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Sample records for abnormal autoimmune profile

  1. Autoimmune Abnormalities of Postpartum Thyroid Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Di Bari, Flavia; Granese, Roberta; Le Donne, Maria; Vita, Roberto; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    The year following parturition is a critical time for the de novo appearance or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid disease. The vast majority of postpartum thyroid disease consists of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) and the minority by Graves’ disease and non-autoimmune thyroiditis. PPT has a worldwide prevalence ranging from 1 to 22% and averaging 5% based on a review published in 2012. Several factors confer risk for the development of PPT. Typically, the clinical course of PPT is characterized by three phases: thyrotoxic, hypothyroid, and euthyroid phase. Approximately half of PPT women will have permanent hypothyroidism. The best humoral marker for predictivity, already during the first trimester of gestation, is considered positivity for thyroperoxidase autoantibodies (TPOAb), though only one-third to half of such TPOAb-positive pregnant women will develop PPT. Nutraceuticals (such as selenium) or omega-3-fatty acid supplements seem to have a role in prevention of PPT. In a recent study on pregnant women with stable dietary habits, we found that the fish consumers had lower rates of positivity (and lower serum levels) of both TPOAb and thyroglobulin Ab compared to meat eaters. Finally, we remind the reader of other diseases that can be observed in the postpartum period, either autoimmune or non-autoimmune, thyroid or non-thyroid. PMID:28751877

  2. The impact of abnormal autoimmune function on reproduction: maternal and fetal consequences.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Weiner, Rebecca; Vietzke, Mary

    2006-11-01

    The impact of abnormal autoimmune function on reproductive success has remained a highly controversial issue. This is, at least partially, due to the relative lack of demographic data from women with established autoimmune diseases. We, therefore, investigated 163 women with proven autoimmune diseases and 73 controls in a demographic study of reproductive success and impact of abnormal autoimmunity on pregnancy and offspring. Women with autoimmune diseases experienced fewer pregnancies overall (p=0.04) and fewer pregnancy losses (p=0.05). Offspring from women with autoimmune diseases demonstrated a significantly increased prevalence of confirmed autoimmune diseases (p=0.04; OR 3.759; 95%CL 1.04-1.27), which increased further if suspected, but not yet confirmed, cases were added (p=0.001; OR 8.592; 95%CL 1.05-55.0). Women with autoimmune diseases exhibited a trend towards lower cesarean section delivery during their own birth and a significantly increased prevalence of disease in vaginally delivered offspring (p=0.014; OR 6.041; 95%CL 1.32-38.22). Autoimmune diseases impair female fecundity even before the diseases become clinically overt. Offspring are at increased risk to develop autoimmune diseases, though they may differ from those of their mothers. This risk appears to correlate with mode of delivery and may be the consequence of varying cell traffic dynamics with vaginal and cesarean section deliveries.

  3. An adolescent girl with abnormal liver profile.

    PubMed

    Nair, S; Pitchumoni, C S

    1998-04-01

    A 17-year-old previously healthy high school student who lived in a dormitory was referred to our office by her private physician for evaluation of abnormal liver function tests. She was sexually active with one partner but denied any current or past substance abuse. The patient was not taking any medications or nutritional supplements. Family history was unremarkable. Physical examination revealed scleral icterus and minimal hepatomegaly. Spleen was not palpable. The liver function tests are shown in table 1. Total leucocyte count was 6.3 x 10(9)/1 with 53% lymphocytes. The platelet count was normal. Anti-Hbc IgM antibody was negative, so were anti-HAV IgM and anti-HCV antibodies. HBsAg was negative and anti-HBs antibody was positive. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 16 mm in the first hour. An abdominal sonogram was done to evaluate a persistent elevation in alkaline phosphatase and it showed only hepatomegaly.

  4. Abnormal amygdala activation profile in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Alexander; Ruf, Matthias; Kief, Christine; Demirakca, Traute; Bailer, Josef; Ende, Gabriele; Henn, Fritz A; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Dressing, Harald

    2008-08-01

    Despite considerable public interest research in neurobiological correlates of pedophilia is scarce. Since amygdala activation is central for emotional valuation, arousal, and salience, we investigated the activation profile of this structure in 10 male subjects with pedophilia (exclusively attracted to boys), all convicted sex-offenders and sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment along with ten male heterosexual matched controls. We used a sexually non-explicit functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) paradigm with images of men, women, boys or girls randomly embedded in neutral target/non-target geometrical symbols. We applied statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and SPSS 14 for image processing and analysis. While controls activated significantly less to pictures of children compared to adults, the activation profile was reversed in subjects with pedophilia, who exhibited significantly more activation to children than adults. The highest activation was observed for boys in the patient group, and for women in control participants. Our data show enhanced activation to children's pictures even in an incidental context and suggest the provocative hypothesis that a normally present mechanism for reduced emotional arousal for children relative to adults is reversed in pedophilia, suggesting a neural substrate associated with deviant sexual preference in this condition. More extensive research in this field would be of benefit for both the victims and the offenders.

  5. Genetic aspects of auto-immune profiles of healthy chickens.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Henk K; van der Vaart, Priscilla S; Nieuwland, Mike G B; Savelkoul, Huub F J

    2017-09-01

    Auto-antibody profiles binding liver antigens differed between chicken lines divergently selected for specific antibody responses to SRBC, and were affected by ageing suggesting both genetic and environmental effects. Presence and levels of IgM and IgG antibodies binding chicken liver cell lysate (CLL) fragments in plasma at 5 weeks of age from 10 individual full sibs and their parents from 5 H srbc and 5 L srbc line families was studied to reveal genetic relations. Non-genetic maternal effects were studied by comparing auto-antibody profiles of 36 weeks old hens from 2 other unrelated lines with the profiles from their chicks at hatch. IgM and IgG antibodies from parents and progeny from both H srbc and L srbc lines bound CLL fragments. Significant line and generation differences and their interactions were found for both isotypes. Higher staining of CLL fragments was usually found for H srbc line birds. Lines were clustered by auto-antibody profiles, but staining by birds of both lines in both generations was very individual for IgG and IgM. The current data with full sibs therefore not supported a genetic basis for auto-antibody profiles. IgG but not IgM auto-antibody profiles of chicks correlated with maternal auto-antibody profiles. The results suggest that the auto-antibody repertoire of healthy chickens is largely stochastically initiated and may be affected by environmental challenges during ageing, but genetic mechanisms may underlie staining intensity of individual bound CLL fragments. The present results suggest that identification of fragments or profiles to be used at early age for genetic selection for health traits is not feasible yet. Secondly, the IgM profile of neonatal chickens seems non-organised independent of the maternal profile, but the neonatal IgG profile is much more related with the maternal profile. Consequences of these findings for disease susceptibility or breeding for optimal health are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Autoimmune hepatitis in 828 Brazilian children and adolescents: clinical and laboratory findings, histological profile, treatments, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Porta, Gilda; Carvalho, Elisa de; Santos, Jorge L; Gama, Jorge; Borges, Cristian V; Seixas, Renata B P M; Ferreira, Alexandre R; Miura, Irene K; Silveira, Themis R; Silva, Luciana R; Fagundes, Eleonora D T; Bellomo-Brandao, Maria A; Sawamura, Regina; Vieira, Sandra M; Melere, Melina U; Marques, Cibele D F; Pugliese, Renata P; Danesi, Vera L; Porta, Adriana; Marsillac, Marise E; Valladares, Marcia A; Menezes, Daniela G; Kieling, Carlos; Paula, Mariana N de; Vasconcelos, Juliana R; Ferreira, Cristina T; Perin, Nilza; Resende, Leonardo R; Maia, Jussara; Tommaso, Adriana M A De; Hessel, Gabriel

    2018-05-30

    This large study with a long-term follow-up aimed to evaluate the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, histological profile, treatments, and outcomes of children and adolescents with autoimmune hepatitis. The medical records of 828 children and adolescents with autoimmune hepatitis were reviewed. A questionnaire was used to collect anonymous data on clinical presentation, biochemical and histological findings, and treatments. Of all patients, 89.6% had autoimmune hepatitis-1 and 10.4% had autoimmune hepatitis-2. The female sex was predominant in both groups. The median age at symptom onset was 111.5 (6; 210) and 53.5 (8; 165) months in the patients with autoimmune hepatitis 1 and autoimmune hepatitis-2, respectively. Acute clinical onset was observed in 56.1% and 58.8% and insidious symptoms in 43.9% and 41.2% of the patients with autoimmune hepatitis-1 and autoimmune hepatitis-2, respectively. The risk of hepatic failure was 1.6-fold higher for autoimmune hepatitis-2. Fulminant hepatic failure occurred in 3.6% and 10.6% of the patients with autoimmune hepatitis-1 and autoimmune hepatitis-2, respectively; the risk was 3.1-fold higher for autoimmune hepatitis-2. The gamma globulin and immunoglobulin G levels were significantly higher in autoimmune hepatitis-1, while the immunoglobulin A and C3 levels were lower in autoimmune hepatitis-2. Cirrhosis was observed in 22.4% of the patients; biochemical remission was achieved in 76.2%. The actuarial survival rate was 93.0%. A total of 4.6% underwent liver transplantation, and 6.9% died (autoimmune hepatitis-1: 7.5%; autoimmune hepatitis-2: 2.4%). In this large clinical series of Brazilian children and adolescents, autoimmune hepatitis-1 was more frequent, and patients with autoimmune hepatitis-2 exhibited higher disease remission rates with earlier response to treatment. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis-1 had a higher risk of death. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. Age and genetic selection affect auto-immune profiles of chickens.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Henk K; Harms, Elmer; Lammers, Aart; Nieuwland, Mike G B

    2014-12-01

    Specificity, antibody isotype distribution and levels, of natural autoantibodies (NAAb) may be potential informative parameters for immune mediated natural disease resistance, immune modulation, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. In a previous study we detected IgM and IgG antibodies to liver antigens in plasma from 1 year old chickens. Auto-immune profiles directed towards liver antigens differed between chicken lines divergently selected for specific antibody responses to sheep red blood cells. In the present study we measured the presence and typed levels and antibody isotypes (IgG and IgM) of NAAb binding the 'auto-antigen' complex chicken liver cell lysate (CLL) in plasma samples obtained from chickens at 5 weeks and at 1-year of age, respectively, by quantitative western blotting. Extensive staining patterns of plasma antibodies binding CLL were found for both isotypes and at both ages in all birds. At both ages, IgM and IgG bound similar numbers of CLL antigens, which remained almost constant for IgM, whereas the number of IgG stained bands in time was enhanced. Significant differences of binding patterns of NAAb (stained antigen fragments of CLL and staining intensity) were detected between the three different chicken lines at both ages and between both ages, and lines could be clustered on the basis of their auto-antibody profile. The present results indicate that analysis of the plasma NAAb repertoire of poultry like in mammals could provide a way of distinguishing differences of immune competence (as reflected by the selection criterion of antibody responses) between individuals and lines, and could provide tools to select individual birds for health and other traits. The age-dependency of the auto-immune profile suggest that such profiles may also reflect immune maturation, which should be taken into account when relating an auto-immune profile with other traits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk profile analysis and complications after surgery for autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Thomusch, O; Sekulla, C; Billmann, F; Seifert, G; Dralle, H; Lorenz, K

    2018-05-01

    Surgical approaches to autoimmune thyroid disease are currently hampered by concerns over postoperative complications. Risk profiles and incidences of postoperative complications have not been investigated systematically, and studies with sufficient power to show valid data have not been performed. A prospective multicentre European study was conducted between July 2010 and December 2012. Questionnaires were used to collect data prospectively on patients who had surgery for autoimmune thyroid disease and the findings were compared with those of patients undergoing surgery for multinodular goitre. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for thyroid surgery-specific complications, transient and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy and hypoparathyroidism. Data were available for 22 011 patients, of whom 18 955 were eligible for analysis (2488 who had surgery for autoimmune thyroid disease and 16 467 for multinodular goitre). Surgery for multinodular goitre and that for autoimmune thyroid disease did not differ significantly with regard to general complications. With regard to thyroid surgery-specific complications, the rate of temporary and permanent vocal cord palsy ranged from 2·7 to 6·7 per cent (P = 0·623) and from 0·0 to 1·4 per cent (P = 0·600) respectively, whereas the range for temporary and permanent hypoparathyroidism was 12·9 to 20·0 per cent (P < 0·001) and 0·0 to 7·0 per cent (P < 0·001) respectively. In logistic regression analysis of transient and permanent vocal cord palsy, autoimmune thyroid disease was not an independent risk factor. Autoimmune thyroid disease, extent of thyroid resection, number of identified parathyroid glands and no autotransplantation were identified as independent risk factors for both transient and permanent hypoparathyroidism. Surgery for autoimmune thyroid disease is safe in comparison with surgery for multinodular goitre in terms of general complications and

  9. Integrative analyses of leprosy susceptibility genes indicate a common autoimmune profile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deng-Feng; Wang, Dong; Li, Yu-Ye; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is an ancient chronic infection in the skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The development of leprosy depends on genetic background and the immune status of the host. However, there is no systematic view focusing on the biological pathways, interaction networks and overall expression pattern of leprosy-related immune and genetic factors. To identify the hub genes in the center of leprosy genetic network and to provide an insight into immune and genetic factors contributing to leprosy. We retrieved all reported leprosy-related genes and performed integrative analyses covering gene expression profiling, pathway analysis, protein-protein interaction network, and evolutionary analyses. A list of 123 differentially expressed leprosy related genes, which were enriched in activation and regulation of immune response, was obtained in our analyses. Cross-disorder analysis showed that the list of leprosy susceptibility genes was largely shared by typical autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus and arthritis, suggesting that similar pathways might be affected in leprosy and autoimmune diseases. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) and positive selection analyses revealed a co-evolution network of leprosy risk genes. Our analyses showed that leprosy associated genes constituted a co-evolution network and might undergo positive selection driven by M. leprae. We suggested that leprosy may be a kind of autoimmune disease and the development of leprosy is a matter of defect or over-activation of body immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome-FAS Patients Have an Abnormal Regulatory T Cell (Treg) Phenotype but Display Normal Natural Treg-Suppressive Function on T Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mazerolles, Fabienne; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Pelle, Olivier; Picard, Capucine; Neven, Benedicte; Fischer, Alain; Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) with FAS mutation (ALPS-FAS) is a nonmalignant, noninfectious, lymphoproliferative disease with autoimmunity. Given the central role of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) in the control of lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity, we assessed nTreg-suppressive function in 16 patients with ALPS-FAS. The proportion of CD25 high CD127 low Tregs was lower in ALPS-FAS patients than in healthy controls. This subset was correlated with a reduced CD25 expression in CD3 + CD4 + T cells from ALPS patients and thus an abnormally low proportion of CD25 high FOXP3 + Helios + T cells. The ALPS patients also displayed a high proportion of naïve Treg (FOXP3 low CD45RA + ) and an unusual subpopulation (CD4 + CD127 low CD15s + CD45RA + ). Despite this abnormal phenotype, the CD25 high CD127 low Tregs' suppressive function was unaffected. Furthermore, conventional T cells from FAS -mutated patients showed normal levels of sensitivity to Treg suppression. An abnormal Treg phenotype is observed in circulating lymphocytes of ALPS patients. However, these Tregs displayed a normal suppressive function on T effector proliferation in vitro . This is suggesting that lymphoproliferation observed in ALPS patients does not result from Tregs functional defect or T effector cells insensitivity to Tregs suppression.

  11. Common autoimmune biomarkers, thyroid hormonal abnormalities, and beta cells dysfunction in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults with type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yousefzadeh, Gholamreza; Gozashti, Mohammadhossein; Najafipour, Hamid; Gholamhosseinian, Najar Ahmad; Bahramnejad, Abbas; Shokouhi, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is autoimmune diabetes with a slow progression characterized by the presence of antibodies associated with Type I diabetes. The present study aimed to assess autoimmune characteristics in patients with LADA in Iran. We attempted to obtain a clear view of autoimmune conditions in LADA among our population. This study was sourced from the population-based survey of KERCARDS aiming assessment of cardiovascular risk factors among a great sample of Iranian population who were resident in Kerman, a great province in southern Iran. Among all diabetic patients who were negative for Anti Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) antibody test, 120 were selected as the controls and among 80 patients who were positive for this test diagnosed as LADA, the recorded files of 57 patients were complete considered as the cases. The level of thyroxin is significantly lower in patients with LADA compared with the controls so 73.7% and 45% of patients had normal level of thyroxin, respectively. Also, those with LADA had considerably lower levels of both thyroid peroxydaseantibody (TPO-Ab) and C-peptide when compared with non-LADA group. Using multivariate analyses and with the presence of baseline variables including gender, age, and duration of disease, the diagnosis of LADA was associated with lower serum levels of Anti-TPO, C-peptide, and thyroxin, but not associated with the level of Anti-TTG in serum. LADA patients may face with lower serum levels of C-peptide and thyroid-specific antibodies indicating insulin therapy requirement and authoimmune fundaments of the disease, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. [MMPI-2 profiles in groups of systemic autoimmune disease - rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus - patients].

    PubMed

    Csókási, Krisztina; Hargitai, Rita; Járai, Róbert; Nagy, László; Czirják, László; Kiss, Enikö Csilla

    2015-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are characterized by the alteration of immunological response, which can damage many organs and systems and result in a wide variety of clinical presentations. In addition to physical symptoms, psychiatric disorders are also common to many autoimmune diseases. Anxiety, depression, psychosis and cognitive deficits have the highest prevalence. The aim of this study was to display the degree of psychopathological symptoms in patients with RA and SLE. Female inpatients with RA (N=68) and SLE (N=78) were recruited from the Rheumatology and Immunology Clinic of the University of Pecs and were asked to complete the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and a short demografical form. The clinical personality profiles of the patient groups were explored and compared with each other. High scores (above 64T) were detected on the Hypochondriasis (Hs), Depression (D) and Hysteria (Hy) scales in both groups. Besides, the participants performed elevated scores on the Masculinity-Feminity (Mf), Psychasthenia (Pt) and Social Introversion (Si) clinical scales. They scored in the elevated range on the Physical Malfunctioning, Subjective Depression, Lassitude-Malaise and Somatic Complaints subscales of the neurotic triad. No significant difference was found on the ten clinical scales between the SLE and RA patients. Characteristics of MMPI-2 profiles in SLE and RA patients seem to be the consequence of the disease and a common feature of chronic conditions. High scores on the neurotic triad scales may reflect the comorbid psychiatric disorders and the somatic symptoms alike, so further investigations with the revised Hungarian MMPI-2 are needed.

  13. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study.

    PubMed

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German; Bøås, Håkon; Pepaj, Milaim; Berg, Jens P; Thorsby, Per M; Orešič, Matej; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case children who developed islet autoimmunity (n = 29) and autoantibody-negative control children (n = 29) with the HLA DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2 genotype were analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for detection of small polar metabolites. Plasma metabolite levels were found to depend strongly on age, with fold changes varying up to 50% from age 3 to 24 months (p < 0.001 after correction for multiple testing). Tyrosine levels tended to be lower in case children, but this was not significant after correction for multiple testing. Ornithine levels were lower in case children compared with the controls at the time of seroconversion, but the difference was not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing. Breastfeeding for at least 3 months as compared with shorter duration was associated with higher plasma levels of isoleucine, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid at 3 months of age. Plasma levels of several small, polar metabolites changed with age during early childhood, independent of later islet autoimmunity status and sex. Breastfeeding was associated with higher levels of branched-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia

    PubMed Central

    Poeppl, Timm B.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Despite its 0.5–1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multi-modal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  15. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Autoimmune abnormality affects ovulation and oocyte-pick-up in MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr/lpr mice.

    PubMed

    Hosotani, M; Ichii, O; Nakamura, T; Kanazawa, S O; Elewa, Y Hosny Ali; Kon, Y

    2018-01-01

    Ovulation and oocyte-pick-up are essential processes in fertilization. Herein, we found associations between autoimmune disease and the aforementioned processes in mice. At three and six months, along with the evaluation of autoimmune disease indices, the ovary, mesosalpinx, and oviducts were histologically examined in C57BL/6, MRL/MpJ, and MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr/lpr mice as healthy control, mild and severe models of autoimmune disease, respectively. In superovulated mice, the number of "oocyte cumulus complexes" found in the ampulla was macroscopically counted, and that of "ovulated oocytes" was histologically evaluated, as indicated by ruptured follicles or corpora hemorrhagica in ovaries. Finally, the oocyte-pick-up rate was calculated. In MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr/lpr mice, the oocyte-pick-up rate decreased with disease-related deterioration, unlike in other mouse strains. Further, more ovulated oocytes were found in MRL/MpJ mice than in C57BL/6 mice, and this number significantly decreased with aging in MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr/lpr mice. Numerous T-cells infiltrated into the infundibulum or a part of the mesosalpinx in aged MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr/lpr mice, and their infundibulum showed swelling and fewer ciliated epithelial cells compared to that of C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, the progression of severe autoimmune disease affected the oocyte-pick-up process through histopathological changes in the infundibulum. These results provide important insights into female infertility associated with autoimmune disease.

  17. Profiles of Patients Demonstrating Abnormal Masking Level Difference Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, R. Ray; Waryas, Paul A.

    1985-01-01

    Profiles of three persons (9-11 years old) with extremely reduced masking level difference results (scores which measure binaural release from masking) are reported. It is suggested that tests of the MLD appear to be a useful adjunct of an evaluation battery for patients with presumed auditory perceptual problems. (CL)

  18. Distinct pathophysiological cytokine profiles for discrimination between autoimmune pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ghassem-Zadeh, Sahar; Gaida, Matthias M; Szanyi, Szilard; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Hinz, Ulf; Hackert, Thilo; Strobel, Oliver; Felix, Klaus

    2017-06-02

    Discriminating between autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), chronic pancreatitis (CP), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can be challenging. In this retrospective study, levels of serum and tissue cytokines were analyzed as part of the clinical strategy for the preoperative differentiation between AIP and PDAC. The identification of differential cytokine profiles may help to prevent unnecessary surgical resection and allow optimal treatment of these pathologies. To compare the cytokine profiles of AIP, CP, and PDAC patients, serum and pancreatic tissue homogenates were subjected to multiplex analysis of 17 inflammatory mediators. In total, serum from 73 patients, composed of 29 AIP (14 AIP-1 and 15 AIP-2), 17 CP, and 27 PDAC, and pancreatic tissue from 36 patients, including 12 AIP (six AIP-1 and six AIP-2), 12 CP, and 12 PDAC, were analyzed. Comparing AIP and PDAC patients' serum, significantly higher concentrations were found in AIP for interleukins IL-1β, IL-7, IL-13, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). G-CSF also allowed discrimination of AIP from CP. Furthermore, once AIP was divided into subtypes, significantly higher serum levels for IL-7 and G-CSF were measured in both subtypes of AIP and in AIP-2 for IL-1β when compared to PDAC. G-CSF and TNF-α were also significantly differentially expressed in tissue homogenates between AIP-2 and PDAC. The cytokines IL-1β, IL-7, and G-CSF can be routinely measured in patients' serum, providing an elegant and non-invasive approach for differential diagnosis. G-CSF is a good candidate to supplement the currently known serum markers in predictive tests for AIP and represents a basis for a combined blood test to differentiate AIP and particularly AIP-2 from PDAC, enhancing the possibility of appropriate treatment.

  19. Neuropsychological and FDG-PET profiles in VGKC autoimmune limbic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Iannaccone, Sandro; Marcone, Alessandra; Alongi, Pierpaolo; Crespi, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Andreetta, Francesca; Falini, Andrea; Cappa, Stefano F; Perani, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) is characterized by an acute or subacute onset with memory impairments, confusional state, behavioral disorders, variably associated with seizures and dystonic movements. It is due to inflammatory processes that selectively affect the medial temporal lobe structures. Voltage-gate potassium channel (VGKC) autoantibodies are frequently observed. In this study, we assessed at the individual level FDG-PET brain metabolic dysfunctions and neuropsychological profiles in three autoimmune LE cases seropositive for neuronal VGKC-complex autoantibodies. LGI1 and CASPR2 potassium channel complex autoantibody subtyping was performed. Cognitive abilities were evaluated with an in-depth neuropsychological battery focused on episodic memory and affective recognition/processing skills. FDG-PET data were analyzed at single-subject level according to a standardized and validated voxel-based Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) method. Patients showed severe episodic memory and fear recognition deficits at the neuropsychological assessment. No disorder of mentalizing processing was present. Variable patterns of increases and decreases of brain glucose metabolism emerged in the limbic structures, highlighting the pathology-driven selective vulnerability of this system. Additional involvement of cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the sensorimotor system and basal ganglia, was found. Episodic memory and fear recognition deficits characterize the cognitive profile of LE. Commonalities and differences may occur in the brain metabolic patterns. Single-subject voxel-based analysis of FDG-PET imaging could be useful in the early detection of the metabolic correlates of cognitive and non-cognitive deficits characterizing LE condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal olanzapine toxicokinetic profiles--population pharmacokinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Tylutki, Zofia; Jawień, Wojciech; Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Wilimowska, Jolanta; Anand, Jacek Sein

    2015-01-01

    Olanzapine is widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and it is becoming more frequently responsible for overdoses. Standard pharmacokinetic models do not fit to the toxic concentration data. The aim of present study is to investigate the reasons for an abnormal olanzapine plasma concentration time curve in the range of toxic concentrations. Two hypotheses were verified: entering the enterohepatic cycle, and drug deposition and its desorption from activated charcoal used for gastrointestinal decontamination. One-hundred thirty-five plasma concentration data from 21 patients hospitalized for acute olanzapine poisoning were analyzed with the use of the population pharmacokinetic approach. A non-linear mixed-effects modeling approach with Monolix 4.3.1 was employed. A model assuming gallbladder emptying at irregular intervals was developed. Also, a model that describes desorption of olanzapine from the charcoal surface, in which the dose is divided into two absorbed fractions, was constructed. The analysis has found gastrointestinal decontamination and previous olanzapine treatment, as the significant covariates for toxicokinetic parameters of olanzapine. Our study provides interesting models for investigation of toxic concentration of olanzapine, which may also be used as the basis for further model development for other drugs as well. The investigated population was not large enough to reliably confirm any of the proposed models. It would be well worth continuing this study with more substantial data. Also, any additional information about olanzapine metabolite concentration could be vital.

  1. Autoimmune encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, Frank; Armangue, Thaís; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the continual discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins has changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously unknown or mischaracterized. We review here the process of discovery, the symptoms, and the target antigens of twelve autoimmune encephatilic disorders, grouped by syndromes and approached from a clinical perspective. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis, several subtypes of limbic encephalitis, stiff-person spectrum disorders, and other autoimmune encephalitides that result in psychosis, seizures, or abnormal movements are described in detail. We include a novel encephalopathy with prominent sleep dysfunction that provides an intriguing link between chronic neurodegeneration and cell-surface autoimmunity (IgLON5). Some of the caveats of limited serum testing are outlined. In addition, we review the underlying cellular and synaptic mechanisms that for some disorders confirm the antibody pathogenicity. The multidisciplinary impact of autoimmune encephalitis has been expanded recently by the discovery that herpes simplex encephalitis is a robust trigger of synaptic autoimmunity, and that some patients may develop overlapping syndromes, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica or other demyelinating diseases. PMID:25315420

  2. Th17 cell cytokine secretion profile in host defense and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Graeber, Kristen E; Olsen, Nancy J

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this review is to examine the effector functions of Th17 cells in host defense and autoimmunity. Published literature on Th17 cells was reviewed with a focus on the secreted products that mediate effector activities of these cells. Th17 cells secrete an array of cytokines that contribute to host defense and that bridge the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. When this subset of T cells is dysregulated, autoimmune phenomena develop that contribute to the manifestations of many autoimmune diseases. Th17 cells are positioned at a crossroads between innate and adaptive immunity and provide mediators that are essential for host defense. Current interest in harnessing this system for treatment of autoimmune disease will be challenged by the need to avoid abrogating these many protective functions.

  3. Autoantibody Profiling in a Cohort of Pediatric and Adult Patients With Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Danilo; Girolami, Elia; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Sorrentino, Maria Concetta; Tampoia, Marilina; Brusca, Ignazio; Daves, Massimo; Porcelli, Brunetta; Barberio, Giuseppina; Conte, Mariaelisabetta; Pantarotto, Lisa; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of autoantibodies distinctive of type 1 AIH (AIH-1) and type 2 AIH (AIH-2). The aim of this study was to evaluate the autoantibody profile in a cohort of pediatric and adult AIH patients, using both indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and a new multiplexed line-blot assay. Sera from 63 pediatric and 53 adult AIH patients were tested for antinuclear (ANA), antismooth muscle (SMA), anti-liver kidney microsome 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol 1 (anti-LC1) autoantibodies using IIF methods; for anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, and soluble liver antigen/liver-pancreas (anti-SLA/LP) autoantibodies using the line-blot; for anti-F-actin autoantibodies using IIF both on VSM47 cell-line and on rat intestinal epithelial cells. AIH-1 was the most common type of AIH in the adult cohort (73.6%), while AIH-2 was the most common AIH in the pediatric cohort (61.9%). Both in adult and pediatric AIH-2 anti-LKM1 were the prevalent autoantibodies. In pediatric AIH-2 anti-LC1 autoantibodies were more frequent than in adult AIH-2 (59 vs. 28.6%), and in 35.9% of cases they were present alone. In 17 patients anti-LC1 autoantibodies were detected only with the line-blot assay. The levels of anti-LKM1 and of anti-LC1 were not different between adult and pediatric AIH, and the overall agreement between the results obtained with the two IIF methods for F-actin detection was 98.8% (CI 95%: 94.4-99.7%). The line-blot assay showed a higher sensitivity than IIF for anti-LC1 detection. Anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1 autoantibody levels are not different in adults and children. An almost perfect agreement between the two IIF methods for anti-F-actin detection has been observed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dysregulated RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) Assembly within CNS Corresponds with Abnormal miRNA Expression during Autoimmune Demyelination.

    PubMed

    Lewkowicz, Przemysław; Cwiklińska, Hanna; Mycko, Marcin P; Cichalewska, Maria; Domowicz, Małgorzata; Lewkowicz, Natalia; Jurewicz, Anna; Selmaj, Krzysztof W

    2015-05-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) associate with Argonaute (Ago), GW182, and FXR1 proteins to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). RISCs represent a critical checkpoint in the regulation and bioavailability of miRNAs. Recent studies have revealed dysregulation of miRNAs in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); however, the function of RISCs in EAE and MS is largely unknown. Here, we examined the expression of Ago, GW182, and FXR1 in CNS tissue, oligodendrocytes (OLs), brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, and CD3(+)splenocytes (SCs) of EAE mic, and found that global RISC protein levels were significantly dysregulated. Specifically, Ago2 and FXR1 levels were decreased in OLs and brain-infiltrating T cells in EAE mice. Accordingly, assembly of Ago2/GW182/FXR1 complexes in EAE brain tissues was disrupted, as confirmed by immunoprecipitation experiments. In parallel with alterations in RISC complex content in OLs, we found downregulation of miRNAs essential for differentiation and survival of OLs and myelin synthesis. In brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, aberrant RISC formation contributed to miRNA-dependent proinflammatory helper T-cell polarization. In CD3(+) SCs, we found increased expression of both Ago2 and FXR1 in EAE compared with nonimmunized mice. Therefore, our results demonstrate a gradient in expression of miRNA between primary activated T cells in the periphery and polarized CNS-infiltrating T cells. These results suggest that, in polarized autoreactive effector T cells, miRNA synthesis is inhibited in response to dysregulated RISC assembly, allowing these cells to maintain a highly specific proinflammatory program. Therefore, our findings may provide a mechanism that leads to miRNA dysregulation in EAE/MS. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357521-17$15.00/0.

  5. Clinical and metabolic profile of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults in specialized care in Madrid.

    PubMed

    Arranz Martín, Alfonso; Lecumberri Pascual, Edurne; Brito Sanfiel, Miguel Ángel; Andía Melero, Víctor; Nattero Chavez, Lia; Sánchez López, Iván; Cánovas Molina, Gloria; Arrieta Blanco, Francisco; González Perez Del Villar, Noemí

    2017-01-01

    To report the clinical characteristics of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), and to ascertain their metabolic control and associated chronic complications. Patients with DM attending specialized medical care in Madrid who met the following criteria: age at diagnosis of DM >30years, initial insulin independence for at least 6months and positive GAD antibodies were enrolled. Clinical profiles, data on LADA diagnosis, associated autoimmunity, C-peptide levels, therapeutic regimen, metabolic control, and presence of chronic complications were analyzed. Number of patients; 193; 56% females. Family history of DM: 62%. Age at DM diagnosis: 49years. Delay in confirmation of LADA: 3.5years. Insulin-independence time: 12months. Baseline serum C-peptide levels: 0.66ng/ml. Basal-bolus regimen: 76.7%. Total daily dose: 35.1U/day, corresponding to 0.51U/Kg. With no associated oral antidiabetic drugs: 33.5%. Other autoimmune diseases: 57%. Fasting plasma glucose: 160.5mg/dL. HbA1c: 7.7%. BMI: 25.4kg/m 2 (overweight, 31.5%; obesity, 8%). Blood pressure: 128/75. HDL cholesterol: 65mg/dL. LDL cholesterol: 96mg/dL. Triglycerides: 89mg/dL. Known chronic complications: 28%. Recognition of LADA may be delayed by several years. There is a heterogeneous pancreatic insulin reserve which is negative related to glycemic parameters. Most patients are poorly controlled despite intensive insulin therapy. They often have overweight, but have adequate control of BP and lipid profile and a low incidence of macrovascular complications. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered DNA methylation profile in Norwegian patients with Autoimmune Addison's Disease.

    PubMed

    Bjanesoy, Trine E; Andreassen, Bettina Kulle; Bratland, Eirik; Reiner, Andrew; Islam, Shahinul; Husebye, Eystein S; Bakke, Marit

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's Disease (AAD) is an endocrine and immunological disease of uncertain pathogenesis resulting from the immune system's destruction of the hormone producing cells of the adrenal cortex. The underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown, but it is commonly accepted that a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental impact is critical. In the present study, we identified multiple hypomethylated gene promoter regions in patients with isolated AAD using DNA isolated from CD4+ T cells. The identified differentially methylated regions were distributed evenly across the 10.5-kb-promoter regions covered by the array, and a substantial number localized to promoters of genes involved in immune regulation and autoimmunity. This study reveals a hypomethylated status in CD4+ T cells from AAD patients and indicates differential methylation of promoters of key genes involved in immune responses. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. An enhanced postnatal autoimmune profile in 24 week-old C57BL/6 mice developmentally exposed to TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, A.; Holladay, S.D.; Goff, M.

    Developmental exposure of mice to the environmental contaminant and AhR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes persistent postnatal suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses. The extent to which prenatal TCDD may induce or exacerbate postnatal autoimmune disease remains unknown. In the present study, time-pregnant high affinity AhR C57BL/6 mice received a single oral administration of 0, 2.5, or 5 {mu}g/kg TCDD on gestation day (gd) 12. Offspring of these mice (n = 5/gender/treatment) were evaluated at 24 weeks-of-age and showed considerable immune dysregulation that was often gender-specific. Decreased thymic weight and percentages of CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} thymocytes, and increased CD4{sup +}CD8{sup -}more » thymocytes, were present in the female but not male offspring. Males but not females showed decreased CD4{sup -}CD8{sup +} T cells, and increased V{beta}3{sup +} and V{beta}17a{sup +} T cells, in the spleen. Males but not females also showed increased percentages of bone marrow CD24{sup -}B220{sup +} B cell progenitors. Antibody titers to dsDNA, ssDNA and cardiolipin displayed increasing trends in both male and female mice, reaching significance for anti-dsDNA in both genders and for ssDNA in males at 5 {mu}g/kg TCDD. Immunofluorescent staining of IgG and C3 deposition in kidney glomeruli increased in both genders of prenatal TCDD-exposed mice, suggestive of early stages of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Collectively, these results show that exposure to TCDD during immune system development causes persistent humoral immune dysregulation as well as altered cell-mediated responses, and induces an adult profile of changes suggestive of increased risk for autoimmune disease.« less

  8. Manipulating membrane lipid profiles to restore T-cell function in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Kirsty E; Jury, Elizabeth C

    2015-08-01

    Plasma membrane lipid rafts are heterogeneous cholesterol and glycosphingolipid (GSL)-enriched microdomains, within which the tight packing of cholesterol with the saturated-acyl chains of GSLs creates a region of liquid-order relative to the surrounding disordered membrane. Thus lipid rafts govern the lateral mobility and interaction of membrane proteins and regulate a plethora of signal transduction events, including T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signalling. The pathways regulating homoeostasis of membrane cholesterol and GSLs are tightly controlled and alteration of these metabolic processes coincides with immune cell dysfunction as is evident in atherosclerosis, cancer and autoimmunity. Indeed, membrane lipid composition is emerging as an important factor influencing the ability of cells to respond appropriately to microenvironmental stimuli. Consequently, there is increasing interest in targeting membrane lipids or their metabolic control as a novel therapeutic approach to modulate immune cell behaviour and our recent work demonstrates that this is a promising strategy in T-cells from patients with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  9. Synthetic profiles of polypeptides of human oocytes and normal and abnormal preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Capmany, G; Bolton, V N

    1999-09-01

    There is considerable variation in the rate of development in vitro of individual preimplantation human embryos. The relationship between the rate of development and patterns of polypeptide synthesis in individual embryos was examined using SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. After incubation in [35S]methionine, 19 polypeptide bands were identified that change between fertilization and the morula stage. Although changes in two of the bands occurred in embryos that were developing normally and in ageing oocytes, and are thus independent of fertilization, the changes identified in the remaining 17 bands occurred only after fertilization. In embryos that were developing abnormally, as assessed by delayed cleavage, cleavage arrest or extensive fragmentation, the alteration in polypeptide synthetic profiles increased with increasing abnormality.

  10. Limited evidence of abnormal intra-colonic pressure profiles in diverticular disease - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jaung, R; Robertson, J; O'Grady, G; Milne, T; Rowbotham, D; Bissett, I P

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal colonic pressure profiles and high intraluminal pressures are postulated to contribute to the formation of sigmoid colon diverticulosis and the pathophysiology of diverticular disease. This study aimed to review evidence for abnormal colonic pressure profiles in diverticulosis. All published studies investigating colonic pressure in patients with diverticulosis were searched in three databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus). No language restrictions were applied. Any manometry studies in which patients with diverticulosis were compared with controls were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) for case-control studies was used as a measure of risk of bias. A cut-off of five or more points on the NOS (fair quality in terms of risk of bias) was chosen for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Ten studies (published 1962-2005) met the inclusion criteria. The studies followed a wide variety of protocols and all used low-resolution manometry (sensor spacing range 7.5-15 cm). Six studies compared intra-sigmoid pressure, with five of six showing higher pressure in diverticulosis vs controls, but only two reached statistical significance. A meta-analysis was not performed as only two studies were above the cut-off and these did not have comparable outcomes. This systematic review of manometry data shows that evidence for abnormal pressure in the sigmoid colon in patients with diverticulosis is weak. Existing studies utilized inconsistent methodology, showed heterogeneous results and are of limited quality. Higher quality studies using modern manometric techniques and standardized reporting methods are needed to clarify the role of colonic pressure in diverticulosis. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Difference in clinical presentation, immunology profile and treatment response of type 1 autoimmune hepatitis between United Kingdom and Singapore patients.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Ching, Doreen Koay Siew; Hodson, James; McDowell, Patrick; Mann, Jake; Gupta, Ravi; Salazar, Ennaliza; Ngu, Jing Hieng; Oo, Ye Htun

    2016-07-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an immune-mediated liver disease of unknown etiology. Increasing incidence of AIH in Asian patients has been reported. However, the phenotypic difference of Asian patients in Europe and Asia has still not been explored. To evaluate the clinical presentation, biochemical and immunological profiles, treatment response and survival outcome of type 1 AIH from two tertiary liver transplant centres (United Kingdom and Singapore). Patients who fulfilled the simplified diagnostic scoring criteria of AIH were included in the study. Patients with overlap syndrome were excluded. Totals of 40 Asian patients and 159 Caucasian patients from the University Hospital of Birmingham National Health Service Foundation Trust, UK, were compared with 57 Asian patients from Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Asian patients from Singapore present significantly much later (median 55 vs. 32 years, p < 0.001), had higher MELD (p < 0.001) with lower albumin (p < 0.001) and higher bilirubin (p < 0.001) and lower ASMA positivity (p < 0.001) at diagnosis compared to UK Asian. Jaundice at presentation was much higher in Singapore Asian patients compared to UK Asian (53 vs. 30 %) but cirrhosis at diagnosis was more common in UK patients. Associated autoimmune conditions were less commonly seen in Singapore Asians. Comparing between UK cohorts, Asian patients present at younger age and have higher IgG level compared to Caucasian. Overall, 5-year transplant-free survival in all three cohorts was similar (p = 0.846). We demonstrate that AIH patients from Singapore present at older age with jaundice and have a low positivity of SMA. Despite these differences, transplant-free survival is similar in the two groups.

  12. Association between abnormal nocturnal blood pressure profile and dementia in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryota; Shimo, Yasushi; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Ogawa, Takashi; Nishioka, Kenya; Oyama, Genko; Umemura, Atsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2018-01-01

    Circadian blood pressure alterations are frequently observed in Parkinson's disease, but the association between these changes and dementia in the condition remains unclear. Here, we assess the relationship between abnormal nocturnal blood pressure profiles and dementia in Parkinson's disease. We enrolled 137 patients with Parkinson's disease, who underwent 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, following cognitive and clinical assessment. Twenty-seven patients (19.7%) were diagnosed with dementia in this cohort. We observed significant associations of dementia with age, male gender, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) stage, diabetes mellitus, history of stroke, presence of cerebrovascular lesions on MRI, and orthostatic hypotension. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that among the patterns of nocturnal blood pressure profiles, the riser pattern was significantly associated with dementia (OR 11.6, 95%CI: 2.14-215.0, P < 0.01), and this trend was observed after adjusting for all confounding factors except orthostatic hypotension (OR 19.2, 95%CI: 1.12-1960.3, P = 0.04). However, coexistence of a riser pattern and orthostatic hypotension was related to a higher prevalence of dementia (45.2%) than was a riser pattern alone (9.5%). Furthermore, coexistence of a riser pattern and orthostatic hypotension was significantly more associated with dementia than was a riser pattern alone, even after adjusting for confounders (OR 1625.1, 95%CI: 21.9-1343909.5, P < 0.01). Our results suggest a relationship between a riser pattern coexisting with orthostatic hypotension and dementia in Parkinson's disease. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate whether abnormal nocturnal blood pressure profiles predict dementia in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical profiles, endoscopic and laboratory features and associated factors in patients with autoimmune gastritis.

    PubMed

    Soykan, Irfan; Yakut, Mustafa; Keskin, Onur; Bektaş, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune gastritis (AIG) may predispose to gastric carcinoid tumors or adenocarcinomas and may also cause unexplained iron and/or vitamin B(12) deficiency. The aims of this study were to explore clinical manifestations, endoscopic findings and laboratory features of patients with AIG. 109 patients with AIG were enrolled into the study. In addition to demographic and clinical data, gastric lesions, serum gastrin, vitamin B(12), antiparietal cell antibody (APA), current Helicobacter pylori status, and anti-H. pylori IgG were also investigated. The mean age of the patients was 53.06 ± 12.7 years (range 24-81; 72 (66.1%) women). The most common main presenting symptom was abdominal symptoms in 51 patients, consultation for iron and/or vitamin B(12) deficiency in 36, and non-specific symptoms including intermittent diarrhea in 15 patients. Endoscopic lesions were detected in 17 patients, hyperplastic polyps in 8, gastric carcinoid tumor in 4, fundic gland polyps in 3, and adenomatous polyps in 2 patients. H. pylori was negative in all patients in biopsy specimens; however, anti-H. pylori IgG was positive in 30 (27.5%) patients. 91 patients (83.4%) were positive for APA. In patients with AIG, the main symptoms prompted for clinical investigation were: abdominal symptoms, iron/B(12) deficiency and non-specific symptoms. 20% of patients with AIG had various gastric lesions including type I gastric carcinoids. None of the patients were positive for H. pylori by means of invasive tests; however, anti-H. pylori IgG was found in 27.5% of patients. Patients referring with non-specific abdominal symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea and iron/B(12) deficiency should be investigated for the presence of AIG. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Abnormal thymic maturation and lymphoproliferation in MRL-Fas lpr/lpr mice can be partially reversed by synthetic oligonucleotides: implications for systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ashman, R F; Singh, N; Lenert, P S

    2017-06-01

    MRL-Fas lpr/lpr mice represent an excellent animal model for studying non-malignant lymphoproliferation, regeneration and systemic autoimmunity. Retro-transposon insertion into the second intron of the pro-apoptotic Fas gene appears to be responsible for both lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity, while other genes are more likely to contribute to the regenerative healing characteristic of this mouse strain. Previous studies have shown that neonatal thymectomy can halt the development of abnormal lymphoproliferation. Whereas at four weeks of age primary and secondary lymphoid organs appear to be grossly intact, vigorous lymphoproliferation and autoantibody production subsequently ensues. This is first noticeable at six weeks of age, at which time lymph nodes, spleens and thymuses, but not the bone marrow, become infiltrated with abnormal B220 + CD3 + CD4 - CD8 - T cells. Around the same time, thymuses show a significant drop in CD4 + CD8 + double-positive T cells generating an abnormal ratio between double-positive and single-positive thymocytes. The objective of current study was to evaluate the effect of synthetic oligonucleotides-toll-like receptor antagonists on early lymphoid development in this strain of mice. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of synthetic oligonucleotides made with the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate backbone to partially reverse abnormal lymphoproliferation and thymic involution in pre-diseased MRL-Fas lpr/lpr mice when administered intraperitoneally starting from week four of age. This curative effect of oligonucleotides was primary sequence/secondary oligonucleotide structure-independent, suggesting an effect through the toll-like receptor 7. A similar approach may potentially benefit patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome who, like MRL-Fas lpr/lpr mice, carry a mutation in the Fas gene.

  15. Abnormal Circadian Blood Pressure Profile as a Prognostic Marker in Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Akinori; Okumura, Takahiro; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Watanabe, Naoki; Kano, Naoaki; Mori, Hiroaki; Fukaya, Kenji; Morimoto, Ryota; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Bando, Yasuko Kureishi; Murohara, Toyoaki

    An abnormal circadian blood pressure (BP) profile is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its significance in heart failure patients with nonischemic etiology is unknown. Herein, we investigated the prognostic value of a circadian BP profile in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). We enrolled 114 NIDCM patients (76 males, mean age 53.1 years). The percent nighttime BP fall (%NBPF) was defined using ambulatory BP monitoring as a percent decrease in mean systolic BP in nighttime from daytime. All patients were divided into three groups: dipper (%NBPF ≥10), non-dipper (0 ≤ %NBPF < 10), and riser (%NBPF <0). Riser patients had the highest serum creatinine levels (dipper, 0.78 ± 0.20 mg/dl; non-dipper, 0.85 ± 0.21 mg/dl; riser, 0.99 ± 0.23 mg/dl; p = 0.006). In survival analysis, riser patients had the highest cumulative cardiac-related deaths (log-rank, p = 0.001), which was an independent predictor of cardiac-related deaths (hazard ratio, 12.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-253; p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that the norepinephrine level at 24-hour collected urine (24 h U-NE) and the serum creatinine level were independent determinants of %NBPF (adjusted R2 = 0.20; 24 h U-NE, p = 0.0001; serum creatinine, p = 0.04). The riser profile was associated with poor prognosis of NIDCM, which may reflect impaired sympathetic nervous system activity. Evaluating the circadian BP profile may be useful for risk stratification in NIDCM patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Clinical profiles and outcomes in idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis (type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis): the Mayo Clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Hart, Phil A; Levy, Michael J; Smyrk, Thomas C; Takahashi, Naoki; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Clain, Jonathan E; Gleeson, Ferga C; Pearson, Randall K; Petersen, Bret T; Topazian, Mark D; Vege, Santhi S; Zhang, Lizhi; Chari, Suresh T

    2016-10-01

    Idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis (IDCP), also known as type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), is an uncommon subtype of AIP. International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for IDCP propose that the diagnosis requires pancreatic histology and/or concurrent IBD. We examined our experience with IDCP (type 2 AIP) to assess the appropriateness of these criteria, and identify unique characteristics in patients presenting with acute pancreatitis. We reviewed the Mayo Clinic AIP database through May 2014 to identify subjects with either definitive (n=31) or probable (n=12) IDCP. We compared demographic and clinical factors based on strength of diagnostic confidence (definitive versus probable), presence of IBD, and acute pancreatitis as the presenting manifestation. Relapse-free survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. The clinical profiles were similar irrespective of the diagnostic criteria fulfilled. Common clinical presentations included acute pancreatitis (n=25, 58.1%, 12 of whom (27.9%) had recurrent pancreatitis) and pancreatic mass/obstructive jaundice (n=15, 34.9%). The cumulative relapse rate was 10.6% at 3 years (median follow-up 2.9 years). Relapse-free survival was similar for the different diagnostic categories, but was decreased in those initially presenting with acute pancreatitis (p=0.047) or treated with steroids (vs surgery, p=0.049). The current diagnostic classification of probable IDCP and the inclusion of IBD as a supportive criterion appear valid, because patients have similar clinical profiles and disease-related outcomes to those with definitive IDCP. Concurrent IBD, especially in young patients, may suggest when IDCP is the underlying cause of recurrent acute pancreatitis, but additional studies are needed for validation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Evaluation of autoimmune thyroid disease in melasma.

    PubMed

    Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Iranparvar Alamdari, Manouchehr; Maleki, Nasrollah; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Abedkouhi, Selma

    2015-06-01

    Melasma is one of the most frequently acquired hyperpigmentation disorders clinically characterized by symmetrical brown patches on sun-exposed areas. To date, few studies have been conducted about the relationship between thyroid autoimmun-ity and melasma. To evaluate the thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in nonpregnant women with melasma. A total of 70 women with melasma and 70 age-matched healthy women with no history of melasma were enrolled in the study. We studied the thyroid hormone profile in both groups. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Patients with melasma had 18.5% frequency of thyroid disorders, and 15.7% had positive anti-TPO, while subjects from the control group had a 4.3% frequency of thyroid abnormalities, and only 5.7% had positive anti-TPO. There was a significantly higher prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in women with melasma compared with control group (P = 0.008). This study suggests that there is a relationship between thyroid autoimmunity and melasma. However, to make recommendations on screening for thyroid disease in patients with melasma, future research of good methodological quality is needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The emerging role of autoimmunity in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/cfs).

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Galecki, Piotr; Maes, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The World Health Organization classifies myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/cfs) as a nervous system disease. Together with other diseases under the G93 heading, ME/cfs shares a triad of abnormalities involving elevated oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways, and mitochondrial dysfunctions with depleted levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. There is also abundant evidence that many patients with ME/cfs (up to around 60 %) may suffer from autoimmune responses. A wide range of reported abnormalities in ME/cfs are highly pertinent to the generation of autoimmunity. Here we review the potential sources of autoimmunity which are observed in people with ME/cfs. The increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and increased levels of nuclear factor-κB predispose to an autoimmune environment. Many cytokine abnormalities conspire to produce a predominance of effector B cells and autoreactive T cells. The common observation of reduced natural killer cell function in ME/cfs is a source of disrupted homeostasis and prolonged effector T cell survival. B cells may be pathogenic by playing a role in autoimmunity independent of their ability to produce antibodies. The chronic or recurrent viral infections seen in many patients with ME/cfs can induce autoimmunity by mechanisms involving molecular mimicry and bystander activation. Increased bacterial translocation, as observed in ME/cfs, is known to induce chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Low ATP production and mitochondrial dysfunction is a source of autoimmunity by inhibiting apoptosis and stimulating necrotic cell death. Self-epitopes may be damaged by exposure to prolonged O&NS, altering their immunogenic profile and become a target for the host's immune system. Nitric oxide may induce many faces of autoimmunity stemming from elevated mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization and blockade of the

  19. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  20. Balancing selection is common in the extended MHC region but most alleles with opposite risk profile for autoimmune diseases are neutrally evolving

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several susceptibility genetic variants for autoimmune diseases have been identified. A subset of these polymorphisms displays an opposite risk profile in different autoimmune conditions. This observation open interesting questions on the evolutionary forces shaping the frequency of these alleles in human populations. We aimed at testing the hypothesis whereby balancing selection has shaped the frequency of opposite risk alleles. Results Since balancing selection signatures are expected to extend over short genomic portions, we focused our analyses on 11 regions carrying putative functional polymorphisms that may represent the disease variants (and the selection targets). No exceptional nucleotide diversity was observed for ZSCAN23, HLA-DMB, VARS2, PTPN22, BAT3, C6orf47, and IL10; summary statistics were consistent with evolutionary neutrality for these gene regions. Conversely, CDSN/PSORS1C1, TRIM10/TRIM40, BTNL2, and TAP2 showed extremely high nucleotide diversity and most tests rejected neutrality, suggesting the action of balancing selection. For TAP2 and BTNL2 these signatures are not secondary to linkage disequilibrium with HLA class II genes. Nonetheless, with the exception of variants in TRIM40 and CDSN, our data suggest that opposite risk SNPs are not selection targets but rather have accumulated as neutral variants. Conclusion Data herein indicate that balancing selection is common within the extended MHC region and involves several non-HLA loci. Yet, the evolutionary history of most SNPs with an opposite effect for autoimmune diseases is consistent with evolutionary neutrality. We suggest that variants with an opposite effect on autoimmune diseases should not be considered a distinct class of disease alleles from the evolutionary perspective and, in a few cases, the opposite effect on distinct diseases may derive from complex haplotype structures in regions with high genetic diversity. PMID:21682861

  1. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Autoimmune gastritis.

    PubMed

    Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie

    2016-10-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with destruction of parietal cells of the corpus and fundus of the stomach. The known consequence is vitamin B12 deficiency and, consequently, pernicious anemia. However, loss of parietal cells reduces secretion of gastric acid which is also required for absorption of inorganic iron; thus, iron deficiency is commonly found in patients with autoimmune gastritis. This usually precedes vitamin B12 deficiency and is found mainly in young women. Patients with chronic iron deficiency, especially those refractory to oral iron therapy, should therefore be evaluated for the presence of autoimmune gastritis.

  3. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... exact cause of autoimmune disorders is unknown. One theory is that some microorganisms (such as bacteria or ... the thyroid or pancreas Joints Muscles Red blood cells Skin A person may have more than one ...

  4. Autoimmune encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Newman, M P; Blum, S; Wong, R C W; Scott, J G; Prain, K; Wilson, R J; Gillis, D

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade, the clinical spectrum of autoimmune encephalitis has expanded with the emergence of several new clinicopathological entities. In particular, autoimmune encephalitis has recently been described in association with antibodies to surface receptors and ion channels on neurological tissues. Greater clinician awareness has resulted in autoimmune encephalitis being increasingly recognised in patients with unexplained neurological and psychiatric symptoms and signs. The clinical spectrum of presentations, as well as our understanding of disease mechanisms and treatment regimens, is rapidly developing. An understanding of these conditions is important to all subspecialties of Internal Medicine, including neurology and clinical immunology, psychiatry, intensive care and rehabilitation medicine. This review provides a contemporary overview of the aetiology, investigations and treatment of the most recently described autoimmune encephalitides. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Gene Expression Profiles from Disease Discordant Twins Suggest Shared Antiviral Pathways and Viral Exposures among Multiple Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; O'Hanlon, Terrance P; Lai, Zhennan; Fannin, Rick; Weller, Melodie L; Rider, Lisa G; Chiorini, John A; Miller, Frederick W

    2015-01-01

    Viral agents are of interest as possible autoimmune triggers due to prior reported associations and widely studied molecular mechanisms of antiviral immune responses in autoimmunity. Here we examined new viral candidates for the initiation and/or promotion of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), as well as possible related signaling pathways shared in the pathogenesis of those disorders. RNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 33 twins discordant for SAID and 33 matched, unrelated healthy controls was analyzed using a custom viral-human gene microarray. Paired comparisons were made among three study groups-probands with SAID, their unaffected twins, and matched, unrelated healthy controls-using statistical and molecular pathway analyses. Probands and unaffected twins differed significantly in the expression of 537 human genes, and 107 of those were associated with viral infections. These 537 differentially expressed human genes participate in overlapping networks of several canonical, biologic pathways relating to antiviral responses and inflammation. Moreover, certain viral genes were expressed at higher levels in probands compared to either unaffected twins or unrelated, healthy controls. Interestingly, viral gene expression levels in unaffected twins appeared intermediate between those of probands and the matched, unrelated healthy controls. Of the viruses with overexpressed viral genes, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) was the only human viral pathogen identified using four distinct oligonucleotide probes corresponding to three HSV-2 genes associated with different stages of viral infection. Although the effects from immunosuppressive therapy on viral gene expression remain unclear, this exploratory study suggests a new approach to evaluate shared viral agents and antiviral immune responses that may be involved in the development of SAID.

  6. Gene Expression Profiles from Disease Discordant Twins Suggest Shared Antiviral Pathways and Viral Exposures among Multiple Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Lai, Zhennan; Fannin, Rick; Weller, Melodie L.; Rider, Lisa G.; Chiorini, John A.; Miller, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    Viral agents are of interest as possible autoimmune triggers due to prior reported associations and widely studied molecular mechanisms of antiviral immune responses in autoimmunity. Here we examined new viral candidates for the initiation and/or promotion of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), as well as possible related signaling pathways shared in the pathogenesis of those disorders. RNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 33 twins discordant for SAID and 33 matched, unrelated healthy controls was analyzed using a custom viral-human gene microarray. Paired comparisons were made among three study groups—probands with SAID, their unaffected twins, and matched, unrelated healthy controls—using statistical and molecular pathway analyses. Probands and unaffected twins differed significantly in the expression of 537 human genes, and 107 of those were associated with viral infections. These 537 differentially expressed human genes participate in overlapping networks of several canonical, biologic pathways relating to antiviral responses and inflammation. Moreover, certain viral genes were expressed at higher levels in probands compared to either unaffected twins or unrelated, healthy controls. Interestingly, viral gene expression levels in unaffected twins appeared intermediate between those of probands and the matched, unrelated healthy controls. Of the viruses with overexpressed viral genes, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) was the only human viral pathogen identified using four distinct oligonucleotide probes corresponding to three HSV-2 genes associated with different stages of viral infection. Although the effects from immunosuppressive therapy on viral gene expression remain unclear, this exploratory study suggests a new approach to evaluate shared viral agents and antiviral immune responses that may be involved in the development of SAID. PMID:26556803

  7. Autoimmune gastritis: Pathologist's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Coati, Irene; Fassan, Matteo; Farinati, Fabio; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M; Rugge, Massimo

    2015-11-14

    Western countries are seeing a constant decline in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, coupled with a rising epidemiological and clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. This latter gastropathy is due to autoimmune aggression targeting parietal cells through a complex interaction of auto-antibodies against the parietal cell proton pump and intrinsic factor, and sensitized T cells. Given the specific target of this aggression, autoimmune gastritis is typically restricted to the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa. In advanced cases, the oxyntic epithelia are replaced by atrophic (and metaplastic) mucosa, creating the phenotypic background in which both gastric neuroendocrine tumors and (intestinal-type) adenocarcinomas may develop. Despite improvements in our understanding of the phenotypic changes or cascades occurring in this autoimmune setting, no reliable biomarkers are available for identifying patients at higher risk of developing a gastric neoplasm. The standardization of autoimmune gastritis histology reports and classifications in diagnostic practice is a prerequisite for implementing definitive secondary prevention strategies based on multidisciplinary diagnostic approaches integrating endoscopy, serology, histology and molecular profiling.

  8. Global gene expression profiling related to temperature-sensitive growth abnormalities in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Kouhei; Ohno, Ryoko; Yoshida, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Triploid wheat hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii sometimes show abnormal growth phenotypes, and the growth abnormalities inhibit generation of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In type II necrosis, one of the growth abnormalities, necrotic cell death accompanied by marked growth repression occurs only under low temperature conditions. At normal temperature, the type II necrosis lines show grass-clump dwarfism with no necrotic symptoms, excess tillers, severe dwarfism and delayed flowering. Here, we report comparative expression analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in the triploid wheat hybrids. We compared gene and small RNA expression profiles in crown tissues to characterize the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity. No up-regulation of defense-related genes was observed under the normal temperature, and down-regulation of wheat APETALA1-like MADS-box genes, considered to act as flowering promoters, was found in the grass-clump dwarf lines. Some microRNAs, including miR156, were up-regulated, whereas the levels of transcripts of the miR156 target genes SPLs, known to inhibit tiller and branch number, were reduced in crown tissues of the grass-clump dwarf lines at the normal temperature. Unusual expression of the miR156/SPLs module could explain the grass-clump dwarf phenotype. Dramatic alteration of gene expression profiles, including miRNA levels, in crown tissues is associated with the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in type II necrosis/grass-clump dwarf wheat hybrids. PMID:28463975

  9. Autoimmunity in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Bonvalet, Melodie; Ollila, Hanna M; Ambati, Aditya; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Summarize the recent findings in narcolepsy focusing on the environmental and genetic risk factors in disease development. Both genetic and epidemiological evidence point towards an autoimmune mechanism in the destruction of orexin/hypocretin neurons. Recent studies suggest both humoral and cellular immune responses in the disease development. Narcolepsy is a severe sleep disorder, in which neurons producing orexin/hypocretin in the hypothalamus are destroyed. The core symptoms of narcolepsy are debilitating, extreme sleepiness, cataplexy, and abnormalities in the structure of sleep. Both genetic and epidemiological evidence point towards an autoimmune mechanism in the destruction of orexin/hypocretin neurons. Importantly, the highest environmental risk is seen with influenza-A infection and immunization. However, how the cells are destroyed is currently unknown. In this review we summarize the disease symptoms, and focus on the immunological findings in narcolepsy. We also discuss the environmental and genetic risk factors as well as propose a model for disease development.

  10. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    1996-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an inflammatory liver disease in which the immune system is believed to orchestrate an immune attack onto the liver cell. Current knowledge suggests that both T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2 programmes are involved in the generation of the liver damage. Release of TH2 cytokines leads to the production of autoantibodies to the hepatocyte membrane that recruit killer cells. TH1 cytokines induce macrophage activation which contributes to hepatocyte destruction. Patients commonly possess the "autoimmune" HLA A1/B8/DR3 haplotype and a silent gene at the C4A locus with consequent partial deficiency of the complement component C4. Two main types of autoimmune hepatitis are recognised according to the presence of circulating non-organ specific autoantibodies. Patients with smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody may be adults or children, while patients with antiliver kidney microsomal type 1 (LKM1) antibody are usually children or very young adults. In both types there is a preponderance of females. LKM1 antibody is also present in a proportion of adult patients, mainly male, with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This observation originally led to the suggestion that hepatitis C virus may be the cause of this form of autoimmune hepatitis, but several studies have shown that the epitopes target of the LKM1 antibody in autoimmune hepatitis and chronic hepatitis C virus infection differ. Although autoimmune hepatitis responds satisfactorily to immunosuppression in the short term, progression to cirrhosis is frequent. It is hoped that ongoing research will provide a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of liver damage leading to a more effective and specific mode of treatment.

  11. Autoimmune synaptopathies.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Sarah J; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Vincent, Angela

    2016-02-01

    Autoantibodies targeting proteins at the neuromuscular junction are known to cause several distinct myasthenic syndromes. Recently, autoantibodies targeting neurotransmitter receptors and associated proteins have also emerged as a cause of severe, but potentially treatable, diseases of the CNS. Here, we review the clinical evidence as well as in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence that autoantibodies account for myasthenic syndromes and autoimmune disorders of the CNS by disrupting the functional or structural integrity of synapses. Studying neurological and psychiatric diseases of autoimmune origin may provide new insights into the cellular and circuit mechanisms underlying a broad range of CNS disorders.

  12. Bell's palsy and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Greco, A; Gallo, A; Fusconi, M; Marinelli, C; Macri, G F; de Vincentiis, M

    2012-12-01

    To review our current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of Bell's palsy, including viral infection or autoimmunity, and to discuss disease pathogenesis with respect to pharmacotherapy. Relevant publications on the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and histopathology of Bell's palsy from 1975 to 2012 were analysed. Bell's palsy is an idiopathic peripheral nerve palsy involving the facial nerve. It accounts for 60 to 75% of all cases of unilateral facial paralysis. The annual incidence of Bell's palsy is 15 to 30 per 100,000 people. The peak incidence occurs between the second and fourth decades (15 to 45 years). The aetiology of Bell's palsy is unknown but viral infection or autoimmune disease has been postulated as possible pathomechanisms. Bell's palsy may be caused when latent herpes viruses (herpes simplex, herpes zoster) are reactivated from cranial nerve ganglia. A cell-mediated autoimmune mechanism against a myelin basic protein has been suggested for the pathogenesis of Bell's palsy. Bell's palsy may be an autoimmune demyelinating cranial neuritis, and in most cases, it is a mononeuritic variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurologic disorder with recognised cell-mediated immunity against peripheral nerve myelin antigens. In Bell's palsy and GBS, a viral infection or the reactivation of a latent virus may provoke an autoimmune reaction against peripheral nerve myelin components, leading to the demyelination of cranial nerves, especially the facial nerve. Given the safety profile of acyclovir, valacyclovir, and short-course oral corticosteroids, patients who present within three days of the onset of symptoms should be offered combination therapy. However it seems logical that in fact, steroids exert their beneficial effect via immunosuppressive action, as is the case in some other autoimmune disorders. It is to be hoped that (monoclonal) antibodies and/or T-cell immunotherapy might provide more specific treatment guidelines in the

  13. Abnormal gene expression profiles in human ovaries from polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erik; Laven, Joop S E; Dommerholt, Henri B R; Polman, Jan; van Rijt, Cindy; van den Hurk, Caroline; Westland, Jolanda; Mosselman, Sietse; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2004-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. The current study is the first to describe consistent differences in gene expression profiles in human ovaries comparing PCOS patients vs. healthy normoovulatory individuals. The microarray analysis of PCOS vs. normal ovaries identifies dysregulated expression of genes encoding components of several biological pathways or systems such as Wnt signaling, extracellular matrix components, and immunological factors. Resulting data may provide novel clues for ovarian dysfunction in PCOS. Intriguingly, the gene expression profiles of ovaries from (long-term) androgen-treated female-to-male transsexuals (TSX) show considerable overlap with PCOS. This observation provides supportive evidence that androgens play a key role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Presented data may contribute to a better understanding of dysregulated pathways in PCOS, which might ultimately reveal novel leads for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90. Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic viral and autoimmune hepatitis. In: Goldman L, ... Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 149. ... Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George ...

  15. Cytokines and autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, M G; Pozzilli, P; Thorpe, R

    1994-01-01

    Although the immunopathology of most autoimmune diseases has been well defined, the mechanisms responsible for the breakdown of self-tolerance and which lead to the development of systemic and organ-specific autoaggression are still unclear. Evidence has accumulated which supports a role for a disregulated production of cytokines by leucocytes and possibly other cells in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases. However, due to the complexity and heterogeneity of cytokine effects in the regulation of the immune response, it is difficult to determine whether abnormalities in the patterns of cytokine production are primary or secondary to the pathological process. Confusion is also caused by the fact that the biological activities of cytokines are multiple and often overlapping, and consequently it is difficult to focus on a unique effect of any one cytokine. Characterization of the potential and actual involvement of cytokines is important not only for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune conditions, but particularly because of the implications for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of the diseases. PMID:8149655

  16. Vaginal lactobacilli profile in pregnant women with normal & abnormal vaginal flora.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Thirupathaiah; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Donugama, Vasundhara

    2017-10-01

    Lactobacilli species that are better adapted to vaginal environment of women may colonize better and offer protection against vaginal pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the distribution of common Lactobacillus species was investigated in pregnant women. Sixty seven pregnant women were included in the study and vaginal samples were collected for Gram staining. Women were classified as normal vaginal flora, intermediate flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV) based on Nugent's score. Vaginal samples were also collected for the identification of Lactobacillus spp. by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) profiling of 16S rDNA amplification method. Lactobacillus crispatus (100%) was the most predominant Lactobacillus spp. present in pregnant women with normal flora, followed by L. iners (77%), L. jensenii (74%) and L. helveticus (60%). While, L. iners was commonly present across groups in women with normal, intermediate or BV flora, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. helveticus decreased significantly as the vaginal flora changed to intermediate and BV. In women with BV, except L. iners other species of lactobacilli was less frequently prevalent. Species such as L. rhamnosus, L. fermentum, L. paracasei and L. casei were not detected in any vaginal sample. L. crispatus, L. jensinii and L. helveticus were predominant species in women with normal flora. L. crispatus alone or in combination with L. jensinii and L. helveticus may be evaluated for probiotic properties for the prevention and treatment of BV.

  17. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  18. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis caused abnormal serum metabolic profile of cattle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingyu; Wu, Junfang; Tu, Lingling; Xiong, Xuekai; Hu, Xidan; Huang, Jiong; Xu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Xiansong; Hu, Changmin; Hu, Xueying; Guo, Aizhen; Wang, Yulan; Chen, Huanchun

    2013-01-01

    To re-evaluate virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) in cattle, we experimentally infected calves with M. tb andMycobacterium bovisvia intratracheal injection at a dose of 2.0×10(7) CFU and observed the animals for 33 weeks. The intradermal tuberculin test and IFN-γin vitro release assay showed that both M. tb and M. bovis induced similar responses. Immunohistochemical staining of pulmonary lymph nodes indicated that the antigen MPB83 of both M. tb and M. bovis were similarly distributed in the tissue samples. Histological examinations showed all of the infected groups exhibited neutrophil infiltration to similar extents. Although the infected cattle did not develop granulomatous inflammation, the metabolic profiles changed significantly, which were characterized by a change in energy production pathways and increased concentrations of N-acetyl glycoproteins. Glycolysis was induced in the infected cattle by decreased glucose and increased lactate content, and enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation was induced by decreased TG content, and decreased gluconeogenesis indicated by the decreased concentration of glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids promoted utilization of substances other than glucose as energy sources. In addition, an increase in acute phase reactive serum glycoproteins, together with neutrophil infiltration and increased of IL-1β production indicated an early inflammatory response before granuloma formation. In conclusion, this study indicated that both M. tb and M.bovis were virulent to cattle. Therefore, it is likely that cattle with M. tb infections would be critical to tuberculosis transmission from cattle to humans. Nuclear magnetic resonance was demonstrated to be an efficient method to systematically evaluate M. tb and M. bovi sinfection in cattle.

  19. Autoimmune chorea in adults

    PubMed Central

    O’Toole, Orna; Lennon, Vanda A.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Pittock, Sean J.; Bower, James; Fealey, Robert; Lachance, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the characteristics of adult-onset autoimmune chorea, and compare paraneoplastic and idiopathic subgroups. Methods: Thirty-six adults with autoimmune chorea were identified at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from 1997 to 2012. Medical record and laboratory data were recorded. Nonparaneoplastic (n = 22) and paraneoplastic cases (n = 14) were compared. Results: Women accounted for 21 patients (58%). Median age at symptom onset was 67 years (range 18–87 years). We estimated the incidence for Olmsted County was 1.5 per million person-years. Symptom onset was subacute in all. Chorea was focal (20 patients) or generalized (16 patients). Although chorea predominated, other neurologic disorders frequently coexisted (29 patients); abnormal eye movements were uncommon (4 patients). No patient had NMDA receptor antibody or any immunoglobulin (Ig)G yielding a detectable immunofluorescence binding pattern restricted to basal ganglia. Two had synaptic IgG antibodies novel to the context of chorea (GAD65, 1; CASPR2, 1). In the paraneoplastic group, 14 patients had evidence of cancer. Of 13 with a histopathologically confirmed neoplasm, small-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were most common; 6 patients had a cancer-predictive paraneoplastic autoantibody, with CRMP-5–IgG and ANNA-1 being most common. In the idiopathic group, 19 of the 22 patients had a coexisting autoimmune disorder (most frequently systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome); autoantibodies were detected in 21 patients, most frequently lupus and phospholipid specificities (19 patients). The paraneoplastic group was older (p = 0.001), more frequently male (p = 0.006), had more frequent weight loss (p = 0.02), and frequently had peripheral neuropathy (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Autoimmune chorea is a rare disorder with rapid onset. Male sex, older age, severe chorea, coexisting peripheral neuropathy, and weight loss increase the likelihood of cancer. PMID:23427325

  20. Metabolic profile of liver damage in non-cirrhotic virus C and autoimmune hepatitis: A proton decoupled 31P-MRS study.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Antti; Puustinen, Lauri; Kivisaari, Reetta; Boyd, Sonja; Nieminen, Urpo; Arkkila, Perttu; Lundbom, Nina

    2017-05-01

    To study liver 31 P MRS, histology, transient elastography, and liver function tests in patients with virus C hepatitis (HCV) or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) to test the hypothesis that 31 P MR metabolic profile of these diseases differ. 25 patients with HCV (n=12) or AIH (n=13) underwent proton decoupled 31 P MRS spectroscopy performed on a 3.0T MR imager. Intensities of phosphomonoesters (PME) of phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC), phosphodiesters (PDE) of glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), and γ, α and β resonances of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) were determined. Liver stiffness was measured by transient elastography. Inflammation and fibrosis were staged according to METAVIR from biopsy samples. Activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALT) and thromboplastin time (TT) were determined from serum samples. PME had a stronger correlation with AST (z=1.73, p=0.04) and ALT (z=1.77, p=0.04) in HCV than in AIH patients. PME, PME/PDE, PE/GPE correlated positively and PDE negatively with inflammatory activity. PE, PC and PME correlated positively with liver function tests. 31 P-MRS suggests a more serious liver damage in HCV than in AIH with similar histopathological findings. 31 P-MRS is more sensitive in detecting inflammation than fibrosis in the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  2. Is Multiple Sclerosis an Autoimmune Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Wootla, Bharath; Eriguchi, Makoto; Rodriguez, Moses

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with varied clinical presentations and heterogeneous histopathological features. The underlying immunological abnormalities in MS lead to various neurological and autoimmune manifestations. There is strong evidence that MS is, at least in part, an immune-mediated disease. There is less evidence that MS is a classical autoimmune disease, even though many authors state this in the description of the disease. We show the evidence that both supports and refutes the autoimmune hypothesis. In addition, we present an alternate hypothesis based on virus infection to explain the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:22666554

  3. Gut Microbiota Profiling and Gut–Brain Crosstalk in Children Affected by Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Quagliariello, Andrea; Del Chierico, Federica; Russo, Alessandra; Reddel, Sofia; Conte, Giulia; Lopetuso, Loris R.; Ianiro, Gianluca; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Cardona, Francesco; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections syndrome (PANDAS) are conditions that impair brain normal neurologic function, resulting in the sudden onset of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other behavioral symptoms. Recent studies have emphasized the crosstalk between gut and brain, highlighting how gut composition can influence behavior and brain functions. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between PANS/PANDAS and gut microbiota ecology. The gut composition of a cohort of 30 patients with PANS/PANDAS was analyzed and compared to control subjects using 16S rRNA-based metagenomics. Data were analyzed for their α- and β-diversity; differences in bacterial distribution were detected by Wilcoxon and LEfSe tests, while metabolic profile was predicted via PICRUSt software. These analyses demonstrate the presence of an altered bacterial community structure in PANS/PANDAS patients with respect to controls. In particular, ecological analysis revealed the presence of two main clusters of subjects based on age range. Thus, to avoid age bias, data from patients and controls were split into two groups: 4–8 years old and >9 years old. The younger PANS/PANDAS group was characterized by a strong increase in Bacteroidetes; in particular, Bacteroides, Odoribacter, and Oscillospira were identified as potential microbial biomarkers of this composition type. Moreover, this group exhibited an increase of several pathways concerning the modulation of the antibody response to inflammation within the gut as well as a decrease in pathways involved in brain function (i.e., SCFA, D-alanine and tyrosine metabolism, and the dopamine pathway). The older group of patients displayed a less uniform bacterial profile, thus impairing the identification of distinct biomarkers. Finally, Pearson’s analysis between bacteria and anti-streptolysin O titer reveled a

  4. Gut Microbiota Profiling and Gut-Brain Crosstalk in Children Affected by Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infections.

    PubMed

    Quagliariello, Andrea; Del Chierico, Federica; Russo, Alessandra; Reddel, Sofia; Conte, Giulia; Lopetuso, Loris R; Ianiro, Gianluca; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Cardona, Francesco; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections syndrome (PANDAS) are conditions that impair brain normal neurologic function, resulting in the sudden onset of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other behavioral symptoms. Recent studies have emphasized the crosstalk between gut and brain, highlighting how gut composition can influence behavior and brain functions. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between PANS/PANDAS and gut microbiota ecology. The gut composition of a cohort of 30 patients with PANS/PANDAS was analyzed and compared to control subjects using 16S rRNA-based metagenomics. Data were analyzed for their α- and β-diversity; differences in bacterial distribution were detected by Wilcoxon and LEfSe tests, while metabolic profile was predicted via PICRUSt software. These analyses demonstrate the presence of an altered bacterial community structure in PANS/PANDAS patients with respect to controls. In particular, ecological analysis revealed the presence of two main clusters of subjects based on age range. Thus, to avoid age bias, data from patients and controls were split into two groups: 4-8 years old and >9 years old. The younger PANS/PANDAS group was characterized by a strong increase in Bacteroidetes; in particular, Bacteroides , Odoribacter , and Oscillospira were identified as potential microbial biomarkers of this composition type. Moreover, this group exhibited an increase of several pathways concerning the modulation of the antibody response to inflammation within the gut as well as a decrease in pathways involved in brain function (i.e., SCFA, D-alanine and tyrosine metabolism, and the dopamine pathway). The older group of patients displayed a less uniform bacterial profile, thus impairing the identification of distinct biomarkers. Finally, Pearson's analysis between bacteria and anti-streptolysin O titer reveled a

  5. Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Shounak; Takahashi, Naoki; Chari, Suresh T

    2017-07-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic fibroinflammatory disease of the pancreas that belongs to the spectrum of immunoglobulin G-subclass4-related diseases (IgG4-RD) and typically presents with obstructive jaundice. Idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) is a closely related but distinct disease that mimics AIP radiologically but manifests clinically most commonly as recurrent acute pancreatitis in young individuals with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease. IgG4 levels are often elevated in AIP and normal in IDCP. Histologically, lymphoplasmacytic acinar inflammation and storiform fibrosis are seen in both. In addition, the histologic hallmark of IDCP is the granulocyte epithelial lesion: intraluminal and intraepithelial neutrophils in medium-sized and small ducts with or without granulocytic acinar inflammation often associated with destruction of ductal architecture. Initial treatment of both AIP and IDCP is with oral corticosteroids for duration of 4 weeks followed by a gradual taper. Relapses are common in AIP and relatively uncommon in IDCP, a relatively rare disease for which the natural history is not well understood. For patients with relapsing AIP, treatment with immunomodulators and more recently rituximab has been recommended. Although rare instances of pancreaticobiliary malignancy has been reported in patients with AIP, overall the lifetime risk of developing pancreatic cancer does not appear to be elevated.

  6. Abnormal plasma DNA profiles in early ovarian cancer using a non-invasive prenatal testing platform: implications for cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul A; Flowers, Nicola; Tong, Stephen; Hannan, Natalie; Pertile, Mark D; Hui, Lisa

    2016-08-24

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) identifies fetal aneuploidy by sequencing cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. Pre-symptomatic maternal malignancies have been incidentally detected during NIPT based on abnormal genomic profiles. This low coverage sequencing approach could have potential for ovarian cancer screening in the non-pregnant population. Our objective was to investigate whether plasma DNA sequencing with a clinical whole genome NIPT platform can detect early- and late-stage high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC). This is a case control study of prospectively-collected biobank samples comprising preoperative plasma from 32 women with HGSOC (16 'early cancer' (FIGO I-II) and 16 'advanced cancer' (FIGO III-IV)) and 32 benign controls. Plasma DNA from cases and controls were sequenced using a commercial NIPT platform and chromosome dosage measured. Sequencing data were blindly analyzed with two methods: (1) Subchromosomal changes were called using an open source algorithm WISECONDOR (WIthin-SamplE COpy Number aberration DetectOR). Genomic gains or losses ≥ 15 Mb were prespecified as "screen positive" calls, and mapped to recurrent copy number variations reported in an ovarian cancer genome atlas. (2) Selected whole chromosome gains or losses were reported using the routine NIPT pipeline for fetal aneuploidy. We detected 13/32 cancer cases using the subchromosomal analysis (sensitivity 40.6 %, 95 % CI, 23.7-59.4 %), including 6/16 early and 7/16 advanced HGSOC cases. Two of 32 benign controls had subchromosomal gains ≥ 15 Mb (specificity 93.8 %, 95 % CI, 79.2-99.2 %). Twelve of the 13 true positive cancer cases exhibited specific recurrent changes reported in HGSOC tumors. The NIPT pipeline resulted in one "monosomy 18" call from the cancer group, and two "monosomy X" calls in the controls. Low coverage plasma DNA sequencing used for prenatal testing detected 40.6 % of all HGSOC, including 38 % of early stage cases. Our

  7. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  8. Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalitis in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Goodkin, Howard P

    2016-07-01

    The differential diagnosis of encephalitis in childhood is vast, and evaluation for an etiology is often unrevealing. Encephalitis by way of autoimmunity has long been suspected, as in cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; however, researchers have only recently reported evidence of antibody-mediated immune dysregulation resulting in clinical encephalitis. These pathologic autoantibodies, aimed at specific neuronal targets, can result in a broad spectrum of symptoms including psychosis, catatonia, behavioral changes, memory loss, autonomic dysregulation, seizures, and abnormal movements. Autoimmune encephalitis in childhood is often quite different from adult-onset autoimmune encephalitis in clinical presentation, frequency of tumor association, and ultimate prognosis. As many of the autoimmune encephalitides are sensitive to immunotherapy, prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment are paramount. Here we review the currently recognized antibody-mediated encephalitides of childhood and will provide a framework for diagnosis and treatment considerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gulf War Illness as a Brain Autoimmune Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    autoimmune disorders, to determine the extent to which GWI reflects autoimmune abnormalities . Altogether, our study will improve knowledge of GWI...University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA d Department of Psychology , University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA e...gain further knowledge regarding the nature of GWI brain abnormality . We studied a total of 962 participants from a healthy control population (N

  10. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis causes subacute deficits of memory and cognition, often followed by suppressed level of consciousness or coma. A careful history and examination may show early clues to particular autoimmune causes, such as neuromyotonia, hyperekplexia, psychosis, dystonia, or the presence of particular tumors. Ancillary testing with MRI and EEG may be helpful for excluding other causes, managing seizures, and, rarely, for identifying characteristic findings. Appropriate autoantibody testing can confirm specific diagnoses, although this is often done in parallel with exclusion of infectious and other causes. Autoimmune encephalitis may be divided into several groups of diseases: those with pathogenic antibodies to cell surface proteins, those with antibodies to intracellular synaptic proteins, T-cell diseases associated with antibodies to intracellular antigens, and those associated with other autoimmune disorders. Many forms of autoimmune encephalitis are paraneoplastic, and each of these conveys a distinct risk profile for various tumors. Tumor screening and, if necessary, treatment is essential to proper management. Most forms of autoimmune encephalitis respond to immune therapies, although powerful immune suppression for weeks or months may be needed in difficult cases. Autoimmune encephalitis may relapse, so follow-up care is important. PMID:26754777

  11. Galectin-3 in autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Felipe L; Gatto, Mariele; Bassi, Nicola; Luisetto, Roberto; Ghirardello, Anna; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin, which regulates cell–cell and extracellular interactions during self/non-self-antigen recognition and cellular activation, proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. It plays a significant role in cellular and tissue pathophysiology by organizing niches that drive inflammation and immune responses. Gal-3 has some therapeutic potential in several diseases, including chronic inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Gal-3 exerts a broad spectrum of functions which differs according to its intra- or extracellular localization. Recombinant gal-3 strategy has been used to identify potential mode of action of gal-3; however, exogenous gal-3 may not reproduce the functions of the endogenous gal-3. Notably, gal-3 induces monocyte–macrophage differentiation, interferes with dendritic cell fate decision, regulates apoptosis on T lymphocytes and inhibits B-lymphocyte differentiation into immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells. Considering the influence of these cell populations in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, gal-3 seems to play a role in development of autoimmunity. Gal-3 has been suggested as a potential therapeutic agent in patients affected with some autoimmune disorders. However, the precise role of gal-3 in driving the inflammatory process in autoimmune or immune-mediated disorders remains elusive. Here, we reviewed the involvement of gal-3 in cellular and tissue events during autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26142116

  12. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-02

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  13. Prevalence of Abnormal Lipid Profiles and the Relationship With the Development of Microalbuminuria in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Marcovecchio, M. Loredana; Dalton, R. Neil; Prevost, A. Toby; Acerini, Carlo L.; Barrett, Timothy G.; Cooper, Jason D.; Edge, Julie; Neil, Andrew; Shield, Julian; Widmer, Barry; Todd, John A.; Dunger, David B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and their relationship with albumin excretion and microalbuminuria in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study population comprised 895 young subjects with type 1 diabetes (490 males); median age at the baseline assessment was 14.5 years (range 10–21.1), and median diabetes duration was 4.8 years (0.2–17). A total of 2,194 nonfasting blood samples were collected longitudinally for determination of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TG, and non-HDL cholesterol. Additional annually collected data on anthropometric parameters, A1C, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) were available. RESULTS Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol were higher in females than in males (all P < 0.001). A significant proportion of subjects presented sustained lipid abnormalities during follow-up: total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/l (18.6%), non-HDL cholesterol >3.4 mmol/l (25.9%), TG >1.7 mmol/l (20.1%), and LDL cholesterol >3.4 mmol/l (9.6%). Age and duration were significantly related to all lipid parameters (P < 0.001); A1C was independently related to all parameters (P < 0.001) except HDL cholesterol, whereas BMI SD scores were related to all parameters (P < 0.05) except total cholesterol. Total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were independently related to longitudinal changes in ACR (B coefficient ± SE): 0.03 ± 0.01/1 mmol/l, P = 0.009, and 0.32 ± 0.014/1 mmol/l, P = 0.02, respectively. Overall mean total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were higher in microalbuminuria positive (n = 115) than in normoalbuminuric subjects (n = 780): total cholesterol 4.7 ± 1.2 vs. 4.5 ± 0.8 mmol/l (P = 0.04) and non-HDL cholesterol 3.2 ± 1.2 vs. 2.9 ± 0.8 mmol/l (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS In this longitudinal study of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, sustained lipid abnormalities were related to age, duration, BMI, and A1C. Furthermore, ACR was

  14. Evaluation of autoimmune phenomena in patients with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; Rigante, Donato; Lepri, Gemma; Bertini, Federico; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Falcini, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are basically characterized by obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or tics triggered by group-A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus infections. Poor data are available about the clear definition of PANDAS's autoimmune origin. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of autoimmune phenomena, including thyroid function abnormalities, specific celiac disease antibodies, and positivity of organ- or nonorgan-specific autoantibodies in a large cohort of Caucasian children and adolescents with PANDAS. Seventy-seven consecutive patients (59 males, 18 females; mean age 6.3±2.5 years, range 2.0-14.5 years) strictly fulfilling the clinical criteria for PANDAS diagnosis were recruited. In all subjects we evaluated serum concentrations of free-T3, free-T4, thyrotropin, and the following auto-antibodies: anti-thyroperoxidase, anti-thyroglobulin, anti-thyrotropin receptor, anti-gliadin, anti-endomysium, anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle, anti-extractable nuclear antigens, anti-phospholipid, plus lupus-like anticoagulant. The results were compared with those obtained from 197 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (130 males, 67 females; mean age 6.8±2.9 years, range 2.3-14.8 years). The frequencies of subclinical (3.8% vs 3.6%) and overt hypothyroidism (1.2% vs 0%), autoimmune thyroiditis (2.46% vs 1.14%), celiac disease (1.2% vs 0.05%), and positivity of organ- and nonorgan-specific autoantibodies (5.1% vs 4.8%) were not statistically significant between patients with PANDAS and controls. Evaluating the overall disease duration, we did not observe any significant difference between patients with (3.4±2.15 years) and without (3.4±2.89 years) autoimmune abnormalities. However, PANDAS patients with autoimmune diseases or positivity for any organ- and nonorgan-specific antibodies showed significantly higher anti-streptolysin O and anti-DNAse B

  15. Metals and kidney autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Bigazzi, P E

    1999-01-01

    The causes of autoimmune responses leading to human kidney pathology remain unknown. However, environmental agents such as microorganisms and/or xenobiotics are good candidates for that role. Metals, either present in the environment or administered for therapeutic reasons, are prototypical xenobiotics that cause decreases or enhancements of immune responses. In particular, exposure to gold and mercury may result in autoimmune responses to various self-antigens as well as autoimmune disease of the kidney and other tissues. Gold compounds, currently used in the treatment of patients with progressive polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis, can cause a nephrotic syndrome. Similarly, an immune-mediated membranous nephropathy frequently occurred when drugs containing mercury were commonly used. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that occupational exposure to mercury does not usually result in autoimmunity. However, mercury induces antinuclear antibodies, sclerodermalike disease, lichen planus, or membranous nephropathy in some individuals. Laboratory investigations have confirmed that the administration of gold or mercury to experimental animals leads to autoimmune disease quite similar to that observed in human subjects exposed to these metals. In addition, studies of inbred mice and rats have revealed that a few strains are susceptible to the autoimmune effects of gold and mercury, whereas the majority of inbred strains are resistant. These findings have emphasized the importance of genetic (immunogenetic and pharmacogenetic) factors in the induction of metal-associated autoimmunity. (italic)In vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) research of autoimmune disease caused by mercury and gold has already yielded valuable information and answered a number of important questions. At the same time it has raised new issues about possible immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive mechanisms of xenobiotic activity. Thus it is evident that investigations of metal

  16. The Autoimmune Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A.; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures – internal and external – across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied. PMID:27199979

  17. The Autoimmune Ecology.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  18. Autoimmune Encephalitis Following Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Geetanjali S; Leung, Kathryn S; Muscal, Eyal

    2015-09-01

    Neurological complications, especially encephalopathy and seizures, are commonly seen in bone marrow transplant patients. Infections, chemotoxicity, graft versus host disease, or secondary central nervous system malignancies are the most common underlying etiologies. There is increased awareness that autoimmune encephalitis may cause neurological dysfunction in immunocompetent children. The potential role of such a mechanism in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation is unknown. We report a boy who developed autoimmune encephalitis with voltage-gated potassium channel-associated and thyroid autoantibodies subsequent to transplantation. A 7-year-old boy presented with a change in behavior, poor attention, cognitive deficits, and abnormal movements 15 months after undergoing transplantation for idiopathic aplastic anemia. He had clinical and subclinical seizures and brain magnetic resonance imaging hyperintensities bilaterally in the uncal regions. His evaluation revealed high titers of voltage-gated potassium channel, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein, and thyroglobulin antibodies suggestive of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. He showed significant improvement in behavior and neuropsychological testing and has remained seizure-free on levetiracetam after immunotherapy with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. Systemic autoimmune manifestations in bone marrow transplant patients have been well-documented, but autoimmune encephalitis after transplantation has yet to be described in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iddah, M. A.; Macharia, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review. Studies have been published in the field of autoimmune thyroid diseases since January 2005. The review is organized into areas of etiology, autoimmune features, autoantibodies, mechanism of thyroid cell injury, B-cell responses, and T-cell responses. Also it reviews the diagnosis and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disorders. Recent Findings. Autoimmune thyroid diseases have been reported in people living in different parts of the world including North America, Europe, Baalkans, Asia, Middle East, South America, and Africa though the reported figures do not fully reflect the number of people infected per year. Cases are unrecognized due to inaccurate diagnosis and hence are treated as other diseases. However, the most recent studies have shown that the human autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) affect up to 5% of the general population and are seen mostly in women between 30 and 50 years. Summary. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Overall, this review has expanded our understanding of the mechanism involved in pathogenesis of AITD and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disease. It has opened new lines of investigations that will ultimately result in a better clinical practice. PMID:23878745

  20. Pain in autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Mifflin, Katherine A; Kerr, Bradley J

    2017-06-01

    Most autoimmune diseases are associated with pathological pain development. Autoimmune diseases with pathological pain include complex regional pain syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and Guillian-Barré syndrome to name a few. The present Review explores research linking the immune system to the development of pathological pain in autoimmune diseases. Pathological pain has been linked to T-cell activation and the release of cytokines from activated microglia in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. New research on the role of autoantibodies in autoimmunity has generated insights into potential mechanisms of pain associated with autoimmune disease. Autoantibodies may act through various mechanisms in autoimmune disorders. These include the alteration of neuronal excitability via specific antigens such as the voltage-gated potassium channel complexes or by mediating bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Although more research must be done to understand better the role of autoantibodies in autoimmune disease related pain, this may be a promising area of research for new analgesic therapeutic targets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Non-autoimmune thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Leonardo F L; Mana, Daniela L; Bruno, Oscar D

    2014-01-01

    The term thyroiditis comprises a group of thyroid diseases characterized by the presence of inflammation, including autoimmune and non-autoimmune entities. It may manifest as an acute illness with severe thyroid pain (subacute thyroiditis and infectious thyroiditis), and conditions in which the inflammation is not clinically evident evolving without pain and presenting primarily thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter (drug-induced thyroiditis and Riedel thyroiditis). The aim of this review is to provide an updated approach on non-autoimmune thyroiditis and its clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

  2. Autoimmunity and the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have increased dramatically worldwide since World War II. This is coincidental with the increased production and use of chemicals both in industrial countries and agriculture, as well as the ease of travel from region to region and continent to continent, making the transfer of a pathogen or pathogens from one part of the world to another much easier than ever before. In this review, triggers of autoimmunity are examined, principally environmental. The number of possible environmental triggers is vast and includes chemicals, bacteria, viruses, and molds. Examples of these triggers are given and include the mechanism of action and method by which they bring about autoimmunity. PMID:24900918

  3. [Microbiota and autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota plays a fundamental role in the development and the maintenance of the host immune system. Since microbiota is important in the induction and the expansion of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells, growing evidence supports that microbiome affect the induction and the disease course of autoimmune disorders. In this review, we describe the recent studies on the involvement of microbes in animal models of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS) using germ-free conditions, antibiotics treatment and gnotobiotic mice. Furthermore, we introduce the studies on analysis of microbiota in human autoimmune diseases including RA and MS.

  4. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Detrixhe, A; Nikkels, A F; Dezfoulian, B

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is an exceptional condition affecting young women of childbearing age with a high prevalence during the third decade of life. The diagnosis should be confirmed using an intradermal skin test to progesterone, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. APD represents an early manifestation of autoimmune disease. A case of APD is presented who after curative treatment did not develop other autoimmune diseases during a 6-year follow-up. Dermatologists, gynecologists and obstetricians should be aware of this rare but highly invalidating entity.

  5. Cardiovascular Involvement in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

  6. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Luigi; Deleonardi, Gaia; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Tovoli, Alessandra; Libra, Alessia; Lenzi, Marco; Cassani, Fabio; Muratori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The detection of diagnostic autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) and anti-soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) is historically associated with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. When autoimmune hepatitis is suspected, the detection of one or any combination of diagnostic autoantibodies, by indirect immunofluorescence or immuno-enzymatic techniques with recombinant antigens, is a pivotal step to reach a diagnostic score of probable or definite autoimmune hepatitis. Diagnostic autoantibodies (ANA, SMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, anti-SLA) are a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Other ancillary autoantibodies, associated with peculiar clinical correlations, appear to be assay-dependent and institution-specific, and validation studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Autoimmune diseases and vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Vial, Thierry; Descotes, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The potential association between vaccination and autoimmune diseases has been largely questioned in the past few years, but this assumption has mostly been based on case reports. The available evidence derived from several negative epidemiological studies is reassuring and at least indicates that vaccines are not a major cause of autoimmune diseases. However, there are still uncertainties as to whether a susceptible subpopulation may be at a higher risk of developing an autoimmune disease without causing an overall increase in the disease incidence. Based on selected examples, this review highlights the difficulties in assessing this issue. We suggest that a potential link between vaccines and autoimmune diseases cannot be definitely ruled out and should be carefully explored during the development of new candidate vaccines. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  8. Autoimmune phenomena following prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Tweezer-Zaks, Nurit; Marai, Ibrahim; Livneh, Avi; Bank, Ilan; Langevitz, Pnina

    2005-09-01

    Benign prostatic hypertrophy is the most common benign tumor in males, resulting in prostatectomy in 20-30% of men who live to the age of 80. There are no data on the association of prostatectomy with autoimmune phenomena in the English-language medical literature. To report our experience with three patients who developed autoimmune disease following prostatectomy. Three patients presented awith autoimmune phenomenon soon after a prostectomy for BPH or prostatic carcinoma: one had clinically diagnosed temporal arteritis, one had leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and the third patient developed sensory Guillian-Barré syndrome following prostatectomy. In view of the temporal association between the removal of the prostate gland andthe autoimmune process, combined with previously known immunohistologic features of BPH, a cause-effect relationship probably exists.

  9. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Diny, Nicola L.; Rose, Noel R.; Čiháková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs. PMID:28496445

  11. Prolactin and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Vânia Vieira; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2018-01-01

    The great asymmetry of autoimmune diseases between genders represents one of the most enigmatic observations among the mosaic of autoimmunity. Sex hormones are believed to play a crucial role on this dimorphism. The higher prevalence of autoimmunity among women at childbearing ages, disease onset/relapses during pregnancy, and post-partum are some of the arguments that support this hypothesis. Certainly, motherhood represents one of the most remarkable challenges for the immune system, which not only has to allow for the conceptus, but also has to deal with complex endocrine alterations. Hormonal homeostasis is known to exert a crucial influence in achieving a competent and healthy immune system. Prolactin (PRL) has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. It interferes with immune system modulation, mainly inhibiting the negative selection of autoreactive B lymphocytes. Likewise, hyperprolactinemia has been described in relation to the pathogenesis and activity of several autoimmune disorders. Dopamine is an effective inhibitor of PRL secretion due to either a direct influence on the hypophysis or stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the hypothalamus, arousing the release of the PRL inhibitory factor. Hence, dopamine agonists have proven to offer clinical benefits among autoimmune patients and represent a promising therapy to be explored. In this review, we attempt to provide a critical overview of the link between PRL, autoimmune diseases, and motherhood. PMID:29483903

  12. Prolactin and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Borba, Vânia Vieira; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2018-01-01

    The great asymmetry of autoimmune diseases between genders represents one of the most enigmatic observations among the mosaic of autoimmunity. Sex hormones are believed to play a crucial role on this dimorphism. The higher prevalence of autoimmunity among women at childbearing ages, disease onset/relapses during pregnancy, and post-partum are some of the arguments that support this hypothesis. Certainly, motherhood represents one of the most remarkable challenges for the immune system, which not only has to allow for the conceptus, but also has to deal with complex endocrine alterations. Hormonal homeostasis is known to exert a crucial influence in achieving a competent and healthy immune system. Prolactin (PRL) has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. It interferes with immune system modulation, mainly inhibiting the negative selection of autoreactive B lymphocytes. Likewise, hyperprolactinemia has been described in relation to the pathogenesis and activity of several autoimmune disorders. Dopamine is an effective inhibitor of PRL secretion due to either a direct influence on the hypophysis or stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the hypothalamus, arousing the release of the PRL inhibitory factor. Hence, dopamine agonists have proven to offer clinical benefits among autoimmune patients and represent a promising therapy to be explored. In this review, we attempt to provide a critical overview of the link between PRL, autoimmune diseases, and motherhood.

  13. Expression profiles of long non-coding RNAs located in autoimmune disease-associated regions reveal immune cell-type specificity.

    PubMed

    Hrdlickova, Barbara; Kumar, Vinod; Kanduri, Kartiek; Zhernakova, Daria V; Tripathi, Subhash; Karjalainen, Juha; Lund, Riikka J; Li, Yang; Ullah, Ubaid; Modderman, Rutger; Abdulahad, Wayel; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Franke, Lude; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Wijmenga, Cisca; Withoff, Sebo

    2014-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of variants associated with a risk for autoimmune and immune-related disorders (AID), our understanding of the disease mechanisms is still limited. In particular, more than 90% of the risk variants lie in non-coding regions, and almost 10% of these map to long non-coding RNA transcripts (lncRNAs). lncRNAs are known to show more cell-type specificity than protein-coding genes. We aimed to characterize lncRNAs and protein-coding genes located in loci associated with nine AIDs which have been well-defined by Immunochip analysis and by transcriptome analysis across seven populations of peripheral blood leukocytes (granulocytes, monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, B cells, memory T cells, naive CD4(+) and naive CD8(+) T cells) and four populations of cord blood-derived T-helper cells (precursor, primary, and polarized (Th1, Th2) T-helper cells). We show that lncRNAs mapping to loci shared between AID are significantly enriched in immune cell types compared to lncRNAs from the whole genome (α <0.005). We were not able to prioritize single cell types relevant for specific diseases, but we observed five different cell types enriched (α <0.005) in five AID (NK cells for inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and psoriasis; memory T and CD8(+) T cells in juvenile idiopathic arthritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis; Th0 and Th2 cells for inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis). Furthermore, we show that co-expression analyses of lncRNAs and protein-coding genes can predict the signaling pathways in which these AID-associated lncRNAs are involved. The observed enrichment of lncRNA transcripts in AID loci implies lncRNAs play an important role in AID etiology and suggests that lncRNA genes should be studied in more detail to interpret GWAS

  14. Autoimmune gastritis: Pathologist’s viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Coati, Irene; Fassan, Matteo; Farinati, Fabio; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M; Rugge, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Western countries are seeing a constant decline in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, coupled with a rising epidemiological and clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. This latter gastropathy is due to autoimmune aggression targeting parietal cells through a complex interaction of auto-antibodies against the parietal cell proton pump and intrinsic factor, and sensitized T cells. Given the specific target of this aggression, autoimmune gastritis is typically restricted to the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa. In advanced cases, the oxyntic epithelia are replaced by atrophic (and metaplastic) mucosa, creating the phenotypic background in which both gastric neuroendocrine tumors and (intestinal-type) adenocarcinomas may develop. Despite improvements in our understanding of the phenotypic changes or cascades occurring in this autoimmune setting, no reliable biomarkers are available for identifying patients at higher risk of developing a gastric neoplasm. The standardization of autoimmune gastritis histology reports and classifications in diagnostic practice is a prerequisite for implementing definitive secondary prevention strategies based on multidisciplinary diagnostic approaches integrating endoscopy, serology, histology and molecular profiling. PMID:26576102

  15. Ovarian SAHA syndrome is associated with a more insulin-resistant profile and represents an independent risk factor for glucose abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Dalamaga, Maria; Papadavid, Evangelia; Basios, Georgios; Vaggopoulos, Vassilios; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kassanos, Dimitrios; Trakakis, Eftihios

    2013-12-01

    SAHA syndrome is characterized by the tetrad: seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. No previous study has examined the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in ovarian SAHA and explored whether it may be an independent risk factor for glucose abnormalities. In a prospective controlled study, we investigated the spectrum of glucose abnormalities in ovarian SAHA and explored whether it is associated with a more insulin-resistant profile. In all, 316 patients with a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (56 with SAHA) and 102 age-matched healthy women were examined and underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Serum glucose homeostasis parameters, hormones, and adipokines were determined. SAHA prevalence was 17.7% in patients with PCOS and predominance of the severe PCOS phenotype. Ovarian SAHA was independently associated with a more insulin-resistant profile (higher homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score, lower quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI] and MATSUDA indices, and relative hypoadiponectinemia), and represented an independent risk factor for glucose abnormalities regardless of anthropometric features, age, and PCOS phenotype. There was no performance of skin biopsies. The prompt recognition of SAHA syndrome in women with PCOS permits an earlier diagnosis and surveillance of metabolic abnormalities, especially in Mediterranean PCOS population exhibiting a lower prevalence of glucose abnormalities. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex hormones and the genesis of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Lindsay S

    2006-03-01

    The sexually dimorphic prevalence of autoimmune disease remains one of the most intriguing clinical observations among this group of disorders. While sex hormones have long been recognized for their roles in reproductive functions, within the past 2 decades scientists have found that sex hormones are integral signaling modulators of the mammalian immune system. Sex hormones have definitive roles in lymphocyte maturation, activation, and synthesis of antibodies and cytokines. Sex hormone expression is altered among patients with autoimmune disease, and this variation of expression contributes to immune dysregulation. English-language literature from the last 10 years was reviewed to examine the relationship between sex hormones and the function of the mammalian immune system. Approximately 50 publications were included in this review, and the majority were controlled trials with investigator blinding that compared both male and female diseased and normal subjects. The review provided basic knowledge regarding the broad impact of sex hormones on the immune system and how abnormal sex hormone expression contributes to the development and maintenance of autoimmune phenomena, with a focus on systemic lupus erythematosus, as models of "lupus-prone" mice are readily available. Sex hormones affect the function of the mammalian immune system, and sex hormone expression is different in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus than in healthy subjects. Sex hormones play a role in the genesis of autoimmunity. Future research may provide a therapeutic approach that is capable of altering disease pathogenesis, rather than targeting disease sequelae.

  17. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Autoimmune diseases in asthma.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Amir; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B; Zimlichman, Eyal; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan

    2006-06-20

    Previous research has suggested an inverse relationship between T-helper 2-related atopic disorders, such as asthma, and T-helper 1-related autoimmune diseases. One controversial hypothesis postulates that asthma provides a protective effect for the development of autoimmune-related disorders. To assess the rate of newly diagnosed autoimmune disorders in a large cohort of young adults. Using cross-sectional data from the Israeli Defense Force database, the authors analyzed the prevalence of autoimmune disorders in asthmatic and nonasthmatic military personnel between 1980 and 2003. A follow-up study traced newly diagnosed autoimmune disorders among asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals from the time of enrollment in military service until discharge (22 and 36 months for women and men, respectively). General community. 307,367 male and 181,474 female soldiers in compulsory military service who were between 18 and 21 years of age. Cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus, vasculitis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and the antiphospholipid syndrome. Of 488,841 participants at enrollment, significantly more women than men had autoimmune disorders. Compared with asthmatic women, nonasthmatic women had a significantly higher prevalence of all autoimmune disorders except for the antiphospholipid syndrome. Type 1 diabetes mellitus, vasculitis, and rheumatoid arthritis were less prevalent in men with asthma than in those without. During the follow-up period, vasculitis and rheumatoid arthritis were more frequently diagnosed in nonasthmatic persons of both sexes. There was a significantly higher incidence of immune thrombocytopenic purpura, inflammatory bowel disease, and the antiphospholipid syndrome in nonasthmatic women and a statistically significantly higher incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in nonasthmatic men. The study was limited to a population of young military recruits; therefore, its findings are not necessarily

  19. Curcumin and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Bright, John J

    2007-01-01

    The immune system has evolved to protect the host from microbial infection; nevertheless, a breakdown in the immune system often results in infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, myocarditis, thyroiditis, uveitis, systemic lupus erythromatosis, and myasthenia gravis are organ-specific autoimmune diseases that afflict more than 5% of the population worldwide. Although the etiology is not known and a cure is still wanting, the use of herbal and dietary supplements is on the rise in patients with autoimmune diseases, mainly because they are effective, inexpensive, and relatively safe. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa that has traditionally been used for pain and wound-healing. Recent studies have shown that curcumin ameliorates multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease in human or animal models. Curcumin inhibits these autoimmune diseases by regulating inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and associated JAK-STAT, AP-1, and NF-kappaB signaling pathways in immune cells. Although the beneficial effects of nutraceuticals are traditionally achieved through dietary consumption at low levels for long periods of time, the use of purified active compounds such as curcumin at higher doses for therapeutic purposes needs extreme caution. A precise understanding of effective dose, safe regiment, and mechanism of action is required for the use of curcumin in the treatment of human autoimmune diseases.

  20. EBV and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ascherio, Alberto; Munger, Kassandra L

    2015-01-01

    Although a role of EBV in autoimmunity is biologically plausible and evidence of altered immune responses to EBV is abundant in several autoimmune diseases, inference on causality requires the determination that disease risk is higher in individuals infected with EBV than in those uninfected and that in the latter it increases following EBV infection. This determination has so far been possible only for multiple sclerosis (MS) and, to some extent, for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), whereas evidence is either lacking or not supportive for other autoimmune conditions. In this chapter, we present the main epidemiological findings that justify the conclusion that EBV is a component cause of MS and SLE and possible mechanisms underlying these effects.

  1. Autoimmune encephalitis update

    PubMed Central

    Dalmau, Josep; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-associated immune-mediated disorders of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group. These disorders include the classic paraneoplastic neurologic disorders and the more recently described autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to neuronal cell-surface or synaptic receptors that occur with and without a cancer association. Autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes that can be severe and prolonged. In contrast to the classic paraneoplastic disorders that are poorly responsive to tumor treatment and immunotherapy, autoimmune encephalitis often responds to these treatments, and patients can have full or marked recoveries. As early treatment speeds recovery, reduces disability, and decreases relapses that can occur in about 20% of cases, it is important that the immune pathogenesis of these disorders is recognized. PMID:24637228

  2. [MAIT cells in autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express a semi-invariant TCRα chain: Vα7.2-Jα33 in humans and Vα19-Jα33 in mice. They are restricted by a nonpolymorphic MHC-related molecule-1 (MR1), and cells are selected in the thymus. Interestingly, MAIT cells require B cells as well as commensal flora for their peripheral expansion. MAIT cells display antimicrobial capacity. Recently, vitamin metabolites were demonstrated as antigens created by intestinal flora for MAIT cells. MAIT cells play a protective role against autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS), wheras they play a pathogenic role in murine models of arthritis. In patients with autoimmune diseases, the frequency of MAIT cells in peripheral blood was significantly reduced. The frequency of MAIT cells reflected the disease activity in MS patients, suggesting the involvement of MAIT cells in the regulation of autoimmune diseases.

  3. [Autoimmune thyroid disease and other non-endocrine autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Dilas, Ljiljana Todorović; Icin, Tijana; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Bajkin, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. They constitute heterogeneous group of disorders, in which multiple alterations in the immune system result in a spectrum of syndromes that either target specific organs or affect the body systematically. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible shift of one autoimmune disease to another or the fact that more than one autoimmune disease may coexist in a single patient or in the same family. Numerous autoimmune diseases have been shown to coexist frequently with thyroid autoimmune diseases. AUTOIMMNUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: This part of the study reviews the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease coexisting with: pernicious anaemia, vitiligo, celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, miastenia gravis, alopecia areata and sclerosis multiplex, and several recommendations for screening have been given. AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN NON-SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: Special attention is given to the correlation between autoimmune thyroid disease and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, syndrome Sjögren, systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease. Screening for autoimmune thyroid diseases should be recommended in everyday clinical practice, in patients with primary organ-specific or organ non-specific autoimmune disease. Otherwise, in patients with primary thyroid autoimmune disease, there is no good reason of seeking for all other autoimmune diseases, although these patients have a greater risk of developing other autoimmune disease. Economic aspects of medicine require further analyzing of these data, from cost/benefit point of view to justified either mandatory screening or medical practitioner judgment.

  4. Autoimmunity in endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Rose, N R; Burek, C L

    1982-01-01

    The realization that autoimmunity underlies many endocrine disorders of previously unknown etiology has greatly broadened our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases. It has provided new explanations for their heredity and their association with particular HLA haplotypes. It has also offered new tools for diagnosing these diseases as well as monitoring their course or predicting their outcome. Finally, establishing the autoimmune basis of these diseases offers new potential for their treatment. The next quarter century of research into immunologic aspects of endocrine diseases promises to be as fruitful as the last.

  5. Epigenomics of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bhawna; Hawkins, R David

    2015-03-01

    Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of largely unknown etiology. Genetic studies have identified a limited number of causal genes from a marginal number of individuals, and demonstrated a high degree of discordance in monozygotic twins. Studies have begun to reveal epigenetic contributions to these diseases, primarily through the study of DNA methylation, but chromatin and non-coding RNA changes are also emerging. Moving forward an integrative analysis of genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic data, with the latter two coming from specific cell types, will provide an understanding that has been missed from genetics alone. We provide an overview of the current state of the field and vision for deriving the epigenomics of autoimmunity.

  6. Autoimmunity and autoimmune co-morbidities in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Furue, Kazuhisa; Ito, Takamichi; Tsuji, Gaku; Kadono, Takafumi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Furue, Masutaka

    2018-05-01

    Psoriasis is characterized by widespread scaly erythematous plaques that cause significant physical and psychological burdens for the affected individuals. Accelerated inflammation driven by the tumour necrosis factor-α/interleukin-23/interleukin-17 axis is now known to be the major mechanism in the development of psoriasis. In addition, psoriasis has an autoimmune nature that manifests as autoreactive T cells and is co-morbid with other autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune bullous diseases, vitiligo, alopecia and thyroiditis. In this article, we review the recent topics on autoimmunity and autoimmune co-morbidities in psoriasis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Paraneoplastic autoimmune movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Thien Thien

    2017-11-01

    To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders. The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome. Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  9. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-06-07

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  10. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  11. Spontaneous autoimmune reactions against pancreatic islets in mouse strains with generalized autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Kolb, H; Freytag, G; Kiesel, U; Kolb-Bachofen, V

    1980-09-01

    The spontaneously autoimmune mouse strains NZB, NZB X NZW, MRL and BXSB have been examined for signs of autoimmune reactions against islet cells. Between 15 and 55 animals of each strain were tested. Infiltrates of lymphocytes and fibroblasts into pancreatic islets were found in more than 80% of NZB mice, in about 50% of MRL and NZB X NZW mice, and in less than 20% of BXSB mice. Infiltrates were not found in the exocrine portion of pancrea. All NZB mice had abnormal glucose tolerance. In the three other strains between 20 and 50% of animals had abnormal glucose tolerance. All mice had fasting normoglycaemia. The lesions in NZB mice were studied in more detail. It was found by ultrastructural analysis that in young mice pancreatic infiltrates consisted of lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Single lymphocytes were also seen outside the main infiltration area. After 2 to 5 months of age another type of infiltrate, consisting of lymphocytes and macrophages was observed. B-cell destruction by lymphocytes was apparent in both young and adult NZB mice. It is concluded that cellular autoimmune reactions against pancreatic islets may occur spontaneously as a consequence of immunological disorders in NZB, NZB X NZW and MRL mice.

  12. Predicting post-vaccination autoimmunity: who might be at risk?

    PubMed

    Soriano, Alessandra; Nesher, Gideon; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-02-01

    Vaccinations have been used as an essential tool in the fight against infectious diseases, and succeeded in improving public health. However, adverse effects, including autoimmune conditions may occur following vaccinations (autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants--ASIA syndrome). It has been postulated that autoimmunity could be triggered or enhanced by the vaccine immunogen contents, as well as by adjuvants, which are used to increase the immune reaction to the immunogen. Fortunately, vaccination-related ASIA is uncommon. Yet, by defining individuals at risk we may further limit the number of individuals developing post-vaccination ASIA. In this perspective we defined four groups of individuals who might be susceptible to develop vaccination-induced ASIA: patients with prior post-vaccination autoimmune phenomena, patients with a medical history of autoimmunity, patients with a history of allergic reactions, and individuals who are prone to develop autoimmunity (having a family history of autoimmune diseases; asymptomatic carriers of autoantibodies; carrying certain genetic profiles, etc.). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuronal Surface Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Linnoila, Jenny J.; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Dalmau, Josep

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, many autoimmune encephalitides have been identified, with specific clinical syndromes and associated antibodies against neuronal surface antigens. There is compelling evidence that many of these antibodies are pathogenic and most of these encephalitides are highly responsive to immunotherapies. The clinical spectra of some of these antibody-mediated syndromes, especially those reported in only a few patients, are evolving. Others, such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, are well characterized. Diagnosis involves recognizing the specific syndromes and identifying the antibody in a patient’s cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or serum. These syndromes are associated with variable abnormalities in CSF, magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography. Treatment is often multidisciplinary and should be focused upon neutralizing the effects of antibodies and eliminating their source. Overlapping disorders have been noted, with some patients having more than one neurologic autoimmune disease. In other patients, viral infections such as herpes simplex virus encephalitis trigger robust antineuronal autoimmune responses. PMID:25369441

  14. Peptides Against Autoimmune Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Alexey; Lomakin, Yakov; Gabibov, Alexander; Belogurov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is a nearly perfect defensive system polished by a hundred million years of evolution. Unique flexibility and adaptivity have created a virtually impenetrable barrier to numerous exogenous pathogens that are assaulting us every moment. Unfortunately, triggers that remain mostly enigmatic will sometimes persuade the immune system to retarget against self-antigens. This civil war remains underway, showing no mercy and taking no captives, eventually leading to irreversible pathological changes in the human body. Research that has emerged during the last two decades has given us hope that we may have a chance to overcome autoimmune diseases using a variety of techniques to "reset" the immune system. In this report, we summarize recent advances in utilizing short polypeptides - mostly fragments of autoantigens - in the treatment of autoimmune neurodegeneration. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Autoimmune Neuromuscular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kraker, Jessica; Živković, Saša A

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune neuromuscular disorders affecting peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction or muscle have a wide clinical spectrum with diverse pathogenetic mechanisms. Peripheral nervous system may be targeted in the context of complex immune reactions involving different cytokines, antigen-presenting cells, B cells and different types of T cells. Various immunomodulating and cytotoxic treatments block proliferation or activation of immune cells by different mechanisms attempting to control the response of the immune system and limit target organ injury. Most treatment protocols for autoimmune neuromuscular disorders are based on the use of corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis, with cytotoxic agents mostly used as steroid-sparing medications. More recently, development of specific monoclonal antibodies targeting individual cell types allowed a different approach targeting specific immune pathways, but these new treatments are also associated with various adverse effects and their long-term efficacy is still unknown. PMID:22379454

  16. Experimental autoimmune hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL) has been hindered by the inaccessibility of the inner ear to biopsy and the lack of workable animal models. A report in this issue of the JCI describes a mouse model of CD4+ T cell–mediated ASNHL induced by immunization with peptides from the inner ear–specific proteins cochlin and β-tectorin. PMID:15085190

  17. Autoimmunity in 2016.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    The number of peer-reviewed articles published during the 2016 solar year and retrieved using the "autoimmunity" key word remained stable while gaining a minimal edge among the immunology articles. Nonetheless, the quality of the publications has been rising significantly and, importantly, acquisitions have become available through scientific journals dedicated to immunology or autoimmunity. Major discoveries have been made in the fields of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmunity of the central nervous system, vasculitis, and seronegative spondyloarthrithritides. Selected examples include the role of IL17-related genes and long noncoding RNAs in systemic lupus erythematosus or the effects of anti-pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in the treatment of this paradigmatic autoimmune condition. In the case of rheumatoid arthritis, there have been reports of the role of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) or fibrocytes and T cell interactions with exciting implications. The large number of studies dealing with neuroimmunology pointed to Th17 cells, CD56(bright) NK cells, and low-level TLR2 ligands as involved in multiple sclerosis, along with a high salt intake or the micriobiome-derived Lipid 654. Lastly, we focused on the rare vasculitides to which numerous studies were devoted and suggested that unsuspected cell populations, including monocytes, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, may be crucial to ANCA-associated manifestations. This brief and arbitrary discussion of the findings published in 2016 is representative of a promising background for developments that will enormously impact the work of laboratory scientists and physicians at an exponential rate.

  18. Autoimmune Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Napier, Catherine; Pearce, Simon H S

    2012-12-01

    Addison's disease is a rare autoimmune disorder. In the developed world, autoimmune adrenalitis is the commonest cause of primary adrenal insufficiency, where the majority of patients have circulating antibodies against the key steroidogenic enzyme 21-hydroxylase. A complex interplay of genetic, immunological and environmental factors culminates in symptomatic adrenocortical insufficiency, with symptoms typically developing over months to years. Biochemical evaluation and further targeted investigations must confirm primary adrenal failure and establish the underlying aetiology. The diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency will necessitate lifelong glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy, aiming to emulate physiological patterns of hormone secretion to achieve well-being and good quality of life. Education of patients and healthcare professionals is essential to minimise the risk of a life-threatening adrenal crisis, which must be promptly recognised and aggressively managed when it does occur. This article provides an overview of our current understanding of the natural history and underlying genetic and immunological basis of this condition. Future research may reveal novel therapeutic strategies for patient management. Until then, optimisation of pharmacological intervention and continued emphasis on education and empowerment of patients should underpin the management of individuals with autoimmune Addison's disease. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Complement in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Rawat, Amit; Sharma, Madhubala; Singh, Surjit

    2017-02-01

    The complement system is an ancient and evolutionary conserved element of the innate immune mechanism. It comprises of more than 20 serum proteins most of which are synthesized in the liver. These proteins are synthesized as inactive precursor proteins which are activated by appropriate stimuli. The activated forms of these proteins act as proteases and cleave other components successively in amplification pathways leading to exponential generation of final effectors. Three major pathways of complement pathways have been described, namely the classical, alternative and lectin pathways which are activated by different stimuli. However, all the 3 pathways converge on Complement C3. Cleavage of C3 and C5 successively leads to the production of the membrane attack complex which is final common effector. Excessive and uncontrolled activation of the complement has been implicated in the host of autoimmune diseases. But the complement has also been bemusedly described as the proverbial "double edged sword". On one hand, complement is the final effector of tissue injury in autoimmune diseases and on the other, deficiencies of some components of the complement can result in autoimmune diseases. Currently available tools such as enzyme based immunoassays for functional assessment of complement pathways, flow cytometry, next generation sequencing and proteomics-based approaches provide an exciting opportunity to study this ancient yet mysterious element of innate immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Autoimmune liver disease 2007.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Muratori, Luigi; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of diseases which comprises both cholestatic and hepatitic forms: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the so called "overlap" syndromes where hepatitic and cholestatic damage coexists. All these diseases are characterized by an extremely high heterogeneity of presentation, varying from asymptomatic, acute (as in a subset of AIH) or chronic (with aspecific symptoms such as fatigue and myalgia in AIH or fatigue and pruritus in PBC and PSC). The detection and characterization of non organ specific autoantibodies plays a major role in the diagnostic approach of autoimmune liver disease; anti nuclear reactivities (ANA) and anti smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) mark type 1 AIH, liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 AIH; antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are associated with PBC, while no specific marker is found in PSC, since anticytoplasmic neutrophil antibodies with perinuclear pattern (atypical p-ANCA or p-ANNA) are also detected in a substantial proportion of type 1 AIH cases. Treatment options rely on immunosoppressive therapy (steroids and azathioprine) in AIH and on ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic conditions; in all these diseases liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical approach for the end stage of liver disease.

  1. Autoimmune thyrotoxicosis: diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ponto, Katharina A; Kahaly, George J

    2012-09-01

    Autoimmune thyrotoxicosis or Graves' disease (GD) is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the United States (full text available online: http://education.amjmed.com/pp1/249). GD occurs more often in women (ratio 5:1) and has a population prevalence of 1-2%. A genetic determinant to the susceptibility to GD is suspected because of familial clustering of the disease, a high sibling recurrence risk, and the familial occurrence of thyroid autoantibodies. GD is a systemic autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by the infiltration of immune effector cells and thyroid-antigen-specific T cells into the thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expressing tissues, i.e. orbit, skin, with the production of autoantibodies to well-defined thyroidal antigens. Stimulatory autoantibodies in GD activate the TSHR leading to thyroid hyperplasia and unregulated thyroid hormone production and secretion. Diagnosis of GD is straightforward in a patient with a diffusely enlarged, heterogeneous, hypervascular (increased Doppler flow on neck ultrasound) thyroid gland, associated orbitopathy, biochemically confirmed thyrotoxicosis, positive TSHR autoantibodies, and often a family history of autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. [MAIT cells in autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are restricted by a nonpolymorphic MHC-related molecule-1 (MR1), and express an invariant TCRα chain: Vα7.2-Jα33 in humans and Vα19-Jα33 in mice. MAIT cells are selected in the thymus, but, interestingly, MAIT cells require B cells as well as commensal flora for their peripheral expansion. Bourhis et al demonstrated that MAIT cells display antimicrobial capacity. Both human and mouse MAIT cells have been shown to be activated by Escherichia coli-infected antigen presenting cells in an MR1-dependent manner. MAIT cells show a protective role against Mycobacteriu abscessus or E. coli infections in mice. Human MAIT cells are capable of producing IFNγ and IL-17 and are found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected lung tissues. Thus, MAIT cells play an antimicrobial function under these infectious conditions. MAIT cells play a protective role against autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS), whereas they play a pathogenic role in murine models of arthritis. In patients with autoimmune diseases, the frequency of MAIT cells in peripheral blood was significantly reduced. The frequency of MAIT cells reflected the disease activity in MS patients, suggesting the involvement of MAIT cells in the regulation of autoimmune diseases.

  3. Toxin-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis Caused by Raw Cashew Nuts.

    PubMed

    Crismale, James F; Stueck, Ashley; Bansal, Meena

    2016-08-01

    A 64-year-old man with no past medical history presented with abnormally elevated liver enzymes 1 year after developing a diffuse rash thought to be related to eating large quantities of raw cashew nuts. Liver biopsy was performed, which revealed features concerning for drug- or toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient began treatment with azathioprine and prednisone, and liver enzymes normalized. We describe a unique case of a toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis precipitated not by a drug or dietary supplement but by a food product.

  4. The Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Arndtz, Katherine; Hirschfield, Gideon M

    Autoimmune liver disease (AILD) encompasses 3 main distinct clinical diseases: autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis (formally known as cirrhosis, PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). These conditions are an important, yet under-appreciated cause of patient morbidity and mortality with ongoing unmet needs for further research and clinical advances. There is observational evidence for genetic predisposition, with all 3 conditions being more common in first degree relatives. AILD is associated with the presence of auto-antibodies and higher risks of other non-hepatic auto-immune conditions. Genetic risk association studies have identified HLA and non-HLA risk loci for the development of disease, with some HLA loci providing prognostic information. This re-enforces the concept that genetic predisposition to autoimmunity is important, likely in the context of environmental exposures. Such environmental triggers are unclear but relevant risks include smoking, drug and xenobiotic exposure as well as the complexities of the microbiome. There is evidence for a loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens playing a part in the development of these conditions. In particular the IL-2 and IL-12 regulatory pathways have been implicated in pre-disposing to an unopposed inflammatory response within the liver. Main immunological themes revolve around loss of immune tolerance leading to T-cell mediated injury, imbalance in the regulation of immune cells and defective immune response to foreign antigens. For PBC and PSC, there is then the added complexity of the consequences of cholestasis on hepato-biliary injury, immune regulation and liver fibrosis. Whilst specific disease causes and triggers are still lacking, AILD arises on the background of collective genetic and environmental risk, leading to chronic and abnormal hepato-biliary immune responses. Effective and more rational therapy will ultimately be developed when the multiple pathways to liver injury are

  5. Isohormonal therapy of endocrine autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Schloot, N; Eisenbarth, G S

    1995-06-01

    For most autoimmune disorders, the site (if any) of chronic immunization required for perpetuation of autoimmunity is unknown. However, one possible site is the target organ itself. If this were the case, feedback regulation of target cell activity might influence autoimmunity. Here, Nanette Schloot and George Eisenbarth review several recent studies suggesting that therapies that inhibit hormonal secretion of target endocrine organs, and/or modulate immunity by therapy with the isohormone, are associated with disease suppression.

  6. Role of autoimmunity in nonviral chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Amarapurkar, D N; Amarapurkar, A D

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and clinical profile of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with chronic liver disease. Four hundred and thirty five consecutive patient with chronic liver disease seen in our department from January 1997 to December 1998 were studied with detailed history and clinical examination. All the patients underwent liver function tests, ultrasonography, isotope liver scanning, viral markers, autoimmune markers ANA, ASMA, LKM1 and AMA (by immunofluorescence technique) and liver histology whenever permissible. Appropriate work up for Wilson's disease was done whenever suspected clinically. Diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis was made by the composite scoring system by international autoimmune hepatitis group. Twenty out of the 435 patients met the criteria of definite autoimmune hepatitis and seven patient had probable autoimmune hepatitis. Forty out of 408 patients showed markers of autoimmunity positive but did not qualify diagnosis of AIH on composite scores. Demographic profile of 27 patients with autoimmune hepatitis was as follows; male:female ratio 1:8, mean age 39.8 +/- 13 years (Range 4-65 years); mode of presentation as cirrhosis 11/27 (40.7%), chronic hepatitis 12/27 (44.4%) and acute hepatitis 4/27 (14.8%). Elevated serum bilirubin levels were seen in 12 (44.4%) patients while mean serum aminotransferases levels were 249 +/- 343 and 262 +/- 418 respectively. Other disease associations seen were as follows: diabetes in 4 (14.8%), rheumatoid arthritis in 3 (11%), hypothyroidism in 2 (7.4%) and ulcerative colitis in 1 (3.7%). The pattern of autoimmune markers was ANA +ve 23/27 (85%) (+ve titres of ANA > 1:80 in adults and 1:20 in children), ASMA +ve in 16/27 (59.2%) (+ve titres of ASMA > 1:40) and LKM1 in 3 patients. AMA in tires less than 1:80 was found in 3 patients. Liver histology changes seen were lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates (100%), bridging necrosis (93%), liver cell rossetting (80%) and fibrosis with or without cirrhosis (50

  7. Autoimmune features caused by dengue fever: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Denis Leonardo Fontes; Tsukumo, Daniela Miti Lemos; Angerami, Rodrigo N; Carvalho Filho, Marco Antonio de; Saad, Mário José Abdalla

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Co-circulation of the four types of dengue viruses and expansion of dengue epidemic gave rise to infection enhancement and a big expansion of clinical aspects of the disease. Herein we report a case of a 25-year-old white woman with dengue fever and numerous associated autoimmune features. Our patient had proteinuria, an extensive right pleural effusion, a thin pericardial effusion and ascites. She had a low C3 level and positive antinuclear antibody; cryoglobulins were also positive. The numerous autoimmune features of this patient were a diagnostic challenge, since she was a young woman and could be easily mistaken for a rheumatologic patient in a newly open disease. Dengue infection probably was a triggering event causing an abnormal immune response. Therefore, dengue should be suspected in patients with hematological disorders and autoimmune features in endemic regions or those who have travelled to those regions.

  8. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: more than a FAScinating disease

    PubMed Central

    Bride, Karen; Teachey, David

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an inherited syndrome characterized by abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis. This failure leads to the clinical manifestations of non-infectious and non-malignant lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoimmune pathology, most commonly, autoimmune cytopenias. Since ALPS was first characterized in the early 1990s, insights in disease biology have improved both diagnosis and management of this syndrome. Sirolimus is the best-studied and most effective corticosteroid-sparing therapy for ALPS and should be considered first-line for patients in need of chronic treatment. This review highlights practical clinical considerations for the diagnosis and management of ALPS. Further studies could reveal new proteins and regulatory pathways that are critical for lymphocyte activation and apoptosis. PMID:29123652

  9. Innate lymphoid cells in autoimmunity and chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Tingting; Turner, Jan-Eric

    2018-03-22

    Abnormal activation of the innate immune system is a common feature of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Since their identification as a separate family of leukocytes, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as important effector cells of the innate immune system. Alterations in ILC function and subtype distribution have been observed in a variety of immune-mediated diseases in humans and evidence from experimental models suggests a subtype specific role of ILCs in the pathophysiology of autoimmune inflammation. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of ILC biology in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, including multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis, and rheumatic diseases, with a special focus on the potential of ILCs as therapeutic targets for the development of novel treatment strategies in humans.

  10. Predictive models in the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Singh, Jaysingh; Britton, Jeffrey W; Pittock, Sean J; Flanagan, Eoin P; Lennon, Vanda A; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Wirrell, Elaine; Shin, Cheolsu; So, Elson; Cascino, Gregory D; Wingerchuk, Dean M; Hoerth, Matthew T; Shih, Jerry J; Nickels, Katherine C; McKeon, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    To validate predictive models for neural antibody positivity and immunotherapy response in epilepsy. We conducted a retrospective study of epilepsy cases at Mayo Clinic (Rochester-MN; Scottsdale-AZ, and Jacksonville-FL) in whom autoimmune encephalopathy/epilepsy/dementia autoantibody testing profiles were requested (06/30/2014-06/30/2016). An Antibody Prevalence in Epilepsy (APE) score, based on clinical characteristics, was assigned to each patient. Among patients who received immunotherapy, a Response to Immunotherapy in Epilepsy (RITE) score was assigned. Favorable seizure outcome was defined as >50% reduction of seizure frequency at the first follow-up. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 1,736 patients were sent to the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory for neural autoantibody evaluation. Three hundred eighty-seven of these patients met the diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. Central nervous system (CNS)-specific antibodies were detected in 44 patients. Certain clinical features such as new-onset epilepsy, autonomic dysfunction, viral prodrome, faciobrachial dystonic seizures/oral dyskinesia, inflammatory CSF profile, and mesial temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities had a significant association with positive antibody results. A significantly higher proportion of antibody-positive patients had an APE score ≥4 (97.7% vs. 21.6%, p < 0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of an APE score ≥4 to predict presence of specific neural auto-antibody were 97.7% and 77.9%, respectively. In the subset of patients who received immunotherapy (77), autonomic dysfunction, faciobrachial dystonic seizures/oral dyskinesia, early initiation of immunotherapy, and presence of antibodies targeting plasma membrane proteins (cell-surface antigens) were associated with favorable seizure outcome. Sensitivity and specificity of a RITE score ≥7 to predict favorable seizure outcome were 87.5% and 83.8%, respectively. APE and RITE scores can aid diagnosis

  11. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  12. Steroids and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Meroni, Marianna; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    From the middle of the 19th century, it is known that endocrine and immune systems interact bi-directionally in different processes that ensure organism homeostasis. Endocrine and nervous systems have a pivotal role in the balancing of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of immune system, and constitute a complex circadian neuroendocrine network. Autoimmune diseases have in fact a complex pathogenic origin in which the importance of endocrine system was demonstrated. In this chapter, we will mention the structure and function of steroidal hormones involved in the neuroendocrine immune network and we will address the ways in which endocrine and immune systems influence each other, in a bi-directional fashion. Adrenal hormones, sex hormones, vitamin D, and melatonin and prolactin importantly all contribute to the homeostasis of the immune system. Indeed, some of the steroidal hormone activities determine inhibition or stimulation of immune system components, in both physiological (i.e. suppression of an unwanted response in pregnancy, or stimulation of a protective response in infections) and pathological conditions. We will finally mention the rationale for optimization of exogenous administration of glucocorticoids in chronic autoimmune diseases, and the latest developments concerning these drugs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Low, P.A.; Jordan, J.; Freeman, R.; Gibbons, C.H.; Schroeder, C.; Sandroni, P.; Vernino, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated form of diffuse autonomic failure. Many patients have serum antibodies that bind to the ganglionic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that mediate fast synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia. Previous clinical studies and observations in animal models suggest that AAG is an antibody-mediated neurologic disorder. Methods Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we recorded ganglionic AChR currents in cultured human IMR-32 cells and examined the effects of bath application of IgG derived from patients with AAG. Results IgG from seven patients with AAG all produced a progressive decline in whole-cell ganglionic AChR current, whereas IgG from control subjects had no effect. The effect was abolished at low temperature. Fab antibody fragments had no effect unless a secondary antibody was added concurrently. IgG from one patient also produced a more immediate reduction of ganglionic AChR current. Conclusions The characteristics of antibody-mediated inhibition of ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) current are consistent with modulation and blocking of the membrane AChR, analogous to the effects of muscle AChR antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Our observations demonstrate that antibodies in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) cause physiologic changes in ganglionic AChR function and confirm that AAG is an antibody-mediated disorder. PMID:17536048

  14. Electrosmog and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Trevor G; Heil, Trudy J Rumann

    2017-02-01

    Studies in mice have shown that environmental electromagnetic waves tend to suppress the murine immune system with a potency similar to NSAIDs, yet the nature of any Electrosmog effects upon humans remains controversial. Previously, we reported how the human Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) and its ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D (1,25-D), are associated with many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We have shown how olmesartan, a drug marketed for mild hypertension, acts as a high-affinity partial agonist for the VDR, and that it seems to reverse disease activity resulting from VDR dysfunction. We here report that structural instability of the activated VDR becomes apparent when observing hydrogen bond behavior with molecular dynamics, revealing that the VDR pathway exhibits a susceptibility to Electrosmog. Further, we note that characteristic modes of instability lie in the microwave frequency range, which is currently populated by cellphone and WiFi communication signals, and that the susceptibility is ligand dependent. A case series of 64 patient-reported outcomes subsequent to use of a silver-threaded cap designed to protect the brain and brain stem from microwave Electrosmog resulted in 90 % reporting "definite" or "strong" changes in their disease symptoms. This is much higher than the 3-5 % rate reported for electromagnetic hypersensitivity in a healthy population and suggests that effective control of environmental Electrosmog immunomodulation may soon become necessary for successful therapy of autoimmune disease.

  15. [Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vera; Conde, Marta; Figueiredo, António; Vasconcelos, Júlia; Dias, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is an impairment of lymphocyte apoptosis expressed by generalized non-malignant lymphoproliferation, lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly. This article describes a seven and 14 year old males. The first one was admitted at 3 years of age with fever, bicytopenia and generalized lymphadenopathy. Hystopathological analysis of lymph nodes showed reactive follicular hyperplasia and marked paracortical expansion. He was readmitted three years later presenting herpes zoster and similar clinical features. High levels of IL-10 and increasing tendency of Fas-L in plasma and serum. The second child was admitted at 13 years of age presenting thigh and gluteus cellulitis, anemia and neutropenia. T lymphocytes aß+CD4-CD8- 3,1%. Hystopathological analysis of lymph nodes showed marked paracortical hyperplasia. Both children are treated with mycophenolate mofetil with good response. ALPS is an underestimated entity that must be considered in non malign lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity and expansion of an unusual population of a/ßCD3+CD4-CD8-(double-negative T cells>1%).

  16. Automation, consolidation, and integration in autoimmune diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Tozzoli, Renato; D'Aurizio, Federica; Villalta, Danilo; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Over the past two decades, we have witnessed an extraordinary change in autoimmune diagnostics, characterized by the progressive evolution of analytical technologies, the availability of new tests, and the explosive growth of molecular biology and proteomics. Aside from these huge improvements, organizational changes have also occurred which brought about a more modern vision of the autoimmune laboratory. The introduction of automation (for harmonization of testing, reduction of human error, reduction of handling steps, increase of productivity, decrease of turnaround time, improvement of safety), consolidation (combining different analytical technologies or strategies on one instrument or on one group of connected instruments) and integration (linking analytical instruments or group of instruments with pre- and post-analytical devices) opened a new era in immunodiagnostics. In this article, we review the most important changes that have occurred in autoimmune diagnostics and present some models related to the introduction of automation in the autoimmunology laboratory, such as automated indirect immunofluorescence and changes in the two-step strategy for detection of autoantibodies; automated monoplex immunoassays and reduction of turnaround time; and automated multiplex immunoassays for autoantibody profiling.

  17. Epigenetics and autoimmune diseases: the X chromosome-nucleolus nexus

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Wesley H.; Renaudineau, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur more often in females, suggesting a key role for the X chromosome. X chromosome inactivation, a major epigenetic feature in female cells that provides dosage compensation of X-linked genes to avoid overexpression, presents special vulnerabilities that can contribute to the disease process. Disruption of X inactivation can result in loss of dosage compensation with expression from previously sequestered genes, imbalance of gene products, and altered endogenous material out of normal epigenetic context. In addition, the human X has significant differences compared to other species and these differences can contribute to the frequency and intensity of the autoimmune disease in humans as well as the types of autoantigens encountered. Here a link is demonstrated between autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, and the X chromosome by discussing cases in which typically non-autoimmune disorders complicated with X chromosome abnormalities also present lupus-like symptoms. The discussion is then extended to the reported spatial and temporal associations of the inactive X chromosome with the nucleolus. When frequent episodes of cellular stress occur, the inactive X chromosome may be disrupted and inadvertently become involved in the nucleolar stress response. Development of autoantigens, many of which are at least transiently components of the nucleolus, is then described. Polyamines, which aid in nucleoprotein complex assembly in the nucleolus, increase further during cell stress, and appear to have an important role in the autoimmune disease process. Autoantigenic endogenous material can potentially be stabilized by polyamines. This presents a new paradigm for autoimmune diseases: that many are antigen-driven and the autoantigens originate from altered endogenous material due to episodes of cellular stress that disrupt epigenetic control. This suggests that epigenetics and the X chromosome are important aspects of autoimmune

  18. Emerging role of IL-35 in inflammatory autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin-Chong; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Huang, An-Fang; Xu, Wang-Dong

    2018-05-03

    Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is the recently identified member of the IL-12 family of cytokines and provides the possibility to be a target for new therapies for autoimmune, inflammatory diseases. It is composed of an α chain (p35) and a β chain (EBI3). IL-35 mediates signaling by binding to its receptors, activates subsequent signaling pathways, and therefore, regulates the differentiation, function of T, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells. Recent findings have shown abnormal expression of IL-35 in inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune hepatitis, experimental autoimmune uveitis. In addition, functional analysis suggested that IL-35 is critical in the onset and development of these diseases. Therefore, the present study will systematically review what had been occurred regarding IL-35 in inflammatory autoimmune disease. The information collected will help to understand the biologic role of IL-35 in immune cells, and give information about the therapeutic potential of IL-35 in these diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Lack of correlation between serum soluble Fas/APO-1 levels and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Goel, N; Ulrich, D T; St Clair, E W; Fleming, J A; Lynch, D H; Seldin, M F

    1995-12-01

    To determine whether elevated soluble Fas/APO-1 (sFas/APO-1) levels are associated with either autoimmune disease or evidence of flares in autoimmune disease. Thirty-seven serum samples were retrospectively obtained from normal controls and patients with laboratory evidence of autoimmune disease activity. These samples were assayed for sFas/APO-1 levels by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and hospital medical records were retrospectively reviewed for clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients. Soluble Fas/APO-1 levels did not correlate with clinical diagnoses or laboratory abnormalities. The mean and range of sFas/APO-1 levels were similar in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (including those with active disease), patients with other autoimmune diseases, and normal controls. These data strongly suggest that measurement of sFas/APO-1 levels is unlikely to hold clinical value or play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.

  20. A case of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III complicated with autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Oki, Kenji; Yamane, Kiminori; Koide, Junko; Mandai, Koichi; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Fujikawa, Rumi; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2006-10-01

    A 58-year-old woman complaining of finger tremor was referred to our hospital. The diagnosis of Graves' disease was made based on increased free triiodothyronine (18.88 pg/ml) and free thyroxine (7.47 ng/dl), low TSH (<0.005 microIU/ml) and increased TSH receptor binding antibody activity (70.9%). Serum level of AST (62 U/l) and ALT (93 U/l) were increased and liver biopsy revealed linkage of adjacent portal areas by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and fibrosis with piecemeal necrosis. Although antinuclear antibody was negative, these findings indicated that she had autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) according to the criteria of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Scoring System. Slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) was confirmed by a diabetic response pattern due to 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test, and seropositivity towards anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (725 U/ml) and islet cell (80 JDF Units) antibodies. This case exhibited an extremely rare combination of three different autoimmune diseases, including Graves' disease, slowly progressive type 1 DM and AIH, and had no known sensitive human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing or haplotype for these disorders. Although it is common for patients with Graves' disease to exhibit abnormal liver function, it is important to make an accurate diagnosis of AIH because of this life-threatening disorder.

  1. Psychoneuroimmunology - psyche and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2012-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively young field of research that investigates interactions between central nervous and immune system. The brain modulates the immune system by the endocrine and autonomic nervous system. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and autoimmune disease. For several diseases, the relevance of psychoneuroimmunological findings has already been demonstrated.

  2. Autoimmune hepatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2002-08-01

    AIH, ASC, and de novo AIH after liver transplantation are childhood liver diseases of an autoimmune nature. The mode of presentation of AIH in childhood is variable, and the disease should be suspected and excluded in all children presenting with symptoms and signs of prolonged or severe acute liver disease. Although corticosteroids are effective in all types of childhood AIH, patients with LKM1 have a higher frequency of acute hepatic failure and relapse after corticosteroid withdrawal than do patients with ANA/SMA. ASC occurs commonly in the absence of inflammatory bowel disease, requires cholangiography for diagnosis, and improves during corticosteroid therapy. The development of AIH de novo in children who undergo liver transplantation for nonautoimmune liver disease may reflect interference with the maturation of T cells by immunosuppressive drugs.

  3. Immunoadsorption for autoimmune encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Fassbender, Cordula; Klingel, Reinhard; Köhler, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain. The discovery that several non-infectious forms of encephalitis are associated with autoantibodies was a breakthrough in the care of this previously untreatable group of patients. The correlation of antibody type and titer with pattern and severity of symptoms was essential for the initiation of immunotherapies. First line therapy consists of steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, plasma exchange or immunoadsorption. Rapid elimination of autoantibodies using selective immunoadsorption and avoiding the disadvantage of plasma substitution is a pathophysiologically guided therapeutic approach, and has been proven to be an effective therapeutic option as part of multimodal immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical and imaging characteristics of 16 patients with autoimmune neuronal synaptic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kamble, N; Netravathi, M; Saini, J; Mahadevan, A; Yadav, R; Nalini, A; Pal, P K; Satishchandra, P

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune neuronal synaptic encephalitis (AIE) encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by immune-mediated neuronal cell destruction. In this study, we aim to study the clinical features, imaging profile and treatment outcome of patients with AIE. This is a chart review of 16 (M: F-3:13) patients with AIE from 2011 to 2015. Among the patients, 10 had anti-NMDA, 4 had anti-TPO, and 2 had anti-VGKC antibody positivity. Cognitive impairment and seizures were the predominant symptoms present in nearly all patients, followed by psychiatric disturbances (87.5%), mutism (62.5%), movement disorders (62.5%), myoclonic jerks (37.5%) and visual hallucinations (18.75%). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was available in 15 patients; it was abnormal in 53.3% patients. Abnormalities were seen in all patients with anti-VGKC positivity; and, 60% of patients with anti-NMDA positivity. Imaging was normal in 26.7% of the patients (3: anti-NMDA; and, 1: anti-TPO positivity); and, diffuse cerebral atrophy was noted in rest of the 20% (3: anti-TPO positivity) patients. All patients improved gradually with immunomodulation. All patients with anti-VGKC, anti-NMDA and anti-TPO antibody positivity presented with a triad of behavioral changes, impaired cognition and seizures. Mutism was a predominant symptom in patients with an anti-NMDA antibody positivity, which may help in the early identification of this disorder. MRI brain showed changes restricted to limbic structures in anti-NMDA and anti-VGKC antibody positivity. An early diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune encephalitis is essential for a better outcome and for prevention of long-term sequel.

  5. [Autoantibodies, tolerance and autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Oppezzo, Pablo; Dighiero, Guillaume

    2003-07-01

    In 1900, the group from Metchnikoff suggested the concept of autoimmunization by demonstrating the presence of autoantibodies in normal conditions; which was opposed to the concept of horror autotoxicus raised by Ehrlich. Landsteiner's description of the transfusion compatibility rules and 50 year-later work from Burnett's and Medawar's groups lead to the clonal deletion theory as a general explanation of tolerance and autoimmunity. However, more recent work succeeded demonstrating that autoreactive B cells constitute a substantial part of the B-cell repertoire and that this autoreactive repertoire secretes the so-called natural autoantibodies (NAA) characterized by their broad reactivity mainly directed against very well conserved public epitopes. They fulfill the definition of an autoantibody since they are self-reactive, but they are not self-specific. As yet, NAA directed against determinants of polymorphism have not been reported. The presence of this repertoire in normal conditions challenges the clonal deletion theory as a unique explanation for self-tolerance. However, if we take into account that this autoreactive B-cell repertoire is not self-specific, this contradiction may not be a real one opposition. Indeed, the Lansteiner's rule that a subject belonging to group A will never produce anti-A antibodies and will always produce natural antibodies against the B-cell group, could never be challenged. Clonal deletion is probably accounting for this phenomenum. However, the serum of healthy adult individuals frequently exhibits low titers of anti-I antibodies, which is a precursor molecule of AB0 antigen system. The mechanism accounting for deletion of B cells directed against critical determinants like antigens A and B in the red blood cell system and allowing the production of autoantibodies against I remain elusive.

  6. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Luis J.; Navarro, Carmen; Medina, Gabriela; Vera-Lastra, Olga; Blanco, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) are characterized by aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are a potent activator of the HPA axis. In consequence, high levels of pro-inflammatory hormones such as estrogens and prolactin, and low levels of glucocorticoids, an anti-inflammatory hormone, have been described in the active phase of ARD. In addition, high levels of pro-inflammatory hormones and cytokines have also been frequently detected in organ involvement of patients with ARD, suggesting an abnormal local neuroendocrine immune interaction. There is evidence that hormonal changes may appear before the symptomatic phase of the disease. Therefore, it is possible that a pro-inflammatory hormone favors the rupture of tolerance, which is a key feature of autoimmune diseases. The interactions between the immune-neuroendocrine system have a major impact on our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and therapy of ARD. PMID:17162354

  7. Abnormal morphology of the penis in male rats exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol is associated with altered profile of estrogen receptor-alpha protein, but not of androgen receptor protein: a developmental and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Goyal, H O; Braden, T D; Williams, C S; Dalvi, P; Mansour, M M; Mansour, M; Williams, J W; Bartol, F F; Wiley, A A; Birch, L; Prins, G S

    2004-05-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine developmental changes in morphology and expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER)alpha in the body of the rat penis exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Male pups received DES at a dose of 10 microg per rat on alternate days from Postnatal Day 2 to Postnatal Day 12. Controls received olive oil vehicle only. Tissue samples were collected on Days 18 (prepuberty), 41 (puberty), and 120 (adult) of age. DES-induced abnormalities were evident at 18 days of age and included smaller, lighter, and thinner penis, loss of cavernous spaces and associated smooth muscle cells, and increased deposition of fat cells in the corpora cavernosa penis. Fat cells virtually filled the entire area of the corpora cavernosa at puberty and adulthood. Plasma testosterone (T) was reduced to an undetectable level, while LH was unaltered in all treated groups. AR-positive cells were ubiquitous and their profile (incidence and staining intensity) did not differ between control and treated rats of the respective age groups. Conversely, ERalpha-positive cells were limited to the stroma of corpus spongiosus in all age groups of both control and treated rats, but the expression in treated rats at 18 days was up-regulated in stromal cells of corpora cavernosa, coincident with the presence of morphological abnormalities. Hence, this study reports for the first time DES-induced developmental, morphological abnormalities in the body of the penis and suggests that these abnormalities may have resulted from decreased T and/or overexpression of ERalpha.

  8. Neuropsychiatric autoimmune encephalitis without VGKC-complex, NMDAR, and GAD autoantibodies: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Souhel; Pearlman, Daniel; Devinsky, Orrin; Najjar, Amanda; Nadkarni, Siddhartha; Butler, Tracy; Zagzag, David

    2013-03-01

    We report a patient with a seronegative autoimmune panencephalitis, adding a subtype to the emerging spectrum of seronegative autoimmune encephalitis, and we review the sparse literature on isolated psychiatric presentations of autoimmune encephalitis. (A PubMed search for "seronegative autoimmune encephalitis," "nonvasculitic autoimmune inflammatory meningoencephalitis," and related terms revealed <25 cases.) A 15-year-old girl developed an acute-onset isolated psychosis with prominent negative symptoms and intermittent encephalopathy. Despite clinical worsening, her brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans remained normal for 7 years. Serology was negative for voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibodies. We excluded genetic, metabolic, paraneoplastic, degenerative, and infectious etiologies. The patient's symptoms remitted fully with immune therapy, but recurred in association with widespread bihemispheric brain lesions. Brain biopsy revealed mild nonvasculitic inflammation and prominent vascular hyalinization. Immune therapy with plasma exchanges cleared the MRI abnormalities but, 10 years after onset, the patient still suffers neuropsychiatric sequelae. We conclude that autoimmune panencephalitis seronegative for VGKC-complex, NMDAR, and GAD autoantibodies is a subtype of autoimmune encephalitis that can present with pure neuropsychiatric features and a normal brain MRI. Immunologic mechanisms may account for psychiatric symptoms in a subset of patients now diagnosed with classical psychotic disorders. Delay in starting immune therapy can lead to permanent neuropsychiatric sequelae. We propose a standardized classification system for the autoimmune encephalitides, integrating earlier pathology-oriented terms with more recently defined serologic and clinical phenotypes.

  9. Cellular stress and innate inflammation in organ-specific autoimmunity: lessons learned from vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary For decades, research in autoimmunity has focused primarily on immune contributions to disease. Yet recent studies report elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abnormal activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells targeted by autoimmunity, implicating cellular stress originating from the target tissue as a contributing factor. A better understanding of this contribution may help to answer important lingering questions in organ-specific autoimmunity, like what factors initiate disease, and what directs its tissue specificity. Vitiligo, an autoimmune disease of the skin, has been the focus of translational research for over 30 years, and both melanocyte stress and immune mechanisms have been thought to be mutually exclusive explanations for pathogenesis. Chemical-induced vitiligo is a unique clinical presentation that reflects the importance of environmental influences on autoimmunity, provides insight into a new paradigm linking cell stress to the immune response, and serves as a template for other autoimmune diseases. In this review I will discuss the evidence for cell stress contributions to a number of autoimmune diseases, the questions that remain, and how vitiligo, an underappreciated example of organ-specific autoimmunity, helps to answer them. PMID:26683142

  10. Autoimmune encephalitis associated with vitiligo?

    PubMed

    Haitao, Ren; Huiqin, Liu; Tao, Qu; Xunzhe, Yang; Xiaoqiu, Shao; Wei, Li; Jiewen, Zhang; Liying, Cui; Hongzhi, Guan

    2017-09-15

    The autoimmune encephalitis can develop with or without an underlying tumor. For tumor-negative autoimmune encephalitis, the causes are still largely unknown. Here we presented three patients with autoimmune encephalitis accompanied with vitiligo. Among them, two patients suffered from anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis and one patient suffered from anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy. All of them received intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids as immunotherapy. The two patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis recovered and got a good prognosis. For the patient with anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy, he only got a moderate and transient improvement. Based on the above, we speculate that vitiligo may be a clue to an autoimmune cause for encephalitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. SIALIC ACIDS AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vinay S.; Pillai, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    summary An important underlying mechanism that contributes to autoimmunity is the loss of inhibitory signaling in the immune system. Sialic acid-recognizing Ig superfamily lectins or Siglecs are a family of cell surface proteins largely expressed in hematopoietic cells. The majority of Siglecs are inhibitory receptors expressed in immune cells that bind to sialic acid containing ligands and recruit SH2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatases to their cytoplasmic tails. They deliver inhibitory signals that can contribute to the constraining of immune cells and thus protect the host from autoimmunity. The inhibitory functions of CD22/Siglec-2 and Siglec-G and their contributions to tolerance and autoimmunity, primarily in the B lymphocyte context, are considered in some detail in this review. The relevance to autoimmunity and unregulated inflammation of modified sialic acids, enzymes that modify sialic acid, and other sialic acid binding proteins are also reviewed. PMID:26683151

  12. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Contact Us Who We Help Patients ARNet Research Survey AD Knowledge Base Autoimmune Disease List Common Thread ... Planned Giving Shop AARDA Volunteer Take Action ARNet Research Survey Voter Voice Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) ...

  13. [The pathogenesis and regulation of autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Sachiko

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenesis of autoimmunity has been studied extensively using animal models and genome-wide genetic analysis. Moreover, recent advance in the therapy for the autoimmune diseases using molecular-targeted drugs has provided us a lot of information in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases. In this review, we overviewed the recent progress in the study of autoimmunity including central tolerance, regulatory cells and cytokines. Finally, we discuss the relationship of innate immunity and adoptive immunity in the context of autoimmunity.

  14. Epigenetic Alterations in Cellular Immunity: New Insights into Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zijun; Lu, Qianjin; Wang, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic modification is an additional regulator in immune responses as the genome-wide profiling somehow fails to explain the sophisticated mechanisms in autoimmune diseases. The effect of epigenetic modifications on adaptive immunity derives from their regulations to induce a permissive or negative gene expression. Epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs) are often found in T cell activation, differentiation and commitment which are the major parts in cellular immunity. Recognizing the complexity of interactions between epigenetic mechanisms and immune disturbance in autoimmune diseases is essential for the exploration of efficient therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize a list of studies that indicate the significance of dysregulated epigenetic modifications in autoimmune diseases while focusing on T cell immunity. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Asbestos-induced autoimmunity in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Pfau, Jean C; Sentissi, Jami J; Li, Sheng'ai; Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Brown, Jared M; Blake, David J

    2008-04-01

    Environmental impacts on autoimmunity have significant public health implications. Epidemiological studies have shown associations between exposure to airborne silicates, such as crystalline silica or asbestos, and autoimmunity, but the etiology remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that asbestos could lead to a specific pattern of autoantibodies and pathology indicative of systemic autoimmune disease (SAID). Female C57Bl/6 mice were instilled intratracheally with 2 doses x 60 microg/mouse of amphibole asbestos (tremolite), wollastonite (a non-fibrogenic control fiber), or saline alone. Serum samples were collected and urine was checked for protein bi-weekly for 7 months. By 26 weeks, the asbestos-instilled animals had a significantly higher frequency of positive anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) tests compared to wollastonite and saline groups. The majority of positive ANAs showed homogeneous or combined homogeneous/speckled patterns, and tested positive for antibodies to dsDNA and SSA/Ro 52. Serum isotyping showed no significant changes in IgM, IgA, or IgG subclasses. However, there was an overall decrease in the mean IgG serum concentration in asbestos-instilled mice. IgG immune complex deposition was demonstrated in the kidneys of asbestos-instilled mice, with evidence of glomerular and tubule abnormalities suggestive of glomerulonephritis. Flow cytometry demonstrated moderate changes in the percentages of CD25+ T-suppressor cells and B1a B-cells in the superficial cervical lymph nodes of the asbestos-instilled mice. These data demonstrate that asbestos leads to immunologic changes consistent with the development of autoimmunity. This study provides a non-autoimmune prone murine model for use in future elucidation of mechanisms involved in asbestos-induced autoimmune disease.

  16. The autoimmune ecology: an update.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Restrepo-Jiménez, Paula; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina

    2018-07-01

    The autoimmune ecology refers to the interactions between individuals and their environment leading to a breakdown in immune tolerance and, therefore, to the development of one or more autoimmune diseases in such an individual. Herein, an update is offered on four specific factors associated with autoimmune diseases, namely, vitamin D, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption from the perspective of exposome and metabolomics. Smoking is associated with an increased risk for most of the autoimmune diseases. Carbamylation of proteins as well as NETosis have emerged as possible new pathophysiological mechanisms for rheumatoid arthritis. Low-to-moderate alcohol consumption seems to decrease the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and studies of vitamin have suggested a beneficial effect on these conditions. Coffee intake appears to be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis and a protective factor for multiple sclerosis and primary biliary cholangitis. Recent studies support the previously established positive associations between environmental factors and most of the autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, further studies from the perspective of metabolomics, proteomics and genomics will help to clarify the effect of environment on autoimmune diseases.

  17. Estimation of Salivary Parameters among Autoimmune Thyroiditis Patients.

    PubMed

    Syed, Yasmeen Amthul; Reddy, Bh Satheesh; Ramamurthy, T K; Rajendra, Kavitha; Nerella, Narendra Kumar; Krishnan, Meenakshi; Ramesh, M V; Mohammed, Rezwana Begum

    2017-07-01

    Saliva is a complex secretion that protects and lubricates the oral cavity. Various systemic diseases and their treatment alter the salivary gland function; one such disease is Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD). AITD has been postulated to exert its hormonal influence on the salivary glands, leading to reduced salivary output. There's a paucity of literature, verifying the stated conjunction in human subjects. The aim was to investigate the salivary profile in AITD patients and its comparison with controls. Descriptive cross-sectional comparative study was conducted using convenience sampling method for screening the presence of thyroid disorders. Two groups comprising of 30 patients in each group diagnosed with autoimmune hypothyroiditis (n=30) and hyperthyroiditis (n=30) respectively and thirty healthy volunteers who were age and sex matched were included as controls. Saliva was collected and evaluated for Unstimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USSFR), pH and buffer capacity. ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test was performed to find the statistical significance and for pairwise comparison. Statistically significant difference was observed between autoimmune hypothyroiditis, autoimmune hyperthyroiditis and control group with respect to USSFR (p<0.007), pH (p<0.001) and buffer capacity (p<0.001). On pairwise comparisons statistically significant difference was observed between autoimmune hypothyroiditis and autoimmune hyperthyroiditis with respect to controls. We conclude that significant involvement of salivary glands may occur in cases of AITD. Our study showed significant reduction of sialometric values in AITD patients when compared to controls. A strong clinical suspicion of thyroid diseases should be considered when there is chronic hyposalivation; hence thyroid profile must also be done, if the known causes have been excluded.

  18. Estimation of Salivary Parameters among Autoimmune Thyroiditis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, BH Satheesh; Ramamurthy, TK; Rajendra, Kavitha; Nerella, Narendra Kumar; Krishnan, Meenakshi; Ramesh, MV; Mohammed, Rezwana Begum

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Saliva is a complex secretion that protects and lubricates the oral cavity. Various systemic diseases and their treatment alter the salivary gland function; one such disease is Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD). AITD has been postulated to exert its hormonal influence on the salivary glands, leading to reduced salivary output. There’s a paucity of literature, verifying the stated conjunction in human subjects. Aim The aim was to investigate the salivary profile in AITD patients and its comparison with controls. Materials and Methods Descriptive cross-sectional comparative study was conducted using convenience sampling method for screening the presence of thyroid disorders. Two groups comprising of 30 patients in each group diagnosed with autoimmune hypothyroiditis (n=30) and hyperthyroiditis (n=30) respectively and thirty healthy volunteers who were age and sex matched were included as controls. Saliva was collected and evaluated for Unstimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USSFR), pH and buffer capacity. ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test was performed to find the statistical significance and for pairwise comparison. Results Statistically significant difference was observed between autoimmune hypothyroiditis, autoimmune hyperthyroiditis and control group with respect to USSFR (p<0.007), pH (p<0.001) and buffer capacity (p<0.001). On pairwise comparisons statistically significant difference was observed between autoimmune hypothyroiditis and autoimmune hyperthyroiditis with respect to controls. Conclusion We conclude that significant involvement of salivary glands may occur in cases of AITD. Our study showed significant reduction of sialometric values in AITD patients when compared to controls. A strong clinical suspicion of thyroid diseases should be considered when there is chronic hyposalivation; hence thyroid profile must also be done, if the known causes have been excluded. PMID:28893031

  19. Expression profile of doublesex/male abnormal-3-related transcription factor-1 during gonadal sex change in the protogynous wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Ryo; Horiguchi, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Nakamura, Masaru

    2015-11-01

    Sex change in fish involves a dramatic transformation of gonadal tissue and a switch in gametogenesis. Doublesex/male abnormal-3-related transcription factor-1 (DMRT1), encoded by the DMRT1 gene, is involved in testicular differentiation in a wide range of vertebrates as well as in sexual differentiation and gonadal sex change. In the present study, we investigated changes in the expression of dmrt1 during artificial gonadal sex change in the three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, by real-time quantitative PCR and immunolocalization, using an anti-wrasse-Dmrt1 antibody that we prepared. We found that dmrt1 expression was predominantly observed in the testes, and that Dmrt1 was expressed in Sertoli cells of testes and a few granulosa cells surrounding vitellogenic oocytes of the ovary. Additionally, the upregulation of dmrt1 expression was consistent with an increase in spermatogenic cyst quantity rather than proliferation of presumptive spermatogonia, suggesting that dmrt1 is involved in the progression of spermatogenesis during sex change. Changes in the localization of Dmrt1 during gonadal sex change further implied that Sertoli cells originate from somatic cells adjacent to gonial germ cells during testicular formation in the three-spot wrasse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The clinical spectrum of autoimmune congenital heart block

    PubMed Central

    Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Izmirly, Peter M.; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Buyon, Jill P.; Khamashta, Munther A.

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune congenital heart block (CHB) is an immune-mediated acquired disease that is associated with the placental transference of maternal antibodies specific for Ro and La autoantigens. The disease develops in a fetal heart without anatomical abnormalities that could otherwise explain the block, and which is usually diagnosed in utero, but also at birth or within the neonatal period. Autoantibody-mediated damage of fetal conduction tissues causes inflammation and fibrosis and leads to blockage of signal conduction at the atrioventricular (AV) node. Irreversible complete AV block is the principal cardiac manifestation of CHB, although some babies might develop other severe cardiac complications, such as endocardial fibroelastosis or valvular insufficiency, even in the absence of cardiac block. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, classification and management of women whose pregnancies are affected by autoimmune CHB, with a particular focus on the autoantibodies associated with autoimmune CHB and how we should test for these antibodies and diagnose this disease. Without confirmed effective preventive or therapeutic strategies and further research on the aetiopathogenic mechanisms, autoimmune CHB will remain a severe life-threatening disorder. PMID:25800217

  1. Autoimmune AQP4 channelopathies and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Shannon R; Lennon, Vanda A; Pittock, Sean J

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders (SD) represent an evolving group of central nervous system (CNS)-inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating diseases unified by a pathogenic autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel. It was historically misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS), which lacks a distinguishing biomarker. The discovery of AQP4-IgG moved the focus of CNS demyelinating disease research from emphasis on the oligodendrocyte and myelin to the astrocyte. NMO is recognized today as a relapsing disease, extending beyond the optic nerves and spinal cord to include brain (especially in children) and skeletal muscle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, identifiable in 60% of patients at the second attack, are consistent with MS in 10% of cases. NMOSD-typical lesions (another 10%) occur in AQP4-enriched regions: circumventricular organs (causing intractable nausea and vomiting) and the diencephalon (causing sleep disorders, endocrinopathies, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis). Advances in understanding the immunobiology of AQP4 autoimmunity have necessitated continuing revision of NMOSD clinical diagnostic criteria. Assays that selectively detect pathogenic AQP4-IgG targeting extracellular epitopes of AQP4 are promising prognostically. When referring to AQP4 autoimmunity, we suggest substituting the term "autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy" for the term "NMO spectrum disorders." Randomized clinical trials are currently assessing the efficacy and safety of newer immunotherapies. Increasing therapeutic options based on understanding the molecular pathogenesis is anticipated to improve the outcome for patients with AQP4 channelopathy. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Autoimmune liver disease in children.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, G; Vergani, D

    2003-03-01

    Autoimmune liver disorders are characterised by an inflammatory liver histology, circulating non-organ specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the absence of a known aetiology. They respond to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC). Two types of AIH are recognised according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1-positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalisation of biochemical parameters and decreased inflammatory activity on follow-up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress and there may be an evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. Whether the juvenile autoimmune form of sclerosing cholangitis and AIH are 2 distinct entities, or different aspects of the same condition, remains to be elucidated.

  3. Novel pebbles in the mosaic of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Carlo; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-04-04

    Almost 25 years ago, the concept of the 'mosaic of autoimmunity' was introduced to the scientific community, and since then this concept has continuously evolved, with new pebbles being added regularly. We are now looking at an era in which the players of autoimmunity have changed names and roles. In this issue of BMC Medicine, several aspects of autoimmunity have been addressed, suggesting that we are now at the forefront of autoimmunity science. Within the environmental factors generating autoimmunity are now included unsuspected molecules such as vitamin D and aluminum. Some adjuvants such as aluminum are recognized as causal factors in the development of the autoimmune response. An entirely new syndrome, the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), has been recently described. This is the new wind blowing within the branches of autoimmunity, adding knowledge to physicians for helping patients with autoimmune disease.

  4. Autoimmune Neurology of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Tobin, W Oliver; Pittock, Sean J

    2017-06-01

    This article reviews the rapidly evolving spectrum of autoimmune neurologic disorders with a focus on those that involve the central nervous system, providing an understanding of how to approach the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with central nervous system symptoms or signs that could be immune mediated, either paraneoplastic or idiopathic, to guide therapeutic decision making. The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the discovery of novel neural antibodies and their targets. Many commercial laboratories can now test for these antibodies, which serve as diagnostic markers of diverse neurologic disorders that occur on an autoimmune basis. Some are highly specific for certain cancer types, and the neural antibody profiles may help direct the physician's cancer search. The diagnosis of an autoimmune neurologic disorder is aided by the detection of an objective neurologic deficit (usually subacute in onset with a fluctuating course), the presence of a neural autoantibody, and improvement in the neurologic status after a course of immunotherapy. Neural autoantibodies should raise concern for a paraneoplastic etiology and may inform a targeted oncologic evaluation (eg, N-methyl-D-aspartate [NMDA] receptor antibodies are associated with teratoma, antineuronal nuclear antibody type 1 [ANNA-1, or anti-Hu] are associated with small cell lung cancer). MRI, EEG, functional imaging, videotaped evaluations, and neuropsychological evaluations provide objective evidence of neurologic dysfunction by which the success of immunotherapy may be measured. Most treatment information emanates from retrospective case series and expert opinion. Nonetheless, early intervention may allow reversal of deficits in many patients and prevention of future disability.

  5. Subclasses of immunoglobulins and autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Outschoorn, I; Rowley, M J; Cook, A D; Mackay, I R

    1993-01-01

    The differing capacity of subclasses of IgG to bind to protein A and protein G was used in a sequential affinity purification procedure to examine immunoglobulin isotypes and subclasses in autoimmune disease. The utility of the procedure is that affinity-purified fractions containing particular isotypes and subclasses of immunoglobulin can be analyzed for their content of autoantibodies using standard techniques. For each of four autoimmune diseases studied, chronic active hepatitis, Sjogren's syndrome, primary biliary cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, there were characteristic protein elution profiles and the various disease-specific autoantibodies showed preferential distributions among the isotypes and subclasses. Moreover there was not an absolute correlation between an increased level of a particular subclass and the occurrence of antibodies of that subclass. The occurrence of highly disease-specific immunoglobulin subclass profiles suggests that the hypergammaglobulinemia associated with autoimmunity cannot be attributed entirely to polyclonal B-cell activation. Rather, there are disease-specific alterations in isotype subclass switching which may reflect different cytokine-dependent influences on autoimmune B cells and their products.

  6. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Hajime

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kgmore » for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene

  7. Rare variants and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Massey, Jonathan; Eyre, Steve

    2014-09-01

    The study of rare variants in monogenic forms of autoimmune disease has offered insight into the aetiology of more complex pathologies. Research in complex autoimmune disease initially focused on sequencing candidate genes, with some early successes, notably in uncovering low-frequency variation associated with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, other early examples have proved difficult to replicate, and a recent study across six autoimmune diseases, re-sequencing 25 autoimmune disease-associated genes in large sample sizes, failed to find any associated rare variants. The study of rare and low-frequency variation in autoimmune diseases has been made accessible by the inclusion of such variants on custom genotyping arrays (e.g. Immunochip and Exome arrays). Whole-exome sequencing approaches are now also being utilised to uncover the contribution of rare coding variants to disease susceptibility, severity and treatment response. Other sequencing strategies are starting to uncover the role of regulatory rare variation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Intraocular inflammation in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Pras, Eran; Neumann, Ron; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Levy, Yair; Assia, Ehud I; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Langevitz, Pnina

    2004-12-01

    The uveal tract represents the vascular organ of the eye. In addition to providing most of the blood supply to the intraocular structures, it acts as a conduit for immune cells, particularly lymphocytes, to enter the eye. Consequently, the uveal tract is represented in many intraocular inflammatory processes. Uveitis is probably a misnomer unless antigens within the uvea are the direct targets of the inflammatory process. A better term of the condition is "intraocular inflammation" (IOI). To review the presence of IOI in autoimmune diseases, the immunopathogenic mechanisms leading to disease, and treatment. We reviewed the English medical literature by using MEDLINE (1984-2003) employing the terms "uveitis," "intraocular inflammation," and "autoimmune diseases." An underlying autoimmune disease was identified in up to 40% of patients with IOI, and included spondyloarthropathies, Behcets disease, sarcoidosis, juvenile chronic arthritis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (an inflammatory syndrome including uveitis with dermatologic and neurologic manifestations), immune recovery syndrome, and uveitis with tubulointerstitial disease. The immunopathogenesis of IOI involves enhanced T-cell response. Recently, guidelines for the use of immunosuppressive drugs for inflammatory eye disease were established and include: corticosteroids, azathioprine, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, cyclophosphamide, and chlorambucil. New therapies with limited experience include the tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors, interferon alfa, monoclonal antibodies against lymphocyte surface antigens, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and the intraocular delivery of immunosuppressive agents. An underlying autoimmune disease was identified in up to 40% of patients with IOI. Immunosuppressive drugs, biologic agents, and IVIG are employed for the treatment of IOI in autoimmune diseases.

  9. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  11. Autoimmune phenomena in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Saif, Muhammad Wasif; Hopkins, Jon L; Gore, Steven D

    2002-11-01

    Autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes are commonly encountered in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). A review of case reports and small series suggest as many as 10% of MDS patients may experience various autoimmune syndromes. Clinical manifestations of such phenomena may include an acute systemic vasculitic syndrome, skin vasculitis, fever, arthritis, pulmonary infiltrates, peripheral polyneuropathy, inflammatory bowel disease, glomerulonephritis, and even classical connective tissue disorders, such as relapsing polychondritis. On the other hand, asymptomatic immunologic abnormalities have also been reported in these patients. These autoimmune manifestations frequently respond to immunosuppressive agents including steroids and occasional hematologic responses to steroid therapy have also been reported. We report five patients with history of MDS who manifested different spectrums of autoimmune phenomena including: pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), vasculitis, Coombs negative hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We also review the incidence, nature, course and response to therapy of these manifestations and discuss potential pathogenic mechanisms.

  12. The first childhood case with coexisting Hashimoto thyroiditis, vitiligo and autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Melikşah; Savaş-Erdeve, Şenay; Özbay-Hoşnut, Ferda; Kurnaz, Erdal; Çetinkaya, Semra; Aycan, Zehra

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is the most common pediatric autoimmune endocrine disorder. It results in autoimmune-mediated thyroid gland destruction and is an organ-specific, typical autoimmune disease. The presence of antithyroid antibodies and the typical pattern on ultrasonography indicate the diagnosis. It is also frequently seen together with other autoimmune disorders including type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes, celiac disease, alopecia and vitiligo. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic type of liver injury with an immune etiology that can frequently cause end-stage liver disease if left untreated. Autoimmune hepatitis patients may present with hepatitis, and the laboratory tests in the absence of other etiology usually reveal a positive immune serology together with elevated immunoglobulins and abnormal liver histology. It is interesting that HT and AIH are rarely seen together although both have an autoimmune etiology. 14-year-old male who was being followed-up for vitiligo presented with symptoms of a swelling at the neck and fatigue. He was diagnosed with HT after the tests and the liver enzymes were found to be high. The patient was also diagnosed with AIH after tests revealed that the liver enzyme elevation had continued for longer than six months. The thyroid functions and liver enzymes returned to normal and the symptoms decreased after sodium L-thyroxine replacement together with steroid and azathioprine treatment. We present this case as we believe it is the first pediatric patient diagnosed with HT, AIH and vitiligo.

  13. Immunomodulatory and Immunosuppressive Roles of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Alhassan Mohammed, H; Saboor-Yaraghi, A A; Mirshafiey, A; Vahedi, H; Shiri-Shahsavar, M R; Mousavi Nasl Khameneh, A

    2017-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases are pathological conditions characterized by abnormal responses, accompanied by autoantibodies to self-molecules. The role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases has increased significantly in the recent past from its functions in calcium and phosphate homoeostasis, and it is now involved in the regulations and proliferations of Th1 and Th17 lymphocyte. 1α,25(OH)2D3 is very important in ameliorations of inflammatory disorders arising from autoimmune diseases, but the mechanism by which this is performed is still a bone of contentions. This review aimed to highlight the existing facts about the roles of Vitamin D in the treatment and management of autoimmune diseases. An extensive online literature search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE and Scopus. Accumulated bodies of research evidence are available which demonstrates that Vitamin D has a very important part to play in the regulation of immune responses in autoimmune diseases. Some of the authors suggested that Vitamin D3 carry-out its immunosuppressive and immune modulatory action, through its actions on antigen-presenting cells and activated T and B cells with the help of Vitamin D receptors present on the each of these cells. Vitamin D supplementation assists in autoimmune disorders by making qualitative and quantitative changes in the immune system (downregulation of Th1 and upregulations of Th2 cells). This resulted in the body to be more tolerant of self and less likely to mount autoimmune responses. © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  14. Acrylamine-induced autoimmune phenomena.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Bruce

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study is to document a series of cases of occupationally derived autoimmune disease. Individuals with occupational exposure to acrylamides were evaluated clinically and biochemically/immunologically for evidence of autoimmune disease. Symptoms and signs and immuno-reactivity were monitored during exposure-free and re-exposure as part of the individuals' clinical evaluation. Six individuals with occupational acrylamide exposure had clinical and laboratory alterations characteristic of drug-induced autoimmune disease, specifically lupus, anti-phospholipid syndrome, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, and polymyositis. The similarity of the full spectrum of disease in the reported patients to that found with procainamide strongly suggests the effects of occupational exposure. This uncontrolled study suggests the need for a full epidemiologic analysis of all individuals working with such occupational exposure, including full clinical and immunological examination.

  15. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave's disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins.

  16. Quantitative profile of lipid classes in blood by normal phase chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector: application in the detection of lipid class abnormalities in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Laura; García-Cano, Ana; Busto, Rebeca; Martínez-González, Javier; Albillos, Agustín; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Pastor, Oscar

    2013-06-05

    The lack of analytical methods specific for each lipid class, particularly for phospholipids and sphyngolipids, makes necessary their separation by preparative techniques before quantification. LC-MS would be the election method but for daily work in the clinical laboratory this is not feasible for different reasons, both economic and time consuming. In the present work, we have optimized an HPLC method to quantify lipid classes in plasma and erythrocytes and applied it to samples from patients with cirrhosis. Lipid classes were analyzed by normal phase liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. We employed a quaternary solvent system to separate twelve lipid classes in 15 min. Interday, intraday and recovery for quantification of lipid classes in plasma were excellent with our methodology. The total plasma lipid content of cirrhotic patients vs control subjects was decreased with diminished CE (81±33 vs 160±17 mg/dL) and PC (37±16 vs 60±19 mg/dL). The composition of erythrocytes showed a decrease in acidic phospholipids: PE, PI and PS. Present methodology provides a reliable quantification of lipid classes in blood. The lipid profile of cirrhotics showed alterations in the PC/PE plasma ratio and in the phospholipid content of erythrocytes, which might reflect alterations in hepatocyte and erythrocyte membrane integrity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    2015-01-02

    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic

  18. Multiplex autoantibody detection for autoimmune liver diseases and autoimmune gastritis.

    PubMed

    Vanderlocht, Joris; van der Cruys, Mart; Stals, Frans; Bakker-Jonges, Liesbeth; Damoiseaux, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Autoantibody detection for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is traditionally performed by IIF on a combination of tissues. Multiplex line/dot blots (LIA/DIA) offer multiple advantages, i.e. automation, objective reading, no interfering reactivities, no coincidental findings. In the current study we evaluated automated DIA (D-Tek) for detecting autoantibodies related to autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We tested samples of the Dutch EQC program and compared the results with the consensus of the participating labs. For the autoimmune liver diseases and AIG, respectively, 64 and 36 samples were tested. For anti-mitochondrial and anti-smooth muscle antibodies a concordance rate of 97% and 88% was observed, respectively. The concordance rate for anti-parietal cell antibodies was 92% when samples without EQC consensus (n=15) were excluded. For antibodies against intrinsic factor a concordance of 96% was observed. For all these antibodies discrepancies were identified that relate to the different test characteristics and the preponderance of IIF utilizing labs in the EQC program. In conclusion, we observed good agreement of the tested DIA blots with the consensus results of the Dutch EQC program. Taken together with the logistic advantages these blots are a good alternative for autoantibody detection in the respective diseases. A large prospective multicenter study is warranted to position these novel tests further in the whole spectrum of assays for the detection of these antibodies in a routine autoimmune laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Autoimmune mechanisms in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Paola; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews recent findings on factors and mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis and briefly summarizes data on therapies acting at various stages of the autoimmune process. Data published over the last year promise to improve understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying myasthenia gravis. Animal studies have at last shown that antimuscle-specific kinase (MuSK) autoantibodies, like antiacetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies, are myasthenogenic. A new autoantigen, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), has been identified in variable proportions of otherwise seronegative patients. Anti-LRP4 antibodies may define a new myasthenia gravis subtype, supporting the concept that myasthenia gravis is not a single disease entity, and that different subtypes can differ in aetiology. Genetic and environmental factors are implicated in myasthenia gravis. The finding of persisting viral infection in the thymus of AChR-myasthenia gravis patients, combined with data on chronic inflammation, suggest that pathogens may favour intrathymic AChR-specific autosensitization and maintenance of autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals. Defective immunoregulatory mechanisms, involving pathogenic Th17 and regulatory T cells, contribute to tolerance loss and perpetuation of the autoimmune response in myasthenia gravis patients. The recent identification of mechanisms initiating and perpetuating autoimmunity in myasthenia gravis may stimulate the development of more effective therapies.

  20. [Clinical Phenomenology of Autoimmune Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Holle, J F; Jessen, F; Kuhn, J

    2016-05-01

    Antibody-associated disorders of the central nervous system constitute a heterogeneous group of disorders that can be roughly divided into two categories: Classic paraneoplastic syndromes associated with so-called well-characterized antibodies (paraneoplastic neurological disorders, PND) and autoimmune disorders with antibodies to membrane-bound or synaptic antigens (autoimmune encephalitis, AE). The discovery of autoimmune encephalitis has led to a paradigm shift in diagnosis and therapy as well as a reclassification of some neuropsychiatric syndromes that were previously classified as idiopathic or simply covered with descriptive terms.In this review article, especially clinical aspects of autoimmune encephalitis will be discussed, as there has been a rapid increase in knowledge in this regard within the past decade; increasingly overlap syndromes and associations with other disease entities have been detected. In addition to general aspects, characteristics of anti-NMDAR-, anti-LGI1-, anti-GABAA and GABABR, anti-AMPAR-, anti-CASPR2-, anti-mGluR, anti-GlycinR-, anti-GAD, anti- DPPX- and anti-D2 R encephalitis and the anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy will be presented. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Autoimmunity: a decision theory model.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J A

    1987-01-01

    Concepts from statistical decision theory were used to analyse the detection problem faced by the body's immune system in mounting immune responses to bacteria of the normal body flora. Given that these bacteria are potentially harmful, that there can be extensive cross reaction between bacterial antigens and host tissues, and that the decisions are made in uncertainty, there is a finite chance of error in immune response leading to autoimmune disease. A model of ageing in the immune system is proposed that is based on random decay in components of the decision process, leading to a steep age dependent increase in the probability of error. The age incidence of those autoimmune diseases which peak in early and middle life can be explained as the resultant of two processes: an exponentially falling curve of incidence of first contact with common bacteria, and a rapidly rising error function. Epidemiological data on the variation of incidence with social class, sibship order, climate and culture can be used to predict the likely site of carriage and mode of spread of the causative bacteria. Furthermore, those autoimmune diseases precipitated by common viral respiratory tract infections might represent reactions to nasopharyngeal bacterial overgrowth, and this theory can be tested using monoclonal antibodies to search the bacterial isolates for cross reacting antigens. If this model is correct then prevention of autoimmune disease by early exposure to low doses of bacteria might be possible. PMID:3818985

  2. Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): a major subset of autism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijendra K

    2009-01-01

    Autism causes incapacitating neurologic problems in children that last a lifetime. The author of this article previously hypothesized that autism may be caused by autoimmunity to the brain, possibly triggered by a viral infection. This article is a summary of laboratory findings to date plus new data in support of an autoimmune pathogenesis for autism. Autoimmune markers were analyzed in the sera of autistic and normal children, but the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of some autistic children was also analyzed. Laboratory procedures included enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and protein immunoblotting assay. Autoimmunity was demonstrated by the presence of brain autoantibodies, abnormal viral serology, brain and viral antibodies in CSF, a positive correlation between brain autoantibodies and viral serology, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and acute-phase reactants, and a positive response to immunotherapy. Many autistic children harbored brain myelin basic protein autoantibodies and elevated levels of antibodies to measles virus and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Measles might be etiologically linked to autism because measles and MMR antibodies (a viral marker) correlated positively to brain autoantibodies (an autoimmune marker)--salient features that characterize autoimmune pathology in autism. Autistic children also showed elevated levels of acute-phase reactants--a marker of systemic inflammation. The scientific evidence is quite credible for our autoimmune hypothesis, leading to the identification of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD) as a major subset of autism. AAD can be identified by immune tests to determine immune problems before administering immunotherapy. The author has advanced a speculative neuroautoimmune (NAI) model for autism, in which virus-induced autoimmunity is a key player. The latter should be targeted by immunotherapy to help children with autism.

  3. Utility of Neurodiagnostic Studies in the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Albert, Dara V; Pluto, Charles P; Weber, Amanda; Vidaurre, Jorge; Barbar-Smiley, Fatima; Abdul Aziz, Rabheh; Driest, Kyla; Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Ruess, Lynne; Rusin, Jerome A; Morgan-Followell, Bethanie

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis is currently a clinical diagnosis without widely accepted diagnostic criteria, often leading to a delay in diagnosis. The utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) in this disease is unknown. The objective of this study was to identify disease-specific patterns of neurodiagnostic studies (MRI and EEG) for autoimmune encephalitis in children. We completed a retrospective chart review of encephalopathic patients seen at a large pediatric hospital over a four year interval. Clinical presentation, autoantibody status, and MRI and EEG findings were identified and compared. Individuals with autoantibodies were considered "definite" cases, whereas those without antibodies or those with only thyroperoxidase antibodies were characterized as "suspected." Eighteen patients met the inclusion criteria and autoantibodies were identified in nine of these. The patients with definite autoimmune encephalitis had MRI abnormalities within limbic structures, most notably the anteromedial temporal lobes (56%). Only individuals with suspected disease had nontemporal lobe cortical lesions. Sixteen patients had an EEG and 13 (81%) of these were abnormal. The most common findings were abnormal background rhythm (63%), generalized slowing (50%), focal slowing (43%), and focal epileptiform discharges (31%). Sleep spindle abnormalities occurred in 38% of patients. There were no specific differences in the EEG findings between the definite and suspected cases. Focal EEG findings only correlated with a focal lesion on MRI in a single definite case. Pediatric patients with definite autoimmune encephalitis have a narrow spectrum of MRI abnormalities. Conversely, EEG abnormalities are mostly nonspecific. All patients in our cohort had abnormalities on one or both of these neurodiagnostic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Toll-Like Receptor Pathways in Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Qing; Szodoray, Peter; Zeher, Margit

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a family of chronic systemic inflammatory disorders, characterized by the dysregulation of the immune system which finally results in the break of tolerance to self-antigen. Several studies suggest that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. TLRs belong to the family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLRs are type I transmembrane proteins and located on various cellular membranes. Two main groups have been classified based on their location; the extracelluar group referred to the ones located on the plasma membrane while the intracellular group all located in endosomal compartments responsible for the recognition of nucleic acids. They are released by the host cells and trigger various intracellular pathways which results in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, as well as the expression of co-stimulatory molecules to protect against invading microorganisms. In particular, TLR pathway-associated proteins, such as IRAK, TRAF, and SOCS, are often dysregulated in this group of diseases. TLR-associated gene expression profile analysis together with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assessment could be important to explain the pathomechanism driving autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize recent findings on TLR pathway regulation in various autoimmune diseases, including Sjögren's syndrome (SS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and psoriasis.

  5. A Rare Case of Autoimmune Hypophysitis Presenting as Temperature Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Dhanwal, Dinesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hypophysitis is a rare cause of pan-hypopituitarism. Hypothalamic involvement in autoimmune hypophysitis is rare and usually manifests as central diabetes insipidus due to antibodies against arginine vasopressin. Temperature dysregulation is occasionally seen with suprasellar tumours but has never been reported with hypophysitis. We report a case of a middle aged man who presented to us with the complaints of documented body temperature fluctuations since two months followed gradually by hoarseness of voice, sexual dysfunction and syncope. Examination was remarkable for postural hypotension, dry coarse skin and delayed ankle reflexes. Patient’s hormone profile revealed pan-hypopituitarism and elevated titre of anti-TPO antibodies. Patient’s work up for secondary causes of hypopituitarism was negative. MRI brain revealed typical findings of hypophysitis. Patient was suspected as a case of autoimmune hypophysitis and was immediately treated with prednisolone along with hormone replacement. Rapid response within 30 days was observed in the form of subsidence of temperature fluctuations, improvement in general well being, sexual function and repeat MRI done after one month which revealed a partial empty sella. Autoimmune hypophysitis as a potentially treatable cause of temperature dysregulation has been highlighted in this case. PMID:25859485

  6. A rare case of autoimmune hypophysitis presenting as temperature dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ankur; Dhanwal, Dinesh K

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune hypophysitis is a rare cause of pan-hypopituitarism. Hypothalamic involvement in autoimmune hypophysitis is rare and usually manifests as central diabetes insipidus due to antibodies against arginine vasopressin. Temperature dysregulation is occasionally seen with suprasellar tumours but has never been reported with hypophysitis. We report a case of a middle aged man who presented to us with the complaints of documented body temperature fluctuations since two months followed gradually by hoarseness of voice, sexual dysfunction and syncope. Examination was remarkable for postural hypotension, dry coarse skin and delayed ankle reflexes. Patient's hormone profile revealed pan-hypopituitarism and elevated titre of anti-TPO antibodies. Patient's work up for secondary causes of hypopituitarism was negative. MRI brain revealed typical findings of hypophysitis. Patient was suspected as a case of autoimmune hypophysitis and was immediately treated with prednisolone along with hormone replacement. Rapid response within 30 days was observed in the form of subsidence of temperature fluctuations, improvement in general well being, sexual function and repeat MRI done after one month which revealed a partial empty sella. Autoimmune hypophysitis as a potentially treatable cause of temperature dysregulation has been highlighted in this case.

  7. Cytokine production profiles in chronic relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: IFN-γ and TNF-α are important participants in the first attack but not in the relapse.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Yoshihiko; Inaba, Yuji; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Itoh, Makoto; Kaneyama, Tomoki; Nakazawa, Yozo; Koh, Chang-Sung; Ichikawa, Motoki

    2014-05-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease often displaying a relapsing-remitting course of neurological manifestations that is mimicked by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animal models of MS. In particular, NOD mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 develop chronic relapsing-remitting EAE (CREAE). To elucidate the mechanisms that cause MS relapse, we investigated the histopathology and cytokine production of spleen cells and mRNA expression levels in the central nervous system (CNS) of CREAE mice. During the first attack, inflammatory cell infiltration around small vessels and in the subarachnoid space was observed in the spinal cord. Spleen cell production and mRNA expression in the CNS of several cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), were higher in CREAE mice than in controls. Afterwards, parenchymal infiltration and demyelination were observed histologically in the spinal cord and corresponded with the more severe clinical symptoms of the first and second relapses. IL-17 and CCL2, but not IFN-γ, TNF-α, or IL-6, were also produced by spleen cells during recurrences. Our results suggested that the immune mechanisms in relapses were different from those in the first attack for CREAE. Further investigation of CREAE mechanisms may provide important insights into successful therapies for human relapsing-remitting MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Sub-acute encephalopathy that responds to steroids without any evidence of autoimmune thyroid disease: a case of non-vasculitic autoimmune meningoencephalitis].

    PubMed

    López-Ariztegui, N; Lobato-Casado, P; Muñoz-Escudero, F; Polo-Martín, M; Montes-Gonzalo, M C; Alvarez-Tejerina, A

    To report a case of sub-acute encephalopathy with all the extension study negative and with response to steroid therapy. The study involves a 22-year-old female with no relevant past history who presented symptoms of sub-acute encephalopathy consisting in behavioural disorders, generalised seizures and bradypsychia, which gradually progressed to a state of low-level consciousness. While she was in hospital all kinds of diagnostic tests were conducted, the results of which were either normal or negative; the electroencephalogram was repeatedly abnormal and detection of protein 14-3-3 in cerebrospinal fluid was positive. Empirical corticoid therapy was begun with clinical and electrophysiological improvements and the patient recovered completely without any sequelae. With no evidence of autoimmune thyroid disease, although non-specific autoimmunity was present, the patient was diagnosed as having non-vasculitic autoimmune meningoencephalitis.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus infection induces lupus autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Harley, John B; James, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by a constellation of varied clinical presentations, although the nearly universal presence of autoantibodies is a salient unifying feature. Ongoing research efforts focus on understanding the complex combination of genetic and environmental factors that lead to SLE in select individuals. Our previous work has demonstrated that years before diagnosis abnormal autoantibody responses are present in the sera of patients who will subsequently develop lupus and, further, that the initial targets of two of these key responses (anti-Sm B' and anti-60 kD Ro alone) have been identified for some patients. Indeed, our results suggest that the first lupus-specific autoantibodies arise from particular antibodies directed against Epstein-Barr virus Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and that infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an environmental risk factor for lupus. The predicted sequence of events is normal immunity, followed by Epstein- Barr virus infection, the generation of anti-EBNA-1 antibodies, then followed by those particular anti-EBNA-1 antibodies that also bind lupus-specific autoantigens (Sm or Ro), followed by the development of more complex autoimmune responses, and, finally, culminating in clinical disease. Studies from others and those underway suggest that lupus patients have unusual immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus. In aggregate, these results are consistent with an immune response against Epstein-Barr virus being important in at least some patients for the initiation of lupus autoimmunity.

  10. Postviral autoimmune encephalitis: manifestations in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Prüss, Harald

    2017-06-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis is an increasingly recognized neuropsychiatric condition seen in patients of all ages. Herpes virus infections of the brain can antedate the development of pathogenic autoantibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and further neuronal surface proteins, leading to neuronal dysfunction and relapsing symptoms. This review will recapitulate the recent scientific progress, clinical manifestations in children and adults, therapeutic options, and etiological concepts on how autoimmunity develops. Postviral autoimmune encephalitis has been established as disease mechanism after herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Relapsing symptoms in the absence of virus occur in up to 20% of cases. The clinical presentation is relatively stereotyped in children, consisting of choreoathetosis and reduced levels of consciousness. Adults commonly present with psychiatric abnormalities and cognitive changes. Virus-induced antibody generation seems to be a widespread mechanism not confined to Herpesviridae and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies SUMMARY: The presence of prolonged, atypical, or relapsing symptoms after virus encephalitis must be actively determined, requiring early follow-up visits of patients, and should always prompt the search for underlying autoantibodies. Relapsing symptoms can markedly improve with immunotherapy, thus treatment, including corticosteroids, plasma separation, immunoglobulins, and rituximab is usually recommended, even if no specific antibody was detected.

  11. Familial juvenile autoimmune hypothyroidism, pituitary enlargement, obesity, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Hathout, Eba H; Janner, Donald; Hara, Manami; Donfack, Joseph; Bass, Joseph; Refetoff, Samuel

    2004-04-01

    The proband, a 9-year-old Hispanic female, presented with hair loss, strabismus, and weight gain. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) she was found to have severe primary hypothyroidism and a large pituitary mass. In addition, acanthosis nigricans, obesity, and hyperinsulinism were observed. Findings were similar in three of four siblings. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies were detected in the father and three of four siblings. Although all family members were obese, and hyperinsulinemia with high proinsulin and C-peptide was found in all except one sibling, only the mother and one child had overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because of the unusual association of autoimmune thyroid disease, insulin resistance and obesity rather than insulin deficiency, we searched for possible genetic abnormalities. The HLA haplotypes did not cosegregate with autoimmune thyroid disease or insulin resistance. Mutational analysis of known obesity genes was done. Leptin was not deficient, and sequencing of the proband's DNA showed no mutations in the perixisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, PPAR-gamma(2), PPAR-alpha or melanocortin 4 receptor genes. Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness was ruled out since no mutations were found in mitochondria DNA. Insulin receptor antibodies were not detected. In conclusion, the remarkably high incidence of childhood autoimmune hypothyroidism, pituitary enlargement, insulin resistance and obesity in this family is not linked to known HLA types or known gene defects.

  12. Progranulin antibodies in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Thurner, Lorenz; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Fadle, Natalie; Regitz, Evi; Klemm, Philipp; Zaks, Marina; Kemele, Maria; Hasenfus, Andrea; Csernok, Elena; Gross, Wolfgang L; Pasquali, Jean-Louis; Martin, Thierry; Bohle, Rainer Maria; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Systemic vasculitides constitute a heterogeneous group of diseases. Autoimmunity mediated by B lymphocytes and their humoral effector mechanisms play a major role in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) as well as in non-ANCA associated primary systemic vasculitides and in the different types of autoimmune connective tissue disorders and rheumatoid arthritis. In order to detect autoantibodies in systemic vasculitides, we screened protein macroarrays of human cDNA expression libraries with sera from patients with ANCA-associated and ANCA-negative primary systemic vasculitides. This approach led to the identification of antibodies against progranulin, a 88 kDA secreted glycoprotein with strong anti-inflammatory activity in the course of disease of giant-cell arteritis/polymyalgia rheumatica (14/65), Takayasu's arteritis (4/13), classical panarteritis nodosa (4/10), Behcet's disease (2/6) and in the course of disease in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (31/75), Churg-Strauss syndrome (7/23) and in microscopic polyangiitis (7/19). In extended screenings the progranulin antibodies were also detected in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (39/91) and rheumatoid arthritis (16/44). Progranulin antibodies were detected only in 1 of 97 healthy controls. Anti-progranulin positive patients with systemic vasculitides, systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis had significant lower progranulin plasma levels, indicating a neutralizing effect. In light of the anti-inflammatory effects of progranulin, progranulin antibodies might exert pro-inflammatory effects thus contributing to the pathogenesis of the respective autoimmune diseases and might serve as a marker for disease activity. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that a positive progranulin antibody status was associated with active disease in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  14. HYPERAUTOFLUORESCENT RING IN AUTOIMMUNE RETINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    LIMA, LUIZ H.; GREENBERG, JONATHAN P.; GREENSTEIN, VIVIENNE C.; SMITH, R. THEODORE; SALLUM, JULIANA M. F.; THIRKILL, CHARLES; YANNUZZI, LAWRENCE A.; TSANG, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the presence of a hyperautofluorescent ring and corresponding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features seen in patients with autoimmune retinopathy. Methods All eyes were evaluated by funduscopic examination, full-fleld electroretinography, fundus autofluorescence, and SD-OCT. Further confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained with immunoblot and immunohistochemistry testing of the patient’s serum. Humphrey visual fields and microperimetry were also performed. Results Funduscopic examination showed atrophic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) associated with retinal artery narrowing but without pigment deposits. The scotopic and photopic full-field electroretinograms were nondetectable in three patients and showed a cone–rod pattern of dysfunction in one patient. Fundus autofluorescence revealed a hyperautofluorescent ring in the parafoveal region, and the corresponding SD-OCT demonstrated loss of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment junction with thinning of the outer nuclear layer from the region of the hyperautofluorescent ring toward the retinal periphery. The retinal layers were generally intact within the hyperautofluorescent ring, although the inner segment–outer segment junction was disrupted, and the outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor outer segment layer were thinned. Conclusion This case series revealed the structure of the hyperautofluorescent ring in autoimmune retinopathy using SD-OCT. Fundus autofluorescence and SD-OCT may aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy and may serve as a tool to monitor its progression. PMID:22218149

  15. Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Lopomo, Angela; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are the result of specific immune responses directed against structures of the self. In normal conditions, the molecules recognized as “self” are tolerated by immune system, but when the self-tolerance is lost, the immune system could react against molecules from the body, causing the loss of self-tolerance, and subsequently the onset of AID that differs for organ target and etiology. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is caused by the development of autoimmunity against thyroid antigens and comprises Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves disease. They are frequently associated with other organ or non-organ specific AIDs, such as myasthenia gravis (MG). In fact, ATD seems to be the most associated pathology to MG. The etiology of both diseases is multifactorial and it is due to genetic and environmental factors, and each of them has specific characteristics. The two pathologies show many commonalities, such as the organ-specificity with a clear pathogenic effect of antibodies, the pathological mechanisms, such as deregulation of the immune system and the implication of the genetic predisposition. They also show some differences, such as the mode of action of the antibodies and therapies. In this review that focuses on ATD and MG, the common features and the differences between the two diseases are discussed. PMID:28751878

  16. [Tiredness, hyperpigmentation, weight loss, nausea and vomiting. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) type 2].

    PubMed

    Locher, Rebecca; Kohler, S; Schwanda, S; Schmid, C

    2010-10-06

    In this patient with tiredness, hyperpigmentation, weight loss, nausea and vomiting, chronic primary adrenal insufficiency (M. Addison) was diagnosed based on the clinical features, the typical electrolyte abnormalities and the reduced morning cortisol together with increased adrenocorticotropic hormone. The detection of autoantibodies against adrenal tissue and 21-hydroxylase revealed an auto-immune adrenalitis as the cause. The additional primary hypothyroidism (with positive thyreoperoxidase-anti-bodies, anti-TPO-antibodies) and the coeliac disease argued for a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 2. Treatment with hydrocortisone and with mineralocorticoid and thyroxine later on showed a rapid improvement of clinical symptoms. In patients with Morbus Addison, a screening for associated endocrine disorders is warranted.

  17. Evaluation of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in gestational diabetes mellitus and its relationship with postpartum thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Maleki, N; Tavosi, Z

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in women with gestational diabetes and to investigate the frequency of postpartum thyroiditis in women with gestational diabetes. A total of 350 women with gestational diabetes and 350 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in the study. We studied the thyroid hormone profiles of the women in each group during pregnancy (at 24-28 weeks' gestation) and after delivery (at 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 9 months, and 1 year postpartum). A total of 342 women with gestational diabetes and 313 healthy pregnant women completed the follow-up during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery. Of the women with gestational diabetes, 16.6% had thyroid dysfunction, while of the healthy pregnant women, 6.1% had thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis was higher in the women with a history of gestational diabetes (19.6%) than in the healthy pregnant women (10.2%), and this difference was statistically significant. According to the results of the present study, the prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis was higher in women with a history of gestational diabetes than in healthy women. We recommend that all women with gestational diabetes and women who have previous thyroid dysfunction should be screened for thyroid hormonal abnormalities during pregnancy and for 1 year after pregnancy. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  18. Diagnosing autoimmune pancreatitis with the Unifying-Autoimmune-Pancreatitis-Criteria.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Alexander; Michaely, Henrik; Rückert, Felix; Weiss, Christel; Ströbel, Philipp; Belle, Sebastian; Hirth, Michael; Wilhelm, Torsten J; Haas, Stephan L; Jesenofsky, Ralf; Schönberg, Stefan; Marx, Alexander; Singer, Manfred V; Ebert, Matthias P; Pfützer, Roland H; Löhr, J Matthias

    We had developed the Unifying-Autoimmune-Pancreatitis-Criteria (U-AIP) to diagnose autoimmune pancreatitis (AiP) within the M-ANNHEIM classification of chronic pancreatitis. In 2011, International-Consensus-Diagnostic-Criteria (ICDC) to diagnose AiP have been published. We had applied the U-AIP long before the ICDC were available. The aims of the study were, first, to describe patients with AiP diagnosed by the U-AIP; second, to compare diagnostic accuracies of the U-AIP and other diagnostic systems; third, to evaluate the clinical applicability of the U-AIP. From 1998 until 2008, we identified patients with AiP using U-AIP, Japanese-, Korean-, Asian-, Mayo-HISORt-, Revised-Mayo-HISORt- and Italian-criteria. We retrospectively verified the diagnosis by ICDC and Revised-Japanese-2011-criteria, compared diagnostic accuracies of all systems and evaluated all criteria in consecutive patients with pancreatitis (2009 until 2010, Pancreas-Outpatient-Clinic-Cohort, n = 84). We retrospectively validated our diagnostic approach in consecutive patients with a pancreatic lesion requiring surgery (Surgical-Cohort, n = 98). Overall, we identified 21 patients with AiP. Unifying-Autoimmune-Pancreatitis-Criteria and ICDC presented the highest diagnostic accuracies (each 98.8%), highest Youden indices (each 0.95238), and highest proportions of diagnosed patients (each n = 20/21, U-AIP/ICDC vs. other diagnostic systems, p < 0.05, McNemar test). In the Pancreas-Outpatient-Clinic-Cohort, seven patients were diagnosed with AiP (n = 6 by U-AIP, n = 1 by Asian-criteria). International-Consensus-Diagnostic-Criteria confirmed the diagnosis in these individuals. Based on partial fulfillment of U-AIP, AiP was initially suspected in 13% (n = 10/77) of remaining patients from the Pancreas-Outpatient-Clinic-Cohort. In the Surgical-cohort, we identified one patient with AiP by U-AIP and ICDC. Unifying-Autoimmune-Pancreatitis-Criteria revealed a satisfactory clinical applicability

  19. The Diagnostic Challenges of Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Kata; Angst, Eliane; Seidel, Stefan; Flury-Frei, Renata; Hetzer, Franc Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare but important differential diagnosis from pancreatic cancer. This autoimmune disease can mimic pancreatic cancer by its clinical symptoms, including weight loss and jaundice. Furthermore imaging findings may include a mass of the pancreas. Here we present the case of a 67-year-old male patient diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis but showing the well-known symptoms of pancreatic cancer. This emphasizes the difficulties of histological findings and the importance of the correct diagnostic process. PMID:25802499

  20. Cardiovascular disease in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hollan, Ivana; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ahearn, Joseph M; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Curran, Sam; Goodyear, Carl S; Hestad, Knut A; Kahaleh, Bashar; Riggio, Marcello; Shields, Kelly; Wasko, Mary C

    2013-08-01

    Various autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, are associated with premature atherosclerosis. However, premature atherosclerosis has not been uniformly observed in systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, although experimental models of atherosclerosis support the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in atherosclerosis, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APA). Ischemic events in APA are more likely to be caused by pro-thrombotic state than by enhanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs is caused by traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Besides other factors, inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, the quantity and quality of lipoproteins, hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, obesity and underweight, presence of platelets bearing complement protein C4d, reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, apoptosis of endothelial cells, epigenetic mechanisms, renal disease, periodontal disease, depression, hyperuricemia, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the premature CVD. Although most research has focused on systemic inflammation, vascular inflammation may play a crucial role in the premature CVD in ARDs. It may be involved in the development and destabilization of both atherosclerotic lesions and of aortic aneurysms (a known complication of ARDs). Inflammation in subintimal vascular and perivascular layers appears to frequently occur in CVD, with a higher frequency in ARD than in non-ARD patients. It is possible that this inflammation is caused by infections and/or autoimmunity, which might have consequences for treatment. Importantly, drugs targeting immunologic factors participating in the subintimal inflammation (e.g., T- and B-cells) might have a protective effect on CVD. Interestingly, vasa vasorum and cardiovascular adipose tissue may

  1. Autoimmunity in focus: from mechanisms to treatment.

    PubMed

    Kon, Yujiro

    2012-05-01

    The 5th Asian Congress on Autoimmunity took place in Suntec City, Singapore, on the 17-19 November 2011 under the presidency of Yehuda Shoenfeld (Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel). Senior investigators from a range of fields--including immunology, autoimmunity, rheumatology, neurology and hepatology--attended the conference. The scientific program placed an emphasis on the pathogenesis, genetic basis and mechanistic aspects of autoimmune diseases, as well as their clinical outcomes and treatment options. Particular focus was placed on systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Type I diabetes, antiphospholipid syndrome and autoimmune hepatitis. Participants from over 50 countries attended the conference.

  2. Immunoglobulin E-Mediated Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Marcus; Altrichter, Sabine; Schmetzer, Oliver; Scheffel, Jörg; Church, Martin K.; Metz, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The study of autoimmunity mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) autoantibodies, which may be termed autoallergy, is in its infancy. It is now recognized that systemic lupus erythematosus, bullous pemphigoid (BP), and chronic urticaria, both spontaneous and inducible, are most likely to be mediated, at least in part, by IgE autoantibodies. The situation in other conditions, such as autoimmune uveitis, rheumatoid arthritis, hyperthyroid Graves’ disease, autoimmune pancreatitis, and even asthma, is far less clear but evidence for autoallergy is accumulating. To be certain of an autoallergic mechanism, it is necessary to identify both IgE autoantibodies and their targets as has been done with the transmembrane protein BP180 and the intracellular protein BP230 in BP and IL-24 in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Also, IgE-targeted therapies, such as anti-IgE, must have been shown to be of benefit to patients as has been done with both of these conditions. This comprehensive review of the literature on IgE-mediated autoallergy focuses on three related questions. What do we know about the prevalence of IgE autoantibodies and their targets in different diseases? What do we know about the relevance of IgE autoantibodies in different diseases? What do we know about the cellular and molecular effects of IgE autoantibodies? In addition to providing answers to these questions, based on a broad review of the literature, we outline the current gaps of knowledge in our understanding of IgE autoantibodies and describe approaches to address them. PMID:29686678

  3. IgG abnormality in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Susumu; Honda, Makoto

    2010-03-05

    A close association between narcolepsy and the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DQB1*0602 allele suggests the involvement of the immune system, or possibly an autoimmune process. We investigated serum IgG levels in narcolepsy. We measured the serum total IgG levels in 159 Japanese narcolepsy-cataplexy patients positive for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele, 28 idiopathic hypersomnia patients with long sleep time, and 123 healthy controls (the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele present in 45 subjects). The serum levels of each IgG subclass were subsequently measured. The distribution of serum IgG was significantly different among healthy controls negative for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele (11.66+/-3.55 mg/ml), healthy controls positive for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele (11.45+/-3.43), narcolepsy patients (9.67+/-3.38), and idiopathic hypersomnia patients (13.81+/-3.80). None of the following clinical variables, age, disease duration, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, smoking habit and BMI at the time of blood sampling, were associated with IgG levels in narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia. Furthermore we found the decrease in IgG1 and IgG2 levels, stable expression of IgG3, and the increase in the proportion of IgG4 in narcolepsy patients with abnormally low IgG levels. The increase in the proportion of IgG4 levels was also found in narcolepsy patients with normal serum total IgG levels. Idiopathic hypersomnia patients showed a different pattern of IgG subclass distribution with high IgG3 and IgG4 level, low IgG2 level, and IgG1/IgG2 imbalance. Our study is the first to determine IgG abnormalities in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia by measuring the serum IgG levels in a large number of hypersomnia patients. The observed IgG abnormalities indicate humoral immune alterations in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. Different IgG profiles suggest immunological differences between narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia.

  4. Immune complex-mediated autoimmunity in a patient With Smith-Magenis syndrome (del 17p11.2).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianying; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Vilboux, Thierry; Smith, Ann C M; Peterson, Erik J

    2014-08-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a sporadic congenital disorder involving multiple organ systems caused by chromosome 17p11.2 deletions. Smith-Magenis syndrome features craniofacial and skeletal anomalies, cognitive impairment, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. In addition, some SMS patients may exhibit hypogammaglobulinemia. We report the first case of SMS-associated autoimmunity in a woman who presented with adult onset of multiple autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and autoimmune hepatitis. Molecular analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphism array confirmed a de novo 3.8-Mb deletion (breakpoints, chr17: 16,660,721-20,417,975), resulting in haploinsufficiency for TACI (transmembrane activator and CAML interactor). Our data are consistent with potential loss of function for the BAFF (B cell-activating factor) receptor TACI as a contributing factor to human autoimmune phenomena.

  5. Novel Immunotherapies for Autoimmune Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cassim, Shamir; Bilodeau, Marc; Vincent, Catherine; Lapierre, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by a loss of immunological tolerance against liver autoantigens resulting in the progressive destruction of the hepatic parenchyma. Current treatments are based on non-specific immunosuppressive drugs. Although tremendous progress has been made using specific biological agents in other inflammatory diseases, progress has been slow to come for AIH patients. While current treatments are successful in the majority of patients, treatment discontinuation is difficult to achieve, and relapses are frequent. Lifelong immunosuppression is not without risks, especially in the pediatric population; 4% of patient with type 1 AIH will eventually develop hepatocellular carcinoma with a 2.9% probability after 10 years of treatment. Therefore, future treatments should aim to restore tolerance to hepatic autoantigens and induce long-term remission. Promising new immunotherapies have been tested in experimental models of AIH including T and B cell depletion and regulatory CD4+ T cells infusion. Clinical studies on limited numbers of patients have also shown encouraging results using B-cell-depleting (rituximab) and anti-TNF-α (infliximab) antibodies. A better understanding of key molecular targets in AIH combined with effective site-specific immunotherapies could lead to long-term remission without blanket immunosuppression and with minimal deleterious side effects. PMID:28184367

  6. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  7. [The autoimmune rheumatic disease and laryngeal pathology].

    PubMed

    Osipenko, E V; Kotel'nikova, N M

    Vocal disorders make up one of the autoimmune pathological conditions characterized by multiple organ system dysfunction. Laryngeal pathology in this condition has an autoimmune nature; it is highly diverse and poorly explored. The objective of the present work based on the analysis of the relevant literature publications was to study clinical manifestations of the autoimmune rheumatic disease affecting the larynx. 'Bamboo nodes' on the vocal folds is a rare manifestation of laryngeal autoimmune diseases. We found out references to 49 cases of this condition in the available literature. All the patients were women presenting with autoimmune diseases. The present review highlights the problems pertaining to etiology of 'bamboo nodes' on the vocal folds and the method for the treatment of this condition.

  8. Monogenic autoimmune diseases of the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Flanagan, Sarah E

    2016-10-01

    The most common endocrine diseases, type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, are the result of autoimmunity. Clustering of autoimmune endocrinopathies can result from polygenic predisposition, or more rarely, may present as part of a wider syndrome due to a mutation within one of seven genes. These monogenic autoimmune diseases show highly variable phenotypes both within and between families with the same mutations. The average age of onset of the monogenic forms of autoimmune endocrine disease is younger than that of the common polygenic forms, and this feature combined with the manifestation of other autoimmune diseases, specific hallmark features, or both, can inform clinicians as to the relevance of genetic testing. A genetic diagnosis can guide medical management, give an insight into prognosis, inform families of recurrence risk, and facilitate prenatal diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Autoimmune mechanisms in pernicious anaemia & thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Osborne, David; Sobczyńska-Malefora, Agata

    2015-09-01

    Pernicious anaemia (PA) and some types of thyroid disease result from autoimmune processes. The autoimmune mechanisms in these conditions have not been fully elucidated. This review discusses the autoimmune mechanisms involved in PA and how these affect diagnosis and disease progression. In addition to gastric antibodies, antibodies to the vitamin B12 binding protein transcobalamin which can result in high serum B12 levels are also addressed with regard to how they affect clinical practice. The role of autoimmune susceptibility is investigated by comparing PA to one of its most common comorbidities, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Thyroid disease (although not exclusively AITD) and B12 deficiency are both also implicated in the pathology of hyperhomocysteinemia, an elevated homocysteine in plasma. Since hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular occlusive disease, this review also addresses how thyroid disease in particular leads to changes in homocysteine levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Partial recovery of adrenal function in a patient with autoimmune Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Smans, L C C J; Zelissen, P M J

    2008-07-01

    To our knowledge, no case of remission in autoimmune Addison's disease has previously been reported. We describe a patient with primary adrenal insufficiency caused by autoimmune adrenalitis in whom partial remission was observed after 7 yr. A 39-yr-old male was referred because of extreme fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, nausea, and bouts of fever. During physical examination hyperpigmentation was seen. Laboratory tests showed a plasma cortisol of 0.02 micromol/l (08:30 h). Cortisol failed to increase during the ACTH stimulation test (0.02 to 0.03 micromol/l) and ACTH was markedly elevated (920 pmol/l). Adrenal auto-antibodies were weakly positive. A CT-scan showed no evidence of calcifications or other abnormalities of the adrenal glands. The diagnosis of autoimmune Addison's disease was made and replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone was started. During the following years the dose of hydrocortisone was gradually decreased. Eventually, the patient decided to stop his medication completely. A repeated ACTH-stimulation test revealed a basal cortisol of 0.25 micromol/l and a peak cortisol of 0.30 micromol/l with a basal ACTH of 178 pmol/l. The patient did not have any complaints. Recovery of adrenal insufficiency, due to causes other than autoimmune adrenalitis, has been reported in the past. If our case of partial recovery of autoimmune adrenalitis is not unique this could have profound effects on treatment and follow-up of Addison's disease.

  11. Seizures and risk of epilepsy in autoimmune and other inflammatory encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Spatola, Marianna; Dalmau, Josep

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seizure manifestations and risk of epilepsy in encephalitis associated with antibodies against neuronal cell-surface (autoimmune encephalitis) or myelin-associated antigens, and to review several chronic epileptic disorders, including Rasmussen's encephalitis, fever-induced refractory epileptic syndromes (FIRES) and new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). Seizures are a frequent manifestation of autoimmune encephalitis. Some autoimmune encephalitis may associate with characteristic features: faciobrachial dystonic seizures (anti-LGI1 encephalitis), electroencephalogram extreme delta brush (anti-NMDAR) or multifocal FLAIR-MRI abnormalities (anti-GABAAR). In anti-LGI1 encephalitis, cortical, limbic and basal ganglia dysfunction results in different types of seizures. Autoimmune encephalitis or myelin-antibody associated syndromes are often immunotherapy-responsive and appear to have a low risk for chronic epilepsy. In contrast patients with seizures related to GAD65-antibodies (an intracellular antigen) frequently develop epilepsy and have suboptimal response to treatment (including surgery). Rasmussen's encephalitis or FIRES may occur with autoantibodies of unclear significance and rarely respond to immunotherapy. A study of patients with NORSE showed that 30% developed chronic epilepsy. Although seizures are frequent in all types of autoimmune encephalitis, the risk for chronic epilepsy is dependent on the antigen: lower if located on the cell-surface, and higher if intracellular. For other disorders (Rasmussen's encephalitis, FIRES, NORSE), the prognosis remains poor.

  12. No association of psoriasis with autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Vassilatou, E; Papadavid, E; Papastamatakis, P; Alexakos, D; Koumaki, D; Katsimbri, P; Hadjidakis, D; Dimitriadis, G; Rigopoulos, D

    2017-01-01

    Common autoimmune diseases tend to coexist in the same patients. Few studies have examined the possible association between autoimmune thyroiditis and psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis (PsA), with inconsistent results. To investigate the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in psoriatic patients with or without PsA, living in an iodine-sufficient area. We studied prospectively, 114 psoriatic patients with disease duration of 5-38 years, 30 of them with PsA, and 286 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched subjects without psoriasis or known thyroid disease or autoimmune disease. A detailed medical history was obtained from all participants and clinical examination and laboratory evaluation was performed. Psoriasis severity was assessed with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Autoimmune thyroiditis was defined by the presence of positive autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase and/or thyroglobulin. There was no difference in the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis between psoriatic patients and controls (20.2% vs. 19.6%). The prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in male and female psoriatic patients was similar (9.6% and 10.5% respectively), in contrast to the increased, as expected, prevalence in female vs. male controls (14.7% vs. 4.9%, P < 0.01). Detected cases with hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroiditis were similar in psoriatic patients and controls (7.9% and 7.0% respectively). Autoimmune thyroiditis in psoriatic patients was not related with age of psoriasis onset, psoriasis duration, PASI score, PsA and obesity. These data support that psoriatic patients with or without PsA do not have an increased risk for autoimmune thyroiditis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Autoimmune hepatitis unmasked by nimesulide

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Margarida; Brandão, Ilídio; Caridade, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented at the emergency department, with acute hepatic failure, 2 weeks after taking nimesulide. Presenting with a MELD score of 25.0, the patient was transferred to a specialised liver transplant unit, with the probable diagnosis of toxic hepatitis. After a clinical improvement with supportive care and acetylcysteine, a liver biopsy was executed. The histology revealed micronodular cirrhosis associated with acute hepatitis, with features suggestive of autoimmune hepatitis. The patient was then started on azathioprine 50 mg/day and prednisolone 30 mg/day, and tapering of prednisolone was carried out in the following months. Twenty eight months after treatment, another liver biopsy was performed, showing almost full remission of the disease, with only mild fibrosis and no significant inflammatory infiltrate. PMID:26791119

  14. Autoimmune hepatitis unmasked by nimesulide.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Rita; Fonseca, Margarida; Brandão, Ilídio; Caridade, Sofia

    2016-01-20

    A 49-year-old woman presented at the emergency department, with acute hepatic failure, 2 weeks after taking nimesulide. Presenting with a MELD score of 25.0, the patient was transferred to a specialised liver transplant unit, with the probable diagnosis of toxic hepatitis. After a clinical improvement with supportive care and acetylcysteine, a liver biopsy was executed. The histology revealed micronodular cirrhosis associated with acute hepatitis, with features suggestive of autoimmune hepatitis. The patient was then started on azathioprine 50 mg/day and prednisolone 30 mg/day, and tapering of prednisolone was carried out in the following months. Twenty eight months after treatment, another liver biopsy was performed, showing almost full remission of the disease, with only mild fibrosis and no significant inflammatory infiltrate. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. [Multiorgan autoimmune syndrome: case report].

    PubMed

    Ghiringhelli, Paolo; Chelazzi, Paolo; Chelazzi, Giovanni; Bellintani, Claudio; Rania, Simone

    2003-01-01

    The present case report refers to a multiorgan autoimmune disease manifesting following thymectomy performed for a benign thymoma. This disease is characterized by hypothyroidism, severe myasthenia, polymyositis and alopecia which are organ-specific diseases probably with a different time of onset but which are all an expression of the same immunopathologic process occurring in individuals who have a genetic predisposition. Characteristic of the present case is not only the association of the different immunopathologic clinical pictures but also the rather difficult differential diagnosis between a hypothyroidism-related myopathy and polymyositis. It was possible to formulate the diagnosis by integrating the results of clinical and laboratory evaluation with the therapeutic outcome. The onset of the syndrome was attributed to the withdrawal, following surgery, of the inhibitory effects of the thymoma on some clones of autoreactive lymphocytes.

  16. Pemphigus autoimmunity: Hypotheses and realities

    PubMed Central

    Grando, Sergei A

    2011-01-01

    The goal of contemporary research in pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus is to achieve and maintain clinical remission without corticosteroids. Recent advances of knowledge on pemphigus autoimmunity scrutinize old dogmas, resolve controversies, and open novel perspectives for treatment. Elucidation of intimate mechanisms of keratinocyte detachment and death in pemphigus has challenged the monopathogenic explanation of disease immunopathology. Over 50 organ-specific and non-organ-specific antigens can be targeted by pemphigus autoimmunity, including desmosomal cadherins and other adhesion molecules, PERP cholinergic and other cell membrane (CM) receptors, and mitochondrial proteins. The initial insult is sustained by the autoantibodies to the cell membrane receptor antigens triggering the intracellular signaling by Src, epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, protein kinases A and C, phospholipase C, mTOR, p38 MAPK, JNK, other tyrosine kinases, and calmodulin that cause basal cell shrinkage and ripping desmosomes off the CM. Autoantibodies synergize with effectors of apoptotic and oncotic pathways, serine proteases, and inflammatory cytokines to overcome the natural resistance and activate the cell death program in keratinocytes. The process of keratinocyte shrinkage/detachment and death via apoptosis/oncosis has been termed apoptolysis to emphasize that it is triggered by the same signal effectors and mediated by the same cell death enzymes. The natural course of pemphigus has improved due to a substantial progress in developing of the steroid-sparing therapies combining the immunosuppressive and direct anti-acantholytic effects. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms mediating immune dysregulation and apoptolysis in pemphigus should improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis and facilitate development of steroid-free treatment of patients. PMID:21939410

  17. Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune orchitis.

    PubMed

    Silva, C A; Cocuzza, M; Carvalho, J F; Bonfá, E

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune orchitis is characterized by testis inflammation and the presence of specific antisperm antibodies (ASA). It is classified in two categories. Primary autoimmune orchitis is defined by infertility and asymptomatic orchitis associated with ASA (100%) directed to the basement membrane or seminiferous tubules in infertile men, without any systemic disease and usually asymptomatic. Secondary autoimmune orchitis is characterized by symptomatic orchitis and/or testicular vasculiti`s associated with a systemic autoimmune disease, particularly vasculitis. These patients typically demonstrate testicular pain, erythema and/or swelling. ASA in secondary autoimmune orchitis have been reported in up to 50% of patients, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. The pathogenesis of primary as well as secondary autoimmune orchitis is still unknown. Although the etiology is likely to be multifactorial, testicular inflammation, infection or trauma may induce T cell response with pro-inflammatory cytokine production with a consequent blood-testis-barrier permeability alteration, ASA production and apoptosis of spermatocytes and spermatids. ASA is known to cause immobilization and/or agglutination of spermatozoa, which may block sperm-egg interaction resulting in infertility. Assisted reproduction has been used as an efficient option in primary cases and immunosuppressive therapy for secondary autoimmune orchitis, although there is no double-blind, randomized trial to confirm the efficacy of any treatment regimens for these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cutting-edge issues in autoimmune orchitis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Clovis A; Cocuzza, Marcello; Borba, Eduardo F; Bonfá, Eloísa

    2012-04-01

    Autoimmune orchitis is a relevant cause of decreased fecundity in males, and it is defined as a direct aggression to the testis with the concomitant presence of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA). The presence of these specific antibodies has been observed in approximately 5-12% of infertile male partners. Primary autoimmune orchitis is defined by isolated infertility with ASA but without evidence of a systemic disease. Secondary causes of orchitis and/or testicular vasculitis are uniformly associated with autoimmune diseases, mainly in primary vasculitis such as polyarteritis nodosa, Behçet's disease, and Henoch-Schönlein purpura. The overall frequencies of acute orchitis and ASA in rheumatic diseases are 2-31% and 0-50%, respectively. The pathogenesis of primary/secondary autoimmune orchitis is not completely understood but probably involves the access of immune cells to the testicular microenvironment due to inflammation, infection or trauma, leading to apoptosis of spermatocytes and spermatids. Glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs are indicated in autoimmune orchitis-associated active systemic autoimmune diseases. However, there are no standardized treatment options, and the real significance of ASA in infertile men is still controversial. Assisted reproductive technologies such as intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are therapeutic options for male infertility associated with these autoantibodies. ICSI is considered to be the best choice for patients with severe sperm autoimmunity, particularly in males with low semen counts or motility.

  19. Genetic association, seasonal infections and autoimmune basis of narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abinav Kumar; Mahlios, Josh; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a growing number of potential autoimmune disorders affecting neurons in the central nervous system have been identified, including narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with irresistible sleep attacks, cataplexy (sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone), hypnagogic hallucinations, and abnormalities of Rapid Eye Movement sleep. Narcolepsy is generally a sporadic disorder and is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the hypothalamus region of the brain. Studies have established that more than 90% of patients have a genetic association with HLA DQB1*06:02. Genome-wide association analysis shows a strong association between narcolepsy and polymorphisms in the TCRα locus and weaker associations within TNFSF4 (also called OX40L), Cathepsin H and the P2RY11-DNMT1 (purinergic receptor subtype P2Y11 to DNMT1, a DNA methytransferase) loci, suggesting an autoimmune basis. Mutations in DNMT1 have also been reported to cause narcolepsy in association with a complex neurological syndrome, suggesting the importance of DNA methylation in the pathology. More recently, narcolepsy was identified in association with seasonal streptococcus, H1N1 infections and following AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 influenza vaccination in Northern Europe. Potential immunological pathways responsible for the loss of hypocretin producing neurons in these cases may be molecular mimicry or bystander activation. Specific autoantibodies or T cells cross-reactive with hypocretin neurons have not yet been identified, however, thus narcolepsy does not meet Witebsky’s criteria for an autoimmune disease. As the brain is not an easily accessible organ, mechanisms of disease initiation and progression remain a challenge to researchers. PMID:23497937

  20. Noonan's Syndrome and Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesterhus, Per; Aarskog, Dagfinn

    1973-01-01

    Thyroid abnormalities were studies in seven boys and three girls, 4- to 17-years-old, with Noonan's syndrome, characterized by mental retardation, ocular anomalies (wide spaced eyes, drooped eye lids, or strabismus), heart lesions, characteristics of Turner's syndrome, and normal karyotypes (chromosome arrangement). (MC)

  1. Retinal phlebitis associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Chew, Fiona L M; Tajunisah, Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    To describe a case of retinal phlebitis associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Observational case report. A 44-year-old Indian man diagnosed with autoimmune hemolytic anemia presented with a 1-week history of blurred vision in both eyes. Fundus biomicroscopy revealed bilateral peripheral retinal venous sheathing and cellophane maculopathy. Fundus fluorescent angiogram showed bilateral late leakage from the peripheral venous arcades and submacular fluid accumulation. The retinal phlebitis resolved following a blood transfusion and administration of systemic steroids. Retinopathy associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia is not well known. This is thought to be the first documentation of retinal phlebitis occurring in this condition.

  2. The coexistence of autoimmune rheumatic diseases and thymomas.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Dai, Xiaodan; Duan, Liping; Zhou, Yaou

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), involving immune disturbances resulting from auto-inflammatory mechanisms, are a group of diseases characterized by autoimmunity and autoimmunemediated organ damage. Thymoma, whose mechanism is also associated with immune abnormalities, is the most common neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum. But thymoma with ARDs is relatively less frequent. The clinical characteristics of the coexistence of ARDs and thymomas are still not very clear. And the therapeutic strategy for ARDs combined with thymomas varies, with an uncertain outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of the coexistence of ARDs and thymomas in order to speculate whether a thymectomy is effective for ARDs combined with thymomas, and to seek the proper therapeutic strategy for treating ARDs combined with thymomas. We presented 2 cases of the coexistence of ARDs and thymomas. Then, we summarized 20 cases (including our 2 cases) in which the ARD was diagnosed concurrently with, or prior to, the thymoma. Pure red cell aplastic anemia (PRCA) might be associated with an ARD and a thymoma, and a thymectomy may lead to the appearance, exacerbation, or remission of ARDs. Searching for a thymoma is necessitated if a patient with ARDs experiences PRCA and the effects of thymectomy in ARDs combined with thymomas may be associated with the onset sequence of ARDs and thymomas.

  3. Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas Roldán, Jorge; Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Castellanos-de la Hoz, Juan; Giraldo-Villamil, Juliana; Montoya-Ortiz, Gladys; Cruz-Tapias, Paola; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Mantilla, Rubén D.; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and impact of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Eight-hundred patients were included. The association between AITD and RA was analyzed was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. In addition, a literature review was done focusing on geographical variations. Results. In our cohort the prevalence of AITD was 9.8% while the presence of antibodies was 37.8% for antithyroperoxidase enzyme (TPOAb) and 20.8% for antithyroglobulin protein (TgAb). The presence of type 2 diabetes, thrombosis, abnormal body mass index, and a high educational level was positively associated with AITD. The literature review disclosed a geographical variation of AITD in RA ranging from 0.5% to 27%. Autoantibody prevalence ranges from 6% to 31% for TgAb, 5% to 37% for TPOAb, and from 11.4% to 32% for the presence of either of the two. Conclusion. AITD is not uncommon in RA and should be systematically assessed since it is a risk factor for developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These results may help to further study the common mechanisms of autoimmune diseases, to improve patients' outcome, and to define public health policies. An international consensus to accurately diagnose AITD is warranted. PMID:23209899

  4. Possible anti-VGKC autoimmune limbic encephalitis associated with SIADH.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicholas; Hamada, Hazim

    2018-03-07

    An 80-year-old woman presented with a 5-week history of increasing confusion. Examination was remarkable only for deficits in short-term memory and paranoid thoughts. Blood tests revealed hyponatraemia, and further biochemical testing was consistent with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). After an exhaustive diagnostic workup for causes of SIADH, the only abnormal finding was a mildly raised antivoltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) titre of 185 pmol/L (0-69) consistent with possible anti-VGKC autoimmune limbic encephalitis. However, other diagnostic features were absent. She is currently undergoing outpatient investigation for other causes of memory loss. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  6. Paraneoplastic Pemphigus: A Paraneoplastic Autoimmune Multiorgan Syndrome or Autoimmune Multiorganopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Sharma, Anju Lath; Abhinav, C.; Khatri, Gayatri; Prabha, Neel; Sharma, Saurabh; Negi, Muninder

    2012-01-01

    Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP), a clinically and immunopathologically distinct mucocutaneous blistering dermatosis, is a severe form of autoimmune multiorgan syndrome generally associated with poor therapeutic outcome and high mortality. This IgG-mediated disease is initiated by an obvious or occult lymphoproliferative disorder in most cases. Clinically severe mucositis, and polymorphic blistering skin eruptions, and histologically acantholysis, keratinocyte necrosis and interface dermatitis are its hallmark features. A 58-year-old female presented with recurrent, severe, recalcitrant stomatitis and widespread erosions/blistering lesions of one-year duration. Treatment with repeated courses of systemic corticosteroids at a peripheral center would provide temporary relief. She also had fever, productive cough, odynophagia and poor oral intake, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, pain in the abdomen, and watery diarrhea. An array of investigations revealed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mediastinal and para-aortic lymphadenopathy, bronchiolitis obliterans, and vertebral osteoporosis/fractures. With the diagnosis of CLL-associated PNP she was managed with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP) therapy for 3 cycles initially, followed by COP regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone) for 5 cycles. Remission is being maintained with chlorambucil and prednisolone pulse therapy once in 3 weeks with complete resolution of skin lesions and adequate control of CLL. PMID:23316398

  7. Autoimmune Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Astrocytopathy: A Novel Meningoencephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Boyan; McKeon, Andrew; Hinson, Shannon R; Kryzer, Thomas J; Pittock, Sean J; Aksamit, Allen J; Lennon, Vanda A

    2016-11-01

    A novel astrocytic autoantibody has been identified as a biomarker of a relapsing autoimmune meningoencephalomyelitis that is immunotherapy responsive. Seropositivity distinguishes autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) meningoencephalomyelitis from disorders commonly considered in the differential diagnosis. To describe a novel IgG autoantibody found in serum or cerebrospinal fluid that is specific for a cytosolic intermediate filament protein of astrocytes. Retrospective review of the medical records of seropositive patients identified in the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory from October 15, 1998, to April 1, 2016, in blinded comprehensive serologic evaluation for autoantibody profiles to aid the diagnosis of neurologic autoimmunity (and predict cancer likelihood). Frequency and definition of novel autoantibody, the autoantigen's immunochemical identification, clinical and magnetic resonance imaging correlations of the autoantibody, and immunotherapy responsiveness. Of 103 patients whose medical records were available for review, the 16 initial patients identified as seropositive were the subject of this study. Median age at neurologic symptom onset was 42 years (range, 21-73 years); there was no sex predominance. The novel neural autoantibody, which we discovered to be GFAP-specific, is disease spectrum restricted but not rare (frequency equivalent to Purkinje cell antibody type 1 [anti-Yo]). Its filamentous pial, subventricular, and perivascular immunostaining pattern on mouse tissue resembles the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings of linear perivascular enhancement in patients. Prominent clinical manifestations are headache, subacute encephalopathy, optic papillitis, inflammatory myelitis, postural tremor, and cerebellar ataxia. Cerebrospinal fluid was inflammatory in 13 of 14 patients (93%) with data available. Neoplasia was diagnosed within 3 years of neurologic onset in 6 of 16 patients (38%): prostate and gastroesophageal

  8. Autoimmune gastritis presenting as iron deficiency anemia in childhood.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Oliveira, Maria Emília; Palha, Ana M; Ferrão, Anabela; Morais, Anabela; Lopes, Ana Isabel

    2014-11-14

    To characterize clinical, laboratorial, and histological profile of pediatric autoimmune gastritis in the setting of unexplained iron deficiency anemia investigation. A descriptive, observational study including pediatric patients with a diagnosis of autoimmune gastritis (positive parietal cell antibody and gastric corpus atrophy) established in a 6 year period (2006-2011) in the setting of refractory iron deficiency anemia (refractoriness to oral iron therapy for at least 6 mo and requirement for intravenous iron therapy) investigation, after exclusion of other potentially contributing causes of anemia. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and anti-secretory therapy were also excluded. Data were retrospectively collected from clinical files, including: demographic data (age, gender, and ethnic background), past medical history, gastrointestinal symptoms, familial history, laboratorial evaluation (Hb, serum ferritin, serum gastrin, pepsinogen I/ pepsinogen II, B12 vitamin, intrinsic factor autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies, and anti-transglutaminase antibodies), and endoscopic and histological findings (HE, Periodic Acid-Schiff/Alcian blue, gastrin, chromogranin A and immunochemistry analysis for CD3, CD20 and CD68). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed (mean, median, and standard deviation). We report a case-series concerning 3 girls and 2 boys with a mean age of 13.6 ± 2.8 years (3 Caucasian and 2 African). One girl had type I diabetes. Familial history was positive in 4/5 cases, respectively for autoimmune thyroiditis (2/5), sarcoidosis (1/5) and multiple myeloma (1/5). Laboratorial evaluation on admission included: Hb: 9.5 ± 0.7 g/dL; serum ferritin: 4.0 ± 0.9 ng/mL; serum gastrin: 393 ± 286 pg/mL; low pepsinogen I/ pepsinogen II ratio in 1/5 patients; normal vitamin B12 levels (analyzed in 3 patients). Endoscopy findings included: duodenal nodularity (2/5) and gastric fold softening (2/5), and histological evaluation showed

  9. Association pernicious anemia and autoimmune polyendocrinopathy: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zulfiqar, AA; Andres, E

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between pernicious anemia and other autoimmune diseases. Methods: This retrospective and bicentric study was conducted at Reims and Strasbourg University Hospitals and involved 188 patients with pernicious anemia examined between 2000 and 2010 in order to search for other autoimmune diseases and to evaluate the role of pernicious anemia in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Results: A total of 74 patients with a combination of pernicious anemia and other autoimmune diseases were included in the study. Our study revealed the privileged association of pernicious anemia with autoimmune thyroiditis. The association of pernicious anemia and autoimmune thyroiditis are a part of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3b. Conclusion: We suggest undertaking a systematic clinical examination and laboratory investigations in search of autoimmune thyroiditis in patient(s) with the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. The association of pernicious anemia and autoimmune thyroiditis is frequent and a part of autoimmune polyglandular 3b. PMID:29362601

  10. Association pernicious anemia and autoimmune polyendocrinopathy: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zulfiqar, A A; Andres, E

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between pernicious anemia and other autoimmune diseases. This retrospective and bicentric study was conducted at Reims and Strasbourg University Hospitals and involved 188 patients with pernicious anemia examined between 2000 and 2010 in order to search for other autoimmune diseases and to evaluate the role of pernicious anemia in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. A total of 74 patients with a combination of pernicious anemia and other autoimmune diseases were included in the study. Our study revealed the privileged association of pernicious anemia with autoimmune thyroiditis. The association of pernicious anemia and autoimmune thyroiditis are a part of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3b. We suggest undertaking a systematic clinical examination and laboratory investigations in search of autoimmune thyroiditis in patient(s) with the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. The association of pernicious anemia and autoimmune thyroiditis is frequent and a part of autoimmune polyglandular 3b.

  11. Auto-immune hepatitis following delivery.

    PubMed

    Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Mamta; Mishra, S K

    2013-05-01

    Auto-immune hepatitis first presenting in the early postpartum period is rare. Immunosuppressive effects of pregnancy result in delayed manifestation of auto-immune hepatitis, and in established cases, the spontaneous improvements are there. Auto-immune hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver dysfunction first presenting in the early postpartum period. A case of postpartum hepatitis of auto-immune aetiology is being presented here. It is disease of unknown aetiology, characterised by inflammation of liver (as evidenced by raised serum transaminases, presence of interface hepatitis on histological examination), hypergammaglobulinaemia (> 1.5 times normal), presence of auto-antibodies [(antinuclear antibodies (ANA)], smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and antibody to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (LKM1) in the absence of viral markers ie, hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (AntiHCV) and excellent response to corticosteroid therapy.

  12. Cardiovascular disease biomarkers across autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Joseph; Shields, Kelly J; Liu, Chau-Ching; Manzi, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is increasingly recognized as a major cause of premature mortality among those with autoimmune disorders. There is an urgent need to identify those patients with autoimmune disease who are at risk for CVD so as to optimize therapeutic intervention and ultimately prevention. Accurate identification, monitoring and stratification of such patients will depend upon a panel of biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. This review will discuss some of the most recent biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in autoimmune disease, including lipid oxidation, imaging biomarkers to characterize coronary calcium, plaque, and intima media thickness, biomarkers of inflammation and activated complement, genetic markers, endothelial biomarkers, and antiphospholipid antibodies. Clinical implementation of these biomarkers will not only enhance patient care but also likely accelerate the pharmaceutical pipeline for targeted intervention to reduce or eliminate cardiovascular disease in the setting of autoimmunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathogenesis and spectrum of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Perl, Andras

    2012-01-01

    The immune system specifically recognizes and eliminates foreign antigens and, thus, protects integrity of the host. During maturation of the immune system, tolerance mechanisms develop that prevent or inhibit potentially harmful reactivities to self-antigens. Autoreactive B and T cells that are generated during immune responses are eliminated by apoptosis in the thymus, lymph nodes, or peripheral circulation or actively suppressed by regulatory T cells. However, autoreactive cells may survive due to failure of apoptosis or molecular mimicry, i.e., presentation and recognition of cryptic epitopes of self-antigens, or aberrant lymphokine production. Preservation of the host requires the development of immune responses to foreign antigen and tolerance to self-antigens. Autoimmunity results from a breakdown of tolerance to self-antigens through an interplay of genetic and environmental factors.One of the basic functions of the immune system is to specifically recognize and eliminate foreign antigens and, thus, protect integrity of the host. Through rearrangements and somatic mutations of various gene segments encoding T and B cell receptors and antibody molecules, the immune system acquires tremendous diversity. During maturation of the immune system, recognition of self-antigens plays an important role in shaping the repertoires of immune receptors. Tolerance mechanisms develop that prevent or inhibit potentially harmful reactivities to self-antigens. These self-defense mechanisms are mediated on the levels of central and peripheral tolerance, i.e., autoreactive T cells are either eliminated by apoptosis in the thymus, lymph nodes, or peripheral circulation or actively suppressed by regulatory T cells. Likewise, autoreactive B cells are eliminated in the bone marrow or peripheral lymphoid organs. However, immune responses triggered by foreign antigens may be sustained by molecular mimicry, i.e., presentation and recognition of cryptic epitopes of self

  14. Coherent Somatic Mutation in Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kenneth Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Many aspects of autoimmune disease are not well understood, including the specificities of autoimmune targets, and patterns of co-morbidity and cross-heritability across diseases. Prior work has provided evidence that somatic mutation caused by gene conversion and deletion at segmentally duplicated loci is relevant to several diseases. Simple tandem repeat (STR) sequence is highly mutable, both somatically and in the germ-line, and somatic STR mutations are observed under inflammation. Results Protein-coding genes spanning STRs having markers of mutability, including germ-line variability, high total length, repeat count and/or repeat similarity, are evaluated in the context of autoimmunity. For the initiation of autoimmune disease, antigens whose autoantibodies are the first observed in a disease, termed primary autoantigens, are informative. Three primary autoantigens, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), phogrin (PTPRN2) and filaggrin (FLG), include STRs that are among the eleven longest STRs spanned by protein-coding genes. This association of primary autoantigens with long STR sequence is highly significant (). Long STRs occur within twenty genes that are associated with sixteen common autoimmune diseases and atherosclerosis. The repeat within the TTC34 gene is an outlier in terms of length and a link with systemic lupus erythematosus is proposed. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that many autoimmune diseases are triggered by immune responses to proteins whose DNA sequence mutates somatically in a coherent, consistent fashion. Other autoimmune diseases may be caused by coherent somatic mutations in immune cells. The coherent somatic mutation hypothesis has the potential to be a comprehensive explanation for the initiation of many autoimmune diseases. PMID:24988487

  15. Toxicogenomic analysis reveals profibrogenic effects of trichloroethylene in autoimmune-mediated cholangitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Anna K; Sullivan, Bradley P; Kassel, Karen M; Joshi, Nikita; Luyendyk, James P

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to environmental chemicals increases the risk of developing autoimmune liver disease. However, the identity of specific chemical perpetrators and the mechanisms whereby environmental chemicals modify liver disease is unclear. Previous studies link exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) with the development of autoimmune liver disease and exacerbation of autoimmunity in lupus-prone MRL mice. In this study, we utilized NOD.c3c4 mice, which spontaneously develop autoimmune cholangitis bearing resemblance to some features of primary biliary cirrhosis. Nine-week-old female NOD.c3c4 mice were given TCE (0.5 mg/ml) or its vehicle (1% Cremophor-EL) in drinking water for 4 weeks. TCE had little effect on clinical chemistry, biliary cyst formation, or hepatic CD3+ T-cell accumulation. Hepatic microarray profiling revealed a dramatic suppression of early growth response 1 (EGR1) mRNA in livers of TCE-treated mice, which was verified by qPCR and immunohistochemical staining. Consistent with a reported link between reduced EGR1 expression and liver fibrosis, TCE increased hepatic type I collagen (COL1A1) mRNA and protein levels in livers of NOD.c3c4 mice. In contrast, TCE did not increase COL1A1 expression in NOD.ShiLtJ mice, which do not develop autoimmune cholangitis. These results suggest that in the context of concurrent autoimmune liver disease with a genetic basis, modification of hepatic gene expression by TCE may increase profibrogenic signaling in the liver. Moreover, these studies suggest that NOD.c3c4 mice may be a novel model to study gene-environment interactions critical for the development of autoimmune liver disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Thyroid Autoimmunity in Girls with Turner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Witkowska-Sędek, Ewelina; Borowiec, Ada; Kucharska, Anna; Chacewicz, Karolina; Rumińska, Małgorzata; Demkow, Urszula; Pyrżak, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Turner syndrome is associated with increased incidence of autoimmune diseases, especially those of the thyroid gland. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity among pediatric patients with Turner syndrome. The study was retrospective and included 41 girls with Turner syndrome aged 6-18 years. Free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab) antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin (TG-Ab) antibodies, and karyotype were investigated. The correlation between karyotype and incidence of thyroid autoimmunity was also examined. Eleven patients (26.8%) were positive for TPO-Ab and/or TG-Ab. Three girls from that subgroup were euthyroid, 5 had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 3 were diagnosed with overt hypothyroidism. Out of these 11 patients affected by thyroid autoimmunity, 6 girls had mosaic karyotype with X-isochromosome (n = 4) or with deletions (n = 2), and 5 had the 45,X karyotype. The study findings confirmed a high incidence of thyroid autoimmunity in girls with Turner syndrome, but we failed to observe an association between the incidence of thyroid autoimmunity and karyotype. We conclude that it is important to monitor thyroid function in patients with Turner syndrome because they are prone to develop hypothyroidism.

  17. Clinical aspects of autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Fiona; O'Neill, Sean G

    2013-08-31

    Multisystem autoimmune rheumatic diseases are heterogeneous rare disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Efforts to create international consensus within the past decade have resulted in the publication of new classification or nomenclature criteria for several autoimmune rheumatic diseases, specifically for systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, and the systemic vasculitides. Substantial progress has been made in the formulation of new criteria in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic inflammatory myositis. Although the autoimmune rheumatic diseases share many common features and clinical presentations, differentiation between the diseases is crucial because of important distinctions in clinical course, appropriate drugs, and prognoses. We review some of the dilemmas in the diagnosis of these autoimmune rheumatic diseases, and focus on the importance of new classification criteria, clinical assessment, and interpretation of autoimmune serology. In this era of improvement of mortality rates for patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, we pay particular attention to the effect of leading complications, specifically cardiovascular manifestations and cancer, and we update epidemiology and prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemostasis in Hypothyroidism and Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D

    2017-04-01

    There are contradictory results on the effect of hypothyroidism on the changes in hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This paper reviews the studies on laboratory and population-based findings regarding hemostatic changes and risk of VTE in hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders. A comprehensive literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hypothyroidism; thyroiditis, autoimmune; blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation tests; hemostasis, blood coagulation disorders; thyroid hormones; myxedema; venous thromboembolism; fibrinolysis, receptors thyroid hormone. The papers that were related to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorder and hemostasis are used in this review. Overt hypothyroidism is more associated with a hypocoagulable state. Decreased platelet count, aggregation and agglutination, von Willebrand factor antigen and activity, several coagulation factors such as factor VIII, IX, XI, VII, and plasminogen activator-1 are detected in overt hypothyrodism. Increased fibrinogen has been detected in subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease rendering a tendency towards a hypercoagulability state. Increased factor VII and its activity, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are among several findings contributing to a prothrombotic state in subclinical hypothyroidism. Overt hypothyroidism is associated with a hypocoagulable state and subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders may induce a prothrombotic state. However, there are contradictory findings for the abovementioned thyroid disorders. Prospective studies on the risk of VTE in various levels of hypofunctioning of the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid disorders are warranted.

  19. Autoimmune liver disease in Noonan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loddo, Italia; Romano, Claudio; Cutrupi, Maria Concetta; Sciveres, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Salpietro, Annamaria; Ferraù, Valeria; Gallizzi, Romina; Briuglia, Silvana

    2015-03-01

    Noonan Syndrome (NS) is characterized by short stature, typical facial dysmorphology and congenital heart defects. The incidence of NS is estimated to be between 1:1000 and 1:2500 live births. The syndrome is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. In approximately 50% of cases, the disease is caused by missense mutations in the PTPN11 gene on chromosome 12, resulting in a gain of function of the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 protein. Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) is a cryptogenic, chronic and progressive necroinflammatory liver disease. Common features of AIH are hypergammaglobulinemia (IgG), presence of circulating autoantibodies, histological picture of interface hepatitis and response to immunosuppressant drugs. Conventional treatment with Prednisone and Azathioprine is effective in most patients. We describe the case of a 6 years-old girl with Noonan Syndrome and Autoimmune Hepatitis type 1. Molecular analysis of PTPN11 gene showed heterozygous mutation c.923A>G (Asn308Ser) in exon 8. Though association between NS and autoimmune disorders is known, this is the second case of association between Noonan Syndrome and Autoimmune Hepatitis type 1 described in literature. In the management of NS, an accurate clinical evaluation would be recommended. When there is a clinical suspicion of autoimmune phenomena, appropriate laboratory tests should be performed with the aim of clarifying whether the immune system is involved in NS. We think that autoimmunity represents a characteristic of NS, even if the etiopathogenesis is still unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Virus infection, antiviral immunity, and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Getts, Daniel R.; Chastain, Emily M. L.; Terry, Rachael L.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary As a group of disorders, autoimmunity ranks as the third most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. However, the etiology of most autoimmune diseases remains unknown. Although genetic linkage studies support a critical underlying role for genetics, the geographic distribution of these disorders as well as the low concordance rates in monozygotic twins suggest that a combination of other factors including environmental ones are involved. Virus infection is a primary factor that has been implicated in the initiation of autoimmune disease. Infection triggers a robust and usually well-coordinated immune response that is critical for viral clearance. However, in some instances, immune regulatory mechanisms may falter, culminating in the breakdown of self-tolerance, resulting in immune-mediated attack directed against both viral and self-antigens. Traditionally, cross-reactive T-cell recognition, known as molecular mimicry, as well as bystander T-cell activation, culminating in epitope spreading, have been the predominant mechanisms elucidated through which infection may culminate in an T-cell-mediated autoimmune response. However, other hypotheses including virus-induced decoy of the immune system also warrant discussion in regard to their potential for triggering autoimmunity. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which virus infection and antiviral immunity contribute to the development of autoimmunity. PMID:23947356

  1. Autoimmune encephalitis and its relation to infection.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arun; Benavides, David R

    2015-03-01

    Encephalitis, an inflammatory condition of the brain that results in substantial morbidity and mortality, has numerous causes. Over the past decade, it has become increasingly recognized that autoimmune conditions contribute significantly to the spectrum of encephalitis causes. Clinical suspicion and early diagnosis of autoimmune etiologies are of particular importance due to the need for early institution of immune suppressive therapies to improve outcome. Emerging clinical observations suggest that the most commonly recognized cause of antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, may in some cases be triggered by herpes virus infection. Other conditions such as Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) have also been posited to be autoimmune conditions triggered by infectious agents. This review focuses on emerging concepts in central nervous system autoimmunity and addresses clinical and mechanistic findings linking autoimmune encephalitis and infections. Particular consideration will be given to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and its relation to herpes simplex encephalitis.

  2. Clinical characterization of autoimmune encephalitis and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qinjian; Wang, Dahai; Guo, Lanting; Zhang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Autoimmune disorders are growing alarmingly high in prevalence across the globe. Autoimmune encephalitis has had a dramatic impact on the medical field, effectually altering diagnostic and treatment paradigms in regard to neuropsychiatric disorders. Our primary goal in conducting this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of autoimmune encephalitis patients, with special focus on psychiatric presentations, in the West China Hospital and report patient prognoses after immunotherapy. Data for patients admitted to the West China Hospital with autoimmune encephalitis diagnoses from 2015 to 2016 were collected and the corresponding clinical features were analyzed. We ultimately included 70 patients with autoimmune encephalitis: 56 (80%) anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients, 8 (11%) LGI1 antibody encephalitis patients, and 6 (9%) GABAbR antibody encephalitis patients. The median age of the 70 patients was 33years, 40% were female, and the initial symptoms in 31 patients (44%) were psychiatric in nature. Psychiatric disturbance appeared in 58 patients (83%) during inpatient treatment, after which 57 patients (81%) recovered. Many patients with autoimmune encephalitis present psychotic symptoms; psychiatric symptoms typically appear before neurological features emerge. Timely diagnosis and treatment may yield favorable prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hemostasis in Hypothyroidism and Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hypothyroidism on the changes in hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This paper reviews the studies on laboratory and population-based findings regarding hemostatic changes and risk of VTE in hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders. Evidence Acquisition A comprehensive literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hypothyroidism; thyroiditis, autoimmune; blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation tests; hemostasis, blood coagulation disorders; thyroid hormones; myxedema; venous thromboembolism; fibrinolysis, receptors thyroid hormone. The papers that were related to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorder and hemostasis are used in this review. Results Overt hypothyroidism is more associated with a hypocoagulable state. Decreased platelet count, aggregation and agglutination, von Willebrand factor antigen and activity, several coagulation factors such as factor VIII, IX, XI, VII, and plasminogen activator-1 are detected in overt hypothyrodism. Increased fibrinogen has been detected in subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease rendering a tendency towards a hypercoagulability state. Increased factor VII and its activity, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are among several findings contributing to a prothrombotic state in subclinical hypothyroidism. Conclusions Overt hypothyroidism is associated with a hypocoagulable state and subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders may induce a prothrombotic state. However, there are contradictory findings for the abovementioned thyroid disorders. Prospective studies on the risk of VTE in various levels of hypofunctioning of the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid disorders are warranted. PMID:29026409

  4. [Autoimmune Associated Encephalitis and Dementia].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Antibodies against various neural surface antigens induce cognitive impairments. Anti-VGKC (voltage gated potassium channel) complex antibodies are well known as one of the causative autoantibodies. An anti-VGKC antibody was identified as the autoantibody in acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome), which causes muscle cramps and difficulty in opening the palm of the hands. However, this antibody also tests positive in autoimmune limbic encephalitis, which has a subacute progress and causes poor memory or epilepsy attacks. Typical cases have a distinctive adult-onset, frequent, brief dystonic seizure semiology that predominantly affects the arms and ipsilateral face. It has now been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures. In recent years, the true target antigens of the anti-VGKC antibody of this VGKC limbic encephalitis have been recognized as leucine rich glioma inactivated protein (LGI)-1 and others. These antibodies to amnesia-related LGI-1 in limbic encephalitis neutralize the LGI-1-ADAM22 (an anchor protein) interaction and reduce synaptic AMPA receptors. There have been reports of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-VGKC complex antibodies mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Less than 2% of the patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD) develop serum anti-VGKC complex antibodies and, when positive, only at low titres. Low titres of these antibodies occur only rarely in suspected patients with sCJD, and when present, should be interpreted with caution.

  5. CD22 and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Dörner, Thomas; Shock, Anthony; Smith, Kenneth G C

    2012-10-01

    CD22 is a 140-kDa member of the Siglec family of cell surface proteins that is expressed by most mature B-cell lineages. As a co-receptor of the B-cell receptor (BCR), it is known to contribute to the sensitive control of the B-cell response to antigen. Cross-linking of CD22 and the BCR by antigen triggers the phosphorylation of CD22, which leads to activation of signaling molecules such as phosphatases. Signal transduction pathways involving CD22 have been explored in a number of mouse models, some of which have provided evidence that in the absence of functional CD22, B cells have a "hyperactivated" phenotype, and suggest that loss of CD22 function could contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Modulating CD22 activity has therefore been suggested as a possible therapeutic approach to such diseases. For example, the novel CD22-targeting monoclonal antibody epratuzumab is currently under investigation as a treatment for the connective tissue disorder systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

  6. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence.

  7. Use of Sirolimus (Rapamycin) for Treatment of Cytopenias and Lymphoproliferation Linked to Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS). Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Cayrol, Julie; Garrido Colino, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis. Children present with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and autoimmune cytopenias. Recent advances show efficacy of treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. Sirolimus, an mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, improves autoimmune cytopenias and lymphoproliferation, with a safe profile. We present 2 patients, a 5-year-old girl and 15-year-old boy, diagnosed with ALPS with initial partial response to steroid treatment. Autoimmune cytopenias and lymphoproliferation then became refractory to treatment, with recurrence of symptoms. In both cases, treatment with sirolimus was started, with a rapid response, complete remission of cytopenias, and resolution of lymphoproliferation, with no significant adverse effects. sirolimus is an effective and safe drug for controlling children with cytopenias and lymphoproliferation linked to ALPS.

  8. CD8 Follicular T Cells Promote B Cell Antibody Class Switch in Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Kristen M; Davini, Dan; Lawrence, Travis J; Mullins, Genevieve N; Manansala, Miguel; Al-Kuhlani, Mufadhal; Pinney, James M; Davis, Jason K; Beaudin, Anna E; Sindi, Suzanne S; Gravano, David M; Hoyer, Katrina K

    2018-05-09

    CD8 T cells can play both a protective and pathogenic role in inflammation and autoimmune development. Recent studies have highlighted the ability of CD8 T cells to function as T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the germinal center in the context of infection. However, whether this phenomenon occurs in autoimmunity and contributes to autoimmune pathogenesis is largely unexplored. In this study, we show that CD8 T cells acquire a CD4 Tfh profile in the absence of functional regulatory T cells in both the IL-2-deficient and scurfy mouse models. Depletion of CD8 T cells mitigates autoimmune pathogenesis in IL-2-deficient mice. CD8 T cells express the B cell follicle-localizing chemokine receptor CXCR5, a principal Tfh transcription factor Bcl6, and the Tfh effector cytokine IL-21. CD8 T cells localize to the B cell follicle, express B cell costimulatory proteins, and promote B cell differentiation and Ab isotype class switching. These data reveal a novel contribution of autoreactive CD8 T cells to autoimmune disease, in part, through CD4 follicular-like differentiation and functionality. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Dietary naringenin supplementation attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by modulating autoimmune inflammatory responses in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Autoimmune disease is prevalent in humans. Since conventional therapies have limited efficacy and often come with significant side effects, nutrition may provide an alternative and complementary approach to improving the autoimmune disorders. Naringenin, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, has been ...

  10. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; Pucci, Neri; Di Grande, Laura; de Libero, Cinzia; Caputo, Roberto; Pantano, Stefano; Mattei, Ivan; Mori, Francesca; de Martino, Maurizio; Novembre, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Hormones may play a role in the pathophysiology of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). An increased incidence of thyroid autoantibodies was recently observed in VKC, although there were no data on thyroid function. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients (202 males, 86 females; range 5.5 to 16.9 years) with VKC were evaluated and compared with 188 normal age- and sex-matched subjects. In all subjects, serum concentrations of free T4, TSH, thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin, and TSHr autoantibodies were evaluated. In VKC, the family history of thyroid diseases showed no significant differences compared to the controls (9.4 versus 8.6%), whereas the family history of autoimmune diseases was significantly higher (13.2% versus 6.3%; P<0.05). Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 6.6% (versus 1.6% of the controls; P<0.05) and overt hypothyroidism in 0.7% (versus 0.0% of the controls; P = NS). Finally, 5.2% of patients were positive for thyroid autoantibodies, which were significantly higher with respect to the controls (0.5%, P<0.05). In the patients positive for thyroid autoantibodies, 80% showed a sonography pattern that suggested autoimmune thyroiditis. Thyroid function and autoimmunity abnormalities are frequently present in children with VKC. Children with VKC should be screened for thyroid function and evaluated for thyroid autoimmunity.

  12. Increased Incidence of Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmunity in Patients with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Stagi, Stefano; Pucci, Neri; Di Grande, Laura; de Libero, Cinzia; Caputo, Roberto; Pantano, Stefano; Mattei, Ivan; Mori, Francesca; de Martino, Maurizio; Novembre, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Hormones may play a role in the pathophysiology of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). An increased incidence of thyroid autoantibodies was recently observed in VKC, although there were no data on thyroid function. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients (202 males, 86 females; range 5.5 to 16.9 years) with VKC were evaluated and compared with 188 normal age- and sex-matched subjects. In all subjects, serum concentrations of free T4, TSH, thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin, and TSHr autoantibodies were evaluated. In VKC, the family history of thyroid diseases showed no significant differences compared to the controls (9.4 versus 8.6%), whereas the family history of autoimmune diseases was significantly higher (13.2% versus 6.3%; P<0.05). Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 6.6% (versus 1.6% of the controls; P<0.05) and overt hypothyroidism in 0.7% (versus 0.0% of the controls; P = NS). Finally, 5.2% of patients were positive for thyroid autoantibodies, which were significantly higher with respect to the controls (0.5%, P<0.05). In the patients positive for thyroid autoantibodies, 80% showed a sonography pattern that suggested autoimmune thyroiditis. Thyroid function and autoimmunity abnormalities are frequently present in children with VKC. Children with VKC should be screened for thyroid function and evaluated for thyroid autoimmunity. PMID:25140177

  13. Regulation of Neurovascular Coupling in Autoimmunity to Water and Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Jukkola, Peter; Gu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding autoimmune channelopathies, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are not always clear due to broad expression of some channel proteins. Recent studies show that autoimmune conditions that interfere with neurovascular coupling in the central nervous system (CNS) can lead to neurodegeneration. Cerebral blood flow that meets neuronal activity and metabolic demand is tightly regulated by local neural activity. This process of reciprocal regulation involves coordinated actions of a number of cell types, including neurons, glia, and vascular cells. In particular, astrocytic endfeet cover more than 90% of brain capillaries to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and wrap around synapses and nodes of Ranvier to communicate with neuronal activity. In this review, we highlight four types of channel proteins that are expressed in astrocytes, regarding their structures, biophysical properties, expression and distribution patterns, and related diseases including autoimmune disorders. Water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and inwardly-rectifying potassium (Kir4.1) channels are concentrated in astrocytic endfeet, whereas some voltage-gated Ca2+ and two-pore-domain K+ channels are expressed throughout the cell body of reactive astrocytes. More channel proteins are found in astrocytes under normal and abnormal conditions. This research field will contribute to a better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying autoimmune disorders. PMID:25462580

  14. New Onset Autoimmune Hepatitis during Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Treatment in Children.

    PubMed

    Ricciuto, Amanda; Kamath, Binita M; Walters, Thomas D; Frost, Karen; Carman, Nicholas; Church, Peter C; Ling, Simon C; Griffiths, Anne M

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate a large anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-treated pediatric inflammatory bowel disease cohort for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) following presentation of an index case with suspected DILI with autoimmune features after infliximab exposure. To characterize the incidence, natural history, and risk factors for liver enzyme elevation with anti-TNF use. We reviewed the index case and performed a retrospective cohort study of 659 children receiving anti-TNF therapy between 2000 and 2015 at a tertiary pediatric inflammatory bowel disease center. Patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥×2 the upper limit of normal were included. The incidence, evolution, and risk factors for liver injury were examined with univariate and multivariable proportional hazards regression. Causality was assessed using the Roussel-Uclaf Causality Assessment Method. The index case, a teenage girl with Crohn's disease, developed elevated liver enzymes and features of autoimmune hepatitis on liver biopsy 23 weeks after starting infliximab. The injury resolved entirely within 4 months of withdrawing infliximab without additional therapy. Overall, 7.7% of our cohort developed new ALT elevations while on anti-TNF. Most ALT elevations were mild and transient and attributable to alternate etiologies. No additional clear cases of autoimmune hepatitis were identified. Transient liver enzyme abnormalities are relatively common among anti-TNF-treated children. Anti-TNF-related DILI with autoimmune features is rare but must be recognized so that therapy can be stopped. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental transmission of systemic AA amyloidosis in autoimmune disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus model mice.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Mayuko; Murakami, Tomoaki; Muhammad, Naeem; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2016-11-01

    AA amyloidosis is a protein misfolding disease characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid A (AA) fibrils. AA amyloidosis has been identified in food animals, and it has been postulated that AA amyloidosis may be transmissible to different animal species. Since the precursor protein of AA fibrils is serum amyloid A (SAA), which is an inflammatory acute phase protein, AA amyloidosis is considered to be associated with inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Chronic diseases such as autoimmune disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus could be potential factors for AA amyloidosis. In this study, to examine the relationship between the induction of AA amyloidosis and chromic abnormalities such as autoimmune disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus, amyloid fibrils from mice, cattle, or chickens were experimentally injected into disease model mice. Wild-type mice were used as controls. The concentrations of SAA, IL-6, and IL-10 in autoimmune disease model mice were higher than those of control mice. However, induction of AA amyloidosis in autoimmune disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus model mice was lower than that in control mice, and the amount of amyloid deposits in the spleens of both mouse models was lower than that of control mice according to Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that factors other than SAA levels, such as an inflammatory or anti-inflammatory environment in the immune response, may be involved in amyloid deposition.

  16. An atypical case of late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus with systemic lymphadenopathy and severe autoimmune thrombocytopenia/neutropenia mimicking malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Keita; Morishima, Satoko; Nakachi, Sawako; Kitamura, Sakiko; Uchibori, Sachie; Tomori, Shouhei; Hanashiro, Taeko; Shimabukuro, Natsuki; Tedokon, Iori; Morichika, Kazuho; Nishi, Yukiko; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Karube, Kennosuke; Fukushima, Takuya; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2017-04-01

    Here, we report a rare case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with conspicuous manifestation of hematological abnormalities. At onset, the 52-year-old male patient showed systemic lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, severe autoimmune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia. Bone marrow examination and lymph node biopsy excluded the possibility of malignant lymphoma. Based on laboratory findings, he was finally diagnosed with combined autoimmune cytopenia coupled with SLE. Atypical clinical manifestations of SLE prompted us to explore the possibility of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). However, we did not detect an increased number of CD4 - /CD8 - , CD3 + , TCRαβ + double-negative T cells in the circulating blood or dysfunctional T cell apoptosis in the Fas/Fas ligand pathway due to mutations in the FAS, FASLG or CASP10 genes. Combined autoimmune cytopenia is a rare clinical entity that in some cases co-occurs with other autoimmune diseases. Given that most SLE patients presenting atypical hematological manifestations at an early stage subsequently exhibit typical systemic manifestations, the present case raises the possibility that initial hematological abnormalities may be signs of unexpected SLE manifestations.

  17. Cytokine production in patients with papillary thyroid cancer and associated autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Zivancevic-Simonovic, Snezana; Mihaljevic, Olgica; Majstorovic, Ivana; Popovic, Suzana; Markovic, Slavica; Milosevic-Djordjevic, Olivera; Jovanovic, Zorica; Mijatovic-Teodorovic, Ljiljana; Mihajlovic, Dusan; Colic, Miodrag

    2015-08-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is the most frequent thyroid autoimmune disease, while papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the most common endocrine malignancies. A few patients with HT also develop PTC. The aim of this study was to analyze cytokine profiles in patients with PTC accompanied with autoimmune HT in comparison with those in patients with PTC alone or HT alone and healthy subjects. Cytokine levels were determined in supernatants obtained from phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated whole blood cultures in vitro. The concentrations of selected cytokines: Th1-interferon gamma (IFN-γ); Th2-interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 5 (IL-5), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interleukin 13 (IL-13); Th9-interleukin 9 (IL-9); and Th17-interleukin 17 (IL-17A) were measured using multiplex cytokine detection systems for human Th1/Th2/Th9/Th17/Th22. We found that PTC patients with HT produced significantly higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-6, IL-9, IL-13 and IFN-γ than PTC patients without HT. In conclusion, autoimmune HT affects the cytokine profile of patients with PTC by stimulating secretion of Th1/Th2/Th9 types of cytokines. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratios in PTC patients with associated autoimmune HT indicate a marked shift toward Th2 immunity.

  18. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  19. How I treat autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, João Bosco

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) represents a failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis, permitting accumulation of lymphoid mass and persistence of autoreactive cells that often manifest in childhood with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurring multilineage cytopenias. Cytopenias in these patients can be the result of splenic sequestration as well as autoimmune complications manifesting as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have now been described; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years by our colleagues and ourselves. Some of these patients with FAS mutations affecting the intracellular portion of the FAS protein also have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The best approaches to diagnosis, follow-up, and management of ALPS, its associated cytopenias, and other complications resulting from infiltrative lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity are presented. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrial.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:21885601

  20. From microbiome to infectome in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Sakkas, Lazaros I

    2017-07-01

    The current review discusses the pros and cons of the microbiome studies conducted in search of the association between microbiota and autoimmunity. We focus on the role of infectome and autoinfectome as a bridge to link the findings of microbiome studies with those emerging from investigations of the role of specific viruses and antiviral responses as triggers of autoimmunity (through various mechanisms such as molecular mimicry). The 'usual suspects', such as herpetoviruses and Escherichia coli, are thoroughly discussed in light of the data emerged by the microbiome studies, using as examples specific autoimmune rheumatic diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases. We conclude that the studies of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal, and urinary tract microbiome are informative but can only be useful if further explored from the infectome perspective. This means that the plethora of bacteria associated with autoimmune diseases from microbiome studies can be and must be tested experimentally. If certain bacteria are associated directly or indirectly with autoimmune diseases, specific immunological mechanisms must be identified.

  1. Molecular Diagnosis in Autoimmune Skin Blistering Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Otten, J.V.; Hashimoto, T.; Hertl, M.; Payne, A.S.; Sitaru, C.

    2014-01-01

    Blister formation in skin and mucous membranes results from a loss of cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion and is a common outcome of pathological events in a variety of conditions, including autoimmune and genetic diseases, viral and bacterial infections, or injury by physical and chemical factors. Autoantibodies against structural components maintaining cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion induce tissue damage in autoimmune blistering diseases. Detection of these autoantibodies either tissue-bound or circulating in serum is essential to diagnose the autoimmune nature of disease. Various immunofluorescence methods as well as molecular immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, belong to the modern diagnostic algorithms for these disorders. There is still a considerable need to increase awareness of the rare autoimmune blistering diseases, which often show a severe, chronic-relapsing course, among physicians and the public. This review article describes the immunopathological features of autoimmune bullous diseases and the molecular immunoassays currently available for their diagnosis and monitoring. PMID:24160488

  2. Rare phenotypes in the understanding of autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Zeissig, Yvonne; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Franke, Andre; Blumberg, Richard S; Zeissig, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The study of rare phenotypes has a long history in the description of autoimmune disorders. First Mendelian syndromes of idiopathic tissue destruction were defined more than 100 years ago and were later revealed to result from immune-mediated reactivity against self. In the past two decades, continuous advances in sequencing technology and particularly the advent of next-generation sequencing have allowed to define the genetic basis of an ever-growing number of Mendelian forms of autoimmunity. This has provided unique insight into the molecular pathways that govern immunological homeostasis and that are indispensable for the prevention of self-reactive immune-mediated tissue damage and ‘horror autotoxicus’. Here we will discuss selected examples of past and recent investigations into rare phenotypes of autoimmunity that have delineated pathways critical for central and peripheral control of the adaptive immune system. We will outline the implications of these findings for rare and common forms of autoimmunity and will discuss the benefits and potential pitfalls of the integration of next-generation sequencing into algorithms for clinical diagnostics. Because of the concise nature of this review, we will focus on syndromes caused by defects in the control of adaptive immunity as innate immune-mediated autoinflammatory disorders have been covered in excellent recent reviews on Mendelian and polygenic forms of autoimmunity. PMID:27562064

  3. Clues to immune tolerance: The monogenic autoimmune syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Waterfield, Michael; Anderson, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune disease affects a significant proportion of the population. The etiology of most autoimmune diseases is largely unknown, but it is thought to be multifactorial with both environmental and genetic influences. Rare monogenic autoimmune diseases, however, offer an invaluable window into potential disease mechanisms. In this review, we will discuss the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS1), the immunedysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome (IPEX), and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Significantly, the information gained from the study of these diseases has provided new insights into more common autoimmune disease and have yielded new diagnostics and therapeutic opportunities. PMID:20969580

  4. Complicating autoimmune diseases in myasthenia gravis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Nacu, Aliona; Andersen, Jintana Bunpan; Lisnic, Vitalie; Owe, Jone Furlund; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune disease of skeletal muscle endplates. MG subgroup is relevant for comorbidity, but usually not accounted for. MG patients have an increased risk for complicating autoimmune diseases, most commonly autoimmune thyroid disease, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we present concomitant autoimmune disorders associated with the different MG subgroups, and show how this influences treatment and prognosis. Concomitant MG should always be considered in patients with an autoimmune disorder and developing new neuromuscular weakness, fatigue or respiratory failure. When a second autoimmune disorder is suspected, MG should be included as a differential diagnosis. PMID:25915571

  5. Mercury as an environmental stimulus in the development of autoimmunity - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Crowe, William; Allsopp, Philip J; Watson, Gene E; Magee, Pamela J; Strain, J J; Armstrong, David J; Ball, Elizabeth; McSorley, Emeir M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases result from an interplay of genetic predisposition and factors which stimulate the onset of disease. Mercury (Hg), a well-established toxicant, is an environmental factor reported to be linked with autoimmunity. Hg exists in several chemical forms and is encountered by humans in dental amalgams, certain vaccines, occupational exposure, atmospheric pollution and seafood. Several studies have investigated the effect of the various forms of Hg, including elemental (Hg 0 ), inorganic (iHg) and organic mercury (oHg) and their association with autoimmunity. In vitro studies using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy participants have shown that methylmercury (MeHg) causes cell death at lower concentrations than iHg albeit exposure to iHg results in a more enhanced pro-inflammatory profile in comparison to MeHg. In vivo research utilising murine models susceptible to the development of metal-induced autoimmunity report that exposure to iHg results in a lupus-like syndrome, whilst mice exposed to MeHg develop autoimmunity without the formation of immune complexes. Furthermore, lower concentrations of IgE are detected in MeHg-treated animals in comparison with those treated with iHg. It appears that, oHg has a negative impact on animal models with existing autoimmunity. The research conducted on humans in this area is diverse in study design and the results are conflicting. There is currently no evidence to implicate a role for Hg 0 exposure from dental amalgams in the development or perpetuation of autoimmune disease, apart from some suggestion of individual sensitivity. Several studies have consistently shown a positive correlation between iHg exposure and serum autoantibody concentrations in gold miners, although the clinical impact of iHg remains unknown. Furthermore, a limited number of studies have reported individuals with autoimmune disease have higher concentrations of blood Hg compared to healthy controls. In summary, it

  6. Post-infectious autoimmune disorders: Sydenham's chorea, PANDAS and beyond.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kyle A; Swedo, Susan E

    2015-08-18

    Infections, and the resulting immune response to these infections, have recently received increased recognition as pathogenic mechanisms for neuropsychiatric disorders. Sydenham's chorea (SC), a widely recognized post-streptococcal autoimmune disorder, represents a model for this proposed pathogenesis. In SC, a dysregulated immune response to a streptococcal infection is hypothesized to result in inflammation of neuronal networks, particularly the basal ganglia nuclei. The resulting dysfunction in the basal ganglia nuclei are hypothesized to lead to a constellation of adventitious movements and psychiatric symptoms, which investigations have shown are amenable to immunomodulatory therapies. PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections) has been proposed as a variant of SC, and is hypothesized to share a pathogenic mechanism, despite a unique symptom profile of predominantly psychiatric symptoms. In this review, we present the clinical aspects of both disorders, the data for potential shared etiopathogenesis between them, and the evidence for the therapeutic use of immunomodulatory therapies for the symptoms of SC and PANDAS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Follicular helper T cell in immunity and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, D; Cruvinel, W M; Resende, L S; Mesquita, F V; Silva, N P; Câmara, N O S; Andrade, L E C

    2016-01-01

    The traditional concept that effector T helper (Th) responses are mediated by Th1/Th2 cell subtypes has been broadened by the recent demonstration of two new effector T helper cells, the IL-17 producing cells (Th17) and the follicular helper T cells (Tfh). These new subsets have many features in common, such as the ability to produce IL-21 and to express the IL-23 receptor (IL23R), the inducible co-stimulatory molecule ICOS, and the transcription factor c-Maf, all of them essential for expansion and establishment of the final pool of both subsets. Tfh cells differ from Th17 by their ability to home to B cell areas in secondary lymphoid tissue through interactions mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13. These CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells are considered an effector T cell type specialized in B cell help, with a transcriptional profile distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. The role of Tfh cells and its primary product, IL-21, on B-cell activation and differentiation is essential for humoral immunity against infectious agents. However, when deregulated, Tfh cells could represent an important mechanism contributing to exacerbated humoral response and autoantibody production in autoimmune diseases. This review highlights the importance of Tfh cells by focusing on their biology and differentiation processes in the context of normal immune response to infectious microorganisms and their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  8. Chronic varied stress modulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Correa, S G; Rodriguez-Galán, M C; Rivero, V E; Riera, C M

    1998-06-01

    Stress disturbs homeostasis by altering the equilibrium of various hormones which have a significant impact on immune responses. Few studies have examined the influence of stressors on autoimmune disease in animal models. In our work, we studied the effects of long-term exposure (14 days) to chronic varied stress (CVS) in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Wistar rats. We studied whether the exposure to CVS before or after the immune challenge would correlate with differences in the clinical course of the disease. We also examined whether the CVS would modulate the magnitude of the cellular or the humoral immune response. We observed opposite effects on the clinical signs in animals stressed before or after the immune challenge. The clinical signs of the disease were attenuated in animals stressed before but not after the immune challenge. Relationships were found in the modulation of the clinical severity related to the time of exposure to the CVS, the histological alterations and the proliferative results. Stressed animals with milder clinical signs presented an exacerbated humoral response against myelin antigens while stressed animals with more severe clinical symptoms exhibited a significantly diminished one. Besides, we detected the presence of specific IgG1 associated with the exposure to CVS before the induction of EAE. Our results show that, depending on the timing of the exposure of Wistar rats to the CVS, the neuroendocrine disbalance favors a more pronounced humoral or cellular profile of the response.

  9. Autoimmune Myocarditis, Valvulitis, and Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jennifer M.; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Fairweather, DeLisa; Huber, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac myosin-induced autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) is a model of inflammatory heart disease initiated by CD4+ T cells (Smith and Allen 1991; Li, Heuser et al. 2004). It is a paradigm of the immune-mediated cardiac damage believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of postinfectious human cardiomyopathies (Rose, Herskowitz et al. 1993). Myocarditis is induced in susceptible mice by immunization with purified cardiac myosin (Neu, Rose et al. 1987) or specific peptides derived from cardiac myosin (Donermeyer, Beisel et al. 1995; Pummerer, Luze et al. 1996) (see Basic Protocol 1), or by adoptive transfer of myosin-reactive T cells (Smith and Allen 1991) (see Alternate Protocol). Myocarditis has been induced in Lewis rats by immunization with purified rat or porcine cardiac myosin (Kodama, Matsumoto et al. 1990; Li, Heuser et al. 2004) (see Basic Protocol 2) or S2-16 peptide (Li, Heuser et al. 2004), or by adoptive transfer of T cells stimulated by specific peptides derived from cardiac myosin (Wegmann, Zhao et al. 1994). Myocarditis begins 12 to 14 days after the first immunization, and is maximal after 21 days. Other animal models commonly used to study myocarditis development include the pathogen-induced models in which disease is initiated by viral infection. The first murine model of acute viral myocarditis causes sudden death via viral damage to cardiomyocytes (Huber, Gauntt et al. 1998; Horwitz, La Cava et al. 2000; Fong 2003; Fuse, Chan et al. 2005; Fairweather and Rose 2007; Cihakova and Rose 2008) whereas the second model is based on inoculation with heart-passaged coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) that includes damaged heart proteins (Fairweather, Frisancho-Kiss et al. 2004; Fairweather D 2004; Fairweather and Rose 2007; Cihakova and Rose 2008) In addition to the protocols used to induce EAM in mice and rats, support protocols are included for preparing purified cardiac myosin using mouse or rat heart tissue (see Support Protocol 1), preparing purified

  10. Clinical heterogeneity in autoimmune acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Martinez-Salgado, Julio; Granados, Julio; Uribe, Misael; Tellez-Avila, Felix I

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To describe the outcome and prognosis in a cohort of patients with acute liver failure due to autoimmune hepatitis without liver transplantation. METHODS: A retrospective trial was conducted in 11 patients with acute liver failure due to autoimmune hepatitis who attended the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubiran. Demographic, biochemical and severity indexes, and treatment and outcome were assessed. RESULTS: Among the 11 patients, with a median age of 31 years, 72% had inflammatory response syndrome, and six patients received corticosteroids. The mortality rate within four weeks was 56%, and the one-year survival was 27%. In the survivors, severity indexes were lower and 83% received corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: We observed a relatively high survival rate in patients with acute liver failure due to autoimmune hepatitis. This survival rate could be influenced by severity of the disease and/or use of corticosteroids. PMID:17465474

  11. Commensal microbiota influence systemic autoimmune responses

    PubMed Central

    Van Praet, Jens T; Donovan, Erin; Vanassche, Inge; Drennan, Michael B; Windels, Fien; Dendooven, Amélie; Allais, Liesbeth; Cuvelier, Claude A; van de Loo, Fons; Norris, Paula S; Kruglov, Andrey A; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Rabot, Sylvie; Tito, Raul; Raes, Jeroen; Gaboriau-Routhiau, Valerie; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Van de Wiele, Tom; Eberl, Gérard; Ware, Carl F; Elewaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies are a hallmark feature of generalized autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. However, the processes underlying the loss of tolerance against nuclear self-constituents remain largely unresolved. Using mice deficient in lymphotoxin and Hox11, we report that approximately 25% of mice lacking secondary lymphoid organs spontaneously develop specific antinuclear antibodies. Interestingly, we find this phenotype is not caused by a defect in central tolerance. Rather, cell-specific deletion and in vivo lymphotoxin blockade link these systemic autoimmune responses to the formation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the neonatal period of life. We further demonstrate antinuclear antibody production is influenced by the presence of commensal gut flora, in particular increased colonization with segmented filamentous bacteria, and IL-17 receptor signaling. Together, these data indicate that neonatal colonization of gut microbiota influences generalized autoimmunity in adult life. PMID:25599993

  12. Pregnancy and autoimmune connective tissue diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Wendy; Littlejohn, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    The autoimmune connective tissue diseases predominantly affect women and often occur during the reproductive years. Thus, specialized issues in pregnancy planning and management are commonly encountered in this patient population. This chapter provides a current overview of pregnancy as a risk factor for onset of autoimmune disease, considerations related to the course of pregnancy in several autoimmune connective tissue diseases, and disease management and medication issues before and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. A major theme that has emerged across these inflammatory diseases is that active maternal disease during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and that maternal and fetal health can be optimized when conception is planned during times of inactive disease and through maintaining treatment regimens compatible with pregnancy. PMID:27421217

  13. Drug delivery technologies for autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brett E; Giannoukakis, Nick

    2010-11-01

    Targeting autoimmune disease poses two main challenges. The first is to identify unique targets to suppress directly or indirectly autoreactive cells exclusively. The second is to penetrate target tissues to deliver specifically drugs to desired cells that can achieve a therapeutic outcome. Herein, the range of drug delivery methods available and under development and how they can be useful to treat autoimmune diseases are discussed. Polymer delivery methods, as well as biological methods that include fusion proteins, targeted antibodies, recombinant viruses and cell products are compared. Readers will gain insight into the progression of clinical trials for different technologies and drug delivery methods useful for targeting and modulating the function of autoreactive immune cells. Several tissue-specific polymer-based and biologic drug delivery systems are now in Phase II/III clinical trials. Although these trials are focused mainly on cancer treatment, lessons from these trials can guide the use of the same agents for autoimmunity therapeutics.

  14. Autoimmune neuroretinopathy secondary to Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Burgueño-Montañés, C; Álvarez-Coronado, M; Colunga-Cueva, M

    2018-04-29

    A 40-year-old woman diagnosed with Zika virus infection 6 months before she arrived at this hospital. She referred to a progressive and painless vision loss, of 2 weeks onset after the infection diagnosis. She was treated with topical steroids. Previous visual acuity was recovered, but she still refers to reduced visual field and nyctalopia. Ophthalmologic examination revealed severe retinal sequels, compatible with autoimmune retinopathy. Based on the clinical features and the temporal relationship with Zika virus infection, non-para-neoplastic autoimmune retinopathy was diagnosed and managed with steroids and infliximab. Zika virus can trigger a non-para-neoplastic autoimmune retinopathy. The diagnosis is based on clinical features, and requires early immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Humoral Epitope Spreading in Autoimmune Bullous Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Didona, Dario; Di Zenzo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune blistering diseases are characterized by autoantibodies against structural adhesion proteins of the skin and mucous membranes. Extensive characterization of their autoantibody targets has improved understanding of pathogenesis and laid the basis for the study of antigens/epitopes diversification, a process termed epitope spreading (ES). In this review, we have reported and discussed ES phenomena in autoimmune bullous diseases and underlined their functional role in disease pathogenesis. A functional ES has been proposed: (1) in bullous pemphigoid patients and correlates with the initial phase of the disease, (2) in pemphigus vulgaris patients with mucosal involvement during the clinical transition to a mucocutaneous form, (3) in endemic pemphigus foliaceus, underlining its role in disease pathogenesis, and (4) in numerous cases of disease transition associated with an intermolecular diversification of immune response. All these findings could give useful information to better understand autoimmune disease pathogenesis and to design antigen/epitope specific therapeutic approaches. PMID:29719538

  16. Altered B cell signalling in autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, David J.; Metzler, Genita; Wray-Dutra, Michelle; Jackson, Shaun W.

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has provided new insights into how altered B cell-intrinsic signals — through the B cell receptor (BCR) and key co-receptors — function together to promote the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. These combined signals affect B cells at two distinct stages: first, in the selection of the naive repertoire; and second, during extrafollicular or germinal centre activation responses. Thus, dysregulated signalling can lead to both an altered naive BCR repertoire and the generation of autoantibody-producing B cells. Strikingly, high-affinity autoantibodies predate and predict disease in several autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. This Review summarizes how, rather than being a downstream consequence of autoreactive T cell activation, dysregulated B cell signalling can function as a primary driver of many human autoimmune diseases. PMID:28393923

  17. Adoptive cell transfer in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Albert J

    2015-06-01

    Adoptive cell transfer is an intervention in which autologous immune cells that have been expanded ex vivo are re-introduced to mitigate a pathological process. Tregs, mesenchymal stromal cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells have been transferred in diverse immune-mediated diseases, and Tregs have been the focus of investigations in autoimmune hepatitis. Transferred Tregs have improved histological findings in animal models of autoimmune hepatitis and autoimmune cholangitis. Key challenges relate to discrepant findings among studies, phenotypic instability of the transferred population, uncertain side effects and possible need for staged therapy involving anti-inflammatory drugs. Future investigations must resolve issues about the purification, durability and safety of these cells and consider alternative populations if necessary.

  18. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome with autoimmune-like liver disease and enteropathy mimicking celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Veropalumbo, Claudio; Campanozzi, Angelo; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Correra, Antonio; Raia, Valeria; Vajro, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Liver abnormalities that normalize during infancy as well an enteropathy are reported in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The pathogenesis of both conditions is unknown. We report two SDS cases with autoimmune-like (antismooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody positivity) liver disease and antigliadin antibody positive inflammatory enteropathy. Hypertransaminasemia did not resolve after immunosuppressive therapy and/or a gluten-free diet. These transient autoimmune phenomena and gut-liver axis perturbations may have played a role in transient SDS hepatopathy and enteropathy. Our report may stimulate other studies to define the relationship between the SDS genetic defect and intestinal permeability as the pathogenic mechanism underlying SDS related liver and intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. [The experimental research of inner ear metabolism and electrical physiology of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Tan, C; Cao, Y; Hu, P

    1998-09-01

    Inquire into the mechanism of inner ear pathological physiology in autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss (ASHL). With the auditory electric-physiological techniques and enzyme-histochemical method, the change of inner ear hearing function and enzyme activity were observed. These animals, which threshold of auditory nerve compound active potential (CAP) and cochlear microphonic potential(CM) heightening evidently, showed that the amplitude of endolymphatic potential(EP) (include-EP) bring down in various degrees, which was related to the change of the active of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and SDH in vascularis stria and endolymphatic sac. The abnormality of enzymes metabolism in inner ear tissues, which following autoimmune inflammation damage, is the pathological foundation of hearing dysfunction.

  20. B cells gone rogue: the intersection of diffuse large B cell lymphoma and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Koff, Jean L; Flowers, Christopher R

    2016-06-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is characterized by genetic, genomic and clinical heterogeneity. Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) have recently been shown to represent significant risk factors for development of DLBCL. Studies that examined the relationships between AIDs and lymphoma in terms of pathogenesis, genetic lesions, and treatment were identified in the MEDLINE database using combinations of medical subject heading (MeSH) terms. Co-authors independently performed study selection for inclusion based on appropriateness of the study question and nature of the study design and sample size. Expert commentary: Identification of AID as a substantial risk factor for DLBCL raises new questions regarding how autoimmunity influences lymphomagenesis and disease behavior. It will be important to identify whether DLBCL cases arising in the setting of AID harbor inferior prognoses, and, if so, whether they also exhibit certain molecular abnormalities that may be targeted to overcome such a gap in clinical outcomes.

  1. Hot topics in autoimmune diseases: perspectives from the 2013 Asian Congress of Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and possible treatments of autoimmune diseases has significantly increased over the past decade. Nonetheless, numerous major issues remain open and such issues span from epidemiology to clinimetrics and from the role of infectious agents to the search for accurate biomarkers in paradigmatic conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and spondyloarthropathies. In the case of cardiovascular comorbidities of autoimmune diseases or, more generally, the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, fascinating evidence points to a central role of autoimmunity and metabolic dysfunctions and a possible role of therapies targeting inflammation to ameliorate both conditions. Basic science and translational medicine contribute to identify common mechanisms that underlie different autoimmune diseases, as in the case of tumor necrosis factor alpha, and more recently vitamin D, autoantibodies, T and B regulatory cells, and microRNA. Finally, new therapies are expected to significantly change our approach to autoimmune diseases, as represented by the recent FDA approval of the first oral JAK inhibitor. The present article moves from the major topics that were discussed at the 2013 Asian Congress of Autoimmunity in Hong Kong to illustrate the most recent data from leading journals in autoimmunity and immunology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human neutrophils in auto-immunity.

    PubMed

    Thieblemont, Nathalie; Wright, Helen L; Edwards, Steven W; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Human neutrophils have great capacity to cause tissue damage in inflammatory diseases via their inappropriate activation to release reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and other tissue-damaging molecules. Furthermore, activated neutrophils can release a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines that can regulate almost every element of the immune system. In addition to these important immuno-regulatory processes, activated neutrophils can also release, expose or generate neoepitopes that have the potential to break immune tolerance and result in the generation of autoantibodies, that characterise a number of human auto-immune diseases. For example, in vasculitis, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) that are directed against proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are neutrophil-derived autoantigens and activated neutrophils are the main effector cells of vascular damage. In other auto-immune diseases, these neutrophil-derived neoepitopes may arise from a number of processes that include release of granule enzymes and ROS, changes in the properties of components of their plasma membrane as a result of activation or apoptosis, and via the release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). NETs are extracellular structures that contain chromatin that is decorated with granule enzymes (including citrullinated proteins) that can act as neo-epitopes to generate auto-immunity. This review therefore describes the processes that can result in neutrophil-mediated auto-immunity, and the role of neutrophils in the molecular pathologies of auto-immune diseases such as vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We discuss the potential role of NETs in these processes and some of the debate in the literature regarding the role of this phenomenon in microbial killing, cell death and auto-immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Autoimmune gastritis: histology phenotype and OLGA staging.

    PubMed

    Rugge, M; Fassan, M; Pizzi, M; Zorzetto, V; Maddalo, G; Realdon, S; De Bernard, M; Betterle, C; Cappellesso, R; Pennelli, G; de Boni, M; Farinati, F

    2012-06-01

    Among Western populations, the declining incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection coincides with a growing clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. To describe the histological phenotype of autoimmune gastritis, also to test the prognostic impact of OLGA staging in the autoimmune setting. A single-institutional series (spanning the years 2003-2011) of 562 consecutive patients (M:F ratio: 1:3.7; mean age = 57.6 ± 14.4 years) with serologically confirmed autoimmune gastritis underwent histology review and OLGA staging. Helicobacter pylori infection was ascertained histologically in 44/562 cases (7.8%). Forty six biopsy sets (8.2%) featured OLGA stages III-IV; they included all four cases of incidental epithelial neoplasia (three intraepithelial and one invasive; three of these four cases had concomitant H. pylori infection). There were 230 (40.9%) and 139 (24.7%) cases, respectively, of linear and micro-nodular enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia; 19 (3.4%) type I carcinoids were detected. The series included 116 patients who underwent repeated endoscopy/biopsy sampling (mean time elapsing between the two procedures = 54 months; range 24-108). Paired histology showed a significant (P = 0.009) trend towards a stage progression [the stage increased in 25/116 cases (22%); it remained unchanged in 87/116 cases (75%)]. In autoimmune gastritis, the cancer risk is restricted to high-risk gastritis stages (III-IV), and is associated mainly with concomitant H. pylori infection. OLGA staging consistently depicts the time-dependent organic progression of the autoimmune disease and provides key information for secondary gastric cancer prevention strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. [Autoimmune encephalitis: possibilities in the laboratory investigation].

    PubMed

    Böröcz, Katalin; Hayden, Zsófia; Mészáros, Viktória; Csizmadia, Zsuzsanna; Farkas, Kornélia; Kellermayer, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Nagy, Ferenc; Berki, Tímea

    2018-01-01

    The role of autoimmune responses against central nervous system (CNS) antigens in encephalitis presenting with non-classified neurologic or psychiatric symptoms has been appreciated in the past decade. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis has a poor prognosis and is most commonly associated with lung, ovarium, and testicular neoplasms, leading to immune reactions against intracellular antigens (anti-Hu/ANNA1, anti-Ri/ANNA2, anti-CV2/CRMP5 and anti-Ma2/Ta). In contrast, the recently described autoimmune encephalitis subtypes present with a broad spectrum of symptoms, respond to autoimmune therapies well and usually associate with autoantibodies against neuronal cell surface receptors (NMDAR, GABA B R, AMPAR) or synaptic proteins (LGI1, CASPR2). Our aim is to bring to awareness the increasing number of autoimmune encephalitis patients requiring neurologic, psychiatric and intensive care and to emphasize the significance of detecting various autoantibodies in diagnosing patients. In the past 6 years, our laboratory received 836 autoimmune encephalitis diagnostic test requests from a total of 717 patients. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were analysed with indirect immunofluorescence using a BIOCHIP consisting of cell lines transfected with 6 different receptor proteins. IgG autoantibodies against receptor proteins were present in 7.5% of patients. The frequency of positive samples was the following: NMDAR > LGI1 > GABA B R > CASPR2. Detecting autoantibodies facilitates the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis in an early stage. Patients diagnosed early can be effectively treated with plasmapheresis and immunosuppressive drugs. The efficiency of therapies can be monitored by autoantibody detection. Therefore, the diagnostic immune laboratory plays an important role in proper diagnosis and in the prevention of rapidly progressing symptoms. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(3): 107-112.

  5. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age <55 years (OR 1.6 [CI:1–2.5]), absence of smoking habit (OR 2.2 [CI:1.2–4]), and absence of anemia (OR 3.1 [CI:1.5–6.4]) were independent factors associated to dyspepsia. Autoimmune gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728

  6. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  7. Advanced Diagnostic Techniques in Autoimmune Bullous Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Anuradha; Rao, Raghavendra; Bhogal, Balbir S

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune blistering diseases are diverse group of conditions characterized by blisters in the skin with or without mucosal lesions. There may be great degree of clinical and histopathological overlap; hence, advanced immunological tests may be necessary for more precise diagnosis of these conditions. Direct immunofluorescence microscopy is the gold standard tests to demonstrate the tissue-bound antibodies and should be done in all cases. Magnitude of antibody level in patient’ serum can be assessed by indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In this article we have reviewed the various techniques that are available in the diagnosis of autoimmune blistering diseases. PMID:28584369

  8. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cold Urticaria, Immunodeficiency, and Autoimmunity Related to PLCG2 Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Ombrello, Michael J.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Sun, Guangping; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Datta, Shrimati; Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Subramanian, Naeha; Bunney, Tom D.; Baxendale, Rhona W.; Martins, Marta S.; Romberg, Neil; Komarow, Hirsh; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Kim, Hun Sik; Ho, Jason; Cruse, Glenn; Jung, Mi-Yeon; Gilfillan, Alasdair M.; Metcalfe, Dean D.; Nelson, Celeste; O'Brien, Michelle; Wisch, Laura; Stone, Kelly; Douek, Daniel C.; Gandhi, Chhavi; Wanderer, Alan A.; Lee, Hane; Nelson, Stanley F.; Shianna, Kevin V.; Cirulli, Elizabeth T.; Goldstein, David B.; Long, Eric O.; Moir, Susan; Meffre, Eric; Holland, Steven M.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Katan, Matilda; Hoffman, Hal M.; Milner, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mendelian analysis of disorders of immune regulation can provide insight into molecular pathways associated with host defense and immune tolerance. Methods We identified three families with a dominantly inherited complex of cold-induced urticaria, antibody deficiency, and susceptibility to infection and autoimmunity. Immunophenotyping methods included flow cytometry, analysis of serum immunoglobulins and autoantibodies, lymphocyte stimulation, and enzymatic assays. Genetic studies included linkage analysis, targeted Sanger sequencing, and next-generation whole-genome sequencing. Results Cold urticaria occurred in all affected subjects. Other, variable manifestations included atopy, granulomatous rash, autoimmune thyroiditis, the presence of antinuclear antibodies, sinopulmonary infections, and common variable immunodeficiency. Levels of serum IgM and IgA and circulating natural killer cells and class-switched memory B cells were reduced. Linkage analysis showed a 7-Mb candidate interval on chromosome 16q in one family, overlapping by 3.5 Mb a disease-associated haplotype in a smaller family. This interval includes PLCG2, encoding phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2), a signaling molecule expressed in B cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells. Sequencing of complementary DNA revealed heterozygous transcripts lacking exon 19 in two families and lacking exons 20 through 22 in a third family. Genomic sequencing identified three distinct in-frame deletions that cosegregated with disease. These deletions, located within a region encoding an autoinhibitory domain, result in protein products with constitutive phospholipase activity. PLCG2-expressing cells had diminished cellular signaling at 37°C but enhanced signaling at subphysiologic temperatures. Conclusions Genomic deletions in PLCG2 cause gain of PLCγ2 function, leading to signaling abnormalities in multiple leukocyte subsets and a phenotype encompassing both excessive and deficient immune function. (Funded

  10. Pre-symptomatic autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis: when does the disease start?

    PubMed

    Tracy, Alexander; Buckley, Christopher D; Raza, Karim

    2017-06-01

    It is well recognised that a state of autoimmunity, in which immunological tolerance is broken, precedes the development of symptoms in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For individuals who will later develop seropositive disease, this manifests as autoantibodies directed against proteins that have undergone specific post-translational modifications. There is evidence that the induction of this autoantibody response occurs at peripheral extra-articular mucosal sites, such as the periodontium and lung. In addition to their utility as diagnostic markers, these autoantibodies may have a pathogenic role that helps localise disease to the synovium. Alongside the development of autoantibodies, other factors contributing to pre-symptomatic autoimmunity may include dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal tract, abnormal development of lymphoid tissue, and dysregulated autonomic and lipid-mediated anti-inflammatory signalling. These factors combine to skew the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signalling in a manner that is permissive for the development of clinical arthritis. We present data to support the concept that the transitions from at-risk states to systemic autoimmunity and then to classifiable RA depend on multiple "switches". However, further prospective studies are necessary to define the molecular basis of these switches and the specific features of pre-symptomatic autoimmunity, so that preventative treatments can be targeted to individuals at high risk for RA. In this review, we analyse mechanisms that may contribute to the development of autoimmunity in at-risk individuals and discuss the relationship between this pre-symptomatic state and subsequent development of RA.

  11. [Pregnancy in systemic autoimmune diseases: Myths, certainties and doubts].

    PubMed

    Danza, Álvaro; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Khamashta, Munther

    2016-10-07

    Systemic autoimmune diseases especially affect young women during childbearing age. The aim of this review is to update systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic sclerosis management during pregnancy. These diseases present variable maternal and fetal risks. Studies show that an appropriate disease control and a reasonable remission period prior to pregnancy are associated with satisfactory obstetric outcomes. Antiphospholipid autoantibodies profile, anti-Ro/anti-La antibodies, pulmonary pressure and activity evaluation are crucial to assess the pregnancy risk. Monitoring requires a multidisciplinary team, serial analytic controls and Doppler ultrasound of maternal and fetal circulation. Evaluation of the activity of the disease is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  13. The Real Culprit in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Abnormal Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haijing; Zhao, Ming; Chang, Christopher; Lu, Qianjin

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease involving multiple organs and the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies. The pathogenesis of SLE has been intensively studied but remains far from clear. B and T lymphocyte abnormalities, dysregulation of apoptosis, defects in the clearance of apoptotic materials, and various genetic and epigenetic factors are attributed to the development of SLE. The latest research findings point to the association between abnormal epigenetic regulation and SLE, which has attracted considerable interest worldwide. It is the purpose of this review to present and discuss the relationship between aberrant epigenetic regulation and SLE, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs in patients with SLE, the possible mechanisms of immune dysfunction caused by epigenetic changes, and to better understand the roles of aberrant epigenetic regulation in the initiation and development of SLE and to provide an insight into the related therapeutic options in SLE. PMID:25988383

  14. Autoimmune Epilepsy”: Encephalitis With Autoantibodies for Epileptologists

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Christian G.; Holtkamp, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitides may account for epilepsies of so far unknown cause. These “autoimmune epilepsies” may respond well to immunotherapy. More than a dozen autoantibodies have been found with this constellation; therefore, broad autoantibody testing of serum-CSF pairs offers the best diagnostic yield. Several particular features raise the suspicion of an autoimmune cause in otherwise unexplained seizure disorders. PMID:28684941

  15. Autoimmunity to protective molecules: is it the perpetuum mobile (vicious cycle) of autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Martine Szyper; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2006-09-01

    Apoptotic defects and impaired clearance of cellular debris are considered key events in the development of autoimmunity, as they can contribute to autoantigen overload and might be involved in the initiation of an autoimmune response. The C1q protein and mannose-binding lectin are activators of the complement system. The pentraxins are a group of highly conserved proteins including the short pentraxins, C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P, and the long pentraxin family member, pentraxin 3, all of which are involved in innate immunity and in acute-phase responses. In addition to their role in innate immunity and inflammation, each of these proteins participates in the removal of damaged and apoptotic cells. In this article, we discuss the clinical significance of different levels of these proteins, their role in the induction of or protection against autoimmunity, and the presence of specific autoantibodies against them in various autoimmune diseases.

  16. The value of Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by Adjuvant (ASIA) - Shedding light on orphan diseases in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Segal, Yahel; Dahan, Shani; Sharif, Kassem; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Watad, Abdulla; Amital, Howard

    2018-05-01

    Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by Adjuvant (ASIA) is a definition aimed to describe the common etiological process at the root of five clinical entities sharing similar symptomatology: macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome (MMF), Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), sick building syndrome (SBS), siliconosis, and post vaccination autoimmune phenomena. ASIA illustrates the role of environmental immune stimulating agents, or adjuvants, in the instigation of complex autoimmune reactions among individuals bearing a genetic preponderance for autoimmunity. The value of ASIA lies first in the acknowledgment it provides for patients suffering from these as yet ill-defined medical conditions. Equally important is the spotlight it sheds for further research of these poorly understood conditions sharing a common pathogenesis. In this article we elaborate on the significance of ASIA, review the current evidence in support of the syndrome, and address recent reservations raised regarding its validity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  18. Scurfy mice: A model for autoimmune disease

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Autoimmune disease-the condition in which the body attacks its own tissue-has been an object of public concern recently. Former President George Bush and his wife Barbara both are afflicted with Graves' disease in which the body's own immune system attakcs the thyroid gland. The safety of breast implants was called into question because of evidence that some recipients had developed autoimmune disorders such a rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. Women, the media pointed out, have a higher-than-average incidence of many autoimmune disorders. These events suggest the need to know more about what makes the immune system work somore » well and what makes it go awry. At ORNL's Biology Division, progress is being in understanding the underlying causes of immune disease by studying mice having a disease that causes them to be underdeveloped; to have scaly skin, small ears, and large spleens; to open their eyes late; and to die early. These [open quotes]scurfy[close quotes]mice are helping us better understand the role of the thymus gland in autoimmune disease.« less

  19. Inheritable and sporadic non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Carolina; Paschke, Ralf

    2017-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a clinical state that results from high thyroid hormone levels which has multiple etiologies, manifestations, and potential therapies. Excluding the autoimmune Graves disease, autonomic adenomas account for the most import cause of non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Activating germline mutations of the TSH receptor are rare etiologies for hyperthyroidism. They can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner (familial or hereditary, FNAH), or may occur sporadically as a de novo condition, also called: persistent sporadic congenital non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (PSNAH). These three conditions: autonomic adenoma, FNAH and PSNAH constitute the inheritable and sporadic non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Particularities in epidemiology, etiology, molecular and clinical aspects of these three entities will be discussed in this review in order to guide to an accurate diagnosis allowing among others genetic counseling and presymptomatic diagnosis for the affected families. The optimal treatment based on the right diagnosis will avoid consequences of a persistent or relapsing hyperthyroidism. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Humanized in vivo Model for Autoimmune Diabetes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    206 223 8813x67785; fax: þ1 206 223 7638. E-mail address: jgebe@benaroyaresearch.org (J.A. Gebe). 0896-8411/$ - see front matter 2007 Elsevier Ltd... Danke NA, Yang J, Greenbaum C, Kwok WW. Comparative study of GAD65-specific CD4þ T cells in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. J Autoimmun 2005;25

  1. Autism and Autoimmune Disease: A Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Described in a family in which the youngest boy has early infantile autism, Addison's disease, and moniliasis and two older boys have autoimmune disease with hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, moniliasis, and either alopecia totalis or diabetes mellitus, while the oldest boy and parents are symptom free. (KW)

  2. Autoimmune Addison disease: pathophysiology and genetic complexity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Anna L; Pearce, Simon H S

    2012-01-31

    Autoimmune Addison disease is a rare autoimmune disorder with symptoms that typically develop over months or years. Following the development of serum autoantibodies to the key steroidogenic enzyme, 21-hydroxylase, patients have a period of compensated or preclinical disease, characterized by elevations in adrenocortocotropic hormone and renin, before overt, symptomatic adrenal failure develops. We propose that local failure of steroidogenesis, causing breakdown of tolerance to adrenal antigens, might be a key factor in disease progression. The etiology of autoimmune Addison disease has a strong genetic component in man, and several dog breeds are also susceptible. Allelic variants of genes encoding molecules of both the adaptive and innate immune systems have now been implicated, with a focus on the immunological synapse and downstream participants in T lymphocyte antigen-receptor signaling. With the exception of MHC alleles, which contribute to susceptibility in both human and canine Addison disease, no major or highly penetrant disease alleles have been found to date. Future research into autoimmune Addison disease, making use of genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing technology, will address the gaps in our understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  3. Autoimmunity and the risk of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Landgren, Ola; Samuelsson, Jan; Björkholm, Magnus; Goldin, Lynn R.

    2010-01-01

    The causes of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) are unknown. We conducted a large population-based study including 11,039 myeloproliferative neoplasm patients and 43,550 matched controls with the aim of assessing the associations between a personal history of a broad span of autoimmune diseases and subsequent risk of myeloproliferative neoplasm. We found a prior history of any autoimmune disease to be associated with a significantly increased risk of myeloproliferative neoplasms (odds ratio (OR)=1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0–1.3; P=0.021). Specifically, we found an increased risk of MPNs associated with a prior immune thrombocytopenic purpura (2.9; 1.7–7.2), Crohn’s disease (1.8; 1.1–3.0), polymyalgia rheumatica (1.7; 1.2–2.5), giant cell arteritis (5.9; 2.4–14.4), Reiter’s syndrome (15.9; 1.8–142) and aplastic anemia (7.8; 3.7–16.7). The risk of myeloproliferative neoplasms associated with prior autoimmune diseases is modest but statistically significant. Future studies are needed to unravel the effects of these autoimmune diseases themselves, their treatment, or common genetic susceptibility. PMID:20053870

  4. Autoimmune Channelopathies of the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kleopa, Kleopas A

    2011-01-01

    Ion channels are complex transmembrane proteins that orchestrate the electrical signals necessary for normal function of excitable tissues, including the central nervous system, peripheral nerve, and both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Progress in molecular biology has allowed cloning and expression of genes that encode channel proteins, while comparable advances in biophysics, including patch-clamp electrophysiology and related techniques, have made the functional assessment of expressed proteins at the level of single channel molecules possible. The role of ion channel defects in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders has become increasingly apparent over the last two decades. Neurological channelopathies are frequently genetically determined but may also be acquired through autoimmune mechanisms. All of these autoimmune conditions can arise as paraneoplastic syndromes or independent from malignancies. The pathogenicity of autoantibodies to ion channels has been demonstrated in most of these conditions, and patients may respond well to immunotherapies that reduce the levels of the pathogenic autoantibodies. Autoimmune channelopathies may have a good prognosis, especially if diagnosed and treated early, and if they are non-paraneoplastic. This review focuses on clinical, pathophysiologic and therapeutic aspects of autoimmune ion channel disorders of the nervous system. PMID:22379460

  5. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  7. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Zand, Ladan; Fervenza, Fernando C; Nasr, Samih H; Sethi, Sanjeev

    2014-04-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) has been classified based on its pathogenesis into immune complex-mediated and complement-mediated MPGN. The immune complex-mediated type is secondary to chronic infections, autoimmune diseases or monoclonal gammopathy. There is a paucity of data on MPGN associated with autoimmune diseases. We reviewed the Mayo Clinic database over a 10-year period and identified 12 patients with MPGN associated with autoimmune diseases, after exclusion of systemic lupus erythematosus. The autoimmune diseases included rheumatoid arthritis, primary Sjögren's syndrome, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis and Graves' disease. Nine of the 12 patients were female, and the mean age was 57.9 years. C4 levels were decreased in nine of 12 patients tested. The serum creatinine at time of renal biopsy was 2.2 ± 1.0 mg/dl and the urinary protein was 2,850 ± 3,543 mg/24 h. Three patients required dialysis at the time of renal biopsy. Renal biopsy showed an MPGN in all cases, with features of cryoglobulins in six cases; immunoglobulin (Ig)M was the dominant Ig, and both subendothelial and mesangial electron dense deposits were noted. Median follow-up was 10.9 months. Serum creatinine and proteinuria improved to 1.6 ± 0.8 mg/dl and 428 ± 677 mg/24 h, respectively, except in 3 patients with end-stage renal disease. In summary, this study describes the clinical features, renal biopsy findings, laboratory evaluation, treatment and prognosis of MPGN associated with autoimmune diseases.

  8. Clinical significance of autoantibodies in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2013-10-01

    The accurate diagnosis and classification of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) rely upon the detection of characteristic autoantibodies. Positivity for anti-nuclear (ANA) and/or anti-smooth muscle (SMA) autoantibodies defines AIH type 1 (AIH-1), whereas anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1) and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) define AIH type 2 (AIH-2). ANA and SMA, and less commonly anti-LKM1, have also been detected in de-novo autoimmune hepatitis developing after liver transplantation, a condition that may affect patients transplanted for non-autoimmune liver disease. The diagnostic autoantibodies associated with AIH-1 are also detected in the paediatric AIH/sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome, referred to as autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC). ASC, like adult primary sclerosing cholangitis, is often associated with atypical perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (p-ANCA), although p-ANCA are also detected in other autoimmune liver diseases. These associations highlight the necessity for simple and prompt diagnostic autoantibody testing, and the requirement for the accurate interpretation of the results of the tests in the clinical context. Fine-mapping of antigenic autoantibody targets has facilitated the development of rapid molecular assays that have the potential to revolutionise the field if properly standardised and when used in combination with classical immunofluorescence. Despite their diagnostic significance, the pathogenic role of the various autoantibodies and the mechanisms by which they can potentially inflict damage onto the liver cell remain a topic for further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eating Disorders, Autoimmune, and Autoinflammatory Disease.

    PubMed

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Thornton, Laura M; Quaranta, Michela; Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Pisetsky, David; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-12-01

    Identifying factors associated with risk for eating disorders is important for clarifying etiology and for enhancing early detection of eating disorders in primary care. We hypothesized that autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases would be associated with eating disorders in children and adolescents and that family history of these illnesses would be associated with eating disorders in probands. In this large, nationwide, population-based cohort study of all children and adolescents born in Denmark between 1989 and 2006 and managed until 2012, Danish medical registers captured all inpatient and outpatient diagnoses of eating disorders and autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. The study population included 930 977 individuals (48.7% girls). Cox proportional hazards regression models and logistic regression were applied to evaluate associations. We found significantly higher hazards of eating disorders for children and adolescents with autoimmune or autoinflammatory diseases: 36% higher hazard for anorexia nervosa, 73% for bulimia nervosa, and 72% for an eating disorder not otherwise specified. The association was particularly strong in boys. Parental autoimmune or autoinflammatory disease history was associated with significantly increased odds for anorexia nervosa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.25), bulimia nervosa (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.08-1.55) and for an eating disorder not otherwise specified (OR = 1.27; CI = 1.13-1.44). Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases are associated with increased risk for eating disorders. Ultimately, understanding the role of immune system disturbance for the etiology and pathogenesis of eating disorders could point toward novel treatment targets. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Rheumatic Disease Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Utiyama, Shirley R R; Zenatti, Katiane B; Nóbrega, Heloisa A J; Soares, Juliana Z C; Skare, Thelma L; Matsubara, Caroline; Muzzilo, Dominique A; Nisihara, Renato M

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune liver diseases (ALDs) are known to be associated with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) and their autoantibodies. We aimed to study the prevalence of SARDs and related autoantibodies, as well as their prognostic implications in a group of patients with ALDs. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty patients with ALDs (38.3% with autoimmune hepatitis; 11.7% with primary biliary cirrhosis; 25% with primary sclerosing cholangitis and 25% with overlap syndrome) were studied for the presence of SARDs and their autoantibodies. There was autoimmune rheumatic disease in 20% of the studied sample. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were the commonest (11.6% and 5%, respectively). Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were present in 35% of the patients, followed by anti-Ro (20.0%); anti-nucleosome (18.3%); rheumatoid factor (10%) anti-CCP (8.3%); anti-RNP (8.3%); anti-ds-DNA (6.6%); anti-La (3.3%); anti-Sm (3.3%), anti-ribosomal P (3.3%). Anti-Ro (p = 0.0004), anti-La (p = 0.03), anti-RNP (p = 0.04) and anti-Sm (p = 0.03) were commonly found in patients with SARD, but not anti-DNA, anti-nucleosome and anti-ribosomal P. No differences were found in liver function tests regarding to the presence of autoantibodies. There was a high prevalence of SARD and their autoantibodies in ALD patients. Anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-RNP and anti-Sm positivity points to an association with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. The presence of autoantibodies was not related to liver function tests.

  11. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Autoimmune Neutropenia, and Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Peter C.; Sloan, J. Mark; Niles, John L.; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Reports of an association between antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoimmune neutropenia have rarely included cases of proven vasculitis. A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with recurrent neutropenia is described and relevant literature on the association between ANCA, neutropenia, and vasculitis is reviewed. Methods Longitudinal clinical assessments and laboratory findings are described in a patient with AAV and recurrent episodes of profound neutropenia from December 2008 – October 2010. A PubMed database search of the medical literature was performed for papers published from 1960 through October 2010 to identify all reported cases of ANCA and neutropenia. Results A 49 year-old man developed recurrent neutropenia, periodic fevers, arthritis, biopsy-proven cutaneous vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss, epididymitis, and positive tests for ANCA with specificity for antibodies to both proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. Antineutrophil membrane antibodies were detected during an acute neutropenic phase and were not detectable in a post-recovery sample, whereas ANCA titers did not seem to correlate with neutropenia. An association between ANCA and neutropenia has been reported in 74 cases from 24 studies in the context of drug/toxin exposure, underlying autoimmune disease, or chronic neutropenia without underlying autoimmune disease. In these cases, the presence of atypical ANCA patterns and other antibodies were common; however, vasculitis was uncommon and when it occurred was usually limited to the skin and in cases of underlying toxin exposure. Conclusions ANCA is associated with autoimmune neutropenia, but systemic vasculitis rarely occurs in association with ANCA and neutropenia. The interaction between neutrophils and ANCA may provide insight into understanding both autoimmune neutropenia and AAV. PMID:21507463

  12. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  13. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Meta-analysis of shared genetic architecture across ten pediatric autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun R; Li, Jin; Zhao, Sihai D; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Mentch, Frank D; Maggadottir, S Melkorka; Hou, Cuiping; Abrams, Debra J; Chang, Diana; Gao, Feng; Guo, Yiran; Wei, Zhi; Connolly, John J; Cardinale, Christopher J; Bakay, Marina; Glessner, Joseph T; Li, Dong; Kao, Charlly; Thomas, Kelly A; Qiu, Haijun; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Kim, Cecilia E; Wang, Fengxiang; Snyder, James; Richie, Marylyn D; Flatø, Berit; Førre, Øystein; Denson, Lee A; Thompson, Susan D; Becker, Mara L; Guthery, Stephen L; Latiano, Anna; Perez, Elena; Resnick, Elena; Russell, Richard K; Wilson, David C; Silverberg, Mark S; Annese, Vito; Lie, Benedicte A; Punaro, Marilynn; Dubinsky, Marla C; Monos, Dimitri S; Strisciuglio, Caterina; Staiano, Annamaria; Miele, Erasmo; Kugathasan, Subra; Ellis, Justine A; Munro, Jane E; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Wise, Carol A; Chapel, Helen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Grant, Struan F A; Orange, Jordan S; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Behrens, Edward M; Griffiths, Anne M; Satsangi, Jack; Finkel, Terri H; Keinan, Alon; Prak, Eline T Luning; Polychronakos, Constantin; Baldassano, Robert N; Li, Hongzhe; Keating, Brendan J; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified hundreds of susceptibility genes, including shared associations across clinically distinct autoimmune diseases. We performed an inverse χ2 meta-analysis across ten pediatric-age-of-onset autoimmune diseases (pAIDs) in a case-control study including more than 6,035 cases and 10,718 shared population-based controls. We identified 27 genome-wide significant loci associated with one or more pAIDs, mapping to in silico–replicated autoimmune-associated genes (including IL2RA) and new candidate loci with established immunoregulatory functions such as ADGRL2, TENM3, ANKRD30A, ADCY7 and CD40LG. The pAID-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were functionally enriched for deoxyribonuclease (DNase)-hypersensitivity sites, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites and coding variants. We also identified biologically correlated, pAID-associated candidate gene sets on the basis of immune cell expression profiling and found evidence of genetic sharing. Network and protein-interaction analyses demonstrated converging roles for the signaling pathways of type 1, 2 and 17 helper T cells (TH1, TH2 and TH17), JAK-STAT, interferon and interleukin in multiple autoimmune diseases. PMID:26301688

  15. Autoimmune myelofibrosis with pancytopenia as a presenting manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus responsive to mycophenolate mofetil.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, P; Chowdhary, V R; Davis, M D; Makol, A

    2016-04-01

    Hematological abnormalities, such as anemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia, secondary to peripheral destruction, are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, cytopenias from autoimmune myelofibrosis (AIMF) are extremely uncommon in SLE, with less than 40 reported cases in the literature. We report the case of a 33-year-old female who presented with bullous skin lesions and pancytopenia as the presenting manifestation of what was ultimately diagnosed as SLE with AIMF. She responded well to glucocorticoids and mycophenolate mofetil. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune disease: Cause or bystander

    PubMed Central

    Smyk, Daniel S; Koutsoumpas, Andreas L; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Sakkas, Lazaros I; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main cause of chronic gastritis and a major risk factor for gastric cancer. This pathogen has also been considered a potential trigger of gastric autoimmunity, and in particular of autoimmune gastritis. However, a considerable number of reports have attempted to link H. pylori infection with the development of extra-gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders, affecting organs not immediately relevant to the stomach. This review discusses the current evidence in support or against the role of H. pylori as a potential trigger of autoimmune rheumatic and skin diseases, as well as organ specific autoimmune diseases. We discuss epidemiological, serological, immunological and experimental evidence associating this pathogen with autoimmune diseases. Although over one hundred autoimmune diseases have been investigated in relation to H. pylori, we discuss a select number of papers with a larger literature base, and include Sjögrens syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitides, autoimmune skin conditions, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and autoimmune liver diseases. Specific mention is given to those studies reporting an association of anti-H. pylori antibodies with the presence of autoimmune disease-specific clinical parameters, as well as those failing to find such associations. We also provide helpful hints for future research. PMID:24574735

  17. Organ specificity in autoimmune diseases: thyroid and islet autoimmunity in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Noso, Shinsuke; Park, Choongyong; Babaya, Naru; Hiromine, Yoshihisa; Harada, Takeshi; Ito, Hiroyuki; Taketomo, Yasunori; Kanto, Kousei; Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira; Suzuki, Tamio; Kawabata, Yumiko; Ikegami, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Multiple autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmunity against the thyroid gland and pancreatic islets, are often observed in a single patient. Although alopecia areata (AA) is one of the most frequent organ-specific autoimmune diseases, the association of AA with other autoimmune diseases and the genetic basis of the association remain to be analyzed. The aim of this study was to clarify the similarities and differences in HLA and clinical characteristics of thyroid and islet autoimmunity in patients with AA. A total of 126 patients with AA were newly recruited. Anti-islet and antithyroid autoantibodies were tested, and genotypes of HLA genes were determined. Among the autoimmune diseases associated with AA, autoimmune thyroid disease was most frequent (10.0%), followed by vitiligo (2.7%) and rheumatoid arthritis (0.9%) but not type 1 diabetes (0.0%). The prevalence of thyroid-related autoantibodies in patients with AA was significantly higher than that in controls (TSH receptor antibody [TRAb]: 42.7% vs 1.2%, P = 1.6 × 10(-46); thyroid peroxidase antibody: 29.1% vs 11.6%; P = 1.7 × 10(-6)), whereas the prevalence of islet-related autoantibodies was comparable between patients with AA and control subjects. The frequency of DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:02, a protective haplotype for type 1 diabetes, was significantly higher in TRAb-positive (12.8%, P = .0028, corrected P value [Pc] = .02) but not TRAb-negative (7.1%, not significant) patients with AA than in control subjects (4.5%). The frequency of DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01, a susceptible haplotype for type 1 diabetes, was significantly lower in patients with AA (TRAb-positive: 8.5%; TRAb-negative: 11.9%) than in those with type 1 diabetes (29.5%, Pc < .0003 and Pc < .0008, respectively). AA was associated with thyroid autoimmunity but not islet autoimmunity, which correlated with class II HLA haplotypes susceptible or resistant to each autoimmune disease.

  18. [Coexistence of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 with diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are conditions characterized by the combination of two or more organ-specific disorders. The underestimation oftheir real frequency probable results from physicians' inadequate knowledge of these clinical entities and sometimes their atypical clinical presentation. Because they comprise a wide spectrum of autoimmune disorders, autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are divided into four types, among which type-3 is the most common one. In this article, we report the case of a young female, initially diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who several years later developed full-blown autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 consisting of autoimmune thyroid disorder and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.The discussed case suggests that in selected patients diabetes insipidus may coexist with autoimmune endocrinopathies and nonendocrine autoimmunopathies, as well as that in some patients idiopathic diabetes insipidus may be secondary to lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and/or the supraoptic-hypophyseal tract

  19. Abnormal exhaled ethane concentrations in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Cope, K A; Solga, S F; Hummers, L K; Wigley, F M; Diehl, A M; Risby, T H

    2006-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease in which oxidative stress is suspected to play a role in the pathophysiology. Therefore, it was postulated that patients with scleroderma would have abnormally high breath ethane concentrations, which is a volatile product of free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, compared with a group of controls. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the mean exhaled ethane concentration of 5.27 pmol ml(-1) CO(2) (SEM=0.76) in the scleroderma patients (n=36) versus the mean exhaled concentration of 2.72 pmol ml(-1) CO(2) (SEM=0.71) in a group of healthy controls (n=21). Within the scleroderma group, those subjects taking a calcium channel blocker had lower ethane concentrations compared with patients who were not taking these drugs (p=0.05). There was a significant inverse association between lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (per cent of predicted) and ethane concentration (b=-2.8, p=0.026, CI=-5.2 to -0.35). These data support the presence of increased oxidative stress among patients with scleroderma that is detected by measuring breath ethane concentrations.

  20. Involvement of hypothalamus autoimmunity in patients with autoimmune hypopituitarism: role of antibodies to hypothalamic cells.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, A; Sinisi, A A; Pane, E; Dello Iacovo, A; Bellastella, G; Di Scala, G; Falorni, A; Giavoli, C; Gasco, V; Giordano, R; Ambrosio, M R; Colao, A; Bizzarro, A; Bellastella, A

    2012-10-01

    Antipituitary antibodies (APA) but not antihypothalamus antibodies (AHA) are usually searched for in autoimmune hypopituitarism. Our objective was to search for AHA and characterize their hypothalamic target in patients with autoimmune hypopituitarism to clarify, on the basis of the cells stained by these antibodies, the occurrence of autoimmune subclinical/clinical central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and/or possible joint hypothalamic contribution to their hypopituitarism. We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study. Ninety-five APA-positive patients with autoimmune hypopituitarism, 60 without (group 1) and 35 with (group 2) lymphocytic hypophysitis, were studied in comparison with 20 patients with postsurgical hypopituitarism and 50 normal subjects. AHA by immunofluorescence and posterior pituitary function were evaluated; then AHA-positive sera were retested by double immunofluorescence to identify the hypothalamic cells targeted by AHA. AHA were detected at high titer in 12 patients in group 1 and in eight patients in group 2. They immunostained arginine vasopressin (AVP)-secreting cells in nine of 12 in group 1 and in four of eight in group 2. All AVP cell antibody-positive patients presented with subclinical/clinical CDI; in contrast, four patients with GH/ACTH deficiency but with APA staining only GH-secreting cells showed AHA targeting CRH- secreting cells. The occurrence of CDI in patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis seems due to an autoimmune hypothalamic involvement rather than an expansion of the pituitary inflammatory process. To search for AVP antibody in these patients may help to identify those of them prone to develop an autoimmune CDI. The detection of AHA targeting CRH-secreting cells in some patients with GH/ACTH deficiency but with APA targeting only GH-secreting cells indicates that an autoimmune aggression to hypothalamus is jointly responsible for their hypopituitarism.

  1. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  2. Expression changes and novel interaction partners of talin 1 in effector cells of autoimmune uveitis.

    PubMed

    Degroote, Roxane L; Hauck, Stefanie M; Treutlein, Gudrun; Amann, Barbara; Fröhlich, Kristina J H; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Merl, Juliane; Stangassinger, Manfred; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2013-12-06

    Autoimmune uveitis is characterized by crossing of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) by autoaggressive immune cells. Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a valuable spontaneous model for autoimmune uveitis and analyses of differentially expressed proteins in ERU unraveled changed protein clusters in target tissues and immune system. Healthy eyes are devoid of leukocytes. In ERU, however, leukocytes enter the inner eye and subsequently destroy it. Molecular mechanisms enabling cell migration through BRB still remain elusive. Previously, we detected decreased talin 1 expression in blood-derived granulocytes of ERU cases, linking the innate immune system to ERU. Because changes in leukocyte protein expression pattern may play a role in pathological abnormalities leading to migration ability, we aimed at identifying interactors of talin 1 in leukocytes with immunoprecipitation, followed by LC-MS/MS for candidate identification. This enabled us to identify CD90 (Thy1) as novel interactor of talin 1 besides several other interactors. In blood-derived granulocytes from healthy individuals, CD90 was highly abundant and significantly reduced in ERU, especially in effector cells. Connection between talin 1 and CD90 and their expression differences in inflammation is an interesting novel finding allowing deeper insight into immune response of innate immune system and granulocyte migration ability in this organ-specific autoimmune disease.

  3. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD. PMID:23723083

  4. [Pathophysiology and Prognostic Factors of Autoimmune Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Prüß, H

    2016-05-01

    More and more forms of autoimmune encephalitis are being identified with the clinical spectrum ranging from epilepsy over movement disorders to psychosis. The increasing appreciation of clinical symptoms raises questions about the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and prognostic factors. Numerous novel findings on the aetiology demonstrate that diverse tumours, but also infections of the central nervous system such as Herpes encephalitis can trigger autoimmune encephalitis. Antibodies against neuronal surface epitopes are directly pathogenic in the majority of cases. They act via binding and internalization of target proteins, receptor blockage, or activation of complement. Most relevant for the patients' prognosis are the type and titer of antibodies (e. g. against NMDA, GABA, AMPA receptors or voltage-gated potassium channel complexes), associated tumours, sufficiently aggressive immunotherapies, and imaging as well as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed

    Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2008-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a multifactorial degenerative vascular disorder. One of the defining features of the pathophysiology of aneurysmal disease is inflammation. Recent developments in vascular and molecular cell biology have increased our knowledge on the role of the adaptive and innate immune systems in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in aortic tissue. AAAs share many features of autoimmune disease, including genetic predisposition, organ specificity and chronic inflammation. Here, this evidence is used to propose that the chronic inflammation observed in AAAs is a consequence of a dysregulated autoimmune response against autologous components of the aortic wall that persists inappropriately. Identification of the molecular and cellular targets involved in AAA formation will allow the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of AAA.

  6. Insulin autoimmunity as a cause of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Benson, E A; Ho, P; Wang, C; Wu, P C; Fredlund, P N; Yueng, R T

    1984-12-01

    "Autoimmune" hypoglycemia is a syndrome consisting of fasting hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin-binding antibodies in a patient who has never been exposed to exogenous insulin. The stimulus for insulin-antibody formation and the mechanism of the hypoglycemia in this condition remain unknown. Three patients with this rare syndrome had severe hypoglycemia of limited duration. Two had received a drug containing a sulfhydryl group (methimazole and penicillamine) as treatment for an autoimmune disorder (Graves' disease and rheumatoid arthritis, respectively). A third patient who underwent surgery for a suspected insulinoma was found to have pancreatic beta cell hyperplasia. Drugs containing a sulfhydryl group may have a role in the etiology of the syndrome. Additionally, our findings suggest a relationship between circulating insulin antibodies and beta cell hyperplasia.

  7. Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos: a lifetime in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Youinou, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Three years ago, the Journal of Autoimmunity and Autoimmunity Reviews launched a series of special issues devoted to the contributions of outstanding scholars in autoimmunology. The special issues are devoted not only to recognize achievements, but also to include a series of dedicated papers that reflect the scholar's work, but also are cutting-edge research and reviews in immunology. This special issue is devoted to Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos of the National University of Athens. His contributions to patient care, teaching, and original research are legion. The papers that are included reflect not only a wide range of scholarship in autoimmunology, but importantly are written by his colleagues and friends, and by former students. They encompass original scholarship in Sjögren's syndrome, but also in a number of effector pathways in both adult and pediatric autoimmunology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated serum RANTES chemokine levels in autoimmune Addison disease.

    PubMed

    Fichna, Marta; Żurawek, Magdalena; Budny, Bartłomiej; Komarowska, Hanna; Niechciał, Elżbieta; Fichna, Piotr; Ruchała, Marek

    2018-04-30

    INTRODUCTION    Regulated on activation, normal T‑cell expressed and secreted chemokine (RANTES), the product of the CCL5 gene, is involved in trafficking immune cells into the inflammation site. It acts as coactivator of T cells and promotes polarization of the immune response towards the Th1 profile. In autoimmune Addison disease (AAD), the adrenal cortex is gradually destroyed by adrenal‑specific immune cell infiltration. RANTES might be implicated in autoimmune adrenal failure through recruitment and activation of the immune cells. Furthermore, the promoter CCL5 variant, rs2107538, seems to be associated with autoimmune endocrine conditions: diabetes and thyroid disease. OBJECTIVES    Our analysis was designed to evaluate the prevalence of rs2107538 and serum RANTES levels in AAD. PATIENTS AND METHODS    rs2107538 was genotyped using TaqMan technology in 239 individuals with AAD and 542 controls, while serum RANTES levels were evaluated by an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay in 114 patients with AAD and 111 healthy age- and sex‑matched individuals. RESULTS    No differences were found in rs2107538 genotype or allele frequencies between patients and controls (P = 0.53 and P = 0.39, respectively), and no association was detected with age at AAD onset (P = 0.14). Serum RANTES levels were elevated in patients with AAD compared with controls (mean [SD], 59.2 [30.3] ng/ml vs 45.5 [20.4] ng/ml, P = 0.001). Healthy carriers of various rs2107538 genotypes demonstrated differences in serum RANTES levels (P = 0.02), whereas AAD patients did not (P = 0.26). No correlation was found between circulating RANTES levels and age, AAD duration, serum autoantibodies, hydrocortisone dose, and body mass (P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS    This study demonstrates for the first time elevated serum RANTES levels in AAD and confirms that rs2107538 may affect serum chemokine levels.

  9. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: an overview.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Bianchini, S; Baggi, E; Fattizzo, M; Rigante, D

    2014-12-01

    The acronym PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) has been used to describe a syndrome characterized by various obsessions, compulsions, tics, hyperactivity, motor stereotypies, and paroxysmal movement disorders that are correlated with prior infection by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (GABHS) infections. Five clinical criteria can be used to diagnose PANDAS: (1) the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or any other tic disorders; (2) prepuberal onset (between 3 years of age and the start of puberty); (3) abrupt onset and relapsing-remitting symptom course; (4) a distinct association with GABHS infection; and (5) association with neurological abnormalities during exacerbations (adventitious movements or motoric hyperactivity). The exact pathogenesis of PANDAS remains unclear, and several theories that focus on multiple etiologic or contributive factors have emerged. PANDAS appears to be a neurobiological disorder that potentially complicates GABHS infections in genetically susceptible individuals. The current standard of care for PANDAS patients remains symptomatic, and cognitive behavioral therapy, such as exposure and response prevention, combined with family counseling and psychoeducation, should be the first approach for treating PANDAS. This review examines current theories of PANDAS pathogenesis, identifies possible treatments for managing this complex condition, and highlights areas for future research. Moving forward, developing more standardized diagnostic criteria and identifying specific laboratory markers to facilitate PANDAS diagnoses are crucial.

  10. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: X chromosome defects and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Persani, Luca; Rossetti, Raffaella; Cacciatore, Chiara; Bonomi, Marco

    2009-08-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years. However, in several instances the distinction between definitive or intermittent POF may be difficult on clinical bases, therefore the more appropriate term Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) has been recently proposed and will be used in this review. POI is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women <40 years. The most severe forms present with absent pubertal development and primary amenorrhea, whereas forms with post-pubertal onset are characterized by disappearance of menstrual cycles (secondary amenorrhea) associated with a defective folliculogenesis. POI is generally characterized by low levels of gonadal hormones (estrogens and inhibins) and high levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) (hypergonadotropic amenorrhea). Heterogeneity of POI is reflected by the variety of possible causes, including autoimmunity, toxics, drugs, as well as genetic defects. Several data indicate that POI has a strong genetic component. In this manuscript we discuss the X chromosome abnormalities that are associated with POI.

  11. Hypokalemic Paralysis: A Hidden Card of Several Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Velarde-Mejía, Yelitza; Gamboa-Cárdenas, Rocío; Ugarte-Gil, Manuel; Asurza, César Pastor

    2017-01-01

    Acute hypokalemic paralysis is a rare and potentially fatal condition, with few related causes, one of which highlights distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Distal renal tubular acidosis is a rare complication of several autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren’s syndrome, and Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report a case of a lupic patient who presented rapidly progressive quadriparesis in the context of active renal disease. Research revealed severe refractory hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, and alkaline urine suggestive of dRTA. We diagnosed Sjögren’s syndrome based on sicca symptoms, an abnormal salivary glands’ nuclear scan and the presence of anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB. In addition, the finding of thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin antibodies, and hypothyroidism led us to the diagnosis of Hashimoto thyroiditis. Due to the active renal involvement on the context of systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren’s syndrome, the patient received immunosuppression with rituximab, resulting in a progressive and complete improvement. PMID:28839447

  12. Pruritus in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gideon P; Argobi, Yahya

    2018-07-01

    Pruritus in autoimmune connective tissue diseases is a common symptom that can be severe and affect the quality of life of patients. It can be related to disease activity and severity or occur independent of the disease. Appropriate therapy to control the itch depends on the etiology, and it is therefore essential to first work-up these patients for the underlying trigger. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gut environment-induced intraepithelial autoreactive CD4+ T cells suppress central nervous system autoimmunity via LAG-3

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Atsushi; Miyake, Sachiko; Saga, Ryoko; Chiba, Asako; Mochizuki, Hideki; Yamamura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The gut environment has been found to significantly influence autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis; however, immune cell mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that the gut epithelium of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(35-55)-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice contains environmental stimuli-induced intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis on transfer. These cells express surface markers phenotypical of ‘induced' IELs, have a TH17-like profile and infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS). They constitutively express Ctla4 and Tgfb1 and markedly upregulate Lag3 expression in the CNS, thereby inhibiting inflammation. We also demonstrate the suppressive capability of CD4+ IELs with alternative antigen specificities, their proliferation in response to gut-derived antigens and contribution of the microbiota and dietary aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands to their induction. Thus, the gut environment favours the generation of autoreactive CD4+ T cells with unique regulatory functions, potentially important for preventing CNS autoimmunity. PMID:27198196

  14. Early human pregnancy serum cytokine levels predict autoimmunity in offspring.

    PubMed

    Lindehammer, Sabina Resic; Björck, Sara; Lynch, Kristian; Brundin, Charlotte; Marsal, Karel; Agardh, Daniel; Fex, Malin

    2011-09-01

    It is generally believed that pregnancy is mediated by a Th2 response, which includes cytokines that promote placental growth and are involved in inducing tolerance to the foetus. If the balance between Th1/and Th2-mediated cytokines is disrupted, systemic and local changes could predispose the foetus to future disease. Therefore, a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance during pregnancy, possibly caused by underlying environmental factors, could be associated with post-partum autoimmune disease in the offspring. Based on this presumption, we used celiac disease as a model to investigate whether autoimmunity is triggered in the foetus during early pregnancy, observed as changes in the mother's cytokine profile. Ten cytokines were measured by electro-chemi-luminescent multiplex ELISA in serum samples obtained from mothers during early pregnancy. Cases included women with children who had developed verified celiac disease before the age of 5, who were compared with other women as matched controls. We observed that 7 out of 10 cytokine levels were significantly increased in our case mothers when compared to controls. Five of these belonged to what is generally known as a Th1-mediated response (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-2, IL-1β and IL-12) and two were Th2 cytokines (IL-13 and IL-10). However, the IL-10 cytokine is known to have features from both arms of the immune system. These results were confirmed in a logistic regression model where five out of the initial seven cytokines remained. This study suggests that increase in Th1 serum cytokines may be associated with celiac disease in offspring.

  15. Clinical and Immunological Characteristics of Autoimmune Addison Disease: A Nationwide Swedish Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Frida; Nordling Eriksson, Gabriel; Dahlqvist, Per; Hallgren, Åsa; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Ekwall, Olov; Söderberg, Stefan; Rönnelid, Johan; Olcén, Per; Winqvist, Ola; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Kriström, Berit; Laudius, Maria; Isaksson, Magnus; Halldin Stenlid, Maria; Gustafsson, Jan; Gebre-Medhin, Gennet; Björnsdottir, Sigridur; Janson, Annika; Åkerman, Anna-Karin; Åman, Jan; Duchen, Karel; Bergthorsdottir, Ragnhildur; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Lindskog, Emma; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Elfving, Maria; Waldenström, Erik; Hulting, Anna-Lena; Kämpe, Olle; Bensing, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    Studies of the clinical and immunological features of autoimmune Addison disease (AAD) are needed to understand the disease burden and increased mortality. To provide upgraded data on autoimmune comorbidities, replacement therapy, autoantibody profiles, and cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional, population-based study that included 660 AAD patients from the Swedish Addison Registry (2008-2014). When analyzing the cardiovascular risk factors, 3594 individuals from the population-based survey in Northern Sweden, MONICA (monitoring of trends and determinants of cardiovascular disease), served as controls. The endpoints were the prevalence of autoimmune comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. Autoantibodies against 13 autoantigens were determined. The proportion of 21-hydroxylase autoantibody-positive patients was 83%, and 62% of patients had ≥1 associated autoimmune diseases, more frequently coexisting in females (P < 0.0001). AAD patients had a lower body mass index (P < 0.0001) and prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.027) compared with controls. Conventional hydrocortisone tablets were used by 89% of the patients, with a mean dose of 28.1 ± 8.5 mg/d. The mean hydrocortisone equivalent dose normalized to the body surface was 14.8 ± 4.4 mg/m2/d. A greater hydrocortisone equivalent dose was associated with a greater incidence of hypertension (P = 0.046). Careful monitoring of AAD patients is warranted to detect associated autoimmune diseases. Contemporary Swedish AAD patients did not have an increased prevalence of overweight, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or hyperlipidemia. However, high glucocorticoid replacement doses could be a risk factor for hypertension. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  16. Towards personalized medicine for patients with autoimmune diseases: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Tavakolpour, Soheil

    2017-10-01

    There is generally no cure for autoimmune disorders, but the symptoms can be managed. Currently available drugs/treatments are more potent than those in the past decades. However, finding the right drug and right patients has remained a serious problem. We should revise our diagnosis criteria to more accurate ones. During the recent years, personalized medicine has attracted much attention. However, it needs to be well-explained for autoimmune diseases. Personalized medicine aims to find the most optimum drugs for a patient. Hence, recognizing the drugs based on genetics and molecular profile of patients, needs a comprehensive protocol. This study attempted to discuss the most practical and effective ways for identifying right patient and right drug. Patients should be divided into subpopulations. According to the last diagnosis criteria and therapeutic options, it was attempted to highlight the gaps or contradictions in current understanding and suggest what the future of research in this area may hold. Various factors could be considered, including genes variants, genes expression, epigenetic alterations, immune responses, and also basic and obvious characteristics (sex, age, ethnic, etc.). Moreover, advantages, disadvantages, obstacles, and opportunities during the personalized medicine for autoimmune diseases have been discussed in great detail. Finally, creation of a global library that covers all the aspects of personalized medicines for different types of autoimmune disease was suggested. In conclusion, revising diagnosis and treatments of autoimmune diseases toward personalized medicine could be the revolutionary step for having more effective and safer therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization and differentiation of autoimmune versus viral liver involvement in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Sánchez-Tapias, Jose-María; Parés, Albert; Forns, Xavier; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Nardi, Norma; Vazquez, Pilar; Vélez, Desirée; Arias, Isabel; Bové, Albert; Plaza, Joan; Rodés, Juan; Font, Josep

    2006-08-01

    To analyze the prevalence and clinical significance of liver involvement in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), focusing on the characterization and differentiation of autoimmune versus chronic viral liver disease. We investigated liver involvement (clinical signs, analytical data, chronic viral infections, and autoantibodies) in 475 consecutive patients with SS. All patients fulfilled 4 or more of the 1993 European Community Study Group criteria for SS. Liver involvement was detected in 129 (27%) patients. After ruling out chronic illnesses or use of hepatotoxic drugs, the main etiologies were chronic viral liver disease in 64 (13%) cases [chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 63 and HBV infection in one] and autoimmune liver diseases in 24 (5%; primary biliary cirrhosis in 16 patients and type-1 autoimmune hepatitis in 8). The analytical liver profile was not useful in differentiating between viral and autoimmune liver disease. In contrast, patients with SS and autoimmune liver disease presented higher mean values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.044), circulating gammaglobulins (p = 0.007), and a higher prevalence of antinuclear antibodies (p < 0.001), antimitochondrial antibodies (p < 0.001), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (p = 0.026), anti-Ro/SSA (p < 0.001), and anti-La/SSB (p = 0.01), while patients with chronic viral liver disease had a higher frequency of cryoglobulinemia (p < 0.001) and hypocomplementemia (p < 0.001). Chronic viral liver disease (associated overwhelmingly with HCV) was the main cause of liver involvement in our patients with SS, with a prevalence of 13%, nearly 3-fold greater than that observed for autoimmune liver involvement. The immunological pattern played a key role in the differentiation of viral (predominance of cryoglobulins and low complement levels) and autoimmune (higher frequency of autoantibodies) liver involvement.

  18. Emphysematous cystitis occurred in the case treated with steroid for autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Tateki; Ohara, Shinya; Moriyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a rare clinically entity, more commonly seen in diabetic, immunocompromised patients, which was characterized by air within the bladder wall and lumen. A 83-year-old woman was introduced to our department with fever elevation and abnormal findings of computed tomography (CT). She took orally prednisolone for autoimmune hepatitis. Pelvic CT revealed diffuse air throughout the bladder wall. Urinalysis showed combined hematuria and pyuria. Escherichia coli was detected in blood culture. Abnormal findings of complete blood count and laboratory examination included an elevated WBC count (12,200/μL), C-reactive protein (11.7 mg/dL), and creatinine (1.07 mg/dL). Cystoscopy confirmed diffuse submucosal emphysema throughout. On the basis of diagnosis with emphysematous cystitis, she was treated with antibiotics based on the results of blood culture and indwelling Foley catheter. After treatment, the improvement of inflammatory findings and submucosal emphysema on cystoscopy and CT were achieved.

  19. Cardiac Troponins and Autoimmunity: their role in the pathogenesis of myocarditis and of heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Ziya; Katus, Hugo A.; Rose, Noel R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of cardiac troponins as biomarkers for the diagnosis and quantitation of cardiac injury, the effect of troponin release and a possible autoimmune response to the troponins is unknown. Other investigators reported that programmed cell death – 1 (PD-1) – receptor deficient mice developed severe cardiomyopathy with autoantibodies to troponin I. We found that immunization of genetically susceptible mice with troponin I but not troponin T induced a robust autoimmune response leading to marked inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium. At later times, antibodies to cardiac myosin were detected in troponin – immunized mice. The severity of inflammation correlated with expression of chemokines RANTES, MIP-2, IP-10 and MCD-1 in the myocardium. Prior immunization with troponin I increased the severity of experimental infarctions, indicating that an autoimmune response to troponin I aggravates acute cardiac damage. Cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and functional impairment were transferred from immunized to naive recipients by CD4+ T cells, and the cytokine profile suggested both a Th2 and Th17 profile in A/J mice. Finally we identified an 18-mer of troponin I containing an immuno-dominant epitope. PMID:19446498

  20. Cirrhosis and autoimmune liver disease: Current understanding

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues. Patients with cirrhosis have higher risks or morbidity and mortality, and that in the decompensated phase, complications of portal hypertension and/or liver dysfunction lead to rapid deterioration. Accurate diagnosis and monitoring of cirrhosis is, therefore of upmost importance. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard technique, but highly promising non-invasive methodology is under development. Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective therapeutic option for the management of end-stage liver disease secondary to AIH, PBC and PSC. LT is indicated for AILD patients who have progressed to end-stage chronic liver disease or developed intractable symptoms or hepatic malignancy; in addition, LT may also be indicated for patients presenting with acute liver disease due to AIH who do not respond to steroids. PMID:27729952

  1. Radiation-related thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The thyroid gland is vulnerable not only to external radiation but also to internal radiation, because the thyroid cells can incorporate radioactive iodine when synthesizing thyroid hormones. Since radiation-induction of thyroid neoplasia, including thyroid cancer, is well recognized, the data on radiation-related thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction are summarized and reviewed. High-dose irradiation, irrespective of being external or internal, is strongly associated with a risk of hypothyroidism (with the prevalence ranging from 2.4% to 31%) and of Graves’ hyperthyroidism (with the prevalence being up to 5%). It is easy to understand that high-dose irradiation induces hypothyroidism with some frequency, because high-dose irradiation destroys the thyroid gland. On the other hand, the basis for development of hyperthyroidism is mechanistically unclear, and it is merely speculative that autoantigens may be released from damaged thyroid glands and recognized by the immune system, leading to the development of anti-thyrotropin receptor antibodies and Graves’ hyperthyroidism in subjects who are immunologically predisposed to this ailment. In contrast, the data on moderate to low-dose irradiation on thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction are inconsistent. Although it is difficult to draw a definitive conclusion, some data may suggest a transient effect of moderate- to low-dose irradiation on hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, implying that the effect, if it exists, is reversible. Finally, no report has shown a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of moderate- to low-dose irradiation–induced Graves’ hyperthyroidism. PMID:29069397

  2. Resilience in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Yhojan; Pacheco, Yovana; Zapata, Elizabeth; Monsalve, Diana M; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rodríguez-Jimenez, Monica; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Molano-González, Nicolás; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate the relationship between resilience and clinical outcomes in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Focus groups, individual interviews, and chart reviews were done to collect data on 188 women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely rheumatoid arthritis (n=51), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=70), systemic sclerosis (n=35), and Sjögren's syndrome (n=32). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were assessed including disease activity by patient reported outcomes. Resilience was evaluated by using the Brief Resilience Scale. Bivariate, multiple linear regression, and classification and regression trees were used to analyse data. Resilience was influenced by age, duration of disease, and socioeconomic status. Lower resilience scores were observed in younger patients (<48years) with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic sclerosis who had low socioeconomic status, whereas older patients (>50years) had higher resilience scores regardless of socioeconomic status. There was no influence of disease activity on resilience. A particular behaviour was observed in systemic sclerosis in which patients with high socioeconomic status and regular physical activity had higher resilience scores. Resilience in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is a continuum process influenced by age and socioeconomic status. The ways in which these variables along with exercise influence resilience deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms of lymphocyte migration in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Norman, M U; Hickey, M J

    2005-09-01

    The recruitment of leukocytes to inflamed tissues plays an essential role in combating infection and promoting wound healing. However, in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and diabetes, leukocytes enter tissues and contribute to inappropriate inflammatory responses, which cause tissue injury and dysfunction. In diseases of this type, lymphocytes play critical roles in initiating and maintaining these aberrant inflammatory responses. The aim of this review is to examine the mechanisms whereby T-lymphocytes enter tissues in autoimmune diseases and to compare these mechanisms between various organs and diseases. An overview of the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment and the techniques used to study leukocyte trafficking is provided, focusing on the use of intravital microscopy as a tool to assess the functional microvasculature in vivo. We also discuss the series of tissue homing events which allow naïve lymphocytes to first enter lymph nodes and undergo activation, then subsequently to home to the peripheral organ where their cognate antigen is present. Finally, we examine mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, autoimmune diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and asthma.

  4. Autoimmune estrogen dermatitis in an infertile female.

    PubMed

    Elcin, Gonca; Gülseren, Duygu; Bayraktar, Miyase; Gunalp, Serdar; Gurgan, Timur

    2017-06-01

    Autoimmune estrogen dermatitis is a cyclical cutaneous eruption that occurs premenstrually and goes to the rapid resolution within a few days of menstrual cycles. The disorder has variable clinical manifestations consisting of macules, papules, vesicles, urticarial lesions, bullae, eczematous plaques, and erythema multiforme-like lesions. Herein, we present a case of a 30-year-old woman with attacks of edema and erosions involving the oral and genital mucosal sites on every first day of her menstruation period. She had also multiple endocrinological problems such as hypotroidism and infertility. To determine the sex hormon sensitivity, intradermal skin tests were performed. Based on her personal history and skin test findings, a diagnosis of autoimmune estrogen dermatitis was made. After the oophorectomy, she was free from the skin and mucosal symptoms. We propose that it is important to suspect the diagnosis of autoimmune estrogen dermatitis in patients who present with recurrent cylic eruptions and it must be kept in mind that these patients might have a concomitant infertility.

  5. Achalasia and thyroid disease: possible autoimmune connection?

    PubMed

    Quidute, Ana Rosa P; Freitas, Eduardo Vasconcelos de; Lima, Tadeu Gonçalves de; Feitosa, Ana Márcia Lima; Santos, Joyce Paiva dos; Correia, José Walter

    2012-12-01

    Many cases have been published showing a co-existence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) and other autoimmune diseases. About a quarter of patients with achalasia have a concurrent thyroid disease, most commonly associated with hypothyroidism. Although relatively rare, the association of achalasia and hyperthyroidism requires attention. The physiopathology of Grave's Disease (GD) involves B- and T-mediator lymphocytes, which have an affinity for known thyroid antigens: thyroglobulin, thyroid-peroxidase, and thyrotrophin receptor. Currently, however, the real physiopathogenesis of achalasia continues to be unknown. Some important findings are suggestive of an autoimmune mechanism: significant infiltration of the myoenteric plexus by monocytes, presence of the class II-Human Histocompatibility Complex DQwl antigen and antibodies to myoenteric neurons. The present case reports a patient who, despite testing negative for Chagas' disease, had achalasia, progressed to developing significant wasting and worsening of his quality of life, was later diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. After endoscopic esophageal dilatation and radioiodine ablation of the thyroid gland, there was great improvement in the patient clinical condition.

  6. NK cell subsets in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system. They not only exert cell-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells or infected cells, but also play regulatory role through promoting or suppressing functions of other immune cells by secretion of cytokines and chemokines. However, overactivation or dysfunction of NK cells may be associated with pathogenesis of some diseases. NK cells are found to act as a two edged weapon and play opposite roles with both regulatory and inducer activity in autoimmune diseases. Though the precise mechanisms for the opposite effects of NK cells has not been fully elucidated, the importance of NK cells in autoimmune diseases might be associated with different NK cell subsets, different tissue microenvironment and different stages of corresponding diseases. The local tissue microenvironment, unique cellular interactions and different stages of corresponding diseases shape the properties and function of NK cells. In this review, we focus on recent research on the features and function of different NK cell subsets, particularly tissue-resident NK cells in different tissues, and their potential role in autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Avian models with spontaneous autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Georg; Andersson, Leif; Hala, Karel; Gershwin, M. Eric; Selmi, Carlo F.; Erf, Gisela F.; Lamont, Susan J.; Sgonc, Roswitha

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases in human patients only become clinically manifest when the disease process has developed to a stage where functional compensation by the afflicted organ or system is not possible any more. In order to understand the initial etiologic and pathogenic events that are generally not yet accessible in humans, appropriate animal models are required. In this respect, spontaneously developing models - albeit rare – reflect the situation in humans much more closely than experimentally induced models, including knockout and transgenic mice. The present review describes three spontaneous chicken models for human autoimmune diseases, the Obese strain (OS) with a Hashimoto-like autoimmune thyroiditis, the University of California at Davis lines 200 and 206 (UCD-200 and 206) with a scleroderma-like disease and the amelanotic Smyth line with a vitiligo-like syndrome (SLV). Special emphasis is given to the new opportunities to unravel the genetic basis of these diseases in view of the recently completed sequencing of the chicken genome. PMID:17145302

  8. Autoimmune encephalitis in psychiatric institutions: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bost, Chloe; Pascual, Olivier; Honnorat, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis is a rare and newly described group of diseases involving autoantibodies directed against synaptic and neuronal cell surface antigens. It comprises a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Sensitive and specific diagnostic tests such as cell-based assay are primordial for the detection of neuronal cell surface antibodies in patients’ cerebrospinal fluid or serum and determine the treatment and follow-up of the patients. As neurological symptoms are fairly well described in the literature, this review focuses on the nature of psychiatric symptoms occurring at the onset or during the course of the diseases. In order to help the diagnosis, the main neurological symptoms of the most representative synaptic and neuronal cell surface autoantibodies were detailed. Finally, the exploration of these autoantibodies for almost a decade allowed us to present an overview of autoimmune encephalitis incidence in psychiatric disease and the general guidelines for the management of psychiatric manifestations. For the majority of autoimmune encephalitis, the prognosis depends on the rapidity of the detection, identification, and the management of the disease. Because the presence of pronounced psychiatric symptoms drives patients to psychiatric institutions and can hinder the diagnosis, the aim of this work is to provide clues to help earlier detection by physicians and thus provide better medical care to patients. PMID:27822050

  9. Genetic variation associated with cardiovascular risk in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Perrotti, Pedro P.; Aterido, Adrià; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Cañete, Juan D.; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Tornero, Jesús; Gisbert, Javier P.; Domènech, Eugeni; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Gomollón, Fernando; García-Planella, Esther; Fernández, Emilia; Sanmartí, Raimon; Gratacós, Jordi; Martínez-Taboada, Víctor Manuel; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luís; Palau, Núria; Tortosa, Raül; Corbeto, Mireia L.; Lasanta, María L.; Marsal, Sara; Julià, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular events compared to the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in autoimmunity. We analyzed genome-wide genotyping data from 6,485 patients from six autoimmune diseases that are associated with a high socio-economic impact. First, for each disease, we tested the association of established CVD risk loci. Second, we analyzed the association of autoimmune disease susceptibility loci with CVD. Finally, to identify genetic patterns associated with CVD risk, we applied the cross-phenotype meta-analysis approach (CPMA) on the genome-wide data. A total of 17 established CVD risk loci were significantly associated with CVD in the autoimmune patient cohorts. From these, four loci were found to have significantly different genetic effects across autoimmune diseases. Six autoimmune susceptibility loci were also found to be associated with CVD risk. Genome-wide CPMA analysis identified 10 genetic clusters strongly associated with CVD risk across all autoimmune diseases. Two of these clusters are highly enriched in pathways previously associated with autoimmune disease etiology (TNFα and IFNγ cytokine pathways). The results of this study support the presence of specific genetic variation associated with the increase of CVD risk observed in autoimmunity. PMID:28982122

  10. Frequency of autoimmune diseases in myasthenia gravis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Long-Xiu; Mo, Xue-An; Qin, Chao; Lai, Yong-Rong; He, Ning-Yu; Li, Tong; Hackett, Maree L

    2011-03-01

    The course of myasthenia gravis (MG) may get complicated by the development of other autoimmune diseases. Estimates of the frequency of autoimmune diseases will help inform patients and physicians, direct health policy discussion, provide etiologic clues, and optimize the management of MG. However, the frequency of autoimmune diseases in people with MG is still uncertain. A systematic search for English language studies was conducted by MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1960 through 2010. Incidence studies and case series of all MG subtypes with information about autoimmune diseases were included; 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. Although there was considerable heterogeneity, the pooled estimate of the coexisting autoimmune diseases in MG was 13% (95% confidence interval, 12%-14%). Autoimmune thyroid disease seems to occur more frequently than other autoimmune conditions in MG patients. Heterogeneity in study estimates could be explained by ascertainment bias and case mix. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases occurred significantly more often in females and anti-acetylcholine receptor seropositive MG patients. Patients with MG have an increased frequency of coexisting autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases seem to occur more often in female and seropositive MG patients. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these associations.

  11. Autoimmune Manifestations in the 3xTg-AD Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Monica; Cowan, David; Head, Elizabeth; Ma, Donglai; Karimi, Khalil; Ashthorpe, Vanessa; Kapadia, Minesh; Zhao, Hui; Davis, Paulina; Sakic, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Background Immune system activation is frequently reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown whether this is a cause, a consequence, or an epiphenomenon of brain degeneration. Objective The present study examines whether immunological abnormalities occur in a well-established murine AD model and if so, how they relate temporally to behavioral deficits and neuropathology. Methods A broad battery of tests was employed to assess behavioral performance and autoimmune/inflammatory markers in 3xTg-AD (AD) mice and wild type controls from 1.5 to 12 months of age. Results Aged AD mice displayed severe manifestations of systemic autoimmune/inflammatory disease, as evidenced by splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, elevated serum levels of anti-nuclear/anti-dsDNA antibodies, low hematocrit, and increased number of double-negative T splenocytes. However, anxiety-related behavior and altered spleen function were evident as early as 2 months of age, thus preceding typical AD-like brain pathology. Moreover, AD mice showed altered olfaction and impaired “cognitive” flexibility in the first 6 months of life, suggesting mild cognitive impairment-like manifestations before general learning/memory impairments emerged at an older age. Interestingly, all of these features were present in 3xTg-AD mice prior to significant amyloid-β or tau pathology. Conclusion The results indicate that behavioral deficits in AD mice develop in parallel with systemic autoimmune/inflammatory disease. These changes antedate AD-like neuropathology, thus supporting a causal link between autoimmunity and aberrant behavior. Consequently, 3xTg-AD mice may be a useful model in elucidating the role of immune system in the etiology of AD. PMID:24150111

  12. Very early onset of autoimmune thyroiditis in a toddler with severe hypothyroidism presentation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Grandone, Anna; Perrotta, Silverio; Ruggiero, Laura; Capristo, Carlo; Luongo, Caterina; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Perrone, Laura

    2016-06-18

    In infants under 3 years of age acquired primary hypothyroidism caused by autoimmune thyroiditis is very rare. Hypothyroidism can manifest with different signs and symptoms and has a wide range of presentations from subclinical hypothyroidism to overt form. We describe a child with acquired autoimmune thyroiditis during a very early period of life and with a severe hypothyroidism presentation. A 22-month-old white male patient with normal neonatal screening presented with a six-month history of asthenia and cutaneous pallor. At general clinical and biochemical exams he showed weight gain, statural growth deceleration, poor movements, sleepy expression, instability while walking, myxoedema, bradycardia, open anterior fontanelle, changes in the face habitus, macrocytic anaemia, ascites, and high CPK, creatinine and cholesterol levels. Acquired autoimmune thyroiditis was the final diagnosis. The thyroxine replacement therapy normalized all the clinical and biochemical abnormalities but at the age of 30 months his mental age showed a delay of 6 months. Our case could give useful learning points: i) although the screening for congenital hypothyroidism is routinely performed, a severe hypothyroidism (for example due to autoimmune thyroiditis) can anyway occur early in life and the clinicians should consider this possibility; ii) hypothyroidism can have a misleading and multi-face clinical presentation; iii) anemia, rhabdomyolysis and high creatinine levels should always include the hypothyroidism in the differential diagnosis; iv) thyroxine replacement therapy is able to revert all the clinical manifestations related to the hypothyroidism; v) evaluating the patient's previous pictures could play an important role in resolving a diagnostic conundrum.

  13. Physical activity and autoimmune diseases: Get moving and manage the disease.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Kassem; Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Lichtbroun, Micheal; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2018-01-01

    Physical activity, by definition, is any skeletal muscle body movement that results in energy expenditure. In the last few decades, a plethora of scientific evidences have accumulated and confirmed the beneficial role of physical activity as a modifiable risk factor for a wide variety of chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes mellitus and cancer, among others. Autoimmune diseases are a heterogeneous group of chronic diseases, which occur secondary to loss of self-antigen tolerance. With the advent of biological therapies, better outcomes have recently been noted in the management of autoimmune diseases. Nonetheless, recent research highlights the salient role of modifiable behaviors such as physical inactivity on various aspects of the immune system and autoimmune diseases. Physical activity leads to a significant elevation in T-regulatory cells, decreased immunoglobulin secretion and produces a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance to a decreased Th1 cell production. Moreover, physical activity has been proven to promote the release of IL-6 from muscles. IL-6 released from muscles functions as a myokine and has been shown to induce an anti-inflammatory response through IL-10 secretion and IL-1β inhibition. Physical activity has been shown to be safe in most of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), as well as others. Additionally, the incidence of RA, MS, IBD and psoriasis has been found to be higher in patients less engaged in physical activity. As a general trend, patients with autoimmune diseases tend to be less physically active as compared to the general population. Physically active RA patients were found to have a milder disease course, better cardiovascular disease (CVD) profile, and improved joint mobility. Physical activity decreases fatigue, enhances mood, cognitive abilities and mobility in patients with MS. In SLE

  14. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  16. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  17. Autoimmune disease prevalence in a multiple sclerosis cohort in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Farez, Mauricio F; Balbuena Aguirre, María E; Varela, Francisco; Köhler, Alejandro A; Correale, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Background. Comorbid autoimmune diseases in MS patients have been studied extensively with controversial results. Moreover, no such data exists for Latin-American MS patients. Methods. We conducted a case-control study aimed to establish the prevalence of autoimmune disorders in a cohort of Argentinean MS patients. Results. There were no significant differences in autoimmune disease prevalence in MS patients with respect to controls. The presence of one or more autoimmune disorders did not increase risk of MS (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.6-1.3). Discussion. Our results indicate absence of increased comorbid autoimmune disease prevalence in MS patients, as well as of increased risk of MS in patients suffering from other autoimmune disorders.

  18. Autoimmune Disease Prevalence in a Multiple Sclerosis Cohort in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Farez, Mauricio F.; Balbuena Aguirre, María E.; Varela, Francisco; Köhler, Alejandro A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Comorbid autoimmune diseases in MS patients have been studied extensively with controversial results. Moreover, no such data exists for Latin-American MS patients. Methods. We conducted a case-control study aimed to establish the prevalence of autoimmune disorders in a cohort of Argentinean MS patients. Results. There were no significant differences in autoimmune disease prevalence in MS patients with respect to controls. The presence of one or more autoimmune disorders did not increase risk of MS (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.6–1.3). Discussion. Our results indicate absence of increased comorbid autoimmune disease prevalence in MS patients, as well as of increased risk of MS in patients suffering from other autoimmune disorders. PMID:25170425

  19. B cell depletion therapy ameliorates autoimmune disease through ablation of IL-6–producing B cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ping; Brown, Sheila; Lampropoulou, Vicky; Roch, Toralf; Lawrie, Sarah; Fan, Boli; O’Connor, Richard A.; Anderton, Stephen M.; Bar-Or, Amit; Fillatreau, Simon; Gray, David

    2012-01-01

    B cells have paradoxical roles in autoimmunity, exerting both pathogenic and protective effects. Pathogenesis may be antibody independent, as B cell depletion therapy (BCDT) leads to amelioration of disease irrespective of autoantibody ablation. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. We demonstrate that BCDT alleviates central nervous system autoimmunity through ablation of IL-6–secreting pathogenic B cells. B cells from mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) secreted elevated levels of IL-6 compared with B cells from naive controls, and mice with a B cell–specific IL-6 deficiency showed less severe disease than mice with wild-type B cells. Moreover, BCDT ameliorated EAE only in mice with IL-6–sufficient B cells. This mechanism of pathogenesis may also operate in multiple sclerosis (MS) because B cells from MS patients produced more IL-6 than B cells from healthy controls, and this abnormality was normalized with B cell reconstitution after Rituximab treatment. This suggests that BCDT improved disease progression, at least partly, by eliminating IL-6–producing B cells in MS patients. Taking these data together, we conclude that IL-6 secretion is a major mechanism of B cell–driven pathogenesis in T cell–mediated autoimmune disease such as EAE and MS. PMID:22547654

  20. Risk Factors for Autoimmune Diseases Development After Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    Roriz, Mélanie; Landais, Mickael; Desprez, Jonathan; Barbet, Christelle; Azoulay, Elie; Galicier, Lionel; Wynckel, Alain; Baudel, Jean-Luc; Provôt, François; Pène, Frédéric; Mira, Jean-Paul; Presne, Claire; Poullin, Pascale; Delmas, Yahsou; Kanouni, Tarik; Seguin, Amélie; Mousson, Christiane; Servais, Aude; Bordessoule, Dominique; Perez, Pierre; Chauveau, Dominique; Veyradier, Agnès; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Hamidou, Mohamed; Coppo, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) can be associated with other autoimmune disorders, but their prevalence following autoimmune TTP remains unknown. To assess the prevalence of autoimmune disorders associated with TTP and to determine risk factors for and the time course of the development of an autoimmune disorder after a TTP episode, we performed a cross sectional study. Two-hundred sixty-one cases of autoimmune TTP were included in the French Reference Center registry between October, 2000 and May, 2009. Clinical and laboratory data available at time of TTP diagnosis were recovered. Each center was contacted to collect the more recent data and diagnosis criteria for autoimmunity. Fifty-six patients presented an autoimmune disorder in association with TTP, 9 years before TTP (median; min: 2 yr, max: 32 yr) (26 cases), at the time of TTP diagnosis (17 cases) or during follow-up (17 cases), up to 12 years after TTP diagnosis (mean, 22 mo). The most frequent autoimmune disorder reported was systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (26 cases) and Sjögren syndrome (8 cases). The presence of additional autoimmune disorders had no impact on outcomes of an acute TTP or the occurrence of relapse. Two factors evaluated at TTP diagnosis were significantly associated with the development of an autoimmune disorder during follow-up: the presence of antidouble stranded (ds)DNA antibodies (hazard ratio (HR): 4.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.64-15.14]) and anti-SSA antibodies (HR: 9.98; 95% CI [3.59-27.76]). A follow-up across many years is necessary after an acute TTP, especially when anti-SSA or anti-dsDNA antibodies are present on TTP diagnosis, to detect autoimmune disorders early before immunologic events spread to prevent disabling complications.

  1. Risk Factors for Autoimmune Diseases Development After Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Mélanie; Landais, Mickael; Desprez, Jonathan; Barbet, Christelle; Azoulay, Elie; Galicier, Lionel; Wynckel, Alain; Baudel, Jean-Luc; Provôt, François; Pène, Frédéric; Mira, Jean-Paul; Presne, Claire; Poullin, Pascale; Delmas, Yahsou; Kanouni, Tarik; Seguin, Amélie; Mousson, Christiane; Servais, Aude; Bordessoule, Dominique; Perez, Pierre; Chauveau, Dominique; Veyradier, Agnès; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Hamidou, Mohamed; Coppo, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) can be associated with other autoimmune disorders, but their prevalence following autoimmune TTP remains unknown. To assess the prevalence of autoimmune disorders associated with TTP and to determine risk factors for and the time course of the development of an autoimmune disorder after a TTP episode, we performed a cross sectional study. Two-hundred sixty-one cases of autoimmune TTP were included in the French Reference Center registry between October, 2000 and May, 2009. Clinical and laboratory data available at time of TTP diagnosis were recovered. Each center was contacted to collect the more recent data and diagnosis criteria for autoimmunity. Fifty-six patients presented an autoimmune disorder in association with TTP, 9 years before TTP (median; min: 2 yr, max: 32 yr) (26 cases), at the time of TTP diagnosis (17 cases) or during follow-up (17 cases), up to 12 years after TTP diagnosis (mean, 22 mo). The most frequent autoimmune disorder reported was systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (26 cases) and Sjögren syndrome (8 cases). The presence of additional autoimmune disorders had no impact on outcomes of an acute TTP or the occurrence of relapse. Two factors evaluated at TTP diagnosis were significantly associated with the development of an autoimmune disorder during follow-up: the presence of antidouble stranded (ds)DNA antibodies (hazard ratio (HR): 4.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.64–15.14]) and anti-SSA antibodies (HR: 9.98; 95% CI [3.59–27.76]). A follow-up across many years is necessary after an acute TTP, especially when anti-SSA or anti-dsDNA antibodies are present on TTP diagnosis, to detect autoimmune disorders early before immunologic events spread to prevent disabling complications. PMID:26496263

  2. Autoimmune pancreatitis associated with renal lesions mimicking metastatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Rudmik, Lucas; Trpkov, Kiril; Nash, Carla; Kinnear, Susan; Falck, Vincent; Dushinski, John; Dixon, Elijah

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is often misdiagnosed as pancreatic cancer. Since autoimmune pancreatitis is benign and responds to steroid management, it is important to diagnose it to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention. We describe a novel case of IgG4-associated autoimmune pancreatitis presenting with tubulointerstitial nephritis as renal lesions mimicking metastatic tumours but with no change in renal function. PMID:16908897

  3. Abnormal islet sphingolipid metabolism in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Holm, Laurits J; Krogvold, Lars; Hasselby, Jane P; Kaur, Simranjeet; Claessens, Laura A; Russell, Mark A; Mathews, Clayton E; Hanssen, Kristian F; Morgan, Noel G; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Roep, Bart O; Gerling, Ivan C; Pociot, Flemming; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Buschard, Karsten

    2018-07-01

    Sphingolipids play important roles in beta cell physiology, by regulating proinsulin folding and insulin secretion and in controlling apoptosis, as studied in animal models and cell cultures. Here we investigate whether sphingolipid metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of human type 1 diabetes and whether increasing the levels of the sphingolipid sulfatide would prevent models of diabetes in NOD mice. We examined the amount and distribution of sulfatide in human pancreatic islets by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Transcriptional analysis was used to evaluate expression of sphingolipid-related genes in isolated human islets. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a T cell proliferation assay were used to identify type 1 diabetes related polymorphisms and test how these affect cellular islet autoimmunity. Finally, we treated NOD mice with fenofibrate, a known activator of sulfatide biosynthesis, to evaluate the effect on experimental autoimmune diabetes development. We found reduced amounts of sulfatide, 23% of the levels in control participants, in pancreatic islets of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, which were associated with reduced expression of enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Next, we discovered eight gene polymorphisms (ORMDL3, SPHK2, B4GALNT1, SLC1A5, GALC, PPARD, PPARG and B4GALT1) involved in sphingolipid metabolism that contribute to the genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes. These gene polymorphisms correlated with the degree of cellular islet autoimmunity in a cohort of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Finally, using fenofibrate, which activates sulfatide biosynthesis, we completely prevented diabetes in NOD mice and even reversed the disease in half of otherwise diabetic animals. These results indicate that islet sphingolipid metabolism is abnormal in type 1 diabetes and suggest that modulation may represent a novel therapeutic approach. The RNA expression data is

  4. Primary cutaneous amyloidosis associated with autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliary cirrhosis overlap syndrome and Sjögren syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xin; Jin, Jinglan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Primary cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA) is a localized skin disorder characterized by the abnormal deposition of amyloid in the extracellular matrix of the dermis. The association between PCA and other diseases, although rare, has been documented for various autoimmune diseases. PCA associated with autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliary cirrhosis (AIH-PBC) overlap syndrome and Sjögren syndrome (SS) has not been previously reported in the literature. Patient concerns: A 50-year-old woman presented with progressive abnormal liver enzyme levels and was referred to our department. Diagnoses: Due to the patient's symptoms, laboratory test results, radiographic findings, and pathologic results, she was diagnosed with PCA associated with AIH-PBC overlap syndrome and SS. Interventions: She was subsequently treated with a combination of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), prednisone, and azathioprine. Outcomes: While this treatment can achieve therapeutic success, it cannot prevent complications from cirrhosis. This patient remains alive but experienced an emergent gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Lessons: While we acknowledge that this is a single case, these findings extend our knowledge of immunological diseases associated with PCA and suggest a common, immune-mediated pathogenic pathway between PCA, AIH-PBC overlap syndrome, and SS. After 12 years of follow up, clinical manifestations have developed, and these autoimmune diseases have progressed. The combination of UDCA, prednisone, and azathioprine can achieve therapeutic success but cannot prevent disease progression. Routine follow up for this patient is necessary to document disease progression. PMID:29465536

  5. Autoimmunity and primary immunodeficiency: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhold E; Grimbacher, Bodo; Witte, Torsten

    2017-12-19

    Autoimmunity and immunodeficiency were previously considered to be mutually exclusive conditions; however, increased understanding of the complex immune regulatory and signalling mechanisms involved, coupled with the application of genetic analysis, is revealing the complex relationships between primary immunodeficiency syndromes and autoimmune diseases. Single-gene defects can cause rare diseases that predominantly present with autoimmune symptoms. Such genetic defects also predispose individuals to recurrent infections (a hallmark of immunodeficiency) and can cause primary immunodeficiencies, which can also lead to immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. Moreover, risk factors for polygenic rheumatic diseases often exist in the same genes as the mutations that give rise to primary immunodeficiency syndromes. In this Review, various primary immunodeficiency syndromes are presented, along with their pathogenetic mechanisms and relationship to autoimmune diseases, in an effort to increase awareness of immunodeficiencies that occur concurrently with autoimmune diseases and to highlight the need to initiate appropriate genetic tests. The growing knowledge of various genetically determined pathologic mechanisms in patients with immunodeficiencies who have autoimmune symptoms opens up new avenues for personalized molecular therapies that could potentially treat immunodeficiency and autoimmunity at the same time, and that could be further explored in the context of autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

  6. Transient Non-Autoimmune Hyperthyroidism of Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alexander M.; Mestman, Jorge H.

    2011-01-01

    It is characterized by chemical and sometimes clinical hyperthyroidism, without evidence of thyroid autoimmunity that resolves spontaneously by 16 weeks gestation without significant obstetrical complications. PMID:21785688

  7. [Animal models of autoimmune prostatitis and their evaluation criteria].

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia-ming; Lu, Jin-chun; Yao, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Chronic prostatitis is a highly prevalent disease of unclear etiology. Researches show that autoimmune reaction is one cause of the problem. An effective animal model may help a lot to understand the pathogenesis and find proper diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of the disease. Currently used autoimmune prostatitis-related animal models include those of age-dependent spontaneous prostatitis, autoimmune regulator-dependent spontaneous prostatitis, self antigen-induced prostatitis, and steroid-induced prostatitis. Whether an animal model of autoimmune prostatitis is successfully established can be evaluated mainly from the five aspects: histology, morphology, specific antigens, inflammatory factors, and pain intensity.

  8. Autoimmune vitiligo in rheumatic disease in the mestizo Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Avalos-Díaz, Esperanza; Pérez-Pérez, Elena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mayra; Pacheco-Tovar, María-Guadalupe; Herrera-Esparza, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic disease characterized by the dysfunction or destruction of melanocytes with secondary depigmentation. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of vitiligo associated with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. The clinical records from a 10-year database of patients with rheumatic diseases and associated vitiligo was analysed, with one group of patients having autoimmune rheumatic disease and another non-autoimmune rheumatic disease. Available serum samples were used to assess the anti-melanocyte antibodies. A total of 5,251 individual clinical files were archived in the last 10 years, and these patients underwent multiple rheumatology consultations, with 0.3% of the group presenting with vitiligo. The prevalence of vitiligo in the autoimmune rheumatic disease group was 0.672%, which was mainly associated with lupus and arthritis. However, patients with more than one autoimmune disease had an increased relative risk to develop vitiligo, and anti-melanocyte antibodies were positive in 92% of these patients. By contrast, the prevalence was 0.082% in the group that lacked autoimmune rheumatic disease and had negative autoantibodies. In conclusion, the association between vitiligo and autoimmune rheumatic diseases was relatively low. However, the relative risk increased when there were other autoimmune comorbidities, such as thyroiditis or celiac disease. Therefore, the presence of multiple autoimmune syndromes should be suspected.

  9. Rheumatic Disease Autoantibodies in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases.

    PubMed

    Nisihara, Renato; Pigosso, Yasmine; Prado, Nathalia; Utiyama, Shirley R R; Carvalho, Gisah; Skare, Thelma

    2018-06-04

    Patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD) such as Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) may have non-organ specific autoantibodies such as ANA (antinuclear antibodies) and RF (rheumatoid factor). To study the prevalence of rheumatic autoantibodies in a group of ATD patients without known rheumatic diseases and to evaluate its association with the patients' epidemiological and treatment profile. To follow positive non-organ specific autoantibody-positive ATD individuals to investigate whether they will develop a rheumatic disorder. A sample of 154 ATD patients (70 HT and 84 GD; mean age 45.3 ± 14.2) had determination of ANA by immunofluorescence, using hep-2 cells as substrate, extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) profile by ELISA kits and RF by latex agglutination. Epidemiological and treatment profile were obtained through chart review. These patients were followed for the mean period of five years, between 2010 to 2015. Positive ANA was found in 17.5% (27/154) of the patients: anti-Ro/SS-A in 4/154 (2.5%); anti-RNP in 4/154 (2.5%) and anti-La/SS-B in 3/154 (1.9%). None had anti-Sm antibodies. RF was detected in 12/154 (7.7%) of ATD patients and was more common in older individuals (p = 0.007). There was a positive association between the presence of RF and ANA (p = 0.03; OR = 3.89; 95% CI = 1.1-13.3). None of the patients with positive autoantibodies developed clinical rheumatic diseases during the period of observation. We found rheumatic autoantibodies in 17.5% of ATD patients without rheumatic diseases. None of them were associated with the appearance of clinical rheumatic disorder during the period of five years. ©2018The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  11. Abnormal hepatic biochemistries and clinical liver disease in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Montaño-Loza, Aldo J; Crispín-Acuña, José Carlos; Remes-Troche, José María; Uribe, Misael

    2007-01-01

    Patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome may present liver involvement. Our goals were to establish the prevalence of abnormal hepatic biochemistries and clinical liver disease in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and correlate their presence with other clinical and laboratory features. Ninety-five patients with diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome were studied. Data on gender, age, clinical features, liver biochemistries, tests of inflammation and autoimmunity, and concomitant diseases were collected. Forty-two patients (44%) had abnormal hepatic biochemistries, and of these 19 patients (20%) had clinical liver disease. Patients with abnormal hepatic biochemistries had higher frequency of autoimmune hypotiroidism, arthritis, vasculitis, Raynaud's phenomenon, higher sedimentation rate,and higher frequency of antinuclear and antimitochondrial antibodies than patients with normal liver biochemistries (P < 0.05 for each). Patients with clinical liver disease had higher frequency of arthritis, vasculitis, and higher frequency of antimitochondrial antibodies than patients without clinical liver disease (P < 0.05 for each). Twenty-one patients had diagnosis of a specific liver disease, such as hepatitis C virus infection (n = 11), autoimmune hepatitis (n = 2), primary biliary cirrhosis (n =5),nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 2), and hepatitis B virus infection (n = 1). In half of patients with liver involvement a definitive cause could not be identified. Liver involvement is frequently found in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, and its presence is associated with clinical features of systemic disease, and markers of autoimmunity and inflammation. There may be a subgroup of patients with liver involvement secondary to primary Sjögren's syndrome.

  12. Thyroid storm and warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joseph A; Gliga, Louise; Nagalla, Srikanth

    2017-08-01

    Graves' disease is often associated with other autoimmune disorders, including rare associations with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We describe a unique presentation of thyroid storm and warm AIHA diagnosed concurrently in a young female with hyperthyroidism. The patient presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and altered mental status. Laboratory studies revealed hemoglobin 3.9g/dL, platelets 171×10 9 L -1 , haptoglobin <5mg/dL, reticulocytosis, and positive direct antiglobulin test (IgG, C3d, warm). Additional workup revealed serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) <0.01μIU/mL and serum free-T4 (FT4) level 7.8ng/dL. Our patient was diagnosed with concurrent thyroid storm and warm AIHA. She was started on glucocorticoids to treat both warm AIHA and thyroid storm, as well as antithyroid medications, propranolol and folic acid. Due to profound anemia and hemodynamic instability, the patient was transfused two units of uncrossmatched packed red blood cells slowly and tolerated this well. She was discharged on methimazole as well as a prolonged prednisone taper, and achieved complete resolution of the thyrotoxicosis and anemia at one month. Hyperthyroidism can affect all three blood cell lineages of the hematopoietic system. Anemia can be seen in 10-20% of patients with thyrotoxicosis. Several autoimmune processes can lead to anemia in Graves' disease, including pernicious anemia, celiac disease, and warm AIHA. This case illustrates a rarely described presentation of a patient with Graves' disease presenting with concurrent thyroid storm and warm AIHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases: from bread baking to autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Maurizio; Perricone, Roberto; Blank, Miri; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is best known as the baker's and brewer's yeast, but its residual traces are also frequent excipients in some vaccines. Although anti-S. cerevisiae autoantibodies (ASCAs) are considered specific for Crohn's disease, a growing number of studies have detected high levels of ASCAs in patients affected with autoimmune diseases as compared with healthy controls, including antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Commensal microorganisms such as Saccharomyces are required for nutrition, proper development of Peyer's aggregated lymphoid tissue, and tissue healing. However, even the commensal nonclassically pathogenic microbiota can trigger autoimmunity when fine regulation of immune tolerance does not work properly. For our purposes, the protein database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) was consulted, comparing Saccharomyces mannan to several molecules with a pathogenetic role in autoimmune diseases. Thanks to the NCBI bioinformation technology tool, several overlaps in molecular structures (50-100 %) were identified when yeast mannan, and the most common autoantigens were compared. The autoantigen U2 snRNP B″ was found to conserve a superfamily protein domain that shares 83 % of the S. cerevisiae mannan sequence. Furthermore, ASCAs may be present years before the diagnosis of some associated autoimmune diseases as they were retrospectively found in the preserved blood samples of soldiers who became affected by Crohn's disease years later. Our results strongly suggest that ASCAs' role in clinical practice should be better addressed in order to evaluate their predictive or prognostic relevance.

  14. Airway Autoimmune Inflammatory Response (AAIR) Syndrome: An Asthma-Autoimmune Overlap Disorder?

    PubMed

    Spencer, Chantal Y; Millman, Jennifer; Veiga, Keila; Vicencio, Alfin G

    2018-02-15

    Asthma encompasses numerous phenotypes that may require alternate approaches to diagnosis and therapy, particularly for patients whose symptoms remain poorly controlled despite escalating treatment. We describe 3 patients with apparent asthma who demonstrated unusual findings on cryobiopsy by flexible bronchoscopy and responded to therapy directed against autoimmune disease. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Transplantation of autoimmune regulator-encoding bone marrow cells delays the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyun-Ja; Kinkel, Sarah A; Hubert, François-Xavier; Nasa, Zeyad; Chan, James; Siatskas, Christopher; Hirubalan, Premila; Toh, Ban-Hock; Scott, Hamish S; Alderuccio, Frank

    2010-12-01

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) promotes "promiscuous" expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRA) in thymic medullary epithelial cells to facilitate thymic deletion of autoreactive T-cells. Here, we show that AIRE-deficient mice showed an earlier development of myelin oligonucleotide glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To determine the outcome of ectopic Aire expression, we used a retroviral transduction system to over-express Aire in vitro, in cell lines and in bone marrow (BM). In the cell lines that included those of thymic medullary and dendritic cell origin, ectopically expressed Aire variably promoted expression of TRA including Mog and Ins2 (proII) autoantigens associated, respectively, with the autoimmune diseases multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes. BM chimeras generated from BM transduced with a retrovirus encoding Aire displayed elevated levels of Mog and Ins2 expression in thymus and spleen. Following induction of EAE with MOG(35-55), transplanted mice displayed significant delay in the onset of EAE compared with control mice. To our knowledge, this is the first example showing that in vivo ectopic expression of AIRE can modulate TRA expression and alter autoimmune disease development. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Proteome-wide survey of the autoimmune target repertoire in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    Landegren, Nils; Sharon, Donald; Freyhult, Eva; Hallgren, Åsa; Eriksson, Daniel; Edqvist, Per-Henrik; Bensing, Sophie; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Nelson, Lawrence M.; Gustafsson, Jan; Husebye, Eystein S.; Anderson, Mark S.; Snyder, Michael; Kämpe, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a monogenic disorder that features multiple autoimmune disease manifestations. It is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, which promote thymic display of thousands of peripheral tissue antigens in a process critical for establishing central immune tolerance. We here used proteome arrays to perform a comprehensive study of autoimmune targets in APS1. Interrogation of established autoantigens revealed highly reliable detection of autoantibodies, and by exploring the full panel of more than 9000 proteins we further identified MAGEB2 and PDILT as novel major autoantigens in APS1. Our proteome-wide assessment revealed a marked enrichment for tissue-specific immune targets, mirroring AIRE’s selectiveness for this category of genes. Our findings also suggest that only a very limited portion of the proteome becomes targeted by the immune system in APS1, which contrasts the broad defect of thymic presentation associated with AIRE-deficiency and raises novel questions what other factors are needed for break of tolerance. PMID:26830021

  17. Familial Aggregation and Segregation Analysis in Families Presenting Autoimmunity, Polyautoimmunity, and Multiple Autoimmune Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Castiblanco, John; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Mantilla, Ruben Dario; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Studies documenting increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases (ADs) have shown that these conditions share several immunogenetic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology). This report explored familial aggregation and segregation of AD, polyautoimmunity, and multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS) in 210 families. Familial aggregation was examined for first-degree relatives. Segregation analysis was implemented as in S.A.G.E. release 6.3. Data showed differences between late- and early-onset families regarding their age, age of onset, and sex. Familial aggregation of AD in late- and early-onset families was observed. For polyautoimmunity as a trait, only aggregation was observed between sibling pairs in late-onset families. No aggregation was observed for MAS. Segregation analyses for AD suggested major gene(s) with no clear discernible classical known Mendelian transmission in late-onset families, while for polyautoimmunity and MAS no model was implied. Data suggest that polyautoimmunity and MAS are not independent traits and that gender, age, and age of onset are interrelated factors influencing autoimmunity. PMID:26697508

  18. Autoimmune Alternating Hypo- and Hyperthyroidism in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Revi P.; Moore, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Two children presented with autoimmune alternating hypo- and hyperthyroidism related to the presence of blocking and stimulating thyroid antibodies. It was difficult to control their thyroid function adequately with an appropriate single drug regimen, and both children underwent total thyroidectomy with subsequent stable management with levothyroxine replacement therapy postsurgically. Although this phenomenon is well described in adults, this report is the first of such occurrence in children. The possible mechanism for the variation in the type of clinical presentation and options for management are discussed. PMID:21700620

  19. De novo autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Ansgar W; Weiler-Norman, Christina; Burdelski, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The Kings College group was the first to describe a clinical syndrome similar to autoimmune hepatitis in children and young adults transplanted for non-immune mediated liver diseases. They coined the term "de novo autoimmune hepatitis". Several other liver transplant centres confirmed this observation. Even though the condition is uncommon, patients with de novo AIH are now seen in most of the major transplant centres. The disease is usually characterized by features of acute hepatitis in otherwise stable transplant recipients. The most characteristic laboratory hallmark is a marked hypergammaglobulinaemia. Autoantibodies are common, mostly ANA. We described also a case of LKM1-positivity in a patients transplanted for Wilson's disease, however this patients did not develop clinical or histological features of AIH. Development of SLA/LP-autoantibodies is also not described. Therefore, serologically de novo AIH appears to correspond to type 1 AIH. Like classical AIH patients respond promptly to treatment with increased doses of prednisolone and azathioprine, while the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine or tacrolimus areof very limited value - which is not surprising, as almost all patients develop de novo AIH while receiving these drugs. Despite the good response to treatment, most patients remain a clinical challenge as complete stable remissions are uncommon and flares, relapses and chronic disease activity can often occur. Pathogenetically this syndrome is intriguing. It is not clear, if the immune response is directed against allo-antigens, neo-antigens in the liver, or self-antigens, possibly shared by donor and host cells. It is very likely that the inflammatory milieu due to alloreactive cells in the transplanted organ contribute to the disease process. Either leading to aberrant antigen presentation, or providing co-stimulatory signals leading to the breaking of self-tolerance. The development of this disease in the presence of treatment with calcineurin

  20. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  1. Cannabidiol limits Tcell-mediated chronic autoimmune myocarditis: implications to autoimmune disorders and organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Shin; Erdelyi, Katalin; Matyas, Csaba; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Varga, Zoltan V; Liaudet, Lucas; Haskó, György; Čiháková, Daniela; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pal

    2016-01-08

    Myocarditis is a major cause of heart failure and sudden cardiac death in young adults and adolescents. Many cases of myocarditis are associated with autoimmune processes in which cardiac myosin is a major autoantigen. Conventional immunosuppressive therapies often provide unsatisfactory results and are associated with adverse toxicities during the treatment of autoimmune myocarditis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive constituent of Marijuana which exerts antiinflammatory effects independent from classical cannabinoid receptors. Recently 80 clinical trials have been reported investigating the effects of CBD in various diseases from inflammatory bowel disease to graft-versus-host disease. CBD-based formulations are used for the management of multiple sclerosis in numerous countries, and CBD also received FDA approval for the treatment of refractory childhood epilepsy and glioblastoma multiforme. Herein, using a well-established mouse model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced by immunization with cardiac myosin emmulsified in adjuvant resulting in T cell-mediated inflammation, cardiomyocyte cell death, fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction, we studied the potential beneficial effects of CBD. EAM was characterized by marked myocardial T cell-infiltration, profound inflammatory response, fibrosis (measured by qRT-PCR, histology and immunohistochemistry analyses) accompanied by marked attenuation of both systolic and diastolic cardiac functions measured with pressure-volume conductance catheter technique. Chronic treatment with CBD largely attenuated the CD3+ and CD4+ mediated inflammatory response and injury, myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in mice. CBD may represent a promising novel treatment for management of autoimmune myocarditis and possibly other autoimmune disorders, and organ transplantation.

  2. Cannabidiol Limits T Cell–Mediated Chronic Autoimmune Myocarditis: Implications to Autoimmune Disorders and Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Shin; Erdelyi, Katalin; Matyas, Csaba; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Varga, Zoltan V; Liaudet, Lucas; Hask’, György; ’iháková, Daniela; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pal

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is a major cause of heart failure and sudden cardiac death in young adults and adolescents. Many cases of myocarditis are associated with autoimmune processes in which cardiac myosin is a major autoantigen. Conventional immunosuppressive therapies often provide unsatisfactory results and are associated with adverse toxicities during the treatment of autoimmune myocarditis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive constituent of marijuana that exerts antiinflammatory effects independent of classical cannabinoid receptors. Recently, 80 clinical trials have investigated the effects of CBD in various diseases from inflammatory bowel disease to graft versus host disease. CBD-based formulations are used for the management of multiple sclerosis in numerous countries, and CBD also received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of refractory childhood epilepsy and glioblastoma multiforme. Herein, using a well-established mouse model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced by immunization with cardiac myosin emmulsified in adjuvant resulting in T cell–mediated inflammation, cardiomyocyte cell death, fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction, we studied the potential beneficial effects of CBD. EAM was characterized by marked myocardial T-cell infiltration, profound inflammatory response and fibrosis (measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, histology and immunohistochemistry analyses) accompanied by marked attenuation of both systolic and diastolic cardiac functions measured with a pressure-volume conductance catheter technique. Chronic treatment with CBD largely attenuated the CD3+ and CD4+ T cell–mediated inflammatory response and injury, myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in mice. In conclusion, CBD may represent a promising novel treatment for managing autoimmune myocarditis and possibly other autoimmune disorders and organ transplantation. PMID:26772776

  3. Cancer and autoimmunity: autoimmune and rheumatic features in patients with malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Shakra, M; Buskila, D; Ehrenfeld, M; Conrad, K; Shoenfeld, Y

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To review the autoimmune and rheumatic manifestations of patients with malignancy.
METHODS—A Medline search of all published papers using keywords related to malignancies, autoimmunity, rheumatic diseases, and paraneoplastic syndromes.
RESULTS—Patients with malignant diseases may develop autoimmune phenomena and rheumatic diseases as a result of (a) generation of autoantibodies against various autoantigens, including oncoproteins (P185, 1-myc, c-myc, c-myb), tumour suppression genes (P53), proliferation associated antigens (cyclin A, B1, D1, E; CENP-F; CDK, U3-RNP), onconeural antigens (Hu, Yo, Ri, Tr), cancer/testis antigens (MAGE, GAGE, BAGE, SSX, ESO, SCP, CT7), and rheumatic disease associated antigens (RNP, Sm). The clinical significance of the various autoantibodies is not clear. Anti-oncoprotein and anti-tumour suppression gene antigens are detected before the diagnosis of the cancer or in the early stages of the malignant disease, suggesting a potential diagnostic or prognostic role. Anti-onconeural antibodies are pathogenic and are associated with specific clinical neurological syndromes (anti-Hu syndrome and others). (b) Paraneoplastic syndromes, a wide range of clinical syndromes, including classic autoimmune rheumatic diseases that develop among patients with cancer. (c) Rheumatism after chemotherapy, a clinical entity characterised by the development of musculoskeletal symptoms after combination chemotherapy for malignancy.
CONCLUSION—Autoimmune and rheumatic features are not rare among patients with malignancies. They are the result of various diverse mechanisms and occasionally they may be associated with serious clinical entities.

 PMID:11302861

  4. Spinal and Limb Abnormalities in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lai, Chia-Im; Leu, Yii-Rong; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chu, Chi-Ming; Wu, Chia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    There are not many studies pertaining to the spinal or limb abnormalities in people with intellectual disabilities, without a clear profile of these deformities of them, efforts to understand its characters and improve their quality of life will be impossible. Therefore, this paper aims to describe the prevalence and related factors of spinal and…

  5. [The clinicopathological analysis of 88 patients with abnormal liver function test of unknown etiology].

    PubMed

    Pang, Shu-zhen; Ou, Xiao-juan; Shi, Xiao-yan; Wang, Tai-ling; Duan, Wei-jia; Jia, Ji-dong

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and histological features of patients with abnormal liver tests of unknown etiology, and then to investigate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Patients with abnormal liver function test hospitalized and had liver biopsies during 2008 - 2009 constituted this retrospective study cohort. After excluding those patients diagnosed with hepatotropic viral hepatitis, space occupying lesions of the liver, alcoholic liver disease and obstruction of bile duct caused by stone or malignancy and AMA/AMA-M(2) positive of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), the clinical and histological characteristics were evaluated. Out of the 180 patients who underwent liver biopsy, 88 patients were included in the present analysis. The final diagnosis involved 15 categories of diseases, with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) [34.09% (30/88)], autoimmune liver diseases [22.73% (20/88)], and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) [12.50% (11/88)] being the most common causes, following by genetic and other rare diseases. DILI, autoimmune liver disease and NAFLD were the most common causes of abnormal liver tests in these non-viral liver diseases. Some rare diseases such as hereditary metabolic liver disease also represent a considerable proportion in patients with abnormal liver function test.

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhapsmore » reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.« less

  7. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Furqan, Saira; Haque, Naeem-ul; Islam, Najmul

    2014-08-03

    Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian females who presented with classical symptoms of hypothyroidism and the investigations showed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone with positive thyroid antibodies. Diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism was made and thyroxine replacement therapy was initiated. Patients became asymptomatic with normalization of thyroid stimulating hormone level. After few years they developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone level. Over replacement of thyroxine was considered and the dose of thyroxine was decreased, but they remain symptomatic. After gradual decrease in the dose of thyroxine it was stopped finally. Even after few months of stopping thyroxine, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism did not improve and the biochemical and imaging modalities confirmed that the patients have developed hyperthyroidism. Anti-thyroid treatment was then started and the patients became symptom free. High index of suspicion should be there for possible conversion of hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism if a patient with primary hypothyroidism develops persistent symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Otherwise it can be missed easily considering it as an over replacement with thyroid hormone.

  8. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung’s and Santorini’s ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct. PMID:24884922

  9. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kanai, Keita; Oguchi, Takaya; Asano, Jumpei; Ito, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Yayoi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Arakura, Norikazu; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-05-21

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct.

  10. [Autoimmune Encephalitis Associated with Malignant Tumors].

    PubMed

    Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis consists of limbic symptoms and signs associated with antibodies against neuronal cell-surface antigens or intracellular antigens. Some cases are known to be associated with anti-channel or anti-receptor-related molecule antibodies. Whether these cases are paraneoplastic depends on the kinds of antigens that the antibodies are produced against. Other cases due to well-characterized onco-neural antibodies are almost always paraneoplastic and are generally resistant to anti-tumor therapy and/or immunotherapy. An exception is anti-Ma2 antibody-positive encephalitis associated with a testicular tumor. Antibodies for intracellular antigens are considered not to be pathogenic. Rather, the T-cell response is thought to be responsible. These antibodies are useful markers for the diagnosis of paraneoplastic disorders and in the search for underlying cancer, as neurological symptoms often precede tumor diagnosis. There is a relationship among onco-neural antibodies, clinical features, tumor types, and response to immunotherapy. Here we describe the characteristics of autoimmune encephalitis cases with antibodies against different intracellular antigens, such as Hu, Ma2, CRMP5, or amphiphysin.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Toussirot, Eric; Roudier, Jean

    2008-10-01

    Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are complex disorders with a genetic background and the involvement of environmental factors, including viruses. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a plausible candidate for playing a role in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Both SLE and RA are characterized by high titers of anti-EBV antibodies and impaired T-cell responses to EBV antigens. Compared with normal subjects, elevated EBV load in peripheral blood has been observed in SLE and RA. EBV DNA or RNA has been evidenced in target organs of RA (synovium) or pSS (salivary glands). Finally, molecular mimicry has been demonstrated between EBV proteins and self antigens in these three conditions. In addition, SLE, RA, and pSS are associated with an increased risk of lymphoma with a potential role for EBV. The influence of new and emergent treatments of these autoimmune diseases (biological therapies) on EBV load and the course of latent EBV infection requires further studies.

  12. Current knowledge on psoriasis and autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Fontánez, Nilmarie; Soler, David C; McCormick, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a prevalent, chronic inflammatory disease of the skin, mediated by crosstalk between epidermal keratinocytes, dermal vascular cells, and immunocytes such as antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells. Exclusive cellular “responsibility” for the induction and maintenance of psoriatic plaques has not been clearly defined. Increased proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells in conjunction with APC/T cell/monocyte/macrophage inflammation leads to the distinct epidermal and vascular hyperplasia that is characteristic of lesional psoriatic skin. Despite the identification of numerous susceptibility loci, no single genetic determinant has been identified as responsible for the induction of psoriasis. Thus, numerous other triggers of disease, such as environmental, microbial and complex cellular interactions must also be considered as participants in the development of this multifactorial disease. Recent advances in therapeutics, especially systemic so-called “biologics” have provided new hope for identifying the critical cellular targets that drive psoriasis pathogenesis. Recent recognition of the numerous co-morbidities and other autoimmune disorders associated with psoriasis, including inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus suggest common signaling elements and cellular mediators may direct disease pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss common cellular pathways and participants that mediate psoriasis and other autoimmune disorders that share these cellular signaling pathways. PMID:29387591

  13. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. Case presentation We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian females who presented with classical symptoms of hypothyroidism and the investigations showed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone with positive thyroid antibodies. Diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism was made and thyroxine replacement therapy was initiated. Patients became asymptomatic with normalization of thyroid stimulating hormone level. After few years they developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone level. Over replacement of thyroxine was considered and the dose of thyroxine was decreased, but they remain symptomatic. After gradual decrease in the dose of thyroxine it was stopped finally. Even after few months of stopping thyroxine, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism did not improve and the biochemical and imaging modalities confirmed that the patients have developed hyperthyroidism. Anti-thyroid treatment was then started and the patients became symptom free. Conclusion High index of suspicion should be there for possible conversion of hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism if a patient with primary hypothyroidism develops persistent symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Otherwise it can be missed easily considering it as an over replacement with thyroid hormone. PMID:25086829

  14. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Autoimmunity Mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Tan, K. Meng; Lennon, Vanda A.; Barajas, Ramon F.; Haman, Aissa; Klein, Christopher J.; Josephson, S. Andrew; Pittock, Sean J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Rapidly progressive dementia has a variety of causes, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and neuronal voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) autoantibody–associated encephalopathy. Objective To describe patients thought initially to have CJD but found subsequently to have immunotherapy-responsive VGKC autoimmunity. Design Observational, prospective case series. Setting Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, and the Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco. Patients A clinical serologic cohort of 15 patients referred for paraneoplastic autoantibody evaluation. Seven patients were evaluated clinically by at least one of us. Clinical information for the remaining patients was obtained by physician interview or medical record review. Main Outcome Measures Clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, electroencephalographic patterns, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and responses to immunomodulatory therapy. Results All the patients presented subacutely with neurologic manifestations, including rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus, extrapyramidal dysfunction, visual hallucinations, psychiatric disturbance, and seizures; most (60%) satisfied World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for CJD. Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities included cerebral cortical diffusion-weighted imaging hyperintensities. Electroencephalographic abnormalities included diffuse slowing, frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity, and focal epileptogenic activity but not periodic sharp wave complexes. Cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein or neuron-specific enolase levels were elevated in 5 of 8 patients. Hyponatremia was common (60%). Neoplasia was confirmed histologically in 5 patients (33%) and was suspected in another 5. Most patients’ conditions (92%) improved after immunomodulatory therapy. Conclusions Clinical, radiologic, electrophysiologic, and laboratory findings in VGKC autoantibody–associated encephalopathy may be

  15. Novel aspects of defensins' involvement in virus-induced autoimmunity in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kazakos, Evangelos I; Kountouras, Jannis; Polyzos, Stergios A; Deretzi, Georgia

    2017-05-01

    Recent research on re-circulation of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma to the periphery and its inferred importance in immune surveillance dysregulation are changing our conceptualization of the pathophysiology of virus-induced autoimmunity. In this context, it is necessary to reassess the immunomodulatory properties of human defensins that are variably expressed by cerebral microglia, astrocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells and exhibit complex and often confounding roles in neuroinflammatory processes. Therefore, in this review we describe current contributions in this field and we propose novel hypotheses regarding the potential impact of defensin-related pathways on virus-driven autoimmune neurodegeneration. In this regard, we have previously proposed that abnormal expression of defensins by penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may contribute to the pathophysiology of Helicobacter pylori-related brain neurodegenerative disorders through variable modulations of innate and adaptive immune responses. We hereby propose that impaired expression of defensins by structural components of the BBB may impede glymphatic circulation and disrupt receptor signalling in pericytes that is essential for microvascular stability, thereby retaining blood-derived toxins and bystander activated T-cells in the brain and further impairing BBB integrity and hampering viral clearance. Autoreactive T-cell infiltrates in neuronaxonal lesions characteristic of chronic central nervous system diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are directed against both, myelin and non-myelin, antigens the precise nature of which remains enigmatic. Inadequate expression of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a gene expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells, induces the recruitment of defensin-specific T-cells. These cells may access the brain, thereby causing a decrease in defensin expression and subsequent down-regulation of CD91/LRP1-mediated clearance of amyloid-β that

  16. Alterations in nuclear structure promote lupus autoimmunity in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Namrata; Johnstone, Duncan B.; Martin, Kayla A.; Tempera, Italo; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the development of autoantibodies that recognize components of the cell nucleus. The vast majority of lupus research has focused on either the contributions of immune cell dysfunction or the genetics of the disease. Because granulocytes isolated from human SLE patients had alterations in neutrophil nuclear morphology that resembled the Pelger–Huet anomaly, and had prominent mis-splicing of mRNA encoding the nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor (LBR), consistent with their Pelger–Huet-like nuclear morphology, we used a novel mouse model system to test the hypothesis that a disruption in the structure of the nucleus itself also contributes to the development of lupus autoimmunity. The lupus-prone mouse strain New Zealand White (NZW) was crossed with c57Bl/6 mice harboring a heterozygous autosomal dominant mutation in Lbr (B6.Lbric/+), and the (NZW×B6.Lbric)F1 offspring were evaluated for induction of lupus autoimmunity. Only female (NZW×B6.Lbric)F1 mice developed lupus autoimmunity, which included splenomegaly, kidney damage and autoantibodies. Kidney damage was accompanied by immune complex deposition, and perivascular and tubule infiltration of mononuclear cells. The titers of anti-chromatin antibodies exceeded those of aged female MRL-Faslpr mice, and were predominantly of the IgG2 subclasses. The anti-nuclear antibody staining profile of female (NZW×B6.Lbric)F1 sera was complex, and consisted of an anti-nuclear membrane reactivity that colocalized with the A-type lamina, in combination with a homogeneous pattern that was related to the recognition of histones with covalent modifications that are associated with gene activation. An anti-neutrophil IgM recognizing calreticulin, but not myeloperoxidase (MPO) or proteinase 3 (PR3), was also identified. Thus, alterations in nuclear structure contribute to lupus autoimmunity when expressed in the context of a lupus

  17. Polymorphisms in miRNA genes and their involvement in autoimmune diseases susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Latini, Andrea; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Novelli, Giuseppe; Borgiani, Paola

    2017-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate the expression of multiple protein-encoding genes at the post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs are involved in different pathways, such as cellular proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction and inflammation, and play crucial roles in the development of several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. They have recently been recognized to play a role also in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Although the majority of studies are focused on miRNA expression profiles investigation, a growing number of studies have been investigating the role of polymorphisms in miRNA genes in the autoimmune diseases development. Indeed, polymorphisms affecting the miRNA genes can modify the set of targets they regulate or the maturation efficiency. This review is aimed to give an overview about the available studies that have investigated the association of miRNA gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to various autoimmune diseases and to their clinical phenotypes.

  18. Expanding Role of T Cells in Human Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Pilli, Deepti; Zou, Alicia; Tea, Fiona; Dale, Russell C.; Brilot, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that a dysregulation of the immune system plays a vital role in neurological disorders and shapes the treatment of the disease. Aberrant T cell responses, in particular, are key in driving autoimmunity and have been traditionally associated with multiple sclerosis. Yet, it is evident that there are other neurological diseases in which autoreactive T cells have an active role in pathogenesis. In this review, we report on the recent progress in profiling and assessing the functionality of autoreactive T cells in central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorders that are currently postulated to be primarily T cell driven. We also explore the autoreactive T cell response in a recently emerging group of syndromes characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface proteins. Common methodology implemented in T cell biology is further considered as it is an important determinant in their detection and characterization. An improved understanding of the contribution of autoreactive T cells expands our knowledge of the autoimmune response in CNS disorders and can offer novel methods of therapeutic intervention. PMID:28638382

  19. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  20. Immunopathogenesis In Autism: Regulatory T Cells and Autoimmunity In Neurodevelopment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    1-0484 TITLE: Immunopathogenesis in Autism : Regulatory T Cells and Autoimmunity in Neurodevelopment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jamie C...4 INTRODUCTION The etiology of autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders is largely unknown. Myriad hypotheses have suggested that...1 July 2010 – 30 June 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immunopathogenesis in Autism : 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Regulatory T Cells and Autoimmunity in

  1. Viruses as triggers of autoimmunity: facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Whitton, J L; Fujinami, R S

    1999-08-01

    Autoimmunity has been proposed as the cause of several human chronic inflammatory diseases, and recent animal studies show that viruses can induce autoimmune disease. These studies demonstrate how viruses might misdirect the immune system, and here we discuss critically the evidence that similar phenomena may lead to human disease.

  2. Pernicious anemia associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Zafad, Saadia; Madani, Abdellah; Harif, Mhamed; Quessar, Asmaa; Benchekroun, Said

    2007-12-01

    We report a 16-year-old male with a combination of pernicious anemia, auto-immune hemolytic anemia and alopecia areata. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia coexisted with pernicious anemia but was diagnosed only when the anemia failed to respond to cobalamin therapy. Alopecia areata occurred 9 years later. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  3. An uncommon cause of hypoglycemia: insulin autoimmune syndrome.

    PubMed

    Savas-Erdeve, Senay; Yılmaz Agladioglu, Sebahat; Onder, Asan; Peltek Kendirci, Havva Nur; Bas, Veysel Nijat; Sagsak, Elif; Cetinkaya, Semra; Aycan, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) is a condition characterized by hypoglycemia associated with the presence of autoantibodies to insulin in patients who have not been injected with insulin. A female patient (aged 16 years and 3 months) presented with the complaint of being overweight. Physical examination revealed a body weight of 78.2 kg (+2.6 SD) and a height of 167 cm (+0.73 SD). While the patient's fasting blood glucose level was found to be 40 mg/dl, blood ketone was negative and the serum insulin level was determined as 379 mIU/ml. The patient was diagnosed with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Abdominal ultrasound, pancreas MRI and endoscopic ultrasound were normal. The daily blood glucose profile revealed postprandial hyperglycemia and reactive hypoglycemia in addition to fasting hypoglycemia. The results of anti-insulin antibody measurements were as high as 41.8% (normal range 0-7%). A 1,600-calorie diet containing 40% carbohydrate and divided into 6 meals a day was given to the patient. Simple sugars were excluded from the diet. Hypoglycemic episodes were not observed, but during 2 years of observation, serum levels of insulin and anti-insulin antibodies remained elevated. In all hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia cases, IAS should be considered in the differential diagnosis and insulin antibody measurements should be carried out. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Toxicities of Immunosuppressive Treatment of Autoimmune Neurologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lallana, Enrico C; Fadul, Camilo E

    2011-01-01

    In parallel to our better understanding of the role of the immune system in neurologic diseases, there has been an increased availability in therapeutic options for autoimmune neurologic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, polyneuropathies, central nervous system vasculitides and neurosarcoidosis. In many cases, the purported benefits of this class of therapy are anecdotal and not the result of good controlled clinical trials. Nonetheless, their potential efficacy is better known than their adverse event profile. A rationale therapeutic decision by the clinician will depend on a comprehensive understanding of the ratio between efficacy and toxicity. In this review, we outline the most commonly used immune suppressive medications in neurologic disease: cytotoxic chemotherapy, nucleoside analogues, calcineurin inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and miscellaneous immune suppressants. A discussion of their mechanisms of action and related toxicity is highlighted, with the goal that the reader will be able to recognize the most commonly associated toxicities and identify strategies to prevent and manage problems that are expected to arise with their use. PMID:22379461

  5. Severe infections in patients with autoimmune diseases treated with cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Cavallasca, Javier A; Costa, Cecilia A; Maliandi, Maria Del Rosario; Contini, Liliana E; Fernandez de Carrera, Elena; Musuruana, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with connective tissue diseases. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, such as cyclophosphamide (CYC), increases the risk of infections. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence rates of severe infections in patients who received treatment with CYC. The records of 60 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases who received treatment with CYC were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the rate of severe infections that occurred during CYC therapy and the 3 subsequent months. Systemic lupus erythematosus was the most common disease, and diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis the most frequent indication. Severe infection occurred in 9 patients (15%). Community acquired pneumonia was the most frequent infection with 3 cases (33%) followed by Herpes Zoster with 2 reports (22%). The cumulative dose of corticosteroid was the only significant risk factor for infection 32.8±16.7 vs. 20.1±15.3 P=.007. The use of lower doses of corticosteroids and an aggressive management of infectious complications, allows for an acceptable safety profile in patients treated with CYC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Ameliorating Role Exerted by Al-Hijamah in Autoimmune Diseases: Effect on Serum Autoantibodies and Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Hussam; Abdel-Aziz, Nada; Ahmed, Nagwa Sayed; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Barghash, Ayman; Nasrat, Abdullah; Nabo, Manal Mohamed Helmy; El Sayed, Salah Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have common properties characterized by abnormal blood chemistry with high serum autoimmune antibodies, and inflammatory mediators. Those causative pathological substances (CPS) cannot be excreted by physiological mechanisms. Current treatments for autoimmune diseases involve steroids, cytotoxic drugs, plasmapheresis and monoclonal antibodies. Wet cupping therapy (WCT) of prophetic medicine is called Al-hijamah that treats numerous diseases having different etiology and pathogenesis via a pressure-dependent and size-dependent non-specific filtration then excretion of CPS causing clearance of blood and interstitial fluids. Al-hijamah clears blood passing through the fenestrated skin capillaries. Medical bases of Al-hijamah were reported in the evidence-based Taibah mechanism (Taibah theory). Al-hijamah was reported to be an excellent treatment for rheumatoid arthritis that improved patients’ blood chemistry and induced significant clinical improvement and pharmacological potentiation. Al-hijamah improved the natural immunity and suppressed the pathological immunity through decreasing the serum level of autoantibodies, inflammatory mediators, and serum ferritin (a key player in autoimmunity). Al-hijamah reduced significantly pain severity, number of swollen joints and disease activity with no significant side effects. Main steps of Al-hijamah are skin suction (cupping), scarification (sharatmihjam in Arabic) and second suction (triple S technique) that is better therapeutically than the traditional WCT (double S technique). Whenever an excess noxious substance is to be removed from patients’ blood and interstitial fluids, Al-hijamah is indicated. Shartatmihjam is a curative treatment in prophetic teachings according to the prophetic hadeeth: “Cure is in three: in shartatmihjam, oral honey and cauterization. I do not recommend my nation to cauterize”. Al-hijamah may have better therapeutic benefits than plasmapheresis. Al-hijamah may be

  7. Autoimmune and infectious skin diseases that target desmogleins

    PubMed Central

    AMAGAI, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Desmosomes are intercellular adhesive junctions of epithelial cells that contain two major transmembrane components, the desmogleins (Dsg) and desmocollins (Dsc), which are cadherin-type cell–cell adhesion molecules and are anchored to intermediate filaments of keratin through interactions with plakoglobin and desmoplakin. Desmosomes play an important role in maintaining the proper structure and barrier function of the epidermis and mucous epithelia. Four Dsg isoforms have been identified to date, Dsg1–Dsg4, and are involved in several skin and heart diseases. Dsg1 and Dsg3 are the two major Dsg isoforms in the skin and mucous membranes, and are targeted by IgG autoantibodies in pemphigus, an autoimmune disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Dsg1 is also targeted by exfoliative toxin (ET) released by Staphylococcus aureus in the infectious skin diseases bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). ET is a unique serine protease that shows lock and key specificity to Dsg1. Dsg2 is expressed in all tissues possessing desmosomes, including simple epithelia and myocardia, and mutations in this gene are responsible for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. Dsg4 plays an important adhesive role mainly in hair follicles, and Dsg4 mutations cause abnormal hair development. Recently, an active disease model for pemphigus was generated by a unique approach using autoantigen-deficient mice that do not acquire tolerance against the defective autoantigen. Adoptive transfer of Dsg3−/− lymphocytes into mice expressing Dsg3 induces stable anti-Dsg3 IgG production with development of the pemphigus phenotype. This mouse model is a valuable tool with which to investigate immunological mechanisms of harmful IgG autoantibody production in pemphigus. Further investigation of desmoglein molecules will continue to provide insight into the unsolved pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and aid in the development of novel therapeutic

  8. Cellular immunity and immunopathology in autoimmune Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Bratland, Eirik; Husebye, Eystein S

    2011-04-10

    Autoimmune adrenocortical failure, or Addison's disease, is a prototypical organ-specific autoimmune disorder. In common with related autoimmune endocrinopathies, Addison's disease is only manageable to a certain extent with replacement therapy being the only treatment option. Unfortunately, the available therapy does not restore the physiological hormone levels and biorhythm. The key to progress in treating and preventing autoimmune Addison's disease lies in improving our understanding of the predisposing factors, the mechanisms responsible for the progression of the disease, and the interactions between adrenal antigens and effector cells and molecules of the immune system. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of T cells and cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of autoimmune Addison's disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 in pregnancy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are conditions characterized by the association of two or more organ-specific disorders. On the basis of the clinical picture, they are divided into four different types. If undiagnosed and untreated, autoimmune polyglandular syndromes may pose a serious risk to patients. We report here a case of a pregnant woman with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2. She was diagnosed with Addison's disease 11 months before the onset of the pregnancy and until the end of the first trimester the disease was effectively controlled by hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone treatment. In the tenth week of gestation, the patient developed Graves' disease and the treatment with propylthiouracil was started treatment leading to the unmasking of adrenal insufficiency, which required titration of hydrocortisone dose. Our study shows that autoimmune polyglandular syndromes should be considered in every pregnant woman with any autoimmune endocrine disease and that the treatment of these syndromes during gestation may be challenging.

  10. Diego and Giorgina Vergani: The two hearts of translational autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Selmi, Carlo; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the first textbook on autoimmune diseases in 1963, the knowledge in the field has exponentially grown into numerous tracks of research, particularly at benchside. Systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases, as in the case of the liver, have witnessed notable advances in terms of epidemiology, genetics, effector and regulatory mechanisms, and ultimately treatment. While the available tools for communication have provided accelerating progress rates, we recognize that key opinion leaders continue to provide significant contributions to the field. The present issue is dedicated to celebrate Giorgina Mieli-Vergani and Diego Vergani as two of the finest examples of excellence in autoimmune liver diseases and the broader field of autoimmunity. Diego and Giorgina are extremely well-liked Colleagues who fully represent the translational efforts between laboratory research and clinically relevant questions in the practice of pediatric liver diseases and autoimmune hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Auto-immune encephalitis as differential diagnosis of infectious encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Armangue, Thaís; Leypoldt, Frank; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the main types of autoimmune encephalitis with special emphasis on those associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface or synaptic proteins, and the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Recent findings There is a continuous expansion of the number of cell surface or synaptic proteins that are targets of autoimmunity. The most recently identified include the mGluR5, DPPX, and the GABAAR. In these and previously known autoimmune encephalitis (NMDAR, AMPAR, GABABR, LGI1, CASPR2), the prodromal symptoms or types of presentations often suggest a viral encephalitis. We review here clues that help in the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Moreover, recent investigations indicate that viral encephalitis (e.g., herpes simplex) can trigger synaptic autoimmunity. In all these disorders immunotherapy is usually effective. Summary Autoimmune encephalitis comprises an expanding group of potentially treatable disorders that should be included in the differential diagnosis of any type of encephalitis. PMID:24792345

  12. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003242.htm Abnormally dark or light skin To use the sharing features ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ...

  13. The natural history of autoimmune hepatitis presenting with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Panayi, Vasilis; Froud, Oliver J; Vine, Louisa; Laurent, Paul; Woolson, Kathy L; Hunter, Jeremy G; Madden, Richard G; Miller, Catherine; Palmer, Jo; Harris, Nicola; Mathew, Joe; Stableforth, Bill; Murray, Iain A; Dalton, Harry R

    2014-06-01

    Forty percent of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) present with acute jaundice/hepatitis. Such patients, when treated promptly, are thought to have a good prognosis. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of AIH in patients presenting with jaundice/hepatitis and to determine whether the diagnosis could have been made earlier, before presentation. This study is a retrospective review of 2249 consecutive patients who presented with jaundice to the Jaundice Hotline clinic, Truro, Cornwall, UK, over 15 years (1998-2013) and includes a review of the laboratory data over a 23-year period (1990-2013). Of the 955 patients with hepatocellular jaundice, 47 (5%) had criterion-referenced AIH: 35 female and 12 male, the median age was 65 years (range 15-91 years); the bilirubin concentration was 139 μmol/l (range 23-634 μmol/l) and the alanine transaminase level was 687 IU/l (range 22-2519 IU/l). Among the patients, 23/46 (50%) were cirrhotic on biopsy; 11/47 (23%) died: median time from diagnosis to death, 5 months (range 1-59); median age, 72 years (range 59-91 years). All 8/11 patients who died of liver-related causes were cirrhotic. Weight loss (P=0.04) and presence of cirrhosis (P=0.004) and varices (P=0.015) were more common among those who died. Among patients who died from liver-related causes, 6/8 (75%) died less than 6 months from diagnosis. Cirrhosis at presentation and oesophageal varices were associated with early liver-related deaths (P=0.011, 0.002 respectively). Liver function test results were available in 33/47 (70%) patients before presentation. Among these patients, 16 (49%) had abnormal alanine transaminase levels previously, and eight (50%) were cirrhotic at presentation. AIH presenting as jaundice/hepatitis was mainly observed in older women: 50% of the patients were cirrhotic, and liver-related mortality was high. Some of these deaths were potentially preventable by earlier diagnosis, as the patients had abnormal liver

  14. Role of DAF in protecting against T-cell autoreactivity that leads to experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    PubMed

    An, Fengqi; Li, Qing; Tu, Zhidan; Bu, Hong; Chan, Chi-Chao; Caspi, Rachel R; Lin, Feng

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the role of decay-accelerating factor (DAF), a cell surface complement regulator that recently has been linked to T-cell responses and autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). EAU was induced in wild-type (WT) and Daf1(-/-) mice, and their disease severities, IRBP specific Th1/Th17 responses, and cytokine expression profiles were compared. In a test of the efficacy of treatment with soluble mouse DAF protein, EAU was induced in disease-susceptible B10.RIII mice, and they were treated with 0.5 mg soluble DAF protein or equal volume of PBS IP every other day. Retinal histology and IRBP-specific T-cell responses were compared after 14 days. Both EAU incidence and histopathology scores were significantly greater in Daf1(-/-) mice. There was a >10-fold greater mononuclear cell influx into the retina together with severe vasculitic lesions, retinal folding, and photoreceptor cell layer destruction. There were 5- to 7-fold greater Th1 and 3- to 4-fold greater Th17 responses against IRBP in Daf1(-/-) mice with EAU, and they expressed significantly elevated levels of GM-CSF, IL-2, IL-3, and IFN-gamma. WT B10.RIII mice that received soluble DAF protein treatments exhibited decreased IRBP-specific Th1/Th17 responses and were protected from retinal injury compared with the mice that received PBS treatments. DAF significantly influences IRBP-specific Th1 and Th17 responses and disease severity in EAU. Systemic upregulation of DAF levels could be used to suppress retinal antigen(s)-specific autoimmunity to treat autoimmune posterior uveitis.

  15. The prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Booy, J D; Takata, J; Tomlinson, G; Urbach, D R

    2012-04-01

    Achalasia is a rare disease of the esophagus that has an unknown etiology. Genetic, infectious, and autoimmune mechanisms have each been proposed. Autoimmune diseases often occur in association with one another, either within a single individual or in a family. There have been separate case reports of patients with both achalasia and one or more autoimmune diseases, but no study has yet determined the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in the achalasia population. This paper aims to compare the prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with esophageal achalasia to the general population. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 193 achalasia patients who received treatment at Toronto's University Health Network between January 2000 and May 2010 to identify other autoimmune diseases and a number of control conditions. We determined the general population prevalence of autoimmune diseases from published epidemiological studies. The achalasia sample was, on average, 10-15 years older and had slightly more men than the control populations. Compared to the general population, patients with achalasia were 5.4 times more likely to have type I diabetes mellitus (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-19), 8.5 times as likely to have hypothyroidism (95% CI 5.0-14), 37 times as likely to have Sjögren's syndrome (95% CI 1.9-205), 43 times as likely to have systemic lupus erythematosus (95% CI 12-154), and 259 times as likely to have uveitis (95% CI 13-1438). Overall, patients with achalasia were 3.6 times more likely to suffer from any autoimmune condition (95% CI 2.5-5.3). Our findings are consistent with the impression that achalasia's etiology has an autoimmune component. Further research is needed to more conclusively define achalasia as an autoimmune disease. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  16. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  17. Google-driven search for big data in autoimmune geoepidemiology: analysis of 394,827 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Kostov, Belchin; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni; Bosch, Xavier; Buss, David; Trilla, Antoni; Stone, John H; Khamashta, Munther A; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-08-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, although their epidemiological profile varies significantly country by country. We explored the potential of the Google search engine to collect and merge large series (>1000 patients) of SADs reported in the Pubmed library, with the aim of obtaining a high-definition geoepidemiological picture of each disease. We collected data from 394,827 patients with SADs. Analysis showed a predominance of medical vs. administrative databases (74% vs. 26%), public health system vs. health insurance resources (88% vs. 12%) and patient-based vs. population-based designs (82% vs. 18%). The most unbalanced gender ratio was found in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), with nearly 10 females affected per 1 male, followed by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (ratio of nearly 5:1). Each disease predominantly affects a specific age group: children (Kawasaki disease, primary immunodeficiencies and Schonlein-Henoch disease), young people (SLE Behçet disease and sarcoidosis), middle-aged people (SSc, vasculitis and pSS) and the elderly (amyloidosis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and giant cell arteritis). We found significant differences in the geographical distribution of studies for each disease, and a higher frequency of the three SADs with available data (SLE, inflammatory myopathies and Kawasaki disease) in African-American patients. Using a "big data" approach enabled hitherto unseen connections in SADs to emerge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P < 0.05), and in patients with positive than negative urine findings for cannabis (68 versus 57%, P < 0.05). Patients with ST abnormalities were more often males than females (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05), had a history of seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P < 0.05), had positive than negative urine findings for cannabis more often (26 versus 15%, P < 0.01) and had negative than positive urine findings for methadone more often (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05). QTc prolongation was more frequent in patients with high dosages of maintenance drugs than in patients with medium or low dosages (27 versus 12 versus 10%, P < 0.05) and in patients whose urine findings were positive than negative for methadone (23 versus 11%, P < 0.001) as well as for benzodiazepines (17 versus 9%, P < 0.05). Limitations of the data are that in most cases other risk factors for the cardiac abnormalities were not known. ECG abnormalities are frequent in opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation

  19. Goodpasture's autoimmune disease - A collagen IV disorder.

    PubMed

    Pedchenko, Vadim; Richard Kitching, A; Hudson, Billy G

    2018-05-12

    Goodpasture's (GP) disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the deposition of pathogenic autoantibodies in basement membranes of kidney and lung eliciting rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage. The principal autoantigen is the α345 network of collagen IV, which expression is restricted to target tissues. Recent discoveries include a key role of chloride and bromide for network assembly, a novel posttranslational modification of the antigen, a sulfilimine bond that crosslinks the antigen, and the mechanistic role of HLA in genetic susceptibility and resistance to GP disease. These advances provide further insights into molecular mechanisms of initiation and progression of GP disease and serve as a basis for developing of novel diagnostic tools and therapies for treatment of Goodpasture's disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Autoimmune neuropathies associated to rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Faber, Ingrid; Nucci, Anamarli; Appenzeller, Simone; França, Marcondes C

    2017-04-01

    Systemic manifestations are frequent in autoimmune rheumatic diseases and include peripheral nervous system damage. Neuron cell body, axons and myelin sheath may all be affected in this context. This involvement results in severe and sometimes disabling symptoms. Sensory, motor and autonomic features may be present in different patterns that emerge as peculiar clinical pictures. Prompt recognition of these neuropathies is pivotal to guide treatment and reduce the risks of long term disability. In this review, we aim to describe the main immune-mediated neuropathies associated to rheumatic diseases: sensory neuronopathies, multiple mononeuropathies and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, with an emphasis on clinical features and therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dry Eye as a Mucosal Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Michael E.; Schaumburg, Chris S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye is a common ocular surface inflammatory disease that significantly affects quality of life. Dysfunction of the lacrimal function unit (LFU) alters tear composition and breaks ocular surface homeostasis, facilitating chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Accordingly, the most effective treatments to date are geared towards reducing inflammation and restoring normal tear film. The pathogenic role of CD4+ T cells is well known, and the field is rapidly realizing the complexity of other innate and adaptive immune factors involved in the development and progression of disease. The data support the hypothesis that dry eye is a localized autoimmune disease originating from an imbalance in the protective immunoregulatory and proinflammatory pathways of the ocular surface. PMID:23360156

  2. A diffuse mixed histiocytic-lymphocytic lymphoma associated with immunological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, K J

    1979-01-01

    A diffuse generalized lymphoma histologically classified as mixed histiocytic-lymphocytic type and associated with profound immunologie abnormalities is reported. The patient had an autoimmune hemolytic anemia, an autoimmune thrombocytopenia, polyclonally increased IgG and IgM, polyclonal secretion of kappa and lamda chains into urine, very low serum complement C3 and antibodies against glomerulus and smooth muscle. When studied with the modern surface-marker techniques, the lesion was found to be composed of entirely lymphoid cells of the B-lymphocyte series. The proper classification of this tumor could be a primitive immunoblastic sarcoma. The relationship of the present tumor to the non-neoplastic angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathia is discussed. The necessity of applying the surface-marker techniques in the classification of malignant lymphomas is emphasized.

  3. Cocaine/levamisole-associated autoimmune syndrome: a disease of neutrophil-mediated autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Michael J; Jen, Kuang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Levamisole was previously used for its immunomodulatory properties to treat rheumatoid arthritis and some cancers. However, because of serious side-effects, it was taken off the market in the United States. Recently, levamisole has reemerged as a popular cocaine adulterant. Some individuals who consume levamisole-adulterated cocaine can develop a life-threatening autoimmune syndrome. In this review, the medical consequences of levamisole exposure and postulated mechanisms by which levamisole induces these adverse effects are discussed. Although agranulocytosis and cutaneous vasculitis are the major findings in patients who develop cocaine/levamisole-associated autoimmune syndrome (CLAAS), more recent experience indicates that other organ systems can be involved as well. Current studies point to neutrophil activation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation with subsequent antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-mediated tissue injury as a possible mechanism of CLAAS. In the past decade, the detrimental effects of levamisole have reemerged because of its popularity as a cocaine adulterant. Although infrequent, some individuals develop a systemic autoimmune syndrome characterized by immune-mediated agranulocytosis and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-mediated vasculitis. Mechanistically, neutrophil antigens appear to be a major player in inducing CLAAS. Prompt cessation of levamisole exposure is key to treatment, although relapses are frequent because of the addictive effects of cocaine and the high prevalence of levamisole within the cocaine supply.

  4. A candidate gene for autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Landouré, Guida; Knight, Melanie A.; Stanescu, Horia; Taye, Addis A.; Shi, Yijun; Diallo, Oumarou; Johnson, Janel O.; Hernandez, Dena; Traynor, Bryan J.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Elkahloun, Abdel; Rinaldi, Carlo; Vincent, Angela; Willcox, Nick; Kleta, Robert; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We sought to identify a causative mutation in a previously reported kindred with parental consanguinity and 5 of 10 siblings with adult-onset autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Methods: We performed genome-wide homozygosity mapping, and sequenced all known genes in the one region of extended homozygosity. Quantitative and allele-specific reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) were performed on a candidate gene to determine the RNA expression level in affected siblings and controls and the relative abundance of the wild-type and mutant alleles in a heterozygote. Results: A region of shared homozygosity at chromosome 13q13.3–13q14.11 was found in 4 affected siblings and 1 unaffected sibling. A homozygous single nucleotide variant was found in the 3′-untranslated region of the ecto-NADH oxidase 1 gene (ENOX1). No other variants likely to be pathogenic were found in genes in this region or elsewhere. The ENOX1 sequence variant was not found in 764 controls. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that expression of ENOX1 decreased to about 20% of normal levels in lymphoblastoid cells from individuals homozygous for the variant and to about 50% in 2 unaffected heterozygotes. Allele-specific RT-PCR showed a 55%–60% reduction in the level of the variant transcript in heterozygous cells due to reduced mRNA stability. Conclusion: These results indicate that this sequence variant in ENOX1 may contribute to the familial autoimmune myasthenia in these patients. PMID:22744667

  5. IDO2 in Immunomodulation and Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, George C.; Metz, Richard; Muller, Alexander J.; Merlo, Lauren M. F.; Mandik-Nayak, Laura

    2014-01-01

    IDO2 is a relative of IDO1 implicated in tryptophan catabolism and immune modulation but its specific contributions to normal physiology and pathophysiology are not known. Evolutionary genetic studies suggest that IDO2 has a unique function ancestral to IDO1. In mice, IDO2 gene deletion does not appreciably affect embryonic development or hematopoiesis, but it leads to defects in allergic or autoimmune responses and in the ability of IDO1 to influence the generation of T regulatory cells. Gene expression studies indicate that IDO2 is a basally and more narrowly expressed gene than IDO1 and that IDO2 is uniquely regulated by AhR, which serves as a physiological receptor for the tryptophan catabolite kynurenine. In the established KRN transgenic mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, where IDO1 gene deletion has no effect, IDO2 deletion selectively blunts responses to autoantigen but has no effect on responses to neoantigen challenge. In human populations, natural variations in IDO2 gene sequence that attenuate enzymatic activity have been reported to influence brain cancer control and adaptive immune responses to the IDO2 protein itself, consistent with the concept that IDO2 is involved in shaping immune tolerance in human beings. Biochemical and pharmacological studies provide further evidence of differences in IDO2 enzymology and function relative to IDO1. We suggest that IDO2 may act in a distinct manner from IDO1 as a set-point for tolerance to “altered-self” antigens along the self-non-self continuum where immune challenges from cancer and autoimmunity may arise. PMID:25477879

  6. IDO2 in Immunomodulation and Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, George C; Metz, Richard; Muller, Alexander J; Merlo, Lauren M F; Mandik-Nayak, Laura

    2014-01-01

    IDO2 is a relative of IDO1 implicated in tryptophan catabolism and immune modulation but its specific contributions to normal physiology and pathophysiology are not known. Evolutionary genetic studies suggest that IDO2 has a unique function ancestral to IDO1. In mice, IDO2 gene deletion does not appreciably affect embryonic development or hematopoiesis, but it leads to defects in allergic or autoimmune responses and in the ability of IDO1 to influence the generation of T regulatory cells. Gene expression studies indicate that IDO2 is a basally and more narrowly expressed gene than IDO1 and that IDO2 is uniquely regulated by AhR, which serves as a physiological receptor for the tryptophan catabolite kynurenine. In the established KRN transgenic mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, where IDO1 gene deletion has no effect, IDO2 deletion selectively blunts responses to autoantigen but has no effect on responses to neoantigen challenge. In human populations, natural variations in IDO2 gene sequence that attenuate enzymatic activity have been reported to influence brain cancer control and adaptive immune responses to the IDO2 protein itself, consistent with the concept that IDO2 is involved in shaping immune tolerance in human beings. Biochemical and pharmacological studies provide further evidence of differences in IDO2 enzymology and function relative to IDO1. We suggest that IDO2 may act in a distinct manner from IDO1 as a set-point for tolerance to "altered-self" antigens along the self-non-self continuum where immune challenges from cancer and autoimmunity may arise.

  7. Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency–induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thomas K.; Tian, Xiangjun; Luo, Meng; Zhou, Jain; Tatevian, Nina; Molina, Jose G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Gomez, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cell deficiency causes lethal, CD4+ T cell–driven autoimmune diseases. Stem cell transplantation is used to treat these diseases, but this procedure is limited by the availability of a suitable donor. The intestinal microbiota drives host immune homeostasis by regulating the differentiation and expansion of T reg, Th1, and Th2 cells. It is currently unclear if T reg cell deficiency–mediated autoimmune disorders can be treated by targeting the enteric microbiota. Here, we demonstrate that Foxp3+ T reg cell deficiency results in gut microbial dysbiosis and autoimmunity over the lifespan of scurfy (SF) mouse. Remodeling microbiota with Lactobacillus reuteri prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. L. reuteri changed the metabolomic profile disrupted by T reg cell deficiency, and a major effect was to restore levels of the purine metabolite inosine. Feeding inosine itself prolonged life and inhibited multiorgan inflammation by reducing Th1/Th2 cells and their associated cytokines. Mechanistically, the inhibition of inosine on the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro depended on adenosine A2A receptors, which were also required for the efficacy of inosine and of L. reuteri in vivo. These results reveal that the microbiota–inosine–A2A receptor axis might represent a potential avenue for combatting autoimmune diseases mediated by T reg cell dysfunction. PMID:27994068

  8. High salt intake does not exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Kolypetri, P; Randell, E; Van Vliet, B N; Carayanniotis, G

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that high salt (HS) intake exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and have raised the possibility that a HS diet may comprise a risk factor for autoimmune diseases in general. In this report, we have examined whether a HS diet regimen could exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis, including spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT) in non-obese diabetic (NOD.H2h4) mice, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in C57BL/6J mice challenged with thyroglobulin (Tg) and EAT in CBA/J mice challenged with the Tg peptide (2549–2560). The physiological impact of HS intake was confirmed by enhanced water consumption and suppressed aldosterone levels in all strains. However, the HS treatment failed to significantly affect the incidence and severity of SAT or EAT or Tg-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels, relative to control mice maintained on a normal salt diet. In three experimental models, these data demonstrate that HS intake does not exacerbate autoimmune thyroiditis, indicating that a HS diet is not a risk factor for all autoimmune diseases. PMID:24528002

  9. The Potential Roles of Bisphenol A (BPA) Pathogenesis in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer found in commonly used consumer plastic goods. Although much attention in recent years has been placed on BPA's impact as an endocrine disruptor, it also appears to activate many immune pathways involved in both autoimmune disease development and autoimmune reactivity provocation. The current scientific literature is void of research papers linking BPA directly to human or animal onset of autoimmunity. This paper explores the impact of BPA on immune reactivity and the potential roles these mechanisms may have on the development or provocation of autoimmune diseases. Potential mechanisms by which BPA may be a contributing risk factor to autoimmune disease development and progression include its impact on hyperprolactinemia, estrogenic immune signaling, cytochrome P450 enzyme disruption, immune signal transduction pathway alteration, cytokine polarization, aryl hydrocarbon activation of Th-17 receptors, molecular mimicry, macrophage activation, lipopolysaccharide activation, and immunoglobulin pathophysiology. In this paper a review of these known autoimmune triggering mechanisms will be correlated with BPA exposure, thereby suggesting that BPA has a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:24804084

  10. [Oral diseases in auto-immune polyendocrine syndrome type 1].

    PubMed

    Proust-Lemoine, Emmanuelle; Guyot, Sylvie

    2017-09-01

    Auto-immune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) also called Auto-immune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy (APECED) is a rare monogenic childhood-onset auto-immune disease. This autosomal recessive disorder is caused by mutations in the auto-immune regulator (AIRE) gene, and leads to autoimmunity targeting peripheral tissues. There is a wide variability in clinical phenotypes in patients with APSI, with auto-immune endocrine and non-endocrine disorders, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. These patients suffer from oral diseases such as dental enamel hypoplasia and candidiasis. Both are frequently described, and in recent series, enamel hypoplasia and candidiasis are even the most frequent components of APS1 together with hypoparathyroidism. Both often occur during childhood (before 5 years old for canrdidiasis, and before 15 years old for enamel hypoplasia). Oral candidiasis is recurrent all life long, could become resistant to azole antifungal after years of treatment, and be carcinogenic, leading to severe oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral components of APS1 should be diagnosed and rigorously treated. Dental enamel hypoplasia and/or recurrent oral candidiasis in association with auto-immune diseases in a young child should prompt APS1 diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Parallel Aspects of the Microenvironment in Cancer and Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rahat, Michal A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and autoimmune diseases are fundamentally different pathological conditions. In cancer, the immune response is suppressed and unable to eradicate the transformed self-cells, while in autoimmune diseases it is hyperactivated against a self-antigen, leading to tissue injury. Yet, mechanistically, similarities in the triggering of the immune responses can be observed. In this review, we highlight some parallel aspects of the microenvironment in cancer and autoimmune diseases, especially hypoxia, and the role of macrophages, neutrophils, and their interaction. Macrophages, owing to their plastic mode of activation, can generate a pro- or antitumoral microenvironment. Similarly, in autoimmune diseases, macrophages tip the Th1/Th2 balance via various effector cytokines. The contribution of neutrophils, an additional plastic innate immune cell population, to the microenvironment and disease progression is recently gaining more prominence in both cancer and autoimmune diseases, as they can secrete cytokines, chemokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as acquire an enhanced ability to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that are now considered important initiators of autoimmune diseases. Understanding the contribution of macrophages and neutrophils to the cancerous or autoimmune microenvironment, as well as the role their interaction and cooperation play, may help identify new targets and improve therapeutic strategies. PMID:26997761

  12. Autosomal recessive PGM3 mutations link glycosylation defects to atopy, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, and neurocognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Xiaomin; Ichikawa, Mie; Lyons, Jonathan J.; Datta, Shrimati; Lamborn, Ian T.; Jing, Huie; Kim, Emily S.; Biancalana, Matthew; Wolfe, Lynne A.; DiMaggio, Thomas; Matthews, Helen F.; Kranick, Sarah M.; Stone, Kelly D.; Holland, Steven M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Hughes, Jason D.; Mehmet, Huseyin; McElwee, Joshua; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Freeze, Hudson H.; Su, Helen C.; Milner, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying genetic syndromes that lead to significant atopic disease can open new pathways for investigation and intervention in allergy. Objective To define a genetic syndrome of severe atopy, elevated serum IgE, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, and motor and neurocognitive impairment. Methods Eight patients from two families who had similar syndromic features were studied. Thorough clinical evaluations, including brain MRI and sensory evoked potentials, were performed. Peripheral lymphocyte flow cytometry, antibody responses, and T cell cytokine production were measured. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify disease-causing mutations. Immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, enzymatic assays, nucleotide sugar and sugar phosphate analyses along with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of glycans were used to determine the molecular consequences of the mutations. Results Marked atopy and autoimmunity were associated with increased TH2 and TH17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells. Bacterial and viral infection susceptibility were noted along with T cell lymphopenia, particularly of CD8+ T cells, and reduced memory B cells. Apparent brain hypomyelination resulted in markedly delayed evoked potentials and likely contributed to neurological abnormalities. Disease segregated with novel autosomal recessive mutations in a single gene, phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3). Although PGM3 protein expression was variably diminished, impaired function was demonstrated by decreased enzyme activity and reduced UDP-GlcNAc, along with decreased O- and N-linked protein glycosylation in patients’ cells. These results define a new Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation. Conclusions Autosomal recessive, hypomorphic PGM3 mutations underlie a disorder of severe atopy, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, intellectual disability and hypomyelination. PMID:24589341

  13. Clinic-cytologic study of conjunctivochalasis and its relation to thyroid autoimmune diseases: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sandra Flavia Fiorentini; de Sousa, Luciene B; Vieira, Luis A; Chiamollera, Maria I; Barros, Jeison de N

    2006-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of conjunctivochalasis in patients with immune thyroid diseases, to determine whether there is any association between the 2 diseases, and to determine cytologic study of conjunctivochalasis through the cytology impression test. A clinical prospective cohort study carried out by the External Diseases Department in the Ophthalmology Sector and the Thyroid Department in the Endocrinology Sector at Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP). The patients included were divided into 2 groups following these inclusion criteria: a control group of 25 patients without thyroid diseases, confirmed after clinical and laboratory examinations (thyroid hormones), or any other ocular diseases. The study group consisted of 31 patients with thyroid diseases, the diagnosis of which was confirmed by the Endocrinology Sector. The thyroidopathies included were autoimmune diseases but excluded nonautoimmune diseases. A protocol endorsed by the UNIFESP was followed, using clinical and ophthalmological history, biomicroscopy, and impression cytology. Fifty-two percent of patients without thyroid diseases and 88% of patients with thyroid diseases presented with conjunctivochalasis. The risk ratio was 1.705 (Pr > chi(2) = 0.0038), indicating that there is an association between them. For the impression cytology in inferior bulbar conjunctiva, there was an association between the result of the impression cytology and conjunctivochalasis (Pearson chi(2) = 10.1190 Pr = 0.006). The prevalence of conjunctivochalasis in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases was 88%. Patients with autoimmune thyroidopathy presented higher percentages of conjunctivochalasis than the control group, confirming the association between them. The cytologic study showed the highest prevalence of abnormal surface features in eyes with conjunctivochalasis.

  14. MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

  15. Vaccination and autoimmunity-'vaccinosis': a dangerous liaison?

    PubMed

    Shoenfeld, Y; Aron-Maor, A

    2000-02-01

    The question of a connection between vaccination and autoimmune illness (or phenomena) is surrounded by controversy. A heated debate is going on regarding the causality between vaccines, such as measles and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Brain antibodies as well as clinical symptoms have been found in patients vaccinated against those diseases. Other autoimmune illnesses have been associated with vaccinations. Tetanus toxoid, influenza vaccines, polio vaccine, and others, have been related to phenomena ranging from autoantibodies production to full-blown illness (such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA)). Conflicting data exists regarding also the connection between autism and vaccination with measles vaccine. So far only one controlled study of an experimental animal model has been published, in which the possible causal relation between vaccines and autoimmune findings has been examined: in healthy puppies immunized with a variety of commonly given vaccines, a variety of autoantibodies have been documented but no frank autoimmune illness was recorded. The findings could also represent a polyclonal activation (adjuvant reaction). The mechanism (or mechanisms) of autoimmune reactions following immunization has not yet been elucidated. One of the possibilities is molecular mimicry; when a structural similarity exists between some viral antigen (or other component of the vaccine) and a self-antigen. This similarity may be the trigger to the autoimmune reaction. Other possible mechanisms are discussed. Even though the data regarding the relation between vaccination and autoimmune disease is conflicting, it seems that some autoimmune phenomena are clearly related to immunization (e.g. Guillain-Barre syndrome). The issue of the risk of vaccination remains a philosophical one, since to date the advantages of this policy have not been refuted, while the risk for autoimmune disease has not been irrevocably proved. We discuss the pros and cons of this

  16. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Risk of Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Claire; Furlano, Raoul I; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2016-02-01

    An increased risk of autoimmune disease has been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink [CPRD], this study set out to further examine this relationship. Patients with a first-time IBD diagnosis were randomly matched to an equal-sized IBD-free comparison group. Incidence rates for new-onset autoimmune diseases were estimated. A nested case-control analysis comprising IBD patients was conducted, using conditional logistic regression to assess whether IBD severity, duration, or treatment influences the risk of developing autoimmune diseases. During follow-up, 1069 IBD and 585 IBD-free patients developed an incident autoimmune disease. An increased incidence of autoimmune disease was observed in IBD patients (incidence rate [IR] 9.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.09-10.24) compared with the non-IBD comparison group [IR 5.22, 95% CI 4.82-5.66]. In IBD patients, increased disease severity was associated with an increased risk of autoimmune disease development (odds ratio [OR] 1.62, 95% CI 1.28-2.05). Current antibiotic use was also associated with an increased risk [adjusted OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.07-2.78]. A reduced risk of incident autoimmune diseases was observed for current long-term users of aminosalicylates [adjusted OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.91]. Individuals with IBD had an increased risk of developing an autoimmune disease. Increased disease severity and current antibiotic use were associated with an increased relative risk of developing additional autoimmune diseases in IBD patients. Long-term current aminosalicylate use was associated with a reduced risk. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  18. [SPECIFIC CLINICAL FEATURES OF TYPE 1 AUTOIMMUNE POLYGLANDULAR SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Mikhina, M S; Molashenko, N V; Troshina, E A; Orlova, E M; Sozaeva, L S; Eystein, S H; Breivik, S

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a primary autoimmune disorder affecting two or more peripheral endocrine glands and responsible for their incompetence. It is frequently combined with various organ-specific non-endocrine diseases. Patients with this pathology need life-long replacement therapy and dynamic observation by endocrinologists and other specialists to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment and detect new components of the disease. We report a variant of type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Special emphasis is laid on the importance of succession of actions of endocrinologists and specialists in related medical disciplines dealing with children and adult patients.

  19. Epigenetic Modulation as a Therapeutic Prospect for Treatment of Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ciechomska, Marzena; O'Reilly, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases are considered as autoimmune diseases, meaning that the balance between recognition of pathogens and avoidance of self-attack is impaired and the immune system attacks and destroys its own healthy tissue. Treatment with conventional Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) and/or Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) is often associated with various adverse reactions due to unspecific and toxic properties of those drugs. Although biologic drugs have largely improved the outcome in many patients, such drugs still pose significant problems and fail to provide a solution to all patients. Therefore, development of more effective treatments and improvements in early diagnosis of rheumatic diseases are badly needed in order to increase patient's functioning and quality of life. The reversible nature of epigenetic mechanisms offers a new class of drugs that modulate the immune system and inflammation. In fact, epigenetic drugs are already in use in some types of cancer or cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, epigenetic-based therapeutics that control autoimmunity and chronic inflammatory process have broad implications for the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of rheumatic diseases. This review summarises the latest information about potential therapeutic application of epigenetic modification in targeting immune abnormalities and inflammation of rheumatic diseases.

  20. Peptide-MHC-based nanomedicines for autoimmunity function as T-cell receptor microclustering devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Santiswarup; Shao, Kun; Yang, Yang; Clemente-Casares, Xavier; Solé, Patricia; Clemente, Antonio; Blanco, Jesús; Dai, Qin; Song, Fayi; Liu, Shang Wan; Yamanouchi, Jun; Umeshappa, Channakeshava Sokke; Nanjundappa, Roopa Hebbandi; Detampel, Pascal; Amrein, Matthias; Fandos, César; Tanguay, Robert; Newbigging, Susan; Serra, Pau; Khadra, Anmar; Chan, Warren C. W.; Santamaria, Pere

    2017-07-01

    We have shown that nanoparticles (NPs) can be used as ligand-multimerization platforms to activate specific cellular receptors in vivo. Nanoparticles coated with autoimmune disease-relevant peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC) blunted autoimmune responses by triggering the differentiation and expansion of antigen-specific regulatory T cells in vivo. Here, we define the engineering principles impacting biological activity, detail a synthesis process yielding safe and stable compounds, and visualize how these nanomedicines interact with cognate T cells. We find that the triggering properties of pMHC-NPs are a function of pMHC intermolecular distance and involve the sustained assembly of large antigen receptor microclusters on murine and human cognate T cells. These compounds show no off-target toxicity in zebrafish embryos, do not cause haematological, biochemical or histological abnormalities, and are rapidly captured by phagocytes or processed by the hepatobiliary system. This work lays the groundwork for the design of ligand-based NP formulations to re-program in vivo cellular responses using nanotechnology.

  1. The Th17 Lineage: From Barrier Surfaces Homeostasis to Autoimmunity, Cancer, and HIV-1 Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wacleche, Vanessa Sue; Landay, Alan; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela

    2017-10-19

    The T helper 17 (Th17) cells represent a subset of CD4+ T-cells with unique effector functions, developmental plasticity, and stem-cell features. Th17 cells bridge innate and adaptive immunity against fungal and bacterial infections at skin and mucosal barrier surfaces. Although Th17 cells have been extensively studied in the context of autoimmunity, their role in various other pathologies is underexplored and remains an area of open investigation. This review summarizes the history of Th17 cell discovery and the current knowledge relative to the beneficial role of Th17 cells in maintaining mucosal immunity homeostasis. We further discuss the concept of Th17 pathogenicity in the context of autoimmunity, cancer, and HIV infection, and we review the most recent discoveries on molecular mechanisms regulating HIV replication/persistence in pathogenic Th17 cells. Finally, we stress the need for novel fundamental research discovery-based Th17-specific therapeutic interventions to treat pathogenic conditions associated with Th17 abnormalities, including HIV infection.

  2. Neuromyelitis optica and the evolving spectrum of autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathies: a decade later

    PubMed Central

    Pittock, Sean J.; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of AQP4-IgG (a pathogenic antibody that targets the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4) as the first sensitive and specific biomarker for any inflammatory central nervous system demyelinating disease, has shifted emphasis from the oligodendrocyte and myelin to the astrocyte as a central immunopathogenic player. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders (SD) represent an evolving spectrum of IDDs extending beyond the optic nerves and spinal cord to include the brain (especially in children) and, rarely, muscle. NMOSD typical brain lesions are located in areas that highly express the target antigen, AQP4, including the circumventricular organs (accounting for intractable nausea and vomiting) and the diencephalon (accounting for sleep disorders, endocrinopathies, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain abnormalities fulfill Barkoff criteria for multiple sclerosis in up to 10% of patients. As the spectrum broadens, the importance of highly specific assays that detect pathogenic AQP4-IgG targeting extracellular epitopes of AQP4 cannot be overemphasized. The rapid evolution of our understanding of the immunobiology of AQP4 autoimmunity necessitates continuing revision of NMOSD diagnostic criteria. Here, we describe scientific advances that have occurred since the discovery of NMO-IgG in 2004 and review novel targeted immunotherapies. We also suggest that NMOSDs should now be considered under the umbrella term autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy. PMID:26096370

  3. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  4. Possible autoimmune hepatitis induced after chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yoshiko; Sato, Chikako; Tomita, Kyoko; Ishii-Aso, Rika; Haga, Hiroaki; Okumoto, Kazuo; Nishise, Yuko; Watanabe, Hisayoshi; Saito, Takafumi; Ueno, Yoshiyuki

    2014-02-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) can be manifested in a variety of systemic conditions, including interstitial pneumonia, malignant lymphoma, and coronary aneurysm. Sometimes it may be associated with hepatic failure, although the mechanism underlying CAEBV-related hepatotoxicity remains unclear. We encountered a case of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) associated with CAEBV. A 61-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of abnormal liver enzyme levels after initial diagnosis of CAEBV had been made by laboratory tests and liver biopsy. On admission, positivity for anti-nuclear antibody was evident, and examination of the liver biopsy specimen showed findings compatible with AIH. Steroid administration was initiated, and the liver function parameters subsequently improved. Although phenotypic changes in liver biopsy specimens are rare in this condition, the present case could provide clues to the possible pathogenesis of AIH.

  5. Approach to the patient with abnormal liver tests.

    PubMed

    Mahl, T C

    1998-01-01

    Patients with abnormal liver blood tests are frequently encountered by primary care practitioners. An understanding of the cellular implications of these abnormalities is helpful in determining the etiology of liver injury. Elevated serum aminotransferases suggest injury of hepatocytes. Elevations in alkaline phosphatase suggest injury to any part of the biliary tree. Neither of these enzymes measures liver function. Serum bilirubin and albumin levels, as well as prothrombin time, do measure function and can be used in conjunction with the physical examination and the specific etiology of the patient's disorder to determine a patient's prognosis. Many diverse disorders result in similar biochemical patterns of liver injury. The history, physical examination, and use of specific disease markers (hepatitis serology, autoimmune markers, and so forth) help to narrow the differential diagnosis. The definitive diagnosis of all liver diseases usually rests on histology: the liver biopsy is the gold standard. With the advent of treatments for liver disease, identifying and accurately diagnosing patients with liver disorders will result in improved quality of life and survival.

  6. Glutamate receptor antibodies in neurological diseases: anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies, anti-mGluR1 antibodies or anti-mGluR5 antibodies are present in subpopulations of patients with either: epilepsy, encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric SLE, Sjogren's syndrome, schizophrenia, mania or stroke. These autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies can bind neurons in few brain regions, activate glutamate receptors, decrease glutamate receptor's expression, impair glutamate-induced signaling and function, activate blood brain barrier endothelial cells, kill neurons, damage the brain, induce behavioral/psychiatric/cognitive abnormalities and ataxia in animal models, and can be removed or silenced in some patients by immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Levite, Mia

    2014-08-01

    -glutamate receptor antibodies is discussed separately in this very comprehensive review, with regards to: the human diseases in which these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies were found thus far, their presence and production in the nervous system, their association with various psychiatric/behavioral/cognitive/motor impairments, their possible association with certain infectious organisms, their detrimental effects in vitro as well as in vivo in animal models in mice, rats or rabbits, and their diverse and unique mechanisms of action. The review also covers the very encouraging positive responses to immunotherapy of some patients that have either of the above-mentioned anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, and that suffer from various neurological diseases/problems. All the above are also summarized in the review's five schematic and useful figures, for each type of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies separately. The review ends with a summary of all the main findings, and with recommended guidelines for diagnosis, therapy, drug design and future investigations. In the nut shell, the human studies, the in vitro studies, as well as the in vivo studies in animal models in mice, rats and rabbit revealed the following findings regarding the five different types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies: (1) Anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies are present in ~25-30% of patients with different types of Epilepsy. When these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies (or other types of autoimmune antibodies) are found in Epilepsy patients, and when these autoimmune antibodies are suspected to induce or aggravate the seizures and/or the cognitive/psychiatric/behavioral impairments that sometimes accompany the seizures, the Epilepsy is called 'Autoimmune Epilepsy'. In some patients with 'Autoimmune Epilepsy' the anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies associate significantly with psychiatric/cognitive/behavior abnormalities. In vitro and/or in animal models, the anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies by themselves induce many

  7. Endocrine abnormalities in lithium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Gabriella; Mishra, Vinita; Nikolova, Stanka

    2017-10-01

    Lithium toxicity can manifest as a variety of biochemical -abnormalities. This case report describes a patient -presenting to the emergency department with neuropsychiatric -symptoms on a background of bipolar disorder, for which she was prescribed lithium for 26 years previously. Cases of lithium toxicity are rare but can be severe and this case report -demonstrates to clinicians that they must be thorough in investigating patients with lithium toxicity, as there are many potential abnormalities that can manifest concurrently. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  8. Pregnancy outcomes among patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and uterine anatomic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabbai, Daniel; Harlev, Avi; Friger, Michael; Steiner, Naama; Sergienko, Ruslan; Kreinin, Andrey; Bashiri, Asher

    2017-07-25

    Different etiologies for recurrent pregnancy loss have been identified, among them are: anatomical, endocrine, genetic, chromosomal and thrombophilia pathologies. To assess medical and obstetric characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes, among women with uterine abnormalities and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). This study also aims to assess the impact of uterine anatomic surgical correction on pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective case control study of 313 patients with two or more consecutive pregnancy losses followed by a subsequent (index) pregnancy. Anatomic abnormalities were detected in 80 patients. All patients were evaluated and treated in the RPL clinic at Soroka University Medical Center. Out of 80 patients with uterine anatomic abnormalities, 19 underwent surgical correction, 32 did not and 29 had no clear record of surgical intervention, and thus were excluded from this study. Women with anatomic abnormalities had a higher rate of previous cesarean section (18.8% vs. 8.6%, P=0.022), tended to have a lower number of previous live births (1.05 vs. 1.37, P=0.07), and a higher rate of preterm delivery (22.9% vs. 10%, P=0.037). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, anatomic abnormality was identified as an independent risk factor for RPL in patients with previous cesarean section after controlling for place of residence, positive genetic/autoimmune/endocrine workup, and fertility problems (OR 7.22; 95% CI 1.17-44.54, P=0.03). Women suffering from anatomic abnormalities tended to have a higher rate of pregnancy loss compared to those without anatomic abnormalities (40% vs. 30.9%, P=0.2). The difference in pregnancy loss rate among women who underwent surgical correction compared to those who did not was not statistically significant. In patients with previous cesarean section, uterine abnormality is an independent risk factor for pregnancy loss. Surgical correction of uterine abnormalities among RPL patients might have the potential to improve live

  9. The psychosocial impact of an abnormal cervical smear result.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Mélanie; Brisson, Marc; Maunsell, Elizabeth; Franco, Eduardo L; Coutlée, François; Ferenczy, Alex; Fisher, William; Mansi, James A

    2012-10-01

    Data on the impact of abnormal cervical smear results on health-related quality of life (HrQoL) are scarce. We aimed to (i) prospectively assess the HrQoL of women who were informed of an abnormal smear result; (ii) identify predictors of greater negative psychosocial impact of an abnormal result; and (iii) prospectively estimate the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost following an abnormal result. Between 08/2006 and 08/2008, 492 women with an abnormal result and 460 women with a normal result, frequency matched for age and clinic, were recruited across Canada. HrQoL was measured at recruitment and 4 and 12 weeks later with the EuroQol, Short Form-12, short Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and HPV Impact Profile. Three blocks of potential predictors of higher psychosocial impact were tested by hierarchical modeling: (i) socio-demographics; (ii) sexual activity; and (iii) smear result severity, communication, and understanding. Receiving an abnormal result significantly increased anxiety (STAI mean difference between both groups = 8.3). Initial anxiety decreased over time for the majority of women. However, 35% of women had clinically meaningful anxiety at 12 weeks (i.e. STAI scores ≥0.5 standard deviation of the controls). These women reported a lower socio-economic level, did not completely understand the information about their result and perceived themselves at higher risk of cancer. QALY lost following an abnormal result were between 0.007 and 0.009. Receiving an abnormal smear has a statistically significant and clinically meaningful negative impact on mental health. However, this negative impact subsides after 12 weeks for the majority of women. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [A case of anti-LKM 1 positive autoimmune hepatitis accompanied by systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Hae Kyung; Park, Tae Il; John, Byung Min; Kang, Sung Hwan; Lee, Yoon Serk; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Uh Joo; Lee, Tae Seung; Yoon, Gwi Ok

    2008-03-01

    Overlap of autoimmune hepatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a comparatively rare condition. Although both autoimmune hepatitis and SLE can share common autoimmune features such as polyarthralgia, hypergammaglobulinemia and positive ANA, it has been considered as two different entities. We report a case of anti-LKM1 positive autoimmune hepatitis who developed SLE two years later. The presence of interface hepatitis with lymphoplasma cell infiltrates and rosette formation points to the autoimmune hepatitis rather than SLE hepatitis. Autoimmune hepatitis is infrequently accompanied by SLE, therefore, it could be recommended to investigate for SLE in patients with autoimmune hepatitis.

  11. Clues for early detection of autoimmune Addison's disease - myths and realities.

    PubMed

    Saevik, Å B; Åkerman, A-K; Grønning, K; Nermoen, I; Valland, S F; Finnes, T E; Isaksson, M; Dahlqvist, P; Bergthorsdottir, R; Ekwall, O; Skov, J; Nedrebø, B G; Hulting, A-L; Wahlberg, J; Svartberg, J; Höybye, C; Bleskestad, I H; Jørgensen, A P; Kämpe, O; Øksnes, M; Bensing, S; Husebye, E S

    2018-02-01

    Early detection of autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is important as delay in diagnosis may result in a life-threatening adrenal crisis and death. The classical clinical picture of untreated AAD is well-described, but methodical investigations are scarce. Perform a retrospective audit of patient records with the aim of identifying biochemical markers for early diagnosis of AAD. A multicentre retrospective study including 272 patients diagnosed with AAD at hospitals in Norway and Sweden during 1978-2016. Scrutiny of medical records provided patient data and laboratory values. Low sodium occurred in 207 of 247 (84%), but only one-third had elevated potassium. Other common nonendocrine tests were largely normal. TSH was elevated in 79 of 153 patients, and hypoglycaemia was found in 10%. Thirty-three per cent were diagnosed subsequent to adrenal crisis, in whom electrolyte disturbances were significantly more pronounced (P < 0.001). Serum cortisol was consistently decreased (median 62 nmol L -1 [1-668]) and significantly lower in individuals with adrenal crisis (38 nmol L -1 [2-442]) than in those without (81 nmol L -1 [1-668], P < 0.001). The most consistent biochemical finding of untreated AAD was low sodium independent of the degree of glucocorticoid deficiency. Half of the patients had elevated TSH levels. Only a minority presented with marked hyperkalaemia or other nonhormonal abnormalities. Thus, unexplained low sodium and/or elevated TSH should prompt consideration of an undiagnosed AAD, and on clinical suspicion bring about assay of cortisol and ACTH. Presence of 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies confirms autoimmune aetiology. Anticipating additional abnormalities in routine blood tests may delay diagnosis. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  12. Antiviral immune responses: triggers of or triggered by autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Münz, Christian; Lünemann, Jan D.; Getts, Meghann Teague; Miller, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Several common autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis, are genetically linked to distinct human MHC class II molecules and other immune modulators. However, genetic predisposition is only one risk factor for the development of these diseases, and low concordance rates in monozygotic twins as well as geographical distribution of disease risk point towards environmental factors in the genesis of these diseases. Among these environmental factors, infections have been implicated in the onset and/or promotion of autoimmunity. In this review, we outline mechanisms by which pathogens can trigger autoimmune disease, and also pathways by which infection and immune control of infectious disease might be dysregulated during autoimmunity. PMID:19319143

  13. [Allergy and autoimmunity: Molecular diagnostics, therapy, and presumable pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Arefieva, A S; Smoldovskaya, O V; Tikhonov, A A; Rubina, A Yu

    2017-01-01

    Allergic and autoimmune diseases represent immunopathological reactions of an organism to antigens. Despite that the allergy is a result of exaggerated immune response to foreign antigens (allergens) and autoimmune diseases are characterized by the pathological response to internal antigens (autoantigens), the underlying mechanisms of these diseases are probably common. Thus, both types of diseases represent variations in the hypersensitivity reaction. A large percentage of both the adult and pediatric population is in need of early diagnostics of these pathologies of the immune system. Considering the diversity of antibodies produced in allergic and autoimmune disease and the difficulties accompanying clinical diagnosing, molecular diagnostics of these pathological processes should be carried out in several stages, including screening and confirmatory studies. In this review, we summarize the available data on the molecular diagnostics and therapy of allergic and autoimmune diseases and discuss the basic similarities and differences in the mechanisms of their development.

  14. The role of AIRE in human autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Akirav, Eitan M; Ruddle, Nancy H; Herold, Kevan C

    2011-01-01

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene encodes a transcription factor involved in the presentation of tissue-restricted antigens during T-cell development in the thymus. Mutations of this gene lead to type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1), also termed autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome, which is characterized by the clinical presentation of at least two of a triad of underlying disorders: Addison disease, hypoparathyroidism and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. This Review describes the process of positive and negative selection of developing T cells in the thymus and the role of AIRE as a regulator of peripheral antigen presentation. Furthermore, it addresses how mutations of this gene lead to the failure to eliminate autoreactive T cells, which can lead to clinical autoimmune syndromes.

  15. [Treatment and results of therapy in autoimmune hemolytic anemia].

    PubMed

    Tasić, J; Macukanović, L; Pavlović, M; Koraćević, S; Govedarević, N; Kitić, Lj; Tijanić, I; Bakić, M

    1994-01-01

    Basic principles in the therapy of idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia induced by warm antibody were glucocorticoides and splenectomy. Immunosupresive drugs, plasmaferesis and intravenous high doses gamma globulin therapy are also useful. In secundary autoimmune hemolytic anemia induced by warm antibody we treated basic illness. During the period of 1990-1992 we treated 21 patients with primary autoimmune hemolytic anemia and 6 patients with secondary /4 CLL and 2 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma/. Complete remission we found as a normalisation of reticulocites and hemoglobin level respectively. Complete remission by corticoides we got in 14/21 patients, partial response in 2/21 respectively. Complete response by splenectomy we got in 2/3 splenoctomized patients (idiopathic type). For successful treatment secondary hemolytic anemias we treated primary diseases (CLL and malignant lymphoma) and we got in 4/6 patients complete remission. Our results were standard in both type of autoimmune hemolytic anaemias induced by warm antibody.

  16. A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Graus, Francesc; Titulaer, Maarten J; Balu, Ramani; Benseler, Susanne; Bien, Christian G; Cellucci, Tania; Cortese, Irene; Dale, Russell C; Gelfand, Jeffrey M; Geschwind, Michael; Glaser, Carol A; Honnorat, Jerome; Höftberger, Romana; Iizuka, Takahiro; Irani, Sarosh R; Lancaster, Eric; Leypoldt, Frank; Prüss, Harald; Rae-Grant, Alexander; Reindl, Markus; Rosenfeld, Myrna R; Rostásy, Kevin; Saiz, Albert; Venkatesan, Arun; Vincent, Angela; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Waters, Patrick; Dalmau, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for autoimmune encephalitis are too reliant on antibody testing and response to immunotherapy, which might delay the diagnosis. We reviewed the literature and gathered the experience of a team of experts with the aims of developing a practical, syndrome-based diagnostic approach to autoimmune encephalitis and providing guidelines to navigate through the differential diagnosis. Because autoantibody test results and response to therapy are not available at disease onset, we based the initial diagnostic approach on neurological assessment and conventional tests that are accessible to most clinicians. Through logical differential diagnosis, levels of evidence for autoimmune encephalitis (possible, probable, or definite) are achieved, which can lead to prompt immunotherapy. PMID:26906964

  17. Does autoimmunity play a role in the risk of implantation failures?

    PubMed

    Motak-Pochrzest, Hanna; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2018-02-01

    158 non-pregnant women with recurrent implantation failures after IVF/ET procedures were tested for peripheral blood autoimmune profile. The control group consisted of 76 patients after first successful IVF procedure and pregnancy outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate different autoantibodies peripheral blood profile after excluding anatomical, endocrinological, endometrial and genetic disorders and to estimate the risk of implantation failures. The study's including criteria were 1.indications for IVF/ET determined by male factor and unexplained infertility 2. absence of implantation after two consecutive cycles of IVF, ICSI or frozen embryo replacement cycles. The presence of ANA in the sera increased the risk of RIF after ET/IVF procedures, especially in older patients. Patients with RIF have a higher frequency of the presence of autoantibodies ACA IgG, IgM and anti-β2GP I IgG in the sera than in patients with successful pregnancies after IVF/ET procedures.

  18. Unraveling the autoimmune translational research process layer by layer

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Richard S; Dittel, Bonnie; Hafler, David; von Herrath, Matthias; Nestle, Frank O

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have a complex etiology and despite great progress having been made in our comprehension of these disorders, there has been limited success in the development of approved medications based on these insights. Development of drugs and strategies for application in translational research and medicine are hampered by an inadequate molecular definition of the human autoimmune phenotype and the organizational models that are necessary to clarify this definition. PMID:22227670

  19. Autoimmune Disease with Cardiac Valves Involvement: Libman-Sacks Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Ginanjar, Eka; Yulianto, Yulianto

    2017-04-01

    This case study aim to evaluate the response of steroid treatment for autoimmune endocarditis. Valvular heart disease is relatively rising in both congenital and acquired cases, but the autoimmune endocarditis remains rare. In this case, a 34 year old woman with clinical manifestation resembling systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is diagnosed with Libman-sacks Endocarditis. After six months of steroid treatment, her clinical manifestations and heart structure improved.

  20. Severe systemic autoimmune disease associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Julián; del Carmen Escudero, Maria; Jiménez, Raquel; González-Vicent, Marta; Manzanares, Javier; García-Novo, Dolores; Madero, Luis

    2004-12-01

    Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with different autoimmune manifestations. The authors describe a girl who developed a severe systemic autoimmune disease with severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia, mild autoimmune thrombopenia, antineutrophil antibodies, and fatal autoimmune hepatitis after EBV infection. Despite immunosuppressive treatment and ultimately liver transplantation, this patient could not overcome her clinical condition and died. The etiopathogenesis of this complex disease and the association with EBV infection is discussed.

  1. The role of parvovirus B19 in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jonathan R

    2016-04-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a single-stranded DNA virus which preferentially targets the erythroblasts in the bone marrow. B19 infection commonly causes erythema infectiosum, arthralgia, fetal death, transient aplastic crisis in patients with shortened red cell survival, and persistent infection in people who are immunocompromised. Less common clinical manifestations include atypical skin rashes, neurological syndromes, cardiac syndromes, and various cytopenias. B19 infection has also been associated with development of a variety of different autoimmune diseases, including rheumatological, neurological, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, haematological, nephrological and metabolic. Production of a variety of autoantibodies has been demonstrated to occur during B19 infection and these have been shown to be key to the pathogenesis of the particular disease process in a significant number of cases, for example, production of rheumatoid factor in cases of B19-associated rheumatoid arthritis and production of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in patients with B19-associated type 1 diabetes mellitus. B19 infection has also been associated with the development of multiple autoimmune diseases in 12 individuals. Documented mechanisms in B19-associated autoimmunity include molecular mimicry (IgG antibody to B19 proteins has been shown to cross react with a variety of recognised human autoantigens, including collagen II, keratin, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, myelin basic protein, cardiolipin, and platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa), B19-induced apoptosis with presentation of self-antigens to T lymphocytes, and the phospholipase activity of the B19 unique VP1 protein. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Tolerogenic dendritic cells in autoimmune diseases: crucial players in induction and prevention of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Torres-Aguilar, Honorio; Blank, Miri; Jara, Luis J; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2010-11-01

    The immune system has evolved to coordinate responses against numerous invading pathogens and simultaneously remain silent facing self-antigens and those derived from commensal organisms. But, if both processes are not maintained in strict balance, a potential threat can emerge due to the risk of chronic inflammation and/or autoimmunity development. Therefore, there is a negative immune regulation where tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) participate actively. Under steady-state conditions, tDC are notably involved in the elimination of autoreactive T cells at the thymus, and in the control of T cells specific to self and harmless antigens in the periphery. But in the presence of foreign antigens in an inflammatory milieu, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and induce T cells activation and their migration to B cell areas to assist in antibody production. Additionally, there are other factors such as infections, anti tumoral immune responses, trauma-mediated disruption, etc. that may induce alterations in the balance between tolerogenic and immunogenic functions of DCs and instigate the development of autoimmune diseases (ADs). Therefore, in recent years, DCs have emerged as therapeutic targets to control of ADs. Diverse strategies in vitro and/or in animal models of ADs have explored the tolerogenic functions of DCs and demonstrated their feasibility to prevent or control an autoimmune process, but still leaving a void in their application in clinical assays. The purpose of this paper is to give a general overview of the current literature on the significance of tDCs in tolerance maintenance to self and innocuous antigens, the most relevant alterations involved in the pathophysiology of ADs, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in their tolerogenic function and the current strategies used to exploit their tolerogenic potential. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Immunopathogenesis of Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis One Century after Hashimoto

    PubMed Central

    Weetman, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Hakaru Hashimoto described 4 patients with a hitherto unknown cause for goitre, struma lymphomatosa, a century ago. He was careful to distinguish this from Riedel thyroiditis but it has become clear that fibrosis and atrophy of the thyroid are indeed components of Hashimoto thyroiditis, and in rare cases IgG4-related sclerosing disease may be an outcome. Although the cause of the lymphocytic infiltration was unknown to Hashimoto, we now know through the pioneering studies of N.R. Rose and E. Witebsky [J Immunol 1956;76:417–427] that this condition is the archetype for autoimmune destruction as a disease mechanism. In the last two decades in particular, there has been huge interest in unravelling the genetic basis for this and related autoimmune disorders. The list of polymorphisms associated with autoimmune thyroid disease grows each year, and in the case of vitiligo, which is frequently found in association with thyroid autoimmunity, we know that 27 separate susceptibility loci account for less than 20% of the heritability of this condition. Environmental and existential factors may turn out to be just as complex in number and in interactions. We can thus imagine a ‘Swiss cheese’ model for the causation of autoimmune thyroid disease, in which the effects of cumulative weaknesses line up – like the holes in slices of cheese – to allow the catastrophic event of autoimmune destruction to occur. PMID:24783026

  4. Thyroid autoimmunity in bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barbuti, Margherita; Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Murru, Andrea; Verdolini, Norma; Guiso, Giovanni; Samalin, Ludovic; Maes, Michael; Stubbs, Brendon; Perugi, Giulio; Vieta, Eduard; Pacchiarotti, Isabella

    2017-10-15

    Accumulating evidence points to the pathophysiological relevance between immune dysfunction and mood disorders. High rates of thyroid dysfunction have been found in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), compared to the general population. A systematic review of the relationship between BD and thyroid autoimmunity was performed. Pubmed, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched up till January 28th, 2017. This review has been conducted according to the PRISMA statements. Observational studies clearly reporting data among BD patients and the frequency of autoimmune thyroid pathologies were included. 11 original studies met inclusion criteria out of 340 titles first returned from the global search. There is evidence of increased prevalence of circulating thyroid autoantibodies in depressed and mixed BD patients, while there is no evidence showing a positive relationship between BD and specific autoimmune thyroid diseases. There is a controversy about the influence of lithium exposure on circulating thyroid autoantibodies, even if most of studies seem not to support this association. A study conducted on bipolar twins suggests that autoimmune thyroiditis is related to the genetic vulnerability to develop BD rather than to the disease process itself. Females are more likely to develop thyroid autoimmunity. The samples, study design and outcomes were heterogeneous. Thyroid autoimmunity has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for bipolar disorder with no clear association with lithium exposure and it might serve as an endophenotype for BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Autoimmune hepatitis in children: what is different from adult AIH?

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2009-08-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by inflammatory liver histology, circulating non-organ-specific autoantibodies, and increased levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G in the absence of a known etiology. Two types of childhood AIH are recognized according to seropositivity: smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and/or antinuclear antibody (ANA), which is AIH type 1; and antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1), which is AIH type 2. There is a female predominance in both. Autoimmune hepatitis type 2 presents more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly with IgA deficiency; however, duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in the two groups. Immunosuppressive treatment with steroids and azathioprine, which should be instituted promptly to avoid progression to cirrhosis, induces remission in 80% of cases. Relapses are common, often due to nonadherence. Drugs effective in refractory cases include cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. Long-term treatment is usually required, with only some 20% of AIH type 1 patients able to discontinue therapy successfully. In childhood, sclerosing cholangitis with strong autoimmune features, including interface hepatitis and serological features identical to AIH type 1, is as prevalent as AIH, but it affects boys and girls equally. The differential diagnosis relies on cholangiographic studies. In autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, liver parenchymal damage responds satisfactorily to immunosuppressive treatment, whereas bile duct disease tends to progress. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  6. Autoimmune disease: A role for new anti-viral therapies?

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, David H

    2011-12-01

    Many chronic human diseases may have an underlying autoimmune mechanism. In this review, the author presents a case of autoimmune CIU (chronic idiopathic urticaria) in stable remission after therapy with a retroviral integrase inhibitor, raltegravir (Isentress). Previous reports located using the search terms "autoimmunity" and "anti-viral" and related topics in the pubmed data-base are reviewed suggesting that novel anti-viral agents such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, gene silencing therapies and eventually vaccines may provide new options for anti-viral therapy of autoimmune diseases. Cited epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that increased replication of epigenomic viral pathogens such as Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in chronic human autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and multiple sclerosis (MS) may activate endogenous human retroviruses (HERV) as a pathologic mechanism. Memory B cells are the reservoir of infection of EBV and also express endogenous retroviruses, thus depletion of memory b-lymphocytes by monoclonal antibodies (Rituximab) may have therapeutic anti-viral effects in addition to effects on B-lymphocyte presentation of both EBV and HERV superantigens. Other novel anti-viral therapies of chronic autoimmune diseases, such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, could be effective, although not without risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting the Notch signaling pathway in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daoxin; Zhu, Yuanchao; Ji, Chunyan; Hou, Ming

    2010-05-01

    The Notch signaling pathway regulates a variety of processes and has been linked to diverse effects. Aberrant Notch function is important in several disorders. Pre-clinical studies have suggested that inhibition of Notch is an attractive approach to treat hematologic and solid malignancies. Many patients with refractory autoimmune diseases respond poorly to therapy and have significant morbidity and the treatment is highly toxic, so more effective therapies for autoimmune diseases are being examined. The role of the Notch pathway and therapeutic strategies targeting it in many illnesses, especially autoimmune diseases. The Notch pathway has unique and attractive advantages for targeting. Targeting it has already been trialed in many experiments, which may show better efficacy and fewer side effects compared with classical drugs for the treatment. Targeting Notch might provide etiological rather than symptomatic treatment. Various methods targeting the Notch pathway have been under investigation. Rational targeting of the Notch signaling pathway in cancer and some autoimmune diseases has proven to be successful. Classical drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases are inefficient and toxic to some extent, and targeting the Notch pathway is a promising therapeutic concept. However, there are still many questions about targeting Notch in autoimmune diseases, and further investigation will be needed.

  8. Heritability versus the role of the environment in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Lu, Qianjin; Humble, Michael C

    2012-12-01

    The higher concordant occurrence of autoimmune diseases in monozygotic twins compared to dizygotic or sibling pairs supports the role for genetic susceptibility. For most conditions, however, concordance rates are considerably below 100% and lead to the estimate of the weight of genetics coined "heritability". In the group of autoimmune diseases heritability ranges between 0.008 and 1 with median values of approximately 0.60. A complementary term coined "environmentability" represents the environmental influence on individual phenotype, and can include dietary habits, chemicals, or hygienic conditions. Genome-wide association data in complex diseases confirmed a role for the environment in disease etiology as significantly associated polymorphisms were found only in subgroups of patients and controls. Environmental links to autoimmunity range from anecdotal associations or case series to largely investigated experimental and epidemiological studies. A bibliographic analysis reveals that the number of publications dedicated to environmental factors in autoimmunity has grown on average by 7% every year since 1997. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) convened an expert panel workshop to review the body of literature examining the role of the environment in the development of autoimmune disease and to identify conclusions, confidences, and critical knowledge gaps in this area. The results of the workshop discussion are summarized in the articles found in this issue of the Journal of Autoimmunity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pearls and pitfalls: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Anne K; Banks, Taylor A; Bay, Jeannie L

    2017-07-01

    A case of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) was presented, followed by a discussion of the clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of this disease. Clinical pearls and pitfalls are emphasized for the use of the practicing allergist and the fellow in-training. The diagnosis of ALPS was guided by published criteria. A careful history and workup were needed to exclude other possible etiologies for the patient's symptoms and physical findings. ALPS often carries significant morbidity and is best managed through a multidisciplinary approach.

  10. Autoimmune hepatitis triggered by acute hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroto; Tujioka, Hiroto; Ueda, Hiroki; Hamagami, Hiroko; Kida, Youhei; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2005-10-14

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman presenting with jaundice as the chief complaint. She began vomiting on July 10, 2003. Jaundice was noted and admitted to our hospital for thorough testing. Tests on admission indicated severe hepatitis, based on: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 1 076 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 1 400 IU/L; total bilirubin (TB), 20.9 mg/dL; and prothrombin time rate (PT%), 46.9%. Acute hepatitis A (HA) was diagnosed based on negative hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus RNA and positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M HA antibody, but elevation of anti-nuclear antigen (X320) and IgG (3 112 mg/dL) led to suspicion of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Plasma exchange was performed for 3 d from July 17, and steroid pulse therapy was performed for 3 d starting on July 18, followed by oral steroid therapy. Liver biopsy was performed on August 5, and the results confirmed acute hepatitis and mild chronic inflammation. Levels of AST and ALT normalized, so dose of oral steroid was markedly reduced. Steroid therapy was terminated after 4 mo, as the patient had glaucoma. Starting 3 mo after cessation of steroid therapy, levels of AST and ALT began to increase again. Another liver biopsy was performed and AIH was diagnosed based on serum data and biopsy specimen. Oral steroid therapy was reinitiated. Levels of AST and ALT again normalized. The present case was thus considered to represent AIH triggered by acute HA.

  11. [Systemic autoimmune diseases and depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Arias, Sylvia; Fonsalía, Victoria; Asteggiante, Nicolás; Bartesaghi, Verónica

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of depression accompanying medical pathologies is elevated and have prognostic importance. To determine the frequency of depression in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD), as well as to determine the frequency of pain, fatigue and sleep disorders in these patients and their relation with depression. We performed a descriptive, prospective study on 88 patients with AID. The CES-D depression questionnaire, FSS fatigue questionnaire and the Pittsburgh sleep quality index were administered. 69% (n=61) of patients were depressed. Pain was found in 97% (59/61) of depressed patients and in 62% (17/27) of non-depressed patients (P=.0006). Sleep disorders were found in 95% of depressed patients, whereas 60% of non-depressed patients presented them (P=.00008). Depression was associated with fatigue: 80% (49/61) for depressed and 44% for non-depressed (p=0,001) persons. A very elevated prevalence of depression was found in SAD: 69%; constituting the most frequent comorbidity. Depression was significantly associated with pain, fatigue and sleep disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypothyroidism in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Shimizuguchi, Ryoko; Kamisawa, Terumi; Endo, Yuka; Kikuyama, Masataka; Kuruma, Sawako; Chiba, Kazuro; Tabata, Taku; Koizumi, Satomi

    2018-05-06

    To examine thyroid function and clinical features of hypothyroidism in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) patients. We examined thyroid function in 77 patients with type 1 AIP (50 males, 27 females; median age 68 years, range 33-85) diagnosed according to the Japanese diagnostic criteria for AIP 2011. We compared clinical and serological findings between patients with and without various categories of hypothyroidism. The change in hypothyroidism after steroid therapy was also examined. Eight patients (10%) had hypothyroidism of 6 patients had subclinical hypothyroidism with a normal serum free thyroxine (FT4) and high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level, and 2 patients had central hypothyroidism with low serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), FT4 and TSH levels. A significant goiter of the thyroid was not observed in any patient. There were no significant differences in age; male to female ratio; serum concentrations of IgG and IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD); presence of anti-thyroglobulin antibody, antinuclear antigen or rheumatoid factor; or presence of extrapancreatic lesions between the 6 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and patients with euthyroidism. After steroid therapy, both subclinical and central hypothyroidism improved with improvement of the AIP. Hypothyroidism was observed in 8 (10%) of 77 AIP patients and was subclinical in 6 patients and central in 2 patients. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether this subclinical hypothyroidism is another manifestation of IgG4-RD.

  13. Early prediction of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes.

    PubMed

    Regnell, Simon E; Lernmark, Åke

    2017-08-01

    Underlying type 1 diabetes is a genetic aetiology dominated by the influence of specific HLA haplotypes involving primarily the class II DR-DQ region. In genetically predisposed children with the DR4-DQ8 haplotype, exogenous factors, yet to be identified, are thought to trigger an autoimmune reaction against insulin, signalled by insulin autoantibodies as the first autoantibody to appear. In children with the DR3-DQ2 haplotype, the triggering reaction is primarily against GAD signalled by GAD autoantibodies (GADA) as the first-appearing autoantibody. The incidence rate of insulin autoantibodies as the first-appearing autoantibody peaks during the first years of life and declines thereafter. The incidence rate of GADA as the first-appearing autoantibody peaks later but does not decline. The first autoantibody may variably be followed, in an apparently non-HLA-associated pathogenesis, by a second, third or fourth autoantibody. Although not all persons with a single type of autoantibody progress to diabetes, the presence of multiple autoantibodies seems invariably to be followed by loss of functional beta cell mass and eventually by dysglycaemia and symptoms. Infiltration of mononuclear cells in and around the islets appears to be a late phenomenon appearing in the multiple-autoantibody-positive with dysglycaemia. As our understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes advances, the improved capability for early prediction should guide new strategies for the prevention of type 1 diabetes.

  14. Understanding Autoimmunity of Vitiligo and Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Rork, Jillian F.; Rashighi, Mehdi; Harris, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common, disfiguring skin diseases. Treatment options are limited and include non-targeted approaches such as corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, narrow band UVB phototherapy, and other immune-modifying agents. The purpose of this article is to review shared, novel mechanisms between vitiligo and alopecia areata, as well as discuss how they inform the development of future targeted treatments. Recent findings Vitiligo and alopecia areata are both autoimmune diseases, and striking similarities in pathogenesis have been identified at the level of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Increased reactive oxygen species and high cellular stress level have been suggested as the initiating trigger of the innate immune system in both diseases, and genome-wide association studies have implicated risk alleles that influence both innate and adaptive immunity. Most importantly, mechanistic studies in mouse models of vitiligo and alopecia areata have specifically implicated an IFN-γ-driven immune response, including IFN-γ, IFN-γ-induced chemokines, and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells as the main drivers of disease pathogenesis. These recent discoveries may reveal an effective strategy to develop new treatments, and several proof-of-concept clinical studies support this hypothesis. Summary The identification of IFN-γ-driven immune signaling pathways has enabled discoveries of potential new treatments for vitiligo and alopecia areata, and supports initiation of larger clinical trials. PMID:27191524

  15. Uveitis in patients with autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lyndell L; Scarborough, John D; Thorne, Jennifer E; Graham, Elizabeth; Kempen, John H; Mackensen, Friederike; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Prabriputaloong, Tisha; Read, Russell W; Suhler, Eric B; Schwartz, Jonathan M; Smith, Justine R

    2009-02-01

    To report seven cases of uveitis occurring in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), raising the possibility that uveitis may be an extrahepatic feature of AIH. Multicenter, retrospective, observational case series of patients with AIH and uveitis. One index case was identified at Oregon Health & Science University. Further cases were identified by a web-based survey of members of the American Uveitis Society, the International Uveitis Study Group, the Proctor Foundation mailing list server, and the First SUN International Workshop. Respondents were asked to provide clinical information about uveitis phenotype, AIH features, and treatment. Clinical information was obtained for seven individuals (four females and three males; age range, seven to 67 years) who suffered from AIH and uveitis. Average duration of follow-up was 5.5 years. All patients had chronic, persistent bilateral uveitis that was anterior (n = 3), intermediate (n = 1), or pan (n = 3) in location. Every patient had complications arising from his or her uveitis, including cataract (n = 5), glaucoma (n = 3), cystoid macular edema (n = 3), and posterior synechiae (n = 3). Final visual acuities ranged from 20/16 to hand movements. To treat the uveitis and/or AIH, the majority of patients required oral prednisone and all seven patients were treated with systemic immunosuppression. Despite the small size of this study, our findings suggest an association between AIH and uveitis. The uveitis is chronic, bilateral, and associated with sight-threatening complications, necessitating systemic immunosuppression in some individuals.

  16. Autoantibodies and their antigens in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2009-08-01

    Autoantibody detection assists in the diagnosis and allows differentiation of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type 1 (AIH-1), characterized by antinuclear antibody (ANA) and/or smooth muscle antibody (SMA), and type 2 (AIH-2), distinguished by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) and/or antibodies to liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1). De