. Consideration of such clinical disease heterogeneity may be important for future investigations of the pathophysiology of major psychiatric disturbance. PMID:23941660

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in familial temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory auras.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eliane; Santos, Neide F; Torres, Fabio R; Secolin, Rodrigo; Sardinha, Luiz A C; Lopez-Cendes, Iscia; Cendes, Fernando

    2003-11-01

    Two forms of familial temporal lobe epilepsy (FTLE) have been described: mesial FTLE and FTLE with auditory auras. The gene responsible for mesial FTLE has not been mapped yet, whereas mutations in the LGI1 (leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1) gene, localized on chromosome 10q, have been found in FTLE with auditory auras. To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with FTLE with auditory auras. We performed detailed clinical and molecular studies as well as MRI evaluation (including volumetry) in all available individuals from one family, segregating FTLE from auditory auras. We evaluated 18 of 23 possibly affected individuals, and 13 patients reported auditory auras. In one patient, auditory auras were associated with déjà vu; in one patient, with ictal aphasia; and in 2 patients, with visual misperception. Most patients were not taking medication at the time, although all of them reported sporadic auras. Two-point lod scores were positive for 7 genotyped markers on chromosome 10q, and a Zmax of 6.35 was achieved with marker D10S185 at a recombination fraction of 0.0. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the LGI1 gene showed a point mutation, VIIIS7(-2)A-G, in all affected individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 22 individuals (7 asymptomatic, 4 of them carriers of the affected haplotype on chromosome 10q and the VIIIS7[-2]A-G mutation). Lateral temporal lobe malformations were identified by visual analysis in 10 individuals, 2 of them with global enlargement demonstrated by volumetry. Mildly reduced hippocampi were observed in 4 individuals. In this family with FTLE with auditory auras, we found developmental abnormalities in the lateral cortex of the temporal lobes in 53% of the affected individuals. In contrast with mesial FTLE, none of the affected individuals had MRI evidence of hippocampal sclerosis.

  4. Hypnotizability and Placebo Analgesia in Waking and Hypnosis as Modulators of Auditory Startle Responses in Healthy Women: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Scacchia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of hypnotizability, pain expectation, placebo analgesia in waking and hypnosis on tonic pain relief. We also investigated how placebo analgesia affects somatic responses (eye blink) and N100 and P200 waves of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory startle probes. Although expectation plays an important role in placebo and hypnotic analgesia, the neural mechanisms underlying these treatments are still poorly understood. We used the cold cup test (CCT) to induce tonic pain in 53 healthy women. Placebo analgesia was initially produced by manipulation, in which the intensity of pain induced by the CCT was surreptitiously reduced after the administration of a sham analgesic cream. Participants were then tested in waking and hypnosis under three treatments: (1) resting (Baseline); (2) CCT-alone (Pain); and (3) CCT plus placebo cream for pain relief (Placebo). For each painful treatment, we assessed pain and distress ratings, eye blink responses, N100 and P200 amplitudes. We used LORETA analysis of N100 and P200 waves, as elicited by auditory startle, to identify cortical regions sensitive to pain reduction through placebo and hypnotic analgesia. Higher pain expectation was associated with higher pain reductions. In highly hypnotizable participants placebo treatment produced significant reductions of pain and distress perception in both waking and hypnosis condition. P200 wave, during placebo analgesia, was larger in the frontal left hemisphere while placebo analgesia, during hypnosis, involved the activity of the left hemisphere including the occipital region. These findings demonstrate that hypnosis and placebo analgesia are different processes of top-down regulation. Pain reduction was associated with larger EMG startle amplitudes, N100 and P200 responses, and enhanced activity within the frontal, parietal, and anterior and posterior cingulate gyres. LORETA results showed that placebo analgesia modulated pain-responsive areas

  5. Hypnotizability and Placebo Analgesia in Waking and Hypnosis as Modulators of Auditory Startle Responses in Healthy Women: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Scacchia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of hypnotizability, pain expectation, placebo analgesia in waking and hypnosis on tonic pain relief. We also investigated how placebo analgesia affects somatic responses (eye blink) and N100 and P200 waves of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory startle probes. Although expectation plays an important role in placebo and hypnotic analgesia, the neural mechanisms underlying these treatments are still poorly understood. We used the cold cup test (CCT) to induce tonic pain in 53 healthy women. Placebo analgesia was initially produced by manipulation, in which the intensity of pain induced by the CCT was surreptitiously reduced after the administration of a sham analgesic cream. Participants were then tested in waking and hypnosis under three treatments: (1) resting (Baseline); (2) CCT-alone (Pain); and (3) CCT plus placebo cream for pain relief (Placebo). For each painful treatment, we assessed pain and distress ratings, eye blink responses, N100 and P200 amplitudes. We used LORETA analysis of N100 and P200 waves, as elicited by auditory startle, to identify cortical regions sensitive to pain reduction through placebo and hypnotic analgesia. Higher pain expectation was associated with higher pain reductions. In highly hypnotizable participants placebo treatment produced significant reductions of pain and distress perception in both waking and hypnosis condition. P200 wave, during placebo analgesia, was larger in the frontal left hemisphere while placebo analgesia, during hypnosis, involved the activity of the left hemisphere including the occipital region. These findings demonstrate that hypnosis and placebo analgesia are different processes of top-down regulation. Pain reduction was associated with larger EMG startle amplitudes, N100 and P200 responses, and enhanced activity within the frontal, parietal, and anterior and posterior cingulate gyres. LORETA results showed that placebo analgesia modulated pain-responsive areas

  6. Personality and Augmenting/Reducing (A/R) in auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) during emotional visual stimulation

    PubMed Central

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Fracasso, Francesca; Corr, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    An auditory augmenting/reducing ERP paradigm recorded for 5 intensity tones with emotional visual stimulation was used, for the first time, to test predictions derived from the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST) of personality with respect to two major factors: behavioral inhibition system (BIS), fight/flight/freeze system (FFFS). Higher BIS and FFFS scores were negatively correlated with N1/P2 slopes at central sites (C3, Cz, C4). Conditional process analysis revealed that the BIS was a mediator of the association between the N1/P2 slope and the FFFS scores. An analysis of covariance showed that lower BIS scorers exhibited larger N1/P2 amplitudes across all tone intensities while watching negative, positive and neutral pictures. Additionally, lower FFFS scorers compared to higher FFFS scorers disclosed larger N1/P2 amplitudes to the highest tone intensities and these differences were even more pronounced while watching positive emotional pictures. Findings were explained assuming the operation of two different, but related processes: transmarginal inhibition for the BIS; the attention/emotional gating mechanism regulating cortical sensory input for the FFFS trait. These findings appear consistent with predictions derived from the rRST, which traced fear and anxiety to separate but interacting neurobehavioural systems. PMID:28164996

  7. Abnormal Complex Auditory Pattern Analysis in Schizophrenia Reflected in an Absent Missing Stimulus Mismatch Negativity.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Dean F; McCathern, Alexis G

    2016-11-01

    The simple mismatch negativity (MMN) to tones deviating physically (in pitch, loudness, duration, etc.) from repeated standard tones is robustly reduced in schizophrenia. Although generally interpreted to reflect memory or cognitive processes, simple MMN likely contains some activity from non-adapted sensory cells, clouding what process is affected in schizophrenia. Research in healthy participants has demonstrated that MMN can be elicited by deviations from abstract auditory patterns and complex rules that do not cause sensory adaptation. Whether persons with schizophrenia show abnormalities in the complex MMN is unknown. Fourteen schizophrenia participants and 16 matched healthy underwent EEG recording while listening to 400 groups of 6 tones 330 ms apart, separated by 800 ms. Occasional deviant groups were missing the 4th or 6th tone (50 groups each). Healthy participants generated a robust response to a missing but expected tone. The schizophrenia group was significantly impaired in activating the missing stimulus MMN, generating no significant activity at all. Schizophrenia affects the ability of "primitive sensory intelligence" and pre-attentive perceptual mechanisms to form implicit groups in the auditory environment. Importantly, this deficit must relate to abnormalities in abstract complex pattern analysis rather than sensory problems in the disorder. The results indicate a deficit in parsing of the complex auditory scene which likely impacts negatively on successful social navigation in schizophrenia. Knowledge of the location and circuit architecture underlying the true novelty-related MMN and its pathophysiology in schizophrenia will help target future interventions.

  8. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Källstrand, Johan; Olsson, Olle; Nehlstedt, Sara Fristedt; Sköld, Mia Ling; Nielzén, Sören

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 16) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16), respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005), which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking) may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:20628629

  9. Chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients: MR analysis of the coincidence between functional and morphologic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Lull, Juan José; García-Martí, Gracián; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Moratal-Pérez, David; Poyatos, Cecilio; Robles, Montserrat; Sanjuán, Julio

    2007-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate if functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging abnormalities associated with auditory emotional stimuli coexist with focal brain reductions in schizophrenic patients with chronic auditory hallucinations. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all participants gave written informed consent. Twenty-one right-handed male patients with schizophrenia and persistent hallucinations (started to hear hallucinations at a mean age of 23 years +/- 10, with 15 years +/- 8 of mean illness duration) and 10 healthy paired participants (same ethnic group [white], age, and education level [secondary school]) were studied. Functional echo-planar T2*-weighted (after both emotional and neutral auditory stimulation) and morphometric three-dimensional gradient-recalled echo T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) software. Brain activation images were extracted by subtracting those with emotional from nonemotional words. Anatomic differences were explored by optimized voxel-based morphometry. The functional and morphometric MR images were overlaid to depict voxels statistically reported by both techniques. A coincidence map was generated by multiplying the emotional subtracted functional MR and volume decrement morphometric maps. Statistical analysis used the general linear model, Student t tests, random effects analyses, and analysis of covariance with a correction for multiple comparisons following the false discovery rate method. Large coinciding brain clusters (P < .005) were found in the left and right middle temporal and superior temporal gyri. Smaller coinciding clusters were found in the left posterior and right anterior cingular gyri, left inferior frontal gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. The middle and superior temporal and the cingular gyri are closely related to the abnormal neural network involved in the auditory emotional dysfunction seen in schizophrenic patients.

  10. Effects of Type of Agreement Violation and Utterance Position on the Auditory Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Sithembinkosi; Kung, Carmen; Peter, Varghese; Brock, Jon; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Previous ERP studies have often reported two ERP components—LAN and P600—in response to subject-verb (S-V) agreement violations (e.g., the boys *runs). However, the latency, amplitude and scalp distribution of these components have been shown to vary depending on various experiment-related factors. One factor that has not received attention is the extent to which the relative perceptual salience related to either the utterance position (verbal inflection in utterance-medial vs. utterance-final contexts) or the type of agreement violation (errors of omission vs. errors of commission) may influence the auditory processing of S-V agreement. The lack of reports on these effects in ERP studies may be due to the fact that most studies have used the visual modality, which does not reveal acoustic information. To address this gap, we used ERPs to measure the brain activity of Australian English-speaking adults while they listened to sentences in which the S-V agreement differed by type of agreement violation and utterance position. We observed early negative and positive clusters (AN/P600 effects) for the overall grammaticality effect. Further analysis revealed that the mean amplitude and distribution of the P600 effect was only significant in contexts where the S-V agreement violation occurred utterance-finally, regardless of type of agreement violation. The mean amplitude and distribution of the negativity did not differ significantly across types of agreement violation and utterance position. These findings suggest that the increased perceptual salience of the violation in utterance final position (due to phrase-final lengthening) influenced how S-V agreement violations were processed during sentence comprehension. Implications for the functional interpretation of language-related ERPs and experimental design are discussed. PMID:27625617

  11. Effects of Type of Agreement Violation and Utterance Position on the Auditory Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Dube, Sithembinkosi; Kung, Carmen; Peter, Varghese; Brock, Jon; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Previous ERP studies have often reported two ERP components-LAN and P600-in response to subject-verb (S-V) agreement violations (e.g., the boys (*) runs). However, the latency, amplitude and scalp distribution of these components have been shown to vary depending on various experiment-related factors. One factor that has not received attention is the extent to which the relative perceptual salience related to either the utterance position (verbal inflection in utterance-medial vs. utterance-final contexts) or the type of agreement violation (errors of omission vs. errors of commission) may influence the auditory processing of S-V agreement. The lack of reports on these effects in ERP studies may be due to the fact that most studies have used the visual modality, which does not reveal acoustic information. To address this gap, we used ERPs to measure the brain activity of Australian English-speaking adults while they listened to sentences in which the S-V agreement differed by type of agreement violation and utterance position. We observed early negative and positive clusters (AN/P600 effects) for the overall grammaticality effect. Further analysis revealed that the mean amplitude and distribution of the P600 effect was only significant in contexts where the S-V agreement violation occurred utterance-finally, regardless of type of agreement violation. The mean amplitude and distribution of the negativity did not differ significantly across types of agreement violation and utterance position. These findings suggest that the increased perceptual salience of the violation in utterance final position (due to phrase-final lengthening) influenced how S-V agreement violations were processed during sentence comprehension. Implications for the functional interpretation of language-related ERPs and experimental design are discussed.

  12. Abnormal Resting-State Quantitative Electroencephalogram in Children With Central Auditory Processing Disorder: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Rafał; Lewandowska, Monika; Ganc, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Grudzień, Diana; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we showed an abnormal resting-state quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) pattern in children with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Twenty-seven children (16 male, 11 female; mean age = 10.7 years) with CAPD and no symptoms of other developmental disorders, as well as 23 age- and sex-matched, typically developing children (TDC, 11 male, 13 female; mean age = 11.8 years) underwent examination of central auditory processes (CAPs) and QEEG evaluation consisting of two randomly presented blocks of “Eyes Open” (EO) or “Eyes Closed” (EC) recordings. Significant correlations between individual frequency band powers and CAP tests performance were found. The QEEG studies revealed that in CAPD relative to TDC there was no effect of decreased delta absolute power (1.5–4 Hz) in EO compared to the EC condition. Furthermore, children with CAPD showed increased theta power (4–8 Hz) in the frontal area, a tendency toward elevated theta power in EO block, and reduced low-frequency beta power (12–15 Hz) in the bilateral occipital and the left temporo-occipital regions for both EO and EC conditions. Decreased middle-frequency beta power (15–18 Hz) in children with CAPD was observed only in the EC block. The findings of the present study suggest that QEEG could be an adequate tool to discriminate children with CAPD from normally developing children. Correlation analysis shows relationship between the individual EEG resting frequency bands and the CAPs. Increased power of slow waves and decreased power of fast rhythms could indicate abnormal functioning (hypoarousal of the cortex and/or an immaturity) of brain areas not specialized in auditory information processing.

  13. Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) Abnormalities across the Life Span of Rats Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Church, Michael W.; Hotra, John W.; Holmes, Pamela A.; Anumba, Jennifer I.; Jackson, Desmond A.; Adams, Brittany R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental impairments (NDI) in developed countries. Sensory deficits can play a major role in NDI, yet few studies have investigated the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on sensory function. In addition, there is a paucity of information on the life-long effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. Thus, we sought to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on auditory function across the life span in an animal model. Based on prior findings with prenatal alcohol exposure and other forms of adverse prenatal environments, we hypothesized that animals prenatally exposed to alcohol would show an age-dependent pattern of (A) hearing and neurological abnormalities as post-weanling pups, (B) a substantial dissipation of such abnormalities in young adulthood, and (C) a resurgence of such abnormalities in middle-aged adulthood. Method Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to an untreated control (CON), a pair-fed control (PFC) or an alcohol treated group (ALC). The ALC dams were gavaged with 6 mg/kg alcohol daily from gestation day (GD) 6 to 21. The PFC dams were gavaged daily from GD6-21 with an isocaloric and isovolumetric water-based solution of Maltose-Dextrins and pair-fed to the ALC dams. The CON dams were the untreated group to which the ALC and CON groups were compared. Hearing and neurological functions in the offspring were assessed with the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) at the postnatal ages of 22, 220 and 520 days of age. Results & Conclusions In accord with our hypothesis, ABR abnormalities were first observed in the post-weanling pups, largely dissipated in young adulthood, and then resurged in middle-aged adulthood. This age-related pattern suggests that the ALC pups had a developmental delay that dissipated in young adulthood and an enhanced age-related deterioration that occurred in middle-aged adulthood. Such a pattern is consistent with the fetal programming hypothesis of adult

  14. [The effection of white matter abnormality to auditory and speech rehabilitation after cochlear implantation in prelingual deafness children].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X Y; Liang, M J; Liu, J H; Li, X H; Zhen, Y Q; Weng, Y L

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To investigatethe effection of white matter abnormality to auditory and speech rehabilitation after cochlear implantation in prelingual deafness children. Method: Thirty-five children with white matter abnormality were included in this study. The degree of leukoaraiosis was evaluated by Scheltens scale based on MRI.The hearing and speechrecovery level was rated by auditory behavior grading standards(CAP) and speech intelligibility grading standards(SIR) at 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months post operation. Result: The CAP scores and SIR scores of the children with white matter abnormality were lower than those of the control group at 6 months after operation ( P <0.05).The SIR scores of the children with white matter abnormality at 12 months and 24 months post operation were significantly lower than those of the control group.There was no statistically significant difference between the CAP scores of the two groups at 12 and 24 months after operation( P >0.05).Schelten classification had a greater impact on SIR scores than on CAP scores. Conclusion: The effect of white matter abnormality on auditory and speech rehabilitation after cochlear implantation was related to the degree of leukoencephalopathy. When the lesion of white matter abnormality was larger, the level of hearing and verbal rehabilitation was lower, and the speech rehabilitation was more significantly impacted by white matter lesions degree. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  15. CNTN6 mutations are risk factors for abnormal auditory sensory perception in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mercati, O; Huguet, G; Danckaert, A; André-Leroux, G; Maruani, A; Bellinzoni, M; Rolland, T; Gouder, L; Mathieu, A; Buratti, J; Amsellem, F; Benabou, M; Van-Gils, J; Beggiato, A; Konyukh, M; Bourgeois, J-P; Gazzellone, M J; Yuen, R K C; Walker, S; Delépine, M; Boland, A; Régnault, B; Francois, M; Van Den Abbeele, T; Mosca-Boidron, A L; Faivre, L; Shimoda, Y; Watanabe, K; Bonneau, D; Rastam, M; Leboyer, M; Scherer, S W; Gillberg, C; Delorme, R; Cloëz-Tayarani, I; Bourgeron, T

    2017-04-01

    Contactin genes CNTN5 and CNTN6 code for neuronal cell adhesion molecules that promote neurite outgrowth in sensory-motor neuronal pathways. Mutations of CNTN5 and CNTN6 have previously been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but very little is known on their prevalence and clinical impact. In this study, we identified CNTN5 and CNTN6 deleterious variants in individuals with ASD. Among the carriers, a girl with ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was carrying five copies of CNTN5. For CNTN6, both deletions (6/1534 ASD vs 1/8936 controls; P=0.00006) and private coding sequence variants (18/501 ASD vs 535/33480 controls; P=0.0005) were enriched in individuals with ASD. Among the rare CNTN6 variants, two deletions were transmitted by fathers diagnosed with ASD, one stop mutation CNTN6 W923X was transmitted by a mother to her two sons with ASD and one variant CNTN6 P770L was found de novo in a boy with ASD. Clinical investigations of the patients carrying CNTN5 or CNTN6 variants showed that they were hypersensitive to sounds (a condition called hyperacusis) and displayed changes in wave latency within the auditory pathway. These results reinforce the hypothesis of abnormal neuronal connectivity in the pathophysiology of ASD and shed new light on the genes that increase risk for abnormal sensory perception in ASD.

  16. Intact Spectral but Abnormal Temporal Processing of Auditory Stimuli in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Wouter B.; van Orsouw, Linda; ter Huurne, Niels; Swinkels, Sophie; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Zwiers, Marcel P.

    2009-01-01

    The perceptual pattern in autism has been related to either a specific localized processing deficit or a pathway-independent, complexity-specific anomaly. We examined auditory perception in autism using an auditory disembedding task that required spectral and temporal integration. 23 children with high-functioning-autism and 23 matched controls…

  17. Visually guided auditory attention in a dynamic "cocktail-party" speech perception task: ERP evidence for age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Getzmann, Stephan; Wascher, Edmund

    2017-02-01

    Speech understanding in the presence of concurring sound is a major challenge especially for older persons. In particular, conversational turn-takings usually result in switch costs, as indicated by declined speech perception after changes in the relevant target talker. Here, we investigated whether visual cues indicating the future position of a target talker may reduce the costs of switching in younger and older adults. We employed a speech perception task, in which sequences of short words were simultaneously presented by three talkers, and analysed behavioural measures and event-related potentials (ERPs). Informative cues resulted in increased performance after a spatial change in target talker compared to uninformative cues, not indicating the future target position. Especially the older participants benefited from knowing the future target position in advance, indicated by reduced response times after informative cues. The ERP analysis revealed an overall reduced N2, and a reduced P3b to changes in the target talker location in older participants, suggesting reduced inhibitory control and context updating. On the other hand, a pronounced frontal late positive complex (f-LPC) to the informative cues indicated increased allocation of attentional resources to changes in target talker in the older group, in line with the decline-compensation hypothesis. Thus, knowing where to listen has the potential to compensate for age-related decline in attentional switching in a highly variable cocktail-party environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Active listening impairs visual perception and selectivity: an ERP study of auditory dual-task costs on visual attention.

    PubMed

    Gherri, Elena; Eimer, Martin

    2011-04-01

    The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual-attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment 1) or feature conjunction (Experiment 2), and simultaneously listened to narrated text passages that had to be recalled later (encoding condition), or heard backward-played speech sounds that could be ignored (control condition). Responses to targets were slower in the encoding condition, and ERPs revealed that the visual processing of search arrays and the attentional selection of target stimuli were less efficient in the encoding relative to the control condition. Results demonstrate that the attentional processing of visual information is impaired when concurrent spoken messages are encoded and maintained, in line with cross-modal links in selective attention, but inconsistent with the view that attentional resources are modality-specific. The distraction of visual attention by active listening could contribute to the adverse effects of cell phone use on driving performance.

  19. Musicians show general enhancement of complex sound encoding and better inhibition of irrelevant auditory change in music: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Kim, Jihyun; Herring, Caryn; Schumaker, Jennifer; Macpherson, Megan; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Using electrophysiology, we have examined two questions in relation to musical training - namely, whether it enhances sensory encoding of the human voice and whether it improves the ability to ignore irrelevant auditory change. Participants performed an auditory distraction task, in which they identified each sound as either short (350 ms) or long (550 ms) and ignored a change in timbre of the sounds. Sounds consisted of a male and a female voice saying a neutral sound [a], and of a cello and a French Horn playing an F3 note. In some blocks, musical sounds occurred on 80% of trials, while voice sounds on 20% of trials. In other blocks, the reverse was true. Participants heard naturally recorded sounds in half of experimental blocks and their spectrally-rotated versions in the other half. Regarding voice perception, we found that musicians had a larger N1 event-related potential component not only to vocal sounds but also to their never before heard spectrally-rotated versions. We therefore conclude that musical training is associated with a general improvement in the early neural encoding of complex sounds. Regarding the ability to ignore irrelevant auditory change, musicians' accuracy tended to suffer less from the change in timbre of the sounds, especially when deviants were musical notes. This behavioral finding was accompanied by a marginally larger re-orienting negativity in musicians, suggesting that their advantage may lie in a more efficient disengagement of attention from the distracting auditory dimension. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Auditory Processing in Infancy: Do Early Abnormalities Predict Disorders of Language and Cognitive Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetta, Francesco; Conti, Guido; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Increasing attention has been devoted to the maturation of sensory processing in the first year of life. While the development of cortical visual function has been thoroughly studied, much less information is available on auditory processing and its early disorders. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the assessment techniques for…

  1. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Escartí, Maria José; Molina-Mateo, Jose; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Gadea, Marien; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Eduardo J.; Robles, Montserrat; Biswal, Bharat B.; Sanjuan, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 27) and without AH (n = 14) were compared with healthy participants (n = 31). We examined functional connectivity by analyzing correlations and cross-correlations among previously detected independent component analysis time courses. Granger causality was used to infer the information flow direction in the brain regions. The results demonstrate that the patterns of cortico-cortical functional synchrony differentiated the patients with AH from the patients without AH and from the healthy participants. Additionally, Granger-causal relationships between the networks clearly differentiated the groups. In the patients with AH, the principal causal source was an occipital–cerebellar component, versus a temporal component in the patients without AH and the healthy controls. These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH. PMID:25379429

  2. A neural network model of normal and abnormal auditory information processing.

    PubMed

    Du, X; Jansen, B H

    2011-08-01

    The ability of the brain to attenuate the response to irrelevant sensory stimulation is referred to as sensory gating. A gating deficiency has been reported in schizophrenia. To study the neural mechanisms underlying sensory gating, a neuroanatomically inspired model of auditory information processing has been developed. The mathematical model consists of lumped parameter modules representing the thalamus (TH), the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), auditory cortex (AC), and prefrontal cortex (PC). It was found that the membrane potential of the pyramidal cells in the PC module replicated auditory evoked potentials, recorded from the scalp of healthy individuals, in response to pure tones. Also, the model produced substantial attenuation of the response to the second of a pair of identical stimuli, just as seen in actual human experiments. We also tested the viewpoint that schizophrenia is associated with a deficit in prefrontal dopamine (DA) activity, which would lower the excitatory and inhibitory feedback gains in the AC and PC modules. Lowering these gains by less than 10% resulted in model behavior resembling the brain activity seen in schizophrenia patients, and replicated the reported gating deficits. The model suggests that the TRN plays a critical role in sensory gating, with the smaller response to a second tone arising from a reduction in inhibition of TH by the TRN. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Voice-Processing Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: A Window into Auditory Verbal Hallucinations?

    PubMed

    Conde, Tatiana; Gonçalves, Oscar F; Pinheiro, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Like "real" voices, AVH carry a rich amount of linguistic and paralinguistic cues that convey not only speech, but also affect and identity, information. Disturbed processing of voice identity, affective, and speech information has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. More recent evidence has suggested a link between voice-processing abnormalities and specific clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, especially AVH. It is still not well understood, however, to what extent these dimensions are impaired and how abnormalities in these processes might contribute to AVH. In this review, we consider behavioral, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological data to investigate the speech, identity, and affective dimensions of voice processing in schizophrenia, and we discuss how abnormalities in these processes might help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying specific phenomenological features of AVH. Schizophrenia patients exhibit behavioral and neural disturbances in the three dimensions of voice processing. Evidence suggesting a role of dysfunctional voice processing in AVH seems to be stronger for the identity and speech dimensions than for the affective domain.

  4. Abnormalities of P300 before and after antidepressant treatment in depression: an ERP-sLORETA study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lina; Wang, Gaohua; Wang, Huiling

    2018-02-07

    Despite a wide range of reports on depression-induced P300 changes, it is still debatable whether P300 can return to a pattern characteristic of healthy individuals following antidepressant treatment. Thus, the present study aims to compare P300 and its underlying neural activation in depressed patients before and after antidepressant treatment to explore the brain regions related to pathogenesis and to evaluate the prognosis after treatment. P300 was evoked by the oddball auditory paradigm and collected from 14 sex-matched, age-matched, and education level-matched patients and controls. P300 was also collected in the same patients after treatment. sLORETA was used to explore the source activation of P300 components. Depressed patients before and after antidepressant treatment tended to show lower P300 amplitudes compared with healthy controls, and their P300 amplitudes of F3 electrodes were correlated negatively to their scores on the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale, and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. P300 amplitudes of P4 electrodes were correlated negatively with their scores on the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. P300 source activation of depressed patients before antidepressant treatment was reduced in the left superior parietal lobule and the precuneus compared with healthy controls and depressed patients after treatment. No difference was found between healthy controls and depressed patients after treatment. The left superior parietal lobule and the precuneus might be therapeutic targets of depression.

  5. Stability of auditory discrimination and novelty processing in physiological aging.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Tasca, Domenica; Rundo, Francesco; Ferri, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Complex higher-order cognitive functions and their possible changes with aging are mandatory objectives of cognitive neuroscience. Event-related potentials (ERPs) allow investigators to probe the earliest stages of information processing. N100, Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory ERP components that reflect automatic sensory discrimination. The aim of the present study was to determine if N100, MMN and P3a parameters are stable in healthy aged subjects, compared to those of normal young adults. Normal young adults and older participants were assessed using standardized cognitive functional instruments and their ERPs were obtained with an auditory stimulation at two different interstimulus intervals, during a passive paradigm. All individuals were within the normal range on cognitive tests. No significant differences were found for any ERP parameters obtained from the two age groups. This study shows that aging is characterized by a stability of the auditory discrimination and novelty processing. This is important for the arrangement of normative for the detection of subtle preclinical changes due to abnormal brain aging.

  6. Knockout Mice for Dyslexia Susceptibility Gene Homologs KIAA0319 and KIAA0319L have Unaffected Neuronal Migration but Display Abnormal Auditory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Guidi, Luiz G; Mattley, Jane; Martinez-Garay, Isabel; Monaco, Anthony P; Linden, Jennifer F; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects reading ability caused by genetic and non-genetic factors. Amongst the susceptibility genes identified to date, KIAA0319 is a prime candidate. RNA-interference experiments in rats suggested its involvement in cortical migration but we could not confirm these findings in Kiaa0319-mutant mice. Given its homologous gene Kiaa0319L (AU040320) has also been proposed to play a role in neuronal migration, we interrogated whether absence of AU040320 alone or together with KIAA0319 affects migration in the developing brain. Analyses of AU040320 and double Kiaa0319;AU040320 knockouts (dKO) revealed no evidence for impaired cortical lamination, neuronal migration, neurogenesis or other anatomical abnormalities. However, dKO mice displayed an auditory deficit in a behavioral gap-in-noise detection task. In addition, recordings of click-evoked auditory brainstem responses revealed suprathreshold deficits in wave III amplitude in AU040320-KO mice, and more general deficits in dKOs. These findings suggest that absence of AU040320 disrupts firing and/or synchrony of activity in the auditory brainstem, while loss of both proteins might affect both peripheral and central auditory function. Overall, these results stand against the proposed role of KIAA0319 and AU040320 in neuronal migration and outline their relationship with deficits in the auditory system. PMID:29045729

  7. Dysfunctional information processing in individuals with acute exposure to sexual abuse: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Han, Changwoo; Park, Minkyung; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Park, Su Mi; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2018-06-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may occur after traumatic event and also cause significant life time impairment. P300 event-related potential (ERP) is a potential biological marker for PTSD and can reflect cognitive impairment in information processing and attention. Despite the usefulness of ERP, there are few attempts to reveal relationships between ASD and P300. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the P300 of the patients who were the victims of sexual abuse reflected the quantitative trait of ASD or if P300 is applicable as a state marker for predicting the risk of PTSD.Fifteen female victims of sexual abuse diagnosed with ASD and 18 healthy controls (HCs) without trauma exposure participated in this study. We investigated the P300 ERPs in patients with ASD to compare them with those of HCs. ERPs were acquired from female adults during an auditory oddball task. Between-group differences in amplitudes or latencies of P300 were investigated using repeated-measures analysis of variance.The ASD groups showed reduced P300 amplitudes at the midline centroparietal site as well as reduced accuracy rates during an auditory oddball task compared with the HCs.These results indicate that ASD have abnormalities in the P300 compared to those in HCs. Moreover, the reduction in P300 could be considered a candidate neurophysiological marker for ASD.

  8. Inner ear manifestations in CHARGE: Abnormalities, treatments, animal models, and progress toward treatments in auditory and vestibular structures.

    PubMed

    Choo, Daniel I; Tawfik, Kareem O; Martin, Donna M; Raphael, Yehoash

    2017-12-01

    The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. Both hearing and balance are commonly affected in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene. Semicircular canal dysplasia or aplasia is the single most prevalent feature in individuals with CHARGE leading to deficient gross motor skills and ambulation. Identification of CHD7 as the major gene affected in CHARGE has enabled acceleration of research in this field. Great progress has been made in understanding the role of CHD7 in the development and function of the inner ear, as well as in related organs such as the middle ear and auditory and vestibular neural pathways. The goals of current research on CHD7 and CS are to (a) improve our understanding of the pathology caused by CHD7 pathogenic variants and (b) to provide better tools for prognosis and treatment. Current studies utilize cells and whole animals, from flies to mammals. The mouse is an excellent model for exploring mechanisms of Chd7 function in the ear, given the evolutionary conservation of ear structure, function, Chd7 expression, and similarity of mutant phenotypes between mice and humans. Newly recognized developmental functions for mouse Chd7 are shedding light on how abnormalities in CHD7 might lead to CS symptoms in humans. Here we review known human inner ear phenotypes associated with CHD7 pathogenic variants and CS, summarize progress toward diagnosis and treatment of inner ear-related pathologies, and explore new avenues for treatment based on basic science discoveries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Auditory evoked potentials in patients with major depressive disorder measured by Emotiv system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongcui; Mo, Fongming; Zhang, Yangde; Yang, Chao; Liu, Jun; Chen, Zhencheng; Zhao, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study (unpublished), Emotiv headset was validated for capturing event-related potentials (ERPs) from normal subjects. In the present follow-up study, the signal quality of Emotiv headset was tested by the accuracy rate of discriminating Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients from the normal subjects. ERPs of 22 MDD patients and 15 normal subjects were induced by an auditory oddball task and the amplitude of N1, N2 and P3 of ERP components were specifically analyzed. The features of ERPs were statistically investigated. It is found that Emotiv headset is capable of discriminating the abnormal N1, N2 and P3 components in MDD patients. Relief-F algorithm was applied to all features for feature selection. The selected features were then input to a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with leave-one-out cross-validation to characterize the ERP features of MDD. 127 possible combinations out of the selected 7 ERP features were classified using LDA. The best classification accuracy was achieved to be 89.66%. These results suggest that MDD patients are identifiable from normal subjects by ERPs measured by Emotiv headset.

  10. Abnormal findings in brainstem auditory evoked response at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age in babies with neonatal chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ze D; Wang, Cui

    2016-12-01

    To examine brainstem auditory function at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age in preterm infants who are diagnosed to have neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). Preterm infants, born at 31 and less weeks of gestation, were studied at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age when they were diagnosed to have neonatal CLD. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) was recorded and analyzed at different click rates. Compared with healthy controls at the same postconceptional age, the CLD infants showed a slightly increase in BAER wave V latency. However, the I-V, and III-V interpeak intervals in the CLD infants were significantly increased. The III-V/I-III interval ratio was also significantly increased. The amplitudes of BAER waves III and V in the CLD infants tended to be reduced. These BAER findings were similar at all 21, 51 and 91/s clicks, although the abnormalities tended to be more significant at higher than at low click rates. At 36-37weeks of postconceptional age, BAER was abnormal in preterm infants who were diagnosed to have neonatal CLD. This suggests that at time when the diagnosis of CLD is made there is functional impairment, reflecting poor myelination, in the brainstem auditory pathway in preterm infants with neonatal CLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 deletion rescues auditory evoked potential habituation deficit in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Jonathan W.; Wen, Teresa H.; Reinhard, Sarah; Hsu, Mike S.; Sidhu, Harpreet; Ethell, Iryna M.; Binder, Devin K.; Razak, Khaleel A.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing deficits are common in autism spectrum disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a leading genetic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Electrophysiological responses in humans with FXS show reduced habituation with sound repetition and this deficit may underlie auditory hypersensitivity in FXS. Our previous study in Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice revealed an unusually long state of increased sound-driven excitability in auditory cortical neurons suggesting that cortical responses to repeated sounds may exhibit abnormal habituation as in humans with FXS. Here, we tested this prediction by comparing cortical event related potentials (ERP) recorded from wildtype (WT) and Fmr1 KO mice. We report a repetition-rate dependent reduction in habituation of N1 amplitude in Fmr1 KO mice and show that matrix metalloproteinase −9 (MMP-9), one of the known FMRP targets, contributes to the reduced ERP habituation. Our studies demonstrate a significant up-regulation of MMP-9 levels in the auditory cortex of adult Fmr1 KO mice, whereas a genetic deletion of Mmp-9 reverses ERP habituation deficits in Fmr1 KO mice. Although the N1 amplitude of Mmp-9/Fmr1 DKO recordings was larger than WT and KO recordings, the habituation of ERPs in Mmp-9/Fmr1 DKO mice is similar to WT mice implicating MMP-9 as a potential target for reversing sensory processing deficits in FXS. Together these data establish ERP habituation as a translation relevant, physiological pre-clinical marker of auditory processing deficits in FXS and suggest that abnormal MMP-9 regulation is a mechanism underlying auditory hypersensitivity in FXS. PMID:26850918

  12. Atypical auditory refractory periods in children from lower socio-economic status backgrounds: ERP evidence for a role of selective attention.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Courtney; Paulsen, David; Yasen, Alia; Neville, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies indicate that lower socio-economic status (SES) is associated with reduced effects of selective attention on auditory processing. Here, we investigated whether lower SES is also associated with differences in a stimulus-driven aspect of auditory processing: the neural refractory period, or reduced amplitude response at faster rates of stimulus presentation. Thirty-two children aged 3 to 8 years participated, and were divided into two SES groups based on maternal education. Event-related brain potentials were recorded to probe stimuli presented at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 200, 500, or 1000 ms. These probes were superimposed on story narratives when attended and ignored, permitting a simultaneous experimental manipulation of selective attention. Results indicated that group differences in refractory periods differed as a function of attention condition. Children from higher SES backgrounds showed full neural recovery by 500 ms for attended stimuli, but required at least 1000 ms for unattended stimuli. In contrast, children from lower SES backgrounds showed similar refractory effects to attended and unattended stimuli, with full neural recovery by 500 ms. Thus, in higher SES children only, one functional consequence of selective attention is attenuation of the response to unattended stimuli, particularly at rapid ISIs, altering basic properties of the auditory refractory period. Together, these data indicate that differences in selective attention impact basic aspects of auditory processing in children from lower SES backgrounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal auditory processing at 17 months of age is associated with preliterate language comprehension and later word reading fluency: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    van Zuijen, Titia L; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A M; Been, Pieter; Maurits, Natasha M; Krikhaar, Evelien; van Driel, Joram; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-10-18

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with auditory processing deficits. We investigate whether temporal auditory processing is compromised in young children at-risk for dyslexia and whether it is associated with later language and reading skills. We recorded EEG from 17 months-old children with or without familial risk for dyslexia to investigate whether their auditory system was able to detect a temporal change in a tone pattern. The children were followed longitudinally and performed an intelligence- and language development test at ages 4 and 4.5 years. Literacy related skills were measured at the beginning of second grade, and word- and pseudo-word reading fluency were measured at the end of second grade. The EEG responses showed that control children could detect the temporal change as indicated by a mismatch response (MMR). The MMR was not observed in at-risk children. Furthermore, the fronto-central MMR amplitude correlated with preliterate language comprehension and with later word reading fluency, but not with phonological awareness. We conclude that temporal auditory processing differentiates young children at risk for dyslexia from controls and is a precursor of preliterate language comprehension and reading fluency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Auditory selective attention in adolescents with major depression: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Greimel, E; Trinkl, M; Bartling, J; Bakos, S; Grossheinrich, N; Schulte-Körne, G

    2015-02-01

    Major depression (MD) is associated with deficits in selective attention. Previous studies in adults with MD using event-related potentials (ERPs) reported abnormalities in the neurophysiological correlates of auditory selective attention. However, it is yet unclear whether these findings can be generalized to MD in adolescence. Thus, the aim of the present ERP study was to explore the neural mechanisms of auditory selective attention in adolescents with MD. 24 male and female unmedicated adolescents with MD and 21 control subjects were included in the study. ERPs were collected during an auditory oddball paradigm. Depressive adolescents tended to show a longer N100 latency to target and non-target tones. Moreover, MD subjects showed a prolonged latency of the P200 component to targets. Across groups, longer P200 latency was associated with a decreased tendency of disinhibited behavior as assessed by a behavioral questionnaire. To be able to draw more precise conclusions about differences between the neural bases of selective attention in adolescents vs. adults with MD, future studies should include both age groups and apply the same experimental setting across all subjects. The study provides strong support for abnormalities in the neurophysiolgical bases of selective attention in adolecents with MD at early stages of auditory information processing. Absent group differences in later ERP components reflecting voluntary attentional processes stand in contrast to results reported in adults with MD and may suggest that adolescents with MD possess mechanisms to compensate for abnormalities in the early stages of selective attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of Abnormal Left Temporal Functioning in Dyslexia through rCBF, Auditory Evoked Potentials, and Positron Emission Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frank; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the proposed left hemisphere dysfunction in dyslexia by reviewing four studies using regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) and combined auditory evoked responses with positron emission tomography. Emphasizes methodological issues. Finds that dyslexics showed a positive correlation between Heschl's gyrus activation and phonemic…

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 deletion rescues auditory evoked potential habituation deficit in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Jonathan W; Wen, Teresa H; Reinhard, Sarah; Hsu, Mike S; Sidhu, Harpreet; Ethell, Iryna M; Binder, Devin K; Razak, Khaleel A

    2016-05-01

    Sensory processing deficits are common in autism spectrum disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a leading genetic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Electrophysiological responses in humans with FXS show reduced habituation with sound repetition and this deficit may underlie auditory hypersensitivity in FXS. Our previous study in Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice revealed an unusually long state of increased sound-driven excitability in auditory cortical neurons suggesting that cortical responses to repeated sounds may exhibit abnormal habituation as in humans with FXS. Here, we tested this prediction by comparing cortical event related potentials (ERP) recorded from wildtype (WT) and Fmr1 KO mice. We report a repetition-rate dependent reduction in habituation of N1 amplitude in Fmr1 KO mice and show that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), one of the known FMRP targets, contributes to the reduced ERP habituation. Our studies demonstrate a significant up-regulation of MMP-9 levels in the auditory cortex of adult Fmr1 KO mice, whereas a genetic deletion of Mmp-9 reverses ERP habituation deficits in Fmr1 KO mice. Although the N1 amplitude of Mmp-9/Fmr1 DKO recordings was larger than WT and KO recordings, the habituation of ERPs in Mmp-9/Fmr1 DKO mice is similar to WT mice implicating MMP-9 as a potential target for reversing sensory processing deficits in FXS. Together these data establish ERP habituation as a translation relevant, physiological pre-clinical marker of auditory processing deficits in FXS and suggest that abnormal MMP-9 regulation is a mechanism underlying auditory hypersensitivity in FXS. Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the leading known genetic cause of autism spectrum disorders. Individuals with FXS show symptoms of auditory hypersensitivity. These symptoms may arise due to sustained neural responses to repeated sounds, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. For the first time, this study shows deficits

  17. Brain stem and inner ear abnormalities in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and cochlear nerve deficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, B Y; Roche, J P; Buchman, C A; Castillo, M

    2010-11-01

    Cranial abnormalities, including CND, are common in children with ANSD. The purpose of this study was to assess whether CND is associated with brain or inner ear abnormalities in a cohort of children with ANSD. Two neuroradiologists retrospectively reviewed cranial MR imaging examinations in 103 children with ANSD. Brain, cochlear nerve, and temporal bone abnormalities were described and tabulated. Findings were stratified on the basis of the presence and laterality of CND, and differences in the presence of associated inner ear or intracranial abnormalities were assessed by using 2-tailed Fisher exact tests. CND was identified in 33.0% of children and 26.9% of ears with ANSD. Significantly more patients with bilateral CND had intracranial abnormalities than those with unilateral CND (60.0% versus 15.8%; P = .012). Forty percent of patients with bilateral CND, 0% of patients with unilateral CND, and 10.1% of those without CND demonstrated hindbrain malformations. Patients with bilateral CND were more likely to demonstrate hindbrain malformations than patients with normal nerves (P = .01) or unilateral CND (P = .004). Labyrinthine abnormalities were significantly more common in patients with bilateral CND than in those without CND (P ≤ .001). Cochlear anomalies were more common in patients with bilateral versus unilateral CND (P = .01). IAC and cochlear aperture stenosis were more common in those with unilateral and bilateral CND than those without CND (both P < .001). Cochlear and hindbrain abnormalities are significantly more common among patients with ANSD with bilateral CND compared with those with at least 1 intact cochlear nerve.

  18. Abnormal Degree Centrality of Bilateral Putamen and Left Superior Frontal Gyrus in Schizophrenia with Auditory Hallucinations: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shi-Hao; Huang, Huan; Zou, Ji-Lin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Tian-Zi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia has been increasingly emphasized. Recent researches showed that this dysconnectivity might be related to occurrence of auditory hallucination (AH). However, there is still no consistent conclusion. This study aimed to explore intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at voxel level in schizophrenic with AH. Methods: Auditory hallucinated patients group (n = 42 APG), no hallucinated patients group (n = 42 NPG) and normal controls (n = 84 NCs) were analyzed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity metrics index (degree centrality [DC]) across the entire brain networks was calculated and evaluated among three groups. Results: DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus in all the patients. However, in APG, the changes of DC were more obvious compared with NPG. Symptomology scores were negatively correlated with the DC of bilateral putamen in all patients. AH score of APG positively correlated with the DC in left superior frontal gyrus but negatively correlated with the DC in bilateral putamen. Conclusion: Our findings corroborated that schizophrenia was characterized by functional dysconnectivity, and the abnormal DC in bilateral putamen and left superior frontal gyrus might be crucial in the occurrence of AH. PMID:26612293

  19. Atypical long-latency auditory event-related potentials in a subset of children with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Dorothy VM; Hardiman, Mervyn; Uwer, Ruth; von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed that specific language impairment (SLI) is the consequence of low-level abnormalities in auditory perception. However, studies of long-latency auditory ERPs in children with SLI have generated inconsistent findings. A possible reason for this inconsistency is the heterogeneity of SLI. The intraclass correlation (ICC) has been proposed as a useful statistic for evaluating heterogeneity because it allows one to compare an individual's auditory ERP with the grand average waveform from a typically developing reference group. We used this method to reanalyse auditory ERPs from a sample previously described by Uwer, Albrecht and von Suchodoletz (2002). In a subset of children with receptive SLI, there was less correspondence (i.e. lower ICC) with the normative waveform (based on the control grand average) than for typically developing children. This poorer correspondence was seen in responses to both tone and speech stimuli for the period 100–228 ms post stimulus onset. The effect was lateralized and seen at right- but not left-sided electrodes. PMID:17683344

  20. Tracking the voluntary control of auditory spatial attention with event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Green, Jessica J; McDonald, John J

    2009-03-01

    A lateralized event-related potential (ERP) component elicited by attention-directing cues (ADAN) has been linked to frontal-lobe control but is often absent when spatial attention is deployed in the auditory modality. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ERP activity associated with frontal-lobe control of auditory spatial attention is distributed bilaterally by comparing ERPs elicited by attention-directing cues and neutral cues in a unimodal auditory task. This revealed an initial ERP positivity over the anterior scalp and a later ERP negativity over the parietal scalp. Distributed source analysis indicated that the anterior positivity was generated primarily in bilateral prefrontal cortices, whereas the more posterior negativity was generated in parietal and temporal cortices. The anterior ERP positivity likely reflects frontal-lobe attentional control, whereas the subsequent ERP negativity likely reflects anticipatory biasing of activity in auditory cortex.

  1. A comparative study of event-related coupling patterns during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachiller, Alejandro; Poza, Jesús; Gómez, Carlos; Molina, Vicente; Suazo, Vanessa; Hornero, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The aim of this research is to explore the coupling patterns of brain dynamics during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia (SCH). Approach. Event-related electroencephalographic (ERP) activity was recorded from 20 SCH patients and 20 healthy controls. The coupling changes between auditory response and pre-stimulus baseline were calculated in conventional EEG frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and gamma), using three coupling measures: coherence, phase-locking value and Euclidean distance. Main results. Our results showed a statistically significant increase from baseline to response in theta coupling and a statistically significant decrease in beta-2 coupling in controls. No statistically significant changes were observed in SCH patients. Significance. Our findings support the aberrant salience hypothesis, since SCH patients failed to change their coupling dynamics between stimulus response and baseline when performing an auditory cognitive task. This result may reflect an impaired communication among neural areas, which may be related to abnormal cognitive functions.

  2. Abnormalities in early visual processes are linked to hypersociability and atypical evaluation of facial trustworthiness: An ERP study with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shore, Danielle M; Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula; Mills, Debra L

    2017-10-01

    Accurate assessment of trustworthiness is fundamental to successful and adaptive social behavior. Initially, people assess trustworthiness from facial appearance alone. These assessments then inform critical approach or avoid decisions. Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit a heightened social drive, especially toward strangers. This study investigated the temporal dynamics of facial trustworthiness evaluation in neurotypic adults (TD) and individuals with WS. We examined whether differences in neural activity during trustworthiness evaluation may explain increased approach motivation in WS compared to TD individuals. Event-related potentials were recorded while participants appraised faces previously rated as trustworthy or untrustworthy. TD participants showed increased sensitivity to untrustworthy faces within the first 65-90 ms, indexed by the negative-going rise of the P1 onset (oP1). The amplitude of the oP1 difference to untrustworthy minus trustworthy faces was correlated with lower approachability scores. In contrast, participants with WS showed increased N170 amplitudes to trustworthy faces. The N170 difference to low-high-trust faces was correlated with low approachability in TD and high approachability in WS. The findings suggest that hypersociability associated with WS may arise from abnormalities in the timing and organization of early visual brain activity during trustworthiness evaluation. More generally, the study provides support for the hypothesis that impairments in low-level perceptual processes can have a cascading effect on social cognition.

  3. ERP=Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. Deploying an ERP system is one of the most extensive--and expensive--IT projects a college or university can undertake. The potential benefits of ERP are significant: a more smoothly running operation with efficiencies in virtually every area of administration, from automated…

  4. Cortical substrates and functional correlates of auditory deviance processing deficits in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rissling, Anthony J.; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Sugar, Catherine A.; Braff, David L.; Makeig, Scott; Light, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Although sensory processing abnormalities contribute to widespread cognitive and psychosocial impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) patients, scalp-channel measures of averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) mix contributions from distinct cortical source-area generators, diluting the functional relevance of channel-based ERP measures. SZ patients (n = 42) and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (n = 47) participated in a passive auditory duration oddball paradigm, eliciting a triphasic (Deviant−Standard) tone ERP difference complex, here termed the auditory deviance response (ADR), comprised of a mid-frontal mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a positivity, and re-orienting negativity (RON) peak sequence. To identify its cortical sources and to assess possible relationships between their response contributions and clinical SZ measures, we applied independent component analysis to the continuous 68-channel EEG data and clustered the resulting independent components (ICs) across subjects on spectral, ERP, and topographic similarities. Six IC clusters centered in right superior temporal, right inferior frontal, ventral mid-cingulate, anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal, and dorsal mid-cingulate cortex each made triphasic response contributions. Although correlations between measures of SZ clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning and standard (Fz) scalp-channel ADR peak measures were weak or absent, for at least four IC clusters one or more significant correlations emerged. In particular, differences in MMN peak amplitude in the right superior temporal IC cluster accounted for 48% of the variance in SZ-subject performance on tasks necessary for real-world functioning and medial orbitofrontal cluster P3a amplitude accounted for 40%/54% of SZ-subject variance in positive/negative symptoms. Thus, source-resolved auditory deviance response measures including MMN may be highly sensitive to SZ clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics. PMID:25379456

  5. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone above USA standards are associated with auditory brainstem dysmorphology and abnormal auditory brainstem evoked potentials in healthy young dogs.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; González-González, Luis O; Kulesza, Randy J; Fech, Tatiana M; Pérez-Guillé, Gabriela; Luna, Miguel Angel Jiménez-Bravo; Soriano-Rosales, Rosa Eugenia; Solorio, Edelmira; Miramontes-Higuera, José de Jesús; Gómez-Maqueo Chew, Aline; Bernal-Morúa, Alexia F; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Mills, Paul C; Wilson, Wayne J; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2017-10-01

    Delayed central conduction times in the auditory brainstem have been observed in Mexico City (MC) healthy children exposed to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ) above the current United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) standards. MC children have α synuclein brainstem accumulation and medial superior olivary complex (MSO) dysmorphology. The present study used a dog model to investigate the potential effects of air pollution on the function and morphology of the auditory brainstem. Twenty-four dogs living in clean air v MC, average age 37.1 ± 26.3 months, underwent brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) measurements. Eight dogs (4 MC, 4 Controls) were analysed for auditory brainstem morphology and histopathology. MC dogs showed ventral cochlear nuclei hypotrophy and MSO dysmorphology with a significant decrease in cell body size, decreased neuronal packing density with regions in the nucleus devoid of neurons and marked gliosis. MC dogs showed significant delayed BAEP absolute wave I, III and V latencies compared to controls. MC dogs show auditory nuclei dysmorphology and BAEPs consistent with an alteration of the generator sites of the auditory brainstem response waveform. This study puts forward the usefulness of BAEPs to study auditory brainstem neurodegenerative changes associated with air pollution in dogs. Recognition of the role of non-invasive BAEPs in urban dogs is warranted to elucidate novel neurodegenerative pathways link to air pollution and a promising early diagnostic strategy for Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Music training and working memory: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    George, Elyse M; Coch, Donna

    2011-04-01

    While previous research has suggested that music training is associated with improvements in various cognitive and linguistic skills, the mechanisms mediating or underlying these associations are mostly unknown. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that previous music training is related to improved working memory. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) and a standardized test of working memory, we investigated both neural and behavioral aspects of working memory in college-aged, non-professional musicians and non-musicians. Behaviorally, musicians outperformed non-musicians on standardized subtests of visual, phonological, and executive memory. ERPs were recorded in standard auditory and visual oddball paradigms (participants responded to infrequent deviant stimuli embedded in lists of standard stimuli). Electrophysiologically, musicians demonstrated faster updating of working memory (shorter latency P300s) in both the auditory and visual domains and musicians allocated more neural resources to auditory stimuli (larger amplitude P300), showing increased sensitivity to the auditory standard/deviant difference and less effortful updating of auditory working memory. These findings demonstrate that long-term music training is related to improvements in working memory, in both the auditory and visual domains and in terms of both behavioral and ERP measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The auditory brain-stem response to complex sounds: a potential biomarker for guiding treatment of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Melissa A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Makeig, Scott; Braff, David L; Light, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits limit psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. For many patients, cognitive remediation approaches have yielded encouraging results. Nevertheless, therapeutic response is variable, and outcome studies consistently identify individuals who respond minimally to these interventions. Biomarkers that can assist in identifying patients likely to benefit from particular forms of cognitive remediation are needed. Here, we describe an event-related potential (ERP) biomarker - the auditory brain-stem response (ABR) to complex sounds (cABR) - that appears to be particularly well-suited for predicting response to at least one form of cognitive remediation that targets auditory information processing. Uniquely, the cABR quantifies the fidelity of sound encoded at the level of the brainstem and midbrain. This ERP biomarker has revealed auditory processing abnormalities in various neurodevelopmental disorders, correlates with functioning across several cognitive domains, and appears to be responsive to targeted auditory training. We present preliminary cABR data from 18 schizophrenia patients and propose further investigation of this biomarker for predicting and tracking response to cognitive interventions.

  8. The Auditory Brain-Stem Response to Complex Sounds: A Potential Biomarker for Guiding Treatment of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Tarasenko, Melissa A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Makeig, Scott; Braff, David L.; Light, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits limit psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. For many patients, cognitive remediation approaches have yielded encouraging results. Nevertheless, therapeutic response is variable, and outcome studies consistently identify individuals who respond minimally to these interventions. Biomarkers that can assist in identifying patients likely to benefit from particular forms of cognitive remediation are needed. Here, we describe an event-related potential (ERP) biomarker – the auditory brain-stem response (ABR) to complex sounds (cABR) – that appears to be particularly well-suited for predicting response to at least one form of cognitive remediation that targets auditory information processing. Uniquely, the cABR quantifies the fidelity of sound encoded at the level of the brainstem and midbrain. This ERP biomarker has revealed auditory processing abnormalities in various neurodevelopmental disorders, correlates with functioning across several cognitive domains, and appears to be responsive to targeted auditory training. We present preliminary cABR data from 18 schizophrenia patients and propose further investigation of this biomarker for predicting and tracking response to cognitive interventions. PMID:25352811

  9. Emotional self-other voice processing in schizophrenia and its relationship with hallucinations: ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Rezaii, Neguine; Rauber, Andréia; Nestor, Paul G; Spencer, Kevin M; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Abnormalities in self-other voice processing have been observed in schizophrenia, and may underlie the experience of hallucinations. More recent studies demonstrated that these impairments are enhanced for speech stimuli with negative content. Nonetheless, few studies probed the temporal dynamics of self versus nonself speech processing in schizophrenia and, particularly, the impact of semantic valence on self-other voice discrimination. In the current study, we examined these questions, and additionally probed whether impairments in these processes are associated with the experience of hallucinations. Fifteen schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy controls listened to 420 prerecorded adjectives differing in voice identity (self-generated [SGS] versus nonself speech [NSS]) and semantic valence (neutral, positive, and negative), while EEG data were recorded. The N1, P2, and late positive potential (LPP) ERP components were analyzed. ERP results revealed group differences in the interaction between voice identity and valence in the P2 and LPP components. Specifically, LPP amplitude was reduced in patients compared with healthy subjects for SGS and NSS with negative content. Further, auditory hallucinations severity was significantly predicted by LPP amplitude: the higher the SAPS "voices conversing" score, the larger the difference in LPP amplitude between negative and positive NSS. The absence of group differences in the N1 suggests that self-other voice processing abnormalities in schizophrenia are not primarily driven by disrupted sensory processing of voice acoustic information. The association between LPP amplitude and hallucination severity suggests that auditory hallucinations are associated with enhanced sustained attention to negative cues conveyed by a nonself voice. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Enhanced Development of Auditory Change Detection in Musically Trained School-Aged Children: A Longitudinal Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Saarikivi, Katri; Ojala, Pauliina; Huotilainen, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Adult musicians show superior auditory discrimination skills when compared to non-musicians. The enhanced auditory skills of musicians are reflected in the augmented amplitudes of their auditory event-related potential (ERP) responses. In the current study, we investigated longitudinally the development of auditory discrimination skills in…

  11. Infant ERPs Separate Children at Risk of Dyslexia Who Become Good Readers from Those Who Become Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuijen, Titia L.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A. M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with phonological processing deficits that can be reflected in the event-related potentials (ERPs). Here, we recorded ERPs from 2-month-old infants at risk of dyslexia and from a control group to investigate whether their auditory system processes /bAk/ and /dAk/ changes differently. The speech sounds were…

  12. How L2-Learners' Brains React to Code-Switches: An ERP Study with Russian Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruigendijk, Esther; Hentschel, Gerd; Zeller, Jan Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This Event Related Potentials (ERP) study investigates auditory processing of sentences with so-called code-switches in Russian learners of German. It has often been argued that switching between two languages results in extra processing cost, although it is not completely clear yet what exactly causes these costs. ERP presents a good method to…

  13. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN AUDITORY PROCESSING IN SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT: A FOLLOW-UP STUDY USING EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS AND BEHAVIOURAL THRESHOLDS

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; McArthur, Genevieve M.

    2005-01-01

    It has frequently been claimed that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have impaired auditory perception, but there is much controversy about the role of such deficits in causing their language problems, and it has been difficult to establish solid, replicable findings in this area. Discrepancies in this field may arise because (a) a focus on mean results obscures the heterogeneity in the population and (b) insufficient attention has been paid to maturational aspects of auditory processing. We conducted a study of 16 young people with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 control participants, 24 of whom had had auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) and frequency discrimination thresholds assessed 18 months previously. When originally assessed, around one third of the listeners with SLI had poor behavioural frequency discrimination thresholds, and these tended to be the younger participants. However, most of the SLI group had age-inappropriate late components of the auditory ERP, regardless of their frequency discrimination. At follow-up, the behavioural thresholds of those with poor frequency discrimination improved, though some remained outside the control range. At follow-up, ERPs for many of the individuals in the SLI group were still not age-appropriate. In several cases, waveforms of individuals in the SLI group resembled those of younger typically-developing children, though in other cases the waveform was unlike that of control cases at any age. Electrophysiological methods may reveal underlying immaturity or other abnormality of auditory processing even when behavioural thresholds look normal. This study emphasises the variability seen in SLI, and the importance of studying individual cases rather than focusing on group means. PMID:15871598

  14. Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation

    PubMed Central

    Knowland, Victoria CP; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael SC

    2014-01-01

    Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

  15. Diminished auditory sensory gating during active auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Robert J; Meier, Andrew; Houck, Jon; Clark, Vincent P; Lewine, Jeffrey D; Turner, Jessica; Calhoun, Vince; Stephen, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Auditory sensory gating, assessed in a paired-click paradigm, indicates the extent to which incoming stimuli are filtered, or "gated", in auditory cortex. Gating is typically computed as the ratio of the peak amplitude of the event related potential (ERP) to a second click (S2) divided by the peak amplitude of the ERP to a first click (S1). Higher gating ratios are purportedly indicative of incomplete suppression of S2 and considered to represent sensory processing dysfunction. In schizophrenia, hallucination severity is positively correlated with gating ratios, and it was hypothesized that a failure of sensory control processes early in auditory sensation (gating) may represent a larger system failure within the auditory data stream; resulting in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). EEG data were collected while patients (N=12) with treatment-resistant AVH pressed a button to indicate the beginning (AVH-on) and end (AVH-off) of each AVH during a paired click protocol. For each participant, separate gating ratios were computed for the P50, N100, and P200 components for each of the AVH-off and AVH-on states. AVH trait severity was assessed using the Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scales AVH Total score (PSYRATS). The results of a mixed model ANOVA revealed an overall effect for AVH state, such that gating ratios were significantly higher during the AVH-on state than during AVH-off for all three components. PSYRATS score was significantly and negatively correlated with N100 gating ratio only in the AVH-off state. These findings link onset of AVH with a failure of an empirically-defined auditory inhibition system, auditory sensory gating, and pave the way for a sensory gating model of AVH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception: evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Alsius, Agnès; Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko E.; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    Seeing articulatory movements influences perception of auditory speech. This is often reflected in a shortened latency of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) generated in the auditory cortex. The present study addressed whether this early neural correlate of audiovisual interaction is modulated by attention. We recorded ERPs in 15 subjects while they were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual spoken syllables. Audiovisual stimuli consisted of incongruent auditory and visual components known to elicit a McGurk effect, i.e., a visually driven alteration in the auditory speech percept. In a Dual task condition, participants were asked to identify spoken syllables whilst monitoring a rapid visual stream of pictures for targets, i.e., they had to divide their attention. In a Single task condition, participants identified the syllables without any other tasks, i.e., they were asked to ignore the pictures and focus their attention fully on the spoken syllables. The McGurk effect was weaker in the Dual task than in the Single task condition, indicating an effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception. Early auditory ERP components, N1 and P2, peaked earlier to audiovisual stimuli than to auditory stimuli when attention was fully focused on syllables, indicating neurophysiological audiovisual interaction. This latency decrement was reduced when attention was loaded, suggesting that attention influences early neural processing of audiovisual speech. We conclude that reduced attention weakens the interaction between vision and audition in speech. PMID:25076922

  17. Effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Alsius, Agnès; Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko E; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    Seeing articulatory movements influences perception of auditory speech. This is often reflected in a shortened latency of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) generated in the auditory cortex. The present study addressed whether this early neural correlate of audiovisual interaction is modulated by attention. We recorded ERPs in 15 subjects while they were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual spoken syllables. Audiovisual stimuli consisted of incongruent auditory and visual components known to elicit a McGurk effect, i.e., a visually driven alteration in the auditory speech percept. In a Dual task condition, participants were asked to identify spoken syllables whilst monitoring a rapid visual stream of pictures for targets, i.e., they had to divide their attention. In a Single task condition, participants identified the syllables without any other tasks, i.e., they were asked to ignore the pictures and focus their attention fully on the spoken syllables. The McGurk effect was weaker in the Dual task than in the Single task condition, indicating an effect of attentional load on audiovisual speech perception. Early auditory ERP components, N1 and P2, peaked earlier to audiovisual stimuli than to auditory stimuli when attention was fully focused on syllables, indicating neurophysiological audiovisual interaction. This latency decrement was reduced when attention was loaded, suggesting that attention influences early neural processing of audiovisual speech. We conclude that reduced attention weakens the interaction between vision and audition in speech.

  18. Auditory event-related potentials in methadone substituted opiate users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Grace Y; Kydd, Robert; Russell, Bruce R

    2015-09-01

    The effects of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) on neurophysiological function are unclear. Using an auditory oddball paradigm, event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes and latencies were measured in 32 patients undertaking MMT, 17 opiate users who were addicted but not receiving substitution treatment and 25 healthy control subjects. Compared with healthy control subjects, the MMT and opiate user groups showed an increased P200 amplitude in response to target stimuli. The opiate user group also exhibited a decreased amplitude and an increased latency of N200, and a greater number of task-related errors than either healthy control subjects or patients undertaking MMT. There were no significant group differences in the P300 amplitude. However, it is noteworthy that the frontal P300 amplitude of the MMT group was greater than that of opiate users or healthy controls. Our findings suggest that altered sensory information processing associated with a history of opiate use remains in patients undertaking MMT. However, there are less marked ERP abnormalities in those receiving MMT than in active opiate users. The deficits in information processing associated with illicit opiate use are likely to be reduced during MMT. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. ERPs and Eye Movements Reflect Atypical Visual Perception in Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, Chantal; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Many studies of eye tracking or event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) have yielded inconsistent results on attentional processing. However, recent studies have indicated that there are specific abnormalities in early processing that are probably related to perception. ERP amplitudes in…

  20. Higher Education ERP: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Dave; Orgill, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Shares experiences and lessons learned by chief information officers of large universities about enterprise resource planning (ERP). Specifically, provides a framework for approaching an ERP that could save universities millions of dollars. (EV)

  1. ERP-based detection of brain pathology in rat models for preclinical Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouriziabari, Seyed Berdia

    Early pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (HP-tau) in the entorhinal cortex and progressive loss of basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons. These pathologies are known to remain asymptomatic for many years before AD is clinically diagnosed; however, they may induce aberrant brain processing which can be captured as an abnormality in event-related potentials (ERPs). Here, we examined cortical ERPs while a differential associative learning paradigm was applied to adult male rats with entorhinal HP-tau, pharmacological blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or both conditions. Despite no impairment in differential associative and reversal learning, each pathological feature induced distinct abnormality in cortical ERPs to an extent that was sufficient for machine classifiers to accurately detect a specific type of pathology based on these ERP features. These results highlight a potential use of ERPs during differential associative learning as a biomarker for asymptomatic AD pathology.

  2. Familial auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuju; Gu, Rui; Han, Dongyi; Yang, Weiyan

    2003-09-01

    Auditory neuropathy is a sensorineural hearing disorder characterized by absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses and normal cochlear outer hair cell function as measured by otoacoustic emission recordings. Many risk factors are thought to be involved in its etiology and pathophysiology. Four Chinese pedigrees with familial auditory neuropathy were presented to demonstrate involvement of genetic factors in the etiology of auditory neuropathy. Probands of the above-mentioned pedigrees, who had been diagnosed with auditory neuropathy, were evaluated and followed in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, China People Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China). Their family members were studied, and the pedigree maps established. History of illness, physical examination, pure-tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, auditory brainstem responses, and transient evoked and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions were obtained from members of these families. Some subjects received vestibular caloric testing, computed tomography scan of the temporal bone, and electrocardiography to exclude other possible neuropathic disorders. In most affected patients, hearing loss of various degrees and speech discrimination difficulties started at 10 to 16 years of age. Their audiological evaluation showed absence of acoustic reflex and auditory brainstem responses. As expected in auditory neuropathy, these patients exhibited near-normal cochlear outer hair cell function as shown in distortion product otoacoustic emission recordings. Pure-tone audiometry revealed hearing loss ranging from mild to profound in these patients. Different inheritance patterns were observed in the four families. In Pedigree I, 7 male patients were identified among 43 family members, exhibiting an X-linked recessive pattern. Affected brothers were found in Pedigrees II and III, whereas in pedigree IV, two sisters were affected. All the patients were otherwise normal without evidence of

  3. Auditory agnosia.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Abnormalities of P300 cortical current density in unmedicated depressed patients revealed by LORETA analysis of event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Shin; Wang, Jijun; Hokama, Hiroto; Hiramatsu, Kenichi

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the neural substrates underlying event-related potential (ERP) abnormalities, with respect to the generators of the ERP components in depressed patients. Using an oddball paradigm, ERP from auditory stimuli were recorded from 22 unmedicated patients with current depressive episodes and compared with those from 22 age- and gender-matched normal controls. Cortical current densities of the N100 and P300 components were analyzed using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Group differences in cortical current density were mapped on a 3-D cortex model. The results revealed that N100 cortical current densities did not differ between the two groups, while P300 cortical current densities were significantly lower in depressed patients over the bilateral temporal lobes, the left frontal region, and the right temporal-parietal area. Furthermore, the cortical area in which the group difference in P300 current density had been identified was remarkably larger over the right than the left hemisphere, thus supporting the hypothesis of right hemisphere dysfunction in depression.

  5. Auditory Task Irrelevance: A Basis for Inattentional Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Menja; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Chuang, Lewis L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the neural basis of inattentional deafness, which could result from task irrelevance in the auditory modality. Background Humans can fail to respond to auditory alarms under high workload situations. This failure, termed inattentional deafness, is often attributed to high workload in the visual modality, which reduces one’s capacity for information processing. Besides this, our capacity for processing auditory information could also be selectively diminished if there is no obvious task relevance in the auditory channel. This could be another contributing factor given the rarity of auditory warnings. Method Forty-eight participants performed a visuomotor tracking task while auditory stimuli were presented: a frequent pure tone, an infrequent pure tone, and infrequent environmental sounds. Participants were required either to respond to the presentation of the infrequent pure tone (auditory task-relevant) or not (auditory task-irrelevant). We recorded and compared the event-related potentials (ERPs) that were generated by environmental sounds, which were always task-irrelevant for both groups. These ERPs served as an index for our participants’ awareness of the task-irrelevant auditory scene. Results Manipulation of auditory task relevance influenced the brain’s response to task-irrelevant environmental sounds. Specifically, the late novelty-P3 to irrelevant environmental sounds, which underlies working memory updating, was found to be selectively enhanced by auditory task relevance independent of visuomotor workload. Conclusion Task irrelevance in the auditory modality selectively reduces our brain’s responses to unexpected and irrelevant sounds regardless of visuomotor workload. Application Presenting relevant auditory information more often could mitigate the risk of inattentional deafness. PMID:29578754

  6. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory–auditory interactions in speech processing

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takayuki; Gracco, Vincent L.; Ostry, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound-specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009). In the present study, we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory–auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous) and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead) somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the ERP was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the ERP difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory–auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160 and 220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory–auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production. PMID:25452733

  7. Comparison of Pre-Attentive Auditory Discrimination at Gross and Fine Difference between Auditory Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Kumar, Prawin

    2016-10-01

    Introduction  Mismatch Negativity is a negative component of the event-related potential (ERP) elicited by any discriminable changes in auditory stimulation. Objective  The present study aimed to assess pre-attentive auditory discrimination skill with fine and gross difference between auditory stimuli. Method  Seventeen normal hearing individual participated in the study. To assess pre-attentive auditory discrimination skill with fine difference between auditory stimuli, we recorded mismatch negativity (MMN) with pair of stimuli (pure tones), using /1000 Hz/ and /1010 Hz/ with /1000 Hz/ as frequent stimulus and /1010 Hz/ as infrequent stimulus. Similarly, we used /1000 Hz/ and /1100 Hz/ with /1000 Hz/ as frequent stimulus and /1100 Hz/ as infrequent stimulus to assess pre-attentive auditory discrimination skill with gross difference between auditory stimuli. The study included 17 subjects with informed consent. We analyzed MMN for onset latency, offset latency, peak latency, peak amplitude, and area under the curve parameters. Result  Results revealed that MMN was present only in 64% of the individuals in both conditions. Further Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed no significant difference in all measures of MMN (onset latency, offset latency, peak latency, peak amplitude, and area under the curve) in both conditions. Conclusion  The present study showed similar pre-attentive skills for both conditions: fine (1000 Hz and 1010 Hz) and gross (1000 Hz and 1100 Hz) difference in auditory stimuli at a higher level (endogenous) of the auditory system.

  8. ERP Project Management Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    Implementing an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system is a major undertaking for any higher education institution, with many challenges along the way. More than three years ago, Roane State Community College began a journey to implement an ERP system. Roane State recently completed a very successful implementation of the SunGard Banner Student…

  9. Stay on the ERP Treadmill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses University of Central Florida's proactive approach to enterprise resource planning (ERP) and highlights UCF's success with ERP. The article points out that much of this success comes from the strength and management experience of those in leadership positions at UCF, and from the expertise and strong credentials of the team…

  10. Differential responses of primary auditory cortex in autistic spectrum disorder with auditory hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Goto, Tetsu; Sanefuji, Wakako; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Sakai, Saeko; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Mohri, Ikuko; Yorifuji, Shiro; Taniike, Masako

    2012-01-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differential responses of the primary auditory cortex to auditory stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder with or without auditory hypersensitivity. Auditory-evoked field values were obtained from 18 boys (nine with and nine without auditory hypersensitivity) with autistic spectrum disorder and 12 age-matched controls. Autistic disorder with hypersensitivity showed significantly more delayed M50/M100 peak latencies than autistic disorder without hypersensitivity or the control. M50 dipole moments in the hypersensitivity group were larger than those in the other two groups [corrected]. M50/M100 peak latencies were correlated with the severity of auditory hypersensitivity; furthermore, severe hypersensitivity induced more behavioral problems. This study indicates auditory hypersensitivity in autistic spectrum disorder as a characteristic response of the primary auditory cortex, possibly resulting from neurological immaturity or functional abnormalities in it. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  11. Effect of EEG Referencing Methods on Auditory Mismatch Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Yatin; Peter, Varghese; Sharma, Mridula

    2017-01-01

    Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have consistently been used in the investigation of auditory and cognitive processing in the research and clinical laboratories. There is currently no consensus on the choice of appropriate reference for auditory ERPs. The most commonly used references in auditory ERP research are the mathematically linked-mastoids (LM) and average referencing (AVG). Since LM and AVG referencing procedures do not solve the issue of electrically-neutral reference, Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST) was developed to create a neutral reference for EEG recordings. The aim of the current research is to compare the influence of the reference on amplitude and latency of auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) as a function of magnitude of frequency deviance across three commonly used electrode montages (16, 32, and 64-channel) using REST, LM, and AVG reference procedures. The current study was designed to determine if the three reference methods capture the variation in amplitude and latency of MMN with the deviance magnitude. We recorded MMN from 12 normal hearing young adults in an auditory oddball paradigm with 1,000 Hz pure tone as standard and 1,030, 1,100, and 1,200 Hz as small, medium and large frequency deviants, respectively. The EEG data recorded to these sounds was re-referenced using REST, LM, and AVG methods across 16-, 32-, and 64-channel EEG electrode montages. Results revealed that while the latency of MMN decreased with increment in frequency of deviant sounds, no effect of frequency deviance was present for amplitude of MMN. There was no effect of referencing procedure on the experimental effect tested. The amplitude of MMN was largest when the ERP was computed using LM referencing and the REST referencing produced the largest amplitude of MMN for 64-channel montage. There was no effect of electrode-montage on AVG referencing induced ERPs. Contrary to our predictions, the results suggest that the auditory MMN elicited

  12. From ERPs to academics.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H; Pontifex, Matthew B; Motl, Robert W; O'Leary, Kevin C; Johnson, Christopher R; Scudder, Mark R; Raine, Lauren B; Castelli, Darla M

    2012-02-15

    Standardized tests have been used to forecast scholastic success of school-age children, and have been related to intelligence, working memory, and inhibition using neuropsychological tests. However, ERP correlates of standardized achievement have not been reported. Thus, the relationship between academic achievement and the P3 component was assessed in a sample of 105 children during performance on a Go/NoGo task. The Wide Range Achievement Test - 3rd edition was administered to assess aptitude in reading, spelling, and arithmetic. Regression analyses indicated an independent contribution of P3 amplitude to reading and arithmetic achievement beyond the variance accounted for by IQ and school grade. No such relationship was observed for spelling. These data suggest that the P3, which reflects attentional processes involved in stimulus evaluation and inhibitory control may be a biomarker for academic achievement during childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations constitute a phenomenologically rich group of endogenously mediated percepts which are associated with psychiatric, neurologic, otologic, and other medical conditions, but which are also experienced by 10-15% of all healthy individuals in the general population. The group of phenomena is probably best known for its verbal auditory subtype, but it also includes musical hallucinations, echo of reading, exploding-head syndrome, and many other types. The subgroup of verbal auditory hallucinations has been studied extensively with the aid of neuroimaging techniques, and from those studies emerges an outline of a functional as well as a structural network of widely distributed brain areas involved in their mediation. The present chapter provides an overview of the various types of auditory hallucination described in the literature, summarizes our current knowledge of the auditory networks involved in their mediation, and draws on ideas from the philosophy of science and network science to reconceptualize the auditory hallucinatory experience, and point out directions for future research into its neurobiologic substrates. In addition, it provides an overview of known associations with various clinical conditions and of the existing evidence for pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Whole Is More than the Sum of Its Parts--Audiovisual Processing of Phonemes Investigated with ERPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Dorte; Jonkers, Roel; Stowe, Laurie; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-01-01

    In the current ERP study, an active oddball task was carried out, testing pure tones and auditory, visual and audiovisual syllables. For pure tones, an MMN, an N2b, and a P3 were found, confirming traditional findings. Auditory syllables evoked an N2 and a P3. We found that the amplitude of the P3 depended on the distance between standard and…

  15. Produktionslogistik mit ERP-Systemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Jürgen

    Im Folgenden werden die Teilprozesse der Produktionslogistik bei Eigenfertigung unter Einsatz des ERP-Systems SAP R/3 beschrieben. Dabei wird die häufigste Fertigungsart, die kundenanonyme Losfertigung, zugrundegelegt.

  16. The effect of a movie soundtrack on auditory event-related potentials in children, adolescents, and adults.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Yatin; McArthur, Genevieve

    2011-05-01

    To determine if an audible movie soundtrack has a degrading effect on the auditory P1, N1, P2, N2, or mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials (ERPs) in children, adolescents, or adults. The auditory ERPs of 36 children, 32 young adolescents, 19 older adolescents, and 10 adults were measured while they watched a movie in two conditions: with an audible soundtrack and with a silent soundtrack. In children and adolescents, the audible movie soundtrack had a significant impact on amplitude, latency or split-half reliability of the N1, P2, N2, and MMN ERPs. The audible soundtrack had minimal impact on the auditory ERPs of adults. These findings challenge previous claims that an audible soundtrack does not degrade the auditory ERPs of children. Further, the reliability of the MMN is poorer than P1, N1, P2, and N2 peaks in both sound-off and sound-on conditions. Researchers should be cautious about using an audible movie soundtrack when measuring auditory ERPs in younger listeners. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  17. Auditory Spatial Perception: Auditory Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    cochlear nucleus, TB – trapezoid body, SOC – superior olivary complex, LL – lateral lemniscus, IC – inferior colliculus. Adapted from Aharonson and...Figure 5. Auditory pathways in the central nervous system. LE – left ear, RE – right ear, AN – auditory nerve, CN – cochlear nucleus, TB...fibers leaving the left and right inner ear connect directly to the synaptic inputs of the cochlear nucleus (CN) on the same (ipsilateral) side of

  18. Neurophysiological evidence for a processing bias towards schizophrenia-associated communication abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Best, Michael W; Bowie, Christopher R

    2015-12-01

    The current study aimed to examine the effects of diagnostic and symptomatic information on auditory linguistic event-related potentials (ERPs) in the listener, in response to speech containing schizophrenia-associated communication abnormalities. 73 participants listened to conversation segments while continuous EEG was recorded. Participants were told that the responder in the conversation was either a university student, had symptoms from a stroke, had symptoms from schizophrenia, or had recovered from schizophrenia. The final word of the response was randomly presented as a typical ending, word approximation, neologism, or filler ending. A significant N400 was observed over centro-parietal electrode sites in response to word approximations and neologisms in the university student condition only. There were no differences between conditions in the N100 ERP, and EEG measures were not related to either subjective or objective measures of stigmatizing attitudes. The N400 effect may represent disengagement, at a semantic level, from what an individual is saying based on symptomatic or diagnostic information about schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The interoperability force in the ERP field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boza, Andrés; Cuenca, Llanos; Poler, Raúl; Michaelides, Zenon

    2015-04-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems participate in interoperability projects and this participation sometimes leads to new proposals for the ERP field. The aim of this paper is to identify the role that interoperability plays in the evolution of ERP systems. To go about this, ERP systems have been first identified within interoperability frameworks. Second, the initiatives in the ERP field driven by interoperability requirements have been identified from two perspectives: technological and business. The ERP field is evolving from classical ERP as information system integrators to a new generation of fully interoperable ERP. Interoperability is changing the way of running business, and ERP systems are changing to adapt to the current stream of interoperability.

  20. Classification of passive auditory event-related potentials using discriminant analysis and self-organizing feature maps.

    PubMed

    Schönweiler, R; Wübbelt, P; Tolloczko, R; Rose, C; Ptok, M

    2000-01-01

    Discriminant analysis (DA) and self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) were used to classify passively evoked auditory event-related potentials (ERP) P(1), N(1), P(2) and N(2). Responses from 16 children with severe behavioral auditory perception deficits, 16 children with marked behavioral auditory perception deficits, and 14 controls were examined. Eighteen ERP amplitude parameters were selected for examination of statistical differences between the groups. Different DA methods and SOFM configurations were trained to the values. SOFM had better classification results than DA methods. Subsequently, measures on another 37 subjects that were unknown for the trained SOFM were used to test the reliability of the system. With 10-dimensional vectors, reliable classifications were obtained that matched behavioral auditory perception deficits in 96%, implying central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The results also support the assumption that CAPD includes a 'non-peripheral' auditory processing deficit. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Can spectro-temporal complexity explain the autistic pattern of performance on auditory tasks?

    PubMed

    Samson, Fabienne; Mottron, Laurent; Jemel, Boutheina; Belin, Pascal; Ciocca, Valter

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that level of neural complexity explain the relative level of performance and brain activity in autistic individuals, available behavioural, ERP and imaging findings related to the perception of increasingly complex auditory material under various processing tasks in autism were reviewed. Tasks involving simple material (pure tones) and/or low-level operations (detection, labelling, chord disembedding, detection of pitch changes) show a superior level of performance and shorter ERP latencies. In contrast, tasks involving spectrally- and temporally-dynamic material and/or complex operations (evaluation, attention) are poorly performed by autistics, or generate inferior ERP activity or brain activation. Neural complexity required to perform auditory tasks may therefore explain pattern of performance and activation of autistic individuals during auditory tasks.

  2. Intrinsic Factors for Continued ERP Learning: A Precursor to Interdisciplinary ERP Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kuanchin; Razi, Muhammad; Rienzo, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral enterprise resource planning (ERP) curriculum improvements from the instructor's perspective are likely to generate only limited success. Understanding student motivations and beliefs with ERP systems is the missing link to effective ERP education. Relatively little attention in the ERP literature has been given to student learning…

  3. Hands-On ERP Learning: Using OpenERP[R], an Alternative to SAP[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyagari, Ramakrishna

    2011-01-01

    Recent struggles with ERP systems (Kanaracus, 2010) highlight that teaching ERP skills is still very relevant today. Previous research suggests that knowledge of ERP concepts is more important than skills with any particular ERP package (Strong et al., 2006). However, a review of published studies in "JISE" shows a bias towards commercial ERP…

  4. Teaching ERP Systems: A Multi-Perspective View on the ERP System Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Axel; Leyh, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in university courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward a few large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Therefore, this paper describes a course outline for an additional course…

  5. A comparative study on long-term evoked auditory and visual potential responses between Schizophrenic patients and normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The electrical signals measuring method is recommended to examine the relationship between neuronal activities and measure with the event related potentials (ERPs) during an auditory and a visual oddball paradigm between schizophrenic patients and normal subjects. The aim of this study is to discriminate the activation changes of different stimulations evoked by auditory and visual ERPs between schizophrenic patients and normal subjects. Methods Forty-three schizophrenic patients were selected as experimental group patients, and 40 healthy subjects with no medical history of any kind of psychiatric diseases, neurological diseases, or drug abuse, were recruited as a control group. Auditory and visual ERPs were studied with an oddball paradigm. All the data were analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 10.0. Results In the comparative study of auditory and visual ERPs between the schizophrenic and healthy patients, P300 amplitude at Fz, Cz, and Pz and N100, N200, and P200 latencies at Fz, Cz, and Pz were shown significantly different. The cognitive processing reflected by the auditory and the visual P300 latency to rare target stimuli was probably an indicator of the cognitive function in schizophrenic patients. Conclusions This study shows the methodology of application of auditory and visual oddball paradigm identifies task-relevant sources of activity and allows separation of regions that have different response properties. Our study indicates that there may be slowness of automatic cognitive processing and controlled cognitive processing of visual ERPs compared to auditory ERPs in schizophrenic patients. The activation changes of visual evoked potentials are more regionally specific than auditory evoked potentials. PMID:21542917

  6. Visual form predictions facilitate auditory processing at the N1.

    PubMed

    Paris, Tim; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

    2017-02-20

    Auditory-visual (AV) events often involve a leading visual cue (e.g. auditory-visual speech) that allows the perceiver to generate predictions about the upcoming auditory event. Electrophysiological evidence suggests that when an auditory event is predicted, processing is sped up, i.e., the N1 component of the ERP occurs earlier (N1 facilitation). However, it is not clear (1) whether N1 facilitation is based specifically on predictive rather than multisensory integration and (2) which particular properties of the visual cue it is based on. The current experiment used artificial AV stimuli in which visual cues predicted but did not co-occur with auditory cues. Visual form cues (high and low salience) and the auditory-visual pairing were manipulated so that auditory predictions could be based on form and timing or on timing only. The results showed that N1 facilitation occurred only for combined form and temporal predictions. These results suggest that faster auditory processing (as indicated by N1 facilitation) is based on predictive processing generated by a visual cue that clearly predicts both what and when the auditory stimulus will occur. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Long-term neurocognitive outcome and auditory event-related potentials after complex febrile seizures in children.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Lan; Hung, Kun-Long; Tsan, Ying-Ying; Tung, William Tao-Hsin

    2015-06-01

    Whether prolonged or complex febrile seizures (FS) produce long-term injury to the hippocampus is a critical question concerning the neurocognitive outcome of these seizures. Long-term event-related evoked potential (ERP) recording from the scalp is a noninvasive technique reflecting the sensory and cognitive processes associated with attention tasks. This study aimed to investigate the long-term outcome of neurocognitive and attention functions and evaluated auditory event-related potentials in children who have experienced complex FS in comparison with other types of FS. One hundred and forty-seven children aged more than 6 years who had experienced complex FS, simple single FS, simple recurrent FS, or afebrile seizures (AFS) after FS and age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Patients were evaluated with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC; Chinese WISC-IV) scores, behavior test scores (Chinese version of Conners' continuous performance test, CPT II V.5), and behavior rating scales. Auditory ERPs were recorded in each patient. Patients who had experienced complex FS exhibited significantly lower full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), perceptual reasoning index, and working memory index scores than did the control group but did not show significant differences in CPT scores, behavior rating scales, or ERP latencies and amplitude compared with the other groups with FS. We found a significant decrease in the FSIQ and four indices of the WISC-IV, higher behavior rating scales, a trend of increased CPT II scores, and significantly delayed P300 latency and reduced P300 amplitude in the patients with AFS after FS. We conclude that there is an effect on cognitive function in children who have experienced complex FS and patients who developed AFS after FS. The results indicated that the WISC-IV is more sensitive in detecting cognitive abnormality than ERP. Cognition impairment, including perceptual reasoning and working memory defects, was identified in

  8. Enhanced attention-dependent activity in the auditory cortex of older musicians.

    PubMed

    Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Alain, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Musical training improves auditory processing abilities, which correlates with neuro-plastic changes in exogenous (input-driven) and endogenous (attention-dependent) components of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). Evidence suggests that musicians, compared to non-musicians, experience less age-related decline in auditory processing abilities. Here, we investigated whether lifelong musicianship mitigates exogenous or endogenous processing by measuring auditory ERPs in younger and older musicians and non-musicians while they either attended to auditory stimuli or watched a muted subtitled movie of their choice. Both age and musical training-related differences were observed in the exogenous components; however, the differences between musicians and non-musicians were similar across the lifespan. These results suggest that exogenous auditory ERPs are enhanced in musicians, but decline with age at the same rate. On the other hand, attention-related activity, modeled in the right auditory cortex using a discrete spatiotemporal source analysis, was selectively enhanced in older musicians. This suggests that older musicians use a compensatory strategy to overcome age-related decline in peripheral and exogenous processing of acoustic information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modality Switching in a Property Verification Task: An ERP Study of What Happens When Candles Flicker after High Heels Click

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jennifer; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Coulson, Seana

    2011-01-01

    The perceptual modalities associated with property words, such as flicker or click, have previously been demonstrated to affect subsequent property verification judgments (Pecher et al., 2003). Known as the conceptual modality switch effect, this finding supports the claim that brain systems for perception and action help subserve the representation of concepts. The present study addressed the cognitive and neural substrate of this effect by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants performed a property verification task with visual or auditory properties in key trials. We found that for visual property verifications, modality switching was associated with an increased amplitude N400. For auditory verifications, switching led to a larger late positive complex. Observed ERP effects of modality switching suggest property words access perceptual brain systems. Moreover, the timing and pattern of the effects suggest perceptual systems impact the decision-making stage in the verification of auditory properties, and the semantic stage in the verification of visual properties. PMID:21713128

  10. Selective attention and the "Asynchrony Theory" in native Hebrew-speaking adult dyslexics: Behavioral and ERPs measures.

    PubMed

    Menashe, Shay

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to determine whether adult dyslexic readers demonstrate the "Asynchrony Theory" (Breznitz [Reading Fluency: Synchronization of Processes, Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2006]) when selective attention is studied. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral parameters were collected from nonimpaired readers group and dyslexic readers group performing alphabetic and nonalphabetic tasks. The dyslexic readers group was found to demonstrate asynchrony between the auditory and the visual modalities when it came to processing alphabetic stimuli. These findings were found both for behavioral and ERPs parameters. Unlike the dyslexic readers, the nonimpaired readers showed synchronized speed of processing in the auditory and the visual modalities while processing alphabetic stimuli. The current study suggests that established reading is dependent on a synchronization between the auditory and the visual modalities even when it comes to selective attention.

  11. Modality Switching in a Property Verification Task: An ERP Study of What Happens When Candles Flicker after High Heels Click.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Coulson, Seana

    2011-01-01

    The perceptual modalities associated with property words, such as flicker or click, have previously been demonstrated to affect subsequent property verification judgments (Pecher et al., 2003). Known as the conceptual modality switch effect, this finding supports the claim that brain systems for perception and action help subserve the representation of concepts. The present study addressed the cognitive and neural substrate of this effect by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants performed a property verification task with visual or auditory properties in key trials. We found that for visual property verifications, modality switching was associated with an increased amplitude N400. For auditory verifications, switching led to a larger late positive complex. Observed ERP effects of modality switching suggest property words access perceptual brain systems. Moreover, the timing and pattern of the effects suggest perceptual systems impact the decision-making stage in the verification of auditory properties, and the semantic stage in the verification of visual properties.

  12. Cognitive, neurophysiological, and functional correlates of proverb interpretation abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Michael; Light, Gregory A; Prugh, Jocelyn; Coulson, Seana; Braff, David L; Kutas, Marta

    2007-07-01

    A hallmark of schizophrenia is impaired proverb interpretation, which could be due to: (1) aberrant activation of disorganized semantic associations, or (2) working memory (WM) deficits. We assessed 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 normal control participants on proverb interpretation, and evaluated these two hypotheses by examining within patients the correlations of proverb interpretation with disorganized symptoms and auditory WM, respectively. Secondarily, we also explored the relationships between proverb interpretation and a spectrum of cognitive functions including auditory sensory-memory encoding (as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related brain potential (ERP)); executive function; and social/occupational function. As expected, schizophrenia patients produced less accurate and less abstract descriptions of proverbs than did controls. These proverb interpretation difficulties in patients were not significantly correlated with disorganization or other symptom factors, but were significantly correlated (p < .05) with WM impairment, as well as with impairments in sensory-memory encoding, executive function, and social/occupational function. These results offer no support for disorganized associations in abnormal proverb interpretation in schizophrenia, but implicate WM deficits, perhaps as a part of a syndrome related to generalized frontal cortical dysfunction.

  13. Evaluation of auditory perception development in neonates by event-related potential technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinfen; Li, Hongxin; Zheng, Aibin; Dong, Xuan; Tu, Wenjuan

    2017-08-01

    To investigate auditory perception development in neonates and correlate it with days after birth, left and right hemisphere development and sex using event-related potential (ERP) technique. Sixty full-term neonates, consisting of 32 males and 28 females, aged 2-28days were included in this study. An auditory oddball paradigm was used to elicit ERPs. N2 wave latencies and areas were recorded at different days after birth, to study on relationship between auditory perception and age, and comparison of left and right hemispheres, and males and females. Average wave forms of ERPs in neonates started from relatively irregular flat-bottomed troughs to relatively regular steep-sided ripples. A good linear relationship between ERPs and days after birth in neonates was observed. As days after birth increased, N2 latencies gradually and significantly shortened, and N2 areas gradually and significantly increased (both P<0.01). N2 areas in the central part of the brain were significantly greater, and N2 latencies in the central part were significantly shorter in the left hemisphere compared with the right, indicative of left hemisphere dominance (both P<0.05). N2 areas were greater and N2 latencies shorter in female neonates compared with males. The neonatal period is one of rapid auditory perception development. In the days following birth, the auditory perception ability of neonates gradually increases. This occurs predominantly in the left hemisphere, with auditory perception ability appearing to develop earlier in female neonates than in males. ERP can be used as an objective index used to evaluate auditory perception development in neonates. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. From amnesia to dementia: ERP studies of memory and language.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jason R; Olichney, John M

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive event-related potential (ERP) studies of memory and language impairments in amnesia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are reviewed. Well-circumscribed lesions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) or diencephalon causing an amnestic syndrome, an inability to encode and retrieve episodic memories beyond the brief duration of working memory, appear to produce altered plasticity of the late positive P600 component, but usually spare P300 and N400 components. The neuropathology of AD affects MTL and extends to neocortical association areas, causing deficits of episodic and semantic memory. In AD dementia, the P300, N400, and P600 all commonly show abnormalities. ERP studies of individuals with mild cognitive impairment may reveal neurophysiological changes prior to the emergence of clinical deficits, which could advance the early detection and diagnosis of AD.

  15. Neurofeedback-Based Enhancement of Single-Trial Auditory Evoked Potentials: Treatment of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Kathryn; Rarra, Marie-Helene; Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Hubl, Daniela; Koenig, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations depend on a broad neurobiological network ranging from the auditory system to language as well as memory-related processes. As part of this, the auditory N100 event-related potential (ERP) component is attenuated in patients with schizophrenia, with stronger attenuation occurring during auditory verbal hallucinations. Changes in the N100 component assumingly reflect disturbed responsiveness of the auditory system toward external stimuli in schizophrenia. With this premise, we investigated the therapeutic utility of neurofeedback training to modulate the auditory-evoked N100 component in patients with schizophrenia and associated auditory verbal hallucinations. Ten patients completed electroencephalography neurofeedback training for modulation of N100 (treatment condition) or another unrelated component, P200 (control condition). On a behavioral level, only the control group showed a tendency for symptom improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score in a pre-/postcomparison ( t (4) = 2.71, P = .054); however, no significant differences were found in specific hallucination related symptoms ( t (7) = -0.53, P = .62). There was no significant overall effect of neurofeedback training on ERP components in our paradigm; however, we were able to identify different learning patterns, and found a correlation between learning and improvement in auditory verbal hallucination symptoms across training sessions ( r = 0.664, n = 9, P = .05). This effect results, with cautious interpretation due to the small sample size, primarily from the treatment group ( r = 0.97, n = 4, P = .03). In particular, a within-session learning parameter showed utility for predicting symptom improvement with neurofeedback training. In conclusion, patients with schizophrenia and associated auditory verbal hallucinations who exhibit a learning pattern more characterized by within-session aptitude may benefit from electroencephalography neurofeedback

  16. ERP Software Implementation Best Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Pollyanne S.; Southerland, Arthur R.; Johnson, James T.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the perceptions of chief financial and information officers of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software implementation best practices. Usable responses from 159 respondents show consensus for the most part between the perceptions of the two groups and describe some best practices that represent common ground. (SLD)

  17. Current understanding of auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Boo, Nem-Yun

    2008-12-01

    Auditory neuropathy is defined by the presence of normal evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The sites of lesion could be at the cochlear inner hair cells, spiral ganglion cells of the cochlea, synapse between the inner hair cells and auditory nerve, or the auditory nerve itself. Genetic, infectious or neonatal/perinatal insults are the 3 most commonly identified underlying causes. Children usually present with delay in speech and language development while adult patients present with hearing loss and disproportionately poor speech discrimination for the degree of hearing loss. Although cochlear implant is the treatment of choice, current evidence show that it benefits only those patients with endocochlear lesions, but not those with cochlear nerve deficiency or central nervous system disorders. As auditory neuropathy is a disorder with potential long-term impact on a child's development, early hearing screen using both OAE and ABR should be carried out on all newborns and infants to allow early detection and intervention.

  18. Event-related potential study to aversive auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Czigler, István; Cox, Trevor J; Gyimesi, Kinga; Horváth, János

    2007-06-15

    In an auditory oddball task emotionally negative (aversive) sounds (e.g. rubbing together of polystyrene) and everyday sounds (e.g. ringing of a bicycle bell) were presented as task-irrelevant (novel) sounds. Both the aversive and the everyday sounds elicited the orientation-related P3a component of the event-related potentials (ERPs). In the 154-250 ms range the ERPs for the aversive sounds were more negative than the ERP of the everyday sounds. For the aversive sounds, this negativity was followed by a frontal positive wave (372-456 ms). The aversive sounds elicited larger late positive shift than the everyday sounds. The early negativity is considered as an initial effect in a broad neural network including limbic structures, while the later is related to the cognitive assessment of the stimuli and to memory-related processes.

  19. ERPs Associated with Monitoring and Evaluation of Monetary Reward and Punishment in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Meel, Catharina S.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Luman, Marjolein; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose abnormalities in the response to behavioural contingencies. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated the monitoring and subsequent evaluation of performance feedback resulting in either reward or punishment in children with ADHD (N =…

  20. Temporal Information of Directed Causal Connectivity in Multi-Trial ERP Data using Partial Granger Causality.

    PubMed

    Youssofzadeh, Vahab; Prasad, Girijesh; Naeem, Muhammad; Wong-Lin, KongFatt

    2016-01-01

    Partial Granger causality (PGC) has been applied to analyse causal functional neural connectivity after effectively mitigating confounding influences caused by endogenous latent variables and exogenous environmental inputs. However, it is not known how this connectivity obtained from PGC evolves over time. Furthermore, PGC has yet to be tested on realistic nonlinear neural circuit models and multi-trial event-related potentials (ERPs) data. In this work, we first applied a time-domain PGC technique to evaluate simulated neural circuit models, and demonstrated that the PGC measure is more accurate and robust in detecting connectivity patterns as compared to conditional Granger causality and partial directed coherence, especially when the circuit is intrinsically nonlinear. Moreover, the connectivity in PGC settles faster into a stable and correct configuration over time. After method verification, we applied PGC to reveal the causal connections of ERP trials of a mismatch negativity auditory oddball paradigm. The PGC analysis revealed a significant bilateral but asymmetrical localised activity in the temporal lobe close to the auditory cortex, and causal influences in the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortical areas, consistent with previous studies. Interestingly, the time to reach a stable connectivity configuration (~250–300 ms) coincides with the deviation of ensemble ERPs of oddball from standard tones. Finally, using a sliding time window, we showed higher resolution dynamics of causal connectivity within an ERP trial. In summary, time-domain PGC is promising in deciphering directed functional connectivity in nonlinear and ERP trials accurately, and at a sufficiently early stage. This data-driven approach can reduce computational time, and determine the key architecture for neural circuit modeling.

  1. Neural effects of cognitive control load on auditory selective attention

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Merav; Humphries, Colin; Verber, Matthew; Liebenthal, Einat; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Mangalathu, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Whether and how working memory disrupts or alters auditory selective attention is unclear. We compared simultaneous event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses associated with task-irrelevant sounds across high and low working memory load in a dichotic-listening paradigm. Participants performed n-back tasks (1-back, 2-back) in one ear (Attend ear) while ignoring task-irrelevant speech sounds in the other ear (Ignore ear). The effects of working memory load on selective attention were observed at 130-210 msec, with higher load resulting in greater irrelevant syllable-related activation in localizer-defined regions in auditory cortex. The interaction between memory load and presence of irrelevant information revealed stronger activations primarily in frontal and parietal areas due to presence of irrelevant information in the higher memory load. Joint independent component analysis of ERP and fMRI data revealed that the ERP component in the N1 time-range is associated with activity in superior temporal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate a dynamic relationship between working memory load and auditory selective attention, in agreement with the load model of attention and the idea of common neural resources for memory and attention. PMID:24946314

  2. Neural effects of cognitive control load on auditory selective attention.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Merav; Humphries, Colin; Verber, Matthew; Liebenthal, Einat; Binder, Jeffrey R; Mangalathu, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2014-08-01

    Whether and how working memory disrupts or alters auditory selective attention is unclear. We compared simultaneous event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses associated with task-irrelevant sounds across high and low working memory load in a dichotic-listening paradigm. Participants performed n-back tasks (1-back, 2-back) in one ear (Attend ear) while ignoring task-irrelevant speech sounds in the other ear (Ignore ear). The effects of working memory load on selective attention were observed at 130-210ms, with higher load resulting in greater irrelevant syllable-related activation in localizer-defined regions in auditory cortex. The interaction between memory load and presence of irrelevant information revealed stronger activations primarily in frontal and parietal areas due to presence of irrelevant information in the higher memory load. Joint independent component analysis of ERP and fMRI data revealed that the ERP component in the N1 time-range is associated with activity in superior temporal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate a dynamic relationship between working memory load and auditory selective attention, in agreement with the load model of attention and the idea of common neural resources for memory and attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early visual ERPs are influenced by individual emotional skills

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Sylvie; Batty, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Processing information from faces is crucial to understanding others and to adapting to social life. Many studies have investigated responses to facial emotions to provide a better understanding of the processes and the neural networks involved. Moreover, several studies have revealed abnormalities of emotional face processing and their neural correlates in affective disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether early visual event-related potentials (ERPs) are affected by the emotional skills of healthy adults. Unfamiliar faces expressing the six basic emotions were presented to 28 young adults while recording visual ERPs. No specific task was required during the recording. Participants also completed the Social Skills Inventory (SSI) which measures social and emotional skills. The results confirmed that early visual ERPs (P1, N170) are affected by the emotions expressed by a face and also demonstrated that N170 and P2 are correlated to the emotional skills of healthy subjects. While N170 is sensitive to the subject’s emotional sensitivity and expressivity, P2 is modulated by the ability of the subjects to control their emotions. We therefore suggest that N170 and P2 could be used as individual markers to assess strengths and weaknesses in emotional areas and could provide information for further investigations of affective disorders. PMID:23720573

  4. Early visual ERPs are influenced by individual emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Meaux, Emilie; Roux, Sylvie; Batty, Magali

    2014-08-01

    Processing information from faces is crucial to understanding others and to adapting to social life. Many studies have investigated responses to facial emotions to provide a better understanding of the processes and the neural networks involved. Moreover, several studies have revealed abnormalities of emotional face processing and their neural correlates in affective disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether early visual event-related potentials (ERPs) are affected by the emotional skills of healthy adults. Unfamiliar faces expressing the six basic emotions were presented to 28 young adults while recording visual ERPs. No specific task was required during the recording. Participants also completed the Social Skills Inventory (SSI) which measures social and emotional skills. The results confirmed that early visual ERPs (P1, N170) are affected by the emotions expressed by a face and also demonstrated that N170 and P2 are correlated to the emotional skills of healthy subjects. While N170 is sensitive to the subject's emotional sensitivity and expressivity, P2 is modulated by the ability of the subjects to control their emotions. We therefore suggest that N170 and P2 could be used as individual markers to assess strengths and weaknesses in emotional areas and could provide information for further investigations of affective disorders. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Functional auditory disorders.

    PubMed

    Baguley, D M; Cope, T E; McFerran, D J

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of auditory symptom syndromes that can develop without an organic basis. Some of these, such as nonorganic hearing loss, affect populations similar to those presenting with functional somatosensory and motor symptoms, while others, such as musical hallucination, affect populations with a significantly different demographic and require different treatment strategies. Many of these conditions owe their origin to measurably abnormal peripheral sensory pathology or brain network activity, but their pathological impact is often due, at least in part, to overamplification of the salience of these phenomena. For each syndrome, this chapter briefly outlines a definition, demographics, investigations, putative mechanisms, and treatment strategies. Consideration is given to what extent they can be considered to have a functional basis. Treatments are in many cases pragmatic and rudimentary, needing more work to be done in integrating insights from behavioral and cognitive psychology to auditory neuroscience. The audiology literature has historically equated the term functional with malingering, although this perception is, thankfully, slowly changing. These disorders transcend the disciplines of audiology, otorhinolaryngology, neurology and psychiatry, and a multidisciplinary approach is often rewarding. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Can Spectro-Temporal Complexity Explain the Autistic Pattern of Performance on Auditory Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Fabienne; Mottron, Laurent; Jemel, Boutheina; Belin, Pascal; Ciocca, Valter

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that level of neural complexity explain the relative level of performance and brain activity in autistic individuals, available behavioural, ERP and imaging findings related to the perception of increasingly complex auditory material under various processing tasks in autism were reviewed. Tasks involving simple material…

  7. Using ERPs for assessing the (sub) conscious perception of noise.

    PubMed

    Porbadnigk, Anne K; Antons, Jan-N; Blankertz, Benjamin; Treder, Matthias S; Schleicher, Robert; Moller, Sebastian; Curio, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) as a quantitative measure for quality assessment of disturbed audio signals. For this purpose, we ran an EEG study (N=11) using an oddball paradigm, during which subjects were presented with the phoneme /a/, superimposed with varying degrees of signal-correlated noise. Based on this data set, we address the question to which degree the degradation of the auditory stimuli is reflected on a neural level, even if the disturbance is below the threshold of conscious perception. For those stimuli that are consciously recognized as being disturbed, we suggest the use of the amplitude and latency of the P300 component for assessing the level of disturbance. For disturbed stimuli for which the noise is not perceived consciously, we show for two subjects that a classifier based on shrinkage LDA can be applied successfully to single out stimuli, for which the noise was presumably processed subconsciously.

  8. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Tahaei, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Pourbakht, Akram; Kamali, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency. PMID:25215262

  9. Reduced auditory processing capacity during vocalization in children with Selective Mutism.

    PubMed

    Arie, Miri; Henkin, Yael; Lamy, Dominique; Tetin-Schneider, Simona; Apter, Alan; Sadeh, Avi; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2007-02-01

    Because abnormal Auditory Efferent Activity (AEA) is associated with auditory distortions during vocalization, we tested whether auditory processing is impaired during vocalization in children with Selective Mutism (SM). Participants were children with SM and abnormal AEA, children with SM and normal AEA, and normally speaking controls, who had to detect aurally presented target words embedded within word lists under two conditions: silence (single task), and while vocalizing (dual task). To ascertain specificity of auditory-vocal deficit, effects of concurrent vocalizing were also examined during a visual task. Children with SM and abnormal AEA showed impaired auditory processing during vocalization relative to children with SM and normal AEA, and relative to control children. This impairment is specific to the auditory modality and does not reflect difficulties in dual task per se. The data extends previous findings suggesting that deficient auditory processing is involved in speech selectivity in SM.

  10. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC EEG system for research quality auditory event-related potentials in children.

    PubMed

    Badcock, Nicholas A; Preece, Kathryn A; de Wit, Bianca; Glenn, Katharine; Fieder, Nora; Thie, Johnson; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG) system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children. Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under "passive" and "active" listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz) and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz) tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of 'high' (i.e., deviant) tones. Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95) in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74). There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems. Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children's late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3) and their MMN ERP component.

  11. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Auditory Brainstem Responses in Childhood Psychosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were compared in 24 autistic children, seven children with other childhood psychoses, and 31 normal children. One-third of the autistic Ss showed abnormal ABR indicating brainstem dysfunction and correlating with muscular hypotonia and severe language impairment. Ss with other psychoses and normal Ss showed…

  13. Combining Behavioral and ERP Methodologies to Investigate the Differences Between McGurk Effects Demonstrated by Cantonese and Mandarin Speakers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Meng, Yaxuan; McBride, Catherine; Fan, Xitao; Yuan, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of Chinese dialects on McGurk effect using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) methodologies. Specifically, intra-language comparison of McGurk effect was conducted between Mandarin and Cantonese speakers. The behavioral results showed that Cantonese speakers exhibited a stronger McGurk effect in audiovisual speech perception compared to Mandarin speakers, although both groups performed equally in the auditory and visual conditions. ERP results revealed that Cantonese speakers were more sensitive to visual cues than Mandarin speakers, though this was not the case for the auditory cues. Taken together, the current findings suggest that the McGurk effect generated by Chinese speakers is mainly influenced by segmental phonology during audiovisual speech integration.

  14. Combining Behavioral and ERP Methodologies to Investigate the Differences Between McGurk Effects Demonstrated by Cantonese and Mandarin Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Meng, Yaxuan; McBride, Catherine; Fan, Xitao; Yuan, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of Chinese dialects on McGurk effect using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) methodologies. Specifically, intra-language comparison of McGurk effect was conducted between Mandarin and Cantonese speakers. The behavioral results showed that Cantonese speakers exhibited a stronger McGurk effect in audiovisual speech perception compared to Mandarin speakers, although both groups performed equally in the auditory and visual conditions. ERP results revealed that Cantonese speakers were more sensitive to visual cues than Mandarin speakers, though this was not the case for the auditory cues. Taken together, the current findings suggest that the McGurk effect generated by Chinese speakers is mainly influenced by segmental phonology during audiovisual speech integration. PMID:29780312

  15. On ERPs detection in disorders of consciousness rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Risetti, Monica; Formisano, Rita; Toppi, Jlenia; Quitadamo, Lucia R.; Bianchi, Luigi; Astolfi, Laura; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of Consciousness (DOC) like Vegetative State (VS), and Minimally Conscious State (MCS) are clinical conditions characterized by the absence or intermittent behavioral responsiveness. A neurophysiological monitoring of parameters like Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) could be a first step to follow-up the clinical evolution of these patients during their rehabilitation phase. Eleven patients diagnosed as VS (n = 8) and MCS (n = 3) by means of the JFK Coma Recovery Scale Revised (CRS-R) underwent scalp EEG recordings during the delivery of a 3-stimuli auditory oddball paradigm, which included standard, deviant tones and the subject own name (SON) presented as a novel stimulus, administered under passive and active conditions. Four patients who showed a change in their clinical status as detected by means of the CRS-R (i.e., moved from VS to MCS), were subjected to a second EEG recording session. All patients, but one (anoxic etiology), showed ERP components such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and novelty P300 (nP3) under passive condition. When patients were asked to count the novel stimuli (active condition), the nP3 component displayed a significant increase in amplitude (p = 0.009) and a wider topographical distribution with respect to the passive listening, only in MCS. In 2 out of the 4 patients who underwent a second recording session consistently with their transition from VS to MCS, the nP3 component elicited by passive listening of SON stimuli revealed a significant amplitude increment (p < 0.05). Most relevant, the amplitude of the nP3 component in the active condition, acquired in each patient and in all recording sessions, displayed a significant positive correlation with the total scores (p = 0.004) and with the auditory sub-scores (p < 0.00001) of the CRS-R administered before each EEG recording. As such, the present findings corroborate the value of ERPs monitoring in DOC patients to investigate residual unconscious and conscious cognitive

  16. On ERPs detection in disorders of consciousness rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Risetti, Monica; Formisano, Rita; Toppi, Jlenia; Quitadamo, Lucia R; Bianchi, Luigi; Astolfi, Laura; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of Consciousness (DOC) like Vegetative State (VS), and Minimally Conscious State (MCS) are clinical conditions characterized by the absence or intermittent behavioral responsiveness. A neurophysiological monitoring of parameters like Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) could be a first step to follow-up the clinical evolution of these patients during their rehabilitation phase. Eleven patients diagnosed as VS (n = 8) and MCS (n = 3) by means of the JFK Coma Recovery Scale Revised (CRS-R) underwent scalp EEG recordings during the delivery of a 3-stimuli auditory oddball paradigm, which included standard, deviant tones and the subject own name (SON) presented as a novel stimulus, administered under passive and active conditions. Four patients who showed a change in their clinical status as detected by means of the CRS-R (i.e., moved from VS to MCS), were subjected to a second EEG recording session. All patients, but one (anoxic etiology), showed ERP components such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and novelty P300 (nP3) under passive condition. When patients were asked to count the novel stimuli (active condition), the nP3 component displayed a significant increase in amplitude (p = 0.009) and a wider topographical distribution with respect to the passive listening, only in MCS. In 2 out of the 4 patients who underwent a second recording session consistently with their transition from VS to MCS, the nP3 component elicited by passive listening of SON stimuli revealed a significant amplitude increment (p < 0.05). Most relevant, the amplitude of the nP3 component in the active condition, acquired in each patient and in all recording sessions, displayed a significant positive correlation with the total scores (p = 0.004) and with the auditory sub-scores (p < 0.00001) of the CRS-R administered before each EEG recording. As such, the present findings corroborate the value of ERPs monitoring in DOC patients to investigate residual unconscious and conscious cognitive

  17. Increased Early Processing of Task-Irrelevant Auditory Stimuli in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tusch, Erich S.; Alperin, Brittany R.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Daffner, Kirk R.

    2016-01-01

    The inhibitory deficit hypothesis of cognitive aging posits that older adults’ inability to adequately suppress processing of irrelevant information is a major source of cognitive decline. Prior research has demonstrated that in response to task-irrelevant auditory stimuli there is an age-associated increase in the amplitude of the N1 wave, an ERP marker of early perceptual processing. Here, we tested predictions derived from the inhibitory deficit hypothesis that the age-related increase in N1 would be 1) observed under an auditory-ignore, but not auditory-attend condition, 2) attenuated in individuals with high executive capacity (EC), and 3) augmented by increasing cognitive load of the primary visual task. ERPs were measured in 114 well-matched young, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old adults, designated as having high or average EC based on neuropsychological testing. Under the auditory-ignore (visual-attend) task, participants ignored auditory stimuli and responded to rare target letters under low and high load. Under the auditory-attend task, participants ignored visual stimuli and responded to rare target tones. Results confirmed an age-associated increase in N1 amplitude to auditory stimuli under the auditory-ignore but not auditory-attend task. Contrary to predictions, EC did not modulate the N1 response. The load effect was the opposite of expectation: the N1 to task-irrelevant auditory events was smaller under high load. Finally, older adults did not simply fail to suppress the N1 to auditory stimuli in the task-irrelevant modality; they generated a larger response than to identical stimuli in the task-relevant modality. In summary, several of the study’s findings do not fit the inhibitory-deficit hypothesis of cognitive aging, which may need to be refined or supplemented by alternative accounts. PMID:27806081

  18. ERP implementation in hospitals: a case study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Divya; Garg, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    In a competitive healthcare sector, hospitals have to focus on their processes in order to deliver high-quality care while at the same time reducing costs. Many hospitals have decided to adopt one or another Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system to improve their businesses, but implementing an ERP system can be a demanding endeavour. The systems are so difficult to implement that some are successful; many have failed, causing multimillion dollar losses. The challenge of ERP solutions lie in implementation because they are complex, time consuming and expensive too. This paper describes the various process workflows and phases of ERP implementation at Fortis Hospital Cunningham Road, Bangalore, India. This knowledge will provide valuable insights for the researchers and practitioners to understand the different process workflows and to make informed decisions when implementing ERP in any hospital.

  19. ERP implementation in rural health care.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Kenneth J; Pumphrey, Lela D; Wiggins, Carla

    2002-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems provide organizations with the opportunity to integrate individual, functionally-oriented information systems. Although much of the focus in the popular press has been placed on ERP systems in large for-profit organizations, small hospitals and clinics are candidates for ERP systems. Focusing information systems on critical success factors (CSFs) allows the organization to address a limited number of areas associated with performance. This limited number of factors can provide management with an insight into dimensions of information that must be addressed by a system. Focuses on CSFs for small health-care organizations. In addition, also considers factors critical to the implementation of health-care information systems. Presents two cases. The results indicate support for the continuing use of CSFs to help focus on the benefits of ERPs. Focusing on groups of tangible and intangible benefits can also assist the rural health-care organization in the use of ERPs.

  20. Combat Veterans with PTSD after Mild TBI Exhibit Greater ERPs from Posterior-medial Cortical Areas While Appraising Facial Features

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    K.Y., Kim, D.W., Im, C.H., Lee, S.H., 2011. Source imaging of P300 auditory evoked potentials and clinical correlations in patients with posttraumatic...Neural correlates of memories of childhood sexual abuse in womenwith and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 156, 1787–1795...S., Zhang, Q., 2011. Neural mechanisms of subliminal priming for traumatic episodic memory: an ERP study. Neurosci. Lett. 498, 10–14. Zhang, K

  1. 7 CFR 1730.28 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). 1730.28 Section... § 1730.28 Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS electric program loan as of October 12, 2004 shall have a written ERP no later than January 12, 2006. The ERP should be...

  2. Auditory Brainstem Responses in Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kathleen; Roush, Jackson; Gravel, Judith; Skinner, Martie; Misenheimer, Jan; Reitz, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation resulting in developmental delays in males. Atypical outer ear morphology is characteristic of FXS and may serve as a marker for abnormal auditory function. Despite this abnormality, studies of the hearing of young males with FXS are generally lacking. A few studies…

  3. Recording event-related activity under hostile magnetic resonance environment: Is multimodal EEG/ERP-MRI recording possible?

    PubMed

    Karakaş, H M; Karakaş, S; Ozkan Ceylan, A; Tali, E T

    2009-08-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) have high temporal resolution, but insufficient spatial resolution; the converse is true for the functional imaging techniques. The purpose of the study was to test the utility of a multimodal EEG/ERP-MRI technique which combines electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a simultaneously high temporal and spatial resolution. The sample consisted of 32 healthy young adults of both sexes. Auditory stimuli were delivered according to the active and passive oddball paradigms in the MRI environment (MRI-e) and in the standard conditions of the electrophysiology laboratory environment (Lab-e). Tasks were presented in a fixed order. Participants were exposed to the recording environments in a counterbalanced order. EEG data were preprocessed for MRI-related artifacts. Source localization was made using a current density reconstruction technique. The ERP waveforms for the MRI-e were morphologically similar to those for the Lab-e. The effect of the recording environment, experimental paradigm and electrode location were analyzed using a 2x2x3 analysis of variance for repeated measures. The ERP components in the two environments showed parametric variations and characteristic topographical distributions. The calculated sources were in line with the related literature. The findings indicated effortful cognitive processing in MRI-e. The study provided preliminary data on the feasibility of the multimodal EEG/ERP-MRI technique. It also indicated lines of research that are to be pursued for a decisive testing of this technique and its implementation to clinical practice.

  4. Auditory P300 event related potentials in acute and transient psychosis-Comparison with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish; Modi, Manish

    2016-10-01

    Limited biological research data are available on acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD) vis-à-vis schizophrenia. P300 event related potentials (ERP) have been extensively studied as an important neurophysiological parameter in schizophrenia. However, no P300 ERP studies comparing the two disorders are available. We compared auditory P300 ERP in patients remitted from ATPD with schizophrenia in remission and biologically unrelated healthy controls. In this case-control study design, 25 subjects remitted from ATPD were age-/gender-matched with healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia in remission. Clinical assessment and auditory P300 ERP (amplitude and latencies at central and parietal sites, reaction time) were recorded. The ERP parameters were compared across the three groups. All three groups showed significant differences in P300 amplitudes and latencies at central and parietal sites. Schizophrenia group differed significantly (p<0.001) from the ATPD group in all the P300 parameters. The ATPD group was found to have lower Pz latency (p<0.05) and lower mean reaction time (p<0.001) as compared to healthy controls. The results suggest that P300 could easily distinguish between ATPD and schizophrenia in remission, thus neurophysiologically differentiating the two disorders. Lower P300 latency and reaction time, which indicate hyper-arousability, distinguished ATPD from normal controls, with implications for a better understanding of ATPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep Loss, Circadian Mismatch, and Abnormalities in Reorienting of Attention in Night Workers with Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Howard, Ryan; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Drake, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Permanent night-shift workers may develop shift-work disorder (SWD). In the current study, we evaluated neurophysiological and behavioral indices of distractibility across times prior to the night shift (T1), during night hours (T2), and after acute sleep deprivation (T3) in permanent hospital night workers with and without SWD. Methods: Ten asymptomatic night workers (NW) and 18 NW with SWD participated in a 25-h sleep deprivation study. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was evaluated using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Electrophysiological distractibility was evaluated by brain event-related potentials (ERP), whereas behavioral distractibility was evaluated by performance on a visual task in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Statistical analyses: Comparisons of ERP results were performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, and t-tests were used where appropriate. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of variables (MLST, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and DLMO) that deviated from normal. Results: First, in the SWD group, the reorienting negativity ERP amplitude was significantly attenuated compared to that in the NW group. Second, the SWD group had shorter MSLT during night shift hours (4.8 ± 4.9 min) compared to that in NW (7.8 ± 3.7 min; U = 47; z = -2.1; P < 0.03). Third, NW with SWD had a DLMO at 20:27 ± 5.0 h, whereas healthy NW had a DLMO at 05:00 ± 3.4 h (U = 43.5; z = -2.22, P < 0.03). Finally, acute sleep deprivation impaired behavioral performance and the P3a ERP in both groups. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate specific deficits in neurophysiological activity in the attentional domain among the shift-work disorder group relative to night workers. Citation: Gumenyuk V; Howard R; Roth T; Korzyukov O; Drake CL. Sleep loss, circadian mismatch, and abnormalities in reorienting of attention in night workers with shift work disorder. SLEEP 2014

  6. Auditory Cortex Processes Variation in Our Own Speech

    PubMed Central

    Sitek, Kevin R.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Roach, Brian J.; Houde, John F.; Niziolek, Caroline A.; Ford, Judith M.

    2013-01-01

    As we talk, we unconsciously adjust our speech to ensure it sounds the way we intend it to sound. However, because speech production involves complex motor planning and execution, no two utterances of the same sound will be exactly the same. Here, we show that auditory cortex is sensitive to natural variations in self-produced speech from utterance to utterance. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from ninety-nine subjects while they uttered “ah” and while they listened to those speech sounds played back. Subjects' utterances were sorted based on their formant deviations from the previous utterance. Typically, the N1 ERP component is suppressed during talking compared to listening. By comparing ERPs to the least and most variable utterances, we found that N1 was less suppressed to utterances that differed greatly from their preceding neighbors. In contrast, an utterance's difference from the median formant values did not affect N1. Trial-to-trial pitch (f0) deviation and pitch difference from the median similarly did not affect N1. We discuss mechanisms that may underlie the change in N1 suppression resulting from trial-to-trial formant change. Deviant utterances require additional auditory cortical processing, suggesting that speaking-induced suppression mechanisms are optimally tuned for a specific production. PMID:24349399

  7. Effect of voluntary attention on auditory processing during REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Madoka; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hori, Tadao

    2006-07-01

    The study investigates whether there is an effect of voluntary attention to external auditory stimuli during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in humans by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs). Using a 2-tone auditory-discrimination task, a standard 1000-Hz tone and a deviant 2000-Hz tone were presented to participants when awake and during sleep. In the ATTENTIVE condition, participants were requested to detect the deviant stimuli during their sleep whenever possible. In the PASSIVE sleep condition, participants were only exposed to the tones. ERPs were measured during REM sleep and compared between the 2 conditions. All experiments were conducted at the sleep laboratory of Hiroshima University. Twenty healthy university student volunteers. N/A. In the tonic period of REM sleep (the period without REM), P200 and P400 were elicited by deviant stimuli, with scalp distributions maximal at central and occipital sites, respectively. The P400 in REM sleep showed larger amplitudes in the ATTENTIVE condition, whereas the P200 amplitude did not differ between the 2 conditions. No effects on ERPs due to attention were observed during stage 2 sleep. The instruction to pay attention to external stimuli during REM sleep influenced the late positive potentials. Thus electrophysiologic evidence of voluntary attention during REM sleep has been demonstrated.

  8. Rapid extraction of auditory feature contingencies.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Prinz, Wolfgang; Horváth, János; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J; Schröger, Erich

    2008-07-01

    Contingent relations between sensory events render the environment predictable and thus facilitate adaptive behavior. The human capacity to detect such relations has been comprehensively demonstrated in paradigms in which contingency rules were task-relevant or in which they applied to motor behavior. The extent to which contingencies can also be extracted from events that are unrelated to the current goals of the organism has remained largely unclear. The present study addressed the emergence of contingency-related effects for behaviorally irrelevant auditory stimuli and the cortical areas involved in the processing of such contingency rules. Contingent relations between different features of temporally separate events were embedded in a new dynamic protocol. Participants were presented with the auditory stimulus sequences while their attention was captured by a video. The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) was employed as an electrophysiological correlate of contingency detection. MMN generators were localized by means of scalp current density (SCD) and primary current density (PCD) analyses with variable resolution electromagnetic tomography (VARETA). Results show that task-irrelevant contingencies can be extracted from about fifteen to twenty successive events conforming to the contingent relation. Topographic and tomographic analyses reveal the involvement of the auditory cortex in the processing of contingency violations. The present data provide evidence for the rapid encoding of complex extrapolative relations in sensory areas. This capacity is of fundamental importance for the organism in its attempt to model the sensory environment outside the focus of attention.

  9. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  10. Cortical auditory evoked potentials in the assessment of auditory neuropathy: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Wendy; Golding, Maryanne; Dillon, Harvey

    2007-05-01

    Infants with auditory neuropathy and possible hearing impairment are being identified at very young ages through the implementation of hearing screening programs. The diagnosis is commonly based on evidence of normal cochlear function but abnormal brainstem function. This lack of normal brainstem function is highly problematic when prescribing amplification in young infants because prescriptive formulae require the input of hearing thresholds that are normally estimated from auditory brainstem responses to tonal stimuli. Without this information, there is great uncertainty surrounding the final fitting. Cortical auditory evoked potentials may, however, still be evident and reliably recorded to speech stimuli presented at conversational levels. The case studies of two infants are presented that demonstrate how these higher order electrophysiological responses may be utilized in the audiological management of some infants with auditory neuropathy.

  11. Interhemispheric transfer time in patients with auditory hallucinations: an auditory event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Henshall, Katherine R; Sergejew, Alex A; McKay, Colette M; Rance, Gary; Shea, Tracey L; Hayden, Melissa J; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Copolov, David L

    2012-05-01

    Central auditory processing in schizophrenia patients with a history of auditory hallucinations has been reported to be impaired, and abnormalities of interhemispheric transfer have been implicated in these patients. This study examined interhemispheric functional connectivity between auditory cortical regions, using temporal information obtained from latency measures of the auditory N1 evoked potential. Interhemispheric Transfer Times (IHTTs) were compared across 3 subject groups: schizophrenia patients who had experienced auditory hallucinations, schizophrenia patients without a history of auditory hallucinations, and normal controls. Pure tones and single-syllable words were presented monaurally to each ear, while EEG was recorded continuously. IHTT was calculated for each stimulus type by comparing the latencies of the auditory N1 evoked potential recorded contralaterally and ipsilaterally to the ear of stimulation. The IHTTs for pure tones did not differ between groups. For word stimuli, the IHTT was significantly different across the 3 groups: the IHTT was close to zero in normal controls, was highest in the AH group, and was negative (shorter latencies ipsilaterally) in the nonAH group. Differences in IHTTs may be attributed to transcallosal dysfunction in the AH group, but altered or reversed cerebral lateralization in nonAH participants is also possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  13. ERPs and Psychopathology. I. Behavioral process issues.

    PubMed

    Roth, W T; Tecce, J J; Pfefferbaum, A; Rosenbloom, M; Callaway, E

    1984-01-01

    The clinical study of ERPs has an inherent defect--a self-selection of clinical populations that hampers equating of clinically defined groups on factors extraneous to the independent variables. Such ex post facto studies increase the likelihood of confounding variables in the interpretation of findings. Hence, the development of lawful relationships between clinical variables and ERPs is impeded and the fulfillment of description, explanation, prediction, and control in brain science is thwarted. Proper methodologies and theory development can increase the likelihood of establishing these lawful relationships. One methodology of potential value in the clinical application of ERPs, particularly in studies of aging, is that of divided attention. Two promising theoretical developments in the understanding of brain functioning and aging are the distraction-arousal hypothesis and the controlled-automatic attention model. The evaluation of ERPs in the study of brain-behavior relations in clinical populations might be facilitated by the differentiation of concurrent, predictive, content, and construct validities.

  14. Effects of auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane on audiovisual integration: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiping; Li, Qi; Ochi, Tatsuya; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to investigate whether auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane, particularly originating from behind the participant, affect audiovisual integration by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements. In this study, visual stimuli were presented directly in front of the participants, auditory stimuli were presented at one location in an equidistant horizontal plane at the front (0°, the fixation point), right (90°), back (180°), or left (270°) of the participants, and audiovisual stimuli that include both visual stimuli and auditory stimuli originating from one of the four locations were simultaneously presented. These stimuli were presented randomly with equal probability; during this time, participants were asked to attend to the visual stimulus and respond promptly only to visual target stimuli (a unimodal visual target stimulus and the visual target of the audiovisual stimulus). A significant facilitation of reaction times and hit rates was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the auditory stimuli were presented in the front or back of the participant. However, no significant interactions were found between visual stimuli and auditory stimuli from the right or left. Two main ERP components related to audiovisual integration were found: first, auditory stimuli from the front location produced an ERP reaction over the right temporal area and right occipital area at approximately 160-200 milliseconds; second, auditory stimuli from the back produced a reaction over the parietal and occipital areas at approximately 360-400 milliseconds. Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration was also elicited, even though auditory stimuli were presented behind the participant, but no integration occurred when auditory stimuli were presented in the right or left spaces, suggesting that the human brain might be particularly sensitive to information received from behind than both sides.

  15. Effects of Auditory Stimuli in the Horizontal Plane on Audiovisual Integration: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weiping; Li, Qi; Ochi, Tatsuya; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to investigate whether auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane, particularly originating from behind the participant, affect audiovisual integration by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements. In this study, visual stimuli were presented directly in front of the participants, auditory stimuli were presented at one location in an equidistant horizontal plane at the front (0°, the fixation point), right (90°), back (180°), or left (270°) of the participants, and audiovisual stimuli that include both visual stimuli and auditory stimuli originating from one of the four locations were simultaneously presented. These stimuli were presented randomly with equal probability; during this time, participants were asked to attend to the visual stimulus and respond promptly only to visual target stimuli (a unimodal visual target stimulus and the visual target of the audiovisual stimulus). A significant facilitation of reaction times and hit rates was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the auditory stimuli were presented in the front or back of the participant. However, no significant interactions were found between visual stimuli and auditory stimuli from the right or left. Two main ERP components related to audiovisual integration were found: first, auditory stimuli from the front location produced an ERP reaction over the right temporal area and right occipital area at approximately 160–200 milliseconds; second, auditory stimuli from the back produced a reaction over the parietal and occipital areas at approximately 360–400 milliseconds. Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration was also elicited, even though auditory stimuli were presented behind the participant, but no integration occurred when auditory stimuli were presented in the right or left spaces, suggesting that the human brain might be particularly sensitive to information received from behind than both sides. PMID:23799097

  16. Trust at first sight: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Tessa; Righi, Stefania; Ottonello, Sara; Cincotta, Massimo; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to tap the temporal dynamics of first impressions based on face appearance. Participants were asked to evaluate briefly presented faces for trustworthiness and political choice. Behaviorally, participants were better at discriminating faces that were pre-rated as untrustworthy. The ERP results showed that the P100 component was enhanced for untrustworthy faces, consistently with the view that signals of potential threat are given precedence in neural processing. The enhanced ERP responses to untrustworthy faces persisted throughout the processing sequence and the amplitude of early posterior negativity (EPN), and subsequent late positive potential (LPP) was increased with respect to trustworthy faces which, in contrast, elicited an enhanced positivity around 150 ms on frontal sites. These ERP patterns were found specifically for the trustworthiness evaluation and not for the political decision task. Political decision yielded an increase in the N170 amplitude, reflecting a more demanding and taxing structural encoding. Similar ERP responses, as previously reported in the literature for facial expressions processing, were found throughout the entire time course specifically elicited by faces explicitly judged as untrustworthy. One possibility might be that evolution has provided the brain with a 'special toolkit' for trust evaluation that is fast and triggers ERPs related to emotional processing.

  17. ERPS to Monitor Non-conscious Mentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donchin, E.

    1984-01-01

    Event Related Brain Potentials (or ERPs) are extracted from the EEG that can be recorded between a pair of electrodes placed on a person's scalp. The EEG is recorded as a continual fluctuation in voltage. It is the results of the integration of the potential fields generated by a multitude of neuronal ensembles that are active as the brain goes about its business. Within this ongoing signal it is possible to distinguish voltage fluctuations that are triggered in neural structures by the occurrence of specific events. This activity, evoked as it is by an external event, is known as the Evoked, or Event Related, Potential. The ERPs provide a unique opportunity to monitor non-conscious mentation. The inferences that can be based on ERP data are described and the limits of these inferences are emphasized. This, however, will not be an exhaustive review of the use of ERPs in Engineering Psychology. The application, its scope, and its limitations will be illustrated by means of one example. This example is preceded by a brief technical introduction to the methodology used in the study of ERPs. The manner in which ERPs are used to study cognition is described.

  18. Pleasant mood intensifies brain processing of cognitive control: ERP correlates.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiajin; Xu, Shuang; Yang, Jiemin; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Antao; Zhu, Liping; Chen, Jie; Li, Hong

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of auditory-induced mood on brain processing of cognitive control using a Stroop color-word interference task. A total of 135 positive, negative, and neutral sounds (45 of each) were presented in separate blocks for a mood induction procedure, which was then followed by a Stroop color-word task in each trial. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for color-word congruent, incongruent and neutral (color-word irrelevant) words and subjects named the printed colors of the words by pressing the appropriate key (irrespective of word meaning). Response latency was delayed during incongruent vs. neutral trials, and this cost did not interact significantly with mood states. ERP data showed prolonged peak latencies in the P200 component and more negative deflections in the Late Positive Component (LPC, 450-550 ms) during incongruent vs. neutral conditions, regardless of mood states. Moreover, the negative deflections (N450) in the 450-550 ms interval of the incongruent- neutral difference waves, which index cognitive control effect in brain potentials, was more pronounced in the pleasant, but not in the unpleasant, mood state when compared with the neutral mood state. These data suggest that, pleasant mood intensifies brain processing of cognitive control, in a situation requiring effective inhibition of task-irrelevant distracting information. In addition, N450 component serves as an affective marker, embodying not only cognitive control effect in the brain but also its interaction with mood states. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Contributions of spectral frequency analyses to the study of P50 ERP amplitude and suppression in bipolar disorder with or without a history of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Christine A; Kieffaber, Paul D; Vohs, Jenifer L; O'Donnell, Brian F; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P

    2008-11-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potential (ERP) indices of auditory processing and sensory gating in bipolar disorder and subgroups of bipolar patients with or without a history of psychosis using the P50 dual-click procedure. Auditory-evoked activity in two discrete frequency bands also was explored to distinguish between sensory registration and selective attention deficits. Thirty-one individuals with bipolar disorder and 28 non-psychiatric controls were compared on ERP indices of auditory processing using a dual-click procedure. In addition to conventional P50 ERP peak-picking techniques, quantitative frequency analyses were applied to the ERP data to isolate stages of information processing associated with sensory registration (20-50 Hz; gamma band) and selective attention (0-20 Hz; low-frequency band). Compared to the non-psychiatric control group, patients with bipolar disorder exhibited reduced S1 response magnitudes for the conventional P50 peak-picking and low-frequency response analyses. A bipolar subgroup effect suggested that the attenuated S1 magnitudes from the P50 peak-picking and low-frequency analyses were largely attributable to patients without a history of psychosis. The analysis of distinct frequency bands of the auditory-evoked response elicited during the dual-click procedure allowed further specification of the nature of auditory sensory processing and gating deficits in bipolar disorder with or without a history of psychosis. The observed S1 effects in the low-frequency band suggest selective attention deficits in bipolar patients, especially those patients without a history of psychosis, which may reflect a diminished capacity to selectively attend to salient stimuli as opposed to impairments of inhibitory sensory processes.

  20. Surgical monitoring with auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Lüders, H

    1988-07-01

    This comprehensive review of surgical monitoring with auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) includes a detailed discussion of techniques used for recording brainstem auditory evoked potentials, direct eight-nerve potentials, and electrocochleograms. The normal waveform of these different potentials is discussed, and the typical patterns of abnormalities seen with different insults to the peripheral or central auditory pathways are presented. The mechanisms most probably responsible for changes in AEPs during surgical procedures are analyzed. A critical analysis is made of what represents a significant change in AEPs. Also considered is the predictive value of intrasurgical changes of AEPs. Finally, attempts are made to determine whether AEPs monitoring can assist the surgeon in the prevention of postsurgical complications.

  1. Spectra-temporal patterns underlying mental addition: an ERP and ERD/ERS study.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yixuan; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2010-03-12

    Functional neuroimaging data have shown that mental calculation involves fronto-parietal areas that are composed of different subsystems shared with other cognitive functions such as working memory and language. Event-related potential (ERP) analysis has also indicated sequential information changes during the calculation process. However, little is known about the dynamic properties of oscillatory networks in this process. In the present study, we applied both ERP and event-related (de-)synchronization (ERS/ERD) analyses to EEG data recorded from normal human subjects performing tasks for sequential visual/auditory mental addition. Results in the study indicate that the late positive components (LPCs) can be decomposed into two separate parts. The earlier element LPC1 (around 360ms) reflects the computing attribute and is more prominent in calculation tasks. The later element LPC2 (around 590ms) indicates an effect of number size and appears larger only in a more complex 2-digit addition task. The theta ERS and alpha ERD show modality-independent frontal and parietal differential patterns between the mental addition and control groups, and discrepancies are noted in the beta ERD between the 2-digit and 1-digit mental addition groups. The 2-digit addition (both visual and auditory) results in similar beta ERD patterns to the auditory control, which may indicate a reliance on auditory-related resources in mental arithmetic, especially with increasing task difficulty. These results coincide with the theory of simple calculation relying on the visuospatial process and complex calculation depending on the phonological process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Auditory Alterations in Children Infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Verified Through Auditory Processing Test

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Alfaya, Lívia Marangoni; Gonçales, Alina Sanches; Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Isaac, Myriam de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW). The participants were 15 children infected by HIV, all using antiretroviral medication. Results The children had abnormal auditory processing verified by Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of SSW. In the Simplified Auditory Processing Test, 60% of the children presented hearing impairment. In the SAPT, the memory test for verbal sounds showed more errors (53.33%); whereas in SSW, 86.67% of the children showed deficiencies indicating deficit in figure-ground, attention, and memory auditory skills. Furthermore, there are more errors in conditions of background noise in both age groups, where most errors were in the left ear in the Group of 8-year-olds, with similar results for the group aged 9 years. Conclusion The high incidence of hearing loss in children with HIV and comorbidity with several biological and environmental factors indicate the need for: 1) familiar and professional awareness of the impact on auditory alteration on the developing and learning of the children with HIV, and 2) access to educational plans and follow-up with multidisciplinary teams as early as possible to minimize the damage caused by auditory deficits. PMID:28050213

  3. Degraded Auditory Processing in a Rat Model of Autism Limits the Speech Representation in Non-primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, C.T.; Centanni, T.M.; Im, K.W.; Borland, M.S.; Moreno, N.A.; Carraway, R.S.; Wilson, L.G.; Kilgard, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although individuals with autism are known to have significant communication problems, the cellular mechanisms responsible for impaired communication are poorly understood. Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant that is a known risk factor for autism in prenatally exposed children. Prenatal VPA exposure in rats causes numerous neural and behavioral abnormalities that mimic autism. We predicted that VPA exposure may lead to auditory processing impairments which may contribute to the deficits in communication observed in individuals with autism. In this study, we document auditory cortex responses in rats prenatally exposed to VPA. We recorded local field potentials and multiunit responses to speech sounds in primary auditory cortex, anterior auditory field, ventral auditory field. and posterior auditory field in VPA exposed and control rats. Prenatal VPA exposure severely degrades the precise spatiotemporal patterns evoked by speech sounds in secondary, but not primary auditory cortex. This result parallels findings in humans and suggests that secondary auditory fields may be more sensitive to environmental disturbances and may provide insight into possible mechanisms related to auditory deficits in individuals with autism. PMID:24639033

  4. Beyond the real world: attention debates in auditory mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyungmi; Park, Jin Young

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this study was to address the potential for the auditory mismatch negativity (aMMN) to be used in applied event-related potential (ERP) studies by determining whether the aMMN would be an attention-dependent ERP component and could be differently modulated across visual tasks or virtual reality (VR) stimuli with different visual properties and visual complexity levels. A total of 80 participants, aged 19-36 years, were assigned to either a reading-task (21 men and 19 women) or a VR-task (22 men and 18 women) group. Two visual-task groups of healthy young adults were matched in age, sex, and handedness. All participants were instructed to focus only on the given visual tasks and ignore auditory change detection. While participants in the reading-task group read text slides, those in the VR-task group viewed three 360° VR videos in a random order and rated how visually complex the given virtual environment was immediately after each VR video ended. Inconsistent with the finding of a partial significant difference in perceived visual complexity in terms of brightness of virtual environments, both visual properties of distance and brightness showed no significant differences in the modulation of aMMN amplitudes. A further analysis was carried out to compare elicited aMMN amplitudes of a typical MMN task and an applied VR task. No significant difference in the aMMN amplitudes was found across the two groups who completed visual tasks with different visual-task demands. In conclusion, the aMMN is a reliable ERP marker of preattentive cognitive processing for auditory deviance detection.

  5. ERPs, semantic processing and age.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, T; Katayama, J; Koyama, T

    1998-06-01

    ERPs (N400, LPC and CNV) were elicited in two sets of subjects grouped according to age (young vs. elderly) using a word-pair category matching paradigm. Each prime consisted of a Japanese noun (constructed from two to four characters of the Hiragana) followed by one Chinese character (Kanji) as the target, this latter representing one of five semantic categories. There were two equally probable target conditions: match or mismatch. Each target was preceded by a prime, either belonging to, or not belonging to, the same semantic category. The subjects were required to respond with a specified button press to the given target according to the condition. We found RTs to be longer in the elderly subjects and under the mismatch condition. N400 amplitude was reduced in the elderly subjects under the mismatch condition and there was no difference between match and mismatch response, which were similar in amplitude to that under match condition for the young subjects. In addition, the CNV amplitudes were larger in the elderly subjects. These results suggested that functional changes in semantic processing through aging (larger semantic networks and diffuse semantic activation) were the cause of this N400 reduction, attributing a subsidiary role to attentional disturbance. We also discuss the importance of taking age-related changes into consideration in clinical studies.

  6. Absence of auditory 'global interference' in autism.

    PubMed

    Foxton, Jessica M; Stewart, Mary E; Barnard, Louise; Rodgers, Jacqui; Young, Allan H; O'Brien, Gregory; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2003-12-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the cognitive style of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). One theory, that of weak central coherence, concerns an inability to combine stimulus details into a coherent whole. Here we test this theory in the case of sound patterns, using a new definition of the details (local structure) and the coherent whole (global structure). Thirteen individuals with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger's syndrome and 15 control participants were administered auditory tests, where they were required to match local pitch direction changes between two auditory sequences. When the other local features of the sequence pairs were altered (the actual pitches and relative time points of pitch direction change), the control participants obtained lower scores compared with when these details were left unchanged. This can be attributed to interference from the global structure, defined as the combination of the local auditory details. In contrast, the participants with ASD did not obtain lower scores in the presence of such mismatches. This was attributed to the absence of interference from an auditory coherent whole. The results are consistent with the presence of abnormal interactions between local and global auditory perception in ASD.

  7. Adapted wavelet transform improves time-frequency representations: a study of auditory elicited P300-like event-related potentials in rats.

    PubMed

    Richard, Nelly; Laursen, Bettina; Grupe, Morten; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Graversen, Carina; Sørensen, Helge B D; Bastlund, Jesper F

    2017-04-01

    Active auditory oddball paradigms are simple tone discrimination tasks used to study the P300 deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs). These ERPs may be quantified by time-frequency analysis. As auditory stimuli cause early high frequency and late low frequency ERP oscillations, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is often chosen for decomposition due to its multi-resolution properties. However, as the conventional CWT traditionally applies only one mother wavelet to represent the entire spectrum, the time-frequency resolution is not optimal across all scales. To account for this, we developed and validated a novel method specifically refined to analyse P300-like ERPs in rats. An adapted CWT (aCWT) was implemented to preserve high time-frequency resolution across all scales by commissioning of multiple wavelets operating at different scales. First, decomposition of simulated ERPs was illustrated using the classical CWT and the aCWT. Next, the two methods were applied to EEG recordings obtained from prefrontal cortex in rats performing a two-tone auditory discrimination task. While only early ERP frequency changes between responses to target and non-target tones were detected by the CWT, both early and late changes were successfully described with strong accuracy by the aCWT in rat ERPs. Increased frontal gamma power and phase synchrony was observed particularly within theta and gamma frequency bands during deviant tones. The study suggests superior performance of the aCWT over the CWT in terms of detailed quantification of time-frequency properties of ERPs. Our methodological investigation indicates that accurate and complete assessment of time-frequency components of short-time neural signals is feasible with the novel analysis approach which may be advantageous for characterisation of several types of evoked potentials in particularly rodents.

  8. Adapted wavelet transform improves time-frequency representations: a study of auditory elicited P300-like event-related potentials in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Nelly; Laursen, Bettina; Grupe, Morten; Drewes, Asbjørn M.; Graversen, Carina; Sørensen, Helge B. D.; Bastlund, Jesper F.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Active auditory oddball paradigms are simple tone discrimination tasks used to study the P300 deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs). These ERPs may be quantified by time-frequency analysis. As auditory stimuli cause early high frequency and late low frequency ERP oscillations, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is often chosen for decomposition due to its multi-resolution properties. However, as the conventional CWT traditionally applies only one mother wavelet to represent the entire spectrum, the time-frequency resolution is not optimal across all scales. To account for this, we developed and validated a novel method specifically refined to analyse P300-like ERPs in rats. Approach. An adapted CWT (aCWT) was implemented to preserve high time-frequency resolution across all scales by commissioning of multiple wavelets operating at different scales. First, decomposition of simulated ERPs was illustrated using the classical CWT and the aCWT. Next, the two methods were applied to EEG recordings obtained from prefrontal cortex in rats performing a two-tone auditory discrimination task. Main results. While only early ERP frequency changes between responses to target and non-target tones were detected by the CWT, both early and late changes were successfully described with strong accuracy by the aCWT in rat ERPs. Increased frontal gamma power and phase synchrony was observed particularly within theta and gamma frequency bands during deviant tones. Significance. The study suggests superior performance of the aCWT over the CWT in terms of detailed quantification of time-frequency properties of ERPs. Our methodological investigation indicates that accurate and complete assessment of time-frequency components of short-time neural signals is feasible with the novel analysis approach which may be advantageous for characterisation of several types of evoked potentials in particularly rodents.

  9. Diffusion Imaging of Auditory and Auditory-Limbic Connectivity in Tinnitus: Preliminary Evidence and Methodological Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Seydell-Greenwald, Anna; Raven, Erika P.; Leaver, Amber M.; Turesky, Ted K.; Rauschecker, Josef P.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus, or “ringing in the ears,” is perceived by 10 to 15 percent of the adult population and causes significant suffering in a subset of patients. While it was originally thought of as a purely auditory phenomenon, there is increasing evidence that the limbic system influences whether and how tinnitus is perceived, far beyond merely determining the patient's emotional reaction to the phantom sound. Based on functional imaging and electrophysiological data, recent articles frame tinnitus as a “network problem” arising from abnormalities in auditory-limbic interactions. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive method for investigating anatomical connections in vivo. It thus has the potential to provide anatomical evidence for the proposed changes in auditory-limbic connectivity. However, the few diffusion imaging studies of tinnitus performed to date have inconsistent results. In the present paper, we briefly summarize the results of previous studies, aiming to reconcile their results. After detailing analysis methods, we then report findings from a new dataset. We conclude that while there is some evidence for tinnitus-related increases in auditory and auditory-limbic connectivity that counteract hearing-loss related decreases in auditory connectivity, these results should be considered preliminary until several technical challenges have been overcome. PMID:25050181

  10. Attending to auditory memory.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural network approach in multichannel auditory event-related potential analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, F Y; Slater, J D; Ramsay, R E

    1994-04-01

    Even though there are presently no clearly defined criteria for the assessment of P300 event-related potential (ERP) abnormality, it is strongly indicated through statistical analysis that such criteria exist for classifying control subjects and patients with diseases resulting in neuropsychological impairment such as multiple sclerosis (MS). We have demonstrated the feasibility of artificial neural network (ANN) methods in classifying ERP waveforms measured at a single channel (Cz) from control subjects and MS patients. In this paper, we report the results of multichannel ERP analysis and a modified network analysis methodology to enhance automation of the classification rule extraction process. The proposed methodology significantly reduces the work of statistical analysis. It also helps to standardize the criteria of P300 ERP assessment and facilitate the computer-aided analysis on neuropsychological functions.

  12. Electrophysiological correlates of the retention of tones differing in timbre in auditory short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Nolden, Sophie; Bermudez, Patrick; Alunni-Menichini, Kristelle; Lefebvre, Christine; Grimault, Stephan; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    We examined the electrophysiological correlates of retention in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) for sequences of one, two, or three tones differing in timbre but having the same pitch. We focused on event-related potentials (ERPs) during the retention interval and revealed a sustained fronto-central ERP component (most likely a sustained anterior negativity; SAN) that became more negative as memory load increased. Our results are consistent with recent ERP studies on the retention of pitch and suggest that the SAN reflects brain activity mediating the low-level retention of basic acoustic features in ASTM. The present work shows that the retention of timbre shares common features with the retention of pitch, hence supporting the notion that the retention of basic sensory features is an active process that recruits modality-specific brain areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From Sensory Perception to Lexical-Semantic Processing: An ERP Study in Non-Verbal Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Cantiani, Chiara; Choudhury, Naseem A; Yu, Yan H; Shafer, Valerie L; Schwartz, Richard G; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    This study examines electrocortical activity associated with visual and auditory sensory perception and lexical-semantic processing in nonverbal (NV) or minimally-verbal (MV) children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there is no agreement on whether these children comprehend incoming linguistic information and whether their perception is comparable to that of typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10 NV/MV children with ASD and 10 neurotypical children were recorded during a picture-word matching paradigm. Atypical ERP responses were evident at all levels of processing in children with ASD. Basic perceptual processing was delayed in both visual and auditory domains but overall was similar in amplitude to typically-developing children. However, significant differences between groups were found at the lexical-semantic level, suggesting more atypical higher-order processes. The results suggest that although basic perception is relatively preserved in NV/MV children with ASD, higher levels of processing, including lexical- semantic functions, are impaired. The use of passive ERP paradigms that do not require active participant response shows significant potential for assessment of non-compliant populations such as NV/MV children with ASD.

  14. From Sensory Perception to Lexical-Semantic Processing: An ERP Study in Non-Verbal Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Cantiani, Chiara; Choudhury, Naseem A.; Yu, Yan H.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Benasich, April A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines electrocortical activity associated with visual and auditory sensory perception and lexical-semantic processing in nonverbal (NV) or minimally-verbal (MV) children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there is no agreement on whether these children comprehend incoming linguistic information and whether their perception is comparable to that of typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10 NV/MV children with ASD and 10 neurotypical children were recorded during a picture-word matching paradigm. Atypical ERP responses were evident at all levels of processing in children with ASD. Basic perceptual processing was delayed in both visual and auditory domains but overall was similar in amplitude to typically-developing children. However, significant differences between groups were found at the lexical-semantic level, suggesting more atypical higher-order processes. The results suggest that although basic perception is relatively preserved in NV/MV children with ASD, higher levels of processing, including lexical- semantic functions, are impaired. The use of passive ERP paradigms that do not require active participant response shows significant potential for assessment of non-compliant populations such as NV/MV children with ASD. PMID:27560378

  15. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  16. [Some electrophysiological and hemodynamic characteristics of auditory selective attention in norm and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, I S; Akhadov, T A; Petriaĭkin, A V; Kaleda, V G; Barkhatova, A N; Golubev, S A; Rumiantseva, E E; Vdovenko, A M; Fufaeva, E A; Semenova, N A

    2011-01-01

    Six patients in the state of remission after the first episode ofjuvenile schizophrenia and seven sex- and age-matched mentally healthy subjects were examined by fMRI and ERP methods. The auditory oddball paradigm was applied. Differences in P300 parameters didn't reach the level of significance, however, a significantly higher hemodynamic response to target stimuli was found in patients bilaterally in the supramarginal gyrus and in the right medial frontal gyrus, which points to pathology of these brain areas in supporting of auditory selective attention.

  17. Vocalization-Induced Enhancement of the Auditory Cortex Responsiveness during Voice F0 Feedback Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Karvelis, Laura; Liu, Hanjun; Larson, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated whether self-vocalization enhances auditory neural responsiveness to voice pitch feedback perturbation and how this vocalization-induced neural modulation can be affected by the extent of the feedback deviation. Method Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 15 subjects in response to +100, +200 and +500 cents pitch-shifted voice auditory feedback during active vocalization and passive listening to the playback of the self-produced vocalizations. Result The amplitude of the evoked P1 (latency: 73.51 ms) and P2 (latency: 199.55 ms) ERP components in response to feedback perturbation were significantly larger during vocalization than listening. The difference between P2 peak amplitudes during vocalization vs. listening was shown to be significantly larger for +100 than +500 cents stimulus. Conclusion Results indicate that the human auditory cortex is more responsive to voice F0 feedback perturbations during vocalization than passive listening. Greater vocalization-induced enhancement of the auditory responsiveness to smaller feedback perturbations may imply that the audio-vocal system detects and corrects for errors in vocal production that closely match the expected vocal output. Significance Findings of this study support previous suggestions regarding the enhanced auditory sensitivity to feedback alterations during self-vocalization, which may serve the purpose of feedback-based monitoring of one’s voice. PMID:19520602

  18. Selective and divided attention modulates auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Huijing; Jones, Jeffery A; Guo, Zhiqiang; Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-01

    Speakers rapidly adjust their ongoing vocal productions to compensate for errors they hear in their auditory feedback. It is currently unclear what role attention plays in these vocal compensations. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the influence of selective and divided attention on the vocal and cortical responses to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback regarding ongoing vocalisations. During the production of a sustained vowel, participants briefly heard their vocal pitch shifted up two semitones while they actively attended to auditory or visual events (selective attention), or both auditory and visual events (divided attention), or were not told to attend to either modality (control condition). The behavioral results showed that attending to the pitch perturbations elicited larger vocal compensations than attending to the visual stimuli. Moreover, ERPs were likewise sensitive to the attentional manipulations: P2 responses to pitch perturbations were larger when participants attended to the auditory stimuli compared to when they attended to the visual stimuli, and compared to when they were not explicitly told to attend to either the visual or auditory stimuli. By contrast, dividing attention between the auditory and visual modalities caused suppressed P2 responses relative to all the other conditions and caused enhanced N1 responses relative to the control condition. These findings provide strong evidence for the influence of attention on the mechanisms underlying the auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors. In addition, selective attention and divided attention appear to modulate the neurobehavioral processing of pitch feedback errors in different ways. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. P300 as a measure of processing capacity in auditory and visual domains in Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Julia L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the electrophysiological correlates of auditory and visual working memory in children with Specific Language Impairments (SLI). Children with SLI and age-matched controls (11;9 – 14;10) completed visual and auditory working memory tasks while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In the auditory condition, children with SLI performed similarly to controls when the memory load was kept low (1-back memory load). As expected, when demands for auditory working memory were higher, children with SLI showed decreases in accuracy and attenuated P3b responses. However, children with SLI also evinced difficulties in the visual working memory tasks. In both the low (1-back) and high (2-back) memory load conditions, P3b amplitude was significantly lower for the SLI as compared to CA groups. These data suggest a domain-general working memory deficit in SLI that is manifested across auditory and visual modalities. PMID:21316354

  20. An online brain-computer interface based on shifting attention to concurrent streams of auditory stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, N. J.; Schölkopf, B.

    2012-04-01

    We report on the development and online testing of an electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface (BCI) that aims to be usable by completely paralysed users—for whom visual or motor-system-based BCIs may not be suitable, and among whom reports of successful BCI use have so far been very rare. The current approach exploits covert shifts of attention to auditory stimuli in a dichotic-listening stimulus design. To compare the efficacy of event-related potentials (ERPs) and steady-state auditory evoked potentials (SSAEPs), the stimuli were designed such that they elicited both ERPs and SSAEPs simultaneously. Trial-by-trial feedback was provided online, based on subjects' modulation of N1 and P3 ERP components measured during single 5 s stimulation intervals. All 13 healthy subjects were able to use the BCI, with performance in a binary left/right choice task ranging from 75% to 96% correct across subjects (mean 85%). BCI classification was based on the contrast between stimuli in the attended stream and stimuli in the unattended stream, making use of every stimulus, rather than contrasting frequent standard and rare ‘oddball’ stimuli. SSAEPs were assessed offline: for all subjects, spectral components at the two exactly known modulation frequencies allowed discrimination of pre-stimulus from stimulus intervals, and of left-only stimuli from right-only stimuli when one side of the dichotic stimulus pair was muted. However, attention modulation of SSAEPs was not sufficient for single-trial BCI communication, even when the subject's attention was clearly focused well enough to allow classification of the same trials via ERPs. ERPs clearly provided a superior basis for BCI. The ERP results are a promising step towards the development of a simple-to-use, reliable yes/no communication system for users in the most severely paralysed states, as well as potential attention-monitoring and -training applications outside the context of assistive technology.

  1. Feasibility of event-related potential (ERP) biomarker use to study effects of mother's voice exposure on speech sound differentiation of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    D Chorna, Olena; L Hamm, Ellyn; Shrivastava, Hemang; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2018-01-01

    Atypical maturation of auditory neural processing contributes to preterm-born infants' language delays. Event-related potential (ERP) measurement of speech-sound differentiation might fill a gap in treatment-response biomarkers to auditory interventions. We evaluated whether these markers could measure treatment effects in a quasi-randomized prospective study. Hospitalized preterm infants in passive or active, suck-contingent mother's voice exposure groups were not different at baseline. Post-intervention, the active group had greater increases in/du/-/gu/differentiation in left frontal and temporal regions. Infants with brain injury had lower baseline/ba/-/ga/and/du/-/gu/differentiation than those without. ERP provides valid discriminative, responsive, and predictive biomarkers of infant speech-sound differentiation.

  2. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events NIDCD News Inside NIDCD Newsletter Shareable Images ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Auditory Processing Disorder Auditory processing disorder (APD) describes a condition ...

  3. Auditory stream segregation in children with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lepistö, T.; Kuitunen, A.; Sussman, E.; Saalasti, S.; Jansson-Verkasalo, E.; Nieminen-von Wendt, T.; Kujala, T.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) often have difficulties in perceiving speech in noisy environments. The present study investigated whether this might be explained by deficient auditory stream segregation ability, that is, by a more basic difficulty in separating simultaneous sound sources from each other. To this end, auditory event-related brain potentials were recorded from a group of school-aged children with AS and a group of age-matched controls using a paradigm specifically developed for studying stream segregation. Differences in the amplitudes of ERP components were found between groups only in the stream segregation conditions and not for simple feature discrimination. The results indicated that children with AS have difficulties in segregating concurrent sound streams, which ultimately may contribute to the difficulties in speech-in-noise perception. PMID:19751798

  4. Hearing Shapes: Event-related Potentials Reveal the Time Course of Auditory-Visual Sensory Substitution.

    PubMed

    Graulty, Christian; Papaioannou, Orestis; Bauer, Phoebe; Pitts, Michael A; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta

    2018-04-01

    In auditory-visual sensory substitution, visual information (e.g., shape) can be extracted through strictly auditory input (e.g., soundscapes). Previous studies have shown that image-to-sound conversions that follow simple rules [such as the Meijer algorithm; Meijer, P. B. L. An experimental system for auditory image representation. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 39, 111-121, 1992] are highly intuitive and rapidly learned by both blind and sighted individuals. A number of recent fMRI studies have begun to explore the neuroplastic changes that result from sensory substitution training. However, the time course of cross-sensory information transfer in sensory substitution is largely unexplored and may offer insights into the underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we recorded ERPs to soundscapes before and after sighted participants were trained with the Meijer algorithm. We compared these posttraining versus pretraining ERP differences with those of a control group who received the same set of 80 auditory/visual stimuli but with arbitrary pairings during training. Our behavioral results confirmed the rapid acquisition of cross-sensory mappings, and the group trained with the Meijer algorithm was able to generalize their learning to novel soundscapes at impressive levels of accuracy. The ERP results revealed an early cross-sensory learning effect (150-210 msec) that was significantly enhanced in the algorithm-trained group compared with the control group as well as a later difference (420-480 msec) that was unique to the algorithm-trained group. These ERP modulations are consistent with previous fMRI results and provide additional insight into the time course of cross-sensory information transfer in sensory substitution.

  5. [Influence of excessive internet use on auditory event-related potential].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Yu, Hongqiang; Zhan, Qisheng; Wang, Mingshi

    2008-12-01

    At present, young people's internet addiction has become a serious social problem and on important concern in China. Comparison studies of auditory event-related potential (ERP) between 9 excessive internet users and 9 common internet users were carried out. The obvious influences of excessive internet use on the users were observed. The result suggests that excessive internet use may have some influences on cerebral cognitive function.

  6. The Challenge of Implementing an ERP System in a Small and Medium Enterprise--A Teaching Case of ERP Project Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Hongjiang; Rondeau, Patrick J.; Mahenthiran, Sakthi

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation projects are notoriously risky. While large-scale ERP cases continue to be developed, relatively few new ERP cases have been published that further ERP implementation education in small to medium size firms. This case details the implementation of a new ERP system in a medium sized…

  7. Speech rhythm facilitates syntactic ambiguity resolution: ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Roncaglia-Denissen, Maria Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-01-01

    In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first). Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing.

  8. Speech Rhythm Facilitates Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution: ERP Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Roncaglia-Denissen, Maria Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2013-01-01

    In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first). Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing. PMID:23409109

  9. The Implications of Real Options on ERP-Enabled Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankpa, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    Current research on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and real options focuses on valuation and justification issues that manager's face prior to project approval with existing literature attempting to demonstrate that ERP systems as technology positioning investments have option-like characteristics thus making such ERP systems…

  10. Is Open Source the ERP Cure-All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional and hosted applications thrive, but open source ERP (enterprise resource planning) is coming on strong. In many ways, the evolution of the ERP market is littered with ironies. When Oracle began buying up customer relationship management (CRM) and ERP companies, some universities worried that they would be left with fewer choices and…

  11. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Winkler, István

    2016-11-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased - i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P.; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara; Winkler, István

    2017-01-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased – i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object. PMID:27421185

  13. Auditory psychophysics and perception.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, I J; Watson, C S

    1996-01-01

    In this review of auditory psychophysics and perception, we cite some important books, research monographs, and research summaries from the past decade. Within auditory psychophysics, we have singled out some topics of current importance: Cross-Spectral Processing, Timbre and Pitch, and Methodological Developments. Complex sounds and complex listening tasks have been the subject of new studies in auditory perception. We review especially work that concerns auditory pattern perception, with emphasis on temporal aspects of the patterns and on patterns that do not depend on the cognitive structures often involved in the perception of speech and music. Finally, we comment on some aspects of individual difference that are sufficiently important to question the goal of characterizing auditory properties of the typical, average, adult listener. Among the important factors that give rise to these individual differences are those involved in selective processing and attention.

  14. Assessment and Management of Unusual Auditory Behavior in Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kile, Jack E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article describes assessment and management strategies for infants and toddlers with normal hearing or fluctuating conductive hearing loss, who are identified as having central auditory impairment and/or judged to have abnormal auditory behavior. Management strategies include audiologic, medical, and speech and language management. Three case…

  15. Impaired Facilitatory Mechanisms of Auditory Attention After Damage of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie; Buchanan, Kelly G; Viswanath, Humsini; Black, Jessica; Scabini, Donatella; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Knight, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    There is growing evidence that auditory selective attention operates via distinct facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms enabling selective enhancement and suppression of sound processing, respectively. The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) plays a crucial role in the top-down control of selective attention. However, whether the LPFC controls facilitatory, inhibitory, or both attentional mechanisms is unclear. Facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms were assessed, in patients with LPFC damage, by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) to attended and ignored sounds with ERPs to these same sounds when attention was equally distributed to all sounds. In control subjects, we observed 2 late frontally distributed ERP components: a transient facilitatory component occurring from 150 to 250 ms after sound onset; and an inhibitory component onsetting at 250 ms. Only the facilitatory component was affected in patients with LPFC damage: this component was absent when attending to sounds delivered in the ear contralateral to the lesion, with the most prominent decreases observed over the damaged brain regions. These findings have 2 important implications: (i) they provide evidence for functionally distinct facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms supporting late auditory selective attention; (ii) they show that the LPFC is involved in the control of the facilitatory mechanisms of auditory attention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Natural stimuli improve auditory BCIs with respect to ergonomics and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhne, Johannes; Krenzlin, Konrad; Dähne, Sven; Tangermann, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Moving from well-controlled, brisk artificial stimuli to natural and less-controlled stimuli seems counter-intuitive for event-related potential (ERP) studies. As natural stimuli typically contain a richer internal structure, they might introduce higher levels of variance and jitter in the ERP responses. Both characteristics are unfavorable for a good single-trial classification of ERPs in the context of a multi-class brain-computer interface (BCI) system, where the class-discriminant information between target stimuli and non-target stimuli must be maximized. For the application in an auditory BCI system, however, the transition from simple artificial tones to natural syllables can be useful despite the variance introduced. In the presented study, healthy users (N = 9) participated in an offline auditory nine-class BCI experiment with artificial and natural stimuli. It is shown that the use of syllables as natural stimuli does not only improve the users’ ergonomic ratings; also the classification performance is increased. Moreover, natural stimuli obtain a better balance in multi-class decisions, such that the number of systematic confusions between the nine classes is reduced. Hopefully, our findings may contribute to make auditory BCI paradigms more user friendly and applicable for patients.

  17. El Sistema-inspired ensemble music training is associated with changes in children's neurocognitive functional integration: preliminary ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Nina; Schibli, Kylie; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2016-12-01

    Children (aged 9-12) training in an El Sistema-inspired program (OrKidstra) and a matched comparison group participated in an auditory Go/No-Go task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Entire-sweep waveform patterns correlated with known ERP peaks associated with executive and other cognitive functions and indicated that the spread of neural activity in the initial 250 ms of executive attention processing (pre-P300) showed higher level of topographical overlap in OrKidstra children. In these children, late potentials (post-P300) concurrent with response control were more widely distributed and temporally coordinated. Intensive ensemble music training, we suggest, may be associated with neuroplastic changes facilitating integration of neural information.

  18. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  19. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC EEG system for research quality auditory event-related potentials in children

    PubMed Central

    Preece, Kathryn A.; de Wit, Bianca; Glenn, Katharine; Fieder, Nora; Thie, Johnson; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG) system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children. Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under “passive” and “active” listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz) and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz) tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of ‘high’ (i.e., deviant) tones. Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95) in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74). There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems. Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children’s late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3) and their MMN ERP component. PMID:25922794

  20. Classifying four-category visual objects using multiple ERP components in single-trial ERP.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Changming; Zhang, Jiacai; Yao, Li; Guo, Xiaojuan; Wu, Xia; Hu, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Object categorization using single-trial electroencephalography (EEG) data measured while participants view images has been studied intensively. In previous studies, multiple event-related potential (ERP) components (e.g., P1, N1, P2, and P3) were used to improve the performance of object categorization of visual stimuli. In this study, we introduce a novel method that uses multiple-kernel support vector machine to fuse multiple ERP component features. We investigate whether fusing the potential complementary information of different ERP components (e.g., P1, N1, P2a, and P2b) can improve the performance of four-category visual object classification in single-trial EEGs. We also compare the classification accuracy of different ERP component fusion methods. Our experimental results indicate that the classification accuracy increases through multiple ERP fusion. Additional comparative analyses indicate that the multiple-kernel fusion method can achieve a mean classification accuracy higher than 72 %, which is substantially better than that achieved with any single ERP component feature (55.07 % for the best single ERP component, N1). We compare the classification results with those of other fusion methods and determine that the accuracy of the multiple-kernel fusion method is 5.47, 4.06, and 16.90 % higher than those of feature concatenation, feature extraction, and decision fusion, respectively. Our study shows that our multiple-kernel fusion method outperforms other fusion methods and thus provides a means to improve the classification performance of single-trial ERPs in brain-computer interface research.

  1. Event-related-potential low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (ERP-LORETA) suggests decreased energetic resources for cognitive processing in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Saletu, Michael; Anderer, Peter; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda Maria; Mandl, Magdalena; Zeitlhofer, Josef; Saletu, Bernd

    2008-08-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are sensitive measures of both perceptual and cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to identify brain regions involved in the processes of cognitive dysfunction in narcolepsy by means of ERP tomography. In 17 drug-free patients with narcolepsy and 17 controls, ERPs were recorded (auditory odd-ball paradigm). Latencies, amplitudes and LORETA sources were determined for standard (N1 and P2) and target (N2 and P300) ERP components. Psychometry included measures of mental performance, affect and critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF). In the ERPs patients demonstrated delayed cognitive N2 and P300 components and reduced amplitudes in midline regions, while N1 and P2 components did not differ from controls. LORETA suggested reduced P300 sources bilaterally in the precuneus, the anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the parahippocampal gyrus. In psychometry, patients demonstrated deteriorated mood, increased trait anxiety, decreased CFF and a trend toward reduced general verbal memory and psychomotor activity. Narcoleptic patients showed prolonged information processing, as indexed by N2 and P300 latencies and decreased energetic resources for cognitive processing. Electrophysiological aberrations in brain areas related to the 'executive attention network' and the 'limbic system' may contribute to a deterioration in mental performance and mood at the behavioral level.

  2. Dysfunctional information processing during an auditory event-related potential task in individuals with Internet gaming disorder

    PubMed Central

    Park, M; Choi, J-S; Park, S M; Lee, J-Y; Jung, H Y; Sohn, B K; Kim, S N; Kim, D J; Kwon, J S

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) leading to serious impairments in cognitive, psychological and social functions has gradually been increasing. However, very few studies conducted to date have addressed issues related to the event-related potential (ERP) patterns in IGD. Identifying the neurobiological characteristics of IGD is important to elucidate the pathophysiology of this condition. P300 is a useful ERP component for investigating electrophysiological features of the brain. The aims of the present study were to investigate differences between patients with IGD and healthy controls (HCs), with regard to the P300 component of the ERP during an auditory oddball task, and to examine the relationship of this component to the severity of IGD symptoms in identifying the relevant neurophysiological features of IGD. Twenty-six patients diagnosed with IGD and 23 age-, sex-, education- and intelligence quotient-matched HCs participated in this study. During an auditory oddball task, participants had to respond to the rare, deviant tones presented in a sequence of frequent, standard tones. The IGD group exhibited a significant reduction in response to deviant tones compared with the HC group in the P300 amplitudes at the midline centro-parietal electrode regions. We also found a negative correlation between the severity of IGD and P300 amplitudes. The reduced amplitude of the P300 component in an auditory oddball task may reflect dysfunction in auditory information processing and cognitive capabilities in IGD. These findings suggest that reduced P300 amplitudes may be candidate neurobiological marker for IGD. PMID:26812042

  3. Dysfunctional information processing during an auditory event-related potential task in individuals with Internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, M; Choi, J-S; Park, S M; Lee, J-Y; Jung, H Y; Sohn, B K; Kim, S N; Kim, D J; Kwon, J S

    2016-01-26

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) leading to serious impairments in cognitive, psychological and social functions has gradually been increasing. However, very few studies conducted to date have addressed issues related to the event-related potential (ERP) patterns in IGD. Identifying the neurobiological characteristics of IGD is important to elucidate the pathophysiology of this condition. P300 is a useful ERP component for investigating electrophysiological features of the brain. The aims of the present study were to investigate differences between patients with IGD and healthy controls (HCs), with regard to the P300 component of the ERP during an auditory oddball task, and to examine the relationship of this component to the severity of IGD symptoms in identifying the relevant neurophysiological features of IGD. Twenty-six patients diagnosed with IGD and 23 age-, sex-, education- and intelligence quotient-matched HCs participated in this study. During an auditory oddball task, participants had to respond to the rare, deviant tones presented in a sequence of frequent, standard tones. The IGD group exhibited a significant reduction in response to deviant tones compared with the HC group in the P300 amplitudes at the midline centro-parietal electrode regions. We also found a negative correlation between the severity of IGD and P300 amplitudes. The reduced amplitude of the P300 component in an auditory oddball task may reflect dysfunction in auditory information processing and cognitive capabilities in IGD. These findings suggest that reduced P300 amplitudes may be candidate neurobiological marker for IGD.

  4. The Auditory-Visual Speech Benefit on Working Memory in Older Adults with Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Frtusova, Jana B.; Phillips, Natalie A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of auditory-visual (AV) speech stimuli on working memory in older adults with poorer-hearing (PH) in comparison to age- and education-matched older adults with better hearing (BH). Participants completed a working memory n-back task (0- to 2-back) in which sequences of digits were presented in visual-only (i.e., speech-reading), auditory-only (A-only), and AV conditions. Auditory event-related potentials (ERP) were collected to assess the relationship between perceptual and working memory processing. The behavioral results showed that both groups were faster in the AV condition in comparison to the unisensory conditions. The ERP data showed perceptual facilitation in the AV condition, in the form of reduced amplitudes and latencies of the auditory N1 and/or P1 components, in the PH group. Furthermore, a working memory ERP component, the P3, peaked earlier for both groups in the AV condition compared to the A-only condition. In general, the PH group showed a more robust AV benefit; however, the BH group showed a dose-response relationship between perceptual facilitation and working memory improvement, especially for facilitation of processing speed. Two measures, reaction time and P3 amplitude, suggested that the presence of visual speech cues may have helped the PH group to counteract the demanding auditory processing, to the level that no group differences were evident during the AV modality despite lower performance during the A-only condition. Overall, this study provides support for the theory of an integrated perceptual-cognitive system. The practical significance of these findings is also discussed. PMID:27148106

  5. EEG phase reset due to auditory attention: an inverse time-scale approach.

    PubMed

    Low, Yin Fen; Strauss, Daniel J

    2009-08-01

    We propose a novel tool to evaluate the electroencephalograph (EEG) phase reset due to auditory attention by utilizing an inverse analysis of the instantaneous phase for the first time. EEGs were acquired through auditory attention experiments with a maximum entropy stimulation paradigm. We examined single sweeps of auditory late response (ALR) with the complex continuous wavelet transform. The phase in the frequency band that is associated with auditory attention (6-10 Hz, termed as theta-alpha border) was reset to the mean phase of the averaged EEGs. The inverse transform was applied to reconstruct the phase-modified signal. We found significant enhancement of the N100 wave in the reconstructed signal. Analysis of the phase noise shows the effects of phase jittering on the generation of the N100 wave implying that a preferred phase is necessary to generate the event-related potential (ERP). Power spectrum analysis shows a remarkable increase of evoked power but little change of total power after stabilizing the phase of EEGs. Furthermore, by resetting the phase only at the theta border of no attention data to the mean phase of attention data yields a result that resembles attention data. These results show strong connections between EEGs and ERP, in particular, we suggest that the presentation of an auditory stimulus triggers the phase reset process at the theta-alpha border which leads to the emergence of the N100 wave. It is concluded that our study reinforces other studies on the importance of the EEG in ERP genesis.

  6. Memory Effects in Syntactic ERP Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    The study presented here investigated the role of memory in normal sentence processing by looking at ERP effects to normal sentences and sentences containing grammatical violations. Sentences where the critical word was in the middle of the sentence were compared to sentences where the critical word always occurred in sentence-final position.…

  7. A Security Checklist for ERP Implementations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joy R.; Beer, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force consulted with IT security professionals on campus about concerns with the current state of security in enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. From these conversations, it was clear that security issues generally fell into one of two areas: (1) It has become extremely difficult…

  8. Accentra Pharmaceuticals: Thrashing through ERP Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradds, Nathan; Hills, Emily; Masters, Kelly; Weiss, Kevin; Havelka, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Implementing and integrating an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system into an organization is an enormous undertaking that requires substantial cash outlays, time commitments, and skilled IT and business personnel. It requires careful and detailed planning, thorough testing and training, and a change management process that creates a…

  9. Specialization along the left superior temporal sulcus for auditory categorization.

    PubMed

    Liebenthal, Einat; Desai, Rutvik; Ellingson, Michael M; Ramachandran, Brinda; Desai, Anjali; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2010-12-01

    The affinity and temporal course of functional fields in middle and posterior superior temporal cortex for the categorization of complex sounds was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded simultaneously. Data were compared before and after subjects were trained to categorize a continuum of unfamiliar nonphonemic auditory patterns with speech-like properties (NP) and a continuum of familiar phonemic patterns (P). fMRI activation for NP increased after training in left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). The ERP P2 response to NP also increased with training, and its scalp topography was consistent with left posterior superior temporal generators. In contrast, the left middle superior temporal sulcus (mSTS) showed fMRI activation only for P, and this response was not affected by training. The P2 response to P was also independent of training, and its estimated source was more anterior in left superior temporal cortex. Results are consistent with a role for left pSTS in short-term representation of relevant sound features that provide the basis for identifying newly acquired sound categories. Categorization of highly familiar phonemic patterns is mediated by long-term representations in left mSTS. Results provide new insight regarding the function of ventral and dorsal auditory streams.

  10. Design Patterns Application in the ERP Systems Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovičić, Bojan; Vlajić, Siniša

    Design patterns application have long been present in software engineering. The same is true for ERP systems in business software. Is it possible that ERP systems do not have a good maintenance score? We have found out that there is room for maintenance improvement and that it is possible to improve ERP systems using design patterns. We have conducted comparative analysis of ease of maintenance of the ERP systems. The results show that the average score for our questions is 64%, with most answers for ERP systems like SAP, Oracle EBS, Dynamics AX. We found that 59% of ERP system developer users are not familiar with design patterns. Based on this research, we have chosen Dynamics AX as the ERP system for examination of design patterns improvement possibilities. We used software metrics to measure improvement possibility. We found that we could increase the Conditional Complexity score 17-fold by introducing design patterns.

  11. Brain Metabolism during Hallucination-Like Auditory Stimulation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horga, Guillermo; Fernández-Egea, Emilio; Mané, Anna; Font, Mireia; Schatz, Kelly C.; Falcon, Carles; Lomeña, Francisco; Bernardo, Miguel; Parellada, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are typically characterized by rich emotional content. Despite the prominent role of emotion in regulating normal perception, the neural interface between emotion-processing regions such as the amygdala and auditory regions involved in perception remains relatively unexplored in AVH. Here, we studied brain metabolism using FDG-PET in 9 remitted patients with schizophrenia that previously reported severe AVH during an acute psychotic episode and 8 matched healthy controls. Participants were scanned twice: (1) at rest and (2) during the perception of aversive auditory stimuli mimicking the content of AVH. Compared to controls, remitted patients showed an exaggerated response to the AVH-like stimuli in limbic and paralimbic regions, including the left amygdala. Furthermore, patients displayed abnormally strong connections between the amygdala and auditory regions of the cortex and thalamus, along with abnormally weak connections between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by limbic-thalamic structures might be involved in the pathophysiology of AVH and may potentially account for the emotional features that characterize hallucinatory percepts in schizophrenia. PMID:24416328

  12. Prediction of Auditory and Visual P300 Brain-Computer Interface Aptitude

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sebastian; Hammer, Eva Maria; Kleih, Sonja Claudia; Bogdan, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Birbaumer, Niels; Kübler, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a non-muscular communication channel for patients with late-stage motoneuron disease (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)) or otherwise motor impaired people and are also used for motor rehabilitation in chronic stroke. Differences in the ability to use a BCI vary from person to person and from session to session. A reliable predictor of aptitude would allow for the selection of suitable BCI paradigms. For this reason, we investigated whether P300 BCI aptitude could be predicted from a short experiment with a standard auditory oddball. Methods Forty healthy participants performed an electroencephalography (EEG) based visual and auditory P300-BCI spelling task in a single session. In addition, prior to each session an auditory oddball was presented. Features extracted from the auditory oddball were analyzed with respect to predictive power for BCI aptitude. Results Correlation between auditory oddball response and P300 BCI accuracy revealed a strong relationship between accuracy and N2 amplitude and the amplitude of a late ERP component between 400 and 600 ms. Interestingly, the P3 amplitude of the auditory oddball response was not correlated with accuracy. Conclusions Event-related potentials recorded during a standard auditory oddball session moderately predict aptitude in an audiory and highly in a visual P300 BCI. The predictor will allow for faster paradigm selection. Significance Our method will reduce strain on patients because unsuccessful training may be avoided, provided the results can be generalized to the patient population. PMID:23457444

  13. Modafinil improves information processing speed and increases energetic resources for orientation of attention in narcoleptics: double-blind, placebo-controlled ERP studies with low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA).

    PubMed

    Saletu, Michael; Anderer, Peter; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda Maria; Mandl, Magdalena; Saletu, Bernd; Zeitlhofer, Josef

    2009-09-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies in narcolepsy discovered significant gray matter loss in the right prefrontal and frontomesial cortex, a critical region for executive processing. In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to investigate cognition before and after modafinil as compared with placebo. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design, 15 patients were treated with a 3-week fixed titration scheme of modafinil and placebo. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) and auditory ERPs (odd-ball paradigm) were obtained before and after the 3 weeks of therapy. Latencies, amplitudes and LORETA sources were determined for standard (N1 and P2) and target (N2 and P300) ERP components. The ESS score improved significantly from 15.4 (+/- 4.0) under placebo to 10.2 (+/- 4.1) under 400mg modafinil (p=0.004). In the MWT, latency to sleep increased nonsignificantly after modafinil treatment (11.9+/-6.9 versus 13.3+/-7.1 min). In the ERP, N2 and P300 latencies were shortened significantly. While ERP amplitudes showed only minor changes, LORETA revealed increased source strengths: for N1 in the left auditory cortex and for P300 in the medial and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. LORETA revealed that modafinil improved information processing speed and increased energetic resources in prefrontal cortical regions, which is in agreement with other neuroimaging studies.

  14. Auditory Processing Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Hearing Loss in Seniors Hearing Aids General Information Types Features Fittings Assistive Listening & Alerting Devices Cochlear Implants Aural Rehabilitation Auditory Processing Disorders (APDs) Common Conditions Dizziness Tinnitus Who Are ...

  15. [A case of pure word deafness and auditory agnosia associated with bilateral temporo-parietal lesions].

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Yasui, N; Isobe, I; Kobayashi, T

    1982-10-01

    A-49-year-old right-handed female was reported. She showed pure word deafness and auditory agnosia because of bilateral temporo-parietal lesions. The left lesion resulted from angiospasm of the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm of the left carotid artery, and the right one resulted from subcortical hematoma after the V-P shunt operation. CT scan revealed the abnormal low density area on the bilateral temporo-parietal regions seven months after onset. Neurophychological findings were as follows: there were no aphasic symptoms such as paraphasia, word finding difficulties, or disturbances of spontaneous writing, reading and calculation. But her auditory comprehension was severely disturbed, and she could neither repeat words after the tester nor write from dictation. She also could not recognize meaningful sounds and music in spite of normal hearing sensitivity for pure tone, BSR and AER. We discussed the neuropsychological mechanisms of auditory recognition, and assumed that each hemisphere might process both verbal and non-verbal auditory stimuli in the secondary auditory area. The auditory input may be recognized at the left association area, the final level of this mechanism. Pure word deafness and auditory agnosia of this case might be caused by the disruption of the right secondary auditory area, the pathway between the left primary auditory area and the left secondary auditory area, and between the left and right secondary auditory areas.

  16. High-Risk Infants: Auditory Processing Deficits in Later Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbride, Kathleen E.; And Others

    To determine whether deficits warranting intervention are present in the later functioning of high-risk infants, 22 premature infants who experienced asphyxia or chronic lung disease (CLD) but who had no gross developmental abnormalities were evaluated. Assessments of auditory perception and receptive language ability were made during later…

  17. First branchial cleft sinus presenting with cholesteatoma and external auditory canal atresia.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Sinasi; Karlidağ, Turgut; Kaygusuz, Irfan; Demirbağ, Erhan

    2003-07-01

    First branchial cleft abnormalities are rare. They may involve the external auditory canal and middle ear. We describe a 6-year-old girl with congenital external auditory canal atresia, microtia, and cholesteatoma of mastoid and middle ear in addition to the first branchial cleft abnormalities. Clinical features of the patient are briefly described and the embryological relationship between first branchial cleft anomaly and external auditory canal atresia is discussed. The surgical management of these lesions may be performed, both the complete excision of the sinus and reconstructive otologic surgery.

  18. Auditory agnosia as a clinical symptom of childhood adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Furushima, Wakana; Kaga, Makiko; Nakamura, Masako; Gunji, Atsuko; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-08-01

    To investigate detailed auditory features in patients with auditory impairment as the first clinical symptoms of childhood adrenoleukodystrophy (CSALD). Three patients who had hearing difficulty as the first clinical signs and/or symptoms of ALD. Precise examination of the clinical characteristics of hearing and auditory function was performed, including assessments of pure tone audiometry, verbal sound discrimination, otoacoustic emission (OAE), and auditory brainstem response (ABR), as well as an environmental sound discrimination test, a sound lateralization test, and a dichotic listening test (DLT). The auditory pathway was evaluated by MRI in each patient. Poor response to calling was detected in all patients. Two patients were not aware of their hearing difficulty, and had been diagnosed with normal hearing by otolaryngologists at first. Pure-tone audiometry disclosed normal hearing in all patients. All patients showed a normal wave V ABR threshold. Three patients showed obvious difficulty in discriminating verbal sounds, environmental sounds, and sound lateralization and strong left-ear suppression in a dichotic listening test. However, once they discriminated verbal sounds, they correctly understood the meaning. Two patients showed elongation of the I-V and III-V interwave intervals in ABR, but one showed no abnormality. MRIs of these three patients revealed signal changes in auditory radiation including in other subcortical areas. The hearing features of these subjects were diagnosed as auditory agnosia and not aphasia. It should be emphasized that when patients are suspected to have hearing impairment but have no abnormalities in pure tone audiometry and/or ABR, this should not be diagnosed immediately as psychogenic response or pathomimesis, but auditory agnosia must also be considered. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Auditory Spatial Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  20. Diminished n1 auditory evoked potentials to oddball stimuli in misophonia patients.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Arjan; van Diepen, Rosanne; Mazaheri, Ali; Petropoulos-Petalas, Diamantis; Soto de Amesti, Vicente; Vulink, Nienke; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Misophonia (hatred of sound) is a newly defined psychiatric condition in which ordinary human sounds, such as breathing and eating, trigger impulsive aggression. In the current study, we investigated if a dysfunction in the brain's early auditory processing system could be present in misophonia. We screened 20 patients with misophonia with the diagnostic criteria for misophonia, and 14 matched healthy controls without misophonia, and investigated any potential deficits in auditory processing of misophonia patients using auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) during an oddball task. Subjects watched a neutral silent movie while being presented a regular frequency of beep sounds in which oddball tones of 250 and 4000 Hz were randomly embedded in a stream of repeated 1000 Hz standard tones. We examined the P1, N1, and P2 components locked to the onset of the tones. For misophonia patients, the N1 peak evoked by the oddball tones had smaller mean peak amplitude than the control group. However, no significant differences were found in P1 and P2 components evoked by the oddball tones. There were no significant differences between the misophonia patients and their controls in any of the ERP components to the standard tones. The diminished N1 component to oddball tones in misophonia patients suggests an underlying neurobiological deficit in misophonia patients. This reduction might reflect a basic impairment in auditory processing in misophonia patients.

  1. Diminished N1 Auditory Evoked Potentials to Oddball Stimuli in Misophonia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Arjan; van Diepen, Rosanne; Mazaheri, Ali; Petropoulos-Petalas, Diamantis; Soto de Amesti, Vicente; Vulink, Nienke; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Misophonia (hatred of sound) is a newly defined psychiatric condition in which ordinary human sounds, such as breathing and eating, trigger impulsive aggression. In the current study, we investigated if a dysfunction in the brain’s early auditory processing system could be present in misophonia. We screened 20 patients with misophonia with the diagnostic criteria for misophonia, and 14 matched healthy controls without misophonia, and investigated any potential deficits in auditory processing of misophonia patients using auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) during an oddball task. Subjects watched a neutral silent movie while being presented a regular frequency of beep sounds in which oddball tones of 250 and 4000 Hz were randomly embedded in a stream of repeated 1000 Hz standard tones. We examined the P1, N1, and P2 components locked to the onset of the tones. For misophonia patients, the N1 peak evoked by the oddball tones had smaller mean peak amplitude than the control group. However, no significant differences were found in P1 and P2 components evoked by the oddball tones. There were no significant differences between the misophonia patients and their controls in any of the ERP components to the standard tones. The diminished N1 component to oddball tones in misophonia patients suggests an underlying neurobiological deficit in misophonia patients. This reduction might reflect a basic impairment in auditory processing in misophonia patients. PMID:24782731

  2. Auditory attention in childhood and adolescence: An event-related potential study of spatial selective attention to one of two simultaneous stories.

    PubMed

    Karns, Christina M; Isbell, Elif; Giuliano, Ryan J; Neville, Helen J

    2015-06-01

    Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) across five age groups: 3-5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults. Using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, we characterized the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Auditory attention in childhood and adolescence: An event-related potential study of spatial selective attention to one of two simultaneous stories

    PubMed Central

    Karns, Christina M.; Isbell, Elif; Giuliano, Ryan J.; Neville, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in human children across five age groups: 3–5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, characterizing the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages. PMID:26002721

  4. Cortical evoked potentials to an auditory illusion: binaural beats.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2009-08-01

    To define brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of 3 and 6Hz binaural beats in 250Hz or 1000Hz base frequencies, and compare it to the sound onset response. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to unmodulated tones of 250 or 1000Hz to one ear and 3 or 6Hz higher to the other, creating an illusion of amplitude modulations (beats) of 3Hz and 6Hz, in base frequencies of 250Hz and 1000Hz. Tones were 2000ms in duration and presented with approximately 1s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to tone onset and subsequent beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat frequencies with both base frequencies. All stimuli evoked tone-onset P(50), N(100) and P(200) components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude with the low base frequency and to the low beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left lateral and inferior temporal lobe areas in all stimulus conditions. Onset-evoked components were not different across stimulus conditions; P(50) had significantly different sources than the beats-evoked oscillations; and N(100) and P(200) sources located to the same temporal lobe regions as beats-evoked oscillations, but were bilateral and also included frontal and parietal contributions. Neural activity with slightly different volley frequencies from left and right ear converges and interacts in the central auditory brainstem pathways to generate beats of neural activity to modulate activities in the left temporal lobe, giving rise to the illusion of binaural beats. Cortical potentials recorded to binaural beats are distinct from onset responses. Brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of low frequency beats can be recorded from the scalp.

  5. Cortical Evoked Potentials to an Auditory Illusion: Binaural Beats

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J.; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To define brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of 3 and 6 Hz binaural beats in 250 Hz or 1,000 Hz base frequencies, and compare it to the sound onset response. Methods: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to unmodulated tones of 250 or 1000 Hz to one ear and 3 or 6 Hz higher to the other, creating an illusion of amplitude modulations (beats) of 3 Hz and 6 Hz, in base frequencies of 250 Hz and 1000 Hz. Tones were 2,000 ms in duration and presented with approximately 1 s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to tone onset and subsequent beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat frequencies with both base frequencies. Results: All stimuli evoked tone-onset P50, N100 and P200 components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude with the low base frequency and to the low beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left lateral and inferior temporal lobe areas in all stimulus conditions. Onset-evoked components were not different across stimulus conditions; P50 had significantly different sources than the beats-evoked oscillations; and N100 and P200 sources located to the same temporal lobe regions as beats-evoked oscillations, but were bilateral and also included frontal and parietal contributions. Conclusions: Neural activity with slightly different volley frequencies from left and right ear converges and interacts in the central auditory brainstem pathways to generate beats of neural activity to modulate activities in the left temporal lobe, giving rise to the illusion of binaural beats. Cortical potentials recorded to binaural beats are distinct from onset responses. Significance: Brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of low frequency beats can be recorded from the

  6. ERP evidence of preserved early memory function in term infants with neonatal encephalopathy following therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Katie M; Zhang, Lei; Miller, Neely C; Hultgren, Solveig; Boys, Chris J; Georgieff, Michael K

    2016-12-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) carries high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) reduces this risk, particularly for moderate encephalopathy (ME). Nevertheless, these infants often have subtle functional deficits, including abnormal memory function. Detection of deficits at the earliest possible time-point would allow for intervention during a period of maximal brain plasticity. Recognition memory function in 22 infants with NE treated with TH was compared to 23 healthy controls using event-related potentials (ERPs) at 2 wk of age. ERPs were recorded to mother's voice alternating with a stranger's voice to assess attentional responses (P2), novelty detection (slow wave), and discrimination between familiar and novel (difference wave). Development was tested at 12 mo using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). The NE group showed similar ERP components and BSID-III scores to controls. However, infants with NE showed discrimination at midline leads (P = 0.01), whereas controls showed discrimination in the left hemisphere (P = 0.05). Normal MRI (P = 0.05) and seizure-free electroencephalogram (EEG) (P = 0.04) correlated positively with outcomes. Infants with NE have preserved recognition memory function after TH. The spatially different recognition memory processing after early brain injury may represent compensatory changes in the brain circuitry and reflect a benefit of TH.

  7. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    PubMed Central

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  8. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  9. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  10. ERPs reveal subliminal processing of fearful faces.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Monika; Eimer, Martin

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether facial expression is processed in the absence of conscious awareness, ERPs were recorded in a task in which participants had to identify the expression of masked fearful and neutral target faces. On supraliminal trials (200 ms target duration), in which identification performance was high, a sustained positivity to fearful versus neutral target faces started 140 ms after target face onset. On subliminal trials (8 ms target duration), identification performance was at chance level, but ERPs still showed systematic fear-specific effects. An early positivity to fearful target faces was present but smaller than on supraliminal trials. A subsequent enhanced N2 to fearful faces was only present for subliminal trials. In contrast, a P3 enhancement to fearful faces was observed on supraliminal but not subliminal trials. Results demonstrate rapid emotional expression processing in the absence of awareness.

  11. ERPs reveal subliminal processing of fearful faces

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Monika; Eimer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether facial expression is processed in the absence of conscious awareness, ERPs were recorded in a task where participants had to identify the expression of masked fearful and neutral target faces. On supraliminal trials (200 ms target duration), where identification performance was high, a sustained positivity to fearful versus neutral target faces started 140 ms after target face onset. On subliminal trials (8 ms target duration), identification performance was at chance level, but ERPs still showed systematic fear-specific effects. An early positivity to fearful target faces was present but smaller than on supraliminal trials. A subsequent enhanced N2 to fearful faces was only present for subliminal trials. In contrast, a P3 enhancement to fearful faces was observed on supraliminal but not subliminal trials. Results demonstrate rapid emotional expression processing in the absence of awareness. PMID:17995905

  12. Binaural speech processing in individuals with auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rance, G; Ryan, M M; Carew, P; Corben, L A; Yiu, E; Tan, J; Delatycki, M B

    2012-12-13

    Auditory neuropathy disrupts the neural representation of sound and may therefore impair processes contingent upon inter-aural integration. The aims of this study were to investigate binaural auditory processing in individuals with axonal (Friedreich ataxia) and demyelinating (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A) auditory neuropathy and to evaluate the relationship between the degree of auditory deficit and overall clinical severity in patients with neuropathic disorders. Twenty-three subjects with genetically confirmed Friedreich ataxia and 12 subjects with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A underwent psychophysical evaluation of basic auditory processing (intensity discrimination/temporal resolution) and binaural speech perception assessment using the Listening in Spatialized Noise test. Age, gender and hearing-level-matched controls were also tested. Speech perception in noise for individuals with auditory neuropathy was abnormal for each listening condition, but was particularly affected in circumstances where binaural processing might have improved perception through spatial segregation. Ability to use spatial cues was correlated with temporal resolution suggesting that the binaural-processing deficit was the result of disordered representation of timing cues in the left and right auditory nerves. Spatial processing was also related to overall disease severity (as measured by the Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Score) suggesting that the degree of neural dysfunction in the auditory system accurately reflects generalized neuropathic changes. Measures of binaural speech processing show promise for application in the neurology clinic. In individuals with auditory neuropathy due to both axonal and demyelinating mechanisms the assessment provides a measure of functional hearing ability, a biomarker capable of tracking the natural history of progressive disease and a potential means of evaluating the effectiveness of interventions

  13. AI User Support System for SAP ERP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Chebotareva, Victoria; Rakhimov, Marat; Kruglikov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    An intelligent system for SAP ERP user support is proposed in this paper. It enables automatic replies on users’ requests for support, saving time for problem analysis and resolution and improving responsiveness for end users. The system is based on an ensemble of machine learning algorithms of multiclass text classification, providing efficient question understanding, and a special framework for evidence retrieval, providing the best answer derivation.

  14. NAVY ERP: An Analysis of Change Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    of ‘best practice’ in information systems for operations management . European Journal of Information Systems, 8, 284–293. Veit, B. (2008). Draft... Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction...the Navy could accomplish. Bogdanowicz (2004) notes that the pilots proved ERP can be used to:  Operate and manage major acquisition commands and

  15. Beneficial auditory and cognitive effects of auditory brainstem implantation in children.

    PubMed

    Colletti, Liliana

    2007-09-01

    This preliminary study demonstrates the development of hearing ability and shows that there is a significant improvement in some cognitive parameters related to selective visual/spatial attention and to fluid or multisensory reasoning, in children fitted with auditory brainstem implantation (ABI). The improvement in cognitive paramenters is due to several factors, among which there is certainly, as demonstrated in the literature on a cochlear implants (CIs), the activation of the auditory sensory canal, which was previously absent. The findings of the present study indicate that children with cochlear or cochlear nerve abnormalities with associated cognitive deficits should not be excluded from ABI implantation. The indications for ABI have been extended over the last 10 years to adults with non-tumoral (NT) cochlear or cochlear nerve abnormalities that cannot benefit from CI. We demonstrated that the ABI with surface electrodes may provide sufficient stimulation of the central auditory system in adults for open set speech recognition. These favourable results motivated us to extend ABI indications to children with profound hearing loss who were not candidates for a CI. This study investigated the performances of young deaf children undergoing ABI, in terms of their auditory perceptual development and their non-verbal cognitive abilities. In our department from 2000 to 2006, 24 children aged 14 months to 16 years received an ABI for different tumour and non-tumour diseases. Two children had NF2 tumours. Eighteen children had bilateral cochlear nerve aplasia. In this group, nine children had associated cochlear malformations, two had unilateral facial nerve agenesia and two had combined microtia, aural atresia and middle ear malformations. Four of these children had previously been fitted elsewhere with a CI with no auditory results. One child had bilateral incomplete cochlear partition (type II); one child, who had previously been fitted unsuccessfully elsewhere

  16. Incorporating an ERP Project into Undergraduate Instruction

    PubMed Central

    Nyhus, Erika; Curtis, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a relatively non-invasive, simple technique, and recent advances in open source analysis tools make it feasible to implement EEG as a component in undergraduate neuroscience curriculum. We have successfully led students to design novel experiments, record EEG data, and analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) during a one-semester laboratory course for undergraduates in cognitive neuroscience. First, students learned how to set up an EEG recording and completed an analysis tutorial. Students then learned how to set up a novel EEG experiment; briefly, they formed groups of four and designed an EEG experiment on a topic of their choice. Over the course of two weeks students collected behavioral and EEG data. Each group then analyzed their behavioral and ERP data and presented their results both as a presentation and as a final paper. Upon completion of the group project students reported a deeper understanding of cognitive neuroscience methods and a greater appreciation for the strengths and weaknesses of the EEG technique. Although recent advances in open source software made this project possible, it also required access to EEG recording equipment and proprietary software. Future efforts should be directed at making publicly available datasets to learn ERP analysis techniques and making publicly available EEG recording and analysis software to increase the accessibility of hands-on research experience in undergraduate cognitive neuroscience laboratory courses. PMID:27385925

  17. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  18. Auditory priming improves neural synchronization in auditory-motor entrainment.

    PubMed

    Crasta, Jewel E; Thaut, Michael H; Anderson, Charles W; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2018-05-22

    Neurophysiological research has shown that auditory and motor systems interact during movement to rhythmic auditory stimuli through a process called entrainment. This study explores the neural oscillations underlying auditory-motor entrainment using electroencephalography. Forty young adults were randomly assigned to one of two control conditions, an auditory-only condition or a motor-only condition, prior to a rhythmic auditory-motor synchronization condition (referred to as combined condition). Participants assigned to the auditory-only condition auditory-first group) listened to 400 trials of auditory stimuli presented every 800 ms, while those in the motor-only condition (motor-first group) were asked to tap rhythmically every 800 ms without any external stimuli. Following their control condition, all participants completed an auditory-motor combined condition that required tapping along with auditory stimuli every 800 ms. As expected, the neural processes for the combined condition for each group were different compared to their respective control condition. Time-frequency analysis of total power at an electrode site on the left central scalp (C3) indicated that the neural oscillations elicited by auditory stimuli, especially in the beta and gamma range, drove the auditory-motor entrainment. For the combined condition, the auditory-first group had significantly lower evoked power for a region of interest representing sensorimotor processing (4-20 Hz) and less total power in a region associated with anticipation and predictive timing (13-16 Hz) than the motor-first group. Thus, the auditory-only condition served as a priming facilitator of the neural processes in the combined condition, more so than the motor-only condition. Results suggest that even brief periods of rhythmic training of the auditory system leads to neural efficiency facilitating the motor system during the process of entrainment. These findings have implications for interventions

  19. A meta-analysis investigating factors underlying attrition rates in infant ERP studies.

    PubMed

    Stets, Manuela; Stahl, Daniel; Reid, Vincent M

    2012-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, we examined interrelationships between characteristics of infant event-related potential (ERP) studies and their attrition rates. One-hundred and forty-nine published studies provided information on 314 experimental groups of which 181 provided data on attrition. A random effects meta-analysis revealed a high average attrition rate of 49.2%. Additionally, we used meta-regression for 178 groups with attrition data to analyze which variables best explained attrition variance. Our main findings were that the nature of the stimuli-visual, auditory, or combined as well as if stimuli were animated-influenced exclusion rates from the final analysis and that infant age did not alter attrition rates.

  20. Punctuation and Implicit Prosody in Silent Reading: An ERP Study Investigating English Garden-Path Sentences.

    PubMed

    Drury, John E; Baum, Shari R; Valeriote, Hope; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first two ERP reading studies of comma-induced effects of covert (implicit) prosody on syntactic parsing decisions in English. The first experiment used a balanced 2 × 2 design in which the presence/absence of commas determined plausibility (e.g., John, said Mary, was the nicest boy at the party vs. John said Mary was the nicest boy at the party ). The second reading experiment replicated a previous auditory study investigating the role of overt prosodic boundaries in closure ambiguities (Pauker et al., 2011). In both experiments, commas reliably elicited CPS components and generally played a dominant role in determining parsing decisions in the face of input ambiguity. The combined set of findings provides further evidence supporting the claim that mechanisms subserving speech processing play an active role during silent reading.

  1. Punctuation and Implicit Prosody in Silent Reading: An ERP Study Investigating English Garden-Path Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Drury, John E.; Baum, Shari R.; Valeriote, Hope; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first two ERP reading studies of comma-induced effects of covert (implicit) prosody on syntactic parsing decisions in English. The first experiment used a balanced 2 × 2 design in which the presence/absence of commas determined plausibility (e.g., John, said Mary, was the nicest boy at the party vs. John said Mary was the nicest boy at the party). The second reading experiment replicated a previous auditory study investigating the role of overt prosodic boundaries in closure ambiguities (Pauker et al., 2011). In both experiments, commas reliably elicited CPS components and generally played a dominant role in determining parsing decisions in the face of input ambiguity. The combined set of findings provides further evidence supporting the claim that mechanisms subserving speech processing play an active role during silent reading. PMID:27695428

  2. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  4. Topographic Distribution of Stimulus-Specific Adaptation across Auditory Cortical Fields in the Anesthetized Rat

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Diego, Javier; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) in single neurons of the auditory cortex was suggested to be a potential neural correlate of the mismatch negativity (MMN), a widely studied component of the auditory event-related potentials (ERP) that is elicited by changes in the auditory environment. However, several aspects on this SSA/MMN relation remain unresolved. SSA occurs in the primary auditory cortex (A1), but detailed studies on SSA beyond A1 are lacking. To study the topographic organization of SSA, we mapped the whole rat auditory cortex with multiunit activity recordings, using an oddball paradigm. We demonstrate that SSA occurs outside A1 and differs between primary and nonprimary cortical fields. In particular, SSA is much stronger and develops faster in the nonprimary than in the primary fields, paralleling the organization of subcortical SSA. Importantly, strong SSA is present in the nonprimary auditory cortex within the latency range of the MMN in the rat and correlates with an MMN-like difference wave in the simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP). We present new and strong evidence linking SSA at the cellular level to the MMN, a central tool in cognitive and clinical neuroscience. PMID:26950883

  5. Cross-modal reorganization in cochlear implant users: Auditory cortex contributes to visual face processing.

    PubMed

    Stropahl, Maren; Plotz, Karsten; Schönfeld, Rüdiger; Lenarz, Thomas; Sandmann, Pascale; Yovel, Galit; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    There is converging evidence that the auditory cortex takes over visual functions during a period of auditory deprivation. A residual pattern of cross-modal take-over may prevent the auditory cortex to adapt to restored sensory input as delivered by a cochlear implant (CI) and limit speech intelligibility with a CI. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether visual face processing in CI users activates auditory cortex and whether this has adaptive or maladaptive consequences. High-density electroencephalogram data were recorded from CI users (n=21) and age-matched normal hearing controls (n=21) performing a face versus house discrimination task. Lip reading and face recognition abilities were measured as well as speech intelligibility. Evaluation of event-related potential (ERP) topographies revealed significant group differences over occipito-temporal scalp regions. Distributed source analysis identified significantly higher activation in the right auditory cortex for CI users compared to NH controls, confirming visual take-over. Lip reading skills were significantly enhanced in the CI group and appeared to be particularly better after a longer duration of deafness, while face recognition was not significantly different between groups. However, auditory cortex activation in CI users was positively related to face recognition abilities. Our results confirm a cross-modal reorganization for ecologically valid visual stimuli in CI users. Furthermore, they suggest that residual takeover, which can persist even after adaptation to a CI is not necessarily maladaptive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brainstem auditory evoked responses and ophthalmic findings in llamas and alpacas in eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Cheryl L.; Lamont, Leigh A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen llamas and 23 alpacas of various coat and iris colors were evaluated for: 1) deafness by using brainstem auditory evoked response testing; and 2) for ocular abnormalities via complete ophthalmic examination. No animals were deaf. The most common ocular abnormalities noted were iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes and incipient cataracts. PMID:16536233

  7. ERP correlates of unexpected word forms in a picture–word study of infants and adults

    PubMed Central

    Duta, M.D.; Styles, S.J.; Plunkett, K.

    2012-01-01

    We tested 14-month-olds and adults in an event-related potentials (ERPs) study in which pictures of familiar objects generated expectations about upcoming word forms. Expected word forms labelled the picture (word condition), while unexpected word forms mismatched by either a small deviation in word medial vowel height (mispronunciation condition) or a large deviation from the onset of the first speech segment (pseudoword condition). Both infants and adults showed sensitivity to both types of unexpected word form. Adults showed a chain of discrete effects: positivity over the N1 wave, negativity over the P2 wave (PMN effect) and negativity over the N2 wave (N400 effect). Infants showed a similar pattern, including a robust effect similar to the adult P2 effect. These observations were underpinned by a novel visualisation method which shows the dynamics of the ERP within bands of the scalp over time. The results demonstrate shared processing mechanisms across development, as even subtle deviations from expected word forms were indexed in both age groups by a reduction in the amplitude of characteristic waves in the early auditory evoked potential. PMID:22483072

  8. Letter-sound processing deficits in children with developmental dyslexia: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Hasko, Sandra; Groth, Katharina; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    The time course during letter-sound processing was investigated in children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and typically developing (TD) children using electroencephalography. Thirty-eight children with DD and 25 TD children participated in a visual-auditory oddball paradigm. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by standard and deviant stimuli in an early (100-190 ms) and late (560-750 ms) time window were analysed. In the early time window, ERPs elicited by the deviant stimulus were delayed and less left lateralized over fronto-temporal electrodes for children with DD compared to TD children. In the late time window, children with DD showed higher amplitudes extending more over right frontal electrodes. Longer latencies in the early time window and stronger right hemispheric activation in the late time window were associated with slower reading and naming speed. Additionally, stronger right hemispheric activation in the late time window correlated with poorer phonological awareness skills. Deficits in early stages of letter-sound processing influence later more explicit cognitive processes during letter-sound processing. Identifying the neurophysiological correlates of letter-sound processing and their relation to reading related skills provides insight into the degree of automaticity during letter-sound processing beyond behavioural measures of letter-sound-knowledge. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recording Visual Evoked Potentials and Auditory Evoked P300 at 9.4T Static Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, David; Boers, Frank; Shah, N. Jon

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown a number of advantages that make this multimodal technique superior to fMRI alone. The feasibility of recording EEG at ultra-high static magnetic field up to 9.4T was recently demonstrated and promises to be implemented soon in fMRI studies at ultra high magnetic fields. Recording visual evoked potentials are expected to be amongst the most simple for simultaneous EEG/fMRI at ultra-high magnetic field due to the easy assessment of the visual cortex. Auditory evoked P300 measurements are of interest since it is believed that they represent the earliest stage of cognitive processing. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of recording visual evoked potentials and auditory evoked P300 in a 9.4T static magnetic field. For this purpose, EEG data were recorded from 26 healthy volunteers inside a 9.4T MR scanner using a 32-channel MR compatible EEG system. Visual stimulation and auditory oddball paradigm were presented in order to elicit evoked related potentials (ERP). Recordings made outside the scanner were performed using the same stimuli and EEG system for comparison purposes. We were able to retrieve visual P100 and auditory P300 evoked potentials at 9.4T static magnetic field after correction of the ballistocardiogram artefact using independent component analysis. The latencies of the ERPs recorded at 9.4T were not different from those recorded at 0T. The amplitudes of ERPs were higher at 9.4T when compared to recordings at 0T. Nevertheless, it seems that the increased amplitudes of the ERPs are due to the effect of the ultra-high field on the EEG recording system rather than alteration in the intrinsic processes that generate the electrophysiological responses. PMID:23650538

  10. Recording visual evoked potentials and auditory evoked P300 at 9.4T static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Arrubla, Jorge; Neuner, Irene; Hahn, David; Boers, Frank; Shah, N Jon

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown a number of advantages that make this multimodal technique superior to fMRI alone. The feasibility of recording EEG at ultra-high static magnetic field up to 9.4 T was recently demonstrated and promises to be implemented soon in fMRI studies at ultra high magnetic fields. Recording visual evoked potentials are expected to be amongst the most simple for simultaneous EEG/fMRI at ultra-high magnetic field due to the easy assessment of the visual cortex. Auditory evoked P300 measurements are of interest since it is believed that they represent the earliest stage of cognitive processing. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of recording visual evoked potentials and auditory evoked P300 in a 9.4 T static magnetic field. For this purpose, EEG data were recorded from 26 healthy volunteers inside a 9.4 T MR scanner using a 32-channel MR compatible EEG system. Visual stimulation and auditory oddball paradigm were presented in order to elicit evoked related potentials (ERP). Recordings made outside the scanner were performed using the same stimuli and EEG system for comparison purposes. We were able to retrieve visual P100 and auditory P300 evoked potentials at 9.4 T static magnetic field after correction of the ballistocardiogram artefact using independent component analysis. The latencies of the ERPs recorded at 9.4 T were not different from those recorded at 0 T. The amplitudes of ERPs were higher at 9.4 T when compared to recordings at 0 T. Nevertheless, it seems that the increased amplitudes of the ERPs are due to the effect of the ultra-high field on the EEG recording system rather than alteration in the intrinsic processes that generate the electrophysiological responses.

  11. An ERP study on whether semantic integration exists in processing ecologically unrelated audio-visual information.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Meng, Xianyao; Wang, Zhongning; Wu, Guangning

    2011-11-14

    In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether semantic integration occurs for ecologically unrelated audio-visual information. Videos with synchronous audio-visual information were used as stimuli, where the auditory stimuli were sine wave sounds with different sound levels, and the visual stimuli were simple geometric figures with different areas. In the experiment, participants were shown an initial display containing a single shape (drawn from a set of 6 shapes) with a fixed size (14cm(2)) simultaneously with a 3500Hz tone of a fixed intensity (80dB). Following a short delay, another shape/tone pair was presented and the relationship between the size of the shape and the intensity of the tone varied across trials: in the V+A- condition, a large shape was paired with a soft tone; in the V+A+ condition, a large shape was paired with a loud tone, and so forth. The ERPs results revealed that N400 effect was elicited under the VA- condition (V+A- and V-A+) as compared to the VA+ condition (V+A+ and V-A-). It was shown that semantic integration would occur when simultaneous, ecologically unrelated auditory and visual stimuli enter the human brain. We considered that this semantic integration was based on semantic constraint of audio-visual information, which might come from the long-term learned association stored in the human brain and short-term experience of incoming information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The detection of higher-order acoustic transitions is reflected in the N1 ERP.

    PubMed

    Weise, Annekathrin; Schröger, Erich; Horváth, János

    2018-01-30

    The auditory system features various types of dedicated change detectors enabling the rapid parsing of auditory stimulation into distinct events. The activity of such detectors is reflected by the N1 ERP. Interestingly, certain acoustic transitions show an asymmetric N1 elicitation pattern: whereas first-order transitions (e.g., a change from a segment of constant frequency to a frequency glide [c-to-g change]) elicit N1, higher-order transitions (e.g., glide-to-constant [g-to-c] changes) do not. Consensus attributes this asymmetry to the absence of any available sensory mechanism that is able to rapidly detect higher-order changes. In contrast, our study provides compelling evidence for such a mechanism. We collected electrophysiological and behavioral data in a transient-detection paradigm. In each condition, a random (50%-50%) sequence of two types of tones occurred, which did or did not contain a transition (e.g., c-to-g and constant stimuli or g-to-c and glide tones). Additionally, the rate of pitch change of the glide varied (i.e., 10 vs. 40 semitones per second) in order to increase the number of responding neural assemblies. The rate manipulation modulated transient ERPs and behavioral detection performance for g-to-c transitions much stronger than for c-to-g transitions. The topographic and tomographic analyses suggest that the N1 response to c-to-g and also to g-to-c transitions emerged from the superior temporal gyrus. This strongly supports a sensory mechanism that allows the fast detection of higher-order changes. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. A simple ERP method for quantitative analysis of cognitive workload in myoelectric prosthesis control and human-machine interaction.

    PubMed

    Deeny, Sean; Chicoine, Caitlin; Hargrove, Levi; Parrish, Todd; Jayaraman, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Common goals in the development of human-machine interface (HMI) technology are to reduce cognitive workload and increase function. However, objective and quantitative outcome measures assessing cognitive workload have not been standardized for HMI research. The present study examines the efficacy of a simple event-related potential (ERP) measure of cortical effort during myoelectric control of a virtual limb for use as an outcome tool. Participants trained and tested on two methods of control, direct control (DC) and pattern recognition control (PRC), while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. Eighteen healthy participants with intact limbs were tested using DC and PRC under three conditions: passive viewing, easy, and hard. Novel auditory probes were presented at random intervals during testing, and significant task-difficulty effects were observed in the P200, P300, and a late positive potential (LPP), supporting the efficacy of ERPs as a cognitive workload measure in HMI tasks. LPP amplitude distinguished DC from PRC in the hard condition with higher amplitude in PRC, consistent with lower cognitive workload in PRC relative to DC for complex movements. Participants completed trials faster in the easy condition using DC relative to PRC, but completed trials more slowly using DC relative to PRC in the hard condition. The results provide promising support for ERPs as an outcome measure for cognitive workload in HMI research such as prosthetics, exoskeletons, and other assistive devices, and can be used to evaluate and guide new technologies for more intuitive HMI control.

  14. Socio-emotionally Significant Experience and Children’s Processing of Irrelevant Auditory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Bates, John E.; Puce, Aina; Molfese, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    Theory and research indicate considerable influence of socio-emotionally significant experiences on children’s functioning and adaptation. In the current study, we examined neurophysiological correlates of children’s allocation of information processing resources to socio-emotionally significant events, specifically, simulated marital interactions. We presented 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 24; 11 females) with 15 videos of interactions between two actors posing as a married couple. Task-irrelevant brief auditory probes were presented during the videos, and event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to the auditory probes were measured. As hypothesized, exposure to higher levels of interparental conflict was associated with smaller P1, P2, and N2 ERPs to the probes. This finding is consistent with the idea that children who had been exposed to more interparental conflict attended more to the videos and diverted fewer cognitive resources to processing the probes, thereby producing smaller ERPs to the probes. In addition, smaller N2s were associated with more child behavior problems, suggesting that allocating fewer processing resources to the probes was associated with more problem behavior. Results are discussed in terms of implications of socio-emotionally significant experiences for children’s processing of interpersonal interactions. PMID:27993611

  15. Syntactic processing in music and language: Effects of interrupting auditory streams with alternating timbres.

    PubMed

    Fiveash, Anna; Thompson, William Forde; Badcock, Nicholas A; McArthur, Genevieve

    2018-07-01

    Music and language both rely on the processing of spectral (pitch, timbre) and temporal (rhythm) information to create structure and meaning from incoming auditory streams. Behavioral results have shown that interrupting a melodic stream with unexpected changes in timbre leads to reduced syntactic processing. Such findings suggest that syntactic processing is conditional on successful streaming of incoming sequential information. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether (1) the effect of alternating timbres on syntactic processing is reflected in a reduced brain response to syntactic violations, and (2) the phenomenon is similar for music and language. Participants listened to melodies and sentences with either one timbre (piano or one voice) or three timbres (piano, guitar, and vibraphone, or three different voices). Half the stimuli contained syntactic violations: an out-of-key note in the melodies, and a phrase-structure violation in the sentences. We found smaller ERPs to syntactic violations in music in the three-timbre compared to the one-timbre condition, reflected in a reduced early right anterior negativity (ERAN). A similar but non-significant pattern was observed for language stimuli in both the early left anterior negativity (ELAN) and the left anterior negativity (LAN) ERPs. The results suggest that disruptions to auditory streaming may interfere with syntactic processing, especially for melodic sequences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ERP evidence suggests executive dysfunction in ecstasy polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C A; Fairclough, S H; Fisk, J E; Tames, F; Montgomery, C

    2013-08-01

    Deficits in executive functions such as access to semantic/long-term memory have been shown in ecstasy users in previous research. Equally, there have been many reports of equivocal findings in this area. The current study sought to further investigate behavioural and electro-physiological measures of this executive function in ecstasy users. Twenty ecstasy-polydrug users, 20 non-ecstasy-polydrug users and 20 drug-naïve controls were recruited. Participants completed background questionnaires about their drug use, sleep quality, fluid intelligence and mood state. Each individual also completed a semantic retrieval task whilst 64 channel Electroencephalography (EEG) measures were recorded. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed no between-group differences in behavioural performance on the task. Mixed ANOVA on event-related potential (ERP) components P2, N2 and P3 revealed significant between-group differences in the N2 component. Subsequent exploratory univariate ANOVAs on the N2 component revealed marginally significant between-group differences, generally showing greater negativity at occipito-parietal electrodes in ecstasy users compared to drug-naïve controls. Despite absence of behavioural differences, differences in N2 magnitude are evidence of abnormal executive functioning in ecstasy-polydrug users.

  17. Brief Report: Preliminary Reliability, Construct Validity and Standardization of the Auditory Behavior Questionnaire (ABQ) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelhoff, Kelsey; Lane, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    The Auditory Behavior Questionnaire (ABQ) evaluates abnormal behavioral responses to auditory stimulation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study reports preliminary reliability, construct validity and standardization of the ABQ. Parents of children with ASD aged 7-21 years (n = 165) completed the ABQ on-line. Cronbach's alpha…

  18. Auditory function in children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Rance, Gary; Ryan, Monique M; Bayliss, Kristen; Gill, Kathryn; O'Sullivan, Caitlin; Whitechurch, Marny

    2012-05-01

    The peripheral manifestations of the inherited neuropathies are increasingly well characterized, but their effects upon cranial nerve function are not well understood. Hearing loss is recognized in a minority of children with this condition, but has not previously been systemically studied. A clear understanding of the prevalence and degree of auditory difficulties in this population is important as hearing impairment can impact upon speech/language development, social interaction ability and educational progress. The aim of this study was to investigate auditory pathway function, speech perception ability and everyday listening and communication in a group of school-aged children with inherited neuropathies. Twenty-six children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease confirmed by genetic testing and physical examination participated. Eighteen had demyelinating neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1) and eight had the axonal form (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2). While each subject had normal or near-normal sound detection, individuals in both disease groups showed electrophysiological evidence of auditory neuropathy with delayed or low amplitude auditory brainstem responses. Auditory perception was also affected, with >60% of subjects with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 and >85% of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 suffering impaired processing of auditory temporal (timing) cues and/or abnormal speech understanding in everyday listening conditions.

  19. Contextual processing in unpredictable auditory environments: the limited resource model of auditory refractoriness in the rhesus

    PubMed Central

    Gurnsey, Kate; Salisbury, Dean; Sweet, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Auditory refractoriness refers to the finding of smaller electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to tones preceded by shorter periods of silence. To date, its physiological mechanisms remain unclear, limiting the insights gained from findings of abnormal refractoriness in individuals with schizophrenia. To resolve this roadblock, we studied auditory refractoriness in the rhesus, one of the most important animal models of auditory function, using grids of up to 32 chronically implanted cranial EEG electrodes. Four macaques passively listened to sounds whose identity and timing was random, thus preventing animals from forming valid predictions about upcoming sounds. Stimulus onset asynchrony ranged between 0.2 and 12.8 s, thus encompassing the clinically relevant timescale of refractoriness. Our results show refractoriness in all 8 previously identified middle- and long-latency components that peaked between 14 and 170 ms after tone onset. Refractoriness may reflect the formation and gradual decay of a basic sensory memory trace that may be mirrored by the expenditure and gradual recovery of a limited physiological resource that determines generator excitability. For all 8 components, results were consistent with the assumption that processing of each tone expends ∼65% of the available resource. Differences between components are caused by how quickly the resource recovers. Recovery time constants of different components ranged between 0.5 and 2 s. This work provides a solid conceptual, methodological, and computational foundation to dissect the physiological mechanisms of auditory refractoriness in the rhesus. Such knowledge may, in turn, help develop novel pharmacological, mechanism-targeted interventions. PMID:27512021

  20. Early auditory evoked potential is modulated by selective attention and related to individual differences in visual working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Karns, Christina M; Neville, Helen J; Hillyard, Steven A

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the predictive power of working memory (WM) capacity for measures of intellectual aptitude is due to the ability to control attention and select relevant information. Crucially, attentional mechanisms implicated in controlling access to WM are assumed to be domain-general, yet reports of enhanced attentional abilities in individuals with larger WM capacities are primarily within the visual domain. Here, we directly test the link between WM capacity and early attentional gating across sensory domains, hypothesizing that measures of visual WM capacity should predict an individual's capacity to allocate auditory selective attention. To address this question, auditory ERPs were recorded in a linguistic dichotic listening task, and individual differences in ERP modulations by attention were correlated with estimates of WM capacity obtained in a separate visual change detection task. Auditory selective attention enhanced ERP amplitudes at an early latency (ca. 70-90 msec), with larger P1 components elicited by linguistic probes embedded in an attended narrative. Moreover, this effect was associated with greater individual estimates of visual WM capacity. These findings support the view that domain-general attentional control mechanisms underlie the wide variation of WM capacity across individuals.

  1. Early Auditory Evoked Potential Is Modulated by Selective Attention and Related to Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Ryan J.; Karns, Christina M.; Neville, Helen J.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the predictive power of working memory (WM) capacity for measures of intellectual aptitude is due to the ability to control attention and select relevant information. Crucially, attentional mechanisms implicated in controlling access to WM are assumed to be domain-general, yet reports of enhanced attentional abilities in individuals with larger WM capacities are primarily within the visual domain. Here, we directly test the link between WM capacity and early attentional gating across sensory domains, hypothesizing that measures of visual WM capacity should predict an individual’s capacity to allocate auditory selective attention. To address this question, auditory ERPs were recorded in a linguistic dichotic listening task, and individual differences in ERP modulations by attention were correlated with estimates of WM capacity obtained in a separate visual change detection task. Auditory selective attention enhanced ERP amplitudes at an early latency (ca. 70–90 msec), with larger P1 components elicited by linguistic probes embedded in an attended narrative. Moreover, this effect was associated with greater individual estimates of visual WM capacity. These findings support the view that domain-general attentional control mechanisms underlie the wide variation of WM capacity across individuals. PMID:25000526

  2. [A case of transient auditory agnosia and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Jin; Harada, Tatsuhiko; Kanzaki, Sho

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of transient functional auditory agnosia and schizophrenia and discuss their relationship. A 30-year-old woman with schizophrenia reporting bilateral hearing loss was found in history taking to be able to hear but could neither understand speech nor discriminate among environmental sounds. Audiometry clarified normal but low speech discrimination. Otoacoustic emission and auditory brainstem response were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) elsewhere evidenced no abnormal findings. We assumed that taking care of her grandparents who had been discharged from the hospital had unduly stressed her, and her condition improved shortly after she stopped caring for them, returned home and started taking a minor tranquilizer.

  3. Acquiring research-grade ERPs on a shoestring budget: A comparison of a modified Emotiv and commercial SynAmps EEG system.

    PubMed

    Barham, Michael P; Clark, Gillian M; Hayden, Melissa J; Enticott, Peter G; Conduit, Russell; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-09-01

    This study compared the performance of a low-cost wireless EEG system to a research-grade EEG system on an auditory oddball task designed to elicit N200 and P300 ERP components. Participants were 15 healthy adults (6 female) aged between 19 and 40 (M = 28.56; SD = 6.38). An auditory oddball task was presented comprising 1,200 presentations of a standard tone interspersed by 300 trials comprising a deviant tone. EEG was simultaneously recorded from a modified Emotiv EPOC and a NeuroScan SynAmps RT EEG system. The modifications made to the Emotiv system included attaching research grade electrodes to the Bluetooth transmitter. Additional modifications enabled the Emotiv system to connect to a portable impedance meter. The cost of these modifications and portable impedance meter approached the purchase value of the Emotiv system. Preliminary analyses revealed significantly more trials were rejected from data acquired by the modified Emotiv compared to the SynAmps system. However, the ERP waveforms captured by the Emotiv system were found to be highly similar to the corresponding waveform from the SynAmps system. The latency and peak amplitude of N200 and P300 components were also found to be similar between systems. Overall, the results indicate that, in the context of an oddball task, the ERP acquired by a low-cost wireless EEG system can be of comparable quality to research-grade EEG acquisition equipment. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Gap detection measured with electrically evoked auditory event-related potentials and speech-perception abilities in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    He, Shuman; Grose, John H; Teagle, Holly F B; Woodard, Jennifer; Park, Lisa R; Hatch, Debora R; Buchman, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed (1) to investigate the feasibility of recording the electrically evoked auditory event-related potential (eERP), including the onset P1-N1-P2 complex and the electrically evoked auditory change complex (EACC) in response to temporal gaps, in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD); and (2) to evaluate the relationship between these measures and speech-perception abilities in these subjects. Fifteen ANSD children who are Cochlear Nucleus device users participated in this study. For each subject, the speech-processor microphone was bypassed and the eERPs were elicited by direct stimulation of one mid-array electrode (electrode 12). The stimulus was a train of biphasic current pulses 800 msec in duration. Two basic stimulation conditions were used to elicit the eERP. In the no-gap condition, the entire pulse train was delivered uninterrupted to electrode 12, and the onset P1-N1-P2 complex was measured relative to the stimulus onset. In the gapped condition, the stimulus consisted of two pulse train bursts, each being 400 msec in duration, presented sequentially on the same electrode and separated by one of five gaps (i.e., 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 msec). Open-set speech-perception ability of these subjects with ANSD was assessed using the phonetically balanced kindergarten (PBK) word lists presented at 60 dB SPL, using monitored live voice in a sound booth. The eERPs were recorded from all subjects with ANSD who participated in this study. There were no significant differences in test-retest reliability, root mean square amplitude or P1 latency for the onset P1-N1-P2 complex between subjects with good (>70% correct on PBK words) and poorer speech-perception performance. In general, the EACC showed less mature morphological characteristics than the onset P1-N1-P2 response recorded from the same subject. There was a robust correlation between the PBK word scores and the EACC thresholds for gap detection. Subjects with poorer speech

  5. Auditory processing deficits in individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rance, Gary; O'Hare, Fleur; O'Leary, Stephen; Starr, Arnold; Ly, Anna; Cheng, Belinda; Tomlin, Dani; Graydon, Kelley; Chisari, Donella; Trounce, Ian; Crowston, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The high energy demand of the auditory and visual pathways render these sensory systems prone to diseases that impair mitochondrial function. Primary open-angle glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease of the optic nerve, has recently been associated with a spectrum of mitochondrial abnormalities. This study sought to investigate auditory processing in individuals with open-angle glaucoma. DESIGN/STUDY SAMPLE: Twenty-seven subjects with open-angle glaucoma underwent electrophysiologic (auditory brainstem response), auditory temporal processing (amplitude modulation detection), and speech perception (monosyllabic words in quiet and background noise) assessment in each ear. A cohort of age, gender and hearing level matched control subjects was also tested. While the majority of glaucoma subjects in this study demonstrated normal auditory function, there were a significant number (6/27 subjects, 22%) who showed abnormal auditory brainstem responses and impaired auditory perception in one or both ears. The finding that a significant proportion of subjects with open-angle glaucoma presented with auditory dysfunction provides evidence of systemic neuronal susceptibility. Affected individuals may suffer significant communication difficulties in everyday listening situations.

  6. Retrieving self-vocalized information: An event-related potential (ERP) study on the effect of retrieval orientation.

    PubMed

    Rosburg, Timm; Johansson, Mikael; Sprondel, Volker; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-11-18

    Retrieval orientation refers to a pre-retrieval process and conceptualizes the specific form of processing that is applied to a retrieval cue. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we sought to find evidence for an involvement of the auditory cortex when subjects attempt to retrieve vocalized information, and hypothesized that adopting retrieval orientation would be beneficial for retrieval accuracy. During study, participants saw object words that they subsequently vocalized or visually imagined. At test, participants had to identify object names of one study condition as targets and to reject object names of the second condition together with new items. Target category switched after half of the test trials. Behaviorally, participants responded less accurately and more slowly to targets of the vocalize condition than to targets of the imagine condition. ERPs to new items varied at a single left electrode (T7) between 500 and 800ms, indicating a moderate retrieval orientation effect in the subject group as a whole. However, whereas the effect was strongly pronounced in participants with high retrieval accuracy, it was absent in participants with low retrieval accuracy. A current source density (CSD) mapping of the retrieval orientation effect indicated a source over left temporal regions. Independently from retrieval accuracy, the ERP retrieval orientation effect was surprisingly also modulated by test order. Findings are suggestive for an involvement of the auditory cortex in retrieval attempts of vocalized information and confirm that adopting retrieval orientation is potentially beneficial for retrieval accuracy. The effects of test order on retrieval-related processes might reflect a stronger focus on the newness of items in the more difficult test condition when participants started with this condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hippocampal P3-like auditory event-related potentials are disrupted in a rat model of cholinergic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease: reversal by donepezil treatment.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Kristiansen, Uffe; Bastlund, Jesper Frank

    2014-01-01

    P300 (P3) event-related potentials (ERPs) have been suggested to be an endogenous marker of cognitive function and auditory oddball paradigms are frequently used to evaluate P3 ERPs in clinical settings. Deficits in P3 amplitude and latency reflect some of the neurological dysfunctions related to several psychiatric and neurological diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, only a very limited number of rodent studies have addressed the back-translational validity of the P3-like ERPs as suitable markers of cognition. Thus, the potential of rodent P3-like ERPs to predict pro-cognitive effects in humans remains to be fully validated. The current study characterizes P3-like ERPs in the 192-IgG-SAP (SAP) rat model of the cholinergic degeneration associated with AD. Following training in a combined auditory oddball and lever-press setup, rats were subjected to bilateral intracerebroventricular infusion of 1.25 μg SAP or PBS (sham lesion) and recording electrodes were implanted in hippocampal CA1. Relative to sham-lesioned rats, SAP-lesioned rats had significantly reduced amplitude of P3-like ERPs. P3 amplitude was significantly increased in SAP-treated rats following pre-treatment with 1 mg/kg donepezil. Infusion of SAP reduced the hippocampal choline acetyltransferase activity by 75%. Behaviorally defined cognitive performance was comparable between treatment groups. The present study suggests that AD-like deficits in P3-like ERPs may be mimicked by the basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration induced by SAP. SAP-lesioned rats may constitute a suitable model to test the efficacy of pro-cognitive substances in an applied experimental setup.

  8. Multivariate Genetic Correlates of the Auditory Paired Stimuli-Based P2 Event-Related Potential in the Psychosis Dimension From the BSNIP Study.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Mohammadreza; Narayanan, Balaji; Hamm, Jordan P; Soh, Pauline; Calhoun, Vince D; Ruaño, Gualberto; Kocherla, Mohan; Windemuth, Andreas; Clementz, Brett A; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2016-05-01

    The complex molecular etiology of psychosis in schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) is not well defined, presumably due to their multifactorial genetic architecture. Neurobiological correlates of psychosis can be identified through genetic associations of intermediate phenotypes such as event-related potential (ERP) from auditory paired stimulus processing (APSP). Various ERP components of APSP are heritable and aberrant in SZ, PBP and their relatives, but their multivariate genetic factors are less explored. We investigated the multivariate polygenic association of ERP from 64-sensor auditory paired stimulus data in 149 SZ, 209 PBP probands, and 99 healthy individuals from the multisite Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes study. Multivariate association of 64-channel APSP waveforms with a subset of 16 999 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (reduced from 1 million SNP array) was examined using parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA). Biological pathways associated with the genes were assessed using enrichment-based analysis tools. Para-ICA identified 2 ERP components, of which one was significantly correlated with a genetic network comprising multiple linearly coupled gene variants that explained ~4% of the ERP phenotype variance. Enrichment analysis revealed epidermal growth factor, endocannabinoid signaling, glutamatergic synapse and maltohexaose transport associated with P2 component of the N1-P2 ERP waveform. This ERP component also showed deficits in SZ and PBP. Aberrant P2 component in psychosis was associated with gene networks regulating several fundamental biologic functions, either general or specific to nervous system development. The pathways and processes underlying the gene clusters play a crucial role in brain function, plausibly implicated in psychosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For

  9. Modelling auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve

    2017-01-01

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information—a phenomenon referred to as the ‘cocktail party problem’. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by ‘bottom-up’ sensory-driven factors, as well as ‘top-down’ task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044012

  10. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in one of four possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from one of four distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. PMID:26010588

  11. Auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    De Cosmo, G; Aceto, P; Clemente, A; Congedo, E

    2004-05-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are an electrical manifestation of the brain response to an auditory stimulus. Mid-latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEPs) and the coherent frequency of the AEP are the most promising for monitoring depth of anaesthesia. MLAEPs show graded changes with increasing anaesthetic concentration over the clinical concentration range. The latencies of Pa and Nb lengthen and their amplitudes reduce. These changes in features of waveform are similar with both inhaled and intravenous anaesthetics. Changes in latency of Pa and Nb waves are highly correlated to a transition from awake to loss of consciousness. MLAEPs recording may also provide information about cerebral processing of the auditory input, probably because it reflects activity in the temporal lobe/primary cortex, sites involved in sounds elaboration and in a complex mechanism of implicit (non declarative) memory processing. The coherent frequency has found to be disrupted by the anaesthetics as well as to be implicated in attentional mechanism. These results support the concept that the AEPs reflects the balance between the arousal effects of surgical stimulation and the depressant effects of anaesthetics. However, AEPs aren't a perfect measure of anaesthesia depth. They can't predict patients movements during surgery and the signal may be affected by muscle artefacts, diathermy and other electrical operating theatre interferences. In conclusion, once reliability of the AEPs recording became proved and the signal acquisition improved it is likely to became a routine feature of clinical anaesthetic practice.

  12. Auditory Memory for Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Denis; Wellsted, David

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies are reported examining how the context of recent auditory stimulation may modulate the processing of new sounds. The question posed is how recent tone stimulation may affect ongoing performance in a discrimination task. In the task, two complex sounds occurred in successive intervals. A single target component of one complex…

  13. Crystal structures of the Erp protein family members ErpP and ErpC from Borrelia burgdorferi reveal the reason for different affinities for complement regulator factor H.

    PubMed

    Brangulis, Kalvis; Petrovskis, Ivars; Kazaks, Andris; Akopjana, Inara; Tars, Kaspars

    2015-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which can be acquired after the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. As a strategy to resist the innate immunity and to successfully spread and proliferate, B. burgdorferi expresses a set of outer membrane proteins that are capable of binding complement regulator factor H (CFH), factor H-like protein 1 (CFHL-1) and factor H-related proteins (CFHR) to avoid complement-mediated killing. B. burgdorferi B31 contains three proteins that belong to the Erp (OspE/F-related) protein family and are capable of binding CFH and some CFHRs, namely ErpA, ErpC and ErpP. We have determined the crystal structure of ErpP at 2.53Å resolution and the crystal structure of ErpC at 2.15Å resolution. Recently, the crystal structure of the Erp family member OspE from B. burgdorferi N40 was determined in complex with CFH domains 19-20, revealing the residues involved in the complex formation. Despite the high sequence conservation between ErpA, ErpC, ErpP and the homologous protein OspE (78-80%), the affinity for CFH and CFHRs differs markedly among the Erp family members, suggesting that ErpC may bind only CFHRs but not CFH. A comparison of the binding site in OspE with those of ErpC and ErpP revealed that the extended loop region, which is only observed in the potential binding site of ErpC, plays an important role by preventing the binding of CFH. These results can explain the inability of ErpC to bind CFH, whereas ErpP and ErpA still possess the ability to bind CFH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors Influencing Post-Adoptive Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Organizations expend a great deal of time, effort and money on the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. They are considered the price of entry for large organizations to do business. Yet the success rate of ERP systems is poor. IS literature suggests that one possible reason for this is the underutilization of these…

  15. Temporal Dynamics of Awareness for Facial Identity Revealed with ERP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genetti, Melanie; Khateb, Asaid; Heinzer, Severine; Michel, Christoph M.; Pegna, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the scalp recorded event-related potential (ERP) responses related to visual awareness. A backward masking procedure was performed while high-density EEG recordings were carried out. Subjects were asked to detect a familiar face, presented at durations that varied parametrically between 16 and 266 ms. ERPs were…

  16. Neural Correlates of Selective Attention With Hearing Aid Use Followed by ReadMyQuips Auditory Training Program.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aparna; Rishiq, Dania; Yu, Luodi; Zhang, Yang; Abrams, Harvey

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of hearing aid use and the effectiveness of ReadMyQuips (RMQ), an auditory training program, on speech perception performance and auditory selective attention using electrophysiological measures. RMQ is an audiovisual training program designed to improve speech perception in everyday noisy listening environments. Participants were adults with mild to moderate hearing loss who were first-time hearing aid users. After 4 weeks of hearing aid use, the experimental group completed RMQ training in 4 weeks, and the control group received listening practice on audiobooks during the same period. Cortical late event-related potentials (ERPs) and the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) were administered at prefitting, pretraining, and post-training to assess effects of hearing aid use and RMQ training. An oddball paradigm allowed tracking of changes in P3a and P3b ERPs to distractors and targets, respectively. Behavioral measures were also obtained while ERPs were recorded from participants. After 4 weeks of hearing aid use but before auditory training, HINT results did not show a statistically significant change, but there was a significant P3a reduction. This reduction in P3a was correlated with improvement in d prime (d') in the selective attention task. Increased P3b amplitudes were also correlated with improvement in d' in the selective attention task. After training, this correlation between P3b and d' remained in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Similarly, HINT testing showed improved speech perception post training only in the experimental group. The criterion calculated in the auditory selective attention task showed a reduction only in the experimental group after training. ERP measures in the auditory selective attention task did not show any changes related to training. Hearing aid use was associated with a decrement in involuntary attention switch to distractors in the auditory selective

  17. Combat veterans with PTSD after mild TBI exhibit greater ERPs from posterior-medial cortical areas while appraising facial features.

    PubMed

    Shu, I-Wei; Onton, Julie A; Prabhakar, Nitin; O'Connell, Ryan M; Simmons, Alan N; Matthews, Scott C

    2014-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) worsens prognosis following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Combat personnel with histories of mTBI exhibit abnormal activation of distributed brain networks-including emotion processing and default mode networks. How developing PTSD further affects these abnormalities has not been directly examined. We recorded electroencephalography in combat veterans with histories of mTBI, but without active PTSD (mTBI only, n=16) and combat veterans who developed PTSD after mTBI (mTBI+PTSD, n=16)-during the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a validated test of empathy requiring emotional appraisal of facial features. Task-related event related potentials (ERPs) were identified, decomposed using independent component analysis (ICA) and localized anatomically using dipole modeling. We observed larger emotional face processing ERPs in veterans with mTBI+PTSD, including greater N300 negativity. Furthermore, greater N300 negativity correlated with greater PTSD severity, especially avoidance/numbing and hyperarousal symptom clusters. This correlation was dependent on contributions from the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Our results support a model where, in combat veterans with histories of mTBI, larger ERPs from over-active posterior-medial cortical areas may be specific to PTSD, and is likely related to negative self-referential activity. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Explaining the high voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Bruce, Ian C; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Natural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or stream at the same time, and behavioral studies demonstrate that human listeners show a systematic perceptual bias in processing the highest voice in multi-voiced music. Here, we review studies utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which support the notions that (1) separate memory traces are formed for two simultaneous voices (even without conscious awareness) in auditory cortex and (2) adults show more robust encoding (i.e., larger ERP responses) to deviant pitches in the higher than in the lower voice, indicating better encoding of the former. Furthermore, infants also show this high-voice superiority effect, suggesting that the perceptual dominance observed across studies might result from neurophysiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Although musically untrained adults show smaller responses in general than musically trained adults, both groups similarly show a more robust cortical representation of the higher than of the lower voice. Finally, years of experience playing a bass-range instrument reduces but does not reverse the high voice superiority effect, indicating that although it can be modified, it is not highly neuroplastic. Results of new modeling experiments examined the possibility that characteristics of middle-ear filtering and cochlear dynamics (e.g., suppression) reflected in auditory nerve firing patterns might account for the higher-voice superiority effect. Simulations show that both place and temporal AN coding schemes well-predict a high-voice superiority across a wide range of interval spacings and registers. Collectively, we infer an innate, peripheral origin for the higher-voice superiority observed in human

  19. ERP (enterprise resource planning) systems can streamline healthcare business functions.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, E K; Christenson, E

    2001-05-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software applications are designed to facilitate the systemwide integration of complex processes and functions across a large enterprise consisting of many internal and external constituents. Although most currently available ERP applications generally are tailored to the needs of the manufacturing industry, many large healthcare systems are investigating these applications. Due to the significant differences between manufacturing and patient care, ERP-based systems do not easily translate to the healthcare setting. In particular, the lack of clinical standardization impedes the use of ERP systems for clinical integration. Nonetheless, an ERP-based system can help a healthcare organization integrate many functions, including patient scheduling, human resources management, workload forecasting, and management of workflow, that are not directly dependent on clinical decision making.

  20. Human auditory event-related potentials predict duration judgments.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Grimm, Sabine; Schröger, Erich

    2005-08-05

    Internal clock models postulate a pulse accumulation process underlying timing activities, with more accumulated pulses resulting in longer perceived durations. We investigated whether this accumulation is reflected in the amplitude of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory stimuli with durations of 400-600 ms. In a duration discrimination paradigm, we found more negative amplitudes to physically identical stimuli when they were judged as longer than the memorized standard duration (500 ms) as compared to being classified as shorter. This sustained negativity was already developing during the first 100 ms after stimulus onset. It could not be explained as a bias to respond with a particular hand (lateralized readiness potential), but rather reflects a processing difference between the tones to be judged as shorter or longer. Our results are in line with models of time processing which assume that higher numbers of accumulated pulses of a temporal processor result in an increase in perceived duration.

  1. Auditory cortical change detection in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lepistö, Tuulia; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; von Wendt, Lennart; Näätänen, Risto; Kujala, Teija

    2007-03-06

    The present study investigated whether auditory deficits reported in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) are also present in adulthood. To this end, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults with AS for duration, pitch, and phonetic changes in vowels, and for acoustically matched non-speech stimuli. These subjects had enhanced mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitudes particularly for pitch and duration deviants, indicating enhanced sound-discrimination abilities. Furthermore, as reflected by the P3a, their involuntary orienting was enhanced for changes in non-speech sounds, but tended to be deficient for changes in speech sounds. The results are consistent with those reported earlier in children with AS, except for the duration-MMN, which was diminished in children and enhanced in adults.

  2. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity. PMID:25726262

  4. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Alters Auditory-motor Integration For Voice Control

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Ziyi; Yan, Nan; Jones, Jeffery A.; Guo, Zhiqiang; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Previous research has shown that patients with TLE exhibit decreased performance in listening to speech sounds and deficits in the cortical processing of auditory information. Whether TLE compromises auditory-motor integration for voice control, however, remains largely unknown. To address this question, event-related potentials (ERPs) and vocal responses to vocal pitch errors (1/2 or 2 semitones upward) heard in auditory feedback were compared across 28 patients with TLE and 28 healthy controls. Patients with TLE produced significantly larger vocal responses but smaller P2 responses than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with TLE exhibited a positive correlation between vocal response magnitude and baseline voice variability and a negative correlation between P2 amplitude and disease duration. Graphical network analyses revealed a disrupted neuronal network for patients with TLE with a significant increase of clustering coefficients and path lengths as compared to healthy controls. These findings provide strong evidence that TLE is associated with an atypical integration of the auditory and motor systems for vocal pitch regulation, and that the functional networks that support the auditory-motor processing of pitch feedback errors differ between patients with TLE and healthy controls. PMID:27356768

  5. No effects of a single 3G UMTS mobile phone exposure on spontaneous EEG activity, ERP correlates, and automatic deviance detection.

    PubMed

    Trunk, Attila; Stefanics, Gábor; Zentai, Norbert; Kovács-Bálint, Zsófia; Thuróczy, György; Hernádi, István

    2013-01-01

    Potential effects of a 30 min exposure to third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) mobile phone-like electromagnetic fields (EMFs) were investigated on human brain electrical activity in two experiments. In the first experiment, spontaneous electroencephalography (sEEG) was analyzed (n = 17); in the second experiment, auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) and automatic deviance detection processes reflected by mismatch negativity (MMN) were investigated in a passive oddball paradigm (n = 26). Both sEEG and ERP experiments followed a double-blind protocol where subjects were exposed to either genuine or sham irradiation in two separate sessions. In both experiments, electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded at midline electrode sites before and after exposure while subjects were watching a silent documentary. Spectral power of sEEG data was analyzed in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands. In the ERP experiment, subjects were presented with a random series of standard (90%) and frequency-deviant (10%) tones in a passive binaural oddball paradigm. The amplitude and latency of the P50, N100, P200, MMN, and P3a components were analyzed. We found no measurable effects of a 30 min 3G mobile phone irradiation on the EEG spectral power in any frequency band studied. Also, we found no significant effects of EMF irradiation on the amplitude and latency of any of the ERP components. In summary, the present results do not support the notion that a 30 min unilateral 3G EMF exposure interferes with human sEEG activity, auditory evoked potentials or automatic deviance detection indexed by MMN. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Comprehensive, Competency-Based Education Framework Using Medium-Sized ERP Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtz, Brenda; Cilliers, Charmain; Calitz, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Graduates with industry-relevant ERP competencies are highly sought after. This requirement is due to a dominance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and the positive affect which good quality ERP specialists have on the success rate of ERP system implementation projects. Universities are therefore increasingly pressurised to supply…

  7. Dyslipidemia and Auditory Function

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M. Bradley; Tonini, Ross; Shope, Cynthia Do; Oghalai, John S.; Jerger, James F.; Insull, William; Brownell, William E.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between dyslipidemia and hearing is unclear. This study was conducted to investigate whether elevated serum lipid levels impact auditory function in humans and in guinea pigs. In the human study, a cross-sectional study of 40 volunteers with dyslipidemia was conducted. Pure tone thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and lipid profiles were analyzed. When controlled for patient age and sex, we found that elevated triglycerides were associated with reduced hearing. In the guinea pig study, a prospective study of animals fed a high-fat diet for 14 weeks was conducted. Although the high-fat diet led to a dramatic elevation in the average weight and total cholesterol in all animals (from 61 to 589 mg/dl), there were no meaningful changes in distortion product otoacoustic emission magnitudes. These results suggest that whereas chronic dyslipidemia associated with elevated triglycerides may reduce auditory function, short-term dietary changes may not. PMID:16868509

  8. Voxel-based morphometry of auditory and speech-related cortex in stutterers.

    PubMed

    Beal, Deryk S; Gracco, Vincent L; Lafaille, Sophie J; De Nil, Luc F

    2007-08-06

    Stutterers demonstrate unique functional neural activation patterns during speech production, including reduced auditory activation, relative to nonstutterers. The extent to which these functional differences are accompanied by abnormal morphology of the brain in stutterers is unclear. This study examined the neuroanatomical differences in speech-related cortex between stutterers and nonstutterers using voxel-based morphometry. Results revealed significant differences in localized grey matter and white matter densities of left and right hemisphere regions involved in auditory processing and speech production.

  9. Auditory Learning. Dimensions in Early Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Naomi K.; Cicci, Regina

    The monograph discusses the psycho-physiological operations for processing of auditory information, the structure and function of the ear, the development of auditory processes from fetal responses through discrimination, language comprehension, auditory memory, and auditory processes related to written language. Disorders of auditory learning…

  10. Mind the Gap: Two Dissociable Mechanisms of Temporal Processing in the Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lucy A.

    2016-01-01

    High temporal acuity of auditory processing underlies perception of speech and other rapidly varying sounds. A common measure of auditory temporal acuity in humans is the threshold for detection of brief gaps in noise. Gap-detection deficits, observed in developmental disorders, are considered evidence for “sluggish” auditory processing. Here we show, in a mouse model of gap-detection deficits, that auditory brain sensitivity to brief gaps in noise can be impaired even without a general loss of central auditory temporal acuity. Extracellular recordings in three different subdivisions of the auditory thalamus in anesthetized mice revealed a stimulus-specific, subdivision-specific deficit in thalamic sensitivity to brief gaps in noise in experimental animals relative to controls. Neural responses to brief gaps in noise were reduced, but responses to other rapidly changing stimuli unaffected, in lemniscal and nonlemniscal (but not polysensory) subdivisions of the medial geniculate body. Through experiments and modeling, we demonstrate that the observed deficits in thalamic sensitivity to brief gaps in noise arise from reduced neural population activity following noise offsets, but not onsets. These results reveal dissociable sound-onset-sensitive and sound-offset-sensitive channels underlying auditory temporal processing, and suggest that gap-detection deficits can arise from specific impairment of the sound-offset-sensitive channel. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The experimental and modeling results reported here suggest a new hypothesis regarding the mechanisms of temporal processing in the auditory system. Using a mouse model of auditory temporal processing deficits, we demonstrate the existence of specific abnormalities in auditory thalamic activity following sound offsets, but not sound onsets. These results reveal dissociable sound-onset-sensitive and sound-offset-sensitive mechanisms underlying auditory processing of temporally varying sounds. Furthermore, the

  11. Complex Auditory Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    ability to detect a change in spectral shape. This question also beats on that of how the auditory system codes intensity. There are, at laast, two...This prior experience with the diotic presentations. disparity leads us to speculate that the tasks of detecting an We also considered how binaural ...quite complex. One Colburn and Durlach, 1978), one prerequisite for binaural may not be able to simply extrapolate from one to the other. interaction

  12. Auditory Evidence Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    information of the robot (Figure 1) acquired via laser-based localization techniques. The results are maps of the global soundscape . The algorithmic...environments than noise maps. Furthermore, provided the acoustic localization algorithm can detect the sources, the soundscape can be mapped with many...gathering information about the auditory soundscape in which it is working. In addition to robustness in the presence of noise, it has also been

  13. Prefrontal cortex involvement in preattentive auditory deviance detection: neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Doeller, Christian F; Opitz, Bertram; Mecklinger, Axel; Krick, Christoph; Reith, Wolfgang; Schröger, Erich

    2003-10-01

    Previous electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies suggest that the mismatch negativity (MMN) is generated by a temporofrontal network subserving preattentive auditory change detection. In two experiments we employed event-related brain potentials (ERP) and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural and hemodynamic activity related to deviance processing, using three types of deviant tones (small, medium, and large) in both a pitch and a space condition. In the pitch condition, hemodynamic activity in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) increased as a function of deviance. Comparisons between small and medium and between small and large deviants revealed right prefrontal activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44/45) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG; BA 46), whereas large relative to medium deviants led to left and right IFG (BA 44/45) activation. In the ERP experiment the amplitude of the early MMN (90-120 ms) increased as a function of deviance, by this paralleling the right STG activation in the fMRI experiment. A U-shaped relationship between MMN amplitude and the degree of deviance was observed in a late time window (140-170 ms) resembling the right IFG activation pattern. In a subsequent source analysis constrained by fMRI activation foci, early and late MMN activity could be modeled by dipoles placed in the STG and IFG, respectively. In the spatial condition no reliable hemodynamic activation could be observed. The MMN amplitude was substantially smaller than in the pitch condition for all three spatial deviants in the ERP experiment. In contrast to the pitch condition it increased as a function of deviance in the early and in the late time window. We argue that the right IFG mediates auditory deviance detection in case of low discriminability between a sensory memory trace and auditory input. This prefrontal mechanism might be part of top-down modulation of the deviance detection system in the STG.

  14. Does dynamic information about the speaker's face contribute to semantic speech processing? ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gutiérrez, David; Abdel Rahman, Rasha; Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Muñoz, Francisco; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2018-07-01

    Face-to-face interactions characterize communication in social contexts. These situations are typically multimodal, requiring the integration of linguistic auditory input with facial information from the speaker. In particular, eye gaze and visual speech provide the listener with social and linguistic information, respectively. Despite the importance of this context for an ecological study of language, research on audiovisual integration has mainly focused on the phonological level, leaving aside effects on semantic comprehension. Here we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the influence of facial dynamic information on semantic processing of connected speech. Participants were presented with either a video or a still picture of the speaker, concomitant to auditory sentences. Along three experiments, we manipulated the presence or absence of the speaker's dynamic facial features (mouth and eyes) and compared the amplitudes of the semantic N400 elicited by unexpected words. Contrary to our predictions, the N400 was not modulated by dynamic facial information; therefore, semantic processing seems to be unaffected by the speaker's gaze and visual speech. Even though, during the processing of expected words, dynamic faces elicited a long-lasting late posterior positivity compared to the static condition. This effect was significantly reduced when the mouth of the speaker was covered. Our findings may indicate an increase of attentional processing to richer communicative contexts. The present findings also demonstrate that in natural communicative face-to-face encounters, perceiving the face of a speaker in motion provides supplementary information that is taken into account by the listener, especially when auditory comprehension is non-demanding. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Cerebellum Generates Motor-to-Auditory Predictions: ERP Lesion Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knolle, Franziska; Schroger, Erich; Baess, Pamela; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2012-01-01

    Forward predictions are crucial in motor action (e.g., catching a ball, or being tickled) but may also apply to sensory or cognitive processes (e.g., listening to distorted speech or to a foreign accent). According to the "internal forward model," the cerebellum generates predictions about somatosensory consequences of movements. These predictions…

  16. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  17. A graphical user interface for infant ERP analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaatiala, Jussi; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Forssman, Linda; Perdue, Katherine; Leppänen, Jukka

    2014-09-01

    Recording of event-related potentials (ERPs) is one of the best-suited technologies for examining brain function in human infants. Yet the existing software packages are not optimized for the unique requirements of analyzing artifact-prone ERP data from infants. We developed a new graphical user interface that enables an efficient implementation of a two-stage approach to the analysis of infant ERPs. In the first stage, video records of infant behavior are synchronized with ERPs at the level of individual trials to reject epochs with noncompliant behavior and other artifacts. In the second stage, the interface calls MATLAB and EEGLAB (Delorme & Makeig, Journal of Neuroscience Methods 134(1):9-21, 2004) functions for further preprocessing of the ERP signal itself (i.e., filtering, artifact removal, interpolation, and rereferencing). Finally, methods are included for data visualization and analysis by using bootstrapped group averages. Analyses of simulated and real EEG data demonstrated that the proposed approach can be effectively used to establish task compliance, remove various types of artifacts, and perform representative visualizations and statistical comparisons of ERPs. The interface is available for download from http://www.uta.fi/med/icl/methods/eeg.html in a format that is widely applicable to ERP studies with special populations and open for further editing by users.

  18. An online brain-computer interface based on shifting attention to concurrent streams of auditory stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hill, N J; Schölkopf, B

    2012-01-01

    We report on the development and online testing of an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) that aims to be usable by completely paralysed users—for whom visual or motor-system-based BCIs may not be suitable, and among whom reports of successful BCI use have so far been very rare. The current approach exploits covert shifts of attention to auditory stimuli in a dichotic-listening stimulus design. To compare the efficacy of event-related potentials (ERPs) and steady-state auditory evoked potentials (SSAEPs), the stimuli were designed such that they elicited both ERPs and SSAEPs simultaneously. Trial-by-trial feedback was provided online, based on subjects’ modulation of N1 and P3 ERP components measured during single 5-second stimulation intervals. All 13 healthy subjects were able to use the BCI, with performance in a binary left/right choice task ranging from 75% to 96% correct across subjects (mean 85%). BCI classification was based on the contrast between stimuli in the attended stream and stimuli in the unattended stream, making use of every stimulus, rather than contrasting frequent standard and rare “oddball” stimuli. SSAEPs were assessed offline: for all subjects, spectral components at the two exactly-known modulation frequencies allowed discrimination of pre-stimulus from stimulus intervals, and of left-only stimuli from right-only stimuli when one side of the dichotic stimulus pair was muted. However, attention-modulation of SSAEPs was not sufficient for single-trial BCI communication, even when the subject’s attention was clearly focused well enough to allow classification of the same trials via ERPs. ERPs clearly provided a superior basis for BCI. The ERP results are a promising step towards the development of a simple-to-use, reliable yes/no communication system for users in the most severely paralysed states, as well as potential attention-monitoring and -training applications outside the context of assistive technology. PMID:22333135

  19. Towards User-Friendly Spelling with an Auditory Brain-Computer Interface: The CharStreamer Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Höhne, Johannes; Tangermann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Realizing the decoding of brain signals into control commands, brain-computer interfaces (BCI) aim to establish an alternative communication pathway for locked-in patients. In contrast to most visual BCI approaches which use event-related potentials (ERP) of the electroencephalogram, auditory BCI systems are challenged with ERP responses, which are less class-discriminant between attended and unattended stimuli. Furthermore, these auditory approaches have more complex interfaces which imposes a substantial workload on their users. Aiming for a maximally user-friendly spelling interface, this study introduces a novel auditory paradigm: “CharStreamer”. The speller can be used with an instruction as simple as “please attend to what you want to spell”. The stimuli of CharStreamer comprise 30 spoken sounds of letters and actions. As each of them is represented by the sound of itself and not by an artificial substitute, it can be selected in a one-step procedure. The mental mapping effort (sound stimuli to actions) is thus minimized. Usability is further accounted for by an alphabetical stimulus presentation: contrary to random presentation orders, the user can foresee the presentation time of the target letter sound. Healthy, normal hearing users (n = 10) of the CharStreamer paradigm displayed ERP responses that systematically differed between target and non-target sounds. Class-discriminant features, however, varied individually from the typical N1-P2 complex and P3 ERP components found in control conditions with random sequences. To fully exploit the sequential presentation structure of CharStreamer, novel data analysis approaches and classification methods were introduced. The results of online spelling tests showed that a competitive spelling speed can be achieved with CharStreamer. With respect to user rating, it clearly outperforms a control setup with random presentation sequences. PMID:24886978

  20. Accounting for the phenomenology and varieties of auditory verbal hallucination within a predictive processing framework

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Sam

    2018-01-01

    Two challenges that face popular self-monitoring theories (SMTs) of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) are that they cannot account for the auditory phenomenology of AVHs and that they cannot account for their variety. In this paper I show that both challenges can be met by adopting a predictive processing framework (PPF), and by viewing AVHs as arising from abnormalities in predictive processing. I show how, within the PPF, both the auditory phenomenology of AVHs, and three subtypes of AVH, can be accounted for. PMID:25286243

  1. Accounting for the phenomenology and varieties of auditory verbal hallucination within a predictive processing framework.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sam

    2014-11-01

    Two challenges that face popular self-monitoring theories (SMTs) of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) are that they cannot account for the auditory phenomenology of AVHs and that they cannot account for their variety. In this paper I show that both challenges can be met by adopting a predictive processing framework (PPF), and by viewing AVHs as arising from abnormalities in predictive processing. I show how, within the PPF, both the auditory phenomenology of AVHs, and three subtypes of AVH, can be accounted for. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Baseline vestibular and auditory findings in a trial of post-concussive syndrome

    PubMed

    Meehan, Anna; Searing, Elizabeth; Weaver, Lindell; Lewandowski, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported high rates of auditory and vestibular-balance deficits immediately following head injury. This study uses a comprehensive battery of assessments to characterize auditory and vestibular function in 71 U.S. military service members with chronic symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury that did not resolve with traditional interventions. The majority of the study population reported hearing loss (70%) and recent vestibular symptoms (83%). Central auditory deficits were most prevalent, with 58% of participants failing the SCAN3:A screening test and 45% showing abnormal responses on auditory steady-state response testing presented at a suprathreshold intensity. Only 17% of the participants had abnormal hearing (⟩25 dB hearing loss) based on the pure-tone average. Objective vestibular testing supported significant deficits in this population, regardless of whether the participant self-reported active symptoms. Composite score on the Sensory Organization Test was lower than expected from normative data (mean 69.6 ±vestibular tests, vestibulo-ocular reflex, central auditory dysfunction, mild traumatic brain injury, post-concussive symptoms, hearing15.6). High abnormality rates were found in funduscopy torsion (58%), oculomotor assessments (49%), ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (46% and 33%, respectively), and monothermal calorics (40%). It is recommended that a full peripheral and central auditory, oculomotor, and vestibular-balance evaluation be completed on military service members who have sustained head trauma.

  3. Auditory Temporal Resolution in Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rajkishor; Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Kumar, Prawin

    2016-10-01

    Introduction  "Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated blood sugar and abnormalities in insulin secretion and action" (American Diabetes Association). Previous literature has reported connection between diabetes mellitus and hearing impairment. There is a dearth of literature on auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2. Objective  The main objective of the present study was to assess auditory temporal resolution ability through GDT (Gap Detection Threshold) in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2 with high frequency hearing loss. Methods  Fifteen subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 with high frequency hearing loss in the age range of 30 to 40 years participated in the study as the experimental group. Fifteen age-matched non-diabetic individuals with normal hearing served as the control group. We administered the Gap Detection Threshold (GDT) test to all participants to assess their temporal resolution ability. Result  We used the independent t -test to compare between groups. Results showed that the diabetic group (experimental) performed significantly poorer compared with the non-diabetic group (control). Conclusion  It is possible to conclude that widening of auditory filters and changes in the central auditory nervous system contributed to poorer performance for temporal resolution task (Gap Detection Threshold) in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2. Findings of the present study revealed the deteriorating effect of diabetes mellitus type 2 at the central auditory processing level.

  4. Auditory and vestibular dysfunctions in systemic sclerosis: literature review.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Maysa Bastos; Corona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of auditory and vestibular dysfunction in individuals with systemic sclerosis (SS) and the hypotheses to explain these changes. We performed a systematic review without meta-analysis from PubMed, LILACS, Web of Science, SciELO and SCOPUS databases, using a combination of keywords "systemic sclerosis AND balance OR vestibular" and "systemic sclerosis AND hearing OR auditory." We included articles published in Portuguese, Spanish, or English until December 2011 and reviews, letters, and editorials were excluded. We found 254 articles, out of which 10 were selected. The study design was described, and the characteristics and frequency of the auditory and vestibular dysfunctions in these individuals were listed. Afterwards, we investigated the hypothesis built by the authors to explain the auditory and vestibular dysfunctions in SS. Hearing loss was the most common finding, with prevalence ranging from 20 to 77%, being bilateral sensorineural the most frequent type. It is hypothesized that the hearing impairment in SS is due to vascular changes in the cochlea. The prevalence of vestibular disorders ranged from 11 to 63%, and the most frequent findings were changes in caloric testing, positional nystagmus, impaired oculocephalic response, changes in clinical tests of sensory interaction, and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. High prevalence of auditory and vestibular dysfunctions in patients with SS was observed. Conducting further research can assist in early identification of these abnormalities, provide resources for professionals who work with these patients, and contribute to improving the quality of life of these individuals.

  5. Neurofeedback in Learning Disabled Children: Visual versus Auditory Reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Thalía; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Harmony, Thalía; Caballero, María I; Díaz-Comas, Lourdes; Galán, Lídice; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Aubert, Eduardo; Otero-Ojeda, Gloria

    2016-03-01

    Children with learning disabilities (LD) frequently have an EEG characterized by an excess of theta and a deficit of alpha activities. NFB using an auditory stimulus as reinforcer has proven to be a useful tool to treat LD children by positively reinforcing decreases of the theta/alpha ratio. The aim of the present study was to optimize the NFB procedure by comparing the efficacy of visual (with eyes open) versus auditory (with eyes closed) reinforcers. Twenty LD children with an abnormally high theta/alpha ratio were randomly assigned to the Auditory or the Visual group, where a 500 Hz tone or a visual stimulus (a white square), respectively, was used as a positive reinforcer when the value of the theta/alpha ratio was reduced. Both groups had signs consistent with EEG maturation, but only the Auditory Group showed behavioral/cognitive improvements. In conclusion, the auditory reinforcer was more efficacious in reducing the theta/alpha ratio, and it improved the cognitive abilities more than the visual reinforcer.

  6. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  7. Non-Linguistic Auditory Processing and Working Memory Update in Pre-School Children Who Stutter: An Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Non-linguistic auditory processing and working memory update were examined with event-related potentials (ERPs) in 18 children who stutter (CWS) and 18 children who do not stutter (CWNS). Children heard frequent 1kHz tones interspersed with rare 2kHz tones. The two groups did not differ on any measure of the P1 and N1 components, strongly suggesting that early auditory processing of pure tones is unimpaired in CWS. However, as a group, only CWNS exhibited a P3 component to rare tones suggesting that developmental stuttering may be associated with a less efficient attentional allocation and working memory update in response to auditory change. PMID:21038162

  8. Auditory Perceptual Abilities Are Associated with Specific Auditory Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zaltz, Yael; Globerson, Eitan; Amir, Noam

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which auditory experience can shape general auditory perceptual abilities is still under constant debate. Some studies show that specific auditory expertise may have a general effect on auditory perceptual abilities, while others show a more limited influence, exhibited only in a relatively narrow range associated with the area of expertise. The current study addresses this issue by examining experience-dependent enhancement in perceptual abilities in the auditory domain. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, 12 pop and rock musicians and 15 non-musicians were tested in frequency discrimination (DLF), intensity discrimination, spectrum discrimination (DLS), and time discrimination (DLT). Results showed significant superiority of the musician group only for the DLF and DLT tasks, illuminating enhanced perceptual skills in the key features of pop music, in which miniscule changes in amplitude and spectrum are not critical to performance. The next two experiments attempted to differentiate between generalization and specificity in the influence of auditory experience, by comparing subgroups of specialists. First, seven guitar players and eight percussionists were tested in the DLF and DLT tasks that were found superior for musicians. Results showed superior abilities on the DLF task for guitar players, though no difference between the groups in DLT, demonstrating some dependency of auditory learning on the specific area of expertise. Subsequently, a third experiment was conducted, testing a possible influence of vowel density in native language on auditory perceptual abilities. Ten native speakers of German (a language characterized by a dense vowel system of 14 vowels), and 10 native speakers of Hebrew (characterized by a sparse vowel system of five vowels), were tested in a formant discrimination task. This is the linguistic equivalent of a DLS task. Results showed that German speakers had superior formant discrimination

  9. Reduced connectivity of the auditory cortex in patients with auditory hallucinations: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Gavrilescu, M; Rossell, S; Stuart, G W; Shea, T L; Innes-Brown, H; Henshall, K; McKay, C; Sergejew, A A; Copolov, D; Egan, G F

    2010-07-01

    Previous research has reported auditory processing deficits that are specific to schizophrenia patients with a history of auditory hallucinations (AH). One explanation for these findings is that there are abnormalities in the interhemispheric connectivity of auditory cortex pathways in AH patients; as yet this explanation has not been experimentally investigated. We assessed the interhemispheric connectivity of both primary (A1) and secondary (A2) auditory cortices in n=13 AH patients, n=13 schizophrenia patients without auditory hallucinations (non-AH) and n=16 healthy controls using functional connectivity measures from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Functional connectivity was estimated from resting state fMRI data using regions of interest defined for each participant based on functional activation maps in response to passive listening to words. Additionally, stimulus-induced responses were regressed out of the stimulus data and the functional connectivity was estimated for the same regions to investigate the reliability of the estimates. AH patients had significantly reduced interhemispheric connectivity in both A1 and A2 when compared with non-AH patients and healthy controls. The latter two groups did not show any differences in functional connectivity. Further, this pattern of findings was similar across the two datasets, indicating the reliability of our estimates. These data have identified a trait deficit specific to AH patients. Since this deficit was characterized within both A1 and A2 it is expected to result in the disruption of multiple auditory functions, for example, the integration of basic auditory information between hemispheres (via A1) and higher-order language processing abilities (via A2).

  10. Enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex of elderly cochlear-implant users.

    PubMed

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Schulte, Svenja; Hauthal, Nadine; Kantzke, Christoph; Rach, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Auditory deprivation and the restoration of hearing via a cochlear implant (CI) can induce functional plasticity in auditory cortical areas. How these plastic changes affect the ability to integrate combined auditory (A) and visual (V) information is not yet well understood. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine whether age, temporary deafness and altered sensory experience with a CI can affect audio-visual (AV) interactions in post-lingually deafened CI users. Young and elderly CI users and age-matched NH listeners performed a speeded response task on basic auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli. Regarding the behavioral results, a redundant signals effect, that is, faster response times to cross-modal (AV) than to both of the two modality-specific stimuli (A, V), was revealed for all groups of participants. Moreover, in all four groups, we found evidence for audio-visual integration. Regarding event-related responses (ERPs), we observed a more pronounced visual modulation of the cortical auditory response at N1 latency (approximately 100 ms after stimulus onset) in the elderly CI users when compared with young CI users and elderly NH listeners. Thus, elderly CI users showed enhanced audio-visual binding which may be a consequence of compensatory strategies developed due to temporary deafness and/or degraded sensory input after implantation. These results indicate that the combination of aging, sensory deprivation and CI facilitates the coupling between the auditory and the visual modality. We suggest that this enhancement in multisensory interactions could be used to optimize auditory rehabilitation, especially in elderly CI users, by the application of strong audio-visually based rehabilitation strategies after implant switch-on. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  12. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  13. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    PubMed Central

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence on sensory processing may be less long-lasting and may potentially fade over time if not repeated. This auditory reserve may help to explain individual differences in how individuals cope with auditory impoverishment or loss of sensorineural function. PMID:25405381

  14. Modulation of auditory stimulus processing by visual spatial or temporal cue: an event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Li, Chunlin; Li, Qi; Gao, Yulin; Yang, Weiping; Yang, Jingjing; Ishikawa, Soushirou; Wu, Jinglong

    2013-10-11

    Utilizing the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined how visual spatial or temporal cues modulated the auditory stimulus processing. The visual spatial cue (VSC) induces orienting of attention to spatial locations; the visual temporal cue (VTC) induces orienting of attention to temporal intervals. Participants were instructed to respond to auditory targets. Behavioral responses to auditory stimuli following VSC were faster and more accurate than those following VTC. VSC and VTC had the same effect on the auditory N1 (150-170 ms after stimulus onset). The mean amplitude of the auditory P1 (90-110 ms) in VSC condition was larger than that in VTC condition, and the mean amplitude of late positivity (300-420 ms) in VTC condition was larger than that in VSC condition. These findings suggest that modulation of auditory stimulus processing by visually induced spatial or temporal orienting of attention were different, but partially overlapping. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on MMN-indexed auditory discrimination: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Impey, Danielle; Knott, Verner

    2015-08-01

    Membrane potentials and brain plasticity are basic modes of cerebral information processing. Both can be externally (non-invasively) modulated by weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Polarity-dependent tDCS-induced reversible circumscribed increases and decreases in cortical excitability and functional changes have been observed following stimulation of motor and visual cortices but relatively little research has been conducted with respect to the auditory cortex. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of tDCS on auditory sensory discrimination in healthy participants (N = 12) assessed with the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain event-related potential (ERP). In a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, participants received anodal tDCS over the primary auditory cortex (2 mA for 20 min) in one session and 'sham' stimulation (i.e., no stimulation except initial ramp-up for 30 s) in the other session. MMN elicited by changes in auditory pitch was found to be enhanced after receiving anodal tDCS compared to 'sham' stimulation, with the effects being evidenced in individuals with relatively reduced (vs. increased) baseline amplitudes and with relatively small (vs. large) pitch deviants. Additional studies are needed to further explore relationships between tDCS-related parameters, auditory stimulus features and individual differences prior to assessing the utility of this tool for treating auditory processing deficits in psychiatric and/or neurological disorders.

  16. Organization Readiness and ERP Implementation in Albaha University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaqeel, K.; Shakkah, M. S.; Rahmat, R. F.; Alfageeh, A.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-04-01

    This work studies the correlation between the organizational readiness in Albaha University and the respective Critical Success Factors with regards to the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation. The study also considers some suggestions to improve the ABU’s ERP systems and roadmap towards the self -development strategy and to reduce vendor-dependency. A survey regarding ERP to the end-users, experts and developers in Albaha University was conducted. The analysis of the results in this work confirmed with the results of an existing work. The four significance success factors: Project Management, Business Process Re-engineering, System Integration, and Training and Education are recommended to be adopted to assure the smooth adoption of ERP at Albaha University.

  17. Affective picture processing: An integrative review of ERP findings

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Jonas K.; Nordin, Steven; Sequeira, Henrique; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    The review summarizes and integrates findings from 40 years of event-related potential (ERP) studies using pictures that differ in valence (unpleasant-to-pleasant) and arousal (low-to-high) and that are used to elicit emotional processing. Affective stimulus factors primarily modulate ERP component amplitude, with little change in peak latency observed. Arousal effects are consistently obtained, and generally occur at longer latencies. Valence effects are inconsistently reported at several latency ranges, including very early components. Some affective ERP modulations vary with recording methodology, stimulus factors, as well as task-relevance and emotional state. Affective ERPs have been linked theoretically to attention orientation for unpleasant pictures at earlier components (< 300 ms). Enhanced stimulus processing has been associated with memory encoding for arousing pictures of assumed intrinsic motivational relevance, with task-induced differences contributing to emotional reactivity at later components (> 300 ms). Theoretical issues, stimulus factors, task demands, and individual differences are discussed. PMID:18164800

  18. Analysis on the integration of ERP and e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqing; Shi, Yuliana

    2017-08-01

    With the continuous development of China's modern economic construction, a variety of information technology are emerging. The new economic development characterized by e-commerce has accelerated the globalization of the economy. In face of increasingly fierce market competition, for enterprises, the constructions of ERP and e-commerce are necessary ways to enhance the core competitiveness of enterprises. At present, most of the internal ERP systems and external e-commerce systems are in relatively independent state. However, with the increasing fierce market competition, a single mode of operation has been unable to meet the requirements of enterprise development. Accordingly, the effective integration of ERP and e-commerce in the new era has become one of the most important topics for enterprise development. This paper firstly analyzes the relationship between ERP and e-commerce, and then analyzes the necessity and feasibility of integration, and finally discusses the integration strategies and technologies.

  19. Auditory changes in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Tabur, S; Korkmaz, H; Baysal, E; Hatipoglu, E; Aytac, I; Akarsu, E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the changes involving auditory system in cases with acromegaly. Otological examinations of 41 cases with acromegaly (uncontrolled n = 22, controlled n = 19) were compared with those of age and gender-matched 24 healthy subjects. Whereas the cases with acromegaly underwent examination with pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech audiometry for speech discrimination (SD), tympanometry, stapedius reflex evaluation and otoacoustic emission tests, the control group did only have otological examination and PTA. Additionally, previously performed paranasal sinus-computed tomography of all cases with acromegaly and control subjects were obtained to measure the length of internal acoustic canal (IAC). PTA values were higher (p < 0.001 for right ears and p = 0.001 for left ears), and SD scores were (p = 0.002 for right ears and p = 0.002 for left ears) lower in acromegalic patients. IAC width in acromegaly group was narrower compared to that in control group (p = 0.03 for right ears and p = 0.02 for left ears). When only cases with acromegaly were taken into consideration, PTA values in left ears had positive correlation with growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels (r = 0.4, p = 0.02 and r = 0.3, p = 0.03). Of all cases with acromegaly 13 (32%) had hearing loss in at least one ear, 7 (54%) had sensorineural type and 6 (46%) had conductive type hearing loss. Acromegaly may cause certain changes in the auditory system in cases with acromegaly. The changes in the auditory system may be multifactorial causing both conductive and sensorioneural defects.

  20. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potential (MLAEP) in Workers with and without Tinnitus who are Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2015-09-11

    Tinnitus is an important occupational health concern, but few studies have focused on the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure. Thus, we analyzed the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure who had normal hearing threshold, and compared middle latency auditory evoked potential in those with and without noise-induced tinnitus. Sixty individuals (30 with and 30 without tinnitus) underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, immittance measures, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies between 0.25-8 kHz, and middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Quantitative analysis of latencies and amplitudes of middle latency auditory evoked potential showed no significant differences between the groups with and without tinnitus. In the qualitative analysis, we found that both groups showed increased middle latency auditory evoked potential latencies. The study group had more alterations of the "both" type regarding the Na-Pa amplitude, while the control group had more "electrode effect" alterations, but these alterations were not significantly different when compared to controls. Individuals with normal hearing with or without tinnitus who are exposed to occupational noise have altered middle latency auditory evoked potential, suggesting impairment of the auditory pathways in cortical and subcortical regions. Although differences did not reach significance, individuals with tinnitus seemed to have more abnormalities in components of the middle latency auditory evoked potential when compared to individuals without tinnitus, suggesting alterations in the generation and transmission of neuroelectrical impulses along the auditory pathway.

  1. The modulation of auditory novelty processing by working memory load in school age children and adults: a combined behavioral and event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We investigated the processing of task-irrelevant and unexpected novel sounds and its modulation by working-memory load in children aged 9-10 and in adults. Environmental sounds (novels) were embedded amongst frequently presented standard sounds in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Each sound was followed by a visual target. In two conditions, participants evaluated the position of a visual stimulus (0-back, low load) or compared the position of the current stimulus with the one two trials before (2-back, high load). Processing of novel sounds were measured with reaction times, hit rates and the auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) Mismatch Negativity (MMN), P3a, Reorienting Negativity (RON) and visual P3b. Results In both memory load conditions novels impaired task performance in adults whereas they improved performance in children. Auditory ERPs reflect age-related differences in the time-window of the MMN as children showed a positive ERP deflection to novels whereas adults lack an MMN. The attention switch towards the task irrelevant novel (reflected by P3a) was comparable between the age groups. Adults showed more efficient reallocation of attention (reflected by RON) under load condition than children. Finally, the P3b elicited by the visual target stimuli was reduced in both age groups when the preceding sound was a novel. Conclusion Our results give new insights in the development of novelty processing as they (1) reveal that task-irrelevant novel sounds can result in contrary effects on the performance in a visual primary task in children and adults, (2) show a positive ERP deflection to novels rather than an MMN in children, and (3) reveal effects of auditory novels on visual target processing. PMID:20929535

  2. Studying auditory verbal hallucinations using the RDoC framework.

    PubMed

    Ford, Judith M

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, I explain why I adopted a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach to study the neurobiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), or voices. I explain that the RDoC construct of "agency" fits well with AVH phenomenology. To the extent that voices sound nonself, voice hearers lack a sense of agency over the voices. Using a vocalization paradigm like those used with nonhuman primates to study mechanisms subserving the sense of agency, we find that the auditory N1 ERP is suppressed during vocalization, that EEG synchrony preceding speech onset is related to N1 suppression, and that both are reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Reduced cortical suppression is also seen across multiple psychotic disorders and in clinically high-risk youth, but it is not related to AVH. The motor activity preceding talking and connectivity between frontal and temporal lobes during talking have both proved sensitive to AVH, suggesting neural activity and connectivity associated with intentions to act may be a better way to study agency and predictions based on agency. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Auditory evoked potential could reflect emotional sensitivity and impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, Sungkean; Jung, Wookyoung; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Emotional sensitivity and impulsivity could cause interpersonal conflicts and neuropsychiatric problems. Serotonin is correlated with behavioral inhibition and impulsivity. This study evaluated whether the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potential (LDAEP), a potential biological marker of central serotonergic activity, could reflect emotional sensitivity and impulsivity. A total of 157 healthy individuals were recruited, who performed LDAEP and Go/Nogo paradigms during electroencephalogram measurement. Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS), Conners’ Adult ADHD rating scale (CAARS), and affective lability scale (ALS) were evaluated. Comparison between low and high LDAEP groups was conducted for behavioural, psychological, and event-related potential (ERP) measures. The high LDAEP group showed significantly increased BIS, a subscale of the CAARS, ALS, and false alarm rate of Nogo stimuli compared to the low LDAEP group. LDAEP showed significant positive correlations with the depression scale, ALS scores, subscale of the CAARS and Nogo-P3 amplitude. In the source activity of Nogo-P3, the cuneus, lingual gyrus, and precentral gyrus activities were significantly increased in the high LDAEP group. Our study revealed that LDAEP could reflect emotional sensitivity and impulsivity. LDAEP, an auditory evoked potential could be a useful tool to evaluate emotional regulation. PMID:27910865

  4. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  5. Taking off the training wheels: Measuring auditory P3 during outdoor cycling using an active wet EEG system.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Joanna E M; Townsend, Kimberley A; Cormier, Danielle L; Kuziek, Jonathan W P; Mathewson, Kyle E

    2017-12-14

    Mobile EEG allows the investigation of brain activity in increasingly complex environments. In this study, EEG equipment was adapted for use and transportation in a backpack while cycling. Participants performed an auditory oddball task while cycling outside and sitting in an isolated chamber inside the lab. Cycling increased EEG noise and marginally diminished alpha amplitude. However, this increased noise did not influence the ability to measure reliable event related potentials (ERP). The P3 was similar in topography, and morphology when outside on the bike, with a lower amplitude in the outside cycling condition. There was only a minor decrease in the statistical power to measure reliable ERP effects. Unexpectedly, when biking outside significantly decreased P2 and increased N1 amplitude were observed when evoked by both standards and targets compared with sitting in the lab. This may be due to attentional processes filtering the overlapping sounds between the tones used and similar environmental frequencies. This study established methods for mobile recording of ERP signals. Future directions include investigating auditory P2 filtering inside the laboratory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Interpersonal distance and social anxiety in autistic spectrum disorders: A behavioral and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anat; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Richter-Levin, Gal; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-08-01

    An inherent feature of social interactions is the use of social space or interpersonal distance-the space between one individual and another. Because social deficits are core symptoms of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), we hypothesized that individuals on this spectrum will exhibit abnormal interpersonal distance preferences. The literature on interpersonal distance in ASD is not conclusive. While some studies show preferences for closer distances among this group, others show preferences for farther distances than controls. A common symptom of ASD that may explain the variance in responses to interpersonal distance in this population is social anxiety (SA), which has been shown to correlate with interpersonal distance preferences. In the current study, we investigated interpersonal distance preferences in a group of individuals with ASD using both behavioral and ERP measures. We found greater variance in interpersonal distance preferences in the ASD group than in the control group. Furthermore, we showed that this variance can be explained by differences in SA level and can be predicted by the N1 amplitude, an early ERP component related to attention and discrimination processes. These results hint at the early sensory and attentional processes that may be affecting higher social behaviors, both in subclinical and in clinical populations.

  7. Applying Real Options for Evaluating Investments in ERP Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagane, Jun; Sekozawa, Teruji

    This paper intends to verify effectiveness of real options approach for evaluating investments in Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERP) and proves how important it is to disclose shadow options potentially embedded in ERP investment. The net present value (NPV) method is principally adopted to evaluate the value of ERP. However, the NPV method assumes no uncertainties exist in the object. It doesn't satisfy the current business circumstances which are filled with dynamic issues. Since the 1990s the effectiveness of option pricing models for Information System (IS) investment to solve issues in the NPV method has been discussed in the IS literature. This paper presents 3 business cases to review the practical advantages of such techniques for IS investments, especially ERP investments. The first case is EDI development. We evaluate the project by a new approach with lighting one of shadow options, EDI implementation. In the second case we reveal an ERP investment has an “expanding option” in a case of eliminating redundancy. The third case describes an option to contract which is deliberately slotted in ERP development to prepare transferring a manufacturing facility.

  8. Effect of mental fatigue caused by mobile 3D viewing on selective attention: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Mun, Sungchul; Kim, Eun-Soo; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated behavioral responses to and auditory event-related potential (ERP) correlates of mental fatigue caused by mobile three-dimensional (3D) viewing. Twenty-six participants (14 women) performed a selective attention task in which they were asked to respond to the sounds presented at the attended side while ignoring sounds at the ignored side before and after mobile 3D viewing. Considering different individual susceptibilities to 3D, participants' subjective fatigue data were used to categorize them into two groups: fatigued and unfatigued. The amplitudes of d-ERP components were defined as differences in amplitudes between time-locked brain oscillations of the attended and ignored sounds, and these values were used to calculate the degree to which spatial selective attention was impaired by 3D mental fatigue. The fatigued group showed significantly longer response times after mobile 3D viewing compared to before the viewing. However, response accuracy did not significantly change between the two conditions, implying that the participants used a behavioral strategy to cope with their performance accuracy decrement by increasing their response times. No significant differences were observed for the unfatigued group. Analysis of covariance revealed group differences with significant and trends toward significant decreases in the d-P200 and d-late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes at the occipital electrodes of the fatigued and unfatigued groups. Our findings indicate that mentally fatigued participants did not effectively block out distractors in their information processing mechanism, providing support for the hypothesis that 3D mental fatigue impairs spatial selective attention and is characterized by changes in d-P200 and d-LPP amplitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  10. Interaction of language, auditory and memory brain networks in auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Ford, Judith M; Hubl, Daniela; Orlov, Natasza D; Sommer, Iris E; Waters, Flavie; Allen, Paul; Jardri, Renaud; Woodruff, Peter W; David, Olivier; Mulert, Christoph; Woodward, Todd S; Aleman, André

    2017-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) occur in psychotic disorders, but also as a symptom of other conditions and even in healthy people. Several current theories on the origin of AVH converge, with neuroimaging studies suggesting that the language, auditory and memory/limbic networks are of particular relevance. However, reconciliation of these theories with experimental evidence is missing. We review 50 studies investigating functional (EEG and fMRI) and anatomic (diffusion tensor imaging) connectivity in these networks, and explore the evidence supporting abnormal connectivity in these networks associated with AVH. We distinguish between functional connectivity during an actual hallucination experience (symptom capture) and functional connectivity during either the resting state or a task comparing individuals who hallucinate with those who do not (symptom association studies). Symptom capture studies clearly reveal a pattern of increased coupling among the auditory, language and striatal regions. Anatomical and symptom association functional studies suggest that the interhemispheric connectivity between posterior auditory regions may depend on the phase of illness, with increases in non-psychotic individuals and first episode patients and decreases in chronic patients. Leading hypotheses involving concepts as unstable memories, source monitoring, top-down attention, and hybrid models of hallucinations are supported in part by the published connectivity data, although several caveats and inconsistencies remain. Specifically, possible changes in fronto-temporal connectivity are still under debate. Precise hypotheses concerning the directionality of connections deduced from current theoretical approaches should be tested using experimental approaches that allow for discrimination of competing hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  12. Auditory hallucinations: nomenclature and classification.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Sommer, Iris E C

    2010-03-01

    The literature on the possible neurobiologic correlates of auditory hallucinations is expanding rapidly. For an adequate understanding and linking of this emerging knowledge, a clear and uniform nomenclature is a prerequisite. The primary purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of the nomenclature and classification of auditory hallucinations. Relevant data were obtained from books, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. The results are presented in the form of several classificatory arrangements of auditory hallucinations, governed by the principles of content, perceived source, perceived vivacity, relation to the sleep-wake cycle, and association with suspected neurobiologic correlates. This overview underscores the necessity to reappraise the concepts of auditory hallucinations developed during the era of classic psychiatry, to incorporate them into our current nomenclature and classification of auditory hallucinations, and to test them empirically with the aid of the structural and functional imaging techniques currently available.

  13. Neurophysiological Studies of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Judith M.; Dierks, Thomas; Fisher, Derek J.; Herrmann, Christoph S.; Hubl, Daniela; Kindler, Jochen; Koenig, Thomas; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Spencer, Kevin M.; Strik, Werner; van Lutterveld, Remko

    2012-01-01

    We discuss 3 neurophysiological approaches to study auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). First, we describe “state” (or symptom capture) studies where periods with and without hallucinations are compared “within” a patient. These studies take 2 forms: passive studies, where brain activity during these states is compared, and probe studies, where brain responses to sounds during these states are compared. EEG (electroencephalography) and MEG (magnetoencephalography) data point to frontal and temporal lobe activity, the latter resulting in competition with external sounds for auditory resources. Second, we discuss “trait” studies where EEG and MEG responses to sounds are recorded from patients who hallucinate and those who do not. They suggest a tendency to hallucinate is associated with competition for auditory processing resources. Third, we discuss studies addressing possible mechanisms of AVH, including spontaneous neural activity, abnormal self-monitoring, and dysfunctional interregional communication. While most studies show differences in EEG and MEG responses between patients and controls, far fewer show symptom relationships. We conclude that efforts to understand the pathophysiology of AVH using EEG and MEG have been hindered by poor anatomical resolution of the EEG and MEG measures, poor assessment of symptoms, poor understanding of the phenomenon, poor models of the phenomenon, decoupling of the symptoms from the neurophysiology due to medications and comorbidites, and the possibility that the schizophrenia diagnosis breeds truer than the symptoms it comprises. These problems are common to studies of other psychiatric symptoms and should be considered when attempting to understand the basic neural mechanisms responsible for them. PMID:22368236

  14. Effects of twenty-minute 3G mobile phone irradiation on event related potential components and early gamma synchronization in auditory oddball paradigm.

    PubMed

    Stefanics, G; Thuróczy, G; Kellényi, L; Hernádi, I

    2008-11-19

    We investigated the potential effects of 20 min irradiation from a new generation Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) 3G mobile phone on human event related potentials (ERPs) in an auditory oddball paradigm. In a double-blind task design, subjects were exposed to either genuine or sham irradiation in two separate sessions. Before and after irradiation subjects were presented with a random series of 50 ms tone burst (frequent standards: 1 kHz, P=0.8, rare deviants: 1.5 kHz, P=0.2) at a mean repetition rate of 1500 ms while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. The subjects' task was to silently count the appearance of targets. The amplitude and latency of the N100, N200, P200 and P300 components for targets and standards were analyzed in 29 subjects. We found no significant effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) irradiation on the amplitude and latency of the above ERP components. In order to study possible effects of EMF on attentional processes, we applied a wavelet-based time-frequency method to analyze the early gamma component of brain responses to auditory stimuli. We found that the early evoked gamma activity was insensitive to UMTS RF exposition. Our results support the notion, that a single 20 min irradiation from new generation 3G mobile phones does not induce measurable changes in latency or amplitude of ERP components or in oscillatory gamma-band activity in an auditory oddball paradigm.

  15. Being First Matters: Topographical Representational Similarity Analysis of ERP Signals Reveals Separate Networks for Audiovisual Temporal Binding Depending on the Leading Sense.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Roberto; Gross, Joachim; Willis, Ashleigh; Thut, Gregor

    2017-05-24

    In multisensory integration, processing in one sensory modality is enhanced by complementary information from other modalities. Intersensory timing is crucial in this process because only inputs reaching the brain within a restricted temporal window are perceptually bound. Previous research in the audiovisual field has investigated various features of the temporal binding window, revealing asymmetries in its size and plasticity depending on the leading input: auditory-visual (AV) or visual-auditory (VA). Here, we tested whether separate neuronal mechanisms underlie this AV-VA dichotomy in humans. We recorded high-density EEG while participants performed an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task including various AV-VA asynchronies and unisensory control conditions (visual-only, auditory-only) and tested whether AV and VA processing generate different patterns of brain activity. After isolating the multisensory components of AV-VA event-related potentials (ERPs) from the sum of their unisensory constituents, we ran a time-resolved topographical representational similarity analysis (tRSA) comparing the AV and VA ERP maps. Spatial cross-correlation matrices were built from real data to index the similarity between the AV and VA maps at each time point (500 ms window after stimulus) and then correlated with two alternative similarity model matrices: AV maps = VA maps versus AV maps ≠ VA maps The tRSA results favored the AV maps ≠ VA maps model across all time points, suggesting that audiovisual temporal binding (indexed by synchrony perception) engages different neural pathways depending on the leading sense. The existence of such dual route supports recent theoretical accounts proposing that multiple binding mechanisms are implemented in the brain to accommodate different information parsing strategies in auditory and visual sensory systems. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intersensory timing is a crucial aspect of multisensory integration, determining whether and how

  16. Transplantation of conditionally immortal auditory neuroblasts to the auditory nerve.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Tetsuji; Holley, Matthew C; Kojima, Ken; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Helyer, Richard; Ito, Juichi

    2007-04-01

    Cell transplantation is a realistic potential therapy for replacement of auditory sensory neurons and could benefit patients with cochlear implants or acoustic neuropathies. The procedure involves many experimental variables, including the nature and conditioning of donor cells, surgical technique and degree of degeneration in the host tissue. It is essential to control these variables in order to develop cell transplantation techniques effectively. We have characterized a conditionally immortal, mouse cell line suitable for transplantation to the auditory nerve. Structural and physiological markers defined the cells as early auditory neuroblasts that lacked neuronal, voltage-gated sodium or calcium currents and had an undifferentiated morphology. When transplanted into the auditory nerves of rats in vivo, the cells migrated peripherally and centrally and aggregated to form coherent, ectopic 'ganglia'. After 7 days they expressed beta 3-tubulin and adopted a similar morphology to native spiral ganglion neurons. They also developed bipolar projections aligned with the host nerves. There was no evidence for uncontrolled proliferation in vivo and cells survived for at least 63 days. If cells were transplanted with the appropriate surgical technique then the auditory brainstem responses were preserved. We have shown that immortal cell lines can potentially be used in the mammalian ear, that it is possible to differentiate significant numbers of cells within the auditory nerve tract and that surgery and cell injection can be achieved with no damage to the cochlea and with minimal degradation of the auditory brainstem response.

  17. The disulfide isomerase ERp57 is required for fibrin deposition in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Wu, Y; Wang, L; Rauova, L; Hayes, V M; Poncz, M; Essex, D W

    2014-11-01

    ERp57 is required for platelet function; however, whether ERp57 contributes to fibrin generation is unknown. Using an inhibitory anti-ERp57 antibody (mAb1), Pf4-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice, Tie2-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice, and mutants of ERp57, we analyzed the function of ERp57 in laser-induced thrombosis. Fibrin deposition was decreased in Pf4-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice, consistent with a role for platelet ERp57 in fibrin generation. Fibrin deposition was further decreased with infusion of mAb1 and in Tie2-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice, consistent with endothelial cells also contributing to fibrin deposition. Infusion of eptibifatide inhibited platelet and fibrin deposition, confirming a role for platelets in fibrin deposition. Infusion of recombinant ERp57 corrected the defect in fibrin deposition but not platelet accumulation, suggesting a direct effect of ERp57 on coagulation. mAb1 inhibited thrombin generation in vitro, consistent with a requirement for ERp57 in coagulation. Platelet accumulation was decreased to similar extents in Pf4-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice, Tie2-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice and normal mice infused with mAb1. Infusion of completely inactivated ERp57 or ERp57 with a non-functional second active site inhibited fibrin deposition and platelet accumulation, indicating that the isomerase activity of the second active site is required for these processes. ERp57 regulates thrombosis via multiple targets. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  19. Neural conduction abnormality in the brain stem and prevalence of the abnormality in late preterm infants with perinatal problems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ze Dong

    2013-08-01

    Neurodevelopment in late preterm infants has recently attracted considerable interest. The prevalence of brain stem conduction abnormality remains unknown. We examined maximum length sequence brain stem auditory evoked response in 163 infants, born at 33-36 weeks gestation, who had various perinatal problems. Compared with 49 normal term infants without problems, the late preterm infants showed a significant increase in III-V and I-V interpeak intervals at all 91-910/s clicks, particularly at 455 and 910/s (p < 0.01-0.001). The I-III interval was slightly increased, without statistically significant difference from the controls at any click rates. These results suggest that neural conduction along the, mainly more central or rostral part of, auditory brain stem is abnormal in late preterm infants with perinatal problems. Of the 163 late preterm infant, the number (and percentage rate) of infants with abnormal I-V interval at 91, 227, 455, and 910/s clicks was, respectively, 11 (6.5%), 17 (10.2%), 37 (22.3%), and 31 (18.7%). The number (and percentage rate) of infants with abnormal III-V interval at these rates was, respectively, 10 (6.0%), 17 (10.2%), 28 (16.9), and 36 (21.2%). Apparently, the abnormal rates were much higher at 455 and 910/s clicks than at lower rates 91 and 227/s. In total, 42 (25.8%) infants showed abnormal I-V and/or III-V intervals. Conduction in, mainly in the more central part, the brain stem is abnormal in late preterm infants with perinatal problems. The abnormality is more detectable at high- than at low-rate sensory stimulation. A quarter of late preterm infants with perinatal problems have brain stem conduction abnormality.

  20. Auditory training improves auditory performance in cochlear implanted children.

    PubMed

    Roman, Stephane; Rochette, Françoise; Triglia, Jean-Michel; Schön, Daniele; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    While the positive benefits of pediatric cochlear implantation on language perception skills are now proven, the heterogeneity of outcomes remains high. The understanding of this heterogeneity and possible strategies to minimize it is of utmost importance. Our scope here is to test the effects of an auditory training strategy, "sound in Hands", using playful tasks grounded on the theoretical and empirical findings of cognitive sciences. Indeed, several basic auditory operations, such as auditory scene analysis (ASA) are not trained in the usual therapeutic interventions in deaf children. However, as they constitute a fundamental basis in auditory cognition, their development should imply general benefit in auditory processing and in turn enhance speech perception. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether cochlear implanted children could improve auditory performances in trained tasks and whether they could develop a transfer of learning to a phonetic discrimination test. Nineteen prelingually unilateral cochlear implanted children without additional handicap (4-10 year-olds) were recruited. The four main auditory cognitive processing (identification, discrimination, ASA and auditory memory) were stimulated and trained in the Experimental Group (EG) using Sound in Hands. The EG followed 20 training weekly sessions of 30 min and the untrained group was the control group (CG). Two measures were taken for both groups: before training (T1) and after training (T2). EG showed a significant improvement in the identification, discrimination and auditory memory tasks. The improvement in the ASA task did not reach significance. CG did not show any significant improvement in any of the tasks assessed. Most importantly, improvement was visible in the phonetic discrimination test for EG only. Moreover, younger children benefited more from the auditory training program to develop their phonetic abilities compared to older children, supporting the idea that

  1. The music of language: an ERP investigation of the effects of musical training on emotional prosody processing.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Vasconcelos, Margarida; Dias, Marcelo; Arrais, Nuno; Gonçalves, Óscar F

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the positive effects of musical training on the perception of vocally expressed emotion. This study investigated the effects of musical training on event-related potential (ERP) correlates of emotional prosody processing. Fourteen musicians and fourteen control subjects listened to 228 sentences with neutral semantic content, differing in prosody (one third with neutral, one third with happy and one third with angry intonation), with intelligible semantic content (semantic content condition--SCC) and unintelligible semantic content (pure prosody condition--PPC). Reduced P50 amplitude was found in musicians. A difference between SCC and PPC conditions was found in P50 and N100 amplitude in non-musicians only, and in P200 amplitude in musicians only. Furthermore, musicians were more accurate in recognizing angry prosody in PPC sentences. These findings suggest that auditory expertise characterizing extensive musical training may impact different stages of vocal emotional processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Choosing Open Source ERP Systems: What Reasons Are There For Doing So?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Björn; Sudzina, Frantisek

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems attract a high attention and open source software does it as well. The question is then if, and if so, when do open source ERP systems take off. The paper describes the status of open source ERP systems. Based on literature review of ERP system selection criteria based on Web of Science articles, it discusses reported reasons for choosing open source or proprietary ERP systems. Last but not least, the article presents some conclusions that could act as input for future research. The paper aims at building up a foundation for the basic question: What are the reasons for an organization to adopt open source ERP systems.

  3. Sustained dysfunctional information processing in patients with Internet gaming disorder: 6-month follow-up ERP study.

    PubMed

    Park, Minkyung; Kim, Yeon Jin; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2017-09-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD), defined as an inability to control Internet-based game play, leads to serious impairment in psychological and social functioning, but few studies have identified the neurophysiological characteristics of patients with IGD. The aim of this study was to determine neurophysiological markers of P300 components associated with changes in symptoms after outpatient management with pharmacotherapy in patients with IGD. The present prospective longitudinal study included 18 patients with IGD and 29 healthy controls. The patients with IGD completed a 6-month outpatient management program including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-based pharmacotherapy. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired during the auditory oddball task. ERPs of the patients with IGD were recorded before and after treatment. Between-group differences and the pre-to-post treatment differences in P300 components were investigated using repeated-measures analysis of variance. The primary treatment outcome was a change in score on Young Internet Addiction Test between before and after treatment. At baseline assessments, the IGD group showed significantly reduced P300 amplitudes and delayed latencies at the midline centro-parietal site compared with those in the healthy controls. No significant changes in the P300 indices were observed between pre and post-treatment in the patients with IGD after 6 months of treatment, even though the patients with IGD exhibited significant improvements in their IGD symptoms. Furthermore, no significant difference in ERPs was observed between responders and nonresponders to a 6-month treatment in patients with IGD. These results suggest that reduced P300 amplitudes and delayed latencies are candidate endophenotypes in the pathophysiology of IGD.

  4. No meditation-related changes in the auditory N1 during first-time meditation.

    PubMed

    Barnes, L J; McArthur, G M; Biedermann, B A; de Lissa, P; Polito, V; Badcock, N A

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies link meditation expertise with enhanced low-level attention, measured through auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). In this study, we tested the reliability and validity of a recent finding that the N1 ERP in first-time meditators is smaller during meditation than non-meditation - an effect not present in long-term meditators. In the first experiment, we replicated the finding in first-time meditators. In two subsequent experiments, we discovered that this finding was not due to stimulus-related instructions, but was explained by an effect of the order of conditions. Extended exposure to the same tones has been linked with N1 decrement in other studies, and may explain N1 decrement across our two conditions. We give examples of existing meditation and ERP studies that may include similar condition order effects. The role of condition order among first-time meditators in this study indicates the importance of counterbalancing meditation and non-mediation conditions in meditation studies that use event-related potentials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early differential processing of material images: Evidence from ERP classification.

    PubMed

    Wiebel, Christiane B; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2014-06-24

    Investigating the temporal dynamics of natural image processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) has a long tradition in object recognition research. In a classical Go-NoGo task two characteristic effects have been emphasized: an early task independent category effect and a later task-dependent target effect. Here, we set out to use this well-established Go-NoGo paradigm to study the time course of material categorization. Material perception has gained more and more interest over the years as its importance in natural viewing conditions has been ignored for a long time. In addition to analyzing standard ERPs, we conducted a single trial ERP pattern analysis. To validate this procedure, we also measured ERPs in two object categories (people and animals). Our linear classification procedure was able to largely capture the overall pattern of results from the canonical analysis of the ERPs and even extend it. We replicate the known target effect (differential Go-NoGo potential at frontal sites) for the material images. Furthermore, we observe task-independent differential activity between the two material categories as early as 140 ms after stimulus onset. Using our linear classification approach, we show that material categories can be differentiated consistently based on the ERP pattern in single trials around 100 ms after stimulus onset, independent of the target-related status. This strengthens the idea of early differential visual processing of material categories independent of the task, probably due to differences in low-level image properties and suggests pattern classification of ERP topographies as a strong instrument for investigating electrophysiological brain activity. © 2014 ARVO.

  6. Using EEG and stimulus context to probe the modelling of auditory-visual speech.

    PubMed

    Paris, Tim; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether internal models of the relationship between lip movements and corresponding speech sounds [Auditory-Visual (AV) speech] could be updated via experience. AV associations were indexed by early and late event related potentials (ERPs) and by oscillatory power and phase locking. Different AV experience was produced via a context manipulation. Participants were presented with valid (the conventional pairing) and invalid AV speech items in either a 'reliable' context (80% AVvalid items) or an 'unreliable' context (80% AVinvalid items). The results showed that for the reliable context, there was N1 facilitation for AV compared to auditory only speech. This N1 facilitation was not affected by AV validity. Later ERPs showed a difference in amplitude between valid and invalid AV speech and there was significant enhancement of power for valid versus invalid AV speech. These response patterns did not change over the context manipulation, suggesting that the internal models of AV speech were not updated by experience. The results also showed that the facilitation of N1 responses did not vary as a function of the salience of visual speech (as previously reported); in post-hoc analyses, it appeared instead that N1 facilitation varied according to the relative time of the acoustic onset, suggesting for AV events N1 may be more sensitive to the relationship of AV timing than form. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-dependent impairment of auditory processing under spatially focused and divided attention: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Wild-Wall, Nele; Falkenstein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    By using event-related potentials (ERPs) the present study examines if age-related differences in preparation and processing especially emerge during divided attention. Binaurally presented auditory cues called for focused (valid and invalid) or divided attention to one or both ears. Responses were required to subsequent monaurally presented valid targets (vowels), but had to be suppressed to non-target vowels or invalidly cued vowels. Middle-aged participants were more impaired under divided attention than young ones, likely due to an age-related decline in preparatory attention following cues as was reflected in a decreased CNV. Under divided attention, target processing was increased in the middle-aged, likely reflecting compensatory effort to fulfill task requirements in the difficult condition. Additionally, middle-aged participants processed invalidly cued stimuli more intensely as was reflected by stimulus ERPs. The results suggest an age-related impairment in attentional preparation after auditory cues especially under divided attention and latent difficulties to suppress irrelevant information.

  8. Music-induced positive mood broadens the scope of auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Makkonen, Tommi; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies indicate that positive mood broadens the scope of visual attention, which can manifest as heightened distractibility. We used event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate whether music-induced positive mood has comparable effects on selective attention in the auditory domain. Subjects listened to experimenter-selected happy, neutral or sad instrumental music and afterwards participated in a dichotic listening task. Distractor sounds in the unattended channel elicited responses related to early sound encoding (N1/MMN) and bottom-up attention capture (P3a) while target sounds in the attended channel elicited a response related to top-down-controlled processing of task-relevant stimuli (P3b). For the subjects in a happy mood, the N1/MMN responses to the distractor sounds were enlarged while the P3b elicited by the target sounds was diminished. Behaviorally, these subjects tended to show heightened error rates on target trials following the distractor sounds. Thus, the ERP and behavioral results indicate that the subjects in a happy mood allocated their attentional resources more diffusely across the attended and the to-be-ignored channels. Therefore, the current study extends previous research on the effects of mood on visual attention and indicates that even unfamiliar instrumental music can broaden the scope of auditory attention via its effects on mood. PMID:28460035

  9. Music-induced positive mood broadens the scope of auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Putkinen, Vesa; Makkonen, Tommi; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that positive mood broadens the scope of visual attention, which can manifest as heightened distractibility. We used event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate whether music-induced positive mood has comparable effects on selective attention in the auditory domain. Subjects listened to experimenter-selected happy, neutral or sad instrumental music and afterwards participated in a dichotic listening task. Distractor sounds in the unattended channel elicited responses related to early sound encoding (N1/MMN) and bottom-up attention capture (P3a) while target sounds in the attended channel elicited a response related to top-down-controlled processing of task-relevant stimuli (P3b). For the subjects in a happy mood, the N1/MMN responses to the distractor sounds were enlarged while the P3b elicited by the target sounds was diminished. Behaviorally, these subjects tended to show heightened error rates on target trials following the distractor sounds. Thus, the ERP and behavioral results indicate that the subjects in a happy mood allocated their attentional resources more diffusely across the attended and the to-be-ignored channels. Therefore, the current study extends previous research on the effects of mood on visual attention and indicates that even unfamiliar instrumental music can broaden the scope of auditory attention via its effects on mood. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. ERP Correlates of Simulated Purchase Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Patrick D.; Drizinsky, Jessica; Zülch, Joachim; Falkenstein, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in economic context is an everyday activity but its neuronal correlates are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating the electrophysiological brain activity during simulated purchase decisions of technical products for a lower or higher price relative to a mean price estimated in a pilot study. Expectedly, participants mostly decided to buy a product when it was cheap and not to buy when it was expensive. However, in some trials they made counter-conformity decisions to buy a product for a higher than the average price or not to buy it despite an attractive price. These responses took more time and the variability of the response latency was enhanced relative to conformity responses. ERPs showed enhanced conflict related fronto-central N2 during both types of counter-conformity compared to conformity decisions. A reverse pattern was found for the P3a and P3b. The response-locked P3 (r-P3) was larger and the subsequent CNV smaller for counter-conformity than conformity decisions. We assume that counter-conformity decisions elevate the response threshold (larger N2), intensify response evaluation (r-P3) and attenuate the preparation for the next trial (CNV). These effects were discussed in the framework of the functional role of the fronto-parietal cortex in economic decision making. PMID:27551258

  11. ERP Correlates of Simulated Purchase Decisions.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Drizinsky, Jessica; Zülch, Joachim; Falkenstein, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in economic context is an everyday activity but its neuronal correlates are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating the electrophysiological brain activity during simulated purchase decisions of technical products for a lower or higher price relative to a mean price estimated in a pilot study. Expectedly, participants mostly decided to buy a product when it was cheap and not to buy when it was expensive. However, in some trials they made counter-conformity decisions to buy a product for a higher than the average price or not to buy it despite an attractive price. These responses took more time and the variability of the response latency was enhanced relative to conformity responses. ERPs showed enhanced conflict related fronto-central N2 during both types of counter-conformity compared to conformity decisions. A reverse pattern was found for the P3a and P3b. The response-locked P3 (r-P3) was larger and the subsequent CNV smaller for counter-conformity than conformity decisions. We assume that counter-conformity decisions elevate the response threshold (larger N2), intensify response evaluation (r-P3) and attenuate the preparation for the next trial (CNV). These effects were discussed in the framework of the functional role of the fronto-parietal cortex in economic decision making.

  12. Stability of an ERP-based measure of brain network activation (BNA) in athletes: A new electrophysiological assessment tool for concussion.

    PubMed

    Eckner, James T; Rettmann, Ashley; Narisetty, Naveen; Greer, Jacob; Moore, Brandon; Brimacombe, Susan; He, Xuming; Broglio, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    To determine test-re-test reliabilities of novel Evoked Response Potential (ERP)-based Brain Network Activation (BNA) scores in healthy athletes. Observational, repeated-measures study. Forty-two healthy male and female high school and collegiate athletes completed auditory oddball and go/no-go ERP assessments at baseline, 1 week, 6 weeks and 1 year. The BNA algorithm was applied to the ERP data, considering electrode location, frequency band, peak latency and normalized amplitude to generate seven unique BNA scores for each testing session. Mean BNA scores, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values and reliable change (RC) values were calculated for each of the seven BNA networks. BNA scores ranged from 46.3 ± 34.9 to 69.9 ± 22.8, ICC values ranged from 0.46-0.65 and 95% RC values ranged from 38.3-68.1 across the seven networks. The wide range of BNA scores observed in this population of healthy athletes suggests that a single BNA score or set of BNA scores from a single after-injury test session may be difficult to interpret in isolation without knowledge of the athlete's own baseline BNA score(s) and/or the results of serial tests performed at additional time points. The stability of each BNA network should be considered when interpreting test-re-test BNA score changes.

  13. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Cortical contributions to the auditory frequency-following response revealed by MEG

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Emily B. J.; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Chepesiuk, Alexander M. P.; Baillet, Sylvain; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory frequency-following response (FFR) to complex periodic sounds is used to study the subcortical auditory system, and has been proposed as a biomarker for disorders that feature abnormal sound processing. Despite its value in fundamental and clinical research, the neural origins of the FFR are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography, we observe a strong, right-asymmetric contribution to the FFR from the human auditory cortex at the fundamental frequency of the stimulus, in addition to signal from cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus and medial geniculate. This finding is highly relevant for our understanding of plasticity and pathology in the auditory system, as well as higher-level cognition such as speech and music processing. It suggests that previous interpretations of the FFR may need re-examination using methods that allow for source separation. PMID:27009409

  15. Modulation of auditory processing during speech movement planning is limited in adults who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Daliri, Ayoub; Max, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Stuttering is associated with atypical structural and functional connectivity in sensorimotor brain areas, in particular premotor, motor, and auditory regions. It remains unknown, however, which specific mechanisms of speech planning and execution are affected by these neurological abnormalities. To investigate pre-movement sensory modulation, we recorded 12 stuttering and 12 nonstuttering adults’ auditory evoked potentials in response to probe tones presented prior to speech onset in a delayed-response speaking condition vs. no-speaking control conditions (silent reading; seeing nonlinguistic symbols). Findings indicate that, during speech movement planning, the nonstuttering group showed a statistically significant modulation of auditory processing (reduced N1 amplitude) that was not observed in the stuttering group. Thus, the obtained results provide electrophysiological evidence in support of the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with deficiencies in modulating the cortical auditory system during speech movement planning. This specific sensorimotor integration deficiency may contribute to inefficient feedback monitoring and, consequently, speech dysfluencies. PMID:25796060

  16. Assessment of central auditory processing in a group of workers exposed to solvents.

    PubMed

    Fuente, Adrian; McPherson, Bradley; Muñoz, Verónica; Pablo Espina, Juan

    2006-12-01

    Despite having normal hearing thresholds and speech recognition thresholds, results for central auditory tests were abnormal in a group of workers exposed to solvents. Workers exposed to solvents may have difficulties in everyday listening situations that are not related to a decrement in hearing thresholds. A central auditory processing disorder may underlie these difficulties. To study central auditory processing abilities in a group of workers occupationally exposed to a mix of organic solvents. Ten workers exposed to a mix of organic solvents and 10 matched non-exposed workers were studied. The test battery comprised pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflex measurement, acoustic reflex decay, dichotic digit, pitch pattern sequence, masking level difference, filtered speech, random gap detection and hearing-in-noise tests. All the workers presented normal hearing thresholds and no signs of middle ear abnormalities. Workers exposed to solvents had lower results in comparison with the control group and previously reported normative data, in the majority of the tests.

  17. Usability evaluation of in-housed developed ERP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, Chaudhry Muhammad Nadeem; Shakeel Faridi, Muhammad; Javed, Zahid

    2011-10-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning systems are the combination of different business IS (Information System) applications that are designed according to the organization requirements. Generally ERP systems are suffering from complex user interface issues. Recent research shows that there is a need for improvement concerning, the user interface from their perspectives. In order to design the software applications that are easy to use, memorize and apply to new problems, we must know the users philosophy and something about learning, reminiscence and problems solving. The Usability engineering is the only way to study the deeds of users while interacting with ERP (Enterprise Resource & Planning). This paper will focus on the users' experiences view of financial module in ERP system. The HCI research method, explicitly survey questionnaire method was adopted to gather users understanding in order to evaluate the selected modules for in-housed ERP system. The study involved group of users from two industries, the results can not be generalized as a whole. The study was first time successfully applied Usability evaluation on in-housed ERP in local industry (Masood Textile Mills, Interloop Ltd) in Pakistan. The results may hopefully opened-up an area of research and methodology that could provide considerable further benefits to Industry in developments of Industrial information systems.

  18. Multiple Component Event-Related Potential (mcERP) Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, K. H.; Clanton, S. T.; Shah, A. S.; Truccolo, W. A.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Trejo, L. J.; Schroeder, C. E.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We show how model-based estimation of the neural sources responsible for transient neuroelectric signals can be improved by the analysis of single trial data. Previously, we showed that a multiple component event-related potential (mcERP) algorithm can extract the responses of individual sources from recordings of a mixture of multiple, possibly interacting, neural ensembles. McERP also estimated single-trial amplitudes and onset latencies, thus allowing more accurate estimation of ongoing neural activity during an experimental trial. The mcERP algorithm is related to informax independent component analysis (ICA); however, the underlying signal model is more physiologically realistic in that a component is modeled as a stereotypic waveshape varying both in amplitude and onset latency from trial to trial. The result is a model that reflects quantities of interest to the neuroscientist. Here we demonstrate that the mcERP algorithm provides more accurate results than more traditional methods such as factor analysis and the more recent ICA. Whereas factor analysis assumes the sources are orthogonal and ICA assumes the sources are statistically independent, the mcERP algorithm makes no such assumptions thus allowing investigators to examine interactions among components by estimating the properties of single-trial responses.

  19. Contributions of Sensory Coding and Attentional Control to Individual Differences in Performance in Spatial Auditory Selective Attention Tasks.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lengshi; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2016-01-01

    Listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) differ in their ability to steer attention to whatever sound source is important. This ability depends on top-down executive control, which modulates the sensory representation of sound in the cortex. Yet, this sensory representation also depends on the coding fidelity of the peripheral auditory system. Both of these factors may thus contribute to the individual differences in performance. We designed a selective auditory attention paradigm in which we could simultaneously measure envelope following responses (EFRs, reflecting peripheral coding), onset event-related potentials (ERPs) from the scalp (reflecting cortical responses to sound) and behavioral scores. We performed two experiments that varied stimulus conditions to alter the degree to which performance might be limited due to fine stimulus details vs. due to control of attentional focus. Consistent with past work, in both experiments we find that attention strongly modulates cortical ERPs. Importantly, in Experiment I, where coding fidelity limits the task, individual behavioral performance correlates with subcortical coding strength (derived by computing how the EFR is degraded for fully masked tones compared to partially masked tones); however, in this experiment, the effects of attention on cortical ERPs were unrelated to individual subject performance. In contrast, in Experiment II, where sensory cues for segregation are robust (and thus less of a limiting factor on task performance), inter-subject behavioral differences correlate with subcortical coding strength. In addition, after factoring out the influence of subcortical coding strength, behavioral differences are also correlated with the strength of attentional modulation of ERPs. These results support the hypothesis that behavioral abilities amongst listeners with NHTs can arise due to both subcortical coding differences and differences in attentional control, depending on stimulus characteristics

  20. Concurrent auditory perception difficulties in older adults with right hemisphere cerebrovascular accident.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Hossein; Moossavi, Abdollah; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-01-01

    Older adults with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) show evidence of auditory and speech perception problems. In present study, it was examined whether these problems are due to impairments of concurrent auditory segregation procedure which is the basic level of auditory scene analysis and auditory organization in auditory scenes with competing sounds. Concurrent auditory segregation using competing sentence test (CST) and dichotic digits test (DDT) was assessed and compared in 30 male older adults (15 normal and 15 cases with right hemisphere CVA) in the same age groups (60-75 years old). For the CST, participants were presented with target message in one ear and competing message in the other one. The task was to listen to target sentence and repeat back without attention to competing sentence. For the DDT, auditory stimuli were monosyllabic digits presented dichotically and the task was to repeat those. Comparing mean score of CST and DDT between CVA patients with right hemisphere impairment and normal participants showed statistically significant difference (p=0.001 for CST and p<0.0001 for DDT). The present study revealed that abnormal CST and DDT scores of participants with right hemisphere CVA could be related to concurrent segregation difficulties. These findings suggest that low level segregation mechanisms and/or high level attention mechanisms might contribute to the problems.

  1. Concurrent auditory perception difficulties in older adults with right hemisphere cerebrovascular accident

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Hossein; Moossavi, Abdollah; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Older adults with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) show evidence of auditory and speech perception problems. In present study, it was examined whether these problems are due to impairments of concurrent auditory segregation procedure which is the basic level of auditory scene analysis and auditory organization in auditory scenes with competing sounds. Methods: Concurrent auditory segregation using competing sentence test (CST) and dichotic digits test (DDT) was assessed and compared in 30 male older adults (15 normal and 15 cases with right hemisphere CVA) in the same age groups (60-75 years old). For the CST, participants were presented with target message in one ear and competing message in the other one. The task was to listen to target sentence and repeat back without attention to competing sentence. For the DDT, auditory stimuli were monosyllabic digits presented dichotically and the task was to repeat those. Results: Comparing mean score of CST and DDT between CVA patients with right hemisphere impairment and normal participants showed statistically significant difference (p=0.001 for CST and p<0.0001 for DDT). Conclusion: The present study revealed that abnormal CST and DDT scores of participants with right hemisphere CVA could be related to concurrent segregation difficulties. These findings suggest that low level segregation mechanisms and/or high level attention mechanisms might contribute to the problems. PMID:25679009

  2. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other speech-language difficulties? Are verbal (word) math problems difficult for your child? Is your child ... inferences from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems — require heightened auditory processing and language levels. ...

  3. EPA Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) with ERP Compliant Coke, LLC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Administrative Order on Consent with ERP Compliant Coke was effective August 2016. The Walter Coke facility located in North Birmingham was purchased by ERP Compliant Coke, LLC in February 2016 out of bankruptcy proceedings.

  4. Reactive Recruitment of Attentional Control in Math Anxiety: An ERP Study of Numeric Conflict Monitoring and Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    This study uses event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of numeric conflict monitoring in math-anxious individuals, by analyzing whether math anxiety is related to abnormal processing in early conflict detection (as shown by the N450 component) and/or in a later, response-related stage of processing (as shown by the conflict sustained potential; Conflict-SP). Conflict adaptation effects were also studied by analyzing the effect of the previous trial’s congruence in current interference. To this end, 17 low math-anxious (LMA) and 17 high math-anxious (HMA) individuals were presented with a numerical Stroop task. Groups were extreme in math anxiety but did not differ in trait or state anxiety or in simple math ability. The interference effect of the current trial (incongruent-congruent) and the interference effect preceded by congruence and by incongruity were analyzed both for behavioral measures and for ERPs. A greater interference effect was found for response times in the HMA group than in the LMA one. Regarding ERPs, the LMA group showed a greater N450 component for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity, while the HMA group showed greater Conflict-SP amplitude for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity. Our study showed that the electrophysiological correlates of numeric interference in HMA individuals comprise the absence of a conflict adaptation effect in the first stage of conflict processing (N450) and an abnormal subsequent up-regulation of cognitive control in order to overcome the conflict (Conflict-SP). More concretely, our study shows that math anxiety is related to a reactive and compensatory recruitment of control resources that is implemented only when previously exposed to a stimuli presenting conflicting information. PMID:24918584

  5. Reactive recruitment of attentional control in math anxiety: an ERP study of numeric conflict monitoring and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    This study uses event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of numeric conflict monitoring in math-anxious individuals, by analyzing whether math anxiety is related to abnormal processing in early conflict detection (as shown by the N450 component) and/or in a later, response-related stage of processing (as shown by the conflict sustained potential; Conflict-SP). Conflict adaptation effects were also studied by analyzing the effect of the previous trial's congruence in current interference. To this end, 17 low math-anxious (LMA) and 17 high math-anxious (HMA) individuals were presented with a numerical Stroop task. Groups were extreme in math anxiety but did not differ in trait or state anxiety or in simple math ability. The interference effect of the current trial (incongruent-congruent) and the interference effect preceded by congruence and by incongruity were analyzed both for behavioral measures and for ERPs. A greater interference effect was found for response times in the HMA group than in the LMA one. Regarding ERPs, the LMA group showed a greater N450 component for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity, while the HMA group showed greater Conflict-SP amplitude for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity. Our study showed that the electrophysiological correlates of numeric interference in HMA individuals comprise the absence of a conflict adaptation effect in the first stage of conflict processing (N450) and an abnormal subsequent up-regulation of cognitive control in order to overcome the conflict (Conflict-SP). More concretely, our study shows that math anxiety is related to a reactive and compensatory recruitment of control resources that is implemented only when previously exposed to a stimuli presenting conflicting information.

  6. Evaluation of selected auditory tests in school-age children suspected of auditory processing disorders.

    PubMed

    Vanniasegaram, Iyngaram; Cohen, Mazal; Rosen, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    To compare the auditory function of normal-hearing children attending mainstream schools who were referred for an auditory evaluation because of listening/hearing problems (suspected auditory processing disorders [susAPD]) with that of normal-hearing control children. Sixty-five children with a normal standard audiometric evaluation, ages 6-14 yr (32 of whom were referred for susAPD, with the rest age-matched control children), completed a battery of four auditory tests: a dichotic test of competing sentences; a simple discrimination of short tone pairs differing in fundamental frequency at varying interstimulus intervals (TDT); a discrimination task using consonant cluster minimal pairs of real words (CCMP), and an adaptive threshold task for detecting a brief tone presented either simultaneously with a masker (simultaneous masking) or immediately preceding it (backward masking). Regression analyses, including age as a covariate, were performed to determine the extent to which the performance of the two groups differed on each task. Age-corrected z-scores were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of the complete battery in discriminating the groups. The performance of the susAPD group was significantly poorer than the control group on all but the masking tasks, which failed to differentiate the two groups. The CCMP discriminated the groups most effectively, as it yielded the lowest number of control children with abnormal scores, and performance in both groups was independent of age. By contrast, the proportion of control children who performed poorly on the competing sentences test was unacceptably high. Together, the CCMP (verbal) and TDT (nonverbal) tasks detected impaired listening skills in 56% of the children who were referred to the clinic, compared with 6% of the control children. Performance on the two tasks was not correlated. Two of the four tests evaluated, the CCMP and TDT, proved effective in differentiating the two groups of children of this

  7. Auditory Habituation in the Fetus and Neonate: An fMEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muenssinger, Jana; Matuz, Tamara; Schleger, Franziska; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Goelz, Rangmar; Wacker-Gussmann, Annette; Birbaumer, Niels; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Habituation--the most basic form of learning--is used to evaluate central nervous system (CNS) maturation and to detect abnormalities in fetal brain development. In the current study, habituation, stimulus specificity and dishabituation of auditory evoked responses were measured in fetuses and newborns using fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG). An…

  8. Brain correlates of the orientation of auditory spatial attention onto speaker location in a "cocktail-party" situation.

    PubMed

    Lewald, Jörg; Hanenberg, Christina; Getzmann, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Successful speech perception in complex auditory scenes with multiple competing speakers requires spatial segregation of auditory streams into perceptually distinct and coherent auditory objects and focusing of attention toward the speaker of interest. Here, we focused on the neural basis of this remarkable capacity of the human auditory system and investigated the spatiotemporal sequence of neural activity within the cortical network engaged in solving the "cocktail-party" problem. Twenty-eight subjects localized a target word in the presence of three competing sound sources. The analysis of the ERPs revealed an anterior contralateral subcomponent of the N2 (N2ac), computed as the difference waveform for targets to the left minus targets to the right. The N2ac peaked at about 500 ms after stimulus onset, and its amplitude was correlated with better localization performance. Cortical source localization for the contrast of left versus right targets at the time of the N2ac revealed a maximum in the region around left superior frontal sulcus and frontal eye field, both of which are known to be involved in processing of auditory spatial information. In addition, a posterior-contralateral late positive subcomponent (LPCpc) occurred at a latency of about 700 ms. Both these subcomponents are potential correlates of allocation of spatial attention to the target under cocktail-party conditions. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Behavioral and brain pattern differences between acting and observing in an auditory task

    PubMed Central

    Karanasiou, Irene S; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Tsianaka, Eleni I; Matsopoulos, George K; Ventouras, Errikos M; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos K

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown that errors seem to influence the patterns of brain activity. Additionally current notions support the idea that similar brain mechanisms are activated during acting and observing. The aim of the present study was to examine the patterns of brain activity of actors and observers elicited upon receiving feedback information of the actor's response. Methods The task used in the present research was an auditory identification task that included both acting and observing settings, ensuring concurrent ERP measurements of both participants. The performance of the participants was investigated in conditions of varying complexity. ERP data were analyzed with regards to the conditions of acting and observing in conjunction to correct and erroneous responses. Results The obtained results showed that the complexity induced by cue dissimilarity between trials was a demodulating factor leading to poorer performance. The electrophysiological results suggest that feedback information results in different intensities of the ERP patterns of observers and actors depending on whether the actor had made an error or not. The LORETA source localization method yielded significantly larger electrical activity in the supplementary motor area (Brodmann area 6), the posterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 31/23) and the parietal lobe (Precuneus/Brodmann area 7/5). Conclusion These findings suggest that feedback information has a different effect on the intensities of the ERP patterns of actors and observers depending on whether the actor committed an error. Certain neural systems, including medial frontal area, posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus may mediate these modulating effects. Further research is needed to elucidate in more detail the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological substrates of these systems. PMID:19154586

  10. Being First Matters: Topographical Representational Similarity Analysis of ERP Signals Reveals Separate Networks for Audiovisual Temporal Binding Depending on the Leading Sense

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In multisensory integration, processing in one sensory modality is enhanced by complementary information from other modalities. Intersensory timing is crucial in this process because only inputs reaching the brain within a restricted temporal window are perceptually bound. Previous research in the audiovisual field has investigated various features of the temporal binding window, revealing asymmetries in its size and plasticity depending on the leading input: auditory–visual (AV) or visual–auditory (VA). Here, we tested whether separate neuronal mechanisms underlie this AV–VA dichotomy in humans. We recorded high-density EEG while participants performed an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task including various AV–VA asynchronies and unisensory control conditions (visual-only, auditory-only) and tested whether AV and VA processing generate different patterns of brain activity. After isolating the multisensory components of AV–VA event-related potentials (ERPs) from the sum of their unisensory constituents, we ran a time-resolved topographical representational similarity analysis (tRSA) comparing the AV and VA ERP maps. Spatial cross-correlation matrices were built from real data to index the similarity between the AV and VA maps at each time point (500 ms window after stimulus) and then correlated with two alternative similarity model matrices: AVmaps = VAmaps versus AVmaps ≠ VAmaps. The tRSA results favored the AVmaps ≠ VAmaps model across all time points, suggesting that audiovisual temporal binding (indexed by synchrony perception) engages different neural pathways depending on the leading sense. The existence of such dual route supports recent theoretical accounts proposing that multiple binding mechanisms are implemented in the brain to accommodate different information parsing strategies in auditory and visual sensory systems. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intersensory timing is a crucial aspect of multisensory integration, determining whether and how

  11. Touch activates human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Martin; Caetano, Gina; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2006-05-01

    Vibrotactile stimuli can facilitate hearing, both in hearing-impaired and in normally hearing people. Accordingly, the sounds of hands exploring a surface contribute to the explorer's haptic percepts. As a possible brain basis of such phenomena, functional brain imaging has identified activations specific to audiotactile interaction in secondary somatosensory cortex, auditory belt area, and posterior parietal cortex, depending on the quality and relative salience of the stimuli. We studied 13 subjects with non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for auditory brain areas that would be activated by touch. Vibration bursts of 200 Hz were delivered to the subjects' fingers and palm and tactile pressure pulses to their fingertips. Noise bursts served to identify auditory cortex. Vibrotactile-auditory co-activation, addressed with minimal smoothing to obtain a conservative estimate, was found in an 85-mm3 region in the posterior auditory belt area. This co-activation could be related to facilitated hearing at the behavioral level, reflecting the analysis of sound-like temporal patterns in vibration. However, even tactile pulses (without any vibration) activated parts of the posterior auditory belt area, which therefore might subserve processing of audiotactile events that arise during dynamic contact between hands and environment.

  12. Auditory salience using natural soundscapes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nicholas; Elhilali, Mounya

    2017-03-01

    Salience describes the phenomenon by which an object stands out from a scene. While its underlying processes are extensively studied in vision, mechanisms of auditory salience remain largely unknown. Previous studies have used well-controlled auditory scenes to shed light on some of the acoustic attributes that drive the salience of sound events. Unfortunately, the use of constrained stimuli in addition to a lack of well-established benchmarks of salience judgments hampers the development of comprehensive theories of sensory-driven auditory attention. The present study explores auditory salience in a set of dynamic natural scenes. A behavioral measure of salience is collected by having human volunteers listen to two concurrent scenes and indicate continuously which one attracts their attention. By using natural scenes, the study takes a data-driven rather than experimenter-driven approach to exploring the parameters of auditory salience. The findings indicate that the space of auditory salience is multidimensional (spanning loudness, pitch, spectral shape, as well as other acoustic attributes), nonlinear and highly context-dependent. Importantly, the results indicate that contextual information about the entire scene over both short and long scales needs to be considered in order to properly account for perceptual judgments of salience.

  13. Neuroplasticity in the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Gil-Loyzaga, P

    2005-01-01

    An increasing interest on neuroplasticity and nerve regeneration within the auditory receptor and pathway has developed in recent years. The receptor and the auditory pathway are controlled by highly complex circuits that appear during embryonic development. During this early maturation process of the auditory sensory elements, we observe the development of two types of nerve fibers: permanent fibers that will remain to reach full-term maturity and other transient fibers that will ultimately disappear. Both stable and transitory fibers however, as well as developing sensory cells, express, and probably release, their respective neuro-transmitters that could be involved in neuroplasticity. Cell culture experiments have added significant information; the in vitro administration of glutamate or GABA to isolated spiral ganglion neurons clearly modified neural development. Neuroplasticity has been also found in the adult. Nerve regeneration and neuroplasticity have been demonstrated in the adult auditory receptors as well as throughout the auditory pathway. Neuroplasticity studies could prove interesting in the elaboration of current or future therapy strategies (e.g.: cochlear implants or stem cells), but also to really understand the pathogenesis of auditory or language diseases (e.g.: deafness, tinnitus, dyslexia, etc.).

  14. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  15. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP) and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haidi; Xiong, Hao; Yu, Rongjun; Wang, Changming; Zheng, Yiqing; Zhang, Xueyuan

    2013-01-01

    To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating sounds)in control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN)component at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  16. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Brian H.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2015-01-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ‘working memory’ bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ‘match’ stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. PMID:26541581

  17. Nobody Is Perfect: ERP Effects Prior to Performance Errors in Musicians Indicate Fast Monitoring Processes

    PubMed Central

    Maidhof, Clemens; Rieger, Martina; Prinz, Wolfgang; Koelsch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Background One central question in the context of motor control and action monitoring is at what point in time errors can be detected. Previous electrophysiological studies investigating this issue focused on brain potentials elicited after erroneous responses, mainly in simple speeded response tasks. In the present study, we investigated brain potentials before the commission of errors in a natural and complex situation. Methodology/Principal Findings Expert pianists bimanually played scales and patterns while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were computed for correct and incorrect performances. Results revealed differences already 100 ms prior to the onset of a note (i.e., prior to auditory feedback). We further observed that erroneous keystrokes were delayed in time and pressed more slowly. Conclusions Our data reveal neural mechanisms in musicians that are able to detect errors prior to the execution of erroneous movements. The underlying mechanism probably relies on predictive control processes that compare the predicted outcome of an action with the action goal. PMID:19337379

  18. Syntactic learning by mere exposure - An ERP study in adult learners

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jutta L; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-01-01

    Background Artificial language studies have revealed the remarkable ability of humans to extract syntactic structures from a continuous sound stream by mere exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the processes acquired in such tasks are comparable to those applied during normal language processing. The present study compares the ERPs to auditory processing of simple Italian sentences in native and non-native speakers after brief exposure to Italian sentences of a similar structure. The sentences contained a non-adjacent dependency between an auxiliary and the morphologically marked suffix of the verb. Participants were presented four alternating learning and testing phases. During learning phases only correct sentences were presented while during testing phases 50 percent of the sentences contained a grammatical violation. Results The non-native speakers successfully learned the dependency and displayed an N400-like negativity and a subsequent anteriorily distributed positivity in response to rule violations. The native Italian group showed an N400 followed by a P600 effect. Conclusion The presence of the P600 suggests that native speakers applied a grammatical rule. In contrast, non-native speakers appeared to use a lexical form-based processing strategy. Thus, the processing mechanisms acquired in the language learning task were only partly comparable to those applied by competent native speakers. PMID:19640301

  19. Syntactic learning by mere exposure--an ERP study in adult learners.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jutta L; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-07-29

    Artificial language studies have revealed the remarkable ability of humans to extract syntactic structures from a continuous sound stream by mere exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the processes acquired in such tasks are comparable to those applied during normal language processing. The present study compares the ERPs to auditory processing of simple Italian sentences in native and non-native speakers after brief exposure to Italian sentences of a similar structure. The sentences contained a non-adjacent dependency between an auxiliary and the morphologically marked suffix of the verb. Participants were presented four alternating learning and testing phases. During learning phases only correct sentences were presented while during testing phases 50 percent of the sentences contained a grammatical violation. The non-native speakers successfully learned the dependency and displayed an N400-like negativity and a subsequent anteriorily distributed positivity in response to rule violations. The native Italian group showed an N400 followed by a P600 effect. The presence of the P600 suggests that native speakers applied a grammatical rule. In contrast, non-native speakers appeared to use a lexical form-based processing strategy. Thus, the processing mechanisms acquired in the language learning task were only partly comparable to those applied by competent native speakers.

  20. Children with a history of SLI show reduced sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Leonard, Laurence B.; Gustafson, Dana; Macias, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined whether school-age children with a history of SLI (H-SLI), their typically developing (TD) peers, and adults differ in sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony and whether such difference stems from the sensory encoding of audiovisual information. Method 15 H-SLI children, 15 TD children, and 15 adults judged whether a flashed explosion-shaped figure and a 2 kHz pure tone occurred simultaneously. The stimuli were presented at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ms temporal offsets. This task was combined with EEG recordings. Results H-SLI children were profoundly less sensitive to temporal separations between auditory and visual modalities compared to their TD peers. Those H-SLI children who performed better at simultaneity judgment also had higher language aptitude. TD children were less accurate than adults, revealing a remarkably prolonged developmental course of the audiovisual temporal discrimination. Analysis of early ERP components suggested that poor sensory encoding was not a key factor in H-SLI children’s reduced sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony. Conclusions Audiovisual temporal discrimination is impaired in H-SLI children and is still immature during mid-childhood in TD children. The present findings highlight the need for further evaluation of the role of atypical audiovisual processing in the development of SLI. PMID:24686922

  1. Enhanced recovery program (ERP) in major laryngeal surgery: building a protocol and testing its feasibility.

    PubMed

    Gemma, M; Toma, S; Lira Luce, F; Beretta, L; Braga, M; Bussi, M

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced recovery programs (ERP) represent a multimodal approach to perioperative patient care. The benefits of ERP are well demonstrated in colorectal surgery and Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) programs, that epitomise the ERP concept, have being introduced in different specialties, including vascular, gastric, pancreatic, urogynecologic and orthopaedic surgery. However, no ERP has been proposed for head and neck surgery. We developed an expert-opinion-based ERP for laryngeal surgery based on the key principles of colorectal surgery ERAS®. Twenty-four patients undergoing major laryngeal surgery (total and partial laryngectomies or surgical removal of oropharyngeal tumour with muscle flap reconstruction) were treated according to such an ERP protocol, which differed under several respects from our previous standard practice (described in 70 consecutive patients who underwent major laryngeal surgery before ERP implementation. The adherence rate to the different ERP items is reported. Adherence to ERP items was high. Nutritional assessment, antibiotic prophylaxis, postoperative nausea and vomit (PONV) prophylaxis and postoperative speech therapy targets were applied as required in 100% of cases. Some ERP items (antibiotic prophylaxis, intraoperative infusion rate, and postoperative speech therapy) were already frequently implemented before ERP adoption. Postoperative medical complications occurred in 8.3% of patients. Our expert opinion-based ERP protocol for major laryngeal surgery proved feasible. The degree of benefit deriving from its implementation has yet to be assessed. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  2. Critical challenges in ERP implementation: A qualitative case study in the Canadian oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Sreekumar A.

    This exploratory qualitative single-case study examines critical challenges encountered during ERP implementation based on individual perspectives in four project roles: senior leaders, project managers, project team members, and business users, all specifically in Canadian oil and gas industry. Data was collected by interviewing participants belonging to these categories, and by analyzing project documentation about ERP implementation. The organization for the case study was a leading multinational oil and gas company having a substantial presence in the energy sector in Canada. The study results were aligned with the six management questions regarding critical challenges in ERP: (a) circumstances to implement ERP, (b) benefits and process improvements achieved, (c) best practices implemented, (d) critical challenges encountered, (e) strategies and mitigating actions used, and (f) recommendations to improve future ERP implementations. The study results highlight six key findings. First, the study provided valid circumstances for implementing ERP systems. Second, the study underscored the importance of benefits and process improvements in ERP implementation. Third, the study highlighted that adoption of best practices is crucial for ERP Implementation. Fourth, the study found that critical challenges are encountered in ERP Implementation and are significant during ERP implementation. Fifth, the study found that strategies and mitigating actions can overcome challenges in ERP implementation. Finally, the study provided ten major recommendations on how to improve future ERP implementations.

  3. Acceptance and Success Factors for M-Learning of ERP Systems Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtz, Brenda; Kapeso, Mando

    2014-01-01

    The effective training of users is a key factor of the success of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system projects. This need for ERP system training is exacerbated by a demand for quality ERP consultants which is evident in Europe and in African countries, particularly in South Africa where science and technology education has been identified…

  4. Increased ERp57 Expression in HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Possible Correlation and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Du, Lingyao; He, Zhiliang; Yan, Libo; Shi, Ying; Shang, Jin; Tang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Aim. ERp57 is involved in virus induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. This study aimed to find whether HBV infection altered ERp57 expression and whether ERp57 regulation was involved in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC) genesis. Materials and Methods. HBV-HCC tissues, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) liver tissues, and normal liver tissues were acquired. ERp57 expressions in these tissues were detected through immunohistochemistry (IHC). And ERp57 expression in liver cell line L02, HBV replicative liver cell line L02-pHBV4.1, and HCC cell lines were detected through western blot for verification. Then medical data on patients providing HCC tissues were collected and analyzed along with ERp57 expression. Results. Higher ERp57 expression was found in HCC and CHB tissues ( p < 0.001). And HCC cell lines and L02-pHBV4.1 presented higher ERp57 expression as well. In patients, ERp57 expression showed significant differences between death and survival groups ( p = 0.037). And cumulative survival in patients with higher ERp57 (score ⩾ 8.75) is significantly lower ( p = 0.009). Conclusion. Our study found increased expression of ERp57 in HBV-HCC. Such altered expression could be related to HBV infection and high ERp57 expression may lead to poor prognosis of HBV-HCC patients.

  5. Exploring the Effects of Technology Overload on the Outcomes of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Implementation Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Earl B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant investments made by organizations to implement ERP systems and prior research that explored contributing factors of ERP failure, the ERP implementation success rate continues to remain low in practice. Increased technology usage in the workplace coupled with higher dependency on technology to complete project tasks often leads…

  6. Plasticity in the Developing Auditory Cortex: Evidence from Children with Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cardon, Garrett; Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The developing auditory cortex is highly plastic. As such, the cortex is both primed to mature normally and at risk for re-organizing abnormally, depending upon numerous factors that determine central maturation. From a clinical perspective, at least two major components of development can be manipulated: 1) input to the cortex and 2) the timing of cortical input. Children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) have provided a model of early deprivation of sensory input to the cortex, and demonstrated the resulting plasticity and development that can occur upon introduction of stimulation. In this article, we review several fundamental principles of cortical development and plasticity and discuss the clinical applications in children with SNHL and ANSD who receive intervention with hearing aids and/or cochlear implants. PMID:22668761

  7. Epilepsy with auditory features

    PubMed Central

    Licchetta, Laura; Baldassari, Sara; Palombo, Flavia; Menghi, Veronica; D'Aurizio, Romina; Leta, Chiara; Stipa, Carlotta; Boero, Giovanni; d'Orsi, Giuseppe; Magi, Alberto; Scheffer, Ingrid; Seri, Marco; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify novel genes implicated in epilepsy with auditory features (EAF) in phenotypically heterogeneous families with unknown molecular basis. Methods: We identified 15 probands with EAF in whom an LGI1 mutation had been excluded. We performed electroclinical phenotyping on all probands and available affected relatives. We used whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 20 individuals with EAF (including all the probands and 5 relatives) to identify single nucleotide variants, small insertions/deletions, and copy number variants. Results: WES revealed likely pathogenic variants in genes that had not been previously associated with EAF: a CNTNAP2 intragenic deletion, 2 truncating mutations of DEPDC5, and a missense SCN1A change. Conclusions: EAF is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease. The association of EAF with CNTNAP2, DEPDC5, and SCN1A mutations widens the phenotypic spectrum related to these genes. CNTNAP2 encodes CASPR2, a member of the voltage-gated potassium channel complex in which LGI1 plays a role. The finding of a CNTNAP2 deletion emphasizes the importance of this complex in EAF and shows biological convergence. PMID:27066544

  8. Auditory memory for timbre.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Denis; Wellsted, David

    2009-06-01

    Psychophysical studies are reported examining how the context of recent auditory stimulation may modulate the processing of new sounds. The question posed is how recent tone stimulation may affect ongoing performance in a discrimination task. In the task, two complex sounds occurred in successive intervals. A single target component of one complex was decreased (Experiments 1 and 2) or increased (Experiments 3, 4, and 5) in intensity on half of trials: The task was simply to identify those trials. Prior to each trial, a pure tone inducer was introduced either at the same frequency as the target component or at the frequency of a different component of the complex. Consistent with a frequency-specific form of disruption, discrimination performance was impaired when the inducing tone matched the frequency of the following decrement or increment. A timbre memory model (TMM) is proposed incorporating channel-specific interference allied to inhibition of attending in the coding of sounds in the context of memory traces of recent sounds. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Electrophysiological evidence for attenuated auditory recovery cycles in children with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Courtney; Paulsen, David; Yasen, Alia; Mitsunaga, Leila; Neville, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that at least some children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a reduced neural response when non-linguistic tones were presented at rapid rates. However, this past research has examined older children, and it is unclear whether such deficits emerge earlier in development. It is also unclear whether atypical refractory effects differ for linguistic versus non-linguistic stimuli or can be explained by deficits in selective auditory attention reported among children with SLI. In the present study, auditory refractory periods were compared in a group of 24 young children with SLI (age 3–8 years) and 24 matched control children. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded and compared to 100 ms linguistic and non-linguistic probe stimuli presented at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 200, 500, or 1000 ms. These probes were superimposed on story narratives when attended and ignored, permitting an experimental manipulation of selective attention within the same paradigm. Across participants, clear refractory effects were observed with this paradigm, evidenced as a reduced amplitude response from 100 to 200 ms at shorter ISIs. Children with SLI showed reduced amplitude ERPs relative to the typically-developing group at only the shortest, 200 ms, ISI and this difference was over the left-hemisphere for linguistic probes and over the right-hemisphere for non-linguistic probes. None of these effects was influenced by the direction of selective attention. Taken together, these findings suggest that deficits in the neural representation of rapidly presented auditory stimuli may be one risk factor for atypical language development. PMID:22265331

  10. Circadian course of the P300 ERP in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - implications for brain-computer interfaces (BCI).

    PubMed

    Erlbeck, Helena; Mochty, Ursula; Kübler, Andrea; Real, Ruben G L

    2017-01-07

    Accidents or neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can lead to progressing, extensive, and complete paralysis leaving patients aware but unable to communicate (locked-in state). Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) based on electroencephalography represent an important approach to establish communication with these patients. The most common BCI for communication rely on the P300, a positive deflection arising in response to rare events. To foster broader application of BCIs for restoring lost function, also for end-users with impaired vision, we explored whether there were specific time windows during the day in which a P300 driven BCI should be preferably applied. The present study investigated the influence of time of the day and modality (visual vs. auditory) on P300 amplitude and latency. A sample of 14 patients (end-users) with ALS and 14 healthy age matched volunteers participated in the study and P300 event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded at four different times (10, 12 am, 2, & 4 pm) during the day. Results indicated no differences in P300 amplitudes or latencies between groups (ALS patients v. healthy participants) or time of measurement. In the auditory condition, latencies were shorter and amplitudes smaller as compared to the visual condition. Our findings suggest applicability of EEG/BCI sessions in patients with ALS throughout normal waking hours. Future studies using actual BCI systems are needed to generalize these findings with regard to BCI effectiveness/efficiency and other times of day.

  11. Auditory display of knee-joint vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sridhar; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Bell, G. Douglas; Frank, Cyril B.

    2001-12-01

    Sounds generated due to rubbing of knee-joint surfaces may lead to a potential tool for noninvasive assessment of articular cartilage degeneration. In the work reported in the present paper, an attempt is made to perform computer-assisted auscultation of knee joints by auditory display (AD) of vibration signals (also known as vibroarthrographic or VAG signals) emitted during active movement of the leg. Two types of AD methods are considered: audification and sonification. In audification, the VAG signals are scaled in time and frequency using a time-frequency distribution to facilitate aural analysis. In sonification, the instantaneous mean frequency and envelope of the VAG signals are derived and used to synthesize sounds that are expected to facilitate more accurate diagnosis than the original signals by improving their aural quality. Auditory classification experiments were performed by two orthopedic surgeons with 37 VAG signals including 19 normal and 18 abnormal cases. Sensitivity values (correct detection of abnormality) of 31%, 44%, and 83%, and overall classification accuracies of 53%, 40%, and 57% were obtained with the direct playback, audification, and sonification methods, respectively. The corresponding d' scores were estimated to be 1.10, -0.36, and 0.55. The high sensitivity of the sonification method indicates that the technique could lead to improved detection of knee-joint abnormalities; however, additional work is required to improve its specificity and achieve better overall performance.

  12. Purification and biochemical characterization of native ERp29 from rat liver

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    ERp29 is a recently characterized resident of the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) lumen that has broad biological significance, being expressed ubiquitously and abundantly in animal cells. As an apparent housekeeper, ERp29 is thought to be a general folding assistant for secretory proteins and to probably function as a PDI (protein disulphide isomerase)-like molecular chaperone. In the present paper, we report the first purification to homogeneity and direct functional analysis of native ERp29, which has led to the unexpected finding that ERp29 lacks PDI-like folding activities. ERp29 was purified 4800-fold in non-denaturing conditions exploiting an unusual affinity for heparin. Two additional biochemical hallmarks that will assist the classification of ERp29 homologues were identified, namely the idiosyncratic behaviours of ERp29 on size-exclusion chromatography (Mrmonomeric mass). In contrast with PDI and parallel-purified co-residents (calreticulin, ERp60), native ERp29 lacked classical chaperone, disulphide reductase and isomerase, and calcium-binding activities. In the chaperone assays, ERp29 neither protected substrate proteins against thermal aggregation nor interacted stably with chemically denatured proteins as detected by cross-linking. ERp29 also did not exhibit helper activity toward calreticulin (chaperone) or PDI and ERp60 (disulphide reductase). By refuting long-standing predictions about chaperone activity, these results expose ERp29 as a functionally distinct member of the ER machinery and prompt a revised hypothesis that ERp29 acts as a non-classical folding assistant. The native preparation and biochemical hallmarks established here provide a useful foundation for ongoing efforts to resolve the functional orphan status of ERp29. PMID:15500441

  13. Atypical central auditory speech-sound discrimination in children who stutter as indexed by the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Eggers, Kurt; Järvenpää, Anu; Suominen, Kalervo; Van den Bergh, Bea; De Nil, Luc; Kujala, Teija

    2014-09-01

    Recent theoretical conceptualizations suggest that disfluencies in stuttering may arise from several factors, one of them being atypical auditory processing. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether speech sound encoding and central auditory discrimination, are affected in children who stutter (CWS). Participants were 10 CWS, and 12 typically developing children with fluent speech (TDC). Event-related potentials (ERPs) for syllables and syllable changes [consonant, vowel, vowel-duration, frequency (F0), and intensity changes], critical in speech perception and language development of CWS were compared to those of TDC. There were no significant group differences in the amplitudes or latencies of the P1 or N2 responses elicited by the standard stimuli. However, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) amplitude was significantly smaller in CWS than in TDC. For TDC all deviants of the linguistic multifeature paradigm elicited significant MMN amplitudes, comparable with the results found earlier with the same paradigm in 6-year-old children. In contrast, only the duration change elicited a significant MMN in CWS. The results showed that central auditory speech-sound processing was typical at the level of sound encoding in CWS. In contrast, central speech-sound discrimination, as indexed by the MMN for multiple sound features (both phonetic and prosodic), was atypical in the group of CWS. Findings were linked to existing conceptualizations on stuttering etiology. The reader will be able (a) to describe recent findings on central auditory speech-sound processing in individuals who stutter, (b) to describe the measurement of auditory reception and central auditory speech-sound discrimination, (c) to describe the findings of central auditory speech-sound discrimination, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN), in children who stutter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24183105

  15. Using ERP and WfM Systems for Implementing Business Processes: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aversano, Lerina; Tortorella, Maria

    Software systems mainly considered from enterprises for dealing with a business process automation belong to the following two categories: Workflow Management Systems (WfMS) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. The wider diffusion of ERP systems tends to favourite this solution, but there are several limitations of most ERP systems for automating business processes. This paper reports an empirical study aiming at comparing the ability of implementing business processes of ERP systems and WfMSs. Two different case studies have been considered in the empirical study. It evaluates and analyses the correctness and completeness of the process models implemented by using ERP and WfM systems.

  16. Competitive advantage in the ERP system's value-chain and its influence on future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Björn; Newman, Mike

    2010-02-01

    Using the resource-based view, we present a set of propositions related to enterprise resource planning (ERP) development, reflections on competitive advantage and the different roles that stakeholders play in the value-chain. This has the goal of building a foundation for future research on ERPs and how stakeholders' desire to achieve competitive advantage influence ERP development, especially when it comes to development of a more standardised or pre-customised ERP system. The propositions also act as a foundation for increasing our knowledge concerning the difficulty in developing improved ERP systems.

  17. [Forensic application of brainstem auditory evoked potential in patients with brain concussion].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing-Bin; Li, Sheng-Yan; Huang, Si-Xing; Ma, Ke-Xin

    2008-12-01

    To investigate changes of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in patients with brain concussion. Nineteen patients with brain concussion were studied with BAEP examination. The data was compared to the healthy persons reported in literatures. The abnormal rate of BAEP for patients with brain concussion was 89.5%. There was a statistically significant difference between the abnormal rate of patients and that of healthy persons (P<0.05). The abnormal rate of BAEP in the brainstem pathway for patients with brain concussion was 73.7%, indicating dysfunction of the brainstem in those patients. BAEP might be helpful in forensic diagnosis of brain concussion.

  18. Dofetilide promotes repolarization abnormalities in perfused Guinea-pig heart.

    PubMed

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2012-12-01

    Dofetilide is class III antiarrhythmic agent which prolongs cardiac action potential duration because of selective inhibition of I (Kr), the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current. Although clinical studies reported on proarrhythmic risk associated with dofetilide treatment, the contributing electrophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study was designed to determine if dofetilide-induced proarrhythmia may be attributed to abnormalities in ventricular repolarization and refractoriness. The monophasic action potential duration and effective refractory periods (ERP) were assessed at distinct epicardial and endocardial sites along with volume-conducted ECG recordings in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations. Dofetilide was found to produce the reverse rate-dependent prolongation of ventricular repolarization, increased the steepness of action potential duration rate adaptation, and amplified transepicardial variability in electrical restitution kinetics. Dofetilide also prolonged the T peak-to-end interval on ECG, and elicited a greater prolongation of endocardial than epicardial ERP, thereby increasing transmural dispersion of refractoriness. At epicardium, dofetilide prolonged action potential duration to a greater extent than ERP, thus extending the critical interval for ventricular re-excitation. This change was associated with triangulation of epicardial action potential because of greater dofetilide-induced prolonging effect at 90 % than 30 % repolarization. Premature ectopic beats and spontaneous short-lasting episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia were observed in 44 % of dofetilide-treated heart preparations. Proarrhythmic potential of dofetilide in guinea-pig heart is attributed to steepened electrical restitution, increased transepicardial variability in electrical restitution kinetics, amplified transmural dispersion of refractoriness, increased critical interval for ventricular re-excitation, and

  19. Attenuated Auditory Event-Related Potentials and Associations with Atypical Sensory Response Patterns in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Donkers, Franc C.L.; Schipul, Sarah E.; Baranek, Grace T.; Cleary, Katherine M.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Evans, Anna M.; Bulluck, John C.; Lovmo, Jeanne E.; Belger, Aysenil

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiological underpinnings of unusual sensory features in individuals with autism are unknown. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by task-irrelevant sounds were used to elucidate neural correlates of auditory processing and associations with three common sensory response patterns (hyperresponsiveness; hyporesponsiveness; sensory seeking). Twenty-eight children with autism and 39 typically developing children (4–12 year-olds) completed an auditory oddball paradigm. Results revealed marginally attenuated P1 and N2 to standard tones and attenuated P3a to novel sounds in autism versus controls. Exploratory analyses suggested that within the autism group, attenuated N2 and P3a amplitudes were associated with greater sensory seeking behaviors for specific ranges of P1 responses. Findings suggest that attenuated early sensory as well as later attention-orienting neural responses to stimuli may underlie selective sensory features via complex mechanisms. PMID:24072639

  20. Auditory dysfunction in schizophrenia: integrating clinical and basic features

    PubMed Central

    Javitt, Daniel C.; Sweet, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that is associated with persistent psychosocial disability in affected individuals. Although studies of schizophrenia have traditionally focused on deficits in higher-order processes such as working memory and executive function, there is an increasing realization that, in this disorder, deficits can be found throughout the cortex and are manifest even at the level of early sensory processing. These deficits are highly amenable to translational investigation and represent potential novel targets for clinical intervention. Deficits, moreover, have been linked to specific structural abnormalities in post-mortem auditory cortex tissue from individuals with schizophrenia, providing unique insights into underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:26289573

  1. Abnormal brain processing of affective and sensory pain descriptors in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Sitges, Carolina; García-Herrera, Manuel; Pericás, Miquel; Collado, Dolores; Truyols, Magdalena; Montoya, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that chronic pain patients might be particularly vulnerable to the effects of negative mood during information processing. However, there is little evidence for abnormal brain processing of affective and sensory pain-related information in chronic pain. Behavioral and brain responses, to pain descriptors and pleasant words, were examined in chronic pain patients and healthy controls during a self-endorsement task. Eighteen patients with fibromyalgia (FM), 18 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain due to identifiable physical injury (MSK), and 16 healthy controls were asked to decide whether word targets described their current or past experience of pain. The number of self-endorsed words, elapsed time to endorse the words, and event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by words, were recorded. Data revealed that chronic pain patients used more affective and sensory pain descriptors, and were slower in responding to self-endorsed pain descriptors than to pleasant words. In addition, it was found that affective pain descriptors elicited significantly more enhanced positive ERP amplitudes than pleasant words in MSK pain patients; whereas sensory pain descriptors elicited greater positive ERP amplitudes than affective pain words in healthy controls. These data support the notion of abnormal information processing in chronic pain patients, which might be characterized by a lack of dissociation between sensory and affective components of pain-related information, and by an exaggerated rumination over word meaning during the encoding of self-referent information about pain.

  2. Business Simulations Applied in Support of ERP Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, George

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, quasi-experimental study examined the application of a business simulation against training in support of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. Defining more effective training strategies is a critical concern for organizational leaders and stakeholders concerned by today's economic challenges. The scope of this…

  3. An ERP Study on Decisions between Attractive Females and Money

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the neural processes of decision-makings between attractive females and money, we recorded 18 male participants' brain event-related potentials (ERPs) when they performed a novel task of deciding between viewing an attractive female's fuzzy picture in clear and gaining a certain amount of money. Two types of attractive females were included: sexy females and beautiful females. Several new electrophysiological discoveries were obtained as following. First, the beautiful females vs. money task (task B) elicited a larger positive ERP deflection (P2) than the sexy females vs. money task (task S) between 290 and 340 ms, and this probably related to the perception matching process between a visual input and an internal representation or expectation. Second, task S evoked greater negative ERP waves (N2) than task B during the time window of 340–390 ms, and this might relate to response conflict and cognitive monitoring for impulsive tendency. Third, the ERP positivity in task S was larger than task B in the time interval of 550–1000 ms, reflecting that sexy female images may have higher decision value for males than beautiful female images. Fourth, compared with choosing to gain money, choosing to view an attractive female evoked a larger late positive component (LPC) during the same time window, possibly because attractive females are more direct and evolutionarily earlier rewards for males than money amounts. PMID:23077499

  4. Alphabet Soup: ERP, CT, and ACT for OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolin, David F.

    2009-01-01

    The present article comments on the case conference presented in this issue, namely, Himle and Franklin's (Himle & Franklin, 2009) exposure and response prevention (ERP); Chosak and colleagues' (Chosak, Marques, Fama, Renaud, & Wilhelm, 2009) cognitive therapy (CT); and (Twohig, 2009) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Two questions are…

  5. The influence of caffeine on sustained attention: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, J; Lorist, M M; Snel, J; De Ruiter, M B

    2000-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of caffeine on sustained attention by measuring concentration and fatigue. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures were recorded from 12 participants who worked continuously for approximately 10 min in a self-paced reaction task under conditions of both caffeine (250 mg) and placebo. The ERP data revealed more positive frontal P2 and parietal P3 components in the caffeine condition. However, a combination of different indices of the behavioral data did not reveal any effects of caffeine intake. These results suggest that caffeine increases arousal, thereby reducing fatigue, as was observed in the ERP results. A probable explanation for the absence of any effects of caffeine in the behavioral data can be found in the demanding properties of the task that was used, thereby supporting evidence for more pronounced effects of caffeine in suboptimal conditions. In addition, these results appeal for an increase in the use of ERPs in drug research, in order to discover possible effects on the brain which do not necessarily result in behavioral changes.

  6. Does bimodal stimulus presentation increase ERP components usable in BCIs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurlings, Marieke E.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Van Erp, Jan B. F.; Blankertz, Benjamin; Werkhoven, Peter J.

    2012-08-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) employ differences in brain responses to attended and ignored stimuli. Typically, visual stimuli are used. Tactile stimuli have recently been suggested as a gaze-independent alternative. Bimodal stimuli could evoke additional brain activity due to multisensory integration which may be of use in BCIs. We investigated the effect of visual-tactile stimulus presentation on the chain of ERP components, BCI performance (classification accuracies and bitrates) and participants’ task performance (counting of targets). Ten participants were instructed to navigate a visual display by attending (spatially) to targets in sequences of either visual, tactile or visual-tactile stimuli. We observe that attending to visual-tactile (compared to either visual or tactile) stimuli results in an enhanced early ERP component (N1). This bimodal N1 may enhance BCI performance, as suggested by a nonsignificant positive trend in offline classification accuracies. A late ERP component (P300) is reduced when attending to visual-tactile compared to visual stimuli, which is consistent with the nonsignificant negative trend of participants’ task performance. We discuss these findings in the light of affected spatial attention at high-level compared to low-level stimulus processing. Furthermore, we evaluate bimodal BCIs from a practical perspective and for future applications.

  7. Word and pseudoword superiority effects reflected in the ERP waveform

    PubMed Central

    Coch, Donna; Mitra, Priya

    2010-01-01

    A variant of the Reicher-Wheeler task was used to determine when in the event-related potential (ERP) waveform indices of word and pseudoword superiority effects might be present, and whether ERP measures of superiority effects correlated with standardized behavioral measures of orthographic fluency and single word reading. ERPs were recorded to briefly presented, masked letter strings that included real words (DARK/PARK), pseudowords (DARL/PARL), nonwords (RDKA/RPKA), and letter-in-xs (DXXX, PXXX) stimuli. Participants decided which of two letters occurred at a given position in the string (here, forced-choice alternatives D and P). Behaviorally, both word (more accurate choices for letters in words than in baseline nonwords or letter-in-xs) and pseudoword (more accurate choices for letters in pseudowords than in baseline conditions) superiority effects were observed. Electrophysiologically, effects of orthographic regularity and familiarity were apparent as early as the P150 time window (100–160 ms), an effect of lexicality was observed as early as the N200 time window (160–200 ms), and peak amplitude of the N300 and N400 also differentiated word and pseudoword as compared to baseline stimuli. Further, the size of the P150 and N400 ERP word superiority effects was related to standardized behavioral measures of fluency and reading. Results suggest that orthographic fluency is reflected in both lower-level, sublexical, perceptual processing and higher-level, lexical processing in fluently reading adults. PMID:20211607

  8. Decomposing Animacy Reversals between Agents and Experiencers: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourguignon, Nicolas; Drury, John E.; Valois, Daniel; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to refine current hypotheses regarding thematic reversal anomalies, which have been found to elicit either N400 or--more frequently--"semantic-P600" (sP600) effects. Our goal was to investigate whether distinct ERP profiles reflect aspectual-thematic differences between Agent-Subject Verbs (ASVs; e.g., "to eat") and…

  9. An ERP study on decisions between attractive females and money.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianmin; Wang, Yujiao; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the neural processes of decision-makings between attractive females and money, we recorded 18 male participants' brain event-related potentials (ERPs) when they performed a novel task of deciding between viewing an attractive female's fuzzy picture in clear and gaining a certain amount of money. Two types of attractive females were included: sexy females and beautiful females. Several new electrophysiological discoveries were obtained as following. First, the beautiful females vs. money task (task B) elicited a larger positive ERP deflection (P2) than the sexy females vs. money task (task S) between 290 and 340 ms, and this probably related to the perception matching process between a visual input and an internal representation or expectation. Second, task S evoked greater negative ERP waves (N2) than task B during the time window of 340-390 ms, and this might relate to response conflict and cognitive monitoring for impulsive tendency. Third, the ERP positivity in task S was larger than task B in the time interval of 550-1000 ms, reflecting that sexy female images may have higher decision value for males than beautiful female images. Fourth, compared with choosing to gain money, choosing to view an attractive female evoked a larger late positive component (LPC) during the same time window, possibly because attractive females are more direct and evolutionarily earlier rewards for males than money amounts.

  10. Online processing of moral transgressions: ERP evidence for spontaneous evaluation.

    PubMed

    Leuthold, Hartmut; Kunkel, Angelika; Mackenzie, Ian G; Filik, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    Experimental studies using fictional moral dilemmas indicate that both automatic emotional processes and controlled cognitive processes contribute to moral judgments. However, not much is known about how people process socio-normative violations that are more common to their everyday life nor the time-course of these processes. Thus, we recorded participants' electrical brain activity while they were reading vignettes that either contained morally acceptable vs unacceptable information or text materials that contained information which was either consistent or inconsistent with their general world knowledge. A first event-related brain potential (ERP) positivity peaking at ∼200 ms after critical word onset (P200) was larger when this word involved a socio-normative or knowledge-based violation. Subsequently, knowledge-inconsistent words triggered a larger centroparietal ERP negativity at ∼320 ms (N400), indicating an influence on meaning construction. In contrast, a larger ERP positivity (larger late positivity), which also started at ∼320 ms after critical word onset, was elicited by morally unacceptable compared with acceptable words. We take this ERP positivity to reflect an implicit evaluative (good-bad) categorization process that is engaged during the online processing of moral transgressions. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Attentional Bias in Anxiety: A Behavioral and ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Haim, Yair; Lamy, Dominique; Glickman, Shlomit

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of a processing bias in favor of threat-related stimulation in anxious individuals. Using behavioral and ERP measures, the present study investigated the deployment of attention to face stimuli with different emotion expressions in high-anxious and low-anxious participants. An attention-shifting…

  12. Online processing of moral transgressions: ERP evidence for spontaneous evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, Angelika; Mackenzie, Ian G.; Filik, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies using fictional moral dilemmas indicate that both automatic emotional processes and controlled cognitive processes contribute to moral judgments. However, not much is known about how people process socio-normative violations that are more common to their everyday life nor the time-course of these processes. Thus, we recorded participants’ electrical brain activity while they were reading vignettes that either contained morally acceptable vs unacceptable information or text materials that contained information which was either consistent or inconsistent with their general world knowledge. A first event-related brain potential (ERP) positivity peaking at ∼200 ms after critical word onset (P200) was larger when this word involved a socio-normative or knowledge-based violation. Subsequently, knowledge-inconsistent words triggered a larger centroparietal ERP negativity at ∼320 ms (N400), indicating an influence on meaning construction. In contrast, a larger ERP positivity (larger late positivity), which also started at ∼320 ms after critical word onset, was elicited by morally unacceptable compared with acceptable words. We take this ERP positivity to reflect an implicit evaluative (good–bad) categorization process that is engaged during the online processing of moral transgressions. PMID:25556210

  13. An ERP Investigation of Regional and Foreign Accent Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Jeremy; Duffy, Hester; Floccia, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether we employ the same normalisation mechanisms when processing words spoken with a regional accent or foreign accent. Our results showed that the Phonological Mapping Negativity (PMN) following the onset of the final word of sentences spoken with an unfamiliar regional accent was…

  14. Tracking the dynamics of the social brain: ERP approaches for social cognitive and affective neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, David M.; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) approaches to social cognitive and affective neuroscience (SCAN) are not as widely used as other neuroimaging techniques, yet they offer several unique advantages. In particular, the high temporal resolution of ERP measures of neural activity make them ideally suited for studying the dynamic interplay of rapidly unfolding cognitive and affective processes. In this article, we highlight the utility of ERP methods for scientists investigating questions of SCAN. We begin with a brief description of the physiological basis of ERPs and discussion of methodological practices. We then discuss how ERPs may be used to address a range of questions concerning social perception, social cognition, attitudes, affect and self-regulation, with examples of research that has used the ERP approach to contribute important theoretical advances in these areas. Whether used alone or in combination with other techniques, the ERP is an indispensable part of the social and affective neuroscientist’s methodological toolkit. PMID:24319116

  15. Tracking the dynamics of the social brain: ERP approaches for social cognitive and affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Amodio, David M; Bartholow, Bruce D; Ito, Tiffany A

    2014-03-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) approaches to social cognitive and affective neuroscience (SCAN) are not as widely used as other neuroimaging techniques, yet they offer several unique advantages. In particular, the high temporal resolution of ERP measures of neural activity make them ideally suited for studying the dynamic interplay of rapidly unfolding cognitive and affective processes. In this article, we highlight the utility of ERP methods for scientists investigating questions of SCAN. We begin with a brief description of the physiological basis of ERPs and discussion of methodological practices. We then discuss how ERPs may be used to address a range of questions concerning social perception, social cognition, attitudes, affect and self-regulation, with examples of research that has used the ERP approach to contribute important theoretical advances in these areas. Whether used alone or in combination with other techniques, the ERP is an indispensable part of the social and affective neuroscientist's methodological toolkit.

  16. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Configurations and implementation of payroll system using open source erp: a case study of Koperasi PT Sri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terminanto, A.; Swantoro, H. A.; Hidayanto, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an integrated information system to manage business processes of companies of various business scales. Because of the high cost of ERP investment, ERP implementation is usually done in large-scale enterprises, Due to the complexity of implementation problems, the success rate of ERP implementation is still low. Open Source System ERP becomes an alternative choice of ERP application to SME companies in terms of cost and customization. This study aims to identify characteristics and configure the implementation of OSS ERP Payroll module in KKPS (Employee Cooperative PT SRI) using OSS ERP Odoo and using ASAP method. This study is classified into case study research and action research. Implementation of OSS ERP Payroll module is done because the HR section of KKPS has not been integrated with other parts. The results of this study are the characteristics and configuration of OSS ERP payroll module in KKPS.

  18. Auditory hedonic phenotypes in dementia: A behavioural and neuroanatomical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Phillip D.; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Slattery, Catherine F.; Paterson, Ross W.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Rossor, Martin N.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with dementia may exhibit abnormally altered liking for environmental sounds and music but such altered auditory hedonic responses have not been studied systematically. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 73 patients representing major canonical dementia syndromes (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD)) using a semi-structured caregiver behavioural questionnaire and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of patients' brain MR images. Behavioural responses signalling abnormal aversion to environmental sounds, aversion to music or heightened pleasure in music (‘musicophilia’) occurred in around half of the cohort but showed clear syndromic and genetic segregation, occurring in most patients with bvFTD but infrequently in PNFA and more commonly in association with MAPT than C9orf72 mutations. Aversion to sounds was the exclusive auditory phenotype in AD whereas more complex phenotypes including musicophilia were common in bvFTD and SD. Auditory hedonic alterations correlated with grey matter loss in a common, distributed, right-lateralised network including antero-mesial temporal lobe, insula, anterior cingulate and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that abnormalities of auditory hedonic processing are a significant issue in common dementias. Sounds may constitute a novel probe of brain mechanisms for emotional salience coding that are targeted by neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25929717

  19. Vocal Responses to Perturbations in Voice Auditory Feedback in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanjun; Wang, Emily Q.; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Larson, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most common symptoms of speech deficits in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) is significantly reduced vocal loudness and pitch range. The present study investigated whether abnormal vocalizations in individuals with PD are related to sensory processing of voice auditory feedback. Perturbations in loudness or pitch of voice auditory feedback are known to elicit short latency, compensatory responses in voice amplitude or fundamental frequency. Methodology/Principal Findings Twelve individuals with Parkinson's disease and 13 age- and sex- matched healthy control subjects sustained a vowel sound (/α/) and received unexpected, brief (200 ms) perturbations in voice loudness (±3 or 6 dB) or pitch (±100 cents) auditory feedback. Results showed that, while all subjects produced compensatory responses in their voice amplitude or fundamental frequency, individuals with PD exhibited larger response magnitudes than the control subjects. Furthermore, for loudness-shifted feedback, upward stimuli resulted in shorter response latencies than downward stimuli in the control subjects but not in individuals with PD. Conclusions/Significance The larger response magnitudes in individuals with PD compared with the control subjects suggest that processing of voice auditory feedback is abnormal in PD. Although the precise mechanisms of the voice feedback processing are unknown, results of this study suggest that abnormal voice control in individuals with PD may be related to dysfunctional mechanisms of error detection or correction in sensory feedback processing. PMID:22448258

  20. Auditory peripersonal space in humans.

    PubMed

    Farnè, Alessandro; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2002-10-01

    In the present study we report neuropsychological evidence of the existence of an auditory peripersonal space representation around the head in humans and its characteristics. In a group of right brain-damaged patients with tactile extinction, we found that a sound delivered near the ipsilesional side of the head (20 cm) strongly extinguished a tactile stimulus delivered to the contralesional side of the head (cross-modal auditory-tactile extinction). By contrast, when an auditory stimulus was presented far from the head (70 cm), cross-modal extinction was dramatically reduced. This spatially specific cross-modal extinction was most consistently found (i.e., both in the front and back spaces) when a complex sound was presented, like a white noise burst. Pure tones produced spatially specific cross-modal extinction when presented in the back space, but not in the front space. In addition, the most severe cross-modal extinction emerged when sounds came from behind the head, thus showing that the back space is more sensitive than the front space to the sensory interaction of auditory-tactile inputs. Finally, when cross-modal effects were investigated by reversing the spatial arrangement of cross-modal stimuli (i.e., touch on the right and sound on the left), we found that an ipsilesional tactile stimulus, although inducing a small amount of cross-modal tactile-auditory extinction, did not produce any spatial-specific effect. Therefore, the selective aspects of cross-modal interaction found near the head cannot be explained by a competition between a damaged left spatial representation and an intact right spatial representation. Thus, consistent with neurophysiological evidence from monkeys, our findings strongly support the existence, in humans, of an integrated cross-modal system coding auditory and tactile stimuli near the body, that is, in the peripersonal space.

  1. Increased Amplitude of the P3a ERP Component as a Neurocognitive Marker for Differentiating Amnestic Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Correa-Jaraba, Kenia S; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been shown to be useful for evaluating changes in brain electrical activity associated with different cognitive processes, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal studies have shown that a high proportion of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) go on to develop AD. aMCI is divided into two subtypes according to the presence of memory impairment only (single-domain aMCI: sdaMCI) or impairment of memory and other cognitive domains (multi-domain aMCI: mdaMCI). The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of sdaMCI and mdaMCI on the P3a ERP component associated with the involuntary orientation of attention toward unattended infrequent novel auditory stimuli. Participants performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task, in which they were asked to ignore the auditory stimuli (standard, deviant, and novel) and to attend to the visual stimuli (responding to some of them: Go stimuli). P3a was identified in the Novel minus Standard difference waveforms, and reaction times (RTs) and hits (in response to Go stimuli) were also analyzed. Participants were classified into three groups: Control, 20 adults (mean age (M): 65.8 years); sdaMCI, 19 adults (M: 67 years); and mdaMCI, 11 adults (M: 71 years). In all groups, the RTs were significantly longer when Go stimuli were preceded by novel (relative to standard) auditory stimuli, suggesting a distraction effect triggered by novel stimuli; mdaMCI participants made significantly fewer hits than control and sdaMCI participants. P3a comprised two consecutive phases in all groups: early-P3a (e-P3a), which may reflect the orienting response toward the irrelevant stimuli, and late-P3a (l-P3a), which may be a correlate of subsequent evaluation of these stimuli. The e-P3a amplitude was significantly larger in mdaMCI than in sdaMCI participants, and the l-P3a amplitude was significantly larger in mdaMCI than in sdaMCI and Control participants

  2. Increased Amplitude of the P3a ERP Component as a Neurocognitive Marker for Differentiating Amnestic Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Jaraba, Kenia S.; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been shown to be useful for evaluating changes in brain electrical activity associated with different cognitive processes, particularly in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Longitudinal studies have shown that a high proportion of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) go on to develop AD. aMCI is divided into two subtypes according to the presence of memory impairment only (single-domain aMCI: sdaMCI) or impairment of memory and other cognitive domains (multi-domain aMCI: mdaMCI). The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of sdaMCI and mdaMCI on the P3a ERP component associated with the involuntary orientation of attention toward unattended infrequent novel auditory stimuli. Participants performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task, in which they were asked to ignore the auditory stimuli (standard, deviant, and novel) and to attend to the visual stimuli (responding to some of them: Go stimuli). P3a was identified in the Novel minus Standard difference waveforms, and reaction times (RTs) and hits (in response to Go stimuli) were also analyzed. Participants were classified into three groups: Control, 20 adults (mean age (M): 65.8 years); sdaMCI, 19 adults (M: 67 years); and mdaMCI, 11 adults (M: 71 years). In all groups, the RTs were significantly longer when Go stimuli were preceded by novel (relative to standard) auditory stimuli, suggesting a distraction effect triggered by novel stimuli; mdaMCI participants made significantly fewer hits than control and sdaMCI participants. P3a comprised two consecutive phases in all groups: early-P3a (e-P3a), which may reflect the orienting response toward the irrelevant stimuli, and late-P3a (l-P3a), which may be a correlate of subsequent evaluation of these stimuli. The e-P3a amplitude was significantly larger in mdaMCI than in sdaMCI participants, and the l-P3a amplitude was significantly larger in mdaMCI than in sdaMCI and Control participants

  3. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli-pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones-were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm's standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents' and teachers' ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to

  4. Loudspeaker equalization for auditory research.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Tran, Phuong K

    2007-02-01

    The equalization of loudspeaker frequency response is necessary to conduct many types of well-controlled auditory experiments. This article introduces a program that includes functions to measure a loudspeaker's frequency response, design equalization filters, and apply the filters to a set of stimuli to be used in an auditory experiment. The filters can compensate for both magnitude and phase distortions introduced by the loudspeaker. A MATLAB script is included in the Appendix to illustrate the details of the equalization algorithm used in the program.

  5. Auditory processing and morphological anomalies in medial geniculate nucleus of Cntnap2 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Truong, Dongnhu T; Rendall, Amanda R; Castelluccio, Brian C; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fitch, R Holly

    2015-12-01

    Genetic epidemiological studies support a role for CNTNAP2 in developmental language disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, specific language impairment, and dyslexia. Atypical language development and function represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with evidence suggesting that aberrant auditory processing-including impaired spectrotemporal processing and enhanced pitch perception-may both contribute to an anomalous language phenotype. Investigation of gene-brain-behavior relationships in social and repetitive ASD symptomatology have benefited from experimentation on the Cntnap2 knockout (KO) mouse. However, auditory-processing behavior and effects on neural structures within the central auditory pathway have not been assessed in this model. Thus, this study examined whether auditory-processing abnormalities were associated with mutation of the Cntnap2 gene in mice. Cntnap2 KO mice were assessed on auditory-processing tasks including silent gap detection, embedded tone detection, and pitch discrimination. Cntnap2 knockout mice showed deficits in silent gap detection but a surprising superiority in pitch-related discrimination as compared with controls. Stereological analysis revealed a reduction in the number and density of neurons, as well as a shift in neuronal size distribution toward smaller neurons, in the medial geniculate nucleus of mutant mice. These findings are consistent with a central role for CNTNAP2 in the ontogeny and function of neural systems subserving auditory processing and suggest that developmental disruption of these neural systems could contribute to the atypical language phenotype seen in autism spectrum disorder. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Impact of mild traumatic brain injury on auditory brain stem dysfunction in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Amanipour, Reza M; Frisina, Robert D; Cresoe, Samantha A; Parsons, Teresa J; Xiaoxia Zhu; Borlongan, Cesario V; Walton, Joseph P

    2016-08-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is an electrophysiological test that examines the functionality of the auditory nerve and brainstem. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be detected if prolonged peak latency is observed in ABR measurements, since latency measures the neural conduction time in the brainstem, and an increase in latency can be a sign of pathological lesion at the auditory brainstem level. The ABR is elicited by brief sounds that can be used to measure hearing sensitivity as well as temporal processing. Reduction in peak amplitudes and increases in latency are indicative of dysfunction in the auditory nerve and/or central auditory pathways. In this study we used sixteen young adult mice that were divided into two groups: sham and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), with ABR measurements obtained prior to, and at 2, 6, and 14 weeks after injury. Abnormal ABRs were observed for the nine TBI cases as early as two weeks after injury and the deficits lasted for fourteen weeks after injury. Results indicated a significant reduction in the Peak 1 (P1) and Peak 4 (P4) amplitudes to the first noise burst, as well as an increase in latency response for P1 and P4 following mTBI. These results are the first to demonstrate auditory sound processing deficits in a rodent model of mild TBI.

  7. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    PubMed

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities.

  8. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    PubMed Central

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  9. Inservice Training Packet: Auditory Discrimination Listening Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Learning Resources System/CROWN, Jacksonville.

    Intended to be used as the basis for a brief inservice workshop, the auditory discrimination/listening skills packet provides information on ideas, materials, and resources for remediating auditory discrimination and listening skill deficits. Included are a sample prescription form, tests of auditory discrimination, and a list of auditory…

  10. Behavioral Indications of Auditory Processing Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Kerry McGoldrick

    1988-01-01

    Identifies disruptive behaviors of children that may indicate central auditory processing disorders (CAPDs), perceptual handicaps of auditory discrimination or auditory memory not related to hearing ability. Outlines steps to modify the communication environment for CAPD children at home and in the classroom. (SV)

  11. Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing of Lexicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Horvath, Janos; Schroger, Erich; Lattner, Sonja; Widmann, Andreas; Winkler, Istvan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of lexicality on auditory change detection based on auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of repeatedly presented stimuli, while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. In a cross-linguistic study of Hungarian and German participants, stimulus sequences were composed of words that…

  12. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  13. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  14. Auditory Detection of the Human Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Gerald, Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated whether listeners can distinguish human brainstem auditory evoked responses elicited by acoustic clicks from control waveforms obtained with no acoustic stimulus when the waveforms are presented auditorily. Detection performance for stimuli presented visually was slightly, but consistently, superior to that which occurred for…

  15. Auditory and audio-visual processing in patients with cochlear, auditory brainstem, and auditory midbrain implants: An EEG study.

    PubMed

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Kral, Andrej; Büchner, Andreas; Rach, Stefan; Lenarz, Thomas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2017-04-01

    There is substantial variability in speech recognition ability across patients with cochlear implants (CIs), auditory brainstem implants (ABIs), and auditory midbrain implants (AMIs). To better understand how this variability is related to central processing differences, the current electroencephalography (EEG) study compared hearing abilities and auditory-cortex activation in patients with electrical stimulation at different sites of the auditory pathway. Three different groups of patients with auditory implants (Hannover Medical School; ABI: n = 6, CI: n = 6; AMI: n = 2) performed a speeded response task and a speech recognition test with auditory, visual, and audio-visual stimuli. Behavioral performance and cortical processing of auditory and audio-visual stimuli were compared between groups. ABI and AMI patients showed prolonged response times on auditory and audio-visual stimuli compared with NH listeners and CI patients. This was confirmed by prolonged N1 latencies and reduced N1 amplitudes in ABI and AMI patients. However, patients with central auditory implants showed a remarkable gain in performance when visual and auditory input was combined, in both speech and non-speech conditions, which was reflected by a strong visual modulation of auditory-cortex activation in these individuals. In sum, the results suggest that the behavioral improvement for audio-visual conditions in central auditory implant patients is based on enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex. Their findings may provide important implications for the optimization of electrical stimulation and rehabilitation strategies in patients with central auditory prostheses. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2206-2225, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Molecular approach of auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Magali Aparecida Orate Menezes da; Piatto, Vânia Belintani; Maniglia, Jose Victor

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the otoferlin gene are responsible for auditory neuropathy. To investigate the prevalence of mutations in the mutations in the otoferlin gene in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. This original cross-sectional case study evaluated 16 index cases with auditory neuropathy, 13 patients with sensorineural hearing loss, and 20 normal-hearing subjects. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and the mutations in the otoferlin gene sites were amplified by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. The 16 index cases included nine (56%) females and seven (44%) males. The 13 deaf patients comprised seven (54%) males and six (46%) females. Among the 20 normal-hearing subjects, 13 (65%) were males and seven were (35%) females. Thirteen (81%) index cases had wild-type genotype (AA) and three (19%) had the heterozygous AG genotype for IVS8-2A-G (intron 8) mutation. The 5473C-G (exon 44) mutation was found in a heterozygous state (CG) in seven (44%) index cases and nine (56%) had the wild-type allele (CC). Of these mutants, two (25%) were compound heterozygotes for the mutations found in intron 8 and exon 44. All patients with sensorineural hearing loss and normal-hearing individuals did not have mutations (100%). There are differences at the molecular level in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Auditory Risk of Air Rifles

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, James E.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Finan, Donald S.; Stewart, Michael; Tasko, Stephen; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for air rifle users for both youth and adults. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit and LAeq75 exposure limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 9 pellet air rifles and 1 BB air rifle. Results None of the air rifles generated peak levels that exceeded the 140 dB peak limit for adults and 8 (80%) exceeded the 120 dB peak SPL limit for youth. In general, for both adults and youth there is minimal auditory risk when shooting less than 100 unprotected shots with pellet air rifles. Air rifles with suppressors were less hazardous than those without suppressors and the pellet air rifles with higher velocities were generally more hazardous than those with lower velocities. Conclusion To minimize auditory risk, youth should utilize air rifles with an integrated suppressor and lower velocity ratings. Air rifle shooters are advised to wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities in order to gain self-efficacy and model appropriate hearing health behaviors necessary for recreational firearm use. PMID:26840923

  18. Auditory Temporal Conditioning in Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, W. K.; And Others

    Twenty normal newborns, approximately 36 hours old, were tested using an auditory temporal conditioning paradigm which consisted of a slow rise, 75 db tone played for five seconds every 25 seconds, ten times. Responses to the tones were measured by instantaneous, beat-to-beat heartrate; and the test trial was designated as the 2 1/2-second period…

  19. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  20. Exploring Education Culture by Employing Hofstede?s Cultural Dimensions to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Current ERP Training Approach in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chayakonvikom, Monta; Fuangvut, Parin; Cannell, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    ERP training is a critical success factor in ERP implementation. The current ERP training was largely ineffective and caused user resistance and ERP implementation failure. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the current ERP training approach can accommodate the cultural learning behaviors of end-users. Hofstede's cultural…

  1. Interaction of Erp Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Rv2212 Enhances Intracellular Survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Ganaie, Arsheed Ahmad; Trivedi, Garima; Kaur, Amanpreet; Jha, Sidharth Shankar; Anand, Shashi; Rana, Vibhuti; Singh, Amit; Kumar, Shekhar; Sharma, Charu

    2016-10-15

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis exported repetitive protein (RvErp) is a crucial virulence-associated factor as determined by its role in the survival and multiplication of mycobacteria in cultured macrophages and in vivo Although attempts have been made to understand the function of Erp protein, its exact role in Mycobacterium pathogenesis is still elusive. One way to determine this is by searching for novel interactions of RvErp. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, an adenylyl cyclase (AC), Rv2212, was found to interact with RvErp. The interaction between RvErp and Rv2212 is direct and occurs at the endogenous level. The Erp protein of Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSMEG_6405, or MsErp) interacts neither with Rv2212 nor with Ms_4279, the M. smegmatis homologue of Rv2212. Deletion mutants of Rv2212 revealed its adenylyl cyclase domain to be responsible for the interaction. RvErp enhances Rv2212-mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP) production. Also, the biological significance of the interaction between RvErp and Rv2212 was demonstrated by the enhanced survival of M. smegmatis within THP-1 macrophages. Taken together, these studies address a novel mechanism by which Erp executes its function. RvErp is one of the important virulence factors of M. tuberculosis This study describes a novel function of RvErp protein of M. tuberculosis by identifying Rv2212 as its interacting protein. Rv2212 is an adenylyl cyclase (AC) and produces cAMP, one of the prime second messengers that regulate the intracellular survival of mycobacteria. Therefore, the significance of investigating novel interactions of RvErp is paramount in unraveling the mechanisms governing the intracellular survival of mycobacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Managing the Challenges of Leadership in ERP Implementations: An Exploratory Study of the Leadership Challenges Encountered by Project Managers Involved in ERP Implementation Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanjagi, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations are conducting more Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects in order to promote organizational efficiencies. Meanwhile, minimal research has been conducted on the leadership challenges faced by project managers during the ERP project implementations and how these challenges are managed. The existing project…

  3. Short-term plasticity in auditory cognition.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2007-12-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that auditory system short-term plasticity can enable several perceptual and cognitive functions that have been previously considered as relatively distinct phenomena. Here we review recent findings suggesting that auditory stimulation, auditory selective attention and cross-modal effects of visual stimulation each cause transient excitatory and (surround) inhibitory modulations in the auditory cortex. These modulations might adaptively tune hierarchically organized sound feature maps of the auditory cortex (e.g. tonotopy), thus filtering relevant sounds during rapidly changing environmental and task demands. This could support auditory sensory memory, pre-attentive detection of sound novelty, enhanced perception during selective attention, influence of visual processing on auditory perception and longer-term plastic changes associated with perceptual learning.

  4. Identifying auditory attention with ear-EEG: cEEGrid versus high-density cap-EEG comparison.

    PubMed

    Bleichner, Martin G; Mirkovic, Bojana; Debener, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a direct comparison of a classical EEG cap setup with a new around-the-ear electrode array (cEEGrid) to gain a better understanding of the potential of ear-centered EEG. Concurrent EEG was recorded from a classical scalp EEG cap and two cEEGrids that were placed around the left and the right ear. Twenty participants performed a spatial auditory attention task in which three sound streams were presented simultaneously. The sound streams were three seconds long and differed in the direction of origin (front, left, right) and the number of beats (3, 4, 5 respectively), as well as the timbre and pitch. The participants had to attend to either the left or the right sound stream. We found clear attention modulated ERP effects reflecting the attended sound stream for both electrode setups, which agreed in morphology and effect size. A single-trial template matching classification showed that the direction of attention could be decoded significantly above chance (50%) for at least 16 out of 20 participants for both systems. The comparably high classification results of the single trial analysis underline the quality of the signal recorded with the cEEGrids. These findings are further evidence for the feasibility of around the-ear EEG recordings and demonstrate that well described ERPs can be measured. We conclude that concealed behind-the-ear EEG recordings can be an alternative to classical cap EEG acquisition for auditory attention monitoring.

  5. Identifying auditory attention with ear-EEG: cEEGrid versus high-density cap-EEG comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleichner, Martin G.; Mirkovic, Bojana; Debener, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Objective. This study presents a direct comparison of a classical EEG cap setup with a new around-the-ear electrode array (cEEGrid) to gain a better understanding of the potential of ear-centered EEG. Approach. Concurrent EEG was recorded from a classical scalp EEG cap and two cEEGrids that were placed around the left and the right ear. Twenty participants performed a spatial auditory attention task in which three sound streams were presented simultaneously. The sound streams were three seconds long and differed in the direction of origin (front, left, right) and the number of beats (3, 4, 5 respectively), as well as the timbre and pitch. The participants had to attend to either the left or the right sound stream. Main results. We found clear attention modulated ERP effects reflecting the attended sound stream for both electrode setups, which agreed in morphology and effect size. A single-trial template matching classification showed that the direction of attention could be decoded significantly above chance (50%) for at least 16 out of 20 participants for both systems. The comparably high classification results of the single trial analysis underline the quality of the signal recorded with the cEEGrids. Significance. These findings are further evidence for the feasibility of around the-ear EEG recordings and demonstrate that well described ERPs can be measured. We conclude that concealed behind-the-ear EEG recordings can be an alternative to classical cap EEG acquisition for auditory attention monitoring.

  6. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multisensory object perception in infancy: 4-month-olds perceive a mistuned harmonic as a separate auditory and visual object

    PubMed Central

    A. Smith, Nicholas; A. Folland, Nicholas; Martinez, Diana M.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2017-01-01

    Infants learn to use auditory and visual information to organize the sensory world into identifiable objects with particular locations. Here we use a behavioural method to examine infants' use of harmonicity cues to auditory object perception in a multisensory context. Sounds emitted by different objects sum in the air and the auditory system must figure out which parts of the complex waveform belong to different sources (auditory objects). One important cue to this source separation is that complex tones with pitch typically contain a fundamental frequency and harmonics at integer multiples of the fundamental. Consequently, adults hear a mistuned harmonic in a complex sound as a distinct auditory object (Alain et al., 2003). Previous work by our group demonstrated that 4-month-old infants are also sensitive to this cue. They behaviourally discriminate a complex tone with a mistuned harmonic from the same complex with in-tune harmonics, and show an object-related event-related potential (ERP) electrophysiological (EEG) response to the stimulus with mistuned harmonics. In the present study we use an audiovisual procedure to investigate whether infants perceive a complex tone with an 8% mistuned harmonic as emanating from two objects, rather than merely detecting the mistuned cue. We paired in-tune and mistuned complex tones with visual displays that contained either one or two bouncing balls. Four-month-old infants showed surprise at the incongruous pairings, looking longer at the display of two balls when paired with the in-tune complex and at the display of one ball when paired with the mistuned harmonic complex. We conclude that infants use harmonicity as a cue for source separation when integrating auditory and visual information in object perception. PMID:28346869

  8. [Auditory training in workshops: group therapy option].

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana Nunes; do Couto, Isabel Cristina Plais; Amorim, Raquel Martins da Costa

    2006-01-01

    auditory training in groups. to verify in a group of individuals with mental retardation the efficacy of auditory training in a workshop environment. METHOD a longitudinal prospective study with 13 mentally retarded individuals from the Associação de Pais e Amigos do Excepcional (APAE) of Congonhas divided in two groups: case (n=5) and control (n=8) and who were submitted to ten auditory training sessions after verifying the integrity of the peripheral auditory system through evoked otoacoustic emissions. Participants were evaluated using a specific protocol concerning the auditory abilities (sound localization, auditory identification, memory, sequencing, auditory discrimination and auditory comprehension) at the beginning and at the end of the project. Data (entering, processing and analyses) were analyzed by the Epi Info 6.04 software. the groups did not differ regarding aspects of age (mean = 23.6 years) and gender (40% male). In the first evaluation both groups presented similar performances. In the final evaluation an improvement in the auditory abilities was observed for the individuals in the case group. When comparing the mean number of correct answers obtained by both groups in the first and final evaluations, a statistically significant result was obtained for sound localization (p=0.02), auditory sequencing (p=0.006) and auditory discrimination (p=0.03). group auditory training demonstrated to be effective in individuals with mental retardation, observing an improvement in the auditory abilities. More studies, with a larger number of participants, are necessary in order to confirm the findings of the present research. These results will help public health professionals to reanalyze the theory models used for therapy, so that they can use specific methods according to individual needs, such as auditory training workshops.

  9. Combat veterans with comorbid PTSD and mild TBI exhibit a greater inhibitory processing ERP from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Shu, I-Wei; Onton, Julie A; O'Connell, Ryan M; Simmons, Alan N; Matthews, Scott C

    2014-10-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among combat personnel with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While patients with either PTSD or mTBI share abnormal activation of multiple frontal brain areas, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity during inhibitory processing may be particularly affected by PTSD. To further test this hypothesis, we recorded electroencephalography from 32 combat veterans with mTBI-17 of whom were also comorbid for PTSD (mTBI+PTSD) and 15 without PTSD (mTBI-only). Subjects performed the Stop Task, a validated inhibitory control task requiring inhibition of initiated motor responses. We observed a larger inhibitory processing eventrelated potential (ERP) in veterans with mTBI+PTSD, including greater N200 negativity. Furthermore, greater N200 negativity correlated with greater PTSD severity. This correlation was most dependent on contributions from the dorsal ACC. Support vector machine analysis demonstrated that N200 and P300 amplitudes objectively classified veterans into mTBI-only or mTBI+PTSD groups with 79.4% accuracy. Our results support a model where, in combat veterans with mTBI, larger ERPs from cingulate areas are associated with greater PTSD severity and likely related to difficulty controlling ongoing brain processes, including trauma-related thoughts and feelings. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Functionally integrated neural processing of linguistic and talker information: An event-related fMRI and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caicai; Pugh, Kenneth R; Mencl, W Einar; Molfese, Peter J; Frost, Stephen J; Magnuson, James S; Peng, Gang; Wang, William S-Y

    2016-01-01

    Speech signals contain information of both linguistic content and a talker's voice. Conventionally, linguistic and talker processing are thought to be mediated by distinct neural systems in the left and right hemispheres respectively, but there is growing evidence that linguistic and talker processing interact in many ways. Previous studies suggest that talker-related vocal tract changes are processed integrally with phonetic changes in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (STG/STS), because the vocal tract parameter influences the perception of phonetic information. It is yet unclear whether the bilateral STG is also activated by the integral processing of another parameter - pitch, which influences the perception of lexical tone information and is related to talker differences in tone languages. In this study, we conducted separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) experiments to examine the spatial and temporal loci of interactions of lexical tone and talker-related pitch processing in Cantonese. We found that the STG was activated bilaterally during the processing of talker changes when listeners attended to lexical tone changes in the stimuli and during the processing of lexical tone changes when listeners attended to talker changes, suggesting that lexical tone and talker processing are functionally integrated in the bilateral STG. It extends the previous study, providing evidence for a general neural mechanism of integral phonetic and talker processing in the bilateral STG. The ERP results show interactions of lexical tone and talker processing 500-800ms after auditory word onset (a simultaneous posterior P3b and a frontal negativity). Moreover, there is some asymmetry in the interaction, such that unattended talker changes affect linguistic processing more than vice versa, which may be related to the ambiguity that talker changes cause in speech perception and/or attention bias

  11. A comparison of recording modalities of P300 event-related potentials (ERP) for brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mayaud, L; Congedo, M; Van Laghenhove, A; Orlikowski, D; Figère, M; Azabou, E; Cheliout-Heraut, F

    2013-10-01

    A brain-computer interface aims at restoring communication and control in severely disabled people by identification and classification of EEG features such as event-related potentials (ERPs). The aim of this study is to compare different modalities of EEG recording for extraction of ERPs. The first comparison evaluates the performance of six disc electrodes with that of the EMOTIV headset, while the second evaluates three different electrode types (disc, needle, and large squared electrode). Ten healthy volunteers gave informed consent and were randomized to try the traditional EEG system (six disc electrodes with gel and skin preparation) or the EMOTIV Headset first. Together with the six disc electrodes, a needle and a square electrode of larger surface were simultaneously recording near lead Cz. Each modality was evaluated over three sessions of auditory P300 separated by one hour. No statically significant effect was found for the electrode type, nor was the interaction between electrode type and session number. There was no statistically significant difference of performance between the EMOTIV and the six traditional EEG disc electrodes, although there was a trend showing worse performance of the EMOTIV headset. However, the modality-session interaction was highly significant (P<0.001) showing that, while the performance of the six disc electrodes stay constant over sessions, the performance of the EMOTIV headset drops dramatically between 2 and 3h of use. Finally, the evaluation of comfort by participants revealed an increasing discomfort with the EMOTIV headset starting with the second hour of use. Our study does not recommend the use of one modality over another based on performance but suggests the choice should be made on more practical considerations such as the expected length of use, the availability of skilled labor for system setup and above all, the patient comfort. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of auditory integrative training on autistic children].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gai-qiao; Gong, Qun; Zhang, Feng-ling; Chen, Sun-min; Hu, Li-qun; Liu, Feng; Cui, Rui-hua; He, Lin

    2009-08-18

    To explore the short-term treatment effect of the auditory integrative training on autistic children and provide them with clinical support for rehabilitative treatment. A total of 81 cases of autistic children were selected through the standard of DSM-4 and clinical case study was used. They were divided randomly into experimental group and control one, and respectively received auditory integrative training and no training based on the multiple therapies. The patients were investigated using clinical manifestation and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and intelligence quotient (IQ) before and after six months of treatment. The effect was evaluated through the changes of clinical manifestations and scores of ABC and IQ. The changes of scores of IQ were determined with Gesell and WPPSI or WISC-R. Compared with 40 patients of the control group after the six months of the auditory integrative training, 41 of the experimental group had greatly improved in many aspects, such as the disorders of their language, social interactions and typical behavior symptoms while they had not changed in their abnormal behaviors. The scores of IQ or DQ had increased and scores of ABC had dropped. The differences between the two groups were greatly significant in statistics (P < 0.01). The decreasing level of both ABC scores and the increasing level of the IQ scores were negatively correlated with age, and the decreasing level of ABC scores was in line regression(positive correlation) with base IQ. The treatment of auditory integrative training (AIT) could greatly improve on language disorders, the difficulties of social interactions, typical behavior symptoms and developmental levels,therefore it is positive to the autistic children in its short-term treatment effect.

  13. Auditory cortex stimulation to suppress tinnitus: mechanisms and strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Brain stimulation is an important method used to modulate neural activity and suppress tinnitus. Several auditory and non-auditory brain regions have been targeted for stimulation. This paper reviews recent progress on auditory cortex (AC) stimulation to suppress tinnitus and its underlying neural mechanisms and stimulation strategies. At the same time, the author provides his opinions and hypotheses on both animal and human models. The author also proposes a medial geniculate body (MGB)-thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN)-Gating mechanism to reflect tinnitus-related neural information coming from upstream and downstream projection structures. The upstream structures include the lower auditory brainstem and midbrain structures. The downstream structures include the AC and certain limbic centers. Both upstream and downstream information is involved in a dynamic gating mechanism in the MGB together with the TRN. When abnormal gating occurs at the thalamic level, the spilled-out information interacts with the AC to generate tinnitus. The tinnitus signals at the MGB-TRN-Gating may be modulated by different forms of stimulations including brain stimulation. Each stimulation acts as a gain modulator to control the level of tinnitus signals at the MGB-TRN-Gate. This hypothesis may explain why different types of stimulation can induce tinnitus suppression. Depending on the tinnitus etiology, MGB-TRN-Gating may be different in levels and dynamics, which cause variability in tinnitus suppression induced by different gain controllers. This may explain why the induced suppression of tinnitus by one type of stimulation varies across individual patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Attention to emotion: auditory-evoked potentials in an emotional choice reaction task and personality traits as assessed by the NEO FFI.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Verena; Leicht, Gregor; Karch, Susanne; Hegerl, Ulrich; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Pogarell, Oliver; Mulert, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    Several studies suggest that attention to emotional content is related to specific changes in central information processing. In particular, event-related potential (ERP) studies focusing on emotion recognition in pictures and faces or word processing have pointed toward a distinct component of the visual-evoked potential, the EPN ('early posterior negativity'), which has been shown to be related to attention to emotional content. In the present study, we were interested in the existence of a corresponding ERP component in the auditory modality and a possible relationship with the personality dimension extraversion-introversion, as assessed by the NEO Five-Factors Inventory. We investigated 29 healthy subjects using three types of auditory choice tasks: (1) the distinction of syllables with emotional intonation, (2) the identification of the emotional content of adjectives and (3) a purely cognitive control task. Compared with the cognitive control task, emotional paradigms using auditory stimuli evoked an EPN component with a distinct peak after 170 ms (EPN 170). Interestingly, subjects with high scores in the personality trait extraversion showed significantly higher EPN amplitudes for emotional paradigms (syllables and words) than introverted subjects.

  15. Hemodynamic (fNIRS) and EEG (N200) correlates of emotional inter-species interactions modulated by visual and auditory stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2016-01-01

    The brain activity, considered in its hemodynamic (optical imaging: functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS) and electrophysiological components (event-related potentials, ERPs, N200) was monitored when subjects observed (visual stimulation, V) or observed and heard (visual + auditory stimulation, VU) situations which represented inter-species (human-animal) interactions, with an emotional positive (cooperative) or negative (uncooperative) content. In addition, the cortical lateralization effect (more left or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC) was explored. Both ERP and fNIRS showed significant effects due to emotional interactions which were discussed at light of cross-modal integration effects. The significance of inter-species effect for the emotional behavior was considered. In addition, hemodynamic and EEG consonant results and their value as integrated measures were discussed at light of valence effect. PMID:26976052

  16. Iconic gestures prime related concepts: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying Croon; Coulson, Seana

    2007-02-01

    To assess priming by iconic gestures, we recorded EEG (at 29 scalp sites) in two experiments while adults watched short, soundless videos of spontaneously produced, cospeech iconic gestures followed by related or unrelated probe words. In Experiment 1, participants classified the relatedness between gestures and words. In Experiment 2, they attended to stimuli, and performed an incidental recognition memory test on words presented during the EEG recording session. Event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to the onset of probe words were measured, along with response latencies and word recognition rates. Although word relatedness did not affect reaction times or recognition rates, contextually related probe words elicited less-negative ERPs than did unrelated ones between 300 and 500 msec after stimulus onset (N400) in both experiments. These findings demonstrate sensitivity to semantic relations between iconic gestures and words in brain activity engendered during word comprehension.

  17. Emotion Processing by ERP Combined with Development and Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Luo, Wenbo

    2017-01-01

    Emotions important for survival and social interaction have received wide and deep investigations. The application of the fMRI technique into emotion processing has obtained overwhelming achievements with respect to the localization of emotion processes. The ERP method, which possesses highly temporal resolution compared to fMRI, can be employed to investigate the time course of emotion processing. The emotional modulation of the ERP component has been verified across numerous researches. Emotions, described as dynamically developing along with the growing age, have the possibility to be enhanced through learning (or training) or to be damaged due to disturbances in growth, which is underlain by the neural plasticity of emotion-relevant nervous systems. And mood disorders with typical symptoms of emotion discordance probably have been caused by the dysfunctional neural plasticity.

  18. An ERP study on initial second language vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Yum, Yen Na; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the very initial phases of orthographic and semantic acquisition in monolingual native English speakers learning Chinese words under controlled laboratory conditions. Participants engaged in 10 sessions of vocabulary learning, four of which were used to obtain ERPs. Performance in behavioral tests improved over sessions, and these data were used to define fast and slow learners. Most important is that ERPs in the two groups of learners revealed qualitatively distinct learning patterns. Only fast learners showed a left-lateralized increase in N170 amplitude with training. Furthermore, only fast learners showed an increased N400 amplitude with training, with a distinct anterior distribution. Slow learners, on the other hand, showed a posterior positive effect, with increasingly positive-going waveforms in occipital sites as training progressed. Possible mechanisms underlying these qualitative differences are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Disentangling gaze shifts from preparatory ERP effects during spatial attention

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, Steffan; van Velzen, José; Eimer, Martin; Driver, Jon

    2007-01-01

    After a cue directing attention to one side, anterior event-related potentials (ERPs) show contralateral negativity (Anterior Directing Attention Negativity, ADAN). It is unclear whether ADAN effects are contaminated by contralateral negativity arising from residual gaze shifts. Conversely, it is possible that ADAN-related potentials contaminate the horizontal electrooculogram (HEOG), via volume conduction. To evaluate these possibilities, we used high-resolution infrared eye tracking, while recording EEG and HEOG in a cued spatial-attention task. We found that, after conventional ERP and HEOG pre-processing exclusions, small but systematic residual gaze shifts in the cued direction can remain, as revealed by the infrared measure. Nevertheless, by using this measure for more stringent exclusion of small gaze shifts, we confirmed that reliable ADAN components remain for preparatory spatial attention in the absence of any systematic gaze shifts toward the cued side. PMID:17241141

  20. Emotion Processing by ERP Combined with Development and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Emotions important for survival and social interaction have received wide and deep investigations. The application of the fMRI technique into emotion processing has obtained overwhelming achievements with respect to the localization of emotion processes. The ERP method, which possesses highly temporal resolution compared to fMRI, can be employed to investigate the time course of emotion processing. The emotional modulation of the ERP component has been verified across numerous researches. Emotions, described as dynamically developing along with the growing age, have the possibility to be enhanced through learning (or training) or to be damaged due to disturbances in growth, which is underlain by the neural plasticity of emotion-relevant nervous systems. And mood disorders with typical symptoms of emotion discordance probably have been caused by the dysfunctional neural plasticity. PMID:28831313

  1. Orthographic and phonological processing in developing readers revealed by ERPs

    PubMed Central

    EDDY, MARIANNA D.; GRAINGER, JONATHAN; HOLCOMB, PHILLIP J.; GABRIELI, JOHN D. E.

    2018-01-01

    The development of neurocognitive mechanisms in single word reading was studied in children ages 8–10 years using ERPs combined with priming manipulations aimed at dissociating orthographic and phonological processes. Transposed-letter (TL) priming (barin–BRAIN vs. bosin–BRAIN) was used to assess orthographic processing, and pseudohomophone (PH) priming (brane–BRAIN vs. brant–BRAIN) was used to assess phonological processing. Children showed TL and PH priming effects on both the N250 and N400 ERP components, and the magnitude of TL priming correlated positively with reading ability, with better readers showing larger TL priming effects. Phonological priming, on the other hand, did not correlate with reading ability. The positive correlations between TL priming and reading ability in children points to a key role for flexible sublexical orthographic representations in reading development, in line with their hypothesized role in the efficient mapping of orthographic information onto semantic information in skilled readers. PMID:27671210

  2. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  3. Prediction during language comprehension: benefits, costs, and ERP components.

    PubMed

    Van Petten, Cyma; Luka, Barbara J

    2012-02-01

    Because context has a robust influence on the processing of subsequent words, the idea that readers and listeners predict upcoming words has attracted research attention, but prediction has fallen in and out of favor as a likely factor in normal comprehension. We note that the common sense of this word includes both benefits