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Sample records for abnormal behavioral responses

  1. Abnormal response to emotional stimulus in male adolescents with violent behavior in China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yi; Xie, Bin; Du, Xiaoxia

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study is to explore the characteristics of emotional stimulus in adolescents with violent behavior and to identify the correlated dysfunctional regions of the brain. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained while the participants passively viewed pictures with neutral or negative affective valence. 15 male adolescents with violent behavior, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years old, and 16 healthy age-matched control subjects were enrolled in the study. While looking at neutral pictures, several brain regions were activated more intensely in the violent group than the control one. After digitally subtracting the control group, these areas included the bilateral amygdala, left orbital gyrus, bilateral fusiform gyrus, and left visual cortex. While passively viewing negative pictures, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus were less activated in the violent group than the control group. Male adolescents with violent behaviors have some dysfunctions during the processing and evaluation of information from external emotional stimulus. These individuals are inclined to interpret neutral information as threatening stimulus.

  2. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  3. Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

  4. Neurobiology of social behavior abnormalities in autism and Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barak, B; Feng, G

    2016-01-01

    Social behavior is a basic behavior mediated by multiple brain regions and neural circuits, and is crucial for the survival and development of animals and humans. Two neuropsychiatric disorders that have prominent social behavior abnormalities are autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which is characterized mainly by hyposociability, and Williams syndrome (WS), whose subjects exhibit hypersociability. Here, we review the unique properties of social behavior in ASD and WS, and discuss the major theories in social behavior in the context of these disorders. We conclude with a discussion of the research questions needing further exploration to enhance our understanding of social behavior abnormalities. PMID:27116389

  5. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  6. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-04-15

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior.

  7. Abnormal magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Y.; Zhang, Y. F.; Zhao, H.; Chen, G. F.; Zhang, Y.; Du, H. L.; Liu, S. Q.; Wang, C. S.; Han, J. Z.; Yang, Y. C.; Yang, J. B.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that the hysteresis loops show wasp-waisted character at low temperatures, which has been proved to be related to the existence of multi-phases, the Fe/Ni soft magnetic phases and the CaCu5-type hard magnetic phase. A smooth-jump behavior of the magnetization is observed at T>5 K, whereas a step-like magnetization process appears at T<5 K. The CaCu5-type phase is responsible for such abnormal magnetization behavior. The magnetic moment reversal model with thermal activation is used to explain the relation of the critical magnetic field (Hcm) to the temperature (T>5 K). The reversal of the moment direction has to cross over an energy barrier of about 6.6×10-15 erg. The step-like jumps of the magnetization below 5 K is proposed to be resulted from a sharp increase of the sample temperature under the heat released by the irreversible domain wall motion.

  8. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Elaine Y; McBride, Sara W; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Patterson, Paul H; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2013-12-19

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model that is known to display features of ASD. Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naive mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes certain behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities, meiotic behavior and fertility in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Villagómez, D A F; Pinton, A

    2008-01-01

    Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known in domestic animal species about the functional effects of such chromosome aberrations in the germ cell line of carriers. However, some interesting facts gained from recent and previous studies on the meiotic behavior of chromosome abnormalities of domestic animals permit us to discuss, in the frame of recent knowledge emerging from mouse and human investigations, the possible mechanism implicated in the well known association between meiotic disruption and chromosome pairing failure. New cytogenetic techniques, based on molecular and immunofluorescent analyses, are allowing a better description of meiotic processes, including gamete production. The present communication reviews the knowledge of the meiotic consequences of chromosome abnormalities in domestic animals.

  11. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior. Citation: Yang KI, Kim HK, Baek J, Kim DE, Park HK. Abnormal nocturnal behavior due to hypoglycemia in a patient with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):627–629. PMID:26943712

  12. Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

  13. Pupillary response abnormalities in depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Laurenzo, Scott A; Kardon, Randy; Ledolter, Johannes; Poolman, Pieter; Schumacher, Ashley M; Potash, James B; Full, Jan M; Rice, Olivia; Ketcham, Anna; Starkey, Cole; Fiedorowicz, Jess G

    2016-12-30

    Depressive disorders lack objective physiological measurements to characterize the affected population and facilitate study of relevant mechanisms. The melanopsin-mediated light signaling pathway may contribute to seasonal variation and can be measured non-invasively by pupillometry. We prospectively studied changes in melanopsin-mediated pupillary constriction in 19 participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 10 control across the summer and winter solstices. The melanopsin-mediated response, as measured by the pupil's sustained constriction six s after a high intensity blue light stimulus, was marginally attenuated in those with MDD relative to controls (p=0.071). The participants with MDD unexpectedly showed a significantly reduced transient pupillary response to low intensity red (p=0.011) and blue light (p=0.013), but not high intensity red and blue light. Sustained pupillary constriction in response to high intensity blue light was more pronounced with increasing daylight hours (p=0.037) and was more strongly related to objectively measured versus estimated light exposure. Melanopsin-mediated impairments in pupil response may serve as a biological marker for vulnerability to depression in low light conditions. Assessment of these and other responses to light stimuli, such as response to low intensity light, may be useful for the study of the neurobiology of MDD and related mood disorders.

  14. Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters. PMID:22336640

  15. Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

    1984-01-01

    Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

  16. Proportionate responses to life events influence clinicians' judgments of psychological abnormality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nancy S; Paulus, Daniel J; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-09-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate role of life-event context in assessment has long been the subject of intense debate and scrutiny among clinical theorists, yet relatively little is known about clinicians' own judgments in practice. The authors propose a proportionate-response hypothesis, such that judgments of abnormality are influenced by whether the behaviors are a disproportionate response to past events, rendering them difficult to understand or explain. Licensed, practicing clinical psychologists (N = 77) were presented with vignettes describing hypothetical people's behaviors (disordered, mildly distressed, or unaffected) that had been preceded by either traumatic or mildly distressing events. Experts' judgments of abnormality were strongly and systematically influenced by the degree of mismatch between the past event and current behaviors in strength and valence, such that the greater the mismatch, the more abnormal the person seemed. A separate, additional group of clinical psychologists (N = 20) further confirmed that the greater the degree of mismatch, the greater the perceived difficulty in understanding the patient. These findings held true across clinicians of different theoretical orientations and in disorders for which these patterns of judgments ran contrary to formal recommendations in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The rationality of these effects and implications for clinical decision science are discussed.

  17. Cortical Thickness and Behavior Abnormalities in Children Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Soria-Pastor, Sara; Junque, Carme; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segarra, Dolors; Bargallo, Nuria; Macaya, Alfons

    2012-01-01

    Aim To identify long-term effects of preterm birth and of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) on cortical thickness (CTh). To study the relationship between CTh and cognitive-behavioral abnormalities. Methods We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging on 22 preterm children with PVL, 14 preterm children with no evidence of PVL and 22 full-term peers. T1-weighted images were analyzed with FreeSurfer software. All participants underwent cognitive and behavioral assessments by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results We did not find global CTh differences between the groups. However, a thinner cortex was found in left postcentral, supramarginal, and caudal middle rostral gyri in preterm children with no evidence of PVL than in the full-term controls, while PVL preterm children showed thicker cortex in right pericalcarine and left rostral middle frontal areas than in preterm children with no evidence of PVL. In the PVL group, internalizing and externalizing scores correlated mainly with CTh in frontal areas. Attentional scores were found to be higher in PVL and correlated with CTh increments in right frontal areas. Interpretation The preterm group with no evidence of PVL, when compared with full-term children, showed evidence of a different pattern of regional thinning in the cortical gray matter. In turn, PVL preterm children exhibited atypical increases in CTh that may underlie their prevalent behavioral problems. PMID:22860067

  18. The abnormal behavior analysis of single person on the road based on region and behavior features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Runsheng; Chen, Yiwen

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a method to detect whether the behavior of a single person in video sequence is abnormal is proposed. Firstly, after the pre-processing, the background model is gotten based on the Mixture Gaussian Model(GMM), at the same time the shadow is eliminated; then use the color-shape information and the Random Hough Transform (RHT) to abstract the zebra crossing and segment the background; Lastly, we use the rectangle and the centroid to judge whether the person's behavior is abnormal.

  19. Abnormal immune responses of Bloom's syndrome lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hütteroth, T H; Litwin, S D; German, J

    1975-01-01

    Bloom's syndrome is a rare autosmal recessive disorder, first characterized by growth retardation and asum-sensitive facial telangiectasia and more recently demonstarted to have increased chromosome instability, a predisposition to malignancy, and increased susecptibitily to infection. The present report ocncern the immune function of Bloom's syndrom lymphoctes in vitro. Four affected homozgotes and five heterozygotes were studied. An abnormal serum concentartion of at least one class of immunoglobin was present in three out of four homozgotes. Affected homozgotes were shown capable of both a humoral and cellular response after antigenic challenge, the responses in general being weak but detectable. Blood lymphocytes from Bloom's syndrome individuals were cultured in impaired proliferavite response and synthesized less immunoglobulin at the end of 5 days than did normal controls. In contrast, they had a normal proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin except at highest concentrations of the mitogen. In the mixed lymphocte culture, Bloom's syndrome lymphocytes proved to be poor responder cells but normal stimulator cells. Lmyphoctes from the heterozgotes produced normal responses in these three systems. Distrubed immunity appears to be on of several major consequences of homozygosity for the Bloom's syndrome gene. Although the explanation for this pleiotropism is at present obscure, the idea was advanced that the aberrant immune function is, along with the major clincial feature-small body size, amanifestation of defect in cellular proliferation. PMID:124745

  20. M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice display abnormal social behavior and decreased prepulse inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the central nervous system (CNS), the muscarinic system plays key roles in learning and memory, as well as in the regulation of many sensory, motor, and autonomic processes, and is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several major diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous studies reveal that M4 muscarinic receptor knockout (M4R KO) mice displayed an increase in basal locomotor activity, an increase in sensitivity to the prepulse inhibition (PPI)-disrupting effect of psychotomimetics, and normal basal PPI. However, other behaviorally significant roles of M4R remain unclear. Results In this study, to further investigate precise functional roles of M4R in the CNS, M4R KO mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. M4R KO mice showed no significant impairments in nociception, neuromuscular strength, or motor coordination/learning. In open field, light/dark transition, and social interaction tests, consistent with previous studies, M4R KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor activity compared to their wild-type littermates. In the open field test, M4R KO mice exhibited novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In the social interaction test, contacts between pairs of M4R KO mice lasted shorter than those of wild-type mice. In the sensorimotor gating test, M4R KO mice showed a decrease in PPI, whereas in the startle response test, in contrast to a previous study, M4R KO mice demonstrated normal startle response. M4R KO mice also displayed normal performance in the Morris water maze test. Conclusions These findings indicate that M4R is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, and sensorimotor gating in mice. Together with decreased PPI, abnormal social behavior, which was newly identified in the present study, may represent a behavioral abnormality related to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. PMID:22463818

  1. Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Erbel-Sieler, Claudia; Dudley, Carol; Zhou, Yudong; Wu, Xinle; Estill, Sandi Jo; Han, Tina; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; McKnight, Steven L

    2004-09-14

    Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also exhibited stereotypic darting behavior at weaning and increased locomotor activity. Immunohistochemical staining assays showed that the NPAS1 and NPAS3 proteins are expressed in inhibitory interneurons and that the viability and anatomical distribution of these neurons are unaffected by the absence of either transcription factor. Adult brain tissues from NPAS3- and NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice exhibited a distinct reduction in reelin, a large, secreted protein whose expression has been reported to be attenuated in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis.

  2. Conditional calcineurin knockout mice exhibit multiple abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Leiter, Lorene M; Gerber, David J; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Zeng, Hongkui; Caron, Marc G; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2003-07-22

    Calcineurin (CN), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a significant role in the central nervous system. Previously, we reported that forebrain-specific CN knockout mice (CN mutant mice) have impaired working memory. To further analyze the behavioral effects of CN deficiency, we subjected CN mutant mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Mutant mice showed increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition. In addition, CN mutant mice displayed an increased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MK-801. Collectively, the abnormalities of CN mutant mice are strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenia. We propose that alterations affecting CN signaling could comprise a contributing factor in schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  3. Abnormal behavior and associated risk factors in captive baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.).

    PubMed

    Lutz, Corrine K; Williams, Priscilla C; Sharp, R Mark

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal behavior, ranging from motor stereotypies to self-injurious behavior, has been documented in captive nonhuman primates, with risk factors including nursery rearing, single housing, and veterinary procedures. Much of this research has focused on macaque monkeys; less is known about the extent of and risk factors for abnormal behavior in baboons. Because abnormal behavior can be indicative of poor welfare, either past or present, the purpose of this study was to survey the presence of abnormal behavior in captive baboons and to identify potential risk factors for these behaviors with an aim of prevention. Subjects were 144 baboons (119 females, 25 males) aged 3-29 (median = 9.18) years temporarily singly housed for research or clinical reasons. A 15-min focal observation was conducted on each subject using the Noldus Observer® program. Abnormal behavior was observed in 26% of the subjects, with motor stereotypy (e.g., pace, rock, swing) being the most common. Motor stereotypy was negatively associated with age when first singly housed (P < 0.005) while self-directed behavior (e.g., hair pull, self-bite) was positively associated with the lifetime number of days singly housed (P < 0.05) and the average number of blood draws per year (P < 0.05). In addition, abnormal appetitive behavior was associated with being male (P < 0.05). Although the baboons in this study exhibited relatively low levels of abnormal behavior, the risk factors for these behaviors (e.g., social restriction, routine veterinary procedures, and sex) appear to remain consistent across primate species.

  4. Fibromyalgia patients show an abnormal dopamine response to pain.

    PubMed

    Wood, Patrick B; Schweinhardt, Petra; Jaeger, Erik; Dagher, Alain; Hakyemez, Helene; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Bushnell, M Catherine; Chizh, Boris A

    2007-06-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances. Accumulating evidence indicates that fibromyalgia may involve a dysfunction of modulatory systems in the brain. While brain dopamine is best known for its role in pleasure, motivation and motor control, recent evidence suggests that it is also involved in pain modulation. Because dopamine is implicated in both pain modulation and affective processing, we hypothesized that fibromyalgia may involve a disturbance of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Fibromyalgia patients and matched healthy control subjects were subjected to deep muscle pain produced by injection of hypertonic saline into the anterior tibialis muscle. In order to determine the endogenous release of dopamine in response to painful stimulation, we used positron emission tomography to examine binding of [(11)C]-raclopride (D2/D3 ligand) in the brain during injection of painful hypertonic saline and nonpainful normal saline. Fibromyalgia patients experienced the hypertonic saline as more painful than healthy control subjects. Control subjects released dopamine in the basal ganglia during the painful stimulation, whereas fibromyalgia patients did not. In control subjects, the amount of dopamine release correlated with the amount of perceived pain but in fibromyalgia patients no such correlation was observed. These findings provide the first direct evidence that fibromyalgia patients have an abnormal dopamine response to pain. The disrupted dopaminergic reactivity in fibromyalgia patients could be a critical factor underlying the widespread pain and discomfort in fibromyalgia and suggests that the therapeutic effects of dopaminergic treatments for this intractable disorder should be explored.

  5. Unilateral and bilateral brainstem auditory-evoked response abnormalities in 900 Dalmatian dogs.

    PubMed

    Holliday, T A; Nelson, H J; Williams, D C; Willits, N

    1992-01-01

    In a survey of 900 Dalmatian dogs, brainstem auditory-evoked responses (BAER) and clinical observations were used to determine the incidence and sex distribution of bilateral and unilateral BAER abnormalities and their association with heterochromia iridis (HI). To assess the efficacy of BAER testing in guiding breeding programs, data from 749 dogs (subgroup A), considered to be a sample of the population at large, were compared with data from a subgroup (subgroup B; n = 151) in which selection of breeding stock had been based on BAER testing from the beginning of the 4-year survey. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses were elicited by applying click stimuli unilaterally, while applying a white noise masking sound to the contralateral ear. Under these conditions, BAER were either normal, unilaterally absent, or bilaterally absent. Dogs with bilaterally absent BAER were clinically deaf; dogs with unilaterally absent BAER were not clinically deaf but appeared dependent on their BAER-normal ears for their auditory-cued behavior. Dogs with unilaterally absent BAER often were misidentified as normal by uninformed observers. Among the 900 dogs, 648 (72.0%) were normal, 189 (21.0%) had unilateral absence of BAER, and 63 (7.0%) had bilateral absence of BAER or were clinically deaf and assumed to have bilaterally absent BAER (n = 4). Total incidence in the population sampled was assumed to be higher, because some bilaterally affected dogs that would have been members of subgroup A undoubtedly did not come to our attention. Among females, 24.0% were unilaterally abnormal and 8.2% were bilaterally abnormal whereas, among males, 17.8% were unilaterally abnormal and 5.7% were bilaterally abnormal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in cerebellar disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, M. F.; Zee, D. S.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in patients with cerebellar degeneration are reported. Three-axis magnetic search-coil recordings of the eye and head were performed in eight cerebellar patients. Among these patients, examples of directional cross-coupling were found during (1) high-frequency, high-acceleration head thrusts; (2) constant-velocity chair rotations with the head fixed; (3) constant-velocity optokinetic stimulation; and (4) following repetitive head shaking. Cross-coupling during horizontal head thrusts consisted of an inappropriate upward eye-velocity component. In some patients, sustained constant-velocity yaw-axis chair rotations produced a mixed horizontal-torsional nystagmus and/or an increase in the baseline vertical slow-phase velocity. Following horizontal head shaking, some patients showed an increase in the slow-phase velocity of their downbeat nystagmus. These various forms of cross-coupling did not necessarily occur to the same degree in a given patient; this suggests that different mechanisms may be responsible. It is suggested that cross-coupling during head thrusts may reflect a loss of calibration of brainstem connections involved in the direct vestibular pathways, perhaps due to dysfunction of the flocculus. Cross-coupling during constant-velocity rotations and following head shaking may result from a misorientation of the angular eye-velocity vector in the velocity-storage system. Finally, responses to horizontal optokinetic stimulation included an inappropriate torsional component in some patients. This suggests that the underlying organization of horizontal optokinetic tracking is in labyrinthine coordinates. The findings are also consistent with prior animal-lesion studies that have shown a role for the vestibulocerebellum in the control of the direction of the VOR.

  7. Post-weaning social isolation induces abnormal forms of aggression in conjunction with increased glucocorticoid and autonomic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Toth, Mate; Mikics, Eva; Tulogdi, Aron; Aliczki, Mano; Haller, Jozsef

    2011-06-01

    We showed earlier that social isolation from weaning (a paradigm frequently used to model social neglect in children) induces abnormal forms of attack in rats, and assumed that these are associated with hyperarousal. To investigate this hypothesis, we deprived rats of social contacts from weaning and studied their behavior, glucocorticoid and autonomic stress responses in the resident-intruder paradigm at the age of 82 days. Social isolation resulted in abnormal attack patterns characterized by attacks on vulnerable targets, deficient social communication and increased defensive behaviors (defensive upright, flight, freezing). During aggressive encounters, socially deprived rats rapidly switched from one behavior to another, i.e. showed an increased number of behavioral transitions as compared to controls. We tentatively term this behavioral feature "behavioral fragmentation" and considered it a form of behavioral arousal. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone regularly assessed by radioimmunoassay between 27 and 78 days of age were not affected. In contrast, aggression-induced glucocorticoid responses were approximately doubled by socially isolation. Diurnal oscillations in heart rate assessed by in vivo biotelemetry were not affected by social isolation. In contrast, the aggression-induced increase in heart rate was higher in socially isolated than in socially housed rats. Thus, post-weaning social isolation induced abnormal forms of aggression that developed on the background of increased behavioral, endocrine and autonomic arousal. We suggest that this paradigm may be used to model aggression-related psychopathologies associated with hyperarousal, particularly those that are triggered by adverse rearing conditions.

  8. Vagal enhancement linking abnormal blood pressure response and subendocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Sugihara, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    An abnormal blood pressure response to exercise has been reported to be associated with left ventricular subendocardial ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We report a case of HCM with an abnormal blood pressure response and subendocardial ischemia, in which the analysis of heart rate variability revealed exercise-induced vagal enhancement. The present case highlights the possible mechanism linking abnormal blood pressure response and left ventricular subendocardial ischemia in patients with HCM.

  9. Behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities in pleiotrophin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Krellman, Jason W; Ruiz, Henry H; Marciano, Veronica A; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features.

  10. Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Konova, Anna B; Moeller, Scott J; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2012-10-01

    Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie the maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) that was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both the function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction.

  11. Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) which was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction. PMID:22775285

  12. Dissociable cortico-striatal connectivity abnormalities in major depression in response to monetary gains and penalties

    PubMed Central

    Admon, Roee; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Dillon, Daniel G.; Holmes, Avram J.; Bogdan, Ryan; Kumar, Poornima; Dougherty, Darin D.; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Mischoulon, David; Fava, Maurizio; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) are characterized by maladaptive responses to both positive and negative outcomes, which have been linked to localized abnormal activations in cortical and striatal brain regions. However, the exact neural circuitry implicated in such abnormalities remains largely unexplored. Methods In this study 26 unmedicated adults with MDD and 29 matched healthy controls completed a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analyses probed group differences in connectivity separately in response to positive and negative outcomes (i.e., monetary gains and penalties). Results Relative to controls, MDD subjects displayed decreased connectivity between the caudate and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in response to monetary gains, yet increased connectivity between the caudate and a different, more rostral, dACC sub-region in response to monetary penalties. Moreover, exploratory analyses of 14 MDD patients who completed a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial after the baseline fMRI scans indicated that a more normative pattern of cortico-striatal connectivity pre-treatment was associated with more symptoms improvement 12 weeks later. Conclusions These results identify the caudate as a region with dissociable incentive-dependent dACC connectivity abnormalities in MDD, and provide initial evidence that cortico-striatal circuitry may play a role in MDD treatment response. Given the role of cortico-striatal circuitry in encoding action-outcome contingencies, such dysregulated connectivity may relate to the prominent disruptions in goal-directed behavior that characterize MDD. PMID:25055809

  13. Possible relationships between trichinellosis and abnormal behavior in bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worley, David E.; Greer, Kenneth R.; Palmisciano, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Data compiled from parasite studies of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (U. americanus) in the Yellowstone and Glacier National Park populations and surrounding areas of Montana and Wyoming during 1969-79 are reviewed with reference to the possible influence of infection with the muscleworm Trichinella sp. on bear behavior. In grizzly bears, the high prevalence of this parasite (61% of 254 bears infected), the elevated larval concentrations in sensitive anatomical sites such as the tongue (average, 51 larvae per gram of tissue), and the chronic nature of bear infections as indicated by the tendency for highest infection rates to occur in older age classes (> 16 yrs.), suggest a potential behavior-modifying effect might exist. However, retrospective analysis of recent human attacks by 4 grizzlies and 2 black bears in the northern Rocky Mountain region failed to demonstrate a consistent connection between erratic conduct and levels of Trichinella larvae (trichinae) in bear tissues. Clinical similarities of trichinellosis in bears and humans are hypothesized, and possible behavioral effects of ursine trichinellosis are discussed.

  14. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sarah L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological

  15. Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians' Judgments of Psychological Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate…

  16. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  17. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  18. Prevalence of hematological abnormalities in patients with Sheehan's syndrome: response to replacement of glucocorticoids and thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Bhat, Javid Rasool; Samoon, Jeelani; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2011-03-01

    Anemia and other hematological abnormalities are common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. The response of these abnormalities to replacement of thyroxine and glucocorticoids is not clear. The aim of the present study was to document the profile of hematological abnormalities and response to treatment in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Forty patients of Sheehan's syndrome and an equal number of age and parity matched healthy controls were studied for prevalence of hematological abnormalities. Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, red cell, white cell and platelet count were significantly decreased in patients with Sheehan's syndrome compared to controls. Frequency of anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia was significantly higher in these patients compared to controls. After achieving euthyroid and eucortisol state, there was a complete recovery of these hematological abnormalities. We conclude that anemia and other cytopenias are common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome and replacement with thyroxine and glucocorticoids results in complete recovery of these abnormalities.

  19. Abnormal Social Reward Responses in Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Via, Esther; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Sánchez, Isabel; Forcano, Laura; Harrison, Ben J.; Davey, Christopher G.; Pujol, Jesús; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Cardoner, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) display impaired social interactions, implicated in the development and prognosis of the disorder. Importantly, social behavior is modulated by reward-based processes, and dysfunctional at-brain-level reward responses have been involved in AN neurobiological models. However, no prior evidence exists of whether these neural alterations would be equally present in social contexts. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional social-judgment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 20 restrictive-subtype AN patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Brain activity during acceptance and rejection was investigated and correlated with severity measures (Eating Disorder Inventory -EDI-2) and with personality traits of interest known to modulate social behavior (The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire). Patients showed hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) during social acceptance and hyperactivation of visual areas during social rejection. Ventral striatum activation during rejection was positively correlated in patients with clinical severity scores. During acceptance, activation of the frontal opercula-anterior insula and dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was differentially associated with reward sensitivity between groups. These results suggest an abnormal motivational drive for social stimuli, and involve overlapping social cognition and reward systems leading to a disruption of adaptive responses in the processing of social reward. The specific association of reward-related regions with clinical and psychometric measures suggests the putative involvement of reward structures in the maintenance of pathological behaviors in AN. PMID:26197051

  20. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  1. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  2. Abnormal perilesional BOLD signal is not correlated with stroke patients’ behavior

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Bianca; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2013-01-01

    Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of acute stroke have reported that patients with behavioral deficits show abnormal signal in intact regions of the damaged hemisphere close to the lesion border relative to homologous regions of the patient’s intact hemisphere (causing an interhemispheric imbalance) as well as analogous regions in healthy controls. These effects have been interpreted as demonstrating a causal relationship between the abnormal fMRI signal and the pathological behavior. Here we explore an alternative explanation: perhaps the abnormal Blood-Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal is merely a function of distance from the acute lesion. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined three patients with an acute right hemisphere cortical stroke who did not show any overt behavioral deficits, as well as nine healthy elderly controls. We acquired fMRI data while the participants performed a simple visual orientation judgment task. In patients, we observed an abnormal interhemispheric balance consisting of lower levels of percent signal change in perilesional areas of the damaged hemisphere relative to homologous areas in neurologically healthy controls. This suggests that the physiological changes and corresponding interhemispheric imbalance detected by fMRI BOLD in acute stroke observed close to the lesion border may not necessarily reflect changes in the neural function, nor necessarily influence the individuals’ (e.g., attentional) behavior. PMID:24137123

  3. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  4. Neurocognitive abnormalities during comprehension of real-world goal-directed behaviors in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2009-05-01

    Origins of impaired adaptive functioning in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Behavioral disorganization may arise from an abnormal reliance on common combinations between concepts stored in semantic memory. Avolition-apathy may be related to deficits in using goal-related requirements to flexibly plan behavior. The authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 patients with medicated schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls in a novel video paradigm presenting congruous or incongruous objects in real-world activities. All incongruous objects were contextually inappropriate, but the incongruous scenes varied in comprehensibility. Psychopathology was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced to less comprehensible incongruous scenes, and larger N400 priming was associated with disorganization severity. A P600 ERP, which may index flexible object-action integration based on goal-related requirements, was abnormally attenuated in patients, and its smaller magnitude was associated with the SANS rating of impersistence at work or school (goal-directed behavior). Thus, distinct neurocognitive abnormalities may underlie disorganization and goal-directed behavior deficits in schizophrenia.

  5. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Ya-Min; Shen, Ji-Duo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Pei, Yang-Yi; Fang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-13

    Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  6. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish.

    PubMed

    Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello

    2010-02-15

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA(A)R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0.1 microg/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 microg/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA(A)ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p<0.05) and great (p<0.01) increases of swimming towards food sources and resting states after 24 (1 dose) and 96 (4 doses) h treatment sessions, respectively, when compared to controls. Conversely, BIC caused a very strong (p<0.001) reduction of the former behavior and in some cases convulsive swimming. From the correlation of BIC-dependent behavioral changes to neuronal morphological and ORXR transcriptional variations, it appeared that the disinhibitory action of GABA(A)R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS+BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA(A)R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  7. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello

    2010-02-15

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA{sub A}R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 mug/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 mug/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA{sub A}ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p < 0.05) and great (p < 0.01) increases of swimming towards food sources and resting states after 24 (1 dose) and 96 (4 doses) h treatment sessions, respectively, when compared to controls. Conversely, BIC caused a very strong (p < 0.001) reduction of the former behavior and in some cases convulsive swimming. From the correlation of BIC-dependent behavioral changes to neuronal morphological and ORXR transcriptional variations, it appeared that the disinhibitory action of GABA{sub A}R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA{sub A}R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  8. Upper esophageal sphincter abnormalities are strongly predictive of treatment response in patients with achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Simon C; Ciarleglio, Maria; Chavez, Yamile Haito; Clarke, John O; Stein, Ellen; Chander Roland, Bani

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between upper esophageal sphincter abnormalities achalasia treatment METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 41 consecutive patients referred for high resolution esophageal manometry with a final manometric diagnosis of achalasia. Patients were sub-divided by presence or absence of Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) abnormality, and clinical and manometric profiles were compared. Correlation between UES abnormality and sub-type (i.e., hypertensive, hypotensive or impaired relaxation) and a number of variables, including qualitative treatment response, achalasia sub-type, co-morbid medical illness, psychiatric illness, surgical history, dominant presenting symptom, treatment type, age and gender were also evaluated. RESULTS: Among all 41 patients, 24 (58.54%) had a UES abnormality present. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of age, gender or any other clinical or demographic profiles. Among those with UES abnormalities, the majority were either hypertensive (41.67%) or had impaired relaxation (37.5%) as compared to hypotensive (20.83%), although this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.42). There was no specific association between treatment response and treatment type received; however, there was a significant association between UES abnormalities and treatment response. In patients with achalasia and concomitant UES abnormalities, 87.5% had poor treatment response, while only 12.5% had favorable response. In contrast, in patients with achalasia and no UES abnormalities, the majority (78.57%) had good treatment response, as compared to 21.43% with poor treatment response (P = 0.0001). After controlling for achalasia sub-type, those with UES abnormality had 26 times greater odds of poor treatment response than those with no UES abnormality (P = 0.009). Similarly, after controlling for treatment type, those with UES abnormality had 13.9 times greater odds of poor treatment response

  9. [Behavioral and neurobiological abnormalities induced by social isolation as a useful animal model of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Luo, Lu; Ma, Shi-Qi; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xi-Hong; Li, Liang

    2013-02-25

    Social isolation influences the development of the brain, causing dysfunctions at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. The present paper summarizes the abnormalities induced by social isolation in behaviors, neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis. At the behavioral level, social isolation induces hyperlocomotion, abnormalities in startle reflex and prepulse inhibition (PPI), and dysfunctions in conditioned learning, reversal learning and memory. Moreover, social isolation causes changes of neurotransmitters, such as the increase of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, the amygdala and other brain regions in the limbic system, the decrease of dopamine in medial prefrontal cortex, the decrease of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and the hippocampus, and changes of glutamine in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, social isolation affects cell apoptosis in different brain areas, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. Both the changes in neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis may contribute to the behavioral dysfunctions in social isolated rats. Since schizophrenic patients have similar abnormalities in behaviors and neurotransmitters, isolation rearing can be used as a useful animal model of schizophrenia.

  10. Abnormal Structural Correlates of Response Perseveration in Individuals With Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Colletti, Patrick; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Structural deficits in the frontotemporal network have been shown in individuals with psychopathy and are posited to contribute to neuropsychological impairments such as response perseveration. However, no study to date has examined structural correlates of response perseveration in individuals with psychopathy. In this structural MRI study, the authors found higher correlations between increased response perseveration and reduced cortical thickness in the orbitofrontal and anterior temporal regions in individuals with psychopathy than in healthy-comparison subjects. The findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting potential contributions of frontotemporal structural deficits in neurocognitive impairment with perseveration in individuals with psychopathy. PMID:21304146

  11. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis.

  12. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  13. Cnga2 Knockout Mice Display Alzheimer's-Like Behavior Abnormities and Pathological Changes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ao-Ji; Liu, En-Jie; Huang, He-Zhou; Hu, Yu; Li, Ke; Lu, Youming; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is recognized as a potential risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have reported previously that olfactory deprivation by olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) induced Alzheimer's-like pathological changes and behavioral abnormalities. However, the acute OBX model undergoes surgical-induced brain parenchyma loss and unexpected massive hemorrhage so that it cannot fully mimic the progressive olfactory loss and neurodegeneration in AD. Here, we employed the mice loss of cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 2 (Cnga2) which is critical for olfactory sensory transduction, to investigate the role of olfactory dysfunction in AD pathological process. We found that impaired learning and memory abilities, loss of dendrite spines, as well as decrement of synaptic proteins were displayed in Cnga2 knockout mice. Moreover, Aβ overproduction, tau hyperphosphorylation, and somatodendritic translocation were also found in Cnga2 knockout mice. Our findings suggest that progressive olfactory loss leads to Alzheimer's-like behavior abnormities and pathological changes.

  14. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of planning is presented and the results of applying the methodology within two experimental investigations of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations are discussed. Beyond showing that the methodology yields consistent results, these experiments also lead to concepts in terms of a dichotomy between event driven and time driven planning, subtle effects of automation on planning, and the relationship of planning to workload and flight performance.

  15. Abnormal hypothalamic response to light in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, Vandewalle; Marc, Hébert; Catherine, Beaulieu; Laurence, Richard; Véronique, Daneault; Marie-Lou, Garon; Jean, Leblanc; Didier, Grandjean; Pierre, Maquet; Sophie, Schwartz; Marie, Dumont; Julien, Doyon; Julie, Carrier

    2017-01-01

    Background Vulnerability to the reduction in natural light associated with fall/winter is generally accepted as the main trigger of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), while light therapy is a treatment of choice of the disorder. However, the relationship between exposure to light and mood regulation remains unclear. As compared to green light, blue light was shown to acutely modulate emotion brain processing in healthy individuals. Here, we investigated the impact of light on emotion brain processing in patients with SAD and healthy controls and its relationship with retinal light sensitivity. Methods Fourteen symptomatic untreated patients with SAD (34.5 ± 8.2 y.o.; 9F) and sixteen healthy controls (32.3 ± 7.7 y.o.; 11F) performed an auditory emotional task in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during the fall/winter season, while being exposed to alternating blue and green monochromatic light. Scotopic and photopic retinal light sensitivities were then evaluated using electroretinography. Results Blue light enhanced responses to auditory emotional stimuli in the posterior hypothalamus in patients with SAD, while green light decreased these responses. These effects of blue and green light were not observed in healthy controls despite similar retinal sensitivity in SAD and control subjects. Conclusions; These results point to the posterior hypothalamus as the neurobiological substrate involved in specific aspects of SAD, including a distinctive response to light and altered emotional responses. PMID:21820647

  16. Abnormal brainstem auditory response in young females with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Claesdotter-Hybbinette, Emma; Safdarzadeh-Haghighi, Maryam; Råstam, Maria; Lindvall, Magnus

    2015-10-30

    Studies have shown that the auditory brainstem response (ABR) is often affected in neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate possible differences in ABR between young females with ADHD compared to control subjects. This study focuses on young females, age 7-17 with ADHD, comparing the ABR of 43 young females with ADHD to 21 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Young females with ADHD have a significantly different ABR in a region between cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex as well as in the thalamic region compared to control subjects. These data indicate specific differences in ABR between girls with ADHD compared to female controls.

  17. Sepsis: Multiple Abnormalities, Heterogeneous Responses, and Evolving Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Iskander, Kendra N.; Osuchowski, Marcin F.; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J.; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Stepien, David; Valentine, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis represents the host's systemic inflammatory response to a severe infection. It causes substantial human morbidity resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Despite decades of intense research, the basic mechanisms still remain elusive. In either experimental animal models of sepsis or human patients, there are substantial physiological changes, many of which may result in subsequent organ injury. Variations in age, gender, and medical comorbidities including diabetes and renal failure create additional complexity that influence the outcomes in septic patients. Specific system-based alterations, such as the coagulopathy observed in sepsis, offer both potential insight and possible therapeutic targets. Intracellular stress induces changes in the endoplasmic reticulum yielding misfolded proteins that contribute to the underlying pathophysiological changes. With these multiple changes it is difficult to precisely classify an individual's response in sepsis as proinflammatory or immunosuppressed. This heterogeneity also may explain why most therapeutic interventions have not improved survival. Given the complexity of sepsis, biomarkers and mathematical models offer potential guidance once they have been carefully validated. This review discusses each of these important factors to provide a framework for understanding the complex and current challenges of managing the septic patient. Clinical trial failures and the therapeutic interventions that have proven successful are also discussed. PMID:23899564

  18. Abnormal lymphocyte response to ultraviolet radiation in multiple skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Munch-Petersen, B.; Frentz, G.; Squire, B.; Wallevik, K.; Horn, C.C.; Reymann, F.; Faber, M. )

    1985-06-01

    The lymphocyte response to ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) was investigated by two different methods in 29 unselected patients with multiple epidermal cancer. The ultraviolet-induced DNA synthesis was determined as the increase in incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine in irradiated cells compared with non-irradiated cells after incubation for 2 h. The ultraviolet tolerance was measured as the ultraviolet dose necessary for 50% reduction in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Patients with both squamous cell differentiated tumours and basal cell carcinomas had very high ultraviolet-induced DNA synthesis values. The ultraviolet tolerance in patient lymphocytes was considerably lower than in control lymphocytes with the lowest values occurring in patients with clinical sun intolerance. These investigations may be of predictive value in skin carcinogenesis.

  19. Spreading Photoparoxysmal EEG Response is Associated with an Abnormal Cortical Excitability Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groppa, Sergey; Jerosch, Bettina; Muhle, Hiltrud; Kurth, Christoph; Shepherd, Alex J.; Siebner, Hartwig; Stephani, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is a highly heritable electroencephalographic trait characterized by an abnormal cortical response to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). In PPR-positive individuals, IPS induces spikes, spike-waves or intermittent slow waves. The PPR may be restricted to posterior visual areas (i.e. local PPR…

  20. Antisocial behavior, psychopathic features and abnormalities in reward and punishment processing in youth.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Amy L; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-06-01

    A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention.

  1. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathic Features and Abnormalities in Reward and Punishment Processing in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Amy L.; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention. PMID:24357109

  2. Abnormal animal behavior prior to the Vrancea (Romania) major subcrustal earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Angela; Pantea, Aurelian

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some observations about abnormal animal behavior prior and during of some Romanian subcrustal earthquakes. The major Vrancea earthquakes of 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.4, Imax = IX-X MSK), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.1, Io = VIII-IX MSK) and 30 May 1990 (Mw = 6.9, Io = VIII MSK), were preceded by extensive occurrences of anomalous animal behavior. These data were collected immediately after the earthquakes from the areas affected by these. Some species of animals became excited, nervous and panicked before and during the earthquakes, such as: dogs (barking and running in panic), cats, snakes, mice and rats (came into the houses and have lost their fear), birds (hens, geese, parrots), horses, fishes etc. These strange manifestations of the animals were observed on the entire territory of country, especially in the extra-Carpathian area. This unusual behavior was noticed within a few hours to days before the seismic events, but for the most of cases the time of occurrence was within two hours of the quakes. We can hope that maybe one day the abnormal animal behavior will be used as a reliable seismic precursor for the intermediate depth earthquakes.

  3. Abnormal cardiovascular responses induced by localized high power microwave exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.-T; Brown, D.O.; Johnson, C.E.; Mathur, S.P. ); Elson, E.C. )

    1992-05-01

    A hypothesis of microwave-induced circulatory under perfusion was tested in ketamine anesthetized rats whose heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, respiration rate, and body temperatures were monitored continuously. Fifty-eight ventral head and neck exposures in a waveguide consisted of sham-exposure and exposure to continuous wave (CW) and pulsed 1.25 GHz microwaves for 5 min. The 0.5 Hz and 16 Hz pulsemodulated microwaves were delivered at 400 kW peak power. The CW microwaves were 2 and 6.4 W. The average specific absorption rate was 4.75 W/kg per watt transmitted in the brain and 17.15 W/kg per watt transmitted in the neck. Respiration rate and mean arterial pressure were not altered. Changes in heart rate and pulse pressure were observed in rats exposed to higher power but not to the lower average power microwaves. Depression of pulse pressure, an indication of a decrease in stroke volume, and increased or decreased heart rate were noted in presence of whole-body hyperthermia. The cardiac output of those animals exposed to higher average power microwaves was considered to be below normal as hypothesized. Decreased cardiac output and normal mean arterial pressure resulted in an increase in the total peripheral resistance which was contrary to the anticipated thermal response of animals.

  4. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization

    PubMed Central

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Franz-Schaider, Cornelia; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years) or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years). The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined. PMID:25379228

  5. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G. ); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. )

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  6. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation prevents abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from chronic nicotine consumption.

    PubMed

    Pedron, Solène; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Van Waes, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Successful available treatments to quit smoking remain scarce. Recently, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a tool to reduce craving for nicotine has gained interest. However, there is no documented animal model to assess the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS on addiction-related behaviors. To address this topic, we have developed a model of repeated tDCS in mice and used it to validate its effectiveness in relieving nicotine addiction. Anodal repeated tDCS was applied over the frontal cortex of Swiss female mice. The stimulation electrode (anode) was fixed directly onto the cranium, and the reference electrode was placed onto the ventral thorax. A 2 × 20 min/day stimulation paradigm for five consecutive days was used (0.2 mA). In the first study, we screened for behaviors altered by the stimulation. Second, we tested whether tDCS could alleviate abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from nicotine consumption. In naive animals, repeated tDCS had antidepressant-like properties 3 weeks after the last stimulation, improved working memory, and decreased conditioned place preference for nicotine without affecting locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior. Importantly, abnormal behaviors associated with chronic nicotine exposure (ie, depression-like behavior, increase in nicotine-induced place preference) were normalized by repeated tDCS. Our data show for the first time in an animal model that repeated tDCS is a promising, non-expensive clinical tool that could be used to reduce smoking craving and facilitate smoking cessation. Our animal model will be useful to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of tDCS on addiction and other psychiatric disorders.

  7. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated.

  8. Altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors in rats exposed to early life seizures

    PubMed Central

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Cassane, Gustavo dos Santos Teada; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are the most common manifestation of neurological dysfunction in the neonate. The prognosis of neonatal seizures is highly variable, and the controversy remains whether the severity, duration, or frequency of seizures may contribute to brain damage independently of its etiology. Animal data indicates that seizures during development are associated with a high probability of long-term adverse effects such as learning and memory impairment, behavioral changes and even epilepsy, which is strongly age dependent, as well as the severity, duration, and frequency of seizures. In preliminary studies, we demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to one-single neonatal status epilepticus (SE) episode showed social behavior impairment, and we proposed the model as relevant for studies of developmental disorders. Based on these facts, the goal of this study was to verify the existence of a persistent deficit and if the anxiety-related behavior could be associated with that impairment. To do so, male Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were submitted to a single episode of SE by pilocarpine injection (380 mg/kg, i.p.) and control animals received saline (0.9%, 0.1 mL/10 g). It was possible to demonstrate that in adulthood, animals exposed to neonatal SE displayed low preference for social novelty, anxiety-related behavior, and increased stereotyped behavior in anxiogenic environment with no locomotor activity changes. On the balance, these data suggests that neonatal SE in rodents leads to altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors. PMID:23675329

  9. Who should report abnormal behavior at preschool age? The case of behavioral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ballespí, Sergi; Jané, M Claustre; Riba, M Dolors

    2012-02-01

    Children who are behaviorally "inhibited"-a condition at the extreme of the behavioral inhibition dimension-experience distress in uncertain social situations. Although parents and teachers are in the best position to detect this condition, they rarely agree. This study aims to analyze the agreement between parents and teachers and to examine the relations between ratings made by parents and teachers and assessments made by clinicians and researchers. Parents, teachers and clinicians rated the behavioral inhibition of 365 preschoolers. Seventy-three randomly selected participants were observed using an adaptation of the Behavioral Inhibition Paradigm. Parent-teacher correlations on 34 items and different clusters were, on average, r = .3. The degree of convergence between observational measures and ratings by parents and teachers was moderate-low and did not improve when considering only subsamples from the ends of the distributions. Discriminant analysis suggests that both parents and teachers tend to have a moderate-low ability to detect "inhibited" children.

  10. The microbiota modulates gut physiology and behavioral abnormalities associated with autism

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Elaine Y.; McBride, Sara W.; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R.; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A.; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Patterson, Paul H.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by core behavioral impairments, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly reported. Subsets of ASD individuals display dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, and some exhibit increased intestinal permeability. Here we demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in a mouse model displaying features of ASD, maternal immune activation (MIA). Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition and ameliorates ASD-related defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naïve mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:24315484

  11. Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

  12. An autopsy case of cortical superficial siderosis with persistent abnormal behavior.

    PubMed

    Torii, Youta; Iritani, Shuji; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Sekiguchi, Hirotaka; Habuchi, Chikako; Umeda, Kentaro; Matsunaga, Shinji; Mimuro, Maya; Ozaki, Norio; Yoshida, Mari; Fujita, Kiyoshi

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, MRI has revealed cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), which exhibits hemosiderin deposition in only the cortical surface. However, the associations between the histological findings and clinical symptoms of cSS remain unclear. We herein report an autopsy case of a 75-year-old Japanese man with cSS with persistent abnormal behavior according to cognitive impairment, hallucination and delusion. At 73 years of age, the patient presented with unusual behavior that indicated auditory hallucination and delusion. One year later, he was admitted to the hospital for malignant lymphoma. On admission, cognitive impairment was detected by a screening test. Soon after hospitalization, he presented with active delirium including visual hallucination and delusion. The patient's excited behavior was improved by the administration of a major tranquilizer. However, the abnormal behavior and cognitive impairment persisted. At 75 years of age, he died of heart failure. A neuropathological investigation revealed hemosiderin depositions in the superficial layer of the cortex in the medial and lateral frontal lobe, the lateral temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the medial and lateral occipital lobe. Neuritic plaques and diffuse plaques were extensively observed, which corresponded to Braak stage C and CERAD B, although NFTs were observed that corresponded to Braak stage II. Cortical amyloid angiopathy was not observed in any regions. Ischemic change of brain was also mild. Our report suggests that localized deposition of hemosiderin in the cortex might affect the manifestation of cognitive impairments and hallucination. Further clinicopathological studies are needed to clarify the clinical manifestations of patients with cSS.

  13. Rare E196K mutation in the PRNP gene of a patient exhibiting behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Béjot, Yannick; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Caillier, Marie; Moreau, Thibault; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Giroud, Maurice

    2010-04-01

    Genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) account for approximately 10-15% of overall human prion diseases worldwide, but genotype-phenotype correlations remain incomplete. Here we report the case of an 80-year-old man who developed rapidly progressive behavioral abnormalities and myoclonus following a stroke. Repeated electroencephalography (EEG) revealed a general slowing of the basic activity, as well as several episodes of triphasic waves, with neither periodic activity nor recorded seizure. 14.3.3 protein was detected in cerebral cerebrospinal fluid, and direct sequencing of the PRNP gene showed an E196K mutation associated with homozygosity for methionine at codon 129. The patient was diagnosed with probable genetic prion disease with a Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease-like phenotype. The PRNP E196K mutation has only rarely been described in the literature, and generally patients exhibited an atypical initial phenotype, mainly involving abnormal behavioral features. Further observations are needed to confirm this particular clinical pattern associated with the mutation.

  14. Trichloroethylene exposure aggravates behavioral abnormalities in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Noriyuki; Homma, Takujiro; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Kaneko, Kenya; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Shichiri, Mototada; Takashima, Mizuki; Ito, Junitsu; Konno, Tasuku; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru; Fujii, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been implicated as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease (PD). The administration of TCE to rodents induces neurotoxicity associated with dopaminergic neuron death, and evidence suggests that oxidative stress as a major player in the progression of PD. Here we report on TCE-induced behavioral abnormality in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Wild-type (WT) and SOD1-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice were intraperitoneally administered TCE (500 mg/kg) over a period of 4 weeks. Although the TCE-administrated Sod1(-/-) mice showed marked abnormal motor behavior, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups by biochemical and histopathological analyses. However, treating mouse neuroblastoma-derived NB2a cells with TCE resulted in the down regulation of the SOD1 protein and elevated oxidative stress under conditions where SOD1 production was suppressed. Taken together, these data indicate that SOD1 plays a pivotal role in protecting motor neuron function against TCE toxicity.

  15. Abnormal behavior of supercooled liquid region in bulk-forming metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, E. S.; Na, J. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2010-09-01

    A metallic glass is often viewed as an amorphous alloy exhibiting a single endothermic reaction in the supercooled liquid region (SCLR, ΔTx=Tx-Tg). Here we discuss the origin and consequences of abnormal behavior of SCLR in various bulk-forming metallic glasses (BMGs). The two-stage-like endothermic reaction in Ni-based, Cu-based, Zr-based, and Mg-based BMGs can originate from the local immiscibility of liquids, which is closely related to chemical heterogeneity in as-cast BMG. These inflections can be attributed to the overlap of the exothermic reaction for the formation and growth of clusters in SCLR. The abnormal behavior of SCLR can be modulated by controlling cooling rate as well as by tailoring alloy composition, with the consequence that the modulated local heterogeneity in these BMGs can lead to enhanced flexibility of the BMGs. This correlation assists in understanding toughening mechanism and in guiding alloy design to alleviate brittleness of BMGs.

  16. Predicting splenic abnormality in Hodgkin disease using volume response to epinephrine administration

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Lasher, J.C.; Weiland, F.L.; Kopp, D.T.

    1982-06-01

    The change in relative splenic volume following epinephrine administration was used to determine splenic abnormality noninvasively. Selective splenic imaging was accomplished with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled heat-treated red blood cells, an LFOV gamma camera, a 30 degrees bilateral rotating slant hole collimator, and bilateral slant hole tomographic software. Relative splenic volumes were plotted over time, and correlated with clinical and histologic data. Eight patients with Hodgkin disease and other lymphomas were examined. Volume response to epinephrine appears to be significantly less in abnormal spleens, and may serve to identify patients with unequivocally normal spleens prior to treatment.

  17. Predicting splenic abnormality in Hodgkin disease using volume response to epinephrine administration

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen P.R.; Lasher, J.C.; Weiland, F.L.; Kopp, D.T.

    1982-06-01

    The change in relative splenic volume following epinephrine administration was used to determine splenic abnormality noninvasively. Selective splenic imaging was accomplished with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled heat-treated red blood cells, an LFOV gamma camera, a 30/sup 0/ bilateral rotating slant hole collimator, and bilateral slant hole tomographic software. Relative splenic volumes were plotted over time, and correlated with clinical and histologic data. Eight patients with Hodgkin disease and other lymphomas were examined. Volume response to epinephrine appears to be significantly less in abnormal spleens, and may serve to identify patients with unequivocally normal spleens prior to treatment.

  18. Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate noise levels.

    PubMed

    Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2012-08-30

    Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that noise was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate noise levels through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to noise (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to noise levels of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects.

  19. Abnormal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) Findings in a Near-Normal Hearing Child with Noonan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalaei, Bahram; Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Noonan syndrome (NS) is a heterogeneous genetic disease that affects many parts of the body. It was named after Dr. Jacqueline Anne Noonan, a paediatric cardiologist. Case Report: We report audiological tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR) findings in a 5-year old Malay boy with NS. Despite showing the marked signs of NS, the child could only produce a few meaningful words. Audiological tests found him to have bilateral mild conductive hearing loss at low frequencies. In ABR testing, despite having good waveform morphology, the results were atypical. Absolute latency of wave V was normal but interpeak latencies of wave’s I-V, I-II, II-III were prolonged. Interestingly, interpeak latency of waves III-V was abnormally shorter. Conclusion: Abnormal ABR results are possibly due to abnormal anatomical condition of brainstem and might contribute to speech delay. PMID:28229064

  20. Response monitoring, repetitive behaviour and anterior cingulate abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Katharine N; Polli, Frida E; Joseph, Robert M; Tuch, David S; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J S; Manoach, Dara S

    2008-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing factors to autistic disorders. We investigated whether ACC structure and function during response monitoring were associated with repetitive behaviour in ASD. We compared ACC activation to correct and erroneous antisaccades using rapid presentation event-related functional MRI in 14 control and ten ASD participants. Because response monitoring is the product of coordinated activity in ACC networks, we also examined the microstructural integrity of the white matter (WM) underlying this brain region using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) in 12 control and 12 adult ASD participants. ACC activation and FA were examined in relation to Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised ratings of restricted and repetitive behaviour. Relative to controls, ASD participants: (i) made more antisaccade errors and responded more quickly on correct trials; (ii) showed reduced discrimination between error and correct responses in rostral ACC (rACC), which was primarily due to (iii) abnormally increased activation on correct trials and (iv) showed reduced FA in WM underlying ACC. Finally, in ASD (v) increased activation on correct trials and reduced FA in rACC WM were related to higher ratings of repetitive behaviour. These findings demonstrate functional and structural abnormalities of the ACC in ASD that may contribute to repetitive behaviour. rACC activity following errors is thought to reflect affective appraisal of the error. Thus, the hyperactive rACC response to correct trials can be interpreted as a misleading affective signal that something is awry, which may trigger repetitive attempts at correction

  1. Changes in cortical and striatal neurons predict behavioral and electrophysiological abnormalities in a transgenic murine model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Laforet, G A; Sapp, E; Chase, K; McIntyre, C; Boyce, F M; Campbell, M; Cadigan, B A; Warzecki, L; Tagle, D A; Reddy, P H; Cepeda, C; Calvert, C R; Jokel, E S; Klapstein, G J; Ariano, M A; Levine, M S; DiFiglia, M; Aronin, N

    2001-12-01

    Neurons in Huntington's disease exhibit selective morphological and subcellular alterations in the striatum and cortex. The link between these neuronal changes and behavioral abnormalities is unclear. We investigated relationships between essential neuronal changes that predict motor impairment and possible involvement of the corticostriatal pathway in developing behavioral phenotypes. We therefore generated heterozygote mice expressing the N-terminal one-third of huntingtin with normal (CT18) or expanded (HD46, HD100) glutamine repeats. The HD mice exhibited motor deficits between 3 and 10 months. The age of onset depended on an expanded polyglutamine length; phenotype severity correlated with increasing age. Neuronal changes in the striatum (nuclear inclusions) preceded the onset of phenotype, whereas cortical changes, especially the accumulation of huntingtin in the nucleus and cytoplasm and the appearance of dysmorphic dendrites, predicted the onset and severity of behavioral deficits. Striatal neurons in the HD mice displayed altered responses to cortical stimulation and to activation by the excitotoxic agent NMDA. Application of NMDA increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels in HD100 neurons compared with wild-type neurons. Results suggest that motor deficits in Huntington's disease arise from cumulative morphological and physiological changes in neurons that impair corticostriatal circuitry.

  2. Soft-Tissue Abnormalities Associated with Treatment-Resistant and Treatment-Responsive Clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Daniel K.; Gurnett, Christina A.; Aferol, Hyuliya; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Commean, Paul K.; Dobbs, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clubfoot treatment commonly fails and often results in impaired quality of life. An understanding of the soft-tissue abnormalities associated with both treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant clubfoot is important to improving the diagnosis of clubfoot, the prognosis for patients, and treatment. Methods: Twenty patients with clubfoot treated with the Ponseti method were recruited for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their lower extremities. Among these were seven patients (six unilateral cases) with treatment-responsive clubfoot and thirteen patients (five unilateral cases) with treatment-resistant clubfoot. Demographic information and physical examination findings were recorded. A descriptive analysis of the soft-tissue abnormalities was performed for both patient cohorts. For the patients with unilateral clubfoot, we calculated the percentage difference in cross-sectional area between the affected limb and the unaffected limb in terms of muscle, subcutaneous fat, intracompartment fat, and total area. With use of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, we compared inter-leg differences in cross-sectional areas and the intracompartment adiposity index (IAI) between treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant groups. The IAI characterizes the cross-sectional area of fat within a muscle compartment. Results: Extensive soft-tissue abnormalities were more present in patients with treatment-resistant clubfoot than in patients with treatment-responsive clubfoot. Treatment-resistant clubfoot abnormalities included excess epimysial fat and intramuscular fat replacement as well as unique patterns of hypoplasia in specific muscle groups that were present within a subset of patients. Among the unilateral cases, treatment-resistant clubfoot was associated with a significantly greater difference in muscle area between the affected and unaffected limb (−47.8%) compared with treatment-responsive clubfoot (−26.6%) (p = 0.02), a significantly greater difference in

  3. Behavioral Response Research Evaluation Workshop (BRREW)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Behavioral Response Research Evaluation Workshop (BRREW...N000141512664 http://www.creem.st-and.ac.uk LONG-TERM GOALS The behavioral response of marine mammals to Navy sonar exposure has been a research...The overall objective is to review the status and future of research into behavioral responses of marine mammals to naval sonar exposure in order to

  4. Cetacean Social Behavioral Response to Sonar Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cetacean social behavioral response to sonar exposure Dr...TERM GOALS The goal of this effort is to investigate cetacean social behavioral response to sonar signals. OBJECTIVES The scientific objectives...of this effort are to determine: 1) social behavioral responses of cetaceans to sonar and to tagging, to investigate the biological relevance and

  5. Inactivation of Ceramide Synthase 6 in Mice Results in an Altered Sphingolipid Metabolism and Behavioral Abnormalities*

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Philipp; vom Dorp, Katharina; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Minich, David; Ginkel, Christina; Welcker, Jochen; Degen, Joachim; Eckhardt, Matthias; Dere, Ekrem; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The N-acyl chain length of ceramides is determined by the specificity of different ceramide synthases (CerS). The CerS family in mammals consists of six members with different substrate specificities and expression patterns. We have generated and characterized a mouse line harboring an enzymatically inactive ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6KO) gene and lacz reporter cDNA coding for β-galactosidase directed by the CerS6 promoter. These mice display a decrease in C16:0 containing sphingolipids. Relative to wild type tissues the amount of C16:0 containing sphingomyelin in kidney is ∼35%, whereas we find a reduction of C16:0 ceramide content in the small intestine to about 25%. The CerS6KO mice show behavioral abnormalities including a clasping abnormality of their hind limbs and a habituation deficit. LacZ reporter expression in the brain reveals CerS6 expression in hippocampus, cortex, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. Using newly developed antibodies that specifically recognize the CerS6 protein we show that the endogenous CerS6 protein is N-glycosylated and expressed in several tissues of mice, mainly kidney, small and large intestine, and brain. PMID:23760501

  6. Inactivation of ceramide synthase 6 in mice results in an altered sphingolipid metabolism and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ebel, Philipp; Vom Dorp, Katharina; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Minich, David; Ginkel, Christina; Welcker, Jochen; Degen, Joachim; Eckhardt, Matthias; Dere, Ekrem; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-07-19

    The N-acyl chain length of ceramides is determined by the specificity of different ceramide synthases (CerS). The CerS family in mammals consists of six members with different substrate specificities and expression patterns. We have generated and characterized a mouse line harboring an enzymatically inactive ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6KO) gene and lacz reporter cDNA coding for β-galactosidase directed by the CerS6 promoter. These mice display a decrease in C16:0 containing sphingolipids. Relative to wild type tissues the amount of C16:0 containing sphingomyelin in kidney is ∼35%, whereas we find a reduction of C16:0 ceramide content in the small intestine to about 25%. The CerS6KO mice show behavioral abnormalities including a clasping abnormality of their hind limbs and a habituation deficit. LacZ reporter expression in the brain reveals CerS6 expression in hippocampus, cortex, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. Using newly developed antibodies that specifically recognize the CerS6 protein we show that the endogenous CerS6 protein is N-glycosylated and expressed in several tissues of mice, mainly kidney, small and large intestine, and brain.

  7. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  8. Decomposition of abnormal free locomotor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grieb, Benjamin; von Nicolai, Constantin; Engler, Gerhard; Sharott, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K.; Moll, Christian K.

    2013-01-01

    Poverty of spontaneous movement, slowed execution and reduced amplitudes of movement (akinesia, brady- and hypokinesia) are cardinal motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease that can be modeled in experimental animals by brain lesions affecting midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most behavioral investigations in experimental parkinsonism have employed short-term observation windows to assess motor impairments. We postulated that an analysis of longer-term free exploratory behavior could provide further insights into the complex fine structure of altered locomotor activity in parkinsonian animals. To this end, we video-monitored 23 h of free locomotor behavior and extracted several behavioral measures before and after the expression of a severe parkinsonian phenotype following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the rat dopaminergic substantia nigra. Unbiased stereological cell counting verified the degree of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase positive cell loss in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In line with previous reports, overall covered distance and maximal motion speed of lesioned animals were found to be significantly reduced compared to controls. Before lesion surgery, exploratory rat behavior exhibited a bimodal distribution of maximal speed values obtained for single movement episodes, corresponding to a “first” and “second gear” of motion. 6-OHDA injections significantly reduced the incidence of second gear motion episodes and also resulted in an abnormal prolongation of these fast motion events. Likewise, the spatial spread of such episodes was increased in 6-OHDA rats. The increase in curvature of motion tracks was increased in both lesioned and control animals. We conclude that the discrimination of distinct modes of motion by statistical decomposition of longer-term spontaneous locomotion provides useful insights into the fine structure of fluctuating motor functions in a rat analog of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24348346

  9. Abnormal Population Responses in the Somatosensory Cortex of Alzheimer’s Disease Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maatuf, Yossi; Stern, Edward A.; Slovin, Hamutal

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. One of the neuropathological hallmarks of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-β plaques. Overexpression of human amyloid precursor protein in transgenic mice induces hippocampal and neocortical amyloid-β accumulation and plaque deposition that increases with age. The impact of these effects on neuronal population responses and network activity in sensory cortex is not well understood. We used Voltage Sensitive Dye Imaging, to investigate at high spatial and temporal resolution, the sensory evoked population responses in the barrel cortex of aged transgenic (Tg) mice and of age-matched non-transgenic littermate controls (Ctrl) mice. We found that a whisker deflection evoked abnormal sensory responses in the barrel cortex of Tg mice. The response amplitude and the spatial spread of the cortical responses were significantly larger in Tg than in Ctrl mice. At the network level, spontaneous activity was less synchronized over cortical space than in Ctrl mice, however synchronization during evoked responses induced by whisker deflection did not differ between the two groups. Thus, the presence of elevated Aβ and plaques may alter population responses and disrupts neural synchronization in large-scale networks, leading to abnormalities in sensory processing. PMID:27079783

  10. A Behavioral Response to Illness. N106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Judith

    A description is provided of "Behavioral Response to Illness," a required course offered in the second quarter of a two-year college nursing program, which examines physiological and psychosocial changes in patients from the framework of illness as a stressor, and the possible behavioral responses to such stress. The course focuses on behavioral…

  11. Normal and Abnormal Development of Motor Behavior: Lessons From Experiments in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2001-01-01

    In this essay a few relevant aspects of the neural and behavioral development of the brain in the human and in the rat are reviewed and related to the consequences of lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system at early and later age. Movements initially are generated by local circuits in the spinal cord and without the involvement of descending projections. After birth, both in humans and in rats it seems that the devlopment of postural control is the limiting factor for several motor behaviors to mature. Strong indications exist that the cerebellum is significantly involved in this control. Lesions in the CNS at early stages interfere with fundamental processes of neural development, such as the establishment of fiber connections and cell death patterns. Consequently, the functional effects are strongly dependent on the stage of development. The young and undisturbed CNS, on the other hand, has a much greater capacity than the adult nervous system for compensating abnormal reinnervation in the peripheral nervous system. Animal experiments indicated that the cerebellar cortex might play an important part in this compensation. This possibility should be investigated further as it might offer important perspectives for treatment in the human. PMID:11530886

  12. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  13. Abnormal relationship between GABA, neurophysiology and impulsive behavior in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria J; Violante, Inês R; Bernardino, Inês; Edden, Richard A E; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive deficits. In particular, executive dysfunction is recognized as a core deficit of NF1, including impairments in executive attention and inhibitory control. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind these important deficits are still unknown. Here, we studied inhibitory control in a visual go/no-go task in children and adolescents with NF1 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16 per group). We applied a multimodal approach using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), to study the evoked brain responses, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of GABA and glutamate + glutamine in the medial frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a pivotal role in inhibitory control, and also in a control region, the occipital cortex. Finally, we run correlation analyses to identify the relationship between inhibitory control, levels of neurotransmitters, and EEG markers of neural function. Individuals with NF1 showed impaired impulse control and reduced EEG correlates of early visual processing (parieto-occipital P1) and inhibitory control (frontal P3). MRS data revealed a reduction in medial frontal GABA+/tCr (total Creatine) levels in the NF1 group, in parallel with the already reported reduced occipital GABA levels. In contrast, glutamate + glutamine/tCr levels were normal, suggesting the existence of abnormal inhibition/excitation balance in this disorder. Notably, medial frontal but not occipital GABA levels correlated with general intellectual abilities (IQ) in NF1, and inhibitory control in both groups. Surprisingly, the relationship between inhibitory control and medial frontal GABA was reversed in NF1: higher GABA was associated with a faster response style whereas in controls it was related to a cautious strategy. Abnormal GABAergic physiology appears, thus, as an important factor underlying impaired cognition in NF1, in a level and

  14. [Abnormal behavior and adaptation problems in dogs and cats and their pharmacologic control].

    PubMed

    Jöchle, W

    1998-11-01

    Small animal practitioners are increasingly confronted with patients showing adaptation related problems (ARP) which are expressed as disturbed or abnormal behavior (DAB). As a result, practitioners are asked increasingly to euthanize animals which seemingly cannot be socialized. In healthy dogs and cats, three main causes for DAB can be detected: refusal of obedience because of the drive for dominance; anxiety and frustration; and geriatric DAB. Increasingly, disease conditions not readily diagnosed can cause DAB, especially hypothyroidism. Influencing and contributing factors to DAB are breed, sex, experiences as a puppy, behavior of owners, changes in the pet's environment. ARPs may also cause disturbances in the condition of skin and fur, e.g. atopic dermatitis, pruritus sine materia, lick granuloma, and of the intestinal organs (vomiting, irritated bowel syndrome) and may result in an immune deficiency. Therapeutic approaches include behavioral therapy, surgical or hormonal castration with progestins or antiandrogens, substitution with thyroxin in cases with hypothyroidism, and/or the use of psychopharmaca, most prominently of modern antidepressiva like amitriptyline; buspirone; clomipramine and fluoxetine, but also of selegiline, a mono-aminoxydase inhibitor. These compounds, among other effects, are elevating prolactin levels. This seems to allow to formulate a working hypothesis: in the canine species, prolactin is obviously a hormone enabling socialization; hence all drugs which safely cause an increase in prolactin production might be suitable to manage or control ARPs and DAB in the dog, but also in the cat. Higher levels of prolactin than those required for socialization, as seen in nursing bitches or some clinically overt cases of pseudopregnancy, may cause maternal aggression and can be controlled with prolactin inhibitors, if needed.

  15. Abnormal vocal behavior predicts executive and memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Kamalini G; Gill, Jeevit S; Kothare, Hardik; Beagle, Alexander J; Mizuiri, Danielle; Honma, Susanne M; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L; Vossel, Keith A; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Houde, John F

    2017-04-01

    Speakers respond automatically and rapidly to compensate for brief perturbations of pitch in their auditory feedback. The specific adjustments in vocal output require integration of brain regions involved in speech-motor-control in order to detect the sensory-feedback error and implement the motor correction. Cortical regions involved in the pitch reflex phenomenon are highly vulnerable targets of network disruption in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the pitch reflex in AD patients (n = 19) compared to an age-matched control group (n = 16). We measured the degree of behavioral compensation (peak compensation) and the extent of the adaptive response (pitch-response persistence). Healthy-controls reached a peak compensation of 18.7 ± 0.8 cents, and demonstrated a sustained compensation at 8.9 ± 0.69 cents. AD patients, in contrast, demonstrated a significantly elevated peak compensation (22.4 ± 1.2 cents, p < 0.05), and a reduced sustained response (pitch-response persistence, 4.5 ± 0.88 cents, p < 0.001). The degree of increased peak compensation predicted executive dysfunction, while the degree of impaired pitch-response persistence predicted memory dysfunction, in AD patients. The current study demonstrates pitch reflex as a sensitive behavioral index of impaired prefrontal modulation of sensorimotor integration, and compromised plasticity mechanisms of memory, in AD.

  16. Behavioral and Neurotransmitter Abnormalities in Mice Deficient for Parkin, DJ-1 and Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Hennis, Meghan R.; Seamans, Katherine W.; Marvin, Marian A.; Casey, Bradford H.; Goldberg, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of neurons in the substantia nigra that project to the striatum and release dopamine. The cause of PD remains uncertain, however, evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Although most cases of PD are sporadic, 5-10% of cases are caused by inherited mutations. Loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 were the first to be linked to recessively inherited Parkinsonism. Surprisingly, mice bearing similar loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 do not show age-dependent loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons or depletion of dopamine in the striatum. Although the normal cellular functions of Parkin and DJ-1 are not fully understood, we hypothesized that loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 render cells more sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we crossed mice deficient for Parkin and DJ-1 with mice deficient for the mitochondrial antioxidant protein Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) or the cytosolic antioxidant protein Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Aged Parkin-/-DJ-1-/- and Mn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have enhanced performance on the rotorod behavior test. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have elevated levels of dopamine in the striatum in the absence of nigral cell loss. Our studies demonstrate that on a Parkin/DJ-1 null background, mice that are also deficient for major antioxidant proteins do not have progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons but have behavioral and striatal dopamine abnormalities. PMID:24386432

  17. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  18. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly. PMID:26693400

  19. Relation between abnormal patterns of muscle activation and response to common peroneal nerve stimulation in hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Burridge, J; McLellan, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the relation between response to common peroneal nerve stimulation, timed to the swing phase of walking, and abnormal ankle movement and muscle activation patterns.
METHOD—Eighteen patients who took part had a drop foot and had had a stroke at least 6 months before the study Twelve age matched normal subjects were also studied. Response to stimulation was measured by changes in the speed and effort of walking when the stimulator was used. Speed was measured over 10 m and effort by the physiological cost index. Abnormal ankle movement and muscle activation were measured in a rig by ability to follow a tracking signal moving sinusoidally at either 1 or 2 Hz, resistance to passive movement, and EMG activity during both passive and active movements. Indices were derived to define EMG response to passive stretch, coactivation, and ability to activate muscles appropriately during active movement
RESULTS—Different mechanisms underlying the drop foot were seen. Results showed that patients who had poor control of ankle movement and spasticity, demonstrated by stretch reflex and coactivation, were more likely to respond well to stimulation. Those with mechanical resistance to passive movement and with normal muscle activation responded less well.
CONCLUSIONS—The results support the hypothesis that stimulation of the common peroneal nerve to elicit a contraction of the anterior tibial muscles also inhibits the antagonist calf muscles. The technique used may be useful in directing physiotherapy by indicating the underlying cause of the drop foot.

 PMID:10945810

  20. CA1-specific deletion of NMDA receptors induces abnormal renewal of a learned fear response.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Silke J; Regmi, Nanda L; Birnbaum, Shari G; Greene, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    CA1 hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors (NMDARs) are necessary for contextually related learning and memory processes. Extinction, a form of learning, has been shown to require intact hippocampal NMDAR signalling. Renewal of fear expression can occur after fear extinction training, when the extinguished fear stimulus is presented in an environmental context different from the training context and thus, renewal is dependent on contextual memory. In this study, we show that a Grin1 knock-out (loss of the essential NR1 subunit for the NMDAR) restricted to the bilateral CA1 subfield of the dorsal hippocampus does not affect acquisition of learned fear, but does attenuate extinction of a cued fear response even when presented in the extinction-training context. We propose that failure to remember the (safe) extinction context is responsible for the abnormal fear response and suggest it is a dysfunctional renewal. The results highlight the difference in outcome of extinguished fear memory resulting from a partial rather than complete loss of function of the hippocampus and suggest a potential mechanism for abnormally increased fear expression in PTSD.

  1. Response of sensitive behaviors to frequent measurement.

    PubMed

    Axinn, William G; Jennings, Elyse A; Couper, Mick P

    2015-01-01

    We study the influence of frequent survey measurement on behavior. Widespread access to the Internet has made important breakthroughs in frequent measurement possible-potentially revolutionizing social science measurement of processes that change quickly over time. One key concern about using such frequent measurement is that it may influence the behavior being studied. We investigate this possibility using both a population-based experiment with random assignment to participation in a weekly journal for twelve months (versus no journal) and a large-scale, population-based, journal-keeping study with weekly measurement for 30 months. Results reveal few of the measured behaviors are correlated with assignment to frequent measurement. Theoretical reasoning regarding the likely behavioral response to frequent measurement correctly predicts domains most vulnerable to this possibility. Overall, however, we found little evidence of behavioral response to frequent measurement.

  2. Response of Sensitive Behaviors to Frequent Measurement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We study the influence of frequent survey measurement on behavior. Widespread access to the Internet has made important breakthroughs in frequent measurement possible—potentially revolutionizing social science measurement of processes that change quickly over time. One key concern about using such frequent measurement is that it may influence the behavior being studied. We investigate this possibility using both a population-based experiment with random assignment to participation in a weekly journal for twelve months (versus no journal) and a large scale population-based journal-keeping study with weekly measurement for 30 months. Results reveal few of the measured behaviors are correlated with assignment to frequent measurement. Theoretical reasoning regarding the likely behavioral response to frequent measurement correctly predicts domains most vulnerable to this possibility. Overall, however, we found little evidence of behavioral response to frequent measurement. PMID:25432599

  3. Serotonergic involvement in the amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in dopamine transporter knockout mice by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Uchiumi, Osamu; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Asami; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice exhibit elevated extracellular dopamine levels in brain regions that include the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, but not the prefrontal cortex. DAT KO mice model some aspects of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Smoking is more common in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that nicotine might ameliorate aspects of the behavioral abnormalities and/or treatment side effects seen in these individuals. We report nicotine-induced normalization of effects on locomotion and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) in DAT KO mice that require intact serotonin 5-HT1A systems. First, we observed that the marked hyperactivity displayed by DAT KO mice was reduced by administration of nicotine. This nicotine effect was blocked by pretreatment with the non-specific nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist mecamylamine, or the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Secondly, we examined the effects of nicotine on PPI in DAT KO mice. Treatment with nicotine significantly ameliorated the PPI deficits observed in DAT KO mice. The ameliorating action of nicotine on PPI deficits in DAT KO mice was blocked by mecamylamine, the α₇ nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine or WAY100635, while the α₄β₂ nACh receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidinehydrobromide (DHβE) produced only a non-significant trend toward attenuation of nicotine effects. Finally, we observed that administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also ameliorated the deficit in PPI observed in DAT KO mice. This amelioration was antagonized by pretreatment with WAY100635. These data support the idea that nicotine might ameliorate some of the cognitive dysfunctions found in schizophrenia in a 5-HT1A-dependent fashion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  4. Behavioral abnormalities are common and severe in patients with distal 22q11.2 microdeletions and microduplications

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Valerie; McRae, Anne; Dineen, Richard; Saulsberry, Alexandria; Hoganson, George; Schrift, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We describe six individuals with microdeletions and microduplications in the distal 22q11.2 region detected by microarray. Five of the abnormalities have breakpoints in the low-copy repeats (LCR) in this region and one patient has an atypical rearrangement. Two of the six patients with abnormalities in the region between LCR22 D–E have hearing loss, which has previously been reported only once in association with these abnormalities. We especially note the behavioral/neuropsychiatric problems, including the severity and early onset, in patients with distal 22q11.2 rearrangements. Our patients add to the genotype–phenotype correlations which are still being generated for these chromosomal anomalies. PMID:26247050

  5. Microduplications of 3p26.3p26.2 containing CRBN gene in patients with intellectual disability and behavior abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Papuc, Sorina M; Hackmann, Karl; Andrieux, Joris; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Budişteanu, Magdalena; Arghir, Aurora; Schrock, Evelin; Ţuţulan-Cuniţă, Andreea C; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2015-05-01

    We report on the clinical data and molecular cytogenetic findings in three unrelated patients presenting with intellectual disability and behavior abnormalities. An overlapping microduplication involving 3p26.2-26.3 was identified in these patients. All three aberrations were confirmed and proven to be parentally inherited. The sizes of the duplications were different, with a common minimal region of 423,754 bp containing two genes - TRNT1 and CRBN. Here, we hypothesize that the copy number gain of CRBN gene might be responsible for developmental delay/intellectual disability.

  6. [Tilt test and orthostatic intolerance: abnormalities in the neural sympathetic response to gravitational stimulus].

    PubMed

    Furlan, R

    2001-05-01

    In the present manuscript the different methodologies aimed at assessing the autonomic profile in humans during a gravitational stimulus have been described. In addition, strengths and drawbacks of the tilt test in relation to occasional orthostatic intolerance were addressed. Finally, different autonomic abnormalities underlying occasional and chronic orthostatic intolerance syndromes have been schematically highlighted. The direct recording of the neural sympathetic discharge from the peroneal nerve (MSNA), in spite of its invasive nature, still represents the recognized reference to quantify the changes in the sympathetic activity to the vessels attending postural modifications. The increase of plasma norepinephrine during a tilt test is achieved by both an increase in plasma spillover and a concomitant decrease in systemic clearance. Changes in the indices of cardiac sympathetic and vagal modulation may also be quantified during a tilt test by power spectrum analysis of RR interval variability. The spectral markers of cardiac autonomic control, if evaluated concomitantly with MSNA, may contribute to assess abnormalities in the regional distribution of the sympathetic activity to the heart and the vessels. The capability of the tilt test of reproducing a vasovagal event or of inducing "false positive responses" seems to be markedly affected by the age, thus suggesting that additional or different etiopathogenetic mechanisms might be involved in the loss of consciousness in older as compared to younger subjects. In subjects suffering from occasional or habitual neurally mediated syncope an increase or, respectively, a decrease in cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation has been documented before the loss of consciousness. In patients with pure autonomic failure, a global dysautonomia affecting both the sympathetic and the vagal modulation to the heart, seems to be present. In chronic orthostatic intolerance, the most common form of dysautonomia of young women

  7. Abnormal Brain Responses to Action Observation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Jaakko; Saari, Jukka; Koskinen, Miika; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta

    2017-03-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective. A pattern-classification analysis was applied to characterize brain areas where the activation pattern differed between CRPS patients and healthy subjects. Brain areas with statistically significant group differences (q < .05, false discovery rate-corrected) included the hand representation area in the sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, secondary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that CRPS impairs action observation by affecting brain areas related to pain processing and motor control.

  8. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Källstrand, Johan; Olsson, Olle; Nehlstedt, Sara Fristedt; Sköld, Mia Ling; Nielzén, Sören

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 16) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16), respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005), which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking) may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:20628629

  9. Ts1Cje, a partial trisomy 16 mouse model for Down syndrome, exhibits learning and behavioral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sago, Haruhiko; Carlson, Elaine J.; Smith, Desmond J.; Kilbridge, Joshua; Rubin, Edward M.; Mobley, William C.; Epstein, Charles J.; Huang, Ting-Ting

    1998-01-01

    A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called “Down syndrome region” of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of learning in the Morris water maze and assessment of spontaneous locomotor activity reveal distinct learning and behavioral abnormalities, some of which are indicative of hippocampal dysfunction. The triplicated region in Ts1Cje, from Sod1 to Mx1, is smaller than that in Ts65Dn, another segmental trisomy 16 mouse, and the learning deficits in Ts1Cje are less severe than those in Ts65Dn. In addition, degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, which was observed in Ts65Dn, was absent in Ts1Cje. PMID:9600952

  10. The association between anger-related personality trait and cardiac autonomic response abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Narita, Kosuke; Murata, Tetsuhito; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hamada, Toshihiko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Wada, Yuji

    2007-09-01

    Cardiac autonomic response abnormality associated with trait anger has been recognized to elevate blood pressure in daily life, leading to atherosclerotic progression and cardiovascular disease. To clarify the relationship between anger-related personality traits and cardiac autonomic response in healthy elderly subjects, 54 volunteers consisting of 30 male (mean age 62.2+/-5.4) and 24 female (mean age 58.4+/-4.6) subjects underwent testing of heart rate variability (HRV) with head-up tilt. For the evaluation of trait anger, we used a questionnaire corresponding to the trait anger score taken from the State and Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Furthermore, we measured carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) to evaluate atherosclerotic progression in subjects with anger trait. In female subjects, higher trait anger was positively associated with elevated carotid IMT and the suppression of HRV vagal attenuation from the supine to head-up position, and negatively associated with the HRV sympathetic activity in the head-up position and also with the HRV sympathetic response from the supine to head-up position. In male subjects, trait anger was not significantly associated with carotid IMT or any HRV component with or without head-up tilt testing. We conclude that a simple noninvasive measure, short-term HRV with head-up tilt testing, could be a useful method to investigate the association between cardiac autonomic imbalance and increased risk of atherosclerosis associated with trait anger in healthy elderly subjects.

  11. Mutations of the XLRS1 gene cause abnormalities of photoreceptor as well as inner retinal responses of the ERG.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, K; George, N; Moore, A; Trump, D

    1999-01-01

    Intensity-series rod and cone ERGs were recorded in 19 patients with XLRS and 26 control eyes. All patients were examined by one ophthalmologist and diagnosed on the basis of fundus appearance and evidence of the disease in other males in the same family. Mutations in the XLRS1 gene have been identified in 15 of the patients. Dark-adapted ERGs were significantly different from controls for all test conditions and for both a-wave and b-wave responses. Abnormalities were detectable in all patients but there was considerable variation in the severity of abnormality. One third of the patients had the dark-adapted 'negative-wave' response typically associated with inner retinal disorder, but about one third showed only mild depression of the b-wave while the remainder had abnormally low a-waves in addition to depressed b-waves. Light-adapted responses were also affected and both a-wave and b-wave responses differed significantly from controls, but the 'negative-wave' response was not seen in any patient. The severity of the ERG abnormality did not correlate with the classification of fundus appearance or patient age suggesting that retinal function is relatively stable throughout life. The severity of ERG abnormalities did not correlate with the type of mutation and responses could differ between affected males within the same family. These results indicate considerable heterogeneity of ERG response without clinical, age or genetic correlate. The abnormal a-wave responses indicate that photoreceptor as well as inner retinal layer function may be affected in XLRS, at least in some patients.

  12. Executive Function Deficits and Social-Behavioral Abnormality in Mice Exposed to a Low Dose of Dioxin In Utero and via Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation. PMID:23251380

  13. Ceteacean Social Behavioral Response to Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    responses to sonar signals and other stimuli (tagging effort, killer whale playbacks) as well as baseline behavior, are studied within the larger... killer whale vocalizations in 3S2 - Response to tagging and vessel noise exposure in Azores-Baseline - Species: Northern bottlenose whale , Risso’s...common dolphin, bottlenose dolphin, killer whale  Cross-study implementation of group sampling methodology - Protocols used in four BRS studies

  14. Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joseph P; Thogerson, Collette M; Dufour, Brett D; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D; Mench, Joy A

    2011-06-01

    The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the "4P's" (Prediction, Pre-emption, Personalization, and Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly specific model of a single disorder by matching this 'fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders.

  15. Women's Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses, and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Highlights trends and…

  16. Autistic-spectrum disorders in Down syndrome: further delineation and distinction from other behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Carter, John C; Capone, George T; Gray, Robert M; Cox, Christiane S; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2007-01-05

    The present study extends our previous work characterizing the behavioral features of autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Autism Behavior Checklist (AutBehav). We examined which specific behaviors distinguished the behavioral phenotype of DS + ASD from other aberrant behavior disorders in DS, by determining the relative contribution of ABC and AutBehav subscales and items to the diagnosis of ASD. A total of 127 subjects (aged 2-24 years; mean age: 8.4 years; approximately 70% male), comprising: a cohort of 64 children and adolescents with DS and co-morbid ASD (DS + ASD), 19 with DS and stereotypic movement disorder (DS + SMD), 18 with DS and disruptive behaviors (DS + DB), and 26 with DS and no co-morbid behavior disorders (DS + none) were examined using the aforementioned measures of aberrant behavior. We found that subjects with DS + ASD showed the most severe aberrant behavior, especially stereotypy compared to DS + none and lethargy/social withdrawal and relating problems compared to DS + SMD. Specifically, relatively simple stereotypic behavior differentiated DS + ASD from DS + DB, whereas odd/bizarre stereotypic and anxious behavior characterized DS + ASD relative to DS + SMD and DS + none. Additionally, in a subset of subjects with DS + ASD and anxiety, social withdrawal was particularly pronounced. Overall, our findings indicate that a diagnosis of DS + ASD represents a distinctive set of aberrant behaviors marked by characteristic odd/bizarre stereotypic behavior, anxiety, and social withdrawal.

  17. Alteration of antioxidant defense status precedes humoral immune response abnormalities in macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Haddouche, Mustapha; Aribi, Mourad; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Smahi, Mohammed Chems-Eddine Ismet; Lammani, Mohammed; Benyoucef, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study aimed to investigate whether the anomalies affecting the antioxidant and humoral immune defenses could start at birth and to check whether the decrease in antioxidant defenses may precede the immune abnormalities in macrosomic newborns. Material/Methods Thirty macrosomic and 30 sex-matched control newborns were recruited for a retrospective case-control study at the Maghnia Maternity Hospital of Tlemcen Department (Algeria). Results The serum IgG levels were similar in both groups. However, plasma ORAC, albumin, vitamin E, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels were significantly decreased in macrosomic as compared to control newborns, yet no difference was observed after adjustment for weight. Additionally, serum concentrations of complement C3, MDA and XO were significantly higher in macrosomic as compared to controls before adjustment for weight. Moreover, macrosomia was significantly associated with high levels of complement C3 (OR=8, p=0.002); whereas no association with those of IgG was observed (OR<1, p>0.05). Furthermore, macrosomia was significantly associated with low levels of ORAC (OR=4.96, p=0.027), vitamin E (OR=4.5, p=0.018), SOD (OR=6.88, p=0.020) and CAT (OR=5.67, p=0.017), and with high levels of MDA (OR=10.29, p=0.005). Conclusions Abnormalities of the humoral defense system in excessive weight could be preceded by alterations of the anti-oxidative defense and by inflammatory response and activation of innate immunity at birth. Additionally, excessive weight could be a potential factor contributing to decreased anti-oxidative capacity and increased oxidative stress. PMID:22037745

  18. Instructors' Use of Trigger Warnings and Behavior Warnings in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boysen, Guy A.; Wells, Anna Mae; Dawson, Kaylee J.

    2016-01-01

    College students have been increasingly demanding warnings and accommodations in relation to course topics they believe will elicit strong, negative emotions. These "trigger warnings" are highly relevant to Abnormal Psychology because of the sensitive topics covered in the course (e.g., suicide, trauma, sex). A survey of Abnormal…

  19. Abnormal Striatal BOLD Responses to Reward Anticipation and Reward Delivery in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Emi; Bado, Patricia; Tripp, Gail; Mattos, Paulo; Wickens, Jeff R.; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Alsop, Brent; Ferreira, Fernanda Meireles; Lima, Debora; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Altered reward processing has been proposed to contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanism underlying this alteration remains unclear. We hypothesize that the transfer of dopamine release from reward to reward-predicting cues, as normally observed in animal studies, may be deficient in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate striatal responses to reward-predicting cues and reward delivery in a classical conditioning paradigm. Data from 14 high-functioning and stimulant-naïve young adults with elevated lifetime symptoms of ADHD (8 males, 6 females) and 15 well-matched controls (8 males, 7 females) were included in the analyses. During reward anticipation, increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the right ventral and left dorsal striatum were observed in controls, but not in the ADHD group. The opposite pattern was observed in response to reward delivery; the ADHD group demonstrated significantly greater BOLD responses in the ventral striatum bilaterally and the left dorsal striatum relative to controls. In the ADHD group, the number of current hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms was inversely related to ventral striatal responses during reward anticipation and positively associated with responses to reward. The BOLD response patterns observed in the striatum are consistent with impaired predictive dopamine signaling in ADHD, which may explain altered reward-contingent behaviors and symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24586543

  20. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  1. Methylphenidate ('Ritalin') can ameliorate abnormal risk-taking behavior in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shibley; Robbins, Trevor W; Hodges, John R; Mehta, Mitul A; Nestor, Peter J; Clark, Luke; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2006-03-01

    The frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia is a significant neurological condition worldwide. There exist few treatments available for the cognitive and behavioural sequelae of fvFTD. Previous research has shown that these patients display risky decision-making, and numerous studies have now demonstrated pathology affecting the orbitofrontal cortex. The present study uses a within-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure to investigate the effects of a single dose of methylphenidate (40 mg) upon a range of different cognitive processes including those assessing prefrontal cortex integrity. Methylphenidate was effective in 'normalizing' the decision-making behavior of patients, such that they became less risk taking on medication, although there were no significant effects on other aspects of cognitive function, including working memory, attentional set shifting, and reversal learning. Moreover, there was an absence of the normal subjective and autonomic responses to methylphenidate seen in elderly subjects. The results are discussed in terms of the 'somatic marker' hypothesis of impaired decision-making following orbitofrontal dysfunction.

  2. High fat diet produces brain insulin resistance, synaptodendritic abnormalities and altered behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Steven E; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R; Carlson, Gregory C; Browne, Caroline A; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F; Kim, Sangwon F

    2014-07-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS(616)), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors.

  3. High Fat Diet Produces Brain Insulin Resistance, Synaptodendritic Abnormalities and Altered Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Steven E.; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R.; Carlson, Gregory C.; Browne, Carolyn A.; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F.; Kim, Sangwon F.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17 days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8 weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS616), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors. PMID:24686304

  4. Epilepsy, Behavioral Abnormalities, and Physiological Comorbidities in Syntaxin-Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1) Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Grone, Brian P.; Marchese, Maria; Hamling, Kyla R.; Kumar, Maneesh G.; Krasniak, Christopher S.; Sicca, Federico; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Patel, Manisha; Baraban, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the synaptic machinery gene syntaxin-binding protein 1, STXBP1 (also known as MUNC18-1), are linked to childhood epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Zebrafish STXBP1 homologs (stxbp1a and stxbp1b) have highly conserved sequence and are prominently expressed in the larval zebrafish brain. To understand the functions of stxbp1a and stxbp1b, we generated loss-of-function mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and studied brain electrical activity, behavior, development, heart physiology, metabolism, and survival in larval zebrafish. Homozygous stxbp1a mutants exhibited a profound lack of movement, low electrical brain activity, low heart rate, decreased glucose and mitochondrial metabolism, and early fatality compared to controls. On the other hand, homozygous stxbp1b mutants had spontaneous electrographic seizures, and reduced locomotor activity response to a movement-inducing “dark-flash” visual stimulus, despite showing normal metabolism, heart rate, survival, and baseline locomotor activity. Our findings in these newly generated mutant lines of zebrafish suggest that zebrafish recapitulate clinical phenotypes associated with human syntaxin-binding protein 1 mutations. PMID:26963117

  5. Abnormal responses to monetary outcomes in cortex, but not in the basal ganglia, in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Waltz, James A; Schweitzer, Julie B; Ross, Thomas J; Kurup, Pradeep K; Salmeron, Betty J; Rose, Emma J; Gold, James M; Stein, Elliot A

    2010-11-01

    Psychosis has been associated with aberrant brain activity concurrent with both the anticipation and integration of monetary outcomes. The extent to which abnormal reward-related neural signals can be observed in chronic, medicated patients with schizophrenia (SZ), however, is not clear. In an fMRI study involving 17 chronic outpatients with SZ and 17 matched controls, we used a monetary incentive delay (MID) task, in which different-colored shapes predicted gains, losses, or neutral outcomes. Subjects needed to respond to a target within a time window in order to receive the indicated gain or avoid the indicated loss. Group differences in blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses to cues and outcomes were assessed through voxel-wise whole-brain analyses and regions-of-interest analyses in the neostriatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Significant group by outcome valence interactions were observed in the medial and lateral PFC, lateral temporal cortex, and amygdalae, such that controls, but not patients, showed greater activation for gains, relative to losses. In the striatum, neural activity was modulated by outcome magnitude in both groups. Additionally, we found that ratings of negative symptoms in patients correlated with sensitivity to obtained losses in medial PFC, obtained gains in lateral PFC, and anticipated gains in left ventral striatum. Sensitivity to obtained gains in lateral PFC also correlated with positive symptom scores in patients. Our findings of systematic relationships between clinical symptoms and neural responses to stimuli associated with rewards and punishments offer promise that reward-related neural responses may provide sensitive probes of the effectiveness of treatments for negative symptoms.

  6. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Chiaho; Wu Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  7. An item response theory integration of normal and abnormal personality scales.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Douglas B; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna; Livesley, W John; Widiger, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–IV–TR) currently conceptualizes personality disorders (PDs) as categorical syndromes that are distinct from normal personality. However, an alternative dimensional viewpoint is that PDs are maladaptive expressions of general personality traits. The dimensional perspective postulates that personality pathology exists at a more extreme level of the latent trait than does general personality. This hypothesis was examined using item response theory analyses comparing scales from two personality pathology instruments—the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ; Livesley & Jackson, in press) and the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1993; Clark, Simms, Wu, & Casillas, in press)—with scales from an instrument designed to assess normal range personality, the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). The results indicate that respective scales from these instruments assess shared latent constructs, with the NEO PI-R providing more information at the lower (normal) range and the DAPP-BQ and SNAP providing more information at the higher (abnormal) range. Nevertheless, the results also demonstrated substantial overlap in coverage. Implications of the findings are discussed with respect to the study and development of items that would provide specific discriminations along underlying trait continua.

  8. An exploratory investigation of abnormal pain response among preadolescent children in foster care.

    PubMed

    Tarren-Sweeney, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present article describes a pattern of abnormal responses to pain (APR) among children in care, suggestive of pain insensitivity or failure to communicate felt pain. Exploratory analyses of caregiver-reported APR were conducted within a larger epidemiological study of 347 preadolescent children in foster and kinship care. APR items were generated from clinical assessment reports and a clinician survey, during development of a psychiatric rating scale for children in care. An APR construct was identified in factor analysis. Nine per cent of the sample had scores suggesting clinically meaningful APR, with a high level of corresponding psychological disturbance. Various analyses suggest the phenomenon may be a discrete, but integral component of complex, multifaceted psychopathology. Concurrent and retrospective measures of a large number of potential risk variables did not discriminate between APR scores and other estimates of psychopathology. However, moderate correlations between APR and ad hoc measures of impulsivity, dissociative behaviours, and inhibited-avoidant attachment difficulties suggest a number of hypothesized developmental mechanisms that might be explored in further studies.

  9. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    SciTech Connect

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert; Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert; Liebisch, Gerhard; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Langmann, Thomas

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  10. Role of social encounter-induced activation of prefrontal serotonergic systems in the abnormal behaviors of isolation-reared mice.

    PubMed

    Ago, Yukio; Araki, Ryota; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Sasaga, Asuka; Nishiyama, Saki; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2013-07-01

    Isolation-reared male rodents show abnormal behaviors such as hyperlocomotion, aggressive behaviors, deficits of prepulse inhibition, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, but the neurochemical mechanism for the effects of psychological stress in these animals is not fully understood. This study examined the effects of social interactions between isolation-reared mice and intruder mice on brain monoaminergic systems. A cage was divided into two compartments by a mesh partition to prevent direct physical interactions. The 20-min encounter with an intruder elicited a restless and hyperexcitable state (hyperactivity) in male, but not in female, isolation-reared mice, whereas encounters with a sleeping intruder or a novel object did not. Although the encounter did not affect prefrontal neuronal-activity-marker c-Fos expression, dopamine (DA) levels, or serotonin (5-HT) levels in male group-reared mice or female isolation-reared mice, it increased prefrontal c-Fos expression, DA levels, and 5-HT levels in male isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, encounter-induced increases in c-Fos expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus and ventral tegmental area, but not in the nucleus accumbens shell, were much greater in isolation-reared than group-reared male mice. A 5-HT1A receptor agonist, a metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor agonist attenuated isolation-induced aggressive behaviors and encounter-induced hyperactivity, c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal raphe nucleus, and increases in prefrontal 5-HT levels. These findings suggest that the prefrontal DA and 5-HT systems are activated by encounter stimulation in male isolation-reared mice, and the encounter-induced activation of 5-HT system triggers the induction of some abnormal behaviors in male isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, this study implies that the encounter stimulation-induced signal has a pharmacological significance.

  11. Ceteacean Social Behavioral Response to Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    experimental sonar exposure in SOCAL-BRS (Risso’s dolphin )  Data-collection: Baseline social behavior - SOCAL-BRS projects (Risso’s dolphin ...playbacks using visual observation techniques 3 - Species evaluated: long-beaked common dolphin , bottlenose dolphin , killer whale - 2014: Design...data processing and analysis for Risso’s dolphin sonar response (SOCAL-BRS, Azores-Baseline) - Cross-study cooperation in data processing and analysis

  12. 76 FR 22925 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Abnormal Behavior Detection Finds Malicious Actors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... card. Fraud detection algorithms (based on user behavior models) and procedures immediately set off... unusual behavior on the part of authorized users. The fraud detection algorithms use the financial... sets of values to be analyzed with well understood algorithms. For example, credit card purchases...

  13. A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kron, Miriam; Lang, Min; Adams, Ian T.; Sceniak, Michael; Longo, Frank; Katz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to behavioral arousal

  14. Cause and Consequence: Mitochondrial Dysfunction Initiates and Propagates Neuronal Dysfunction, Neuronal Death and Behavioral Abnormalities in Age Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Starkov, Anatoly; Blass, John P.; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Beal, M. Flint

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and accumulation of abnormal proteins. Within the cell, the mitochondria appears to be a dominant site for initiation and propagation of disease processes. Shifts in metabolism in response to mild metabolic perturbations may decrease the threshold for irreversible injury in response to ordinarily sub lethal metabolic insults. Mild impairment of metabolism accrue from and lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS change cell signaling via post transcriptional and transcriptional changes. The cause and consequences of mild impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is one focus of this review. Many experiments in tissues from humans support the notion that oxidative modification of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) compromises neuronal energy metabolism and enhance ROS production in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). These data suggest that cognitive decline in AD derives from the selective tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle abnormalities. By contrast in Huntington’s Disease (HD), a movement disorder with cognitive features distinct form AD, complex II + III abnormalities may dominate. These distinct mitochondrial abnormalities culminate in oxidative stress, energy dysfunction, and aberrant homeostasis of cytosolic calcium. Cytosolic calcium, elevations even only transiently, leads to hyperactivity of a number of enzymes. One calcium activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological import in HD and AD is transglutaminase (TGase). TGase is a cross linking enzymes that can modulate transcrption, inactivate metabolic enzymes, and cause aggregation of critical proteins. Recent data indicate that TGase can silence expression of genes involved in compensating for metabolic stress. Altogether, our results suggest that increasing KGDHC via inhibition of TGase or via a host of other strategies to be described would be effective therapeutic

  15. MEG premotor abnormalities in children with Asperger's syndrome: determinants of social behavior?

    PubMed

    Hauswald, Anne; Weisz, Nathan; Bentin, Shlomo; Kissler, Johanna

    2013-07-01

    Children with Asperger's syndrome show deficits in social functioning while their intellectual and language development is intact suggesting a specific dysfunction in mechanisms mediating social cognition. An action observation/execution matching system might be one such mechanism. Recent studies indeed showed that electrophysiological modulation of the "Mu-rhythm" in the 10-12Hz range is weaker when individuals with Asperger's syndrome observe actions performed by others compared to controls. However, electrophysiological studies typically fall short in revealing the neural generators of this activity. To fill this gap we assessed magnetoencephalographic Mu-modulations in Asperger's and typically developed children, while observing grasping movements. Mu-power increased at frontal and central sensors during movement observation. This modulation was stronger in typical than in Asperger children. Source localization revealed stronger sources in premotor cortex, the intraparietal lobule (IPL) and the mid-occipito-temporal gyrus (MOTG) and weaker sources in prefrontal cortex in typical participants compared to Asperger. Activity in premotor regions, IPL and MOTG correlated positively with social competence, whereas prefrontal Mu-sources correlated negatively with social competence. No correlation with intellectual ability was found at any of these sites. These findings localize abnormal Mu-activity in the brain of Asperger children providing evidence which associates motor-system abnormalities with social-function deficits.

  16. White-matter tract abnormalities and antisocial behavior: A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies across development.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Dotterer, Hailey L; Murray, Laura; Maxwell, Andrea M; Hyde, Luke W

    2017-01-01

    Antisocial behavior (AB), including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development. In contrast to a prior hypothesis that AB is associated with greater diffusivity specifically in the uncinate fasciculus, findings suggest that adult AB is associated with greater diffusivity across a range of white-matter tracts, including the uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum, corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations, and corpus callosum. The pattern of findings among youth studies was inconclusive with both higher and lower diffusivity found across association, commissural, and projection and thalamic tracts.

  17. Behavioral Abnormality Induced by Enhanced Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity under Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Its Usefulness as a Model.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Murakami, Taku

    2016-07-16

    Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoid-mediated disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is also involved in the pathophysiology of, not only psychiatric disorders, such as depression, but also neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. The evidence suggests that zinc-deficient animals are models for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as depression. To understand validity to apply zinc-deficient animals as a behavioral abnormality model, this paper deals with the effect of antidepressive drugs and herbal medicines on hippocampal dysfunctions and behavioral abnormality, which are induced by enhanced HPA axis activity under dietary zinc deficiency.

  18. Epigenetic regulation of dorsal raphe GABA(B1a) associated with isolation-induced abnormal responses to social stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Araki, Ryota; Hiraki, Yosuke; Nishida, Shoji; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Yabe, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    In isolation-reared mice, social encounter stimulation induces locomotor hyperactivity and activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), suggesting that dysregulation of dorsal raphe function may be involved in abnormal behaviors. In this study, we examined the involvement of dorsal raphe GABAergic dysregulation in the abnormal behaviors of isolation-reared mice. We also studied an epigenetic mechanism underlying abnormalities of the dorsal raphe GABAergic system. Both mRNA and protein levels of GABA(B1a), a GABA(B) receptor subunit, were increased in the DRN of isolation-reared mice, compared with these levels in group-reared mice. In contrast, mRNA levels for other GABAergic system-related genes (GABA(A) receptor α1, β2 and γ2 subunits, GABA(B) receptor 1b and 2 subunits, and glutamate decarboxylase 67 and 65) were unchanged. Intra-DRN microinjection of 0.06 nmol baclofen (a GABA(B) receptor agonist) exacerbated encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior, while microinjection of 0.3 nmol phaclofen (a GABA(B) receptor antagonist) attenuated encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior in isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, microinjection of 0.06 nmol baclofen elicited encounter-induced hyperactivity in group-reared mice. Neither baclofen nor phaclofen affected immobility time in the forced swim test and hyperactivity in a novel environment of isolation reared mice. Bisulfite sequence analyses revealed that the DNA methylation level of the CpG island around the transcription start site (TSS) of GABA(B1a) was decreased in the DRN of isolation-reared mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that histone H3 was hyperacetylated around the TSS of GABA(B1a) in the DRN of isolation-reared mice. These findings indicate that an increase in dorsal raphe GABA(B1a) expression via epigenetic regulation is associated with abnormal responses to social stimulation such as encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior in isolation

  19. Abnormalities of the scotopic threshold response correlated with gene mutation in X-linked retinoschisis and congenital stationary night blindness.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Keith; Newman, Douglas; Allen, Louise; Moore, Anthony

    2003-09-01

    STRs and dark-adapted ERGs were recorded in nine normal subjects, nine patients with XLRS, 11 patients with CSNB1 and one patient with CSNB2. In XLRS STR amplitude was significantly lower than normal at every intensity, but the response could be recorded in every patient and the maximum amplitude response was outside the 95% confidence limits in only four of the nine patients. STRs were significantly poorer in patients with CSNB and a responses was not measurable at any intensity in nine of the 11 patients with CSNB1. In both CSNB and XLRS the STR could only be recorded at higher stimulus intensities, suggesting reduced sensitivity of the STR. In XLRS onset and peak latencies were also significantly prolonged and the slope of the intensity-response functions for amplitude and onset latency differed significantly from normal. Maximum STR amplitude did not correlate with the maximum dark-adapted ERG response. The finding of abnormal STRs and dark adapted ERGs in all three dystrophies indicates that the different causative genes must have similar effects on the rod On-bipolar cell pathway. But there were also differences between the three clinical groups, particularly in the greater severity of the abnormality in CSNB1, which suggests that there may be multiple sites of abnormality.

  20. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  1. Electrodermal and behavioral responses of children with autism spectrum disorders to sensory and repetitive stimuli.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Carolyn; Hessl, David; Macari, Suzanne L; Ozonoff, Sally; Green, Cherie; Rogers, Sally J

    2014-08-01

    Parents frequently report that their children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) respond atypically to sensory stimuli. Repetitive behaviors are also part of the ASD behavioral profile. Abnormal physiological arousal may underlie both of these symptoms. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of sympathetic nervous system arousal. The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to pilot methods for collecting EDA data in young children and (2) to examine hypothesized relationships among EDA, and sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors in children with ASD as compared with children with typical development. EDA was recorded on 54 young children with ASD and on 33 children with typical development (TD) during a protocol that included baseline, exposure to sensory and repetitive stimuli, and play. Parents completed standardized questionnaires regarding their child's sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors. Frequency and type of repetitive behavior during play was coded offline. Comparisons between EDA data for ASD and TD groups indicated no significant between-group differences in any measures. Parents of children with ASD reported more abnormal responses to sensory stimuli and more repetitive behaviors, but scores on these measures were not significantly correlated with EDA or with frequency of observed repetitive behaviors. Parent report of frequency and severity of sensory symptoms was significantly correlated with reports of repetitive behaviors in both groups. Although parents of children with ASD report high levels of sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors, these differences are not related to measured EDA arousal or reactivity.

  2. Disrupted Glutamatergic Transmission in Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Behavioral Abnormality in an Animal Model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jia; Liu, Aiyi; Shi, Michael Y; Yan, Zhen

    2017-02-08

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used animal model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we sought to reveal the neuronal circuits and molecular basis of ADHD and its potential treatment using SHR. Combined electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, chemicogenetic and behavioral approaches were utilized. We found that AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) was diminished in SHR, which was correlated with the decreased surface expression of AMPAR subunits. Administration of methylphenidate (a psychostimulant drug used to treat ADHD), which blocks dopamine transporters and norepinephrine transporters, ameliorated the behavioral deficits of adolescent SHR and restored AMPAR-mediated synaptic function. Activation of PFC pyramidal neurons with a CaMKII-driven Gq-coupled DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) also led to the elevation of AMPAR function and the normalization of ADHD-like behaviors in SHR. These results suggest that the disrupted function of AMPARs in PFC may underlie the behavioral deficits in adolescent SHR and enhancing PFC activity could be a treatment strategy for ADHD.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 08 February 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.30.

  3. Behavioral, Neurochemical and Neuroendocrine Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq in the Chronic Stress Mice

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Nurmuhammat; Hoxur, Parida; Ming, Dang; Matsidik, Aynur; Kijjoa, Anake; Upur, Halmurat

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and β-endorphin (β-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems. PMID:22919413

  4. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  5. Abnormal pre-attentive arousal in young children with autism spectrum disorder contributes to their atypical auditory behavior: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Stroganova, Tatiana A; Kozunov, Vladimir V; Posikera, Irina N; Galuta, Ilia A; Gratchev, Vitaliy V; Orekhova, Elena V

    2013-01-01

    Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks ('S1' and 'S2') separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the 'tangential' P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the 'radial' N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD.

  6. Cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe congenital immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Titman, Penny; Pink, Elizabeth; Skucek, Emily; O'Hanlon, Katherine; Cole, Tim J; Gaspar, Jane; Xu-Bayford, Jinhua; Jones, Alison; Thrasher, Adrian J; Davies, E Graham; Veys, Paul A; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2008-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a highly successful treatment for severe congenital immunodeficiencies. However, some studies have suggested that children may experience cognitive difficulties after HSCT. This large-scale study assessed cognitive and behavioral function for the cohort of children treated by HSCT at one center between 1979 and 2003 to determine the frequency and severity of problems and to identify risk factors. A total of 105 patients were assessed on standardized measures of cognitive and emotional and behavioral function together with a control group of unaffected siblings. The average IQ for the cohort was 85 (95% confidence interval, 81-90), significantly lower than both the population average of 100 (P < .001) and unaffected siblings. Multivariate analysis indicated that the underlying genetic defect, diagnosis of adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency, and consanguinity were associated with worse outcome but that age at transplantation and chemotherapy conditioning were not. Children treated by HSCT for severe immunodeficiency have an increased risk of long-term cognitive difficulties and associated emotional and behavioral difficulties. The specific genetic diagnosis, consanguinity, and severe clinical course are associated with poor outcome. Long-term follow-up of these patients should include screening to identify and manage these problems more effectively.

  7. Age-related sperm DNA methylation changes are transmitted to offspring and associated with abnormal behavior and dysregulated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Milekic, M H; Xin, Y; O'Donnell, A; Kumar, K K; Bradley-Moore, M; Malaspina, D; Moore, H; Brunner, D; Ge, Y; Edwards, J; Paul, S; Haghighi, F G; Gingrich, J A

    2015-08-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) has been shown to be a significant risk factor in the offspring for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. During aging, de novo mutations accumulate in the male germline and are frequently transmitted to the offspring with deleterious effects. In addition, DNA methylation during spermatogenesis is an active process, which is susceptible to errors that can be propagated to subsequent generations. Here we test the hypothesis that the integrity of germline DNA methylation is compromised during the aging process. A genome-wide DNA methylation screen comparing sperm from young and old mice revealed a significant loss of methylation in the older mice in regions associated with transcriptional regulation. The offspring of older fathers had reduced exploratory and startle behaviors and exhibited similar brain DNA methylation abnormalities as observed in the paternal sperm. Offspring from old fathers also had transcriptional dysregulation of developmental genes implicated in autism and schizophrenia. Our findings demonstrate that DNA methylation abnormalities arising in the sperm of old fathers are a plausible mechanism to explain some of the risks that APA poses to resulting offspring.

  8. Abnormal osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in response to melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Xu, Caixia; Zhou, Taifeng; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Hang; Chen, Changhua; Zhang, Changli; Huang, Dongsheng; Su, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities of membranous and endochondral ossification in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remain incompletely understood. To investigate abnormalities in the melatonin signaling pathway and cellular response to melatonin in AIS, a case-control study of osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was performed using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). AIS was diagnosed by physical and radiographic examination. hMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of patients with AIS and control subjects (n=12 each), and purified by density gradient centrifugation. The expression levels of melatonin receptors (MTs) 1 and 2 were detected by western blotting. Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was induced by culturing hMSCs in osteogenic and chondrogenic media containing vehicle or 50 nM melatonin. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays, quantitative glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed. Compared with controls, MT2 demonstrated low expression in the AIS group. Melatonin increased ALP activity, GAG synthesis and upregulated the expression of genes involved in osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation including, ALP, osteopontin, osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen type II, collagen type X, aggrecan and sex-determining region Y-box 9 in the normal control hMSCs, but did not affect the AIS groups. Thus, AIS hMSCs exhibit abnormal cellular responses to melatonin during osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, which may be associated with abnormal membranous and endochondral ossification, and skeletal growth. These results indicate a potential modulating role of melatonin via the MT2 receptor on abnormal osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiaation in patients with AIS. PMID:27314307

  9. 6q22.33 microdeletion in a family with intellectual disability, variable major anomalies, and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mackenroth, Luisa; Hackmann, Karl; Beyer, Anke; Schallner, Jens; Novotna, Barbara; Klink, Barbara; Schröck, Evelin; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2015-11-01

    Interstitial deletions on the long arm of chromosome six have been described for several regions including 6q16, 6q22.1, and 6q21q22.1, and with variable phenotypes such as intellectual disability/developmental delay, growth retardation, major and minor facial anomalies. However, an isolated microdeletion of the sub-band 6q22.33 has not been reported so far and thus, no information about the specific phenotype associated with such a copy number variant is available. Here, we define the clinical picture of an isolated 6q22.33 microdeletion based on the phenotype of six members of one family with loss of approximately 1 Mb in this region. Main clinical features include mild intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities as well as microcephaly, heart defect, and cleft lip and palate.

  10. A de novo microdeletion in a patient with inner ear abnormalities suggests that the 10q26.13 region contains the responsible gene.

    PubMed

    Sangu, Noriko; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Shimojima, Keiko; Ondo, Yumiko; Nishikawa, Masanori; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Microdeletions in the 10q26.1 region are related to intellectual disability, growth delay, microcephaly, distinctive craniofacial features, cardiac defects, genital abnormalities and inner ear abnormalities. The genes responsible for inner ear abnormalities have been narrowed to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2), H6 family homeobox 2 gene (HMX2) and H6 family homeobox 3 gene (HMX3). An additional patient with distinctive craniofacial features, congenital deafness and balance dysfunctions showed a de novo microdeletion of 10q26.11q26.13, indicating the existence of a gene responsible for inner ear abnormalities in this region.

  11. Abnormal N400 Responses But Intact Differential Hemispheric Processing of Ambiguity in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Dean F

    2010-05-01

    Disordered thinking in schizophrenia may be a consequence of the selection of conceptual associates of dominant meanings of ambiguous words despite contextual information suggesting subordinate meanings are more appropriate. Previous work using short sentences showed a large N400 event-related potential to subordinate meaning associates and a behavioral semantic bias, but results were variable. The current experiment used word pairs to simplify the procedure and to less tax memory maintenance. Furthermore, hemispheric responses were compared, as evidence suggests the left hemisphere may select dominant meanings, while the right hemisphere may keep all possible meanings active. Subjects indicated whether two words (CUE, TARGET) were related. The CUE, presented for 1 second, could be an ambiguous or an unambiguous noun, and the TARGET, presented 1.25 seconds after the onset of the CUE, was a dominant or subordinate associate, or a related or an unrelated word, respectively. The N400-effect was calculated from difference waveforms over 400-600 msec. Groups (23 schizophrenia, 25 matched controls) showed significantly different N400-effects to the words (group x word, p =.04). Controls showed a graded response, with dominant < subordinate < unrelated. Schizophrenia patients showed the largest N400-effect to subordinate associates, with less activity to dominant meaning associates and unrelated words. Both groups showed a right hemisphere distribution to unrelated words and substantial left hemisphere activation to subordinate associates (word x hemisphere, p <.001). These data support a semantic bias in schizophrenia. They also demonstrate a special role of the right hemisphere in maintaining broad homograph meaning hierarchies. This hemispheric specialization appears to be intact in schizophrenia.

  12. Normal and abnormal face selectivity of the M170 response in developmental prosopagnosics.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alison M; Duchaine, Bradley C; Nakayama, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia is a lifelong impairment in face recognition despite normal low-level visual processing. Here we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the M170 response, a component occurring approximately 170 ms after stimulus onset, in a group of five developmental prosopagnosics. In normal subjects, the M170 is "face-selective", with a consistently higher amplitude to faces than to a wide variety of other visual stimulus categories; the N170, a component recorded using event-related potentials (ERP) and thought to be analogous to the M170, also shows this "face selectivity". Two previous ERP studies with developmental prosopagnosics have found attenuation or absence of face selectivity in the N170 response of these subjects [Bentin, S., Deouell, L. Y., and Soroker, N. (1999). Selective visual streaming in face recognition: Evidence from developmental prosopagnosia. Neuroreport, 10, 823-827; Kress, T., and Daum, I. (2003). Event-related potentials reflect impaired face recognition in patients with congenital prosopagnosia. Neuroscience Letters, 352, 133-136]. Three of our developmental prosopagnosic group showed this non-selective pattern at the M170 while the remaining two prosopagnosics were indistinguishable from normal controls. Thus, impaired face recognition is not necessarily correlated with an absence of the "face-selective" M170. Furthermore, ERP recordings collected simultaneously in the two developmental prosopagnosics with seemingly selective M170s also showed N170s within the same normal selective range, demonstrating that the face-selective signals found with MEG are not due to differences between MEG and ERP. While the presence of face selectivity at these neurophysiological markers is insufficient for predicting normal behavioral performance with faces, it could help to distinguish different classes of face recognition deficits.

  13. Vocalization behavior and response of black rails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Legare, M.L.; Eddleman, W.R.; Buckley, P.A.; Kelly, C.

    1999-01-01

    . Observers should be trained to identify black rail vocalizations and should have acceptable hearing ability. Given the number of variables that may have large effects on the response behavior of black rails to tape playback, we recommend that future studies using playback surveys should be cautious when presenting estimates of 'absolute' density. Though results did account for variation in response behavior, we believe that additional variation in vocal response between sites, with breeding status, and bird density remains in question. Playback surveys along fixed routes providing a simple index of abundance would be useful to monitor populations over large geographic areas, and over time. Considering the limitations of most agency resources for webless waterbirds, index surveys may be more appropriate. Future telemetry studies of this type on other species and at other sites would be useful to calibrate information obtained from playback surveys whether reporting an index of abundance or density estimate.

  14. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence

  15. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep abnormalities of chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nicole K Y

    2009-12-01

    Chronic pain and insomnia often occur simultaneously, with the vast majority of chronic pain patients complaining of interrupted or poor quality sleep. The need to improve sleep in these patients is clear, given increasing evidence that sleep disturbance is associated with heightened pain sensitivity and elevated disability. This article evaluates the efficacy of pain management programs (PMPs) based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) principles and CBT for primary insomnia (CBT-I) in treating pain-related insomnia. Although PMPs effectively enhance pain management skills in patients, they do not adequately address insomnia. CBT-I has demonstrated strong efficacy in treating pain-related insomnia, but sleep improvement is not followed by pain reduction. As both CBT approaches involve strengths and limitations, a hybrid form of treatment is needed that simultaneously addresses pain and sleep.

  16. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: The saga of metabolic abnormalities and self-injurious behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Nitesh; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Sardana, Divesh; Bansal, Kalpana

    2017-01-01

    Summary Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is an X-linked recessive disorder of purine metabolism caused by a mutation in Xq26.2-q26.3 (OMIM 308000.0004). The presence of the diagnostic triad, i.e. signs of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and results of pedigree analysis and novel molecular biology & genetic testing, confirms the diagnosis of LNS. With a level of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase 1 (HPRT1) enzyme activity < 2%, patients develop neurological, neurocognitive, and neuromotor symptoms along with SIB. Described here is a case of 4-year-old boy who was diagnosed with LNS. The boy displayed SIB, i.e. biting of the lips and fingers, and he had cerebral venous sinus thrombosis caused by LNS. PMID:28357186

  17. Rats overexpressing the dopamine transporter display behavioral and neurobiological abnormalities with relevance to repetitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Ravit; Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Reinel, Claudia; Wieske, Franziska; Voget, Mareike; Popova, Elena; Sohr, Reinhard; Avchalumov, Yosef; Priller, Josef; van Riesen, Christoph; Puls, Imke; Bader, Michael; Winter, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a pivotal role in maintaining optimal dopamine signaling. DAT-overactivity has been linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders yet so far the direct pathological consequences of it has not been fully assessed. We here generated a transgenic rat model that via pronuclear microinjection overexpresses the DAT gene. Our results demonstrate that DAT-overexpression induces multiple neurobiological effects that exceeded the expected alterations in the corticostriatal dopamine system. Furthermore, transgenic rats specifically exhibited behavioral and pharmaco-therapeutic profiles phenotypic of repetitive disorders. Together our findings suggest that the DAT rat model will constitute a valuable tool for further investigations into the pathological influence of DAT overexpression on neural systems relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27974817

  18. Responsible Assertive Behavior Promotes Effective Interpersonal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1983-01-01

    Assertive behavior promotes the development of mutually satisfying relationships, with none of the disadvantages of passive or aggressive behavior. Because of the interpersonal and organizational benefits, managers should encourage assertive behavior throughout their organizations. (SK)

  19. Early neuromodulation prevents the development of brain and behavioral abnormalities in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hadar, R; Bikovski, L; Soto-Montenegro, M L; Schimke, J; Maier, P; Ewing, S; Voget, M; Wieske, F; Götz, T; Desco, M; Hamani, C; Pascau, J; Weiner, I; Winter, C

    2017-04-04

    The notion that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which neuropathologies evolve gradually over the developmental course indicates a potential therapeutic window during which pathophysiological processes may be modified to halt disease progression or reduce its severity. Here we used a neurodevelopmental maternal immune stimulation (MIS) rat model of schizophrenia to test whether early targeted modulatory intervention would affect schizophrenia's neurodevelopmental course. We applied deep brain stimulation (DBS) or sham stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adolescent MIS rats and respective controls, and investigated its behavioral, biochemical, brain-structural and -metabolic effects in adulthood. We found that mPFC-DBS successfully prevented the emergence of deficits in sensorimotor gating, attentional selectivity and executive function in adulthood, as well as the enlargement of lateral ventricle volumes and mal-development of dopaminergic and serotonergic transmission. These data suggest that the mPFC may be a valuable target for effective preventive treatments. This may have significant translational value, suggesting that targeting the mPFC before the onset of psychosis via less invasive neuromodulation approaches may be a viable preventive strategy.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 4 April 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.52.

  20. Abnormal Stomatal Behavior and Hormonal Imbalance in flacca, a Wilty Mutant of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Tal, M.; Imber, D.

    1970-01-01

    The wilty tomato mutant, flacca, and the control variety, Rheinlands Ruhm, were compared with regard to the endogenous activity and concentration of auxin- and abscisic acid-like substances during ontogeny. The mutant wilts fast under water deficit because of inability to close its stomata. Symptoms characteristic of excessive auxin are evident in the developing mutant. Among these symptoms are branch and leaf epinasty, excessive rooting along the stem, and increased apical dominance. By using a leucine-incorporation assay, spray of whole plants with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and wheat coleoptile bioassay, indications were found of an excess of activity and concentration of auxin-like substances in shoots of young and mature mutant plants. The wheat coleoptile bioassay also revealed a much lower amount of substances with abscisic acid-like activity in the mutant compared with the normal plant. In contrast to the appearance during ontogeny of morphological symptoms characteristic of auxin excess in the mutant, the absolute amount of auxin-like substances and their activity in incorporation of leucine decreased with age. A parallel decrease of the concentration and activity of auxin-like compounds was also found in the normal plant. The concentration of abscisic acid-like substances increased with age in both genotypes. The disagreement between the increasing morphological symptoms and the decrease of auxin-like activity and concentration is discussed, together with the possibility of a causal relationship between auxin-and abscisic acid-like activity and stomatal behavior. PMID:16657470

  1. Abnormal Stomatal Behavior and Hormonal Imbalance in flacca, a Wilty Mutant of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Tal, M.; Imber, D.; Itai, C.

    1970-01-01

    The wilty tomato mutant, flacca, and the normal variety, Rheinlands Ruhm, were compared for kinetin-like activity in ontogeny. The mutant wilts easily because its stomata resist closure. This stomatal resistance decreases with age. The occurrence of a root factor which induces stomatal opening was inferred from grafting experiments. It was hypothesized that the excessive stomatal openings in the mutant may result from excess of kinetin-like activity in the leaf of that plant. In addition, it was suggested that the closure of stomata in the aging mutant is due to a decrease of kinetin-like activity with age. Kinetin-like activity in the leaf was determined by incorporation of labeled leucine. The concentration of cytokinins in root exudate and leaf extract was determined by the soybean callus assay. Evidence was presented of higher kinetin-like activity in the leaves of the mutant and higher cytokinin concentration in its root exudate. Cytokinin concentration in the shoot was found to be only slightly higher in the mutant than in the normal plants. Kinetin-like activity in the leaf and cytokinin concentration of root exudate decreased with age in both mutant and normal plants. Kinetin-like activity in the leaves of mutant plants, which phenocopy the normal variety as a result of continuous application of abscisic acid, was lower than in control mutant plants. The significance of these findings per se and in connection with stomatal behavior is discussed. PMID:16657469

  2. A gain-of-function mutation in the sodium channel gene Scn2a results in seizures and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kearney, J A; Plummer, N W; Smith, M R; Kapur, J; Cummins, T R; Waxman, S G; Goldin, A L; Meisler, M H

    2001-01-01

    The GAL879-881QQQ mutation in the cytoplasmic S4-S5 linker of domain 2 of the rat brain IIA sodium channel (Na(v)1.2) results in slowed inactivation and increased persistent current when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The neuron-specific enolase promoter was used to direct in vivo expression of the mutated channel in transgenic mice. Three transgenic lines exhibited seizures, and line Q54 was characterized in detail. The seizures in these mice began at two months of age and were accompanied by behavioral arrest and stereotyped repetitive behaviors. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring detected focal seizure activity in the hippocampus, which in some instances generalized to involve the cortex. Hippocampal CA1 neurons isolated from presymptomatic Q54 mice exhibited increased persistent sodium current which may underlie hyperexcitability in the hippocampus. During the progression of the disorder there was extensive cell loss and gliosis within the hippocampus in areas CA1, CA2, CA3 and the hilus. The lifespan of Q54 mice was shortened and only 25% of the mice survived beyond six months of age. Four independent transgenic lines expressing the wild-type sodium channel were examined and did not exhibit any abnormalities. The transgenic Q54 mice provide a genetic model that will be useful for testing the effect of pharmacological intervention on progression of seizures caused by sodium channel dysfunction. The human ortholog, SCN2A, is a candidate gene for seizure disorders mapped to chromosome 2q22-24.

  3. Hematological, biochemical, and behavioral responses of Oncorhynchus mykiss to dimethoate.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Demet; Can, Canan

    2011-12-01

    The effects of dimethoate on hematological, biochemical parameters, and behavior were investigated in Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.0735, 0.3675, and 0.7350 mg/l for 5, 15, and 30 days. Significant decrease was determined in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and MCH, which was pronounced after prolonged exposure indicating the appearance of microcytic hypochromic anemia. There were no prominent changes in thrombocyte and MCHC. The glucose concentration showed an ascending pattern that proved to be positively correlated with duration. The protein concentration declined in higher dimethoate concentrations following 15 and 30 days. Negative and significant correlation was detected between glucose and protein concentrations. The fish showed remarkable behavioral abnormality such as loss of balance, erratic swimming, and convulsion. Present findings revealed that dimethoate exerts its toxic action even in sublethal concentrations and hematological parameters and abnormal behavior may be sensitive indicators to evaluate pesticide intoxication.

  4. Descriptive analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior following training.

    PubMed

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child problem behavior may shape and maintain adult behavior that is potentially countertherapeutic.

  5. Long-term recovery from hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical abnormalities induced by noise exposure during brain development. Evaluation of auditory pathway integrity.

    PubMed

    Uran, S L; Gómez-Casati, M E; Guelman, L R

    2014-10-01

    Sound is an important part of man's contact with the environment and has served as critical means for survival throughout his evolution. As a result of exposure to noise, physiological functions such as those involving structures of the auditory and non-auditory systems might be damaged. We have previously reported that noise-exposed developing rats elicited hippocampal-related histological, biochemical and behavioral changes. However, no data about the time lapse of these changes were reported. Moreover, measurements of auditory pathway function were not performed in exposed animals. Therefore, with the present work, we aim to test the onset and the persistence of the different extra-auditory abnormalities observed in noise-exposed rats and to evaluate auditory pathway integrity. Male Wistar rats of 15 days were exposed to moderate noise levels (95-97 dB SPL, 2 h a day) during one day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or during 15 days (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal biochemical determinations as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) behavioral assessments were performed. In addition, histological and functional evaluations of the auditory pathway were carried out in exposed animals. Our results show that hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical changes (impairments in habituation, recognition and associative memories as well as distortion of anxiety-related behavior, decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increases in antioxidant enzymes activities) induced by noise exposure were almost completely restored by PND 90. In addition, auditory evaluation shows that increased cochlear thresholds observed in exposed rats were re-established at PND 90, although with a remarkable supra-threshold amplitude reduction. These data suggest that noise-induced hippocampal and auditory-related alterations are mostly transient and that the effects of noise on the hippocampus might be, at least in part, mediated by the damage on the auditory pathway

  6. Mathematical impairment associated with high-contrast abnormalities in change detection and magnocellular visual evoked response.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2015-10-01

    The cause of developmental dyscalculia, a specific deficit in acquisition of arithmetic skills, particularly of enumeration, has never been investigated with respect to the patency of the visual magnocellular system. Here, the question of dysfunction of the afferent magnocellular cortical input and its dorsal stream projections was tested directly using nonlinear analysis of the visual evoked potential (VEP) and through the psychophysical ability to rapidly detect visual change. A group of young adults with self-reported deficiencies of arithmetical ability, showed marked impairment in magnitude estimation and enumeration performance-though not in lexical decision reaction times when compared with an arithmetically capable group controlled for age and handedness. Multifocal nonlinear VEPs were recorded at low (24 %) and high (96 %) contrast. First- and second-order VEP kernels were comparable between groups at low contrast, but not at high contrast. The mathematically impaired group showed an abnormal lack of contrast saturation in the shortest latency first-order peak (N60) and a delayed P100 positivity in the first slice of the second-order kernel. Both features have previously been argued to be physiological markers of magnocellular function. Mathematically impaired participants also performed worse on a gap paradigm change detection for digit task showing increased reaction times for high-contrast stimuli but not for low-contrast stimuli compared with controls. The VEP results give direct evidence of abnormality in the occipital processing of magnocellular information in those with mathematical impairment. The anomalous high visual contrast physiological and psychophysical performance suggests an abnormality in the inhibitory processes that normally result in saturation of contrast gain in the magnocellular system.

  7. Model of reticuloendothelial iron metabolism in humans: Abnormal behavior in idiopathic hemochromatosis and in inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Fillet, G.; Beguin, Y.; Baldelli, L. )

    1989-08-01

    Iron transport in the reticuloendothelial (RE) system plays a central role in iron metabolism, but its regulation has not been characterized physiologically in vivo in humans. In particular, why serum iron is elevated and RE cells are much less iron-loaded than parenchymal cells in idiopathic hemochromatosis is not known. The processing of erythrocyte iron by the RE system was studied after intravenous (IV) injection of 59Fe heat-damaged RBCs (HDRBCs) and 55Fe transferrin in normal subjects and in patients with iron deficiency, idiopathic hemochromatosis, inflammation, marrow aplasia, or hyperplastic erythropoiesis. Early release of 59Fe by the RE system was calculated from the plasma iron turnover and the 59Fe plasma reappearance curve. Late release was calculated from the ratio of 59Fe/55Fe RBC utilization in 2 weeks. The partitioning of iron between the early (release from heme catabolism) and late (release from RE stores) phases depended on the size of RE iron stores, as illustrated by the inverse relationship observed between early release and plasma ferritin (P less than .001). There was a strong correlation between early release and the rate of change of serum iron levels during the first three hours in normal subjects (r = .85, P less than .001). Inflammation produced a blockade of the early release phase, whereas in idiopathic hemochromatosis early release was considerably increased as compared with subjects with similar iron stores. Based on these results, we describe a model of RE iron metabolism in humans. We conclude that the RE system appears to determine the diurnal fluctuations in serum iron levels through variations in the immediate output of heme iron. In idiopathic hemochromatosis, a defect of the RE cell in withholding iron freed from hemoglobin could be responsible for the high serum iron levels and low RE iron stores.

  8. The modified gait abnormality rating scale in patients with a conversion disorder: a reliability and responsiveness study.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Justin M; George, Deanna R; O'Leary, Andrea J; Olson, Lindsay C; Strassburg, Kaitlyn R; Hollman, John H

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with conversion disorder have neurologic symptoms that are not identified by an underlying organic cause. Often the symptoms manifest as gait disturbances. The modified gait abnormality rating scale (GARS-M) may be useful for quantifying gait abnormalities in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, responsiveness and concurrent validity of GARS-M scores in individuals with conversion disorder. Data from 27 individuals who completed a rehabilitation program were included in this study. Pre- and post-intervention videos were obtained and walking speed was measured. Five examiners independently evaluated gait performance according to the GARS-M criteria. Inter- and intrarater reliability of GARS-M scores were estimated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Responsiveness was estimated with the minimum detectable change (MDC). Pre- to post-treatment changes in GARS-M scores were analyzed with a dependent t-test. The correlation between GARS-M scores and walking speed was analyzed to assess concurrent validity. GARS-M scores were quantified with good-to-excellent inter- (ICC = 0.878) and intrarater reliability (ICC = 0.989). The MDC was 2 points. Mean GARS-M scores decreased from 7 ± 5 at baseline to 1 ± 2 at discharge (t26 = 7.411, p < 0.001) and 85% of patients improved beyond the MDC. Furthermore, GARS-M scores and walking speed measurements were moderately correlated (r = -0.582, p = 0.004), indicating that the GARS-M has acceptable concurrent validity. Our findings provide evidence that the GARS-M scores are reliable, valid and responsive for quantifying gait abnormalities in patients with conversion disorder. GARS-M scores provide objective measures upon which treatment effects can be assessed.

  9. 'Abnormal' angle response curves of TW/Rs for near zero tilt and high tilt channeling implants

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Baonian; Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Toh, Terry; Colombeau, Benjamin; Todorov, Stan; Sinclair, Frank; Shim, Kyu-Ha; Henry, Todd

    2012-11-06

    Angle control has been widely accepted as the key requirement for ion implantation in semiconductor device processing. From an ion implanter point of view, the incident ion direction should be measured and corrected by suitable techniques, such as XP-VPS for the VIISta implanter platform, to ensure precision ion placement in device structures. So called V-curves have been adopted to generate the wafer-based calibration using channeling effects as the Si lattice steer ions into a channeling direction. Thermal Wave (TW) or sheet resistance (Rs) can be used to determine the minimum of the angle response curve. Normally it is expected that the TW and Rs have their respective minima at identical angles. However, the TW and Rs response to the angle variations does depend on factors such as implant species, dose, and wafer temperature. Implant damage accumulation effects have to be considered for data interpretation especially for some 'abnormal' V-curve data. In this paper we will discuss some observed 'abnormal' angle responses, such as a) TW/Rs reverse trend for Arsenic beam, 2) 'W' shape of Rs Boron, and 3) apparent TW/Rs minimum difference for high tilt characterization, along with experimental data and TCAD simulations.

  10. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  11. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David JP; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or αPD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus

  12. Response Latency as an Index of Response Strength during Functional Analyses of Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason-Sassi, Jessica L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dependent variables in research on problem behavior typically are based on measures of response repetition, but these measures may be problematic when behavior poses high risk or when its occurrence terminates a session. We examined response latency as the index of behavior during assessment. In Experiment 1, we compared response rate and latency…

  13. ADOLECSENT MANIA, EEG ABNORMALITY AND RESPONSE TO ANTICONVULSANTS: A THREE - YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Tapas K.; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Nizami, Hauque S.

    2001-01-01

    We had reported earlier (1998) a high percentage of moderate to severe EEG abnormalities (43.75% of cases) amongst adolescent manic population. Sixteen adolescent manics, with a mean age of 14 9 years, diagnosed according to ICD-10 were taken up for the initial study. Present study is the three-year follow-up report of 67.75% (11 out of 16) of the original patient population. All these patients were subjected fc 21-channel EEG and anticonvulsant drugs were started to all. Follow-up data showed that 3 out of 6 patients, who discontinued medications, were relapsed during this 3 years period. But none of the 5 patients, who regularly took prescribed medicines, relapsed during the same period. Significance of these findings in relapse prevention and the role of anticonvulsants, particularly in relation to adolescent mania, have been emphasized. PMID:21407863

  14. Fragile X-like behaviors and abnormal cortical dendritic spines in cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihoon; Chen, Hogmei; Gennarino, Vincenzo A; Richman, Ronald; Lu, Hui-Chen; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2015-04-01

    Silencing of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene and loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) cause fragile X syndrome (FXS), a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability and autistic behaviors. FMRP is an mRNA-binding protein regulating neuronal translation of target mRNAs. Abnormalities in actin-rich dendritic spines are major neuronal features in FXS, but the molecular mechanism and identity of FMRP targets mediating this phenotype remain largely unknown. Cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) was identified as an interactor of FMRP, and its mRNA is a highly ranked FMRP target in mouse brain. Importantly, Cyfip2 is a component of WAVE regulatory complex, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that Cyfip2 could be implicated in the dendritic spine phenotype of FXS. Here, we generated and characterized Cyfip2-mutant (Cyfip2(+/-)) mice. We found that Cyfip2(+/-) mice exhibited behavioral phenotypes similar to Fmr1-null (Fmr1(-/y)) mice, an animal model of FXS. Synaptic plasticity and dendritic spines were normal in Cyfip2(+/-) hippocampus. However, dendritic spines were altered in Cyfip2(+/-) cortex, and the dendritic spine phenotype of Fmr1(-/y) cortex was aggravated in Fmr1(-/y); Cyfip2(+/-) double-mutant mice. In addition to the spine changes at basal state, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-induced dendritic spine regulation was impaired in both Fmr1(-/y) and Cyfip2(+/-) cortical neurons. Mechanistically, mGluR activation induced mRNA translation-dependent increase of Cyfip2 in wild-type cortical neurons, but not in Fmr1(-/y) or Cyfip2(+/-) neurons. These results suggest that misregulation of Cyfip2 function and its mGluR-induced expression contribute to the neurobehavioral phenotypes of FXS.

  15. Early Social Enrichment Rescues Adult Behavioral and Brain Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oddi, Diego; Subashi, Enejda; Middei, Silvia; Bellocchio, Luigi; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Guzmán, Manuel; Crusio, Wim E; D'Amato, Francesca R; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence support the use of environmental stimulation to ameliorate the symptoms of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Applying these interventions at very early ages is critical to achieve a marked reduction of the pathological phenotypes. Here we evaluated the impact of early social enrichment in Fmr1-KO mice, a genetic mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Enrichment was achieved by providing male KO pups and their WT littermates with enhanced social stimulation, housing them from birth until weaning with the mother and an additional nonlactating female. At adulthood they were tested for locomotor, social, and cognitive abilities; furthermore, dendritic alterations were assessed in the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions known to be involved in the control of the examined behaviors and affected by spine pathology in Fmr1-KOs. Enrichment rescued the behavioral FXS-like deficits displayed in adulthood by Fmr1-KO mice, that is, hyperactivity, reduced social interactions, and cognitive deficits. Early social enrichment also eliminated the abnormalities shown by adult KO mice in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdala dendritic spines, namely an enhanced density of immature vs mature types. Importantly, enrichment did not induce neurobehavioral changes in WT mice, thus supporting specific effects on FXS-like pathology. These findings show that early environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects on the pathological FXS phenotype, thereby encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of this and perhaps other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:25348604

  16. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-01-01

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV−/−) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV+/−) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV−/− and PV+/− mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus

  17. CRYPTOCHROME mediates behavioral executive choice in response to UV light

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Lisa S.; Fogle, Keri J.; Roberts, Logan; Galschiodt, Alexis M.; Chevez, Joshua A.; Recinos, Yocelyn; Nguy, Vinh; Holmes, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) mediates behavioral and electrophysiological responses to blue light coded by circadian and arousal neurons. However, spectroscopic and biochemical assays of heterologously expressed CRY suggest that CRY may mediate functional responses to UV-A (ultraviolet A) light as well. To determine the relative contributions of distinct phototransduction systems, we tested mutants lacking CRY and mutants with disrupted opsin-based phototransduction for behavioral and electrophysiological responses to UV light. CRY and opsin-based external photoreceptor systems cooperate for UV light-evoked acute responses. CRY mediates behavioral avoidance responses related to executive choice, consistent with its expression in central brain neurons. PMID:28062690

  18. Monocyte Subpopulations from Pre-Eclamptic Patients Are Abnormally Skewed and Exhibit Exaggerated Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14lowCD16+ monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14highCD16+ and CD14lowCD16+ monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease. PMID:22848746

  19. Monocyte subpopulations from pre-eclamptic patients are abnormally skewed and exhibit exaggerated responses to Toll-like receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam; Coffelt, Seth B; Anumba, Dilly O

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14(high)CD16(+) and CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease.

  20. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  1. The influence of behavior preceding a reinforced response on behavior change in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E

    1977-01-01

    The influence of behavior that immediately precedes a reinforced target response on the effectiveness of a reinforcement contingency was examined in two experiments with mentally retarded children in a special-education classroom. Two reinforcement schedules were examined in each experiment. For each schedule, a prespecified period of attentive behavior served as the target response. The schedules differed in whether inattentive or attentive behavior was required immediately to precede the target response. These schedules were examined with one child in a simultaneous treatment design using praise as the reinforcer (Experiment I), and with two children in separate reversal designs using tokens as the reinforcer (Experiment II). While attentive behavior increased under each schedule, the increase was greater when attentive rather than inattentive behavior preceded the reinforced response. The results indicated that the effect of a contingency may be determined not only by the specific response reinforced but also by the behavior that immediately precedes that response.

  2. Abnormal facilitation of the response to transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Valls-Solé, J; Pascual-Leone, A; Brasil-Neto, J P; Cammarota, A; McShane, L; Hallett, M

    1994-04-01

    We studied the facilitation of the motor evoked potential (MEP) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation by increasing the stimulus intensity and the degree of voluntary activation of the target muscle in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and in normal volunteers. The threshold intensity for eliciting MEPs with the muscle at rest did not differ in PD patients and normal subjects. At rest, stimuli of similar intensity, related to the individual's threshold, elicited MEPs with amplitudes consistently larger in patients than in normal subjects, although when we compared the averaged MEP amplitude across all stimulus intensities, the differences reached only borderline statistical significance. Voluntary muscle activation elicited a smaller increase in the MEP area in PD patients than in normal subjects. Increasing the degree of voluntary muscle activation at fixed stimulus intensities elicited a smaller increase of MEP amplitude, duration, and area in PD patients than in normal subjects. These results suggest that control of the excitability of the motor system is abnormal in PD patients, with enhancement of excitability at rest and weak energization during voluntary muscle activation.

  3. Development and Validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ok, Ahmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been a focus of many studies in the field of environmental education, very few scales have been developed to assess children's ERB. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale (CREBS) and also reports the…

  4. Abnormal drug responses with adrenaline on an educational paediatric simulator: the measurement of the responses and correction of the pharmacological model parameters.

    PubMed

    Tooley, M A; Lauder, G R; Lovell, A T

    2007-10-01

    A paediatric simulator (PediaSimtrade mark, Medical Education Technologies, Inc (METI), Florida, US) has been in use at the Bristol Medical Simulation Centre since early 2000. It has proved to be a very effective educational tool. The simulator is a full-sized high fidelity model of a healthy six year old child weighing 20 kg. Administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) to the simulator was found to create an unrealistic clinical response. Correction of this abnormal response was considered extremely important to ensure valid teaching material for adult learners. Comprehensive physiological measurements and dose responses for adrenaline were evaluated in the simulator under steady state conditions. The dose responses from the simulator were compared with those responses that were considered clinically appropriate by a cohort of paediatric anaesthetists. Expert opinion was utilized as no published haemodynamic data are available for adrenaline in a healthy population of children in this age group. The drug parameters were modified using the simulator drug editor. Dose responses were repeated using the modified drug model and again compared to the required responses. This process was repeated until acceptable clinical limits were achieved. The baseline responses for the drug differed significantly from the required responses. The drug model parameters were successfully modified to give the appropriate clinical responses. The improved model for the haemodynamic effects of adrenaline now provides realistic clinical responses, enabling the paediatric simulator to be a more effective educational tool.

  5. Behavioral responses to noxious stimuli shape the perception of pain

    PubMed Central

    May, Elisabeth S.; Tiemann, Laura; Schmidt, Paul; Nickel, Moritz M.; Wiedemann, Nina; Dresel, Christian; Sorg, Christian; Ploner, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Pain serves vital protective functions. To fulfill these functions, a noxious stimulus might induce a percept which, in turn, induces a behavioral response. Here, we investigated an alternative view in which behavioral responses do not exclusively depend on but themselves shape perception. We tested this hypothesis in an experiment in which healthy human subjects performed a reaction time task and provided perceptual ratings of noxious and tactile stimuli. A multi-level moderated mediation analysis revealed that behavioral responses are significantly involved in the translation of a stimulus into perception. This involvement was significantly stronger for noxious than for tactile stimuli. These findings show that the influence of behavioral responses on perception is particularly strong for pain which likely reflects the utmost relevance of behavioral responses to protect the body. These observations parallel recent concepts of emotions and entail implications for the understanding and treatment of pain. PMID:28276487

  6. Behavioral responses to noxious stimuli shape the perception of pain.

    PubMed

    May, Elisabeth S; Tiemann, Laura; Schmidt, Paul; Nickel, Moritz M; Wiedemann, Nina; Dresel, Christian; Sorg, Christian; Ploner, Markus

    2017-03-09

    Pain serves vital protective functions. To fulfill these functions, a noxious stimulus might induce a percept which, in turn, induces a behavioral response. Here, we investigated an alternative view in which behavioral responses do not exclusively depend on but themselves shape perception. We tested this hypothesis in an experiment in which healthy human subjects performed a reaction time task and provided perceptual ratings of noxious and tactile stimuli. A multi-level moderated mediation analysis revealed that behavioral responses are significantly involved in the translation of a stimulus into perception. This involvement was significantly stronger for noxious than for tactile stimuli. These findings show that the influence of behavioral responses on perception is particularly strong for pain which likely reflects the utmost relevance of behavioral responses to protect the body. These observations parallel recent concepts of emotions and entail implications for the understanding and treatment of pain.

  7. Framing Obesity: How News Frames Shape Attributions and Behavioral Responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Krakow, Melinda; John, Kevin K; Liu, Miao; Weaver, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Based on a public health model of obesity, this study set out to examine whether a news article reporting the obesity issue in a societal versus individual frame would increase perceptions of societal responsibilities for the obesity problem and motivate responsibility-taking behaviors. Responsibility-taking behaviors were examined at 3 levels: personal, interpersonal, and societal. Data from a Web-based experiment revealed significant framing effects on behaviors via causal and treatment responsibility attributions. The societal frame increased societal causal and treatment attribution, which led to greater likelihoods of interpersonal and social responsibility-taking behaviors as well as personal behaviors. Our findings suggest that news framing can be an effective venue for raising awareness of obesity as a societal issue and mobilizing collective efforts.

  8. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Persistent Effects of Peer Rearing on Abnormal and Species-Appropriate Activities but Not Social Behavior in Group-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Sharon A; Baker, Kate C

    2016-01-01

    Nursery rearing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) alters behaviors but may be necessitated by maternal rejection or death, for research protocols, or for derivation of SPF colonies. The Tulane National Primate Research Center maintains a nursery-reared colony that is free from 9 pathogens as well as a mother-reared colony free from 4 pathogens, thus affording an opportunity to assess the outcomes of differential rearing. Nursery-reared macaques had continuous contact with 2 peers and an artificial surrogate (peer rearing). Focal sampling (432 h) was collected on the behavior of 32 peer-reared and 40 mother-reared subjects (age, 1 to 10 y; immature group, younger than 4 y; adult group 4 y or older). All animals were housed outdoors in like-reared social groups of 3 to 8 macaques. Contrary to expectation, no rearing effects on affiliative or agonistic social behaviors were detected. Compared with mother-reared subjects, peer-reared macaques in both age classes had elevated levels of abnormal appetitive, abnormal self-directed, and eating behaviors and lower levels of locomoting and vigilance (highly alert to activities in surrounding environment); a trend toward reduced foraging was detected. Immature but not adult peer-reared monkeys demonstrated more enrichment-directed behavior and drinking and a trend toward more anxiety-related behavior and inactivity. No new rearing effects were detected in adults that had not been detected in immature subjects. Results suggest that modern peer-rearing practices may not result in inevitable perturbations in aggressive, rank-related, sexual, and emotional behavior. However, abnormal behaviors may be lifelong issues once they appear. PMID:27053567

  10. Psychophysiological stress testing in postinfarction patients. Psychological correlates of cardiovascular arousal and abnormal cardiac responses.

    PubMed

    Zotti, A M; Bettinardi, O; Soffiantino, F; Tavazzi, L; Steptoe, A

    1991-04-01

    The psychophysiological responses to two mental stress tests (mental arithmetic and an interactive concentration task) were assessed in 168 unmedicated, male, postinfarction patients 36-69 years old. Patients also completed a standard battery of psychological tests. Psychophysiological responses were generally unrelated to age and education. Comparison of patients scoring high (more than 75%) and low (less than 25%) relative to the normal population on psychological measures indicated that heart rate and blood pressure responses to mental stress tests were significantly greater in those reporting low than in those reporting high neuroticism. The study population was subsequently divided into high, medium, and low cardiovascular responders on the basis of rate-pressure product reactions to the two stress tests. The three cardiovascular response groups did not differ in age, interval between myocardial infarction and stress testing, ejection fraction, incidence of exercise-induced ischemia, or ischemic signs during Holter monitoring. However, the high cardiovascular responders were more likely to manifest possible or definite electrocardiographic signs of ischemia or significant arrhythmia during mental stress testing than were the medium or low cardiovascular responders (50% versus 19.6% and 7%, respectively). High cardiovascular responders also reported lower levels of trait anxiety, neuroticism, psychophysiological symptoms, and depression.

  11. Abnormal hemodynamic response to forepaw stimulation in rat brain after cocaine injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Park, Kicheon; Choi, Jeonghun; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2015-03-01

    Simultaneous measurement of hemodynamics is of great importance to evaluate the brain functional changes induced by brain diseases such as drug addiction. Previously, we developed a multimodal-imaging platform (OFI) which combined laser speckle contrast imaging with multi-wavelength imaging to simultaneously characterize the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygenated- and deoxygenated- hemoglobin (HbO and HbR) from animal brain. Recently, we upgraded our OFI system that enables detection of hemodynamic changes in response to forepaw electrical stimulation to study potential brain activity changes elicited by cocaine. The improvement includes 1) high sensitivity to detect the cortical response to single forepaw electrical stimulation; 2) high temporal resolution (i.e., 16Hz/channel) to resolve dynamic variations in drug-delivery study; 3) high spatial resolution to separate the stimulation-evoked hemodynamic changes in vascular compartments from those in tissue. The system was validated by imaging the hemodynamic responses to the forepaw-stimulations in the somatosensory cortex of cocaine-treated rats. The stimulations and acquisitions were conducted every 2min over 40min, i.e., from 10min before (baseline) to 30min after cocaine challenge. Our results show that the HbO response decreased first (at ~4min) followed by the decrease of HbR response (at ~6min) after cocaine, and both did not fully recovered for over 30min. Interestingly, while CBF decreased at 4min, it partially recovered at 18min after cocaine administration. The results indicate the heterogeneity of cocaine's effects on vasculature and tissue metabolism, demonstrating the unique capability of optical imaging for brain functional studies.

  12. Prostate cancer cell response to paclitaxel is affected by abnormally expressed securin PTTG1.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Carolina; Flores, M Luz; Medina, Rafael; Pérez-Valderrama, Begoña; Romero, Francisco; Tortolero, María; Japón, Miguel A; Sáez, Carmen

    2014-10-01

    PTTG1 protein, the human securin, has a central role in sister chromatid separation during mitosis, and its altered expression has been reported in many tumor types. Paclitaxel is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, whose mechanism of action is related to its ability to arrest cells in mitosis and the subsequent induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. By using two prostate cancer cell lines with different responses to paclitaxel treatment, we have identified two situations in which PTTG1 influences cell fate differentially. In slippage-prone PC3 cells, both PTTG1 downregulation and overexpression induce an increase in mitotic cells that is associated with diminished apoptosis after paclitaxel treatment. In LNCaP cells, however, PTTG1 downregulation prevents mitotic entry and, subsequently, inhibits mitosis-associated, paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, PTTG1 overexpression induces an increase in mitotic cells and apoptosis after paclitaxel treatment. We have also identified a role for Mcl-1 protein in preventing apoptosis during mitosis in PC3 cells, as simultaneous PTTG1 and Mcl-1 silencing enhances mitosis-associated apoptosis after paclitaxel treatment. The finding that a more efficient mitotic arrest alone in PC3 cells is not enough to increase apoptosis was also confirmed with the observation that a selected paclitaxel-resistant PC3 cell line showed an apoptosis-resistant phenotype associated with increased mitosis upon paclitaxel treatment. These findings could contribute to identify putative responsive and nonresponsive cells and help us to approach incomplete responses to paclitaxel in the clinical setting.

  13. Experimental analysis of response covariation among compliant and inappropriate behaviors.

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, J M; Cataldo, M F; Kolko, D J; Neef, N A; Egel, A L

    1986-01-01

    Reliable changes in a variety of behaviors, or classes of behaviors, when only one is manipulated experimentally, have demonstrated that even topographically dissimilar responses can be functionally related. We investigated such a relationship between topographically different child behaviors (compliance and inappropriate activities) by using a methodology that tests for response covariation. Five conditions were provided to sequentially increase and decrease first one and then the other of these behaviors, with the degree of covariation between the two behaviors (i.e., the relationship between changes in the targeted and nontargeted behaviors) being the finding of interest. Results showed that, regardless of the intervention used, the behavior targeted, or the direction manipulated, the nontargeted behavior reliably covaried inversely with the targeted one. The findings have immediate relevance to the clinical treatment of multiple behavior problems exhibited by children. Furthermore, the study of relationships between responses and the processes underlying these relationships can have important implications for understanding the complexity characteristic of human behavior not yet analyzed by behavioral research. PMID:3771417

  14. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  15. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  16. Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar.

    PubMed

    Henderson, E Elizabeth; Smith, Michael H; Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Douglas, Annie B; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-10-01

    Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8 kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122 dB re: 1 μPa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well.

  17. A Brief Review of Cephalopod Behavioral Responses to Sound.

    PubMed

    Samson, Julia E; Mooney, T Aran; Gussekloo, Sander W S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2016-01-01

    Sound is a widely available cue in aquatic environments and is used by many marine animals for vital behaviors. Most research has focused on marine vertebrates. Relatively little is known about sound detection in marine invertebrates despite their abundance and importance in marine environments. Cephalopods are a key taxon in many ecosystems, but their behavioral interactions relative to acoustic stimuli have seldom been studied. Here we review current knowledge regarding (1) the frequency ranges and sound levels that generate behavioral responses and (2) the types of behavioral responses and their biological relevance.

  18. Setting the Response Time Threshold Parameter to Differentiate Solution Behavior from Rapid-Guessing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaojing J.; Wise, Steven L.; Bhola, Dennison S.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared four methods for setting item response time thresholds to differentiate rapid-guessing behavior from solution behavior. Thresholds were either (a) common for all test items, (b) based on item surface features such as the amount of reading required, (c) based on visually inspecting response time frequency distributions, or (d)…

  19. Early permanent disappearance of abnormal muscle response during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: a retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chengrong; Xu, Wu; Dai, Yuxiang; Lu, Tianyu; Jin, Wei; Liang, Weibang

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study is to explore the cause of early abnormal muscle response (AMR) disappearance during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm and the clinical outcomes of these patients. Three hundred seventy-two patients received microvascular decompression (MVD) under intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital in 2014; the characteristic AMR of HFS was observed in 359 patients during the operation. And the 359 patients were divided into two groups based on whether AMR had remained before the beginning of the decompression procedure for offending vessels. Thirty-three patients who showed a permanent disappearance of AMR before the beginning of decompression were regarded as group I. Dural opening and the succeeding CSF drainage produced a permanent disappearance of AMR in 13. During the dissection of lateral cerebellomedullary cistern, a permanent disappearance of AMR was found in 20 patients. Thirty-two patients were cured immediately; delayed resolution (7 days after surgery) was found in one patient. No complications were observed and no recurrence was found during the follow-up period in the 33 patients. In the other 326 patients (group II), AMR disappeared temporarily before the beginning of the decompression procedure for offending vessels in 42 patients. After decompression, AMR disappeared completely in 305 patients. Two hundred sixty-seven patients were cured immediately and 57 patients got a delayed resolution (2 days to 45 weeks after surgery). The two left did not get a complete abolition of spasm. Three cases of hearing loss, one hoarseness, and nine delayed facial paralysis were observed. The reason of early abnormal muscle response disappearance may be that the degree of neurovascular compression was not serious; these patients were more likely to get an immediate cure. Continuous intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring of AMR is necessary.

  20. Copepod Behavioral Response to Simulated Frontal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; True, A. C.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.; Genin, A.

    2015-11-01

    When presented with a fine-scale upwelling or downwelling shear flow in a laboratory flume, two tropical copepods from the Red Sea, Acartia negligens and Clausocalanus furcatus, performed a set of behaviors that resulted in apparent depth-keeping and the potential for producing patchiness. Analyses of free-swimming trajectories revealed a behavioral threshold shear deformation rate value of 0.05 s-1 for both species. This threshold triggered statistically significant changes in path kinematics (i.e., relative swimming speed and turn frequency) in the shear layer versus out-of-layer. Gross path characteristics (i.e., net-to-gross displacement ratio, NGDR, and proportional vicinity time, PVT) were also significantly different in the shear layer treatments compared to controls. The vertical net-to-gross displacement ratio (VNGDR) was introduced here to explain a spectrum of depth-keeping behaviors. The mean value of VNGDR significantly increased in the shear layer treatments and, coupled with excited relative swimming speeds, suggested the potential to induce large vertical transport (at the 10 cm scale of the observation). However, histograms of VNGDR revealed a bimodality, which indicated a sizable portion of the population was also displaying depth-keeping behavior. Those copepod trajectories displaying large VNGDR predominately consisted of copepods swimming against the flow, thereby resisting vertical advection, which is another potential depth-keeping mechanism.

  1. Five Steps to Teach Responsible Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Jamie; Brewer, John; Quirin, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Imagine a school where students hold doors, make welcoming comments, and offer to carry packages into the building. Or a school that's distinguishing feature is a culture of respect and helpfulness that manifests daily in positive student behavior. Or a school where even such seemingly small events as tornado and fire drills, which can be quite…

  2. The Montana Behavioral Initiative: A Statewide Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Furshong, Joe

    1998-01-01

    The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) is a staff development program created to stem school violence. Program components include summer institutes, site teams, ongoing technical assistance, interagency cooperation, program evaluation, information dissemination, and governance by the MBI council. MBI has expanded to include nearly 100 Montana…

  3. Transgenic sickle cell trait mice do not exhibit abnormal thermoregulatory and stress responses to heat shock exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Islam, Aminul

    2016-07-01

    There remains controversy over whether individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT) are vulnerable to health risks during physical activity in high temperatures. We examined thermoregulatory and stress-related responses to heat exposure in SCT and wild-type (WT) mice. No significant differences in core temperature (Tc) were observed between SCT and WT mice during heat exposure. There was no correlation between peak Tc during heat exposure and levels of hemoglobin S in SCT mice. Basal levels of circulating inflammatory and stress-related markers were not significantly different between SCT and WT mice. Although heat exposure caused significant increases in plasma interleukins 1β and 6, and 8-isoprostane in SCT and WT mice, no differences were found between SCT and WT mice with similar thermal response profiles during heat exposure. SCT mice had significantly higher expression of heat shock protein 72 in heart, liver and gastrocnemius muscle than WT mice under control and post-heat conditions. In conclusion, there is neither thermoregulatory dysfunction nor abnormal stress-related response in SCT mice exposed to moderate heat. The hemoglobin variant in mice is associated with altered tissue stress protein homeostasis.

  4. Abnormal humoral immune response to mucosal antigenic stimulation in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Michils, A; Yernault, J C; Noel, E; Gossart, B; Servais, G; Duchateau, J

    1992-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested an inverse relationship between atopy and cancer of mucosal surfaces. Atopy is classically assessed by detecting specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against inhalant allergens. However, Platts-Mills recently proposed that atopy is the ability of an organism to recognize and to respond to limited doses of allergens presented at the mucosal level by producing not only IgE, but also immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The authors compared the prevalence of atopy in 103 patients with lung cancer (a model of mucosal cancer), 51 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease matched for age, sex, and smoking habits with patients with lung cancer, and 102 healthy control subjects. The authors investigated whether the IgG response to antigens presented at the mucosal level, exacerbated in atopic subjects, might inversely be decreased in patients with lung cancer. Serum IgE antibodies against five common inhalant allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Der p1], Aspergillus fumigatus, grass pollen, and cat and dog danders) were detected through a radioallergosorbent test assay. Serum IgG antibodies against allergens naturally presented at the mucosal level (respiratory mucosa with Der p1 and digestive mucosa with betalactoglobulin [BLG] and soya proteins [SP]) were measured through a solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Atopic status was assessed in 19 patients (18.4%) with lung cancer, 9 patients (17.6%) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 18 healthy control subjects (17.6%). Distributions of specific IgG levels were represented on frequency histograms after natural logarithmic transformation and showed reduced levels of anti-Der p1 and anti-BLG IgG in the cancer population compared with the control populations but similar levels of anti-SP IgG. Influence of sex, age, smoking habits, histologic type of cancer, and its extent could be excluded. The authors' results show no

  5. Abnormal pituitary-gonadal axis may be responsible for rat decreased testicular function under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Tan, Xin; Zhu, Bao-an; Qi, Meng-di; Ding, Su-ling

    Space flight and simulated microgravity lead to suppression of mammalian spermatogenesis and decreased plasma testosterone level. In order to explain the mechanism behind the depression, we used rat tail-suspended model to simulate weightless conditions. To prevent cryptorchidism caused by tail-suspension, some experimental animals received inguinal canal ligation. The results showed that mass of testis decreased significantly and seminiferous tubules became atrophied in rats after tail-suspension. The levels of plasma testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in tail-suspended rats with or without inguinal canal ligation decreased significantly compared with controls, and an increased level of plasma estradiol (E) was revealed in tail-suspended rats. The results indicate that besides the direct influence of fluid shift upon testis under short-term simulated microgravity, the pituitary function is also disturbed as a result of either immobilization stress or weight loss during tail-suspension treatment, which is responsible to some extent for the decreased testosterone secretion level and the atrophia of testis. The conversion of testosterone into E under simulated microgravity is another possible cause for the decline of plasma testosterone.

  6. Abnormal Glycosphingolipid Mannosylation Triggers Salicylic Acid–Mediated Responses in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Jenny C.; Yu, Xiaolan; Albrecht, Sandra; Sicilia, Francesca; Huichalaf, Mariela; Ampuero, Diego; Michaelson, Louise V.; Murphy, Alex M.; Matsunaga, Toshiro; Kurz, Samantha; Stephens, Elaine; Baldwin, Timothy C.; Ishii, Tadashi; Napier, Johnathan A.; Weber, Andreas P.M.; Handford, Michael G.; Dupree, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana protein GOLGI-LOCALIZED NUCLEOTIDE SUGAR TRANSPORTER (GONST1) has been previously identified as a GDP-d-mannose transporter. It has been hypothesized that GONST1 provides precursors for the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides, such as glucomannan. Here, we show that in vitro GONST1 can transport all four plant GDP-sugars. However, gonst1 mutants have no reduction in glucomannan quantity and show no detectable alterations in other cell wall polysaccharides. By contrast, we show that a class of glycosylated sphingolipids (glycosylinositol phosphoceramides [GIPCs]) contains Man and that this mannosylation is affected in gonst1. GONST1 therefore is a Golgi GDP-sugar transporter that specifically supplies GDP-Man to the Golgi lumen for GIPC synthesis. gonst1 plants have a dwarfed phenotype and a constitutive hypersensitive response with elevated salicylic acid levels. This suggests an unexpected role for GIPC sugar decorations in sphingolipid function and plant defense signaling. Additionally, we discuss these data in the context of substrate channeling within the Golgi. PMID:23695979

  7. Waking State: Rapid Variations Modulate Neural and Behavioral Responses

    PubMed Central

    McGinley, Matthew J.; Vinck, Martin; Reimer, Jacob; Batista-Brito, Renata; Zagha, Edward; Cadwell, Cathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    The state of the brain and body constantly varies on rapid and slow time scales. These variations contribute to the apparent noisiness of sensory responses at both the neural and behavioral level. Recent investigations of rapid state changes in awake, behaving animals have provided insight into the mechanisms by which optimal sensory encoding and behavioral performance are achieved. Fluctuations in state, as indexed by pupillometry, impact both the “signal” (sensory evoked response) and the “noise” (spontaneous activity) of cortical responses. By taking these fluctuations into account, neural response (co-)variability is significantly reduced, revealing the brain to be more reliable and predictable than previously thought. PMID:26402600

  8. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  9. Behavioral Theory and Culture Special Issue: Authors' Response to Commentaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasick, Rena J.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to commentaries that focus on the "Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening" (3Cs) study. The 3Cs study had an unremarkable beginning, with two colleagues discussing their frustration over the narrow range of behavioral theories and the limited guidance the theories offered for a study…

  10. Reinforcing Positive Behavior in a Prison: Whose Responsibility Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonio, Michael E.; Young, Jacqueline L.; Wingeard, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    In July 2006, the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections began delivering a two-hour training session titled Reinforcing Positive Behavior to new employees as part of their required orientation to the Department. The purpose of the training was to inform all employees about their roles and responsibilities for reinforcing positive behavior and…

  11. Descriptive Analysis of Teachers' Responses to Problem Behavior Following Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child…

  12. Insulin response dysregulation explains abnormal fat storage and increased risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 in Cohen Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Limoge, Floriane; Faivre, Laurence; Gautier, Thomas; Petit, Jean-Michel; Gautier, Elodie; Masson, David; Jego, Gaëtan; El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Marle, Nathalie; Carmignac, Virginie; Deckert, Valérie; Brindisi, Marie-Claude; Edery, Patrick; Ghoumid, Jamal; Blair, Edward; Lagrost, Laurent; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Duplomb, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    Cohen Syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, with defective glycosylation secondary to mutations in the VPS13B gene, which encodes a protein of the Golgi apparatus. Besides congenital neutropenia, retinopathy and intellectual deficiency, CS patients are faced with truncal obesity. Metabolism investigations showed abnormal glucose tolerance tests and low HDL values in some patients, and these could be risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus and/or cardiovascular complications. To understand the mechanisms involved in CS fat storage, we used two models of adipogenesis differentiation: (i) SGBS pre-adipocytes with VPS13B invalidation thanks to siRNA delivery and (ii) CS primary fibroblasts. In both models, VPS13B invalidation led to accelerated differentiation into fat cells, which was confirmed by the earlier and increased expression of specific adipogenic genes, consequent to the increased response of cells to insulin stimulation. At the end of the differentiation protocol, these fat cells exhibited decreased AKT2 phosphorylation after insulin stimulation, which suggests insulin resistance. This study, in association with the in-depth analysis of the metabolic status of the patients, thus allowed us to recommend appropriate nutritional education to prevent the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and to put forward recommendations for the follow-up of CS patients, in particular with regard to the development of metabolic syndrome. We also suggest replacing the term obesity by abnormal fat distribution in CS, which should reduce the number of inappropriate diagnoses in patients who are referred only on the basis of intellectual deficiency associated with obesity.

  13. EMOTION REGULATION ABNORMALITIES IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DIRECTED ATTENTION STRATEGIES FAIL TO DECREASE THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO UNPLEASANT STIMULI

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Kappenman, Emily S.; Culbreth, Adam J.; Catalano, Lauren T.; Ossenfort, Kathryn L.; Lee, Bern G.; Gold, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research provides evidence that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) have emotion regulation abnormalities, particularly when attempting to use reappraisal to decrease negative emotion. The current study extended this literature by examining the effectiveness of a different form of emotion regulation, directed attention, which has been shown to be effective at reducing negative emotion in healthy individuals. Participants included outpatients with SZ (n = 28) and healthy controls (CN: n = 25), who viewed unpleasant and neutral images during separate event-related potential (ERP) and eye-movement tasks. Trials included both passive viewing and directed attention segments. During directed attention, gaze was directed toward highly arousing aspects of an unpleasant image, less arousing aspects of an unpleasant image, or a non-arousing aspect of a neutral image. The late positive potential (LPP) ERP component indexed emotion regulation success. Directing attention to non-arousing aspects of unpleasant images decreased the LPP in CN; however, SZ showed similar LPP amplitude when attention was directed toward more or less arousing aspects of unpleasant scenes. Eye tracking indicated that SZ were more likely than CN to attend to arousing portions of unpleasant scenes when attention was directed toward less arousing scene regions. Furthermore, pupilary data suggested that SZ patients failed to engage effortful cognitive processes needed to inhibit the prepotent response of attending to arousing aspects of unpleasant scenes when attention was directed toward non-arousing scene regions. Findings add to the growing literature indicating that individuals with SZ display emotion regulation abnormalities and provide novel evidence that dysfunctional emotion-attention interactions and generalized cognitive control deficits are associated with ineffective use of directed attention strategies to regulate negative emotion. PMID:25486078

  14. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  15. Effects of alternative responses on behavior exposed to noncontingent reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Iwata, Brian A; Fahmie, Tara A; Harper, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) may decrease the frequency of behavior by either inducing satiation or terminating the response-reinforcer contingency (extinction). Another possibility is that the target behavior is replaced by other behaviors maintained by preexisting contingencies. We conducted 2 experiments in which we allowed access to a target response and several alternatives. In Experiment 1, NCR, preceded by contingent reinforcement (CR) for the target, produced a reduction in the target and an increase in the alternatives in 2 subjects with intellectual disabilities. To separate the effects of NCR from the availability of alternative responses, we presented CR conditions to 4 subjects in Experiment 2 with and without the availability of alternatives. The availability of alternatives decreased the target in only 1 subject. Subsequent manipulations showed that reductions in the target were solely a function of NCR for the other 3 subjects. Thus, response competition may have marginal effects on response suppression during NCR.

  16. Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems.

  17. Grade of Membership Response Time Model for Detecting Guessing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokropek, Artur

    2016-01-01

    A response model that is able to detect guessing behaviors and produce unbiased estimates in low-stake conditions using timing information is proposed. The model is a special case of the grade of membership model in which responses are modeled as partial members of a class that is affected by motivation and a class that responds only according to…

  18. Abnormal response to stress and impaired NPS-induced hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effect and corticosterone increase in mice lacking NPSR1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongyan; Mingler, Melissa K; McBride, Melissa L; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2010-09-01

    NPSR1 is a G protein coupled receptor expressed in multiple brain regions involved in modulation of stress. Central administration of NPS, the putative endogenous ligand of NPSR1, can induce hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effects and activation of the HPA axis. The role of NPSR1 in the brain remains unsettled. Here we used NPSR1 gene-targeted mice to define the functional role of NPSR1 under basal conditions on locomotion, anxiety- and/or depression-like behavior, corticosterone levels, acoustic startle with prepulse inhibition, learning and memory, and under NPS-induced locomotor activation, anxiolysis, and corticosterone release. Male, but not female, NPSR1-deficient mice exhibited enhanced depression-like behavior in a forced swim test, reduced acoustic startle response, and minor changes in the Morris water maze. Neither male nor female NPSR1-deficient mice showed alterations of baseline locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, or corticosterone release after exposure to a forced swim test or methamphetamine challenge in an open-field. After intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NPS, NPSR1-deficient mice failed to show normal NPS-induced increases in locomotion, anxiolysis, or corticosterone release compared with WT NPS-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that NPSR1 is essential in mediating NPS effects on behavior.

  19. Individual differences in behavioral and physiological responsiveness of primiparous dairy cows to machine milking.

    PubMed

    Van Reenen, C G; Van der Werf, J T N; Bruckmaier, R M; Hopster, H; Engel, B; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Blokhuis, H J

    2002-10-01

    An experiment was performed in primiparous dairy cows (n = 23) to examine consistency of individual differences in reactivity to milking, and correlations between measures of behavior, physiology, and milk ejection. Responsiveness to milking was monitored during the first machine milking, on d 2 of lactation, and during milkings on d 4 and 130 of lactation. Measurements included kicking and stepping behavior, plasma cortisol and plasma oxytocin, heart rate, milk yield, milking time, milk flow rate, and residual milk obtained after administration of exogenous oxytocin. With repeated early lactation milkings, residual milk and the incidence of abnormal milk flow curves decreased. On d 130 of lactation all heifers exhibited normal milk ejection. Except for higher plasma cortisol concentrations on d 2, all measures were consistent over time between d 2 and 4 of lactation as indicated by significant rank correlations. Individual differences in the behavioral response to udder preparation were consistent over time between early lactation milkings and d 130 of lactation. Residual milk, milk yield, maximum milk flow rate, plasma oxytocin and heart rate during udder preparation were similarly interrelated on d 2 and 4 of lactation. High heart rate responses on d 2 and 4 were associated with enhanced inhibition of milk ejection. In contrast, behavior recorded during the milking process was unrelated to ease of milk removal. Our results indicate that milking at the beginning of lactation may be stressful to some heifers, to the extent that milk ejection is inhibited, but less disturbing to others. The existence of consistent behavioral and physiological responses in the present study suggests that responsiveness of dairy heifers to milking is mediated by stable animal characteristics.

  20. Endotoxin "priming" potentiates lung vascular abnormalities in response to Escherichia coli hemolysin: an example of synergism between endo- and exotoxin

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The pore-forming hemolysin of Escherichia coli (HlyA), an important virulence factor in extraintestinal E. coli infections, causes thromboxane generation and related vasoconstriction in perfused rabbit lungs (Seeger, W., H. Walter, N. Suttorp, M. Muhly, and S. Bhakdi. 1989. J. Clin. Invest. 84:220). We investigated the influence of pulmonary vascular "priming" with endotoxin on the responsiveness of the lung to a low-dose HlyA challenge. Rabbit lungs were perfused with Krebs Henseleit buffer containing 0.1-100 ng/ml Salmonella abortus equii lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 60-180 min. This treatment caused protracted release of tumor necrosis factor into the recirculating medium, but did not induce significant alterations of pulmonary hemodynamics and fluid balance. At a dose of 1 ng/ml, HlyA elicited only moderate thromboxane release (< 200 pg/ml) and pulmonary artery pressure increase (< or = 6 mmHg) in control lungs. Acceleration and potentiation of both the metabolic and vasoconstrictor response occurred in lungs primed with LPS. This priming effect displayed dose (threshold integral of 0.1-1 ng/ml LPS) and time dependencies (threshold integral of 60-90 min LPS incubation). Maximum thromboxane release and pulmonary artery pressure increase surpassed the responses to HlyA in nonprimed lungs by more than 15-fold. Cyclooxygenase inhibition and thromboxane-receptor antagonism blocked these effects. These data demonstrate that LPS priming synergizes with HlyA challenge to provoke vascular abnormalities that are possibly relevant to the pathogenesis of organ failure in severe local and systemic infections. PMID:7931076

  1. A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom.

    PubMed

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Maki, Amber; Barenz, Rebecca; Jurgens, Mandy; Sailer, Angela; Haugen, Meredith; Kopp, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom. Using an alternating treatments design, disruptive behavior was reduced when the participants earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior (DRO) or lost tokens for the occurrence of disruptive behavior (response cost). Initially, DRO was more successful in reducing the number of disruptive behaviors; however, over time, response cost proved to be more effective.

  2. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school

    PubMed Central

    Cillessen, Antonius H.N.; de Weerth, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6‐year‐olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (M age = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age‐appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol. Teachers assessed children's internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. Stress in the family environment was operationalized as maternally reported parenting stress. Results indicated a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in response to the stressor. No significant associations were found between cortisol stress responses and behavioral functioning at school and there was no evidence for moderation by maternal parenting stress. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:27774583

  3. Methylphenidate (‘Ritalin’) can Ameliorate Abnormal Risk-Taking Behavior in the Frontal Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shibley; Robbins, Trevor W; Hodges, John R; Mehta, Mitul A; Nestor, Peter J; Clark, Luke; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2007-01-01

    The frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia is a significant neurological condition worldwide. There exist few treatments available for the cognitive and behavioural sequelae of fvFTD. Previous research has shown that these patients display risky decision-making, and numerous studies have now demonstrated pathology affecting the orbitofrontal cortex. The present study uses a within-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure to investigate the effects of a single dose of methylphenidate (40 mg) upon a range of different cognitive processes including those assessing prefrontal cortex integrity. Methylphenidate was effective in ‘normalizing’ the decision-making behavior of patients, such that they became less risk taking on medication, although there were no significant effects on other aspects of cognitive function, including working memory, attentional set shifting, and reversal learning. Moreover, there was an absence of the normal subjective and autonomic responses to methylphenidate seen in elderly subjects. The results are discussed in terms of the ‘somatic marker’ hypothesis of impaired decision-making following orbitofrontal dysfunction. PMID:16160709

  4. Behavioral response of Caenorhabditis elegans to localized thermal stimuli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nociception evokes a rapid withdrawal behavior designed to protect the animal from potential danger. C. elegans performs a reflexive reversal or forward locomotory response when presented with noxious stimuli at the head or tail, respectively. Here, we have developed an assay with precise spatial and temporal control of an infrared laser stimulus that targets one-fifth of the worm’s body and quantifies multiple aspects of the worm’s escape response. Results When stimulated at the head, we found that the escape response can be elicited by changes in temperature as small as a fraction of a degree Celsius, and that aspects of the escape behavior such as the response latency and the escape direction change advantageously as the amplitude of the noxious stimulus increases. We have mapped the behavioral receptive field of thermal nociception along the entire body of the worm, and show a midbody avoidance behavior distinct from the head and tail responses. At the midbody, the worm is sensitive to a change in the stimulus location as small as 80 μm. This midbody response is probabilistic, producing either a backward, forward or pause state after the stimulus. The distribution of these states shifts from reverse-biased to forward-biased as the location of the stimulus moves from the middle towards the anterior or posterior of the worm, respectively. We identified PVD as the thermal nociceptor for the midbody response using calcium imaging, genetic ablation and laser ablation. Analyses of mutants suggest the possibility that TRPV channels and glutamate are involved in facilitating the midbody noxious response. Conclusion Through high resolution quantitative behavioral analysis, we have comprehensively characterized the C. elegans escape response to noxious thermal stimuli applied along its body, and found a novel midbody response. We further identified the nociceptor PVD as required to sense noxious heat at the midbody and can spatially differentiate

  5. Estradiol and osmolality: Behavioral responses and central pathways.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Regulation of appropriate osmolality of body fluid is critical for survival, yet there are sex differences in compensatory responses to osmotic challenges. Few studies have focused on the role of sex hormones such as estradiol in behavioral responses to increases or decreases in systemic osmolality, and even fewer studies have investigated whether central actions of estrogens contribute to these responses. This overview integrates findings from a series of ongoing and completed experiments conducted in my laboratory to assess estradiol effects on water and NaCl intake in response to osmotic challenges, and on activity in central pathways that mediate such responses.

  6. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Setting the Response Time Threshold Parameter to Differentiate Solution Behavior from Rapid-Guessing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaojing J.; Bhola, Dennison S.; Wise, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    In this study four methods were compared for setting a response time threshold that differentiates rapid-guessing behavior from solution behavior when examinees are obliged to complete a low-stakes test. The four methods examined were: (1) a fixed threshold for all test items; (2) thresholds based on item surface features such as the amount of…

  8. Decreased B and T lymphocyte attenuator in Behcet’s disease may trigger abnormal Th17 and Th1 immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zi; Deng, Bolin; Wang, Chaokui; Zhang, Dike; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2016-01-01

    Behcet’s disease (BD) is a chronic, systemic and recurrent inflammatory disease associated with hyperactive Th17 and Th1 immune responses. Recent studies have shown that B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) negatively regulates the immune response. In this study, we investigated whether BTLA activation could be exploited to inhibit the development of abnormal immune responses in BD patients. BTLA expression in PBMCs and CD4+ T cells was significantly decreased in active BD patients. Decreased BTLA level was associated with increased Th17 and Th1 responses. Activation of BTLA inhibited the abnormal Th17 and Th1 responses and IL-22 expression in both patients and controls. Addition of an agonistic anti-BTLA antibody remarkably inhibited DC-induced Th17 and Th1 cell responses, resulted in decreased production of the Th17 and Th1-related cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-23 and IL-12p70 and reduced CD40 expression in DCs. In conclusion, decreased BTLA expression in ocular BD may lead to inappropriate control of the Th17 and Th1 immune responses and DC functions. Therefore, BTLA may be involved in the development and recurrence of this disease. Agonistic agents of BTLA may represent a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of BD and other inflammatory diseases mediated by abnormal Th17 and Th1 immune responses. PMID:26841832

  9. Well-differentiated systemic mastocytosis showed excellent clinical response to imatinib in the absence of known molecular genetic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lanshan; Wang, Sa A.; Konoplev, Sergej; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E.; Thakral, Beenu; Miranda, Roberto N.; Jabbour, Elias; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Well-differentiated systemic mastocytosis (WDSM) is a rare, recently recognized provisional subvariant of systemic mastocytosis (SM). We report a case of WDSM that showed excellent clinical and cutaneous response to imatinib in the absence of known molecular genetic abnormalities. Clinical Findings/Diagnoses: We present a 24-year-old woman with childhood onset of skin manifestations that progressed to mediator-related systemic events, and a gastrointestinal tract mastocytoma. A subsequent bone marrow examination showed WDSM. Treatment with imatinib resulted in complete resolution of cutaneous lesions and systemic symptoms, which relapsed with the discontinuation of the drug. Targeted next-generation sequencing-based mutation analysis did not demonstrate any mutations in the coding regions of KIT or other genes commonly associated with myeloid neoplasms. Conclusions: The diagnosis of WDSM is challenging in the absence of spindle-shaped mast cells, CD2 or CD25 expression, and KIT D816 mutation. This case illustrated the need for recognizing this unique variant of SM for diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:27741105

  10. Skip the trip: air travelers' behavioral responses to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over "swine flu," as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication.

  11. Physician behavioral response to a Medicare price reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, N X; Derrick, F W

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate at the individual practice level physician behavioral responses to the Medicare fee reductions mandated in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989. Symmetric and nonsymmetric behavioral responses are modeled and investigated. DATA SOURCES: Volume index calculated from data in the Part B Medicare Annual Data (BMAD) Provider Files for 1989 and 1990. The pricing data are from the Procedure Files. STUDY DESIGN: A fixed-effects model in carrier and in specialty is employed. DATA COLLECTION: No direct data collection is required as BMAD files are used in the study. Price and volume variables are expressed as Fisher indexes of change. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results show nonsymmetrical behavioral response because practices that did not face significant fee reductions do not exhibit behavioral change. By contrast, losers partially compensate for the fee reductions. For every dollar cut in their fees, physicians recoup approximately 40 cents by increasing volume. Loser behavioral responses vary by specialty. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a volume response suggests that price control alone is not sufficient to cap rising healthcare costs. This indicates that additional or other tools must be considered if cost containment is to be attained. PMID:9240281

  12. Antipsychotic dose modulates behavioral and neural responses to feedback during reinforcement learning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Insel, Catherine; Reinen, Jenna; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D; Jarskog, L Fredrik; Shohamy, Daphna; Smith, Edward E

    2014-03-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by an abnormal dopamine system, and dopamine blockade is the primary mechanism of antipsychotic treatment. Consistent with the known role of dopamine in reward processing, prior research has demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in reward-based learning. However, it remains unknown how treatment with antipsychotic medication impacts the behavioral and neural signatures of reinforcement learning in schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to examine whether antipsychotic medication modulates behavioral and neural responses to prediction error coding during reinforcement learning. Patients with schizophrenia completed a reinforcement learning task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The task consisted of two separate conditions in which participants accumulated monetary gain or avoided monetary loss. Behavioral results indicated that antipsychotic medication dose was associated with altered behavioral approaches to learning, such that patients taking higher doses of medication showed increased sensitivity to negative reinforcement. Higher doses of antipsychotic medication were also associated with higher learning rates (LRs), suggesting that medication enhanced sensitivity to trial-by-trial feedback. Neuroimaging data demonstrated that antipsychotic dose was related to differences in neural signatures of feedback prediction error during the loss condition. Specifically, patients taking higher doses of medication showed attenuated prediction error responses in the striatum and the medial prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate that antipsychotic medication treatment may influence motivational processes in patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Burden and Socio-Behavioral Correlates of Uncontrolled Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in an Urban Population of India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Mahapatra, Umakanta; Pandey, Naren; Thomson, Peter L.; Musk, Arthur W.; Mitra, Ramendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Progressive burden of diabetes mellitus is a major concern in India. Data on the predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetics are scanty. A population-based cross-sectional study nested in an urban cohort was thus conducted in West Bengal, India to determine the burden and correlates of total and uncontrolled abnormalities in glucose metabolism (AGM) in a representative population. Methods From 9046 adult cohort-members, 269 randomly selected consenting subjects (non-response = 7.24%) were interviewed, examined [blood pressure (BP), anthropometry], tested for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Those having pre-diagnosed diabetes or FPG ≥126 or HbA1c≥6.5 were defined as diabetic. Among non-diabetics, subjects with FPG (mg/dl) = 100–125 or HbA1C(%) = 5.7–6.4 were defined as pre-diabetic. Pre-diagnosed cases with current FPG ≥126 were defined as uncontrolled AGM. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted using SAS-9.3.2. Results Among participants, 28.62% [95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) = 23.19–34.06)] were overweight [body mass index(BMI) = (25–29.99)kg/meter2], 7.81% (4.58–11.03) were obese(BMI≥30kg/meter2), 20.82% (15.93–25.70) were current smokers, 12.64% (8.64–16.64) were current alcohol-drinkers and 46.32% of responders (39.16–53.47) had family history of diabetes. 17.84% (13.24–22.45) had stage-I [140≤average systolic BP (AvSBP in mm of mercury)<160 or 90≤average diastolic BP (AvDBP)<100] and 12.64% (8.64–16.64) had stage-II (AvSBP≥160 or AvDBP≥160) hypertension. Based on FPG and HbA1c, 10.41% (6.74–14.08) were diabetic and 27.88% (22.49–33.27) were pre-diabetic. Overall prevalence of diabetes was 15.61% (11.25–19.98). Among pre-diagnosed cases, 46.43% (26.74–66.12) had uncontrolled AGM. With one year increase in age [Odds Ratio(OR) = 1.05(1.03–1.07)], retired subjects [OR = 9.14(1.72–48.66)], overweight[OR = 2.78(1.37–5.64)], ex-drinkers [OR = 4

  14. Media interventions to promote responsible sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Keller, Sarah N; Brown, Jane D

    2002-02-01

    While the media have been used effectively to promote sexual responsibility in other countries for decades, few such opportunities have been seized in the United States. Mass media may be especially useful for teaching young people about reproductive health because elements of popular culture can be used to articulate messages in young people s terms, in language that won t embarrass them and may even make safe sex more attractive. Media can potentially change the way people think about sex, amidst cultural pressures to have sex at a young age, to have sex forcefully, or to have unsafe sex. Information can be communicated through a variety of channels--small media (e.g., pamphlets, brochures, and the Internet) and mass media--and in a variety of formats--campaigns, news coverage, and educational messages inserted into regular entertainment programming. Several international studies show that exposure to family planning messages through television, radio, and print media are strongly associated with contraceptive use. Domestically, safe sex media campaigns have been associated with increased teen condom use with casual partners, and reductions in the numbers of teenagers reporting sexual activity. Due to private ownership and First Amendment concerns, U.S. sexual health advocates have been working with the commercial media to incorporate subtle health messages into existing entertainment programming.

  15. Defects responsible for abnormal n-type conductivity in Ag-excess doped PbTe thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Byungki Lee, Jae Ki; Lee, Ji Eun; Joo, Sung-Jae; Kim, Bong-Seo; Min, Bok-Ki; Lee, Hee-Woong; Park, Su-Dong; Oh, Min-Wook

    2015-07-07

    Density functional calculations have been performed to investigate the role of Ag defects in PbTe thermoelectric materials. Ag-defects can be either donor, acceptor, or isovalent neutral defect. When Ag is heavily doped in PbTe, the neutral (Ag-Ag) dimer defect at Pb-site is formed and the environment changes to the Pb-rich/Te-poor condition. Under Pb-rich condition, the ionized Ag-interstitial defect (Ag{sub I}{sup +}) becomes the major donor. The formation energy of Ag{sub I}{sup +} is smaller than other native and Ag-related defects. Also it is found that Ag{sub I}{sup +} is an effective dopant. There is no additional impurity state near the band gap and the conduction band minimum. The charge state of Ag{sub I}{sup +} defect is maintained even when the Fermi level is located above the conduction band minimum. The diffusion constant of Ag{sub I}{sup +} is calculated based on the temperature dependent Fermi level, formation energy, and migration energy. When T > 550 K, the diffusion length of Ag within a few minutes is comparable to the grain size of the polycrystalline PbTe, implying that Ag is dissolved into PbTe and this donor defect is distributed over the whole lattice in Ag-excess doped polycrystalline PbTe. The predicted solubility of Ag{sub I}{sup +} well explains the increased electron carrier concentration and electrical conductivity reported in Ag-excess doped polycrystalline PbTe at T = 450–750 K [Pei et al., Adv. Energy Mater. 1, 291 (2011)]. In addition, we suggest that this abnormal doping behavior is also found for Au-doped PbTe.

  16. Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Typical Development Children and Those with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Sahoko; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Ogino, Kazuo; Kamio, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Auditory hyper-reactivity is a common sensory-perceptual abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which interrupts behavioral adaptation. We investigated acoustic startle response (ASR) modulations in 17 children with ASD and 27 with typical development (TD). Compared to TD, children with ASD had larger ASR magnitude to weak stimuli and…

  17. Increased behavioral and neuronal responses to a hallucinogenic drug in PACAP heterozygous mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Hazama, Keisuke; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Uetsuki, Kazuki; Kasai, Atsushi; Encho, Naoki; Shintani, Norihito; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Ryota; Reglodi, Dora; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from human genetic studies implicates the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and stress-related diseases. Mice with homozygous disruption of the PACAP gene display profound behavioral and neurological abnormalities that are ameliorated with the atypical antipsychotic and dopamine D2 and serotonin (5-HT)2 antagonist risperidone and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we investigated if PACAP heterozygous mutant (PACAP(+/-)) mice, which appear behaviorally normal, are vulnerable to aversive stimuli. PACAP(+/-) mice were administered a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), a hallucinogenic drug, and their responses were compared with the littermate wild-type mice. After DOI injection, PACAP(+/-) mice showed increased head-twitch responses, while their behavior was normal after saline. DOI induced deficits in sensorimotor gating, as determined by prepulse inhibition, specifically in PACAP(+/-) mice. However, other 5-HT2 receptor-dependent responses, such as corticosterone release and hypothermia, were similarly observed in PACAP(+/-) and wild-type mice. c-Fos expression analysis, performed in various brain regions, revealed that the DOI-induced increase in the number of c-Fos-positive cells was more pronounced in 5-HT2A receptor-negative cells in the somatosensory cortex in PACAP(+/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that PACAP(+/-) mice exhibit specific vulnerability to DOI-induced deficits in cortical sensory function, such as exaggerated head-twitch responses and sensorimotor gating deficits. Our findings provide insight into the neural mechanisms underlying impaired behavioral responses in which 5-HT2 receptors are implicated.

  18. Increased Behavioral and Neuronal Responses to a Hallucinogenic Drug in PACAP Heterozygous Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Atsushi; Encho, Naoki; Shintani, Norihito; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Ryota; Reglodi, Dora; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from human genetic studies implicates the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and stress-related diseases. Mice with homozygous disruption of the PACAP gene display profound behavioral and neurological abnormalities that are ameliorated with the atypical antipsychotic and dopamine D2 and serotonin (5-HT)2 antagonist risperidone and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we investigated if PACAP heterozygous mutant (PACAP+/−) mice, which appear behaviorally normal, are vulnerable to aversive stimuli. PACAP+/− mice were administered a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), a hallucinogenic drug, and their responses were compared with the littermate wild-type mice. After DOI injection, PACAP+/− mice showed increased head-twitch responses, while their behavior was normal after saline. DOI induced deficits in sensorimotor gating, as determined by prepulse inhibition, specifically in PACAP+/− mice. However, other 5-HT2 receptor-dependent responses, such as corticosterone release and hypothermia, were similarly observed in PACAP+/− and wild-type mice. c-Fos expression analysis, performed in various brain regions, revealed that the DOI-induced increase in the number of c-Fos-positive cells was more pronounced in 5-HT2A receptor-negative cells in the somatosensory cortex in PACAP+/− mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that PACAP+/− mice exhibit specific vulnerability to DOI-induced deficits in cortical sensory function, such as exaggerated head-twitch responses and sensorimotor gating deficits. Our findings provide insight into the neural mechanisms underlying impaired behavioral responses in which 5-HT2 receptors are implicated. PMID:24586556

  19. Behavioral responses of silverback gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to videos.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Margaret A; Leighty, Katherine A; Kuhar, Christopher W; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of video presentations on the behavior of 4 silverback, western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). On each of 5 occasions, gorillas viewed 6 types of videos (blue screen, humans, an all-male or mixed-sex group engaged in low activity, and an all-male or mixed-sex group engaged in agonistic behavior). The study recorded behavioral responses and watching rates. All gorillas preferred dynamic over static videos; 3 watched videos depicting gorillas significantly more than those depicting humans. Among the gorilla videos, the gorillas clearly preferred watching the mixed-sex group engaged in agonistic behavior; yet, this did not lead to an increase in aggression or behavior indicating agitation. Further, habituation to videos depicting gorillas did not occur. This supports the effectiveness of this form of enrichment, particularly for a nonhuman animal needing to be separated temporarily due to illness, shipment quarantine, social restructuring, or exhibit modification.

  20. Evaluating Satiated Copepod Behavioral Responses to Thin Layer Flow Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, Aaron C.; Webster, Donald R.; Weissburg, Marc J.; Yen, Jeannette

    2011-11-01

    Zooplankton exploit a variety of chemical and fluid mechanical cues in foraging, mate-seeking, and habitat partitioning contexts. To examine the influence of environmental cues on zooplankton aggregations in coastal marine thin layers, a laboratory thin layer mimic was built. The apparatus uses a laminar, planar jet (the Bickley jet) to produce ecologically-relevant layers of chemical (beneficial and harmful phytoplankton) and fluid mechanical (shear strain rate) cues for zooplankton behavioral assays. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were employed to fully quantify the spatial structure of the chemical and fluid mechanical cues, ensuring a close match to in situ conditions and allowing for investigations into threshold cue levels responsible for inducing behavioral responses. Evaluating the effect of hunger level on behavioral responses is particularly important for producing accurate individual-based simulations of zooplankton population dynamics. Behavioral assays with the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis have produced digitized trajectories and, subsequently, path kinematics. Observed behaviors include increased turn frequency and decreased relative swimming speed, which result in increased residence time in the free jet shear layer. Cue-induced individual behaviors have the potential to produce population-scale aggregations.

  1. PCB1254 exposure contributes to the abnormalities of optomotor responses and influence of the photoreceptor cell development in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Hong, Qin; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Min; Guo, Xirong; Chi, Xia; Tong, Meiling

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a group of highly toxic environmental pollutants, have been report to influence the visual system development in children. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. The study was aim to investigate the effects of continuous PCBs exposure on optomotor response (OMR) and retinal photoreceptor cell development-related gene expression in zebrafish larvae. The fertilized zebrafish embryos were exposed to PCBs at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1mg/L until 7 days post-fertilization. Control groups with blank and 0.01% methanol were also prepared. OMR test was used to detect the visual behavior. The mRNA expression of the CRX, RHO, SWS1, and SWS2 was assessed by the Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The OMR test showed that the visual behavior of the larvae was most sensitive when the grating spatial frequency was 0.20LP/mm and the moving speed was 25cm/s. Moreover, the proportion of positively swimming fish was significantly reduced in the 0.5 and 1mg/L PCB1254 treatment group (P<0.05) compared with the controls. In addition, the expression of SWS2 was significantly down-regulated in all PCB1254 treatment groups (P<0.05), whereas the decreased expression of the CRX, RHO and SWS1 was found in the 0.5 and 1mg/L PCB1254 groups (P<0.05). This is the first report to demonstrate that continue exposure of zebrafish larvae to PCBs causes photoreceptor cell development-related gene expression changes that lead to OMR behavioral alterations. Analysis of these visual behavioral paradigms may be useful in predicting the adverse effects of toxicants on visual function in fish.

  2. Allocation of household responsibilities influences change in dietary behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Candace C.; Sapp, Amy; Berkman, Lisa F.; Li, Yi; Sorensen, Glorian

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to understand dietary behavior as situated within the household, an important social context that serves to either inhibit or promote a healthy diet. Data were collected as part of a worksite-based health behavior intervention trial that took place between 1999 and 2003 in small manufacturing businesses in New England, USA. The subjects were a cohort of 790 male and female workers who participated in the intervention trial and responded to both the baseline and the 18-month follow-up surveys. Regression models were built to determine whether proportion of household responsibility predicted daily fruit and vegetable consumption and weekly red meat consumption at 18-months. The results indicate that participants who were responsible for earning most or all of the money to support the household ate more servings of fruits and vegetables per day at 18-month follow-up than those without this responsibility. Further, those responsible for earning about half ate fewer servings of red meat than those responsible for earning most or all of the money to support the household. The results for red meat consumption differed by sex, such that responsibility for more than half or less than half of the money to support the household had different effects for men and women. The results of this study demonstrate that the distribution of household responsibilities can be an important factor in determining the effectiveness of a worksite-based health behavior intervention and that these effects can be different for women versus men. PMID:21975026

  3. Isoforms of Melanopsin Mediate Different Behavioral Responses to Light

    PubMed Central

    Jagannath, Aarti; Hughes, Steven; Abdelgany, Amr; Pothecary, Carina A.; Di Pretoro, Simona; Pires, Susana S.; Vachtsevanos, Athanasios; Pilorz, Violetta; Brown, Laurence A.; Hossbach, Markus; MacLaren, Robert E.; Halford, Stephanie; Gatti, Silvia; Hankins, Mark W.; Wood, Matthew J.A.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Melanopsin (OPN4) is a retinal photopigment that mediates a wide range of non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light [1, 2] including circadian entrainment [3], sleep induction [4], the pupillary light response (PLR) [5], and negative masking of locomotor behavior (the acute suppression of activity in response to light) [6]. How these diverse NIF responses can all be mediated by a single photopigment has remained a mystery. We reasoned that the alternative splicing of melanopsin could provide the basis for functionally distinct photopigments arising from a single gene. The murine melanopsin gene is indeed alternatively spliced, producing two distinct isoforms, a short (OPN4S) and a long (OPN4L) isoform, which differ only in their C terminus tails [7]. Significantly, both isoforms form fully functional photopigments [7]. Here, we show that different isoforms of OPN4 mediate different behavioral responses to light. By using RNAi-mediated silencing of each isoform in vivo, we demonstrated that the short isoform (OPN4S) mediates light-induced pupillary constriction, the long isoform (OPN4L) regulates negative masking, and both isoforms contribute to phase-shifting circadian rhythms of locomotor behavior and light-mediated sleep induction. These findings demonstrate that splice variants of a single receptor gene can regulate strikingly different behaviors. PMID:26320947

  4. Isoforms of Melanopsin Mediate Different Behavioral Responses to Light.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Aarti; Hughes, Steven; Abdelgany, Amr; Pothecary, Carina A; Di Pretoro, Simona; Pires, Susana S; Vachtsevanos, Athanasios; Pilorz, Violetta; Brown, Laurence A; Hossbach, Markus; MacLaren, Robert E; Halford, Stephanie; Gatti, Silvia; Hankins, Mark W; Wood, Matthew J A; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-09-21

    Melanopsin (OPN4) is a retinal photopigment that mediates a wide range of non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light including circadian entrainment, sleep induction, the pupillary light response (PLR), and negative masking of locomotor behavior (the acute suppression of activity in response to light). How these diverse NIF responses can all be mediated by a single photopigment has remained a mystery. We reasoned that the alternative splicing of melanopsin could provide the basis for functionally distinct photopigments arising from a single gene. The murine melanopsin gene is indeed alternatively spliced, producing two distinct isoforms, a short (OPN4S) and a long (OPN4L) isoform, which differ only in their C terminus tails. Significantly, both isoforms form fully functional photopigments. Here, we show that different isoforms of OPN4 mediate different behavioral responses to light. By using RNAi-mediated silencing of each isoform in vivo, we demonstrated that the short isoform (OPN4S) mediates light-induced pupillary constriction, the long isoform (OPN4L) regulates negative masking, and both isoforms contribute to phase-shifting circadian rhythms of locomotor behavior and light-mediated sleep induction. These findings demonstrate that splice variants of a single receptor gene can regulate strikingly different behaviors.

  5. Genetic damage and the expression of behavioral abnormalities in the progeny of male rats exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the possible genetic nature of behavioral anomalies, an identifiable genetic endpoint, inherited chromosome translocations in the offspring, was selected to evaluate the relationship to behavior. Young adult male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 50-300 rads of ionizing radiation. Two weeks following their irradiation, the males were mated with four virgin females for one week. During this time, fertilizing sperm were derived from post-meiotic spermatids, the stage of the spermatogenic cycle most sensitive to the mutagenic effects of radiation. Behavioral analyses of the resulting 390 offspring consisted of both motor reflex and motor coordination measurements as well as learning and retention parameters. Significant differences in performance were seen in several of the motor reflex measurements in progeny of males exposed to some of the higher doses of irradiation. A similar phenomenon was observed in the performance of a single learned behavior.

  6. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miksis-Olds, J. L.; Wagner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects. ?? 2010 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  7. School Refusal Behavior: Prevalence, Characteristics, and the Schools' Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 288 elementary and secondary North Dakota schools found 75% had a school refusal behavior (SRB) identification system in place, 57% had a school psychologist available, principals were most frequently responsible for identifying school refusers, 2.3% of students were identified as school refusers of which 49% falsely claimed illness,…

  8. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Abnormal response of the proliferation and differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes to melatonin in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, William Wei-Jun; Man, Gene Chi-Wai; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Lee, Kwong-Man; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Yeung, Hiu-Yan; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2014-09-25

    Abnormalities in the melatonin signaling pathway and the involvement of melatonin receptor MT2 have been reported in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Whether these abnormalities were involved in the systemic abnormal skeletal growth in AIS during the peripubertal period remain unknown. In this cross-sectional case-control study, growth plate chondrocytes (GPCs) were cultured from twenty AIS and ten normal control subjects. Although the MT2 receptor was identified in GPCs from both AIS and controls, its mRNA expression was significantly lower in AIS patients than the controls. GPCs were cultured in the presence of either the vehicle or various concentrations of melatonin, with or without the selective MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT (10 µM). Then the cell viability and the mRNA expression of collagen type X (COLX) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed by MTT and qPCR, respectively. In the control GPCs, melatonin at the concentrations of 1, 100 nM and 10 µM significantly reduced the population of viable cells, and the mRNA level of COLX and ALP compared to the vehicle. Similar changes were not observed in the presence of 4-P-PDOT. Further, neither proliferation nor differentiation of GPCs from AIS patients was affected by the melatonin treatment. These findings support the presence of a functional abnormality of the melatonin signaling pathway in AIS GPCs, which might be associated with the abnormal endochondral ossification in AIS patients.

  10. Response to an abnormal ovarian cancer-screening test result: test of the social cognitive processing and cognitive social health information processing models.

    PubMed

    Andrykowski, Michael A; Pavlik, Edward J

    2011-04-01

    All cancer screening tests produce a proportion of abnormal results requiring follow up. Consequently, the cancer-screening setting is a natural laboratory for examining psychological and behavioural response to a threatening health-related event. This study tested hypotheses derived from the social cognitive processing and cognitive-social health information processing models in trying to understand response to an abnormal ovarian cancer (OC) screening test result. Women (n = 278) receiving an abnormal screening test result a mean of 7 weeks earlier were assessed prior to a repeat screening test intended to clarify their previous abnormal result. Measures of disposition (optimism, informational coping style), social environment (social support and constraint), emotional processing, distress, and benefit finding were obtained. Regression analyses indicated greater distress was associated with greater social constraint and emotional processing and a monitoring coping style in women with a family history of OC. Distress was unrelated to social support. Greater benefit finding was associated with both greater social constraint and support and greater distress. The primacy of social constraint in accounting for both benefit finding and distress was noteworthy and warrants further research on the role of social constraint in adaptation to stressful events.

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficient Male Rats Exhibit Abnormal Behavioral Activation in the Forced Swim Test Following Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment: Association with Altered 5-HT1A and Alpha2A Adrenergic Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Able, Jessica A.; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n=34) or without (DEF, n=30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n=14) and DEF (n=12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (−26%, p=0.0001) and DEF+FLX (−32%, p=0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF+FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON+FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF+FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF+FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON+FLX rats. DEF+FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats. PMID:24360505

  12. [Individual behavioral and autonomic response to emotional stress in humans].

    PubMed

    Ukraintseva, Iu V; Berlov, D N; Rusalova, M N

    2006-01-01

    Healthy subjects (n = 53) performed a sound version of the proof-reading test under normal conditions and in the state of emotional stress. Stress resistance was evaluated by the overall number of errors. The propensity to active or passive response to stress was evaluated by the number of "false alarms" and signal omissions. The reaction pattern to emotional stress in stress-resistant subjects, irrespective of their behavioral features, consisted in an increase in sympathetic effects on the cardiac rhythm and a decrease in the reaction time to significant signals. In subjects with low stress resistance, no statistically significant changes in the level of sympathetic tone and reaction time were revealed in the state of stress. Subjects with active behavioral response to stress, irrespective of their level of stress resistance, were characterized by aggressiveness, boldness and independence. Subjects with passive response to stress were inclined to conformism, dependence, and passivity.

  13. Abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yun-Fang; Song, Ning-Ning; Mao, Rong-Rong; Li, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Han, Hui-Li; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of central serotonin (5-HT) system has been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for anxiety and depression, and the association of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders has been noticed by the high prevalence of anxiety/depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. This promoted us to examine these behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice and those also suffering with diabetes mellitus. Mice lacking either 5-HT or central serotonergic neurons were generated by conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b respectively. Simultaneous depletion of both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DT receptor (DTR) mice. The central 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviors as they spent more time in and entered more often into the light box in the light/dark box test compared with controls; similar results were observed in the elevated plus maze test. However, they displayed no differences in the immobility time of the forced swimming and tail suspension tests suggesting normal depression-like behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice. As expected, DT-treated Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DTR mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet endocrine cells exhibited several classic diabetic symptoms. Interestingly, they displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors but reduced immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, the hippocampal neurogenesis was dramatically enhanced in these mice. These results suggest that the deficiency of central 5-HT may not be sufficient to induce anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice, and the enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the altered depression-like behaviors in the 5-HT-deficient mice with diabetes. Our current investigation provides understanding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25294992

  14. Trait agreeableness and social status moderate behavioral responsiveness to communal behavior.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Moskowitz, Debbie S

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the influence of trait Agreeableness and its interaction with social role status on interpersonal correspondence as reflected in the within-person relation between a person's communal (agreeable-quarrelsome) behavior and perceptions of the interaction partner's communal behavior. We used a sample of working adults (original data set: 113 participants and 12,303 interpersonal events; constrained data set in the work setting: 109 participants and 3,193 interpersonal events) and an event-contingent recording procedure to assess behavior in naturalistic interpersonal events. The results of multilevel modeling indicated that interpersonal correspondence was lower for high trait Agreeableness persons than for low trait Agreeableness persons, apparently due to less responsiveness to more disagreeable behavior by the other person in an interaction. High Agreeableness persons manifest greater interpersonal correspondence when in a high-status role than when in a low-status role, apparently by increasing responsiveness to disagreeable behavior from others. The results imply that high social role status may influence the effortful control process of high trait Agreeableness persons over their behavioral reactions to others' disagreeable behavior during interpersonal interactions.

  15. RF-EMF exposure at 1800 MHz did not elicit DNA damage or abnormal cellular behaviors in different neurogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Liling; Wei, Xiaoxia; Xu, Zhengping; Chen, Guangdi

    2017-04-01

    Despite many years of studies, the debate on genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) continues. To systematically evaluate genotoxicity of RF-EMF, this study examined effects of RF-EMF on DNA damage and cellular behavior in different neurogenic cells. Neurogenic A172, U251, and SH-SY5Y cells were intermittently (5 min on/10 min off) exposed to 1800 MHz RF-EMF at an average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 1, 6, or 24 h. DNA damage was evaluated by quantification of γH2AX foci, an early marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and cell viability were examined by flow cytometry, hemocytometer, and cell counting kit-8 assay, respectively. Results showed that exposure to RF-EMF at an SAR of 4.0 W/kg neither significantly induced γH2AX foci formation in A172, U251, or SH-SY5Y cells, nor resulted in abnormal cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, or cell viability. Furthermore, prolonged incubation of these cells for up to 48 h after exposure did not significantly affect cellular behavior. Our data suggest that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure at 4.0 W/kg is unlikely to elicit DNA damage or abnormal cellular behaviors in neurogenic cells. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:175-185, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Variability in Post-Error Behavioral Adjustment Is Associated with Functional Abnormalities in the Temporal Cortex in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Simona; Vasa, Roma A.; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Error processing is reflected, behaviorally, by slower reaction times (RT) on trials immediately following an error (post-error). Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) fail to show RT slowing and demonstrate increased intra-subject variability (ISV) on post-error trials. The neural correlates of these behavioral…

  17. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane may not cause learning and memory deficits and behavioral abnormality in the childhood of Cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lisheng; Wang, Zhi; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Ting; Lu, Fudin; Wang, Shouping; Li, Jing; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2015-06-05

    Results of animal studies have raised a significant concern that commonly used general anesthetics may induce neurotoxicity in children. It may be difficult to resolve this concern with human studies because randomizing children only for testing anesthetic toxicity may not be feasible. We randomized 6-day old male Cynomolgus monkeys to receive or not to receive sevoflurane anesthesia at surgical plane for 5 h. Sevoflurane is the most commonly used general anesthetic in children in the U.S.A. Here, we showed that sevoflurane anesthesia did not affect the behavior evaluated by holding cage method when the monkeys were 3 and 7 months old. However, there was an age-dependent decrease in the frequency of stress events and environmental exploration behavior during the test. Sevoflurane also did not affect the learning and memory of the monkeys when they were assessed from the age of 7 months. Finally, sevoflurane did not affect the expression of multiple neuron-specific proteins in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-month old monkeys after all behavioral and cognitive tests were completed. These results suggest that exposure of neonatal monkey to sevoflurane may not affect cognition, behavior and neuronal structures in childhood, indicating the safety of sevoflurane anesthesia in children.

  18. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure That Alter Dose-Response and Time-Course Behaviors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose response and time-course (DRTC) are, along with exposure, the major determinants of health risk. Adaptive changes within exposed organisms in response to environmental stress are common, and alter DRTC behaviors to minimize the effects caused by stressors. In this project, ...

  19. Allocation of household responsibilities influences change in dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Candace C; Sapp, Amy; Berkman, Lisa F; Li, Yi; Sorensen, Glorian

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to understand dietary behavior as situated within the household, an important social context that serves to either inhibit or promote a healthy diet. Data were collected as part of a worksite-based health behavior intervention trial that took place between 1999 and 2003 in small manufacturing businesses in New England, U.S.A. The subjects were a cohort of 790 male and female workers who participated in the intervention trial and responded to both the baseline and the 18-month follow-up surveys. Regression models were built to determine whether proportion of household responsibility predicted daily fruit and vegetable consumption and weekly red meat consumption at 18-months. The results indicate that participants who were responsible for earning most or all of the money to support the household ate more servings of fruits and vegetables per day at 18-month follow-up than those without this responsibility. Further, those responsible for earning about half ate fewer servings of red meat than those responsible for earning most or all of the money to support the household. The results for red meat consumption differed by sex, such that responsibility for more than half or less than half of the money to support the household had different effects for men and women. The results of this study demonstrate that the distribution of household responsibilities can be an important factor in determining the effectiveness of a worksite-based health behavior intervention and that these effects can be different for women versus men.

  20. Plant volatiles influence electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Lygus hesperus.

    PubMed

    Williams, Livy; Blackmer, Jacquelyn L; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Zhu, Su

    2010-05-01

    Previous laboratory studies have shown that the mirid Lygus hesperus is attracted to volatiles emitted from alfalfa; feeding damage increases the amounts of several of these volatiles, and visual cues can enhance attraction further. The present study tested single plant volatiles in electrophysiological and behavioral trials with L. hesperus. Electroantennogram (EAG) analyses indicated that antennae responded to most plant volatiles included in the test, and that when gender differences were observed, males usually were more responsive than females. Antennal responses to the alcohols ((E)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenol, 1-hexanol), the acetate (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, and the aldehyde (E)-2-hexenal were among the strongest. Moderate responses were observed for (E)-beta-ocimene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, (+/-)-linalool, and methyl salicylate. A dose dependent response was not observed for several terpenes (beta-myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, (+)-limonene, or both (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-alpha-pinenes). EAG responses, however, were not always consistent with behavioral assays. In Y-tube bioassays, males did not exhibit a positive behavioral response to any of the compounds tested. Instead, males were repelled by (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, (+/-)-linalool, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and methyl salicylate. In contrast, female L. hesperus moved upwind towards (R)-(+)-alpha-pinene, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and showed a negative response towards (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (S)-(-)-alpha-pinene, and methyl salicylate. This study emphasizes the use of multiple approaches to better understand host plant finding in the generalist herbivore L. hesperus.

  1. Delineation of candidate genes responsible for structural brain abnormalities in patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q27

    PubMed Central

    Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Nagamani, Sandesh CS; Erez, Ayelet; Hunter, Jill V; Holder Jr, J Lloyd; Carlin, Mary E; Bader, Patricia I; Perras, Helene MF; Allanson, Judith E; Newman, Leslie; Simpson, Gayle; Immken, LaDonna; Powell, Erin; Mohanty, Aaron; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Bi, Weimin; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau W

    2015-01-01

    Patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q present with structural brain abnormalities including agenesis of corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and cerebellar malformations. The 6q27 region harbors genes that are important for the normal development of brain and delineation of a critical deletion region for structural brain abnormalities may lead to a better genotype–phenotype correlation. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven unrelated patients with deletions involving chromosome 6q27. All patients had structural brain abnormalities. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. The smallest region of overlap spans 1.7 Mb and contains DLL1, THBS2, PHF10, and C6orf70 (ERMARD) that are plausible candidates for the causation of structural brain abnormalities. Our study reiterates the importance of 6q27 region in normal development of brain and helps identify putative genes in causation of structural brain anomalies. PMID:24736736

  2. Evidence for Specificity of ERP Abnormalities during Response Inhibition in ADHD Children: A Comparison with Reading Disorder Children without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liotti, Mario; Pliszka, Steven R.; Higgins, Kellie; Perez, Ricardo, III; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Executive function and working memory deficits are not only present in ADHD, but also in reading disorder (RD). Here, high-density ERPs were recorded during the Stop Signal Task in 53 children and adolescents: An ADHD-combined type group, a group with RD, and a healthy control group. The ADHD-C group displayed unique abnormalities of the frontal…

  3. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  4. The Driving Behavior Survey as a measure of behavioral stress responses to MVA-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Baker, Aaron S; Litwack, Scott D; Clapp, Joshua D; Beck, J Gayle; Sloan, Denise M

    2014-03-01

    Numerous treatments are available that address the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are a number of related behavioral stress responses that are not assessed with PTSD measures, yet these behavioral stress responses affect quality of life. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a recently developed measure of behavioral stress response, the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), was sensitive to change associated with treatment among a group of participants diagnosed with PTSD. The DBS indexes anxious driving behavior, which is frequently observed among individuals with motor vehicle accident-related PTSD. Participants (n=40) were racially diverse adults (M age=40.78, 63% women) who met diagnostic criteria for motor vehicle accident-related PTSD. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that participants who were assigned to a brief, exposure-based intervention displayed significant reductions on the DBS subscales relative to participants assigned to the wait-list control condition (r=.41-.43). Moreover, mediational analyses indicated that the observed reductions on the DBS subscales were not better accounted for by reductions in PTSD. Taken together, these findings suggest that the DBS subscales are sensitive to changes associated with PTSD treatment and can be used to augment outcome assessment in PTSD treatment trials.

  5. The driving behavior survey as a measure of behavioral stress responses to MVA-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Baker, Aaron S; Litwack, Scott D; Clapp, Joshua D; Beck, Gayle; Sloan, Denise M

    2014-05-01

    Numerous treatments are available that address the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are a number of related behavioral stress responses that are not assessed with PTSD measures, yet these behavioral stress responses affect quality of life. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a recently developed measure of behavioral stress response, the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), was sensitive to change associated with treatment among a group of participants diagnosed with PTSD. The DBS indexes anxious driving behavior, which is frequently observed among individuals with motor vehicle accident-related PTSD. Participants (n = 40) were racially diverse adults (M age = 40.78, 63% women) who met diagnostic criteria for motor vehicle accident-related PTSD. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that participants who were assigned to a brief, exposure-based intervention displayed significant reductions on the DBS subscales relative to participants assigned to the wait-list control condition (r = .41–.43). Moreover, mediational analyses indicated that the observed reductions on the DBS subscales were not better accounted for by reductions in PTSD. Taken together, these findings suggest that the DBS subscales are sensitive to changes associated with PTSD treatment and can be used to augment outcome assessment in PTSD treatment trials.

  6. Mice that lack the C-terminal region of Reelin exhibit behavioral abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kaori; Shoji, Hirotaka; Kohno, Takao; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The highly basic C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is necessary for efficient activation of its downstream signaling, and the brain structure of knock-in mice that lack the CTR (ΔC-KI mice) is impaired. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral test battery on ΔC-KI mice, in order to evaluate the effects of partial loss-of-function of Reelin on brain functions. The ΔC-KI mice were hyperactive and exhibited reduced anxiety-like and social behaviors. The working memory in ΔC-KI mice was impaired in a T-maze test. There was little difference in spatial reference memory, depression-like behavior, prepulse inhibition, or fear memory between ΔC-KI and wild-type mice. These results suggest that CTR-dependent Reelin functions are required for some specific normal brain functions and that ΔC-KI mice recapitulate some aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. PMID:27346785

  7. Behavioral abnormalities and circuit defects in the basal ganglia of a mouse model of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Portmann, Thomas; Yang, Mu; Mao, Rong; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Ellegood, Jacob; Dolen, Gul; Bader, Patrick L; Grueter, Brad A; Goold, Carleton; Fisher, Elaine; Clifford, Katherine; Rengarajan, Pavitra; Kalikhman, David; Loureiro, Darren; Saw, Nay L; Zhengqui, Zhou; Miller, Michael A; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Malenka, Robert C; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E

    2014-05-22

    A deletion on human chromosome 16p11.2 is associated with autism spectrum disorders. We deleted the syntenic region on mouse chromosome 7F3. MRI and high-throughput single-cell transcriptomics revealed anatomical and cellular abnormalities, particularly in cortex and striatum of juvenile mutant mice (16p11(+/-)). We found elevated numbers of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing the dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2(+)) and fewer dopamine-sensitive (Drd1(+)) neurons in deep layers of cortex. Electrophysiological recordings of Drd2(+) MSN revealed synaptic defects, suggesting abnormal basal ganglia circuitry function in 16p11(+/-) mice. This is further supported by behavioral experiments showing hyperactivity, circling, and deficits in movement control. Strikingly, 16p11(+/-) mice showed a complete lack of habituation reminiscent of what is observed in some autistic individuals. Our findings unveil a fundamental role of genes affected by the 16p11.2 deletion in establishing the basal ganglia circuitry and provide insights in the pathophysiology of autism.

  8. Cold stimulates the behavioral response to hypoxia in newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Bieke; Bouslama, Myriam; Matrot, Boris; Rotrou, Yann; Vardon, Guy; Lofaso, Frédéric; Van den Bergh, Omer; D'Hooge, Rudi; Gallego, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    In newborns, hypoxia elicits increased ventilation, arousal followed by defensive movements, and cries. Cold is known to affect the ventilatory response to hypoxia, but whether it affects the arousal response remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of cold on the ventilatory and arousal responses to hypoxia in newborn mice. We designed an original platform measuring noninvasively and simultaneously the breathing pattern by whole body plethysmography, body temperature by infrared thermography, as well as motor and ultrasonic vocal (USV) responses. Six-day-old mice were exposed twice to 10% O(2) for 3 min at either cold temperature (26 degrees C) or thermoneutrality (33 degrees C). At 33 degrees C, hypoxia elicited a marked increase in ventilation followed by a small ventilatory decline, small motor response, and almost no USVs. Body temperature was not influenced by hypoxia, and oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) displayed minimal changes. At 26 degrees C, hypoxia elicited a slight increase in ventilation with a large ventilatory decline and a large drop of Vo(2). This response was accompanied by marked USV and motor responses. Hypoxia elicited a small decrease in temperature after the return to normoxia, thus precluding any causal influence on the motor and USV responses to hypoxia. In conclusion, cold stimulated arousal and stress responses to hypoxia, while depressing hypoxic hyperpnea. Arousal is an important defense mechanism against sleep-disordered breathing. The dissociation between ventilatory and behavioral responses to hypoxia suggests that deficits in the arousal response associated with sleep breathing disorders cannot be attributed to a depressed hypoxic response.

  9. Endogenous nociceptin system involvement in stress responses and anxiety behavior.

    PubMed

    Fulford, Allison Jane

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underpinning stress-related behavior and dysfunctional events leading to the expression of neuropsychiatric disorders remain incompletely understood. Novel candidates involved in the neuromodulation of stress, mediated both peripherally and centrally, provide opportunities for improved understanding of the neurobiological basis of stress disorders and may represent targets for novel therapeutic development. This chapter provides an overview of the mechanisms by which the opioid-related peptide, nociceptin, regulates the neuroendocrine stress response and stress-related behavior. In our research, we have employed nociceptin receptor antagonists to investigate endogenous nociceptin function in tonic control over stress-induced activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Nociceptin demonstrates a wide range of functions, including modulation of psychological and inflammatory stress responses, modulation of neurotransmitter release, immune homeostasis, in addition to anxiety and cognitive behaviors. Greater appreciation of the complexity of limbic-hypothalamic neuronal networks, together with attention toward gender differences and the roles of steroid hormones, provides an opportunity for deeper understanding of the importance of the nociceptin system in the context of the neurobiology of stress and behavior.

  10. Behavioral responses to resource heterogeneity can accelerate biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Lutscher, Frithjof; Musgrave, Jeffrey A

    2017-02-14

    The abundance and spatial distribution of resources in a landscape and the behavioral response of individuals determines whether and how fast an invasive species spreads in an environment. Whether and how landscape manipulations can be used to slow invasive species is of great interest, in particular in forest ecosystems, where tree removal, thinning, and increasing tree diversity are discussed as management options. Classically, the focus is on availability and accessibility of resources; more recent considerations include individual-level behavioral movement responses to a spatially heterogeneous resource distribution. We derive a novel model for insect-host dynamics that includes three common behavioral aspects of foraging: higher movement rate in resource-poor areas, lower ovipositioning rate in resource poor areas, and movement preference for resource-rich areas. We show that each of these basic mechanisms can increase the speed of invasion in a source-sink landscape above that in a homogeneous landscape with larger overall resource availability. We parameterize our model and illustrate our results with data for Emerald ash borer, a recent highly destructive forest pest in North America. Our results highlight the importance of empirical work on movement behavior in different landscape types and near the interface between types. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Providing Field Support for the Behavior Response Study (BRS-08)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    pp. Evans, D.I. and G.R. England. (2001) Joint interim report Bahamas marine mammal stranding event of 15 – 16 March 2000. National Oceanographic...Providing Field Support for the Behavior Response Study (BRS-08) Diane Elaine Claridge Bahamas Marine Mammal Research Organisation P.O. Box AB...took place in 2008, known as BRS-08. Specific objectives were: 1) To work with the Marine Mammal Monitoring (M3R) program at the Atlantic Undersea

  12. Adaptive Control Responses to Behavioral Perturbation Based Upon the Insect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    autonomous robot Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 31: :176.110 Harley CM, Predina JD, Ritzmann RE (2006) Responses to incomplete sensory information in cockroach...climbing behavior. Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 32:449.412 Hess D, Buschges A (1999) Role of proprioceptive signals from an insect femur-tibia joint in...Altered joint reflexes in the cockroach may lead to 17 directional changes in leg extension. Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 32:449.411 Pollack AJ

  13. Response to Intervention for Social Behavior: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Vincent, Claudia G.; Schumann, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the three-tiered response-to-intervention (RtI) model is to catch students who are at risk early and to provide an appropriate level of intervention. Although RtI has been recommended for academic and social behavior, to date there has been little discussion about the differences associated with implementing RtI across these domains.…

  14. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  15. Hierarchical representation and machine learning from faulty jet engine behavioral examples to detect real time abnormal conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, U. K.; Ali, M.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical basis and operation of LEBEX, a machine-learning system for jet-engine performance monitoring, are described. The behavior of the engine is modeled in terms of four parameters (the rotational speeds of the high- and low-speed sections and the exhaust and combustion temperatures), and parameter variations indicating malfunction are transformed into structural representations involving instances and events. LEBEX extracts descriptors from a set of training data on normal and faulty engines, represents them hierarchically in a knowledge base, and uses them to diagnose and predict faults on a real-time basis. Diagrams of the system architecture and printouts of typical results are shown.

  16. Behavioral responses of adult Sitophilus granarius to individual cereal volatiles.

    PubMed

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    The antennae of Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults detect a wide variety of compounds in the odor blend of various cereal grains (Germinara et al., Tec. Molit., 53:27-34, 2002). In the present study, we looked at the behavioral responses of the granary weevil to 20 of these individual volatiles (aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and aromatics) in a two-choice pitfall olfactometer, using the aggregation pheromone and propionic acid as the attractant and repellent controls, respectively. Five doses, ranging from 1 microg to 1 mg, of each compound were tested. At least one concentration of eight compounds attracted beetles but required doses 1,000- to 5,000-fold higher than the concentration of aggregation pheromone to elicit a response. Three compounds, while attractive at lower concentrations, acted as repellents at higher doses. Twelve compounds were repellent at concentrations similar to the quantity of propionic acid that significantly repelled beetles. The data show that granary weevil adults have the ability to respond behaviorally to a wide range of cereal volatiles and that responses may change as a function of concentration. The results suggest that host finding behavior of weevils will depend on the balance of positive and negative volatile stimuli from grain as the relative concentrations of volatiles may change during storage. An understanding of how the weevils respond to such changes could be useful for the development of effective integrated pest management strategies.

  17. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during

  18. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity.

  19. Abnormal Deformation Behavior of Oxygen-Modified β-Type Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huihong; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Cong, Xin; Cho, Ken; Boehlert, Carl J.; Khademi, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen was added to the biomedical β-type Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy (TNTZ, mass pct) in order to improve its strength, while keeping its Young's modulus low. Conventionally, with an increase in the oxygen content, an alloy's tensile strength increases, while its tensile elongation-to-failure decreases. However, an abnormal deformation behavior has been reported in the case of oxygen-modified TNTZ alloys in that their strength increases monotonically while their elongation-to-failure initially decreases and then increases with the increase in the oxygen content. In this study, this abnormal tensile deformation behavior of oxygen-modified TNTZ alloys was investigated systematically. A series of TNTZ-(0.1, 0.3, and 0.7 mass pct)O alloy samples was prepared, treated thermomechanically, and finally solution treated; these samples are denoted as 0.1ST, 0.3ST, and 0.7ST, respectively. The main tensile deformation mechanisms in 0.1ST are a deformation-induced α″-martensitic transformation and {332}<113> mechanical twinning. The large elongation-to-failure of 0.1ST is attributable to multiple deformation mechanisms, including the deformation-induced martensitic transformation and mechanical twinning as well as dislocation glide. In both 0.3ST and 0.7ST, dislocation glide is the predominant deformation mode. 0.7ST shows more homogeneous and extensive dislocation glide along with multiple slip systems and a higher frequency of cross slip. As a result, it exhibits a higher work-hardening rate and greater resistance to local stress concentration, both of which contribute to its elongation-to-failure being greater than that of 0.3ST.

  20. Changes in emotional empathy, affective responsivity, and behavior following severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Arielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between deficits in empathy, emotional responsivity, and social behavior in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A total of 21 patients with severe TBI and 25 control participants viewed six film clips containing pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral content whilst facial muscle responses, skin conductance, and valence and arousal ratings were measured. Emotional empathy (the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale, BEES: self-report) and changes in drive and control in social situations (The Current Behaviour Scale, CBS: relative report) were also assessed. In comparison to control participants, those in the TBI group reported less ability to empathize emotionally and had reduced facial responding to both pleasant and unpleasant films. They also exhibited lowered autonomic arousal, as well as abnormal ratings of valence and arousal, particularly to unpleasant films. Relative reported loss of emotional control was significantly associated with heightened empathy, while there was a trend to suggest that impaired drive (or motivation) may be related to lower levels of emotional empathy. The results represent the first to suggest that level of emotional empathy post traumatic brain injury may be associated with behavioral manifestations of disorders of drive and control.

  1. Alterations of the Host Microbiome Affect Behavioral Responses to Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, Drew D.; Walker, Deena M.; Calipari, Erin S.; Labonte, Benoit; Issler, Orna; Pena, Catherine J.; Ribeiro, Efrain A.; Russo, Scott J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria. Animals with reduced gut bacteria showed an enhanced sensitivity to cocaine reward and enhanced sensitivity to the locomotor-sensitizing effects of repeated cocaine administration. These behavioral changes were correlated with adaptations in multiple transcripts encoding important synaptic proteins in the brain’s reward circuitry. This study represents the first evidence that alterations in the gut microbiota affect behavioral response to drugs of abuse. PMID:27752130

  2. A Comparison of Response Cost and Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Maki, Amber; Barenz, Rebecca; Jurgens, Mandy; Sailer, Angela; Haugen, Meredith; Kopp, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom. Using an alternating treatments design, disruptive behavior was reduced when the participants earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior (DRO) or…

  3. Abnormal Osmotic Avoidance Behavior in C. elegans Is Associated with Increased Hypertonic Stress Resistance and Improved Proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elaine C.; Kim, Heejung; Ditano, Jennifer; Manion, Dacie; King, Benjamin L.; Strange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Protein function is controlled by the cellular proteostasis network. Proteostasis is energetically costly and those costs must be balanced with the energy needs of other physiological functions. Hypertonic stress causes widespread protein damage in C. elegans. Suppression and management of protein damage is essential for optimal survival under hypertonic conditions. ASH chemosensory neurons allow C. elegans to detect and avoid strongly hypertonic environments. We demonstrate that mutations in osm-9 and osm-12 that disrupt ASH mediated hypertonic avoidance behavior or genetic ablation of ASH neurons are associated with enhanced survival during hypertonic stress. Improved survival is not due to altered systemic volume homeostasis or organic osmolyte accumulation. Instead, we find that osm-9(ok1677) mutant and osm-9(RNAi) worms exhibit reductions in hypertonicity induced protein damage in non-neuronal cells suggesting that enhanced proteostasis capacity may account for improved hypertonic stress resistance in worms with defects in osmotic avoidance behavior. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes that play roles in managing protein damage are upregulated in osm-9(ok1677) worms. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of work demonstrating that intercellular communication between neuronal and non-neuronal cells plays a critical role in integrating cellular stress resistance with other organismal physiological demands and associated energy costs. PMID:27111894

  4. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis are responsible for male sterility and chromosome variations in Houttuynia cordata.

    PubMed

    Guan, J-Z; Wang, J-J; Cheng, Z-H; Liu, Y; Li, Z-Y

    2012-01-17

    Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) is a leaf vegetable and a medicinal herb througout much of Asia. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis were found in two populations of H. cordata with different ploidy levels (2n = 38, 96). Cytomixis occurred in pollen mother cells during meiosis at high frequencies and with variable degrees of chromatin/chromosome transfer. Meiotic abnormalities, such as chromosome laggards, asymmetric segregation and polyads, also prevailed in pollen mother cells at metaphase of the first division and later stages. They were caused by cytomixis and resulted in very low pollen viability and male sterility. Pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 38 showed only simultaneous cytokinesis, but most pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 96 showed successive cytokinesis; a minority underwent simultaneous cytokinesis. Cytomixis and irregular meiotic divisions appear to be the origin of the intraspecific polyploidy in this species, which has large variations in chromosome numbers.

  5. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Cotesia plutellae to plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, You-Nan; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Plant volatiles have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating the behavior of Cotesia plutellae, a major larval parasitoid of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, but little is currently known about the function of each volatile and their mixtures. We selected 13 volatiles of the DBM host plant, a cruciferous vegetable, to study the electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of C. plutellae. EAG responses to each of the compounds generally increased with concentration. Strong EAG responses were to 100 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal and cis-3-hexenol, and 10 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde with the strongest response provoked by trans-2-hexenal at 100 μL/mL. In the Y-tube olfactometer, C. plutellae, was significantly attracted by 1 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde. β-caryophyllene, cis-3-hexenol or trans-2-hexenal significantly attracted C. plutellae at 10 μL/mL, while nonanal, benzyl alcohol, cis-3-hexenol or benzyl cyanide at 100 μL/mL significantly attracted C. plutellae. Trans-2-hexenal significantly repelled C. plutellae at 100 μL/mL. EAG of C. plutellae showed strong responses to all mixtures made of five various compounds with mixtures 3 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal, cis-3-hexenol, benzyl cyanide, farnesene, eucalyptol) and 4 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, (R)-(+)-limonene, β-ionone, farnesene, eucalyptol) significantly attracting C. plutellae. These findings demonstrate that the behavior of C. plutellae can be affected either by individual compounds or mixtures of plant volatiles, suggesting a potential of using plant volatiles to improve the efficiency of this parasitoid for biocontrol of P. xylostella.

  6. Position- and quantity-dependent responses in zebrafish turning behavior

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Keiko; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Shoji, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Neural reflexes are stereotypical automatic responses often modulated by both intrinsic and environmental factors. We report herein that zebrafish larval C-shaped turning is modulated by the stimulated position of Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons. Targeted stimulation of more anterior RB neurons produces larger trunk flexion, which anticipates adult escape behavior by coordinated turning toward the appropriate direction. We also demonstrated that turning laterality varies with the numbers of stimulated neurons. Multi-cell stimulation of RB neurons elicits contralateral turning, as seen in the touch response to physical contact, while minimum input from single-cell stimulation induces ipsilateral turning, a phenomenon not previously reported. This ipsilateral response, but not the contralateral one, is impaired by transecting the ascending neural tract known as the dorsolateral fascicule (DLF), indicating that two, distinct neural circuits trigger these two responses. Our results suggest that RB neurons transmit the position and quantity of sensory information, which are then processed separately to modulate behavioral strength and to select turning laterality. PMID:27292818

  7. Long-term running alleviates some behavioral and molecular abnormalities in Down syndrome mouse model Ts65Dn.

    PubMed

    Kida, Elizabeth; Rabe, Ausma; Walus, Marius; Albertini, Giorgio; Golabek, Adam A

    2013-02-01

    Running may affect the mood, behavior and neurochemistry of running animals. In the present study, we investigated whether voluntary daily running, sustained over several months, might improve cognition and motor function and modify the brain levels of selected proteins (SOD1, DYRK1A, MAP2, APP and synaptophysin) in Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS). Ts65Dn and age-matched wild-type mice, all females, had free access to a running wheel either from the time of weaning (post-weaning cohort) or from around 7 months of age (adult cohort). Sedentary female mice were housed in similar cages, without running wheels. Behavioral testing and evaluation of motor performance showed that running improved cognitive function and motor skills in Ts65Dn mice. However, while a dramatic improvement in the locomotor functions and learning of motor skills was observed in Ts65Dn mice from both post-weaning and adult cohorts, improved object memory was seen only in Ts65Dn mice that had free access to the wheel from weaning. The total levels of APP and MAP2ab were reduced and the levels of SOD1 were increased in the runners from the post-weaning cohort, while only the levels of MAP2ab and α-cleaved C-terminal fragments of APP were reduced in the adult group in comparison with sedentary trisomic mice. Hence, our study demonstrates that Ts65Dn females benefit from sustained voluntary physical exercise, more prominently if running starts early in life, providing further support to the idea that a properly designed physical exercise program could be a valuable adjuvant to future pharmacotherapy for DS.

  8. Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2−/− mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2−/− mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments. PMID:24896637

  9. Foraging behavior delays mechanically-stimulated escape responses in fish.

    PubMed

    Bohórquez-Herrera, Jimena; Kawano, Sandy M; Domenici, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Foraging and the evasion of predators are fundamental for the survival of organisms, but they impose contrasting demands that can influence performance in each behavior. Previous studies suggested that foraging organisms may experience decreased vigilance to attacks by predators; however, little is known about the effect of foraging on escape performance with respect to the kinematics and the timing of the response. This study tested the hypothesis that engaging in foraging activities affected escape performance by comparing fast-start escape responses of silver-spotted sculpins Blepsias cirrhosus under three conditions: (1) control (no foraging involved), (2) while targeting prey, and (3) immediately after capture of prey. Escape response variables (non-locomotor and locomotor) were analyzed from high-speed videos. Responsiveness was lower immediately after capturing a prey item compared with the other two treatments, and latency of performance was higher in the control treatment than in the other two. Locomotor variables such as maximum speed, maximum acceleration, and turning rates did not show statistical differences among the three groups. Our results demonstrate that foraging can negatively affect two fundamental components of the escape response: (1) responsiveness and (2) latency of escape, suggesting that engaging in foraging may decrease an individual's ability to successfully evade predators.

  10. Evidence of cue synergism in termite corpse response behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Shelton, Thomas G.

    2012-02-01

    Subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes are known to build walls and tubes and move considerable amounts of soil into wood but the causes of this behavior remain largely unexplored. In laboratory assays, we tested the hypothesis that Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) would carry more sand into wooden blocks containing corpses compared to corpse-free controls. We further predicted that the corpses of predatory ants would elicit a stronger response than those of a benign beetle species or nestmates. As hypothesized, significantly more sand was carried into blocks containing corpses and this material was typically used to build partitions separating the dead from the rest of the colony. Contrary to expectations, however, this behavior did not vary among corpse types. We then tested the hypothesis that oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid released during arthropod decay and used by ants and other arthropod taxa in corpse recognition, would induce a similar building response in R. virginicus. To additionally determine the role of foreign objects in giving rise to this behavior, the experiment was carried out with and without imitation corpses (i.e., small glass beads). As predicted, oleic acid induced building (a tenfold increase) but only when applied to beads, suggesting strong synergism between tactile and chemical cues. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the amount of wood consumed by R. virginicus and may possess useful repellent properties.

  11. Early Behavioral Abnormalities and Perinatal Alterations of PTEN/AKT Pathway in Valproic Acid Autism Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jeong; Ahn, Sangzin; Lee, Kihwan; Mahmood, Usman; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been linked with increased incidence of autism, and has repeatedly been demonstrated as a useful autism mouse model. We examined the early behavioral and anatomical changes as well as molecular changes in mice prenatally exposed to VPA (VPA mice). In this study, we first showed that VPA mice showed developmental delays as assessed with self-righting, eye opening tests and impaired social recognition. In addition, we provide the first evidence that primary cultured neurons from VPA-treated embryos present an increase in dendritic spines, compared with those from control mice. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene are also known to be associated with autism, and mice with PTEN knockout show autistic characteristics. Protein expression of PTEN was decreased and the ratio of p-AKT/AKT was increased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and a distinctive anatomical change in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was observed. Taken together, our study suggests that prenatal exposure to VPA induces developmental delays and neuroanatomical changes via the reduction of PTEN level and these changes were detectable in the early days of life.

  12. Early Behavioral Abnormalities and Perinatal Alterations of PTEN/AKT Pathway in Valproic Acid Autism Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jeong; Ahn, Sangzin; Lee, Kihwan; Mahmood, Usman; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been linked with increased incidence of autism, and has repeatedly been demonstrated as a useful autism mouse model. We examined the early behavioral and anatomical changes as well as molecular changes in mice prenatally exposed to VPA (VPA mice). In this study, we first showed that VPA mice showed developmental delays as assessed with self-righting, eye opening tests and impaired social recognition. In addition, we provide the first evidence that primary cultured neurons from VPA-treated embryos present an increase in dendritic spines, compared with those from control mice. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene are also known to be associated with autism, and mice with PTEN knockout show autistic characteristics. Protein expression of PTEN was decreased and the ratio of p-AKT/AKT was increased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and a distinctive anatomical change in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was observed. Taken together, our study suggests that prenatal exposure to VPA induces developmental delays and neuroanatomical changes via the reduction of PTEN level and these changes were detectable in the early days of life. PMID:27071011

  13. Deletion of densin-180 results in abnormal behaviors associated with mental illness and reduces mGluR5 and DISC1 in the postsynaptic density fraction

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Holly J.; Luong, Tinh N.; Medina-Marino, Andrew; Schenker, Leslie; Khorosheva, Eugenia; Indersmitten, Tim; Gunapala, Keith M.; Steele, Andrew D.; O'Dell, Thomas J.; Patterson, Paul H.; Kennedy, Mary B.

    2011-01-01

    Densin is an abundant scaffold protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) that forms a high affinity complex with αCaMKII and α-actinin. To assess the function of densin, we created a mouse line with a null mutation in the gene encoding it (LRRC7). Homozygous knockout mice display a wide variety of abnormal behaviors that are often considered endophenotypes of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. At the cellular level, loss of densin results in reduced levels of α-actinin in the brain and selective reduction in the localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction; whereas, the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors and other prominent PSD proteins are unchanged. In addition, deletion of densin results in impairment of mGluR- and NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD), alters the early dynamics of regulation of CaMKII by NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), and produces a change in spine morphology. These results indicate that densin influences the function of mGluRs and CaMKII at synapses, and contributes to localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction. They are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations that disrupt the organization and/or dynamics of postsynaptic signaling complexes in excitatory synapses can cause behavioral endophenotypes of mental illness. PMID:22072671

  14. Role of brain norepinephrine in the behavioral response to stress.

    PubMed

    Morilak, David A; Barrera, Gabe; Echevarria, David J; Garcia, April S; Hernandez, Angelica; Ma, Shuaike; Petre, Corina O

    2005-12-01

    The brain noradrenergic system is activated by acute stress. The post-synaptic effects of norepinephrine (NE), exerted at a cellular or neural circuit level, have been described as modulatory in nature, as NE facilitates responses evoked in target cells by both excitatory and inhibitory afferent input. Over the past few years, we have undertaken a series of studies to understand how these cellular modulatory effects of NE, elicited by acute stress, might translate into modulation of the behavioral-affective components of the whole-animal response to stress. Using microdialysis, we have demonstrated that acute immobilization stress activates NE release in a number of stress-related limbic forebrain target regions, such as the central and medial amygdala, lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral septum. Using microinjections of adrenergic antagonist drugs directly into these regions, we have shown that this stress-induced release of NE facilitates a number of anxiety-like behavioral responses that are mediated in these regions, including stress-induced reduction of open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze, stress-induced reduction of social interaction behavior, and activation of defensive burying behavior by contact with an electrified probe. Dysregulation of the brain noradrenergic system may be a factor in determining vulnerability to stress-related pathology, or in the interaction of genetic vulnerability and environmental sensitization. Compared to outbred Sprague-Dawley rats, we have shown that the modulatory effect of NE is deficient in Wistar-Kyoto rats, which also exhibit attenuated behavioral reactivity to acute stress, as well as increased vulnerability to stress-induced gastric ulcers and exaggerated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis. Further, repeated exposure to mild intermittent cold stress resulted in a much greater sensitization of both the brain noradrenergic system and

  15. Behavioral responses of Escherichia coli to changes in redox potential.

    PubMed

    Bespalov, V A; Zhulin, I B; Taylor, B L

    1996-09-17

    Escherichia coli bacteria sensed the redox state in their surroundings and they swam to a niche that had a preferred reduction potential. In a spatial redox gradient of benzoquinone/benzoquinol, E. coli cells migrated to form a sharply defined band. Bacteria swimming out of either face of the band tumbled and returned to the preferred conditions at the site of the band. This behavioral response was named redox taxis. Redox molecules, such as substituted quinones, that elicited redox taxis, interact with the bacterial electron transport system, thereby altering electron transport and the proton motive force. The magnitude of the behavioral response was dependent on the reduction potential of the chemoeffector. The Tsr, Tar, Trg, Tap, and CheR proteins, which have a role in chemotaxis, were not essential for redox taxis. A cheB mutant had inverted responses in redox taxis, as previously demonstrated in aerotaxis. A model is proposed in which a redox effector molecule perturbs the electron transport system, and an unknown sensor in the membrane detects changes in the proton motive force or the redox status of the electron transport system, and transduces this information into a signal that regulates phosphorylation of the CheA protein. A similar mechanism has been proposed for aerotaxis. Redox taxis may play an important role in the distribution of bacterial species in natural environments.

  16. Behavioral responses of the bed bug to insecticide residues.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alvaro; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2009-01-01

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae), has increased the demand for information about effective control tactics. Several studies have focused on determining the susceptibility of bed bug populations to insecticides. However, behavioral responses of bed bugs to insecticide residues could influence their efficacy. The behavioral responses of bed bugs to deltamethrin and chlorfenapyr, two commonly used insecticides for bed bug control in the United States, were evaluated. In two-choice tests, grouped insects and individual insects avoided resting on filter paper treated with deltamethrin. Insects did not avoid surfaces treated with chlorfenapyr. Harborages, containing feces and eggs and treated with a deltamethrin-based product, remained attractive to individuals from a strain resistant to pyrethroids. Video recordings of bed bugs indicated that insects increased activity when they contacted sublethal doses of deltamethrin. Insecticide barriers of chlorfenapyr or deltamethrin did not prevent bed bugs from reaching a warmed blood source and acquiring blood meals. We discuss the impact of these responses on bed bug control practices.

  17. Severity of killer whale behavioral responses to ship noise: a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Erbe, Christine; Ashe, Erin; Beerman, Amber; Smith, Jodi

    2014-02-15

    Critical habitats of at-risk populations of northeast Pacific "resident" killer whales can be heavily trafficked by large ships, with transits occurring on average once every hour in busy shipping lanes. We modeled behavioral responses of killer whales to ship transits during 35 "natural experiments" as a dose-response function of estimated received noise levels in both broadband and audiogram-weighted terms. Interpreting effects is contingent on a subjective and seemingly arbitrary decision about severity threshold indicating a response. Subtle responses were observed around broadband received levels of 130 dB re 1 μPa (rms); more severe responses are hypothesized to occur at received levels beyond 150 dB re 1 μPa, where our study lacked data. Avoidance responses are expected to carry minor energetic costs in terms of increased energy expenditure, but future research must assess the potential for reduced prey acquisition, and potential population consequences, under these noise levels.

  18. Decreasing excessive functional communication responses while treating destructive behavior using response restriction.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Wayne W; Greer, Brian D; Querim, Angie C; DeRosa, Nicole

    2014-11-01

    Functional communication training (FCT) is an established treatment for destructive behavior that missucceeds in about 37% of cases when the reinforcement schedule for the functional communication response (FCR) is thinned using multiples schedules (mult FCT; Hagopian, Boelter, & Jarmolowicz, 2011). In this investigation, we evaluated the use of response restriction FCT (RR FCT) in a cohort of patients with poorly differentiated responding of the FCR during mult FCT. Results showed that (a) RR FCT maintained high rates of correct FCRs during the reinforcement component of RR FCT without increasing destructive behavior; (b) children displayed highly discriminated FCRs when an FCR card and a control card were simultaneously available during the reinforcement component of RR FCT; and (c) near-zero rates of destructive behavior were observed during the last five sessions of the terminal reinforcement schedule. Results are discussed relative to differences between mult FCT and RR FCT and successive and simultaneous discriminations.

  19. Behavioral responses to epidemics in an online experiment: using virtual diseases to study human behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frederick; Griffith, Amanda; Cottrell, Allin; Wong, Yue-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a study we conducted using a simple multiplayer online game that simulates the spread of an infectious disease through a population composed of the players. We use our virtual epidemics game to examine how people respond to epidemics. The analysis shows that people's behavior is responsive to the cost of self-protection, the reported prevalence of disease, and their experiences earlier in the epidemic. Specifically, decreasing the cost of self-protection increases the rate of safe behavior. Higher reported prevalence also raises the likelihood that individuals would engage in self-protection, where the magnitude of this effect depends on how much time has elapsed in the epidemic. Individuals' experiences in terms of how often an infection was acquired when they did not engage in self-protection are another factor that determines whether they will invest in preventive measures later on. All else being equal, individuals who were infected at a higher rate are more likely to engage in self-protective behavior compared to those with a lower rate of infection. Lastly, fixing everything else, people's willingness to engage in safe behavior waxes or wanes over time, depending on the severity of an epidemic: when prevalence is high, people are more likely to adopt self-protective measures as time goes by; when prevalence is low, a 'self-protection fatigue' effect sets in whereby individuals are less willing to engage in safe behavior over time.

  20. Women’s Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

    2009-01-01

    Classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality are discussed. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses (desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution), and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Where applicable, important trends and relationships are highlighted in the literature with both existing reports and previously unpublished data. The present conceptual overview highlights areas in sexual assessment and model building that are in need of further research and theoretical clarification. PMID:8543712

  1. The abnormal in vitro response to aspirin of platelets from aspirin-sensitive asthmatics is inhibited after inhalation of nedocromil sodium but not of sodium cromoglycate.

    PubMed Central

    Marquette, C H; Joseph, M; Tonnel, A B; Vorng, H; Lassalle, P; Tsicopoulos, A; Capron, A

    1990-01-01

    1. Blood platelets from patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma (ASA) generated cytotoxic mediators in the presence of aspirin. This abnormal in vitro response to aspirin was abolished within 1 h after nedocromil sodium inhalation but not after sodium cromoglycate inhalation. 2. Platelets recovered this reactivity to aspirin by 12 hours after nedocromil sodium treatment of ASA-patients. 3. The in vitro reactivity to aspirin of ASA platelets isolated before inhalation was inhibited in the presence of serum isolated 15 and 60 min after nedocromil sodium inhalation. PMID:2161678

  2. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-05-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30-80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ∼15°C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species.

  3. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km2), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km2), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km2), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085

  4. Behavioral responses of freshwater mussels to experimental dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Lellis, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of flow alteration on freshwater ecosystems is critical for predicting species responses and restoring appropriate flow regimes. We experimentally evaluated the effects of 3 dewatering rates on behavior of 6 freshwater mussel species in the context of water-removal rates observed in 21 Atlantic Coast rivers. Horizontal movement differed significantly among species and dewatering rates, but a significant species × dewatering interaction suggested that these factors influence movement in complex ways. Species differences in movement were evident only in controls and under slow dewatering rates, but these differences disappeared at moderate and fast dewatering rates. Burrowing behavior did not differ with respect to species identity or dewatering rate. The proportion of individuals that became stranded did not differ among species, but most individuals became stranded under low and moderate dewatering, and all individuals became stranded under fast dewatering. Mortality after stranding differed strongly among species along a gradient from 25% inPyganodon cataracta to 92% in Alasmidonta marginata. Together, these results suggest that species behavior may differ under gradual dewatering, but all species in our study are poorly adapted for rapid dewatering. Most of the 21 rivers we assessed experienced dewatering events comparable to our moderate rate, and several experienced events comparable to our fast rate. Dewatering events that exceed the movement or survival capability of most mussel species can be expected to result in assemblage-wide impacts. Consequently, the rate of water level change may be important in refining target flow conditions for restoration.

  5. Abnormal nocturnal heart rate variability response among chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients during wakefulness and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Ranpuria, Reena; Hall, Martica; Hotchkiss, John R.; Chan, Chris T.; Unruh, Mark L.; Argyropoulos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Background. Dialysis patients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience a substantial risk for abnormal autonomic function and abnormal heart rate variability (HRV). It remains unknown whether HRV changes across sleep stages in patients with different severity of CKD or dialysis dependency. We hypothesized that high-frequency (HF) HRV (vagal tone) will be attenuated from wakefulness to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and then to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in dialysis patients as compared to patients with CKD. Methods. In-home polysomnography was performed in 95 patients with stages 4–5 CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). HRV was measured using fast Fourier transform of interbeat intervals during wakefulness and sleep. Low-frequency (LF) and HF intervals were generated. Natural logarithm HF (LNHF) and the logarithm LF/HF ratio (sympathovagal tone) were analysed by multivariable quantile regression and generalized estimating equations. Results. Of the 95 patients, 63.2% (n = 60) was male, 35.8% (n = 34) was African American and 20.4% (n = 19) was diabetic. Average age was 51.6 ± 15.1 (range 19–82). HRV variables were significantly associated with diabetic status, higher periodic limb movement indices and lower bicarbonate levels. Patients with advanced CKD did not differ from dialysis patients in their inability to increase vagal tone during sleep. During wakefulness, female gender (P = 0.05) was associated with the increases in the vagal tone. Conclusions. Patients with CKD/ESRD exhibit dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system tone manifesting as a failure to increase HRV during wakefulness and sleep. Different patient characteristics are associated with changes in HRV at different sleep stages. PMID:20466675

  6. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.

    PubMed

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2013-05-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P < 0.05). HR of horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these

  7. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Mandarin Lexical Tone Processing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan H; Shafer, Valerie L; Sussman, Elyse S

    2017-01-01

    Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs. These ISI differences were used to test whether cross-linguistic differences in processing Mandarin lexical tone are a function of differences in acoustic resolution and/or differences in long-term memory representations. Bisyllabic nonword tokens that differed in lexical tone categories were presented using a passive listening multiple oddball paradigm. Behavioral discrimination and identification data were also collected. The ERP results revealed robust MMNs to both easy and difficult lexical tone differences for both groups at short ISIs. At long ISIs, there was either no change or an enhanced MMN amplitude for the Mandarin group, but reduced MMN amplitude for the English group. In addition, the Mandarin listeners showed a larger late negativity (LN) discriminative response than the English listeners for lexical tone contrasts in the long ISI condition. Mandarin speakers outperformed English speakers in the behavioral tasks, especially under the long ISI conditions with the more similar lexical tone pair. These results suggest that the acoustic correlates of lexical tone are fairly robust and easily discriminated at short ISIs, when the auditory sensory memory trace is strong. At longer ISIs beyond 2.5 s language-specific experience is necessary for robust discrimination.

  8. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Mandarin Lexical Tone Processing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan H.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2017-01-01

    Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs. These ISI differences were used to test whether cross-linguistic differences in processing Mandarin lexical tone are a function of differences in acoustic resolution and/or differences in long-term memory representations. Bisyllabic nonword tokens that differed in lexical tone categories were presented using a passive listening multiple oddball paradigm. Behavioral discrimination and identification data were also collected. The ERP results revealed robust MMNs to both easy and difficult lexical tone differences for both groups at short ISIs. At long ISIs, there was either no change or an enhanced MMN amplitude for the Mandarin group, but reduced MMN amplitude for the English group. In addition, the Mandarin listeners showed a larger late negativity (LN) discriminative response than the English listeners for lexical tone contrasts in the long ISI condition. Mandarin speakers outperformed English speakers in the behavioral tasks, especially under the long ISI conditions with the more similar lexical tone pair. These results suggest that the acoustic correlates of lexical tone are fairly robust and easily discriminated at short ISIs, when the auditory sensory memory trace is strong. At longer ISIs beyond 2.5 s language-specific experience is necessary for robust discrimination. PMID:28321179

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid deficient male rats exhibit abnormal behavioral activation in the forced swim test following chronic fluoxetine treatment: association with altered 5-HT1A and alpha2A adrenergic receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K

    2014-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n = 34) or without (DEF, n = 30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n = 14) and DEF (n = 12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-26%, p = 0.0001) and DEF + FLX (-32%, p = 0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF + FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON + FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF + FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF + FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON + FLX rats. DEF + FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats.

  10. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S; Hardy, Amanda R; Angeloni, Lisa M; Crooks, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity.

  11. Behavioral Responses Associated with a Human-Mediated Predator Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S.; Hardy, Amanda R.; Angeloni, Lisa M.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume - with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the ‘predator shelter hypothesis’, suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24718624

  12. Repetitive Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Produces Cortical Abnormalities Detectable by Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Imaging (DTI/DKI), Histopathology, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengshan; Shukla, Dinesh K; Armstrong, Regina C; Marion, Christina M; Radomski, Kryslaine L; Selwyn, Reed G; Dardzinski, Bernard J

    2016-12-20

    Noninvasive detection of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is important for evaluating acute through chronic effects of head injuries, particularly after repetitive impacts. To better detect abnormalities from mTBI, we performed longitudinal studies (baseline, 3, 6, and 42 days) using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in adult mice after repetitive mTBI (r-mTBI; daily × 5) or sham procedure. This r-mTBI produced righting reflex delay and was first characterized in the corpus callosum to demonstrate low levels of axon damage, astrogliosis, and microglial activation, without microhemorrhages. High-resolution DTI-DKI was then combined with post-imaging pathological validation along with behavioral assessments targeted for the impact regions. In the corpus callosum, only DTI fractional anisotropy at 42 days showed significant change post-injury. Conversely, cortical regions under the impact site (M1-M2, anterior cingulate) had reduced axial diffusivity (AD) at all time points with a corresponding increase in axial kurtosis (Ka) at 6 days. Post-imaging neuropathology showed microglial activation in both the corpus callosum and cortex at 42 days after r-mTBI. Increased cortical microglial activation correlated with decreased cortical AD after r-mTBI (r = -0.853; n = 5). Using Thy1-YFP-16 mice to fluorescently label neuronal cell bodies and processes revealed low levels of axon damage in the cortex after r-mTBI. Finally, r-mTBI produced social deficits consistent with the function of this anterior cingulate region of cortex. Overall, vulnerability of cortical regions is demonstrated after mild repetitive injury, with underlying differences of DTI and DKI, microglial activation, and behavioral deficits.

  13. Comparison of gene expression profiles and responses to zinc chloride among inter- and intraspecific hybrids with growth abnormalities in wheat and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Kiyofumi; Iehisa, Julio C M; Nishijima, Ryo; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid necrosis is a well-known reproductive isolation mechanism in plant species, and an autoimmune response is generally considered to trigger hybrid necrosis through epistatic interaction between disease resistance-related genes in hybrids. In common wheat, the complementary Ne1 and Ne2 genes control hybrid necrosis, defined as type I necrosis. Two other types of hybrid necrosis (type II and type III) have been observed in interspecific hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii. Another type of hybrid necrosis, defined here as type IV necrosis, has been reported in F1 hybrids between Triticum urartu and some accessions of Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides. In types I, III and IV, cell death occurs gradually starting in older tissues, whereas type II necrosis symptoms occur only under low temperature. To compare comprehensive gene expression patterns of hybrids showing growth abnormalities, transcriptome analysis of type I and type IV necrosis was performed using a wheat 38k oligo-DNA microarray. Defense-related genes including many WRKY transcription factor genes were dramatically up-regulated in plants showing type I and type IV necrosis, similarly to other known hybrid abnormalities, suggesting an association with an autoimmune response. Reactive oxygen species generation and necrotic cell death were effectively inhibited by ZnCl2 treatment in types I, III and IV necrosis, suggesting a significant association of Ca(2+) influx in upstream signaling of necrotic cell death in wheat hybrid necrosis.

  14. Voting behavior is reflected in amygdala response across cultures.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O; Freeman, Jonathan B; Moran, Joseph M; Gabrieli, John D E; Adams, Reginald B; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-06-01

    Voting to determine one's leaders is among the most important decisions we make, yet little is known about the brain's role in how we come to these decisions. Behavioral studies have indicated that snap judgments of political candidates' faces can predict election outcomes but that the traits that lead to these judgments differ across cultures. Here we sought to investigate the neural basis for these judgments. American and Japanese natives performed simulated voting judgments of actual American and Japanese political candidates while neural activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Candidates for whom participants chose to vote elicited stronger responses in the bilateral amygdala than candidates for whom participants chose not to vote. This was true regardless of either the participant's culture or the target's culture, suggesting that these voting decisions provoked the same neural response cross-culturally. In addition, we observed a participant culture by target culture interaction in the bilateral amygdala. American and Japanese participants both showed a stronger response to cultural outgroup faces than they did to cultural in group faces, however this was unrelated to their voting decisions. These data provide insight to the mechanisms that underlie our snap judgments of others when making voting decisions and provide a neural correlate to cross-cultural consensus in social inferences.

  15. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  16. Homozygous Mutations in NEUROD1 Are Responsible for a Novel Syndrome of Permanent Neonatal Diabetes and Neurological Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Minton, Jayne A.L.; Kantor, Iren; Williams, Denise; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE NEUROD1 is expressed in both developing and mature β-cells. Studies in mice suggest that this basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor is critical in the development of endocrine cell lineage. Heterozygous mutations have previously been identified as a rare cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). We aimed to explore the potential contribution of NEUROD1 mutations in patients with permanent neonatal diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We sequenced the NEUROD1 gene in 44 unrelated patients with permanent neonatal diabetes of unknown genetic etiology. RESULTS Two homozygous mutations in NEUROD1 (c.427_ 428del and c.364dupG) were identified in two patients. Both mutations introduced a frameshift that would be predicted to generate a truncated protein completely lacking the activating domain. Both patients had permanent diabetes diagnosed in the first 2 months of life with no evidence of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction and a morphologically normal pancreas on abdominal imaging. In addition to diabetes, they had learning difficulties, severe cerebellar hypoplasia, profound sensorineural deafness, and visual impairment due to severe myopia and retinal dystrophy. CONCLUSIONS We describe a novel clinical syndrome that results from homozygous loss of function mutations in NEUROD1. It is characterized by permanent neonatal diabetes and a consistent pattern of neurological abnormalities including cerebellar hypoplasia, learning difficulties, sensorineural deafness, and visual impairment. This syndrome highlights the critical role of NEUROD1 in both the development of the endocrine pancreas and the central nervous system in humans. PMID:20573748

  17. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  18. Nerve and behavioral responses of mice to various umami substances.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Masataka; Morita, Kanako; Uemura, Masahide; Kitada, Ryo; Oh, Seong-Hee; Hayashi, Yukako

    2011-01-01

    Food contains various taste substances. Among them, umami substances play an important role with regard to the perception of the taste of food, but, few studies have examined the taste characteristics of representative umami substances other than monosodium L-glutamate (MSG). By conducting mouse behavioral studies (the 48-h 2-bottle preference test and the conditioned taste aversion test) and assessing gustatory nerve responses, we investigated the taste characteristics of unique umami substances, including sodium succinate, L-theanine, betaine, and the enantiomer of MSG, D-MSG. Furthermore, we examined the synergy of umami with inosine 5'-monophoshate (IMP). In the case of the mice, sodium succinate had an umami taste and showed strong synergy with IMP. L-theanine showed synergy with IMP but did not have an umami taste without IMP. In contrast, betaine did not have an umami taste or synergy with IMP. D-MSG might have weak synergy with IMP.

  19. Responsive behavior of regenerated cellulose in hydrolysis under microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jinping; Na, Haining; She, Zhen; Wang, Jinggang; Xue, Wenwen; Zhu, Jin

    2014-09-01

    This work studied the responsive behavior of regenerated cellulose (RC) in hydrolysis under microwave radiation. Four types of RC with different crystallinity (Cr) and degree of polymerization (DP) are produced to evaluate the reactivity of RC by step-by-step hydrolysis. Results show Cr is the key factor to affect the reactivity of RCs. With hydrolysis of amorphous region and the formation of recrystallization, the Cr of RC reaches a high value and thus weakens the reactivity. As a result, the increment of cellulose conversion and sugar yield gradually reduces. Decrease of the DP of RC is helpful to increase the speed at the onset of hydrolysis and produce high sugar yield. But, there is no direct influence with the reactivity of RC to prolong the time of pretreatment. This research provides an accurate understanding to guide the RC preparation for sugar formation with relative high efficiency under mild reaction conditions.

  20. Response to divergent selection for nesting behavior in Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C B

    1980-11-01

    Replicated bidirectional selection (with control lines) for nest-building behavior in Mus musculus, where nesting scores consisted of the total weight of cotton pulled through the cage lid during four days of testing, yielded an eight-fold difference between high and low lines after 15 generations of selection. The overall realized heritability pooled across lines and replicates was 0.18 +/- 0.02 (0.15 +/- 0.03 for high nesting scores and 0.23 +/- 0.04 for low nesting scores), or 0.28 +/- 0.05 when adjusted for within-family selection. Across the 15 generations and the entire experiment, average body weight and number of infertile matings increased, while average litter size decreased, although these changes were not consistent across lines. Inbreeding could account for average decreases in the fertility traits, but there was also a correlated response to selection, since both high lines showed increased litter size and decreased infertile matings.

  1. Social norms shift behavioral and neural responses to foods.

    PubMed

    Nook, Erik C; Zaki, Jamil

    2015-07-01

    Obesity contributes to 2.8 million deaths annually, making interventions to promote healthy eating critical. Although preliminary research suggests that social norms influence eating behavior, the underlying psychological and neural mechanisms of such conformity remain unexplored. We used fMRI to investigate whether group norms shift individuals' preferences for foods at both behavioral and neural levels. Hungry participants rated how much they wanted to eat a series of healthy and unhealthy foods and, after each trial, saw ratings that ostensibly represented their peers' preferences. This feedback was manipulated such that peers appeared to prefer each food more than, less than, or as much as participants themselves. After a delay, participants rerated each food. Participants' second ratings shifted to resemble group norms. Initial consensus, as compared to disagreement, with peers produced activity in the nucleus accumbens, a region associated with reward prediction errors. Furthermore, the strength of this activity predicted the extent to which participants' ratings conformed to peer ratings, suggesting that the value associated with consensus drives social influence. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC), a region associated with value computation, initially responded more strongly to unhealthy, as compared to healthy, foods. However, this effect was "overwritten" by group norms. After individuals learned their peers' preferences, vMPFC responses tracked the popularity, but not the healthfulness, of foods. Furthermore, changes in vMPFC activity tracked social influence over behavioral ratings. These data provide evidence that group norms can shift food preferences, supporting the use of norms-based interventions to promote healthy eating.

  2. Behavioral responses of broilers to different gaseous atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Gerritzen, M A; Lambooij, E; Hillebrand, S J; Lankhaar, J A; Pieterse, C

    2000-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in behavioral response of broilers when they come into contact for the first time with gas mixtures that can be used for stunning. The six test groups were divided into four experimental groups that were exposed to gas mixtures used for stunning and two control groups that were exposed to atmospheric air. The different gas mixtures and their concentrations were a) air, no flow (control-); b) circulating air, flowing (control+); c) >90% Ar in air; d) 60% CO2 in air; e) 40% CO2 and 30% O2 in air; and f) 70% Ar and 30% CO2 in air. The behavior of the broilers before entering the gas tunnel, the number of birds that moved into the gas mixture, and the behavior in the gas mixture were recorded on video and analyzed afterward. No differences among the groups were observed in the number of broilers that walked into the gas tunnel or in the number of birds that tried to return to the cage. Exposure of broilers to the 70% Ar and 30% CO2 mixture resulted in the fastest loss of posture. The number of broilers exhibiting headshaking and gasping was least in the >90% Ar in air mixture. Convulsions were rarely seen in the 40% CO2 and 30% O2 mixture; the other gas mixtures resulted in severe convulsions. The experiment did not indicate that broilers could detect or avoid increased CO2 or decreased O2 levels when they come into contact with such atmospheres for the first time.

  3. Acute behavioral responses to pheromones in C. elegans (adult behaviors: attraction, repulsion).

    PubMed

    Jang, Heeun; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2013-01-01

    The pheromone drop test is a simple and robust behavioral assay to quantify acute avoidance of pheromones in C. elegans, and the suppression of avoidance by attractive pheromones. In the pheromone drop test, water-soluble C. elegans pheromones are individually applied to animals that are freely moving on a large plate. Upon encountering a repellent, each C. elegans animal may or may not try to escape by making a long reversal. The fraction of animals that make a long reversal response indicates the repulsiveness of a given pheromone to a specific genotype/strain of C. elegans. Performing the drop test in the presence of bacterial food enhances the avoidance response to pheromones. Attraction to pheromones can be assayed by the suppression of reversals to repulsive pheromones or by the suppression of the basal reversal rate to buffer.

  4. Response elimination, reinforcement rate and resurgence of operant behavior.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-11-01

    The effects of reinforcement rate of alternative responding on resurgence were studied in six experiments with pigeons. In Experiment 1A, key pecking was maintained on a multiple variable-interval (VI) VI schedule in the Training phase. In the Response-Elimination phase, a variable differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule was in effect in each component. Reinforcement rates were equal and then, higher in one (rich) component, and lower in the other (lean), than in the Training phase. More resurgence occurred in the lean component, but this could have resulted from response-rate differences between components in the Training-phase. Experiment 1B was a replication of Experiment 1A, but with experimentally-naïve pigeons. Response-Elimination phase reinforcement rates were manipulated systematically in subsequent experiments: In Experiment 2, reinforcement rate was equal, in one component, and lower or higher in the other, than in the Training phase. In Experiment 3, reinforcers were discontinued before differential reinforcement rates were effected. In Experiment 4, reinforcement rates first were differential and, then, equal to those in the Training phase. In Experiments 5 and 6, differential reinforcement rates were arranged by using fixed-DROs and VIs for pecking a different key, respectively. Even though resurgence was not obtained with every pigeon, at least some small-magnitude resurgence occurred in each experiment and was not related systematically to reinforcement rates of alternative responding. Schedule differences, response topography, order of conditions and the length of each phase were not sufficient to account for these results.

  5. Abnormal responses of electronic pocket dosimeters caused by high frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones.

    PubMed

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2005-09-01

    High frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones (cell phones) occasionally cause abnormally high and erroneous indicated dose readings on electronic pocket dosimeters (EPDs). Electric field strength distribution around a cell phone transmitting 1.5 GHz band with a maximum power of 0.8 W was analyzed by using an isotropic probe with tri-axial dipole antennas. Five types of EPDs were exposed to the fields for 50 s under configurations relative to the cell phone. The electric field distribution expanded around the phone's antenna and had a maximum electric field strength of 36.5 +/- 0.3 V m(-1). The cell phone gave rise to erroneous indicated dose readings on four out of five EPDs. The maximum value of erroneous indicated dosage for 50 s reached 1,283 microSv, which was about 2.6% of the annual effective dose limit of 50 mSv. The electromagnetic susceptibility of the EPDs was higher in the sections where the semiconductor detectors or electric circuit boards were located. The distance required to prevent electromagnetic interference differed for each EPD and ranged from 2.0 to 21.0 cm from the cell phone. The electric and magnetic field immunity levels of the EPDs varied from 9.2 V m(-1) to greater than 37.6 V m(-1), and from 0.03 A m(-1) to greater than 0.51 A m(-1). The EPDs displayed erroneous dose readings during exposure but recovered their normal performance after the cell phone ceased transmitting. The electromagnetic immunity levels of the EPDs were either equal to or greater than the IEC-standard. The immunity levels should be enhanced greater than the IEC-standard from the standpoint of radiation protection. The simplest and most reliable measure to prevent potential malfunction is to prohibit the radiation workers from carrying cell phones to their workplace.

  6. Alternative response training, differential reinforcement of other behavior, and extinction in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)1

    PubMed Central

    Mulick, J. A.; Leitenberg, H.; Rawson, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    In Experiment I, (a) extinction, (b) extinction plus reinforcement of a discrete alternative response, and (c) differential reinforcement of other behavior were each correlated with a different stimulus in a three-component multiple schedule. The alternative-response procedure more rapidly and completely suppressed behavior than did differential reinforcement of other behavior. Differential reinforcement of other behavior was slightly more effective than extinction alone. In Experiment II, reinforcement of specific alternative behavior during extinction and differential reinforcement of other behavior were used in two components, while one component continued to provide reinforcement for the original response. Once again, the alternative-response procedure was most effective in reducing responding as long as it remained in effect. However, the responding partially recovered when reinforcement for competing behavior was discontinued. In general, responding was less readily reduced by differential reinforcement of other behavior than by the specific alternative-response procedure. PMID:16811914

  7. Exploring Links between Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Clinical Predictors of Response to Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is amongst the most familial of psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a monozygotic concordance rate of 70–90%, dizygotic concordance of around 10%, and more than a 20-fold increase in risk for first-degree relatives. Despite major advances in the genetics of autism, the relationship between different aspects of the behavioral and cognitive phenotype and their underlying genetic liability is still unclear. This is complicated by the heterogeneity of autism, which exists at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Given this heterogeneity, one method to find homogeneous entities and link these with specific genotypes would be to pursue endophenotypes. Evidence from neuroimaging, eye tracking, and electrophysiology studies supports the hypothesis that, building on genetic vulnerability, ASD emerges from a developmental cascade in which a deficit in attention to social stimuli leads to impaired interactions with primary caregivers. This results in abnormal development of the neurocircuitry responsible for social cognition, which in turn adversely affects later behavioral and functional domains dependent on these early processes, such as language development. Such a model begets a heterogeneous clinical phenotype, and is also supported by studies demonstrating better clinical outcomes with earlier treatment. Treatment response following intensive early behavioral intervention in ASD is also distinctly variable; however, relatively little is known about specific elements of the clinical phenotype that may predict response to current behavioral treatments. This paper overviews the literature regarding genotypes, phenotypes, and predictors of response to behavioral intervention in ASD and presents suggestions for future research to explore linkages between these that would enable better identification of, and increased treatment efficacy for, ASD. PMID:24062668

  8. Characterizing caregiver responses to restricted and repetitive behaviors in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-04-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. This descriptive study documented the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors in 85 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder as they interacted with their caregiver in a play interaction. For each child restricted and repetitive behavior, a caregiver response/non-response was coded. Caregiver responses were rated as successful or unsuccessful. In all, 83 toddlers demonstrated at least one restricted and repetitive behavior in 10 min. The most common child restricted and repetitive behavior was repetitive object use with 72 children displaying at least one instance of this category of restricted and repetitive behavior. Overall, caregivers responded to fewer than half of their child's restricted and repetitive behaviors, and caregiver response varied by child restricted and repetitive behavior type. The most common response was redirection. Success varied by child restricted and repetitive behavior type and caregiver response--redirections were most successful for child verbal and motor restricted and repetitive behaviors, whereas physical or verbal responses were rated more successful for repetitive object use and visual restricted and repetitive behaviors. This study represents the first attempt to characterize how caregivers respond to restricted and repetitive behaviors. Toddlers with autism spectrum disorder are already demonstrating a variety of restricted and repetitive behaviors within the context of a free play sessions, and caregivers differentially and naturally respond to them.

  9. Effects of early or late prenatal immune activation in mice on behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia in the adulthood.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Vivian T; Medeiros, Daniel de Castro; Ropke, Jivago; Guidine, Patricia A; Rezende, Gustavo H; Moraes, Marcio Flavio D; Mendes, Eduardo Mazoni A M; Macedo, Danielle; Moreira, Fabricio A; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos P

    2017-05-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy in rodents increases the risk of the offspring to develop schizophrenia-related behaviors, suggesting a relationship between the immune system and the brain development. Here we tested the hypothesis that MIA induced by the viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) in early or late gestation of mice leads to behavioral and neuroanatomical disorders in the adulthood. On gestational days (GDs) 9 or 17 pregnant dams were treated with poly I:C or saline via intravenous route and the offspring behaviors were measured during adulthood. Considering the progressive structural neuroanatomical alterations in the brain of individuals with schizophrenia, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to perform brain morphometric analysis of the offspring aged one year. MIA on GD9 or GD17 led to increased basal locomotor activity, enhanced motor responses to ketamine, a psychotomimetic drug, and reduced time spent in the center of the arena, suggesting an increased anxiety-like behavior. In addition, MIA on GD17 reduced glucose preference in the offspring. None of the treatments altered the relative volume of the lateral ventricles. However, a decrease in brain volume, especially for posterior structures, was observed for one-year-old animals treated with poly I:C compared with control groups. Thus, activation of the maternal immune system at different GDs lead to neuroanatomical and behavioral alterations possibly related to the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. These results provide insights on neuroimmunonological and neurodevelopmental aspects of certain psychopathologies, such as schizophrenia.

  10. A Case Study on Primary, Secondary and University Students' Environmentally Responsible Behaviors in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahyaoglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to prove the environmentally responsible behaviors of primary, secondary and university students in Turkey. The students', who attended the study as participants, environmentally political behaviors, consumer/economical behaviors, direct behaviors toward protecting the environment and individual and public persuasion…

  11. Rules of Engagement: Toward an Analysis of Staff Responses to Challenging Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Richard P.; Remington, Bob

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the responses of direct care staff to challenging behaviors of individuals with mental retardation. The paper constructs a behavior analytic description of the functions of care staff behavior in relation to their clients' challenging behaviors, draws a distinction between contingency-shaped and rule-governed…

  12. Adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to e-cigarette advertising.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yvonnes; Fowler, Carina H; Papa, Vlad B; Lepping, Rebecca J; Brucks, Morgan G; Fox, Andrew T; Martin, Laura E

    2017-04-11

    Although adolescents are a group heavily targeted by the e-cigarette industry, research in cue-reactivity has not previously examined adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to e-cigarette advertising. This study addressed this gap through two experiments. In Experiment One, adult traditional cigarette smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 41) answered questions about e-cigarette and neutral advertising images. The 40 e-cigarette advertising images that most increased desire to use the product were matched to 40 neutral advertising images with similar content. In Experiment Two, the 80 advertising images selected in Experiment One were presented to adolescents (n = 30) during an functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. There was a range of traditional cigarette smoking across the sample with some adolescents engaging in daily smoking and others who had never smoked. Adolescents self-reported that viewing the e-cigarette advertising images increased their desire to smoke. Additionally, all participants regardless of smoking statuses showed significantly greater brain activation to e-cigarette advertisements in areas associated with cognitive control (left middle frontal gyrus), reward (right medial frontal gyrus), visual processing/attention (left lingual gyrus/fusiform gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cingulate, left angular gyrus) and memory (right parahippocampus, left insula). Further, an exploratory analysis showed that compared with age-matched non-smokers (n = 7), adolescent smokers (n = 7) displayed significantly greater neural activation to e-cigarette advertising images in the left inferior temporal gyrus/fusiform gyrus, compared with their responses to neutral advertising images. Overall, participants' brain responses to e-cigarette advertisements suggest a need to further investigate the long-run impact of e-cigarette advertising on adolescents.

  13. Sexually dimorphic behavioral responses to prenatal dioxin exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Hojo, Rieko; Stern, Sander; Zareba, Grazyna; Markowski, Vincent P; Cox, Christopher; Kost, James T; Weiss, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received a single oral dose of 0, 20, 60, or 180 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on day 8 of gestation. Each litter contributed a single male-female pair trained to press a lever to obtain food pellets under two operant behavior procedures. Initially, each lever press was reinforced. The fixed-ratio (FR) requirement was then increased every four sessions from the initial setting of 1 to values between 6 and 71. We then studied responses for 30 days under a multiple schedule combining FR 11 and another schedule requiring a pause of at least 10 sec between responses (DRL 10-sec). TCDD evoked a sexually dimorphic response pattern. Generally, TCDD-exposed males responded at lower rates than control males. In contrast, exposed females responded at higher rates than controls. Each response measure from the mult-FR DRL schedule yielded a male-female difference score. We used the differences in response rate to calculate benchmark doses based on the relative displacement from modeled zero-dose performance of the effective dose at 1% (ED(01)) and 10% (ED(10)), as determined by a second-order polynomial fit to the dose-effect function. For the male-female difference in FR rate of responding, the mean ED(10) was 2.77 ng/kg with a 95% lower bound of 1.81 ng/kg. The corresponding ED(01) was 0.27 ng/kg with a 95% lower bound of 0.18 ng/kg. For the male-female difference in DRL rate, the mean ED(10) was 2.97 ng/kg with a 95% lower bound of 2.02 ng/kg. The corresponding ED(01) was 0.30 ng/kg with a 95% lower bound of 0.20 ng/kg. These values fall close to, but below, current estimates of human body burdens of 13 ng/kg, based on TCDD toxic equivalents. PMID:11882475

  14. Abnormal relationships between the neural response to high- and low-calorie foods and endogenous acylated ghrelin in women with active and weight-recovered anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Holsen, Laura M.; Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Christensen, Kara; Klibanski, Anne; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence contributing to the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms underlying appetite dysregulation in anorexia nervosa draws heavily on separate lines of research into neuroendocrine and neural circuitry functioning. In particular, studies consistently cite elevated ghrelin and abnormal activation patterns in homeostatic (hypothalamus) and hedonic (striatum, amygdala, insula) regions governing appetite. The current preliminary study examined the interaction of these systems, based on research demonstrating associations between circulating ghrelin levels and activity in these regions in healthy individuals. In a cross-sectional design, we studied 13 women with active anorexia nervosa (AN), 9 women weight-recovered from AN (AN-WR), and 12 healthy-weight control women using a food cue functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm, with assessment of fasting levels of acylated ghrelin. Healthy-weight control women exhibited significant positive associations between fasting acylated ghrelin and activity in the right amygdala, hippocampus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to high-calorie foods, associations which were absent in the AN and AN-WR groups. Women with AN-WR demonstrated a negative relationship between ghrelin and activity in the left hippocampus in response to high-calorie foods, while women with AN showed a positive association between ghrelin and activity in the right orbitofrontal cortex in response to low-calorie foods. Findings suggest a breakdown in the interaction between ghrelin signaling and neural activity in relation to reward responsivity in AN, a phenomenon that may be further characterized using pharmacogenetic studies. PMID:24862390

  15. Contractile abnormalities and altered drug response in engineered heart tissue from Mybpc3-targeted knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Andrea; Friedrich, Felix W; Flenner, Frederik; Geertz, Birgit; Eder, Alexandra; Schaaf, Sebastian; Hirt, Marc N; Uebeler, June; Schlossarek, Saskia; Carrier, Lucie; Hansen, Arne; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Myosin-binding protein C (Mybpc3)-targeted knock-in mice (KI) recapitulate typical aspects of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We evaluated whether these functional alterations can be reproduced in engineered heart tissue (EHT) and yield novel mechanistic information on the function of cMyBP-C. EHTs were generated from cardiac cells of neonatal KI, heterozygous (HET) or wild-type controls (WT) and developed without apparent morphological differences. KI had 70% and HET 20% lower total cMyBP-C levels than WT, accompanied by elevated fetal gene expression. Under standard culture conditions and spontaneous beating, KI EHTs showed more frequent burst beating than WT and occasional tetanic contractions (14/96). Under electrical stimulation (6Hz, 37°C) KI EHTs exhibited shorter contraction and relaxation times and a twofold higher sensitivity to external [Ca(2+)]. Accordingly, the sensitivity to verapamil was 4-fold lower and the response to isoprenaline or the Ca(2+) sensitizer EMD 57033 2- to 4-fold smaller. The loss of EMD effect was verified in 6-week-old KI mice in vivo. HET EHTs were apparently normal under basal conditions, but showed similarly altered contractile responses to [Ca(2+)], verapamil, isoprenaline and EMD. In contrast, drug-induced changes in intracellular Ca(2+) transients (Fura-2) were essentially normal. In conclusion, the present findings in auxotonically contracting EHTs support the idea that cMyBP-C's normal role is to suppress force generation at low intracellular Ca(2+) and stabilize the power-stroke step of the cross bridge cycle. Pharmacological testing in EHT unmasked a disease phenotype in HET. The altered drug response may be clinically relevant.

  16. Acute corneal epithelial debridement unmasks the corneal stromal nerve responses to ocular stimulation in rats: Implications for abnormal sensations of the eye.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Harumitsu; Mizerska, Kamila K; Dallacasagrande, Valentina A; Guaiquil, Victor H; Rosenblatt, Mark I

    2017-03-01

    It is widely accepted that the mechanisms for transducing sensory information reside in the nerve terminals. Occasionally, however, studies have appeared demonstrating that similar mechanisms may exist in the axon to which these terminals are connected. We examined this issue using the cornea where nerve terminals in the epithelial cell layers are easily accessible for debridement, leaving the underlying stromal (axonal) nerves undisturbed. In isoflurane-anesthetized rats, we recorded extracellularly from single trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the cornea that are excited by ocular dryness and cooling: low threshold (<2 oC cooling) and high threshold (>2 oC) cold-sensitive plus dry sensitive (LT-CS+DS and HT-CS+DS) neurons, playing possible roles in tearing and ocular pain. We found that the responses in both types of neurons to dryness, wetness, and menthol stimuli were effectively abolished by the debridement, indicating that their transduction mechanisms lie in the nerve terminals. However, some responses to the cold, heat and hyperosmolar stimuli in LT-CS+DS neurons still remained. Surprisingly, the responses to heat in ~ half of the neurons were augmented after the debridement. We were also able to evoke these residual responses and follow the trajectory of the stromal nerves, which we subsequently confirmed histologically. The residual responses always disappeared when the stromal nerves were cut at the limbus, suggesting that the additional transduction mechanisms for these sensory modalities originated mostly likely in stromal nerves. The functional significance of these residual and enhanced responses from stromal nerves may be related to the abnormal sensations observed in ocular disease.

  17. Rhythmic Behavior in the Hierarchy of Responses of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zern, David; Taylor, Amie Lou

    1973-01-01

    Data shows that the nursery school child will resort to rhythmic behavior more often in a situation with significant environmental constraints''; such behavior has an analgesic or a general soothing influence.'' (Author/SP)

  18. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  19. Relations between Children's Levels of Responsiveness and Resistance, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Social Behaviors with Peers in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Daniela; Neitzel, Carin

    2017-01-01

    Children's peer relationships have their origins in family relationships. The present study focuses on the relative importance of children's levels of responsiveness and/or resistance during mother-child interactions and tests a model of the direct and indirect relations between mother interaction behaviors and children's social behaviors with…

  20. 3S2 - Behavioral Response Studies of Cetaceans to Navy Sonar Signals in Norwegian Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    behavioral response thresholds during experimental exposures, and to compare these to responses to no-sonar controls and playback of killer whale ...research effort (see related programs) with killer , sperm, and long-finned pilot whales provides a dataset that enables comparative analysis of behavioral...experiments of killer whale sounds to long-finned pilot whales and sperm whales in the 2010 baseline cruise under this award, the behavioral responses of

  1. Visual pathway abnormalities in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Sharma, Lalit; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Ophthalmological complications are common and disabling in patients with tuberculous meningitis. We aimed to study the visual pathway abnormalities in patients with tuberculous meningitis. Forty-three patients with tuberculous meningitis were subjected to visual evoked responses (VER) and neuroophthalmologic assessment. Neuroophthalmologic assessment revealed abnormalities in 22 (51.3%) patients. VER were found to be abnormal in 27 (62.8%) patients. The VER abnormalities included prolonged P100 latencies with relatively normal amplitude and significant interocular latency differences. Visual pathways abnormalities are common in patients with tuberculous meningitis and are often subclinical. Pathophysiologic explanations for electrophysiological abnormalities on VER in these patients are incompletely understood and needs further exploration.

  2. Physiological and behavioral responses of sheep to gaseous ammonia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J C; Pines, M K; Latter, M; Muller, T; Petherick, J C; Norman, S T; Gaughan, J B

    2012-05-01

    Ammonia can accumulate in highly stocked sheep accommodation, for example during live export shipments, and could affect sheep health and welfare. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to test the effects of 4 NH(3) concentrations, 4 (control), 12, 21, and 34 mg/m(3), on the physiology and behavior of wether sheep. Sheep were held for 12 d under a micro-climate and stocking density similar to shipboard conditions recorded on voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the northern hemispheric summer. Ammonia increased macrophage activity in transtracheal aspirations, indicating active pulmonary inflammation; however, it had no effect (P > 0.05) on hematological variables. Feed intake decreased (P = 0.002) in proportion to ammonia concentration, and BW gain decreased (P < 0.001) at the 2 greatest concentrations. Exposure to ammonia increased (P = 0.03) the frequency of sneezing, and at the greatest ammonia concentration, sheep were less active, with less locomotion, pawing, and panting. Twenty-eight days after exposure to NH(3), the pulmonary macrophage activity and BW of the sheep returned to that of sheep exposed to only 4 mg/m(3). It was concluded that NH(3) induced a temporary inflammatory response of the respiratory system and reduced BW gain, which together indicated a transitory adverse effect on the welfare of sheep.

  3. Responsive behavior of polyampholyte brushes in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qianqian; Li, Lujuan; Zuo, Chuncheng; Huang, Fengli; Hu, Dongmei

    2016-12-01

    We conducted coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to study the responsive behaviors of polyampholyte brushes (PABs) under external electric fields. The effects of charge sequence, chain rigidity and electric field strength on the conformational transition and local structures of grafted chains were addressed systematically. Without electric field, the calculations indicate that the thickness of the PABs is smaller compared to polyelectrolyte brushes (PEBs). The presence of electric field leads to inconsistency of densities between negatively and positively charged monomers except for the alternating brush. Counterions from the PABs can diffuse inside or outside the brush. Unlike the PABs, to separate the polyelectrolytes and their counterions the electric field needs to overcome the osmotic pressure of counterions. The critical field which induces the extension of the flexible PABs is much larger than the PEBs. Meanwhile, it was also found that the critical field which induces the collapse of the PABs decreases as the block length increases. In the limit of strong field studied, the chains with longer blocks are in a local extended state. For diblock brushes, once oppositely charged blocks in a single chain are separated, the chain will become straighter due to strong electrostatic repulsion in intrablock.

  4. Identification of nickel response genes in abnormal early developments of sea urchin by differential display polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Tae Kwon; Lee, Gunsup; Rhee, Yong; Park, Heung-Sik; Chang, Man; Lee, Sukchan; Lee, Jaean; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2012-10-01

    Bioassays and biomarkers have been previously developed to assess the effects of heavy metal contaminants on the early life stages of the sea urchin. In this study, malformation in the early developmental processes was observed in sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius) larvae exposed to 10 ppm Ni for over 30 h. The most critical stage at which the triggering of nickel effects takes place is thought to be the blastula stage, which occurs after fertilization in larval development. To investigate the molecular-level responses of sea urchin exposed to heavy metal stress and to explore the differentially expressed genes that are induced or repressed by nickel, differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) was used with sea urchin mRNAs. The malformation-related genes expressed in the early life stages of the sea urchin were cloned from larvae exposed to 10 ppm of nickel for 15 h, and accessed via DD-PCR. Sequence analysis results revealed that each of the genes evidenced high homology with EGF2, PCSK9, serine/threonine protein kinase, apolipophorin precursor protein, and MGC80921 protein/transcript variant 2. This result may prove useful in the development of novel biomarkers for the assessment of heavy metal stresses on sea urchin embryos.

  5. Ensuring PhD development of responsible conduct of research behaviors: who's responsible?

    PubMed

    Titus, Sandra L; Ballou, Janice M

    2014-03-01

    The importance of public confidence in scientific findings and trust in scientists cannot be overstated. Thus, it becomes critical for the scientific community to focus on enhancing the strategies used to educate future scientists on ethical research behaviors. What we are lacking is knowledge on how faculty members shape and develop ethical research standards with their students. We are presenting the results of a survey with 3,500 research faculty members. We believe this is the first report on how faculty work with and educate their PhD students on basic research standards. Specifically, we wanted to determine whether individual faculty members, who are advisors or mentors, differ in how they implemented components of responsible conduct of research (RCR) with their PhD students. Mentors were more likely than advisors or supervisors to report working with all of their PhDs, who graduated in the last 5 years, on the 17 recognized critical components of RCR training and research skill development. We also found about half of the faculty members believe RCR is an institutional responsibility versus a faculty responsibility. Less than a quarter have had opportunities to participate in faculty training to be a better mentor, advisor, or research teacher, and about one third of faculty did not or could not remember whether they had guidelines related to their responsibilities to PhD students. We discuss the implications of our findings and focus on ways that PhD research mentoring can be enhanced.

  6. Prevalence and pattern of growth abnormalities in children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction: Response to shunt surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Toufeeq Ahmad; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Shah, Omar Javed; Shah, Zafar Amin; Zargar, Showkat Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Growth retardation is common in children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) and growth hormone (GH) resistance may play a dominant role. The aim of this study was to ascertain growth parameters and growth-related hormones in children with EHPVO, comparing with controls and to study the response of shunt surgery on growth parameters. Materials and Methods: The auxological and growth-related hormone profile (GH; insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 [IGFBP-3] and IGF-1) of thirty children with EHPVO were compared with controls. The effect of shunt surgery on growth parameters in 12 children was also studied. Results: The mean height standard deviation score (HSDS) of cases (−1.797 ± 1.146) was significantly lower than that of controls (−0.036 ± 0.796); the mean weight SDS of cases (−1.258 ± 0.743) was also lower than that of controls (−0.004 ± 0.533). The mean GH level of cases (5.00 ± 6.46 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that of controls (1.78 ± 2.04 ng/ml). The mean IGF-1 level of cases (100.25 ± 35.93 ng/ml) was significantly lower as compared to controls (233.53 ± 115.06 ng/ml) as was the mean IGFBP-3 level (2976.53 ± 1212.82 ng/ml in cases and 5183.28 ± 1531.28 ng/ml in controls). In 12 patients who underwent shunt surgery, growth parameters significantly improved. Conclusions: Marked decrease in weight and height SDSs associated with GH resistance is seen in children with EHPVO, which improves with shunt surgery. PMID:27867876

  7. Daily oral intake of theanine prevents the decline of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in hippocampal dentate gyrus with concomitant alleviation of behavioral abnormalities in adult mice with severe traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Kakuda, Takami; Nakazato, Ryota; Kokubo, Hiroshi; Ikeno, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Saki; Hinoi, Eiichi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2015-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a long-lasting psychiatric disease with the consequence of hippocampal atrophy in humans exposed to severe fatal stress. We demonstrated a positive correlation between the transient decline of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and long-lasting behavioral abnormalities in mice with traumatic stress. Here, we investigated pharmacological properties of theanine on the declined BrdU incorporation and abnormal behaviors in mice with traumatic stress. Prior daily oral administration of theanine at 50-500 mg/kg for 5 days significantly prevented the decline of BrdU incorporation, while theanine significantly prevented the decline in the DG even when administered for 5 days after stress. Consecutive daily administration of theanine significantly inhibited the prolonged immobility in mice with stress in forced swimming test seen 14 days later. Although traumatic stress significantly increased spontaneous locomotor activity over 30 min even when determined 14 days later, the increased total locomotion was significantly ameliorated following the administration of theanine at 50 mg/kg for 14 days after stress. These results suggest that theanine alleviates behavioral abnormalities together with prevention of the transient decline of BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal DG in adult mice with severe traumatic stress.

  8. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry Hank; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT modeling and a nationally representative standardization sample, the item set was reduced to 75 items that provide the most precise adaptive behavior information at the cutoff area determining the presence or not of significant adaptive behavior deficits across conceptual, social, and practical skills. The standardization of the DABS is described and discussed.

  9. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-01-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/β0 thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (ΔVO2/ΔWR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (ΔVO2/ΔHR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population. PMID:25847915

  10. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-04-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/β(0) thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (ΔVO2/ΔWR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (ΔVO2/ΔHR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population.

  11. An international response to questions about terminologies, investigation, and management of abnormal uterine bleeding: use of an electronic audience response system.

    PubMed

    Munro, Malcolm G; Broder, Michael; Critchley, Hilary O D; Matteson, Kristen; Haththotuwa, Rohana; Fraser, Ian S

    2011-09-01

    More than 600 registrants attended a two-hour interactive symposium on abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) at the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics World Congress in Cape Town, October 2009. Nearly 250 of these participants answered multiple questions through an electronic audience responder system. The audience heard five structured presentations on clinically important and controversial aspects of AUB, including terminologies and definitions, classification of causes, mechanisms of AUB in the absence of structural lesions of the reproductive tract, the potential for a structured menstrual history, and management of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in low-resource settings. Numerous demographic details were collected, and a total of 30 questions to the audience were interspersed through each of the presentations. The audience demonstrated great variation in the way the terms AUB, menorrhagia, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) are used, and considerable majorities agreed that the terms menorrhagia and DUB should be abolished. AUB should be the overarching term to describe all symptomatic departures from normal menstruation or the menstrual cycle. HMB is a suitable replacement term for menorrhagia. DUB can be replaced by the three clinical entities comprising "nonstructural" causes of AUB. There was a high consistency across demographic subgroups in answers to most questions. Acute and chronic AUB were defined, and aspects of a classification system for causes of AUB and of a structured menstrual history were explored. Issues related to investigation and hormonal treatment of HMB in low-resource settings were explored by registrants from developing countries.

  12. Marine Mammal Behavioral Response Studies in Southern California: Advances in Technology and Experimental Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    andNorwegian Navies. The first phase of this project (2006–2009) studied the behavioral effects of naval sonar on killer whales (Orcinus orca), sperm ...any abnormal behav- iors indicating a potential for injury or clear separation of mothers and de- pendent offspring. Following CEEs, post-exposure...fin whales, sperm whales, Risso’s dolphin, and Cuvier’s beaked whale. In: The 4th Interna- tional Science Symposium on Biologging. Hobart, Tasmania

  13. Oxytocin enhances gaze-following responses to videos of natural social behavior in adult male rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, P.T.; Roman, J.M.; Zimmerman, P.E.; Gothard, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following is a basic building block of social behavior that has been observed in multiple species, including primates. The absence of gaze following is associated with abnormal development of social cognition, such as in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Some social deficits in ASD, including the failure to look at eyes and the inability to recognize facial expressions, are ameliorated by intranasal administration of oxytocin (IN-OT). Here we tested the hypothesis that IN-OT might enhance social processes that require active engagement with a social partner, such as gaze following. Alternatively, IN-OT may only enhance the perceptual salience of the eyes, and may not modify behavioral responses to social signals. To test this hypothesis, we presented four monkeys with videos of conspecifics displaying natural behaviors. Each video was viewed multiple times before and after the monkeys received intranasally either 50 IU of OT or saline. We found that despite a gradual decrease in attention to the repeated viewing of the same videos (habituation), IN-OT consistently increased the frequency of gaze following saccades. Further analysis confirmed that these behaviors did not occur randomly, but rather predictably in response to the same segments of the videos. These findings suggest that in response to more naturalistic social stimuli IN-OT enhances the propensity to interact with a social partner rather than merely elevating the perceptual salience of the eyes. In light of these findings, gaze following may serve as a metric for pro-social effects of oxytocin that target social action more than social perception. PMID:27343726

  14. Infants' Behaviors as Antecedents and Consequents of Mothers' Responsive and Directive Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie; Lloyd, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate possible influences on and consequences of mothers' speech, specific infant behaviors preceding and following four pragmatic categories of mothers' utterances--responsive utterances, supportive behavioral directives, intrusive behavioral directives, and intrusive attentional directives--were examined longitudinally during dyadic…

  15. Southern California 2011 Behavioral Response Study: Marine Mammal Monitoring Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Archive) UPS AIS Receiver WILD Mapper SSC Pacific 5 Group Behavior Sampling protocol was developed by the researchers ( Fleur Visser provided the...Figure 6. Locations of the 9 CEEs performed on Leg 1 of the SOCAL-11 BRS. Leg II. Chris worked with Fleur Visser (Group Behavior scientist) and

  16. STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome: Developing a Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Lois; Rivera, Mary

    This paper discusses the social-therapeutic approach to preventing abusive behavior, and describes the implementation of specific STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome (ABS) projects in New York City, New York. The projects' goal is to empower people to continually develop throughout their lifespans. Basic tenants include the following: (1) emotions are…

  17. Hormonal response to bidirectional selection on social behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined through the actions of multiple genes. These genes form pleiotropic networks that are sensitive to environmental variation and genetic background. One aspect of behavioral gene networks that is of special interest includes effects during early development....

  18. Eye Blink Startle Responses in Behaviorally Inhibited and Uninhibited Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Brakel, Anna M. L.; Muris, Peter; Derks, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the startle reflex as a physiological marker of behavioral inhibition. Participants were 7 to 12-year-old children who had been previously identified as inhibited or uninhibited as part of an ongoing longitudinal study on the role of behavioral inhibition in the development of anxiety disorders. Analysis of their scores…

  19. Response Persistence: The Effects of Stimulus Control on Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior in a Concurrent Operant

    PubMed Central

    McComas, Jennifer J

    2009-01-01

    In the context of instructional demands, compliance and problem behavior can be considered concurrent operants. Of applied interest is increasing one response (i.e., compliance) while decreasing the other (i.e., problem behavior). Strategic arrangement of reinforcement can alter response allocation accordingly. Such schedules can also influence response persistence and generalization. A case study is used to illustrate the effects of stimulus–reinforcer relations in a concurrent-operants arrangement involving an adult with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. Results are discussed in the context of basic operant research findings in the areas of stimulus control and behavioral persistence. PMID:22478529

  20. Behavioral and Physiological Response of Baleen Whales to Ships and Ship Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Behavioral and Physiological Response of Baleen Whales ...LONG-TERM GOALS This study began in late 2013 with the primary goal of examining the behavioral and physiological response of baleen whales to...species including blue and right whales that appear to be particularly susceptible. Initial research demonstrated the feasibility of documenting whale

  1. Patterns in response to chronic terrorism threats: A construct of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses among Israeli citizens.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Louck, Keren; Saka, Yael

    2016-11-10

    Israeli citizens are exposed to unpredictable and chronic terrorism threats that significantly jeopardize their personal sense of safety. The purpose of the present study is to present how Israeli discourse is structured with regard to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to chronic terrorism threats and to understand the range of responses as well as map the risk and protective factors of this existential threat. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men). Qualitative analysis revealed three patterns of responses to ongoing terrorism: emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. Emotional responses include fear, worry, sense of empathy, and detachment. Cognitive responses include situational assessment and pursuit of solutions, the use of traumatic imagining, beliefs in fate and luck, and optimism. Behavioral responses include looking for information, alertness, and habituation. The findings also revealed another response, which combines cognitive and behavioral responses. Some of the responses are innovative and unique to the threat of terrorism. Mapping the responses revealed mental health risk factors, as well as protective factors that can help structure personal and national resilience. These findings have implications on the treatment and prevention of personal and social pathologies, and how to effectively cope with terrorism threats.

  2. Prenatal Choline Supplementation Diminishes Early-Life Iron Deficiency–Induced Reprogramming of Molecular Networks Associated with Behavioral Abnormalities in the Adult Rat Hippocampus123

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Phu V; Kennedy, Bruce C; Pisansky, Marc T; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; Simmons, Rebecca A; Georgieff, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life iron deficiency is a common nutrient deficiency worldwide. Maternal iron deficiency increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Postnatal iron deficiency in young children results in cognitive and socioemotional abnormalities in adulthood despite iron treatment. The rat model of diet-induced fetal-neonatal iron deficiency recapitulates the observed neurobehavioral deficits. Objectives: We sought to establish molecular underpinnings for the persistent psychopathologic effects of early-life iron deficiency by determining whether it permanently reprograms the hippocampal transcriptome. We also assessed the effects of maternal dietary choline supplementation on the offspring’s hippocampal transcriptome to identify pathways through which choline mitigates the emergence of long-term cognitive deficits. Methods: Male rat pups were made iron deficient (ID) by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 g Fe/kg) from gestational day (G) 2 through postnatal day (PND) 7 and an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200 g Fe/kg) thereafter. Control pups were provided IS diet throughout. Choline (5 g/kg) was given to half the pregnant dams in each group from G11 to G18. PND65 hippocampal transcriptomes were assayed by next generation sequencing (NGS) and analyzed with the use of knowledge-based Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate a subset of altered genes. Results: Formerly ID rats had altered hippocampal expression of 619 from >10,000 gene loci sequenced by NGS, many of which map onto molecular networks implicated in psychological disorders, including anxiety, autism, and schizophrenia. There were significant interactions between iron status and prenatal choline treatment in influencing gene expression. Choline supplementation reduced the effects of iron deficiency, including those on gene networks associated with autism and schizophrenia. Conclusions: Fetal-neonatal iron deficiency

  3. Interactions Among Behavioral Responses of Baleen Whales to Acoustic Stimuli, Oceanographic Features, and Prey Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-31

    foraging ecology and better interpret responses to experimental sound exporsure. The current project has already enabled us to to obtain basic...the distribution, abundance, and behavior of prey affects the baseline foraging behavior and ecology of baleen whales off the California coast. The...basic measurements of foraging ecology and behavior are also providing a critical means of interpreting potential responses buy describing the

  4. Behavioral responses in structured populations pave the way to group optimality.

    PubMed

    Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    An unresolved controversy regarding social behaviors is exemplified when natural selection might lead to behaviors that maximize fitness at the social-group level but are costly at the individual level. Except for the special case of groups of clones, we do not have a general understanding of how and when group-optimal behaviors evolve, especially when the behaviors in question are flexible. To address this question, we develop a general model that integrates behavioral plasticity in social interactions with the action of natural selection in structured populations. We find that group-optimal behaviors can evolve, even without clonal groups, if individuals exhibit appropriate behavioral responses to each other's actions. The evolution of such behavioral responses, in turn, is predicated on the nature of the proximate behavioral mechanisms. We model a particular class of proximate mechanisms, prosocial preferences, and find that such preferences evolve to sustain maximum group benefit under certain levels of relatedness and certain ecological conditions. Thus, our model demonstrates the fundamental interplay between behavioral responses and relatedness in determining the course of social evolution. We also highlight the crucial role of proximate mechanisms such as prosocial preferences in the evolution of behavioral responses and in facilitating evolutionary transitions in individuality.

  5. Attributions of Responsibility and Blame for Procrastination Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Sonia; Hall, Nathan C.; Pychyl, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between procrastination, delay, blameworthiness, and moral responsibility. Undergraduate students (N = 240) were provided two scenarios in which the reason for inaction (procrastination, delay), the target (self, other), and the outcome (positive, negative) were manipulated, and students were asked to rate the moral responsibility and blameworthiness of the agent. Results indicated that individuals who procrastinated were seen as more morally responsible and blameworthy than those who experienced delay. More specifically, after a negative outcome, procrastination was associated with more moral responsibility, whereas delay was associated with less moral responsibility. After a positive outcome, individuals perceived procrastination as deserving of less moral responsibility, and delays as associated with more moral responsibility. Finally, a three-way interaction showed that participants rated procrastination that resulted in failure as deserving of responsibility when engaged in by others as opposed to oneself. PMID:27547197

  6. Attributions of Responsibility and Blame for Procrastination Behavior.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Sonia; Hall, Nathan C; Pychyl, Timothy A

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between procrastination, delay, blameworthiness, and moral responsibility. Undergraduate students (N = 240) were provided two scenarios in which the reason for inaction (procrastination, delay), the target (self, other), and the outcome (positive, negative) were manipulated, and students were asked to rate the moral responsibility and blameworthiness of the agent. Results indicated that individuals who procrastinated were seen as more morally responsible and blameworthy than those who experienced delay. More specifically, after a negative outcome, procrastination was associated with more moral responsibility, whereas delay was associated with less moral responsibility. After a positive outcome, individuals perceived procrastination as deserving of less moral responsibility, and delays as associated with more moral responsibility. Finally, a three-way interaction showed that participants rated procrastination that resulted in failure as deserving of responsibility when engaged in by others as opposed to oneself.

  7. Is Empathic Accuracy Enough to Facilitate Responsive Behavior in Dyadic Interaction? Distinguishing Ability From Motivation.

    PubMed

    Winczewski, Lauren A; Bowen, Jeffrey D; Collins, Nancy L

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that interpersonal responsiveness-feeling understood, validated, and cared for by other people-plays a key role in shaping the quality of one's social interactions and relationships. But what enables people to be interpersonally responsive to others? In the current study, we argued that responsiveness requires not only accurate understanding but also compassionate motivation. Specifically, we hypothesized that understanding another person's thoughts and feelings (empathic accuracy) would foster responsive behavior only when paired with benevolent motivation (empathic concern). To test this idea, we asked couples (N = 91) to discuss a personal or relationship stressor; we then assessed empathic accuracy, empathic concern, and responsive behavior. As predicted, when listeners' empathic concern was high, empathic accuracy facilitated responsiveness; but when empathic concern was low, empathic accuracy was unhelpful (and possibly harmful) for responsiveness. These findings provide the first evidence that cognitive and affective forms of empathy work together to facilitate responsive behavior.

  8. Lipidomics and H218O labeling techniques reveal increased remodeling of DHA-containing membrane phospholipids associated with abnormal locomotor responses in α-tocopherol deficient zebrafish (danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Melissa Q.; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, Jan F.; Truong, Lisa; Tanguay, Robert L.; Traber, Maret G.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is required by the developing embryonic brain to prevent depletion of highly polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6), the loss of which we predicted would underlie abnormal morphological and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, we fed adult 5D zebrafish (Danio rerio) defined diets without (E−) or with added α-tocopherol (E+, 500 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) for a minimum of 80 days, and then spawned them to obtain E− and E+ embryos. The E− compared with E+ embryos were 82% less responsive (p<0.01) to a light/dark stimulus at 96 h post-fertilization (hpf), demonstrating impaired locomotor behavior, even in the absence of gross morphological defects. Evaluation of phospholipid (PL) and lysophospholipid (lyso-PL) composition using untargeted lipidomics in E− compared with E+ embryos at 24, 48, 72, and 120 hpf showed that four PLs and three lyso-PLs containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC 22:6, required for transport of DHA into the brain, p<0.001), were at lower concentrations in E− at all time-points. Additionally, H218O labeling experiments revealed enhanced turnover of LPC 22:6 (p<0.001) and three other DHA-containing PLs in the E− compared with the E+ embryos, suggesting that increased membrane remodeling is a result of PL depletion. Together, these data indicate that α-tocopherol deficiency in the zebrafish embryo causes the specific depletion and increased turnover of DHA-containing PL and lyso-PLs, which may compromise DHA delivery to the brain and thereby contribute to the functional impairments observed in E− embryos. PMID:26774753

  9. Continuous intraoperative monitoring of abnormal muscle response in microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm; a real-time navigator for complete relief.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Seiichiro; Yamakami, Iwao; Sato, Motoki; Kado, Ken; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Takao; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2014-04-01

    Intermittent monitoring of abnormal muscle response (iAMR) has been reported to be useful for improving the surgical outcome of microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS). However, iAMR has not elucidated the relationship between AMR change and the corresponding surgical procedure, or the pathogenesis of AMR and HFS. The purpose of this study is to clarify the usefulness of continuous AMR monitoring (cAMR) for improving the surgical results of MVD and for understanding the relationship between AMR change and corresponding surgical procedure, and the pathogenesis of AMR and HFS. Fifty consecutive patients with HFS treated by MVD under cAMR monitoring, which continuously records AMR every minute throughout the surgical period, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were assessed for the presence of HFS 1 week after the surgery and at final follow-up. Forty-six patients showed the complete disappearance of HFS. In 32, AMR disappeared abruptly and simultaneously with decompression of an offending vessel. AMR showed dynamic and various changes including temporary disappearance, or sudden, gradual, or componential disappearance before and during the decompression procedure, and even during the dural and skin closure after the initial decompression procedure. Facial spasm remained in four patients despite permanent AMR disappearance. cAMR monitoring improves the outcome of MVD. Although the main cause of HFS and AMR is vascular compression at the facial nerve, hyperexcitability of the facial nucleus is also involved in the pathogenesis of HFS and AMR. The proportional involvement of these causes differs between patients.

  10. Abnormal sperm in mice with targeted deletion of the act (activator of cAMP-responsive element modulator in testis) gene

    PubMed Central

    Kotaja, Noora; De Cesare, Dario; Macho, Betina; Monaco, Lucia; Brancorsini, Stefano; Goossens, Ellen; Tournaye, Herman; Gansmuller, Anne; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    ACT [activator of cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) in testis] is a LIM-only protein that interacts with transcription factor CREM in postmeiotic male germ cells and enhances CREM-dependent transcription. CREM regulates many crucial genes required for spermatid maturation, and targeted mutation of the Crem gene in the mouse germ-line blocks spermatogenesis. Here we report the phenotype of mice in which targeted disruption of the act gene was obtained by homologous recombination. Whereas the seminiferous tubules of the act–/– mice contain all of the developmental stages of germ cells and the mice are fertile, the amount of mature sperm in the epididymis is drastically reduced. The residual sperm display severe abnormalities, including fully folded tails and aberrant head shapes. These results indicate that numerous postmeiotic genes under CREM control require the coactivator function of ACT. Thus, the fine-tuning of sperm development is achieved by the coordinated action of two transcriptional regulators. PMID:15247423

  11. Prognostic value of intra-operative abnormal muscle response monitoring during microvascular decompression for long-term outcome of hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiping; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Yongjie

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of intra-operative abnormal muscle response (AMR) monitoring as an indicator of post-operative outcome in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) is under debate. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intra-operative AMR changes and long-term post-operative outcome. We monitored intra-operative AMR during microvascular decompression (MVD) in consecutive patients with HFS (n = 104). Patients in this study were divided into two groups based on whether their AMR disappeared or persisted following MVD. Ninety patients were followed-up, and the mean duration from surgery to final follow-up examination was 3.7 years. Fourteen patients were lost to follow-up. AMR disappeared during surgery for 80 patients; of these, 74 achieved complete resolution of HFS, five had persistent HFS, and one patient developed a recurrence of HFS. Of the 10 patients with persistent AMR despite effective MVD, eight patients achieved complete resolution, one patient had persistent HFS, and one developed recurrent HFS. The long-term clinical outcome of HFS after MVD did not significantly correlate with intra-operative AMR changes (p = 0.791). Therefore, we suggest that intra-operative AMR monitoring may not be a reliable indicator of long-term post-operative outcome for HFS.

  12. Environmental Perturbations, Behavioral Change, and Population Response in a Long-Term Northern Elephant Seal Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    of transfer functions which describe how behavioral responses to sound affect life functions, how life functions are linked to vital population...Resource Sound Research Requirements, specifically within the “Response to Naval Sounds ” requirement #5: Determine biologically significant behavioral...responses from Navy sound sources on individuals representing marine mammal species of concern with respect to ... determining long-term effects of

  13. Social responsibility, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aaron M; Benotsch, Eric G; Cejka, Anna; Luckman, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable public health literature focuses on relationships between problematic human characteristics (e.g., psychopathology) and unhealthy behaviors. A recent movement termed positive psychology emphasizes the advantages of assessing relationships between human strengths (e.g., altruism) and beneficial health behaviors. The present study assessed social responsibility, an orientation to help or protect others even when there is nothing to be gained as an individual, and its relationship to HIV-relevant behaviors. In our sample of 350 men who have sex with men (MSM), social responsibility was negatively correlated with substance use and HIV risk behaviors. Men who had been tested for HIV and knew their HIV status-a behavior that helps men protect their partners but does not protect themselves from the virus-also scored higher in social responsibility. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk behavior in MSM may benefit from efforts to promote human strengths.

  14. Relation between the persistence of an abnormal muscle response and the long-term clinical course after microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Tobishima, Hana; Hatayama, Toru; Ohkuma, Hiroki

    2014-06-17

    Mentalis muscle responses to electrical stimulation of the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve are considered abnormal muscle responses (AMRs) and can be used to monitor the success of decompression in microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcome of MVD surgery in which the AMR disappeared to the outcome of surgery in which the AMR persisted. From 2005 to 2009, 131 patients with hemifacial spasm received MVD surgery with intraoperative monitoring of AMR. At 1 week postsurgery, spasms had resolved in 82% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 46% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, mild spasms were present in 10% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 31% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, and moderate were present spasms in 8% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 23% of cases in the persistent-AMR group (P < 0.05). At 1 year postsurgery, spasms had resolved in 92% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 84% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, mild spasms were present in 6% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 8% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, and moderate spasms were present in 3% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 8% of the cases in the persistent-AMR group (P = 0.56). These results indicate that the long-term outcome of MVD surgery in which the AMR persisted was no different to that of MVD surgery in which the AMR disappeared.

  15. Behavior persistence in defining threshold switch in stepwise response of aquatic organisms exposed to toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zongming; Li, Shangge; Zhang, Tingting; Qi, Luhuizi; Xing, Na; Yu, Huimin; Jian, Jinfeng; Chon, Tae-Soo; Tang, Bo

    2016-12-01

    As a characteristic in bacterial colony, persistence model described the dynamics of two subpopulations (normal (n) and persister (p)). In order to illustrate the switch of "Threshold" in the stepwise behavior responses of organisms, it is hypothesized that total behavior (Bt) of organisms consists of two types in behavior tendency, intoxication (Bp) and normal/recovery behavior (Bn). Both Bp and Bn could be concurrently affected by environmental stress E, and behavior response modes (M) are decided by the relationship between E and toxicity threshold of test organisms (Ti). The results suggested stress constant λ was decided by the constant rates gnE,gpE, an and ap. Due to different stress constant λ, the behavior responses of indicators showed great difference in different M, which included 'safe mode' (Ms), 'acclimation mode' (Mac), 'adjustment mode' (Maj) and 'toxic effect' (Mte). Usually, Bt during Ms could maintain around 0.8, and Mte would happen once it is lower than 0.2. According to the relationship between Bt values and E changes in 7 Majs, behavior persistence relying on adjustment could reflect the behavior homeostasis of organisms under environmental stress and be regarded as a threshold switch for the stepwise behavior responses. The mathematical analysis of behavior persistence allows making a quantitative prediction on environment assessment that would promote the emergence of persistence, as well as evaluating its ecological implications.

  16. Attenuated heart rate response in REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Sorensen, Helge B D; Jennum, Poul

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with Parkinson's disease with and without rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder and patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder have an attenuated heart rate response to arousals or to leg movements during sleep compared with healthy controls. Fourteen and 16 Parkinson's patients with and without rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder, respectively, 11 idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder patients, and 17 control subjects underwent 1 night of polysomnography. The heart rate response associated with arousal or leg movement from all sleep stages was analyzed from 10 heartbeats before the onset of the sleep event to 15 heartbeats following onset of the sleep event. The heart rate reponse to arousals was significantly lower in both parkinsonian groups compared with the control group and the idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder group. The heart rate response to leg movement was significantly lower in both Parkinson's groups and in the idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder group compared with the control group. The heart rate response for the idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder group was intermediate with respect to the control and the parkinsonian groups. The attenuated heart rate response may be a manifestation of the autonomic deficits experienced in Parkinson's disease. The idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder patients not only exhibited impaired motor symptoms but also incipient autonomic dysfunction, as revealed by the attenuated heart rate response.

  17. Parenting behaviors of African American and Caucasian families: parent and child perceptions, associations with child weight, and ability to identify abnormal weight status.

    PubMed

    Polfuss, Michele; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the agreement between parent and child perceptions of parenting behaviors, the relationship of the behaviors with the child's weight status, and the ability of the parent to correctly identify weight status in 176 parent-child dyads (89 Caucasian and 87 African American). Correlational and regression analyses were used. Findings included moderate to weak correlations in child and parent assessments of parenting behaviors. Caucasian dyads had higher correlations than African American dyads. Most parents correctly identified their own and their child's weight status. Parents of overweight children used increased controlling behaviors, but the number of controlling behaviors decreased when the parent expressed concern with their child's weight.

  18. Using Insights From Behavioral Economics to Strengthen Disaster Preparedness and Response.

    PubMed

    Linnemayr, Sebastian; O'Hanlon, Claire; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Van Abel, Kristin; Nelson, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral economics is based on the idea that individuals' decisions are affected by systematic and predictable cognitive biases and that these same biases can be leveraged to change behavior and improve decision-making. Insights from behavioral economics have been used to encourage a range of desired behaviors but have rarely been used in disaster preparedness and response, though traditional efforts by public health practitioners have failed to increase adoption of key preparedness behaviors. In this work, we aim to show how some of the key concepts in the behavioral economics literature are applicable to behaviors related to disaster preparedness and response, and we present ideas for behavioral economics-based interventions that we vetted with public health officials. Two of the best-received interventions were applications of social norms approaches, which leverage social influence bias, and commitment devices, which leverage present bias and loss aversion. Although the current evidence base for the applications of concepts from behavioral economics in disaster preparedness and response is weak, behavioral economics has achieved positive results in similar decision-making contexts. The low cost and potentially high impact of behavioral economics-based interventions warrant further investigation and testing. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 7).

  19. Reprogramming cellular behavior with RNA controllers responsive to endogenous proteins.

    PubMed

    Culler, Stephanie J; Hoff, Kevin G; Smolke, Christina D

    2010-11-26

    Synthetic genetic devices that interface with native cellular pathways can be used to change natural networks to implement new forms of control and behavior. The engineering of gene networks has been limited by an inability to interface with native components. We describe a class of RNA control devices that overcome these limitations by coupling increased abundance of particular proteins to targeted gene expression events through the regulation of alternative RNA splicing. We engineered RNA devices that detect signaling through the nuclear factor κB and Wnt signaling pathways in human cells and rewire these pathways to produce new behaviors, thereby linking disease markers to noninvasive sensing and reprogrammed cellular fates. Our work provides a genetic platform that can build programmable sensing-actuation devices enabling autonomous control over cellular behavior.

  20. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  1. Forecasting behavioral response to a repository from stated intent data

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, D.; Kunreuther, H.; Morwitz, V.

    1991-12-31

    To forecast repository-induced behavior from surveys of behavioral intention, we develop a model of the relation between stated intent and actual propensity. This model relies heavily on the notion of a latent true intent score. We also consider a number of factors that cause true intent to be, on average, a biased indicator of propensity. The forecasting strategy is applied to a survey of convention planners to estimate the proportion of conventions that Las Vegas would lose following various repository scenarios at the Yucca Mountain site.

  2. Nucleus accumbens neuronal activity correlates to the animal's behavioral response to acute and chronic methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Catherine M; Chong, Samuel L; Dafny, Nachum

    2014-04-22

    Acute and chronic methylphenidate (MPD) exposure was recorded simultaneously for the rat's locomotor activity and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) neuronal activity. The evaluation of the neuronal events was based on the animal's behavior response to chronic MPD administration: 1) Animals exhibiting behavioral sensitization, 2) Animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance. The experiment lasted for 10days with four groups of animals; saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0mg/kg MPD. For the main behavioral findings, about half of the animals exhibited behavioral sensitization or behavioral tolerance to 0.6, 2.5, and/or 10mg/kg MPD respectively. Three hundred and forty one NAc neuronal units were evaluated. Approximately 80% of NAc units responded to 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0mg/kg MPD. When the neuronal activity was analyzed based on the animals' behavioral response to chronic MPD exposure, significant differences were seen between the neuronal population responses recorded from animals that expressed behavioral sensitization when compared to the NAc neuronal responses recorded from animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance. Three types of neurophysiological sensitization and neurophysiological tolerance can be recognized following chronic MPD administration to the neuronal populations. Collectively, these findings show that the same dose of chronic MPD can elicit either behavioral tolerance or behavioral sensitization. Differential statistical analyses were used to verify our hypothesis that the neuronal activity recorded from animals exhibiting behavioral sensitization will respond differently to MPD compared to those animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance, thus, suggesting that it is essential to record the animal's behavior concomitantly with neuronal recordings.

  3. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral choice or response impulsivity, partially mediates the effect of stress on drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Ansell, Emily B; Reynolds, Brady; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Stress and impulsivity contribute to alcohol use, and stress may also act via impulsivity to increase drinking behavior. Impulsivity represents a multi-faceted construct and self-report and behavioral assessments may effectively capture distinct clinically relevant factors. The present research investigated whether aspects of impulsivity mediate the effect of stress on alcohol use. A community-based sample of 192 men and women was assessed on measures of cumulative stress, alcohol use, self-reported impulsivity, and behavioral choice and response impulsivity. Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques to estimate indirect effects of stress on drinking via impulsivity. Cumulative adversity exhibited both direct effects and indirect effects (via self-reported impulsivity) on drinking behavior. Additional models examining specific types of stress indicated direct and indirect effects of trauma and recent life events, and indirect effects of major life events and chronic stressors on drinking behavior. Overall, cumulative stress was associated with increased drinking behavior, and this effect was partially mediated by self-reported impulsivity. Self-reported impulsivity also mediated the effects of different types of stress on drinking behavior. These findings highlight the value of mediation models to examine the pathways through which different types of stress increase drinking behavior. Treatment and prevention strategies should focus on enhancing stress management and self-control.

  4. How Individual and School Aggregate Baseline Behavior Levels Moderate Response to a Primary Level Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Nelson, J. Ron; Ralston, Nicole C.

    2013-01-01

    In our previous research (Benner, Nelson, Sanders, & Ralston, 2012), elementary schools were randomly assigned to either a primary-level behavior intervention directed at externalizing behavior (treatment, n = 7 schools) or to business-as-usual condition (control, n = 6 schools). A screening procedure was used to identify K through 3-grade…

  5. Socially Responsible Knowledge and Behaviors: Comparing Upper vs. Lower Classmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Joy M.; Connell, Kim Y. Hiller

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a sample of undergraduate students and survey research methods, this study examined knowledge on issues of social responsibility within the apparel and textiles industry, comparing the sophistication among upper- versus lower-classmen. The study also investigated the differences between students in their socially responsible apparel…

  6. Testing for Aberrant Behavior in Response Time Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marianti, Sukaesi; Fox, Jean-Paul; Avetisyan, Marianna; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Tijmstra, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Many standardized tests are now administered via computer rather than paper-and-pencil format. In a computer-based testing environment, it is possible to record not only the test taker's response to each question (item) but also the amount of time spent by the test taker in considering and answering each item. Response times (RTs) provide…

  7. Response-Class Hierarchies and Resurgence of Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieving, Gregory A.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Long, Ethan S.; O'Connor, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Resurgence may be defined generally as the extinction-induced recurrence of previously learned response patterns. Understanding the conditions under which this phenomenon occurs has theoretical, clinical, and applied implications, particularly with respect to a related area of research on response-class hierarchies. In the current study, we…

  8. Physiological and behavioral responses in Drosophila melanogaster to odorants present at different plant maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Versace, Elisabetta; Eriksson, Anna; Rocchi, Federico; Castellan, Irene; Sgadò, Paola; Haase, Albrecht

    2016-09-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds and oviposits on fermented fruit, hence its physiological and behavioral responses are expected to be tuned to odorants abundant during later stages of fruit maturation. We used a population of about two-hundred isogenic lines of D. melanogaster to assay physiological responses (electroantennograms (EAG)) and behavioral correlates (preferences and choice ratio) to odorants found at different stages of fruit maturation. We quantified electrophysiological and behavioral responses of D. melanogaster for the leaf compound β-cyclocitral, as well as responses to odorants mainly associated with later fruit maturation stages. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses were modulated by the odorant dose. For the leaf compound we observed a steep dose-response curve in both EAG and behavioral data and shallower curves for odorants associated with later stages of maturation. Our data show the connection between sensory and behavioral responses and are consistent with the specialization of D. melanogaster on fermented fruit and avoidance of high doses of compounds associated with earlier stages of maturation. Odor preferences were modulated in a non-additive way when flies were presented with two alternative odorants, and combinations of odorants elicited higher responses than single compounds.

  9. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  10. Error Management Behavior in Classrooms: Teachers' Responses to Student Mistakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulis, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Only a few studies have focused on how teachers deal with mistakes in actual classroom settings. Teachers' error management behavior was analyzed based on data obtained from direct (Study 1) and videotaped systematic observation (Study 2), and students' self-reports. In Study 3 associations between students' and teachers' attitudes towards…

  11. Culturally Responsive Positive Behavior Supports: Considerations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tachelle; Obiakor, Festus E.

    2015-01-01

    Classrooms are not culturally neutral terrains, but rather are constructed around sets of norms, values, and expected behaviors that are culturally bound. Low tolerance levels and expectations are an indication of the incongruence between the education strategies utilized by teachers and the cultural and linguistic differences of students that are…

  12. Behavioral and Psychological Responses to HIV Antibody Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Considers effects of informing individuals of their antibody status as determined by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Reviews research examining changes in psychological distress and in behaviors associated with HIV infections among individuals who have undergone antibody testing. Identifies methodological issues in studying…

  13. Effects of Interviewer Behavior on Accuracy of Children's Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparling, Jessica; Wilder, David A.; Kondash, Jennifer; Boyle, Megan; Compton, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that certain interviewer behaviors can evoke inaccurate answers by children. In the current study, we examined the effects of approving and disapproving statements on the accuracy of 3 children's answers to questions in an interview (Experiment 1). We then evaluated 3 questioning techniques that may be used by…

  14. Institutionalization and Response Maintenance in Organizational Behavior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2006-01-01

    A review of the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" (1991-2002) was conducted to determine to what extent researchers in OBM programmed for "institutionalization" of applied interventions. Criteria for the term "institutionalization" were derived from McSween and Matthews (2001), and Grindle, Dickinson, and Boettcher (2000). Four…

  15. ATLAS: A Community Policing Response to Adverse Student Athlete Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The University at Albany Police and the University at Albany Athletics Department have teamed together to implement a ground breaking program aimed at identifying, addressing and managing negative behavior among student athletes. ATLAS stands for: Athletics, Team Building, Leadership Development, And Mentoring for Student Athletes. The program was…

  16. Academic Psychologists' Responses to Unethical Behavior in Colleagues: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Margaret; And Others

    Concern about ethics in science is growing. This survey investigated academic psychologists' awareness of unethical behavior within their profession. Researchers mailed surveys to 500 randomly selected academic psychologists. Of the 158 completed questionnaires, 44 respondents were female, 101 were male, and 13 did not identify their gender. The…

  17. Behavior Correlates of Rorschach Response in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Frances G.

    Teachers in a private special education school for students with learning and/or adjustment difficulties completed Bristol Social Adjustment Guides (BSAGs), an observation scale for identifying maladaptive classroom behaviors, for 157 students (7-21 years old). Rorschachs were administered to the same group of students. Data from each test were…

  18. Preterm Infants’ Orally Directed Behaviors and Behavioral State Responses to the Integrated H-HOPE Intervention

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Emerita; Rankin, Kristin M.; Pham, Thao; Li, Zhuoying; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Preterm infants are challenged by immature infant behavioral organization which may negatively influence their ability to oral feed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the integrated H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention would improve infant behavioral organization by increasing the frequency of orally directed behaviors and the proportion of time spent in an alert behavioral state when offered prior to oral feeding. Mother–infant dyads (n = 198) were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention or the Attention Control groups. Infants were born at 29 to 34 weeks gestation and were clinically stable. Mothers had at least two social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant directed stimulation using the ATVV intervention (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular stimuli) and (2) maternal participatory guidance sessions by a nurse-community advocate team. Orally directed behaviors and behavioral states were assessed weekly prior to feeding during hospitalization when infants were able to feed orally. There were no differences between the groups at baseline (Day 0, prior to the initiation of the integrated H-HOPE intervention). We observed a pattern of increased frequency of orally directed behaviors in the H-HOPE intervention group when compared to the Attention Control group, however, the proportion of time spent in an alert behavioral state remained stable in both groups over the course of the study. On Day 7, the H-HOPE intervention group exhibited a significantly higher mean frequency of orally directed behaviors than the Attention Control group (12.6 vs. 7.1 pre-intervention, 51.8 vs. 33.2 during intervention, 4.3 vs. 3.2 immediately after intervention, and 8.9 vs. 5.3 immediately prior to feeding). On Day 7, the H-HOPE intervention group exhibited a significantly higher proportion of

  19. Munc18-1 haploinsufficiency results in enhanced anxiety-like behavior as determined by heart rate responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Hager, Torben; Maroteaux, Grégoire; Pont, Paula du; Julsing, Joris; van Vliet, Rick; Stiedl, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    Heterozygous (HZ) missense mutations in the gene encoding syntaxin binding protein 1 (Stxbp1 or Munc18-1), a presynaptic protein essential for neurotransmitter release, causes early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, abnormal brain structure and mental retardation in humans. Here we investigated whether the mouse model mimics symptoms of the human phenotype. The effects of the deletion of munc18-1 were studied in HZ and wild-type (WT) mice based on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) as independent measures to expand previous behavioral results of enhanced anxiety and impaired emotional learning suggesting mild cognitive impairments. HR responses were assessed during novelty exposure, during the expression and extinction of conditioned tone-dependent fear and during the diurnal phase. Novelty exposure yielded no differences in activity patterns between the two genotypes, while maximum HR differed significantly (WT: 770 bpm; HZ: 790 bpm). Retention tests after both auditory delay and trace fear conditioning showed a delayed extinction of the conditioned HR response in HZ mice compared to WT mice. Since the HR versus HRV correlation and HR dynamics assessed by nonlinear methods revealed similar function in HZ and WT mice, the higher HR responses of munc18-1 HZ mice to different emotional challenges cannot be attributed to differences in autonomic nervous system function. Thus, in contrast to the adverse consequences of deletion of a single allele of munc18-1 in humans, C57BL/6J mice show enhanced anxiety responses based on HR adjustments that extend previous results on the behavioral level without support of cognitive impairment, epileptic seizures and autonomic dysregulation.

  20. Corticosteroid therapy in regressive autism: a retrospective study of effects on the Frequency Modulated Auditory Evoked Response (FMAER), language, and behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to a third of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) manifest regressive autism (R-ASD).They show normal early development followed by loss of language and social skills. Absent evidence-based therapies, anecdotal evidence suggests improvement following use of corticosteroids. This study examined the effects of corticosteroids for R-ASD children upon the 4 Hz frequency modulated evoked response (FMAER) arising from language cortex of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and upon EEG background activity, language, and behavior. An untreated clinical convenience sample of ASD children served as control sample. Methods Twenty steroid-treated R-ASD (STAR) and 24 not-treated ASD patients (NSA), aged 3 - 5 years, were retrospectively identified from a large database. All study participants had two sequential FMAER and EEG studies;Landau-Kleffner syndrome diagnosis was excluded. All subjects’ records contained clinical receptive and expressive language ratings based upon a priori developed metrics. The STAR group additionally was scored behaviorally regarding symptom severity as based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) ASD criteria list. EEGs were visually scored for abnormalities. FMAER responses were assessed quantitatively by spectral analysis. Treated and untreated group means and standard deviations for the FMAER, EEG, language, and behavior, were compared by paired t-test and Fisher’s exact tests. Results The STAR group showed a significant increase in the 4 Hz FMAER spectral response and a significant reduction in response distortion compared to the NSA group. Star group subjects’ language ratings were significantly improved and more STAR than NSA group subjects showed significant language improvement. Most STAR group children showed significant behavioral improvement after treatment. STAR group language and behavior improvement was retained one year after treatment. Groups did not differ in terms of minor EEG abnormalities

  1. The acquisition and maintenance of behavioral skills: A response to Michael

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Craig W.

    1982-01-01

    A response to Michael's (1980) presidential address to the Association for Behavior Analysis is presented. The position is taken that in many instances we have failed to adopt a behavioral approach to dealing with problems within our field concomitant with the shift from an emphasis on behaviorism and a science of behavior to technology. It is argued that we need to be sensitive to the data and consider the contingencies that are operating within the culture. A general strategy and some tactics are presented to acquire and maintain behavioral skills. PMID:22478559

  2. The effect of otolith malformation on behavior and cortisol levels in juvenile red drum fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Browning, Zoe S; Wilkes, Allison A; Moore, Erica J; Lancon, Trevor W; Clubb, Fred J

    2012-08-01

    Captive-raised red drum fish were observed with phenotypic abnormalities, including deformities of the spine, jaw, and cephalic region, that were consistent with vitamin C deficiency during the larval stage. In light of their visible exterior skeletal abnormalities, we suspected that the affected fish would also have abnormal otoliths. Otoliths are dense calcareous structures that function in fish hearing. We hypothesized that abnormal fish would have irregular otoliths that would alter behavior and cortisol levels as compared with those of phenotypically normal fish. The normal and abnormal fish had statistically significant differences in behavior, cortisol levels, and otolith volume and density. MicroCT assessment of abnormal fish revealed operculum abnormalities, malocclusions, and several types of otolith malformations. Therefore, the affected fish had not only an abnormal skeletal appearance but also significantly abnormal behavior and cortisol responses.

  3. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied.

  4. Maintenance of safety behaviors via response-produced stimuli.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Ioannis; Austin, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    Animal studies suggest that safety behaviors may be maintained by internally or externally produced safety signals, which function as positive reinforcers. We designed two experiments to test this phenomenon with humans. Participants played a computerized game in which they could earn or lose treasures by clicking on a map. In baseline, losses could be postponed by pressing a pedal that also produced a blue bar at the bottom of the screen. During test conditions, no losses were programmed, and pedal presses turned the bar from yellow to blue (Test 1) or blue to yellow (Test 2). In Experiment 2, new participants were exposed to the same conditions but were given information about the safety of the test environment. In both experiments, participants engaged in high rates of pedal pressing when presses were followed by blue bars, suggesting the bar functioned as a safety signal. We discuss how these findings may relate to safety behaviors commonly observed in certain mental health disorders.

  5. Is alopecia areata an autoimmune-response against melanogenesis-related proteins, exposed by abnormal MHC class I expression in the anagen hair bulb?

    PubMed Central

    Paus, R.; Slominski, A.; Czarnetzki, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The etiology of alopecia areata (AA), a putative autoimmune disease characterized by sudden hair loss, has remained obscure. It is not understood, how the characteristic inflammatory infiltrate that selectively attacks anagen hair follicles in AA is generated. We hypothesize that this reflects an unexplored form of autoimmunity, a cytotoxic T cell attack on rhythmically synthesized autoantigens normally sequestered by a lack or very low level of MHC class I (MHC I)-expression, and suggest the following mechanism of AA pathogenesis: Microtrauma, neurogenic inflammation, or microbial antigens cause a localized breakdown of MHC I-"negativity" in the proximal anagen hair bulb via proinflammatory cytokines. This exposes autoantigens derived from melanogenesis-related proteins (MRP-DP), which are only generated during anagen, and triggers two successive waves of autoimmune responses: CD8+ cytotoxic T cells initiate AA after recognizing MRP-DP abnormally presented by MHC I molecules on hair matrix melanocytes and/or keratinocytes; a secondary attack, carried by CD4+ T cells and antigen presenting cells, is then mounted against MHC class II--presented additional autoantigens exposed by damaged melanocytes and keratinocytes. The latter causes most of the follicular damage, and extrafollicular disease, and depends greatly on the immunogenetic background of affected individuals. This unifying hypothesis explains the clinical heterogeneity and all salient features of AA, and argues that only the unlikely coincidence of multiple predisposing events triggers AA. The suppression of MHC I--expression and synthesis of MRP in the hair bulb, and the "tolerization" of MRP-DP autoreactive CD8+ T cells may be promising strategies for treating AA. PMID:7716973

  6. Prognostic value of coexistence of abnormal expression of micro-RNA-200b and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein 1 in human astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-qing; Yao, Qing-he; Kuang, Yong-qin; Ma, Yuan; Yang, Li-bin; Huang, Hai-dong; Cheng, Jing-ming; Yang, Tao; Liu, En-yu; Liang, Liang; Fan, Ke-xia; Zhao, Kai; Xia, Xun; Gu, Jian-wen

    2014-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the expression of micro-RNA-200b (miR-200b) and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB-1) in astrocytoma and its efficacy for predicting outcome. Both miR-200b and CREB-1 messenger RNA expression was measured in 122 astrocytomas and 30 nonneoplastic brain specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of miR-200b was significantly lower in astrocytoma than in nonneoplastic brain (P < .001), whereas CREB-1 messenger RNA expression was significantly elevated in the tumors (P < .001). Both miR-200b down-regulation and CREB-1 up-regulation were significantly associated with advanced pathologic grade (P = .002 and P = .006, respectively). Low miR-200b expression correlated negatively with Karnofsky performance score (P = .03), and high CREB-1 expression correlated positively with mean tumor diameter (P = .03). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, low miR-200b, high CREB-1, and coexistence of abnormal miR-200b and CREB-1 expression (low miR-200b/high CREB-1) were predictive of shorter progression-free survival and overall survival in both grade III and grade IV astrocytoma. By multivariate analysis, only low miR-200b/high CREB-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis in astrocytoma of advanced grade. Both miR-200b and CREB-1 may play important cooperative roles in the progression of human astrocytoma. The efficacy of miR-200b and CREB-1 together as a predictor of prognosis in astrocytoma patients is shown for the first time.

  7. Predicting subtle behavioral responses of invertebrates to soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Donkin, S.G.

    1995-12-31

    At concentration levels well below those which cause death and injury to soil invertebrates, a toxic chemical plume may yet effectively damage a soil ecosystem by triggering avoidance behavior among sensitive invertebrates as they move along the concentration gradient. The result may be a soil ecosystem lacking the benefits of effective nutrient cycling and mineralization which a thriving invertebrate population provides. While determining actual detection limits of invertebrates for chemical gradients in soils is experimentally difficult, theoretical calculations have suggested that such limits may be extremely low, and hence many organisms may sense and avoid concentrations of chemicals far below levels commonly considered acceptable. The minimum gradient (G) that can be detected by a receptor depends on the receptor radius (R), the chemical concentration (C), the diffusion constant of the chemical (D), the velocity of the organism (v), and the time over which the receptor integrates the chemical signal (t). In addition, the characteristics of that gradient are determined by interactions between the chemical and the soil particles (sorption/desorption), and advection through the pore spaces. The example of lead (Pb), a neurotoxic metal with demonstrated behavioral effects on the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, is used to model a chemical migrating through a soil. Based on experimentally determined Pb concentrations which elicited avoidance behavior in nematodes, and sorption characteristics of defined Pb-soil systems, the minimum detectable gradient (G) produced by a solubilized Pb plume in several soils was modeled. The results predict maximum allowable Pb levels in a soil if a healthy invertebrate community is desired, and suggest areas for further research into the subtle behavioral effects of environmental toxicants ore sensitive invertebrates.

  8. Behavioral and physiological responses in felids to exhibit construction.

    PubMed

    Chosy, Julia; Wilson, Megan; Santymire, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature examining the welfare of zoo-housed animals, little standardized work has been published on the effect of construction and environmental disruption on the physiology and behavior of affected animals. When Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, IL), embarked on a renovation project for its Kovler Lion House, the opportunity was taken to perform a scientific study of behavioral and physiological markers in the resident felids to determine the effect of construction and environmental disruption. Fecal samples and behavioral observations were collected on four felid species (five individuals) before, during, and after the period of construction. As a group, the average z-score for fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentration increased during construction relative to baseline. Levels remained elevated after construction, but trended toward baseline. All individuals demonstrated a significant decrease in the frequency of pacing and time spent visible during construction. Overall activity levels also showed a significant decrease relative to baseline measures. As zoological institutions continue to recognize the importance of habitat design, construction and renovation become inevitable. It is important to be aware of the potential consequences this can have on animals in the vicinity and to work toward minimizing negative effects. One recommendation is the availability of ample retreat and hiding space for felids during disruption to their environment.

  9. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  10. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  11. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  12. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  13. Impacts of Synergy-505 on the Functional Response and Behavior of the Reduviid Bug, Rhynocoris marginatus

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, D. P.; Rajan, S. J.; Raja, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the insecticide, Synergy-505 (chlorpyrifos 50% and cypermethrin 5% E.C), on the functional response, predatory behavior, and mating behavior of a non-target reduviid, Rhynocoris marginatus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a potential biological control agent, were studied. Though both normal and Synergy-505-exposed R. marginatus exhibited Holling's type II curvilinear functional response, Synergy-505 caused a less pronounced type II functional response with reduced numbers of prey killed, attack rate, searching time, and prolonged handling time in 4th and 5th nymphal instars and adult males and females reflecting reduced predatory potential. Synergy-505 also delayed the predatory and mating events. The impacts of Synergy-505 on functional response, predatory behavior, and mating behavior were more evident at higher concentrations of Synergy-505. PMID:21265616

  14. Laminate Analyses, Micromechanical Creep Response, and Fatigue Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    FATIGUE BEHAVIOR of POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE MATERIALS , 4 " .’* .. . . ". ... .. ... . . ~December 1982 41 .. FINAL REPORT .Army Research Office I I...DEPARTMENT REPORT UWME-DR-201-108-1 LAMINATE ANALYSES, MICROMECHANICAL CREEP RESPONSE, AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE MATERIALS...Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composite 16 Sept. 1979 - 30 Nov. 1982 Materials 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER UWME-DR-201-108-1 7. AUTHOR(.) S. CONTRACT

  15. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Impulsive Behaviors Checklist for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom; Lai, Ching-man; Fu, Kei

    2011-01-01

    This study used item response theory (IRT) to examine the Impulsive Behaviors Checklist for Adolescents (IBCL-A) among 6,276 (67.7% girls) Chinese secondary school students. The IBCL-A included 15 maladaptive impulsive behaviors adapted from the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. The authors obtained the severity and discrimination…

  16. Using Learning Labs for Culturally Responsive Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Aydin; Schrader, Elizabeth M.; Afacan, Kemal; Mawene, Dian

    2016-01-01

    Culturally responsive positive behavioral interventions and supports (CRPBIS) is a statewide research project designed to renovate behavioral support systems to become more inclusive, adaptive, and supportive for all. The CRPBIS methodology, called "learning lab," provides a research-based process to bring together local stakeholders and…

  17. Response Acquisition under Targeted Percentile Schedules: A continuing Quandary for Molar Models of Operant Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY AVAILABLE. THE COPY FURNISHED TO DTIC CONTAINED A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. JOURNAL OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR 1993...response factors Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior , 58, in temporal differentiation. In J. Gibbon & L. Allan 361-375. (Eds.), Timing and time

  18. Evaluating Medication Response in ADHD: Cognitive, Behavioral, and Single-Subject Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, James B.; Hoeppner, Jo-Ann B.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Coury, Daniel L.; Ritacco, David G.; Trommer, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    A technique is presented for evaluating methylphenidate (MPH) effects on core behavioral symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the single-subject level of analysis. Case-study results and multivariate analyses suggests systematic evaluation of behavior and cognitive MPH dose-response relationships could lead to more accurate MPH…

  19. Chapter 6: Response to Intervention (RtI) and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.; Bruce, Andrew; Lloyd, John Wills

    2012-01-01

    We review the concept of response to intervention (RtI) as it is being applied to emotional and behavioral disorders (EDB) in the early part of the 21st century, examining how it differs from and incorporates features of other approaches to addressing those problems, including pre-referral interventions, applied behavior analysis, functional…

  20. College Students' Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Judith B.; Darkes, Jack; Rahal, Collin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates college students' behaviors in response to the calories ingested by drinking alcohol. Participants and Methods: A sample of 274 nonclinical undergraduate alcohol drinkers completed an online survey asking about behaviors that students employed to make up for calories in alcohol or to get drunk more effectively.…

  1. Behavior States and a Half-Full Glass: A Response to Mudford, Hogg, and Roberts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In this response to critiques (Mudford, Hogg and Roberts 1997, 1999) of the use of behavior states in research involving individuals with mental retardation, it is argued that the work on behavioral state analysis by Robert D. Guess has contributed to the field at the practical, empirical, and theoretical levels. (Contains references.) (CR)

  2. A Function-Based Classroom Behavior Intervention Using Non-Contingent Reinforcement Plus Response Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Julene D.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the use of noncontingent reinforcement with response cost to reduce problem verbal and physical behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement in an internationally adopted, post-institutionalized student diagnosed with ADHD. Systematic direct observation was employed to measure behavior in a single-subject withdrawal…

  3. Gender Differences in the Maintenance of Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…

  4. Reducing Escape Behavior and Increasing Task Completion with Functional Communication Training, Extinction, and Response Chaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalli, Joseph S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Functional communication training, extinction, and response chaining decreased escape-maintained aberrant behavior and increased task participation of 3 youth, ages 10 through 15, with moderate mental retardation, 2 of whom also had autism. Task escape was contingent on verbally responding and completing task steps. Behavior chaining also…

  5. Women's Behavioral Responses to the Threat of a Hypothetical Date Rape Stimulus: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, RaeAnn E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Wendorf, Angela R; Cahill, Shawn P

    2016-05-01

    One in four college women experience sexual assault on campus; yet, campuses rarely provide the in-depth self-defense programs needed to reduce sexual assault risk. Further, little is known about the range of possible behaviors elicited by sexual assault threat stimuli besides assertion. To fill this gap, the aim of the current study was to explore qualitative themes in women's intended behavioral responses to a hypothetical sexual assault threat, date rape, by using a laboratory-controlled threat. College women (N = 139) were randomly assigned to one of four different levels of sexual assault threat presented via an audio-recorded vignette. Participants articulated how they would hypothetically respond to the experimentally assigned threat. Responses were blinded and analyzed using Consensual Qualitative Research methodology. Six major themes emerged: assertion, compliance/acceptance, conditional decision making, avoidance, expressions of discomfort, and allusion to future contact. Although almost all participants described assertion, a number of non-assertive responses were described that are not currently recognized in the literature. These non-assertive responses, including compliance/acceptance, conditional decision making, and avoidance, may represent unique behavioral response styles and likely reflect the complex psychological process of behavioral response to threat. The variety of themes found illustrates the great range of behavioral responses to threat. This broad range is not currently well represented or measured in the literature and better understanding of these responses can inform future interventions, advocacy efforts, and policies focused on sexual assault.

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  7. Behavioral and physiological antipredator responses of the San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew R; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to predatory stimuli typically results in the elevation of circulating glucocorticoid levels and a behavioral response of freezing or escape behavior in many prey species. Corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid in amphibians and is known to be important in modulating many behaviors and developmental functions. The federally threatened San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana, decreases activity in response to both native and introduced predatory fish, however, experience may further influence these interactions. To better understand the indirect effects of fish predators on this salamander, we examined both the antipredator behavior and water-borne CORT release rates in response to chemical cues (kairomones) from two fish species that varied in temporal risk of predation: (1) a low encounter frequency predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), (2) a high encounter frequency predator (redbreast sunfish, Lepomis auritus), and (3) a blank water control. Salamanders reduced activity (antipredator response) after exposure to both predator treatments, but not to the blank water control, and the response to M. salmoides was significantly stronger than that to L. auritus. The CORT response (post-stimulus/pre-stimulus release rates) did not differ between the blank water control and L. auritus treatments, and both were significantly less than the CORT response to M. salmoides. Overall, E. nana showed a decreased antipredator response and no CORT response towards the high encounter frequency L. auritus as compared to the low encounter frequency M. salmoides. Eurycea nana may mute antipredator and CORT responses to high temporal frequency predators. There was, however, no correlation between CORT release rates and antipredator behavior, which suggests that the presence of predators may be affecting CORT response and behavior independently.

  8. Behavioral genetics and criminal responsibility at the courtroom.

    PubMed

    Tatarelli, Roberto; Del Casale, Antonio; Tatarelli, Caterina; Serata, Daniele; Rapinesi, Chiara; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    Several questions arise from the recent use of behavioral genetic research data in the courtroom. Ethical issues concerning the influence of biological factors on human free will, must be considered when specific gene patterns are advocated to constrain court's judgment, especially regarding violent crimes. Aggression genetics studies are both difficult to interpret and inconsistent, hence, in the absence of a psychiatric diagnosis, genetic data are currently difficult to prioritize in the courtroom. The judge's probabilistic considerations in formulating a sentence must take into account causality, and the latter cannot be currently ensured by genetic data.

  9. The behavioral response of Diaphorina citri to ultraviolet light

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is responsible for transmitting greening or huanglongbing (HLB) to citrus. It is considered the most debilitating disease of citrus worldwide. Currently, citrus growers rely on insecticides to control ACP. Previous studies, employing metalized mulch have successfully r...

  10. An Evaluation of Response Prompts for Teaching Behavior Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaver, Jessica L.; Bourret, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders can have difficulty acquiring new skills, and teaching procedures found to be efficient with 1 individual may not be efficient with others. However, relatively little research has evaluated methods to identify efficient, individualized response-prompt and prompt-fading procedures.…

  11. Introverts' and Extraverts' Responses to Nonverbal Attending Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genthner, Robert W.; Moughan, James

    1977-01-01

    The different responses of introverts and extraverts to two types of helper nonverbal attending were examined. Subjects were 26 introverts and 26 extraverts, as defined by Eysenck and Eysenck's questionnaire. Introverts rated the listener higher than did extraverts, independent of his posture. (Author)

  12. Prey-mediated behavioral responses of feeding blue whales in controlled sound exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, A S; Hazen, E L; Goldbogen, J A; Stimpert, A K; Calambokidis, J; Southall, B L

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral response studies provide significant insights into the nature, magnitude, and consequences of changes in animal behavior in response to some external stimulus. Controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) to study behavioral response have faced challenges in quantifying the importance of and interaction among individual variability, exposure conditions, and environmental covariates. To investigate these complex parameters relative to blue whale behavior and how it may change as a function of certain sounds, we deployed multi-sensor acoustic tags and conducted CEEs using simulated mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) and pseudo-random noise (PRN) stimuli, while collecting synoptic, quantitative prey measures. In contrast to previous approaches that lacked such prey data, our integrated approach explained substantially more variance in blue whale dive behavioral responses to mid-frequency sounds (r2 = 0.725 vs. 0.14 previously). Results demonstrate that deep-feeding whales respond more clearly and strongly to CEEs than those in other behavioral states, but this was only evident with the increased explanatory power provided by incorporating prey density and distribution as contextual covariates. Including contextual variables increases the ability to characterize behavioral variability and empirically strengthens previous findings that deep-feeding blue whales respond significantly to mid-frequency sound exposure. However, our results are only based on a single behavioral state with a limited sample size, and this analytical framework should be applied broadly across behavioral states. The increased capability to describe and account for individual response variability by including environmental variables, such as prey, that drive foraging behavior underscores the importance of integrating these and other relevant contextual parameters in experimental designs. Our results suggest the need to measure and account for the ecological dynamics of predator

  13. Entrainment of spontaneous cerebral hemodynamic oscillations to behavioral responses.

    PubMed

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Walther, Mario; Bauernfeind, Günther; Barry, Robert J; Witte, Herbert; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2014-04-30

    Entrainment in physiological systems can be manifest in cases where phase-coupling (synchronization) between slow intrinsic oscillations and periodic motor responses, or vice versa, takes place. To test whether voluntary movement has something in common with entrainment of slow hemodynamic oscillations to motor responses, we studied blood pressure (BP), heart rate beat-to-beat intervals (RRI) and prefrontal (de)oxyhemoglobin (Hb/HbO2) during 5min of rest, 10min of self-paced, voluntary movements and 10min of stimulus-paced movements at 10s intervals in 9 subjects. Subjects were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of voluntary finger movements. It appeared that these movements occurred at relatively regular intervals of approximately 10s in 5 subjects (group A); while 4 subjects showed random or very short inter-movement intervals (group B). Two remarkable results were obtained: first, the phase coupling (COH(2)) between BP and RRI showed a significant (p=0.0061) interaction between activity (rest vs. movement) and group (A vs. B), with an increased (p=0.0003) coupling in group A. Second, the COH(2) between BP and Hb oscillations showed a significant (p=0.034) interaction between activity and group, with a decreased (p=0.079) coupling in group B. These results suggest that subjects able to initiate self-paced, voluntary movements at relatively regular intervals of ∼10s show an entrainment potential between physiological oscillations and motor responses. This also provides the first evidence that not only physiological oscillations can be entrained to motor responses, but also motor responses (voluntary movements) can be entrained to slow intrinsic oscillations.

  14. Use of behavioral responses of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in identifying sublethal exposure to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Svecevicius, Gintaras

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted in a flow-through apparatus on 1-year-old rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to evaluate the sensitivity of a number of their behavioral responses to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Test fish were exposed to Cr(6+) concentrations corresponding to 0.001-1 parts of the rainbow trout 96-h LC50 (0.029-28.5 mg Cr/L, respectively) in short-term (15 min) tests. Sensitivity parameter responses could be arranged into the following sequence: latent period of detection response = locomotor activity > gill ventilation frequency > coughing rate. All the rainbow trout responses were sensitive behavioral indicators of sublethal exposure. Behavioral responses meet the criteria as rapid tools for bioassay testing and could be easily standardized using Cr(6+) as a reference toxicant.

  15. Reducing escape behavior and increasing task completion with functional communication training, extinction, and response chaining.

    PubMed

    Lalli, J S; Casey, S; Kates, K

    1995-01-01

    The effects of functional communication training, extinction, and response chaining on 3 subjects' escape-maintained aberrant behavior were evaluated using a multielement design. Functional communication training consisted of teaching subjects a verbal response that was functionally equivalent to their aberrant behavior. Subjects initially were allowed to escape from a task contingent on the trained verbal response. In subsequent treatment phases, escape was contingent on the trained verbal response plus the completion of the specified number of steps in the task (response chaining). The number of steps was increased until a subject completed the task to obtain a break. Results showed that the treatment reduced rates of aberrant behavior and that the chaining procedure was effective in decreasing the availability of escape.

  16. Effects of Issue Involvement and Framing of a Responsible Drinking Message on Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Anneke; van den Putte, Bas; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2015-08-01

    To decrease the prevalence and the amount of alcohol consumption among students, health messages advocating responsible alcohol behavior can be used. However, it is unclear whether responsible drinking messages are most effective when they use a gain frame, presenting the advantages of responsible drinking, or a loss frame, presenting the disadvantages of irresponsible drinking. This study tests the effects of framing and the moderating role of involvement with the issue of responsible drinking. A three-wave, between-subjects, experimental study was conducted, in which participants (N = 90) were exposed to either a gain- or loss-framed message about responsible drinking behavior at Wave 2. At all three waves, attitudes, intentions and behavior toward responsible drinking were measured. Results showed that for participants with low issue- involvement, a gain frame led to more positive attitudes and intentions toward responsible alcohol use, whereas a loss frame did not have any effects for them. For participants with high issue involvement, a loss frame led to more positive attitudes and intentions toward responsible alcohol use, whereas a gain frame did not have an effect on attitude and only a delayed effect on intention. However, there were no effects of frame and issue involvement on adhering to the guideline of responsible alcohol use and average drinking behavior.

  17. Pyrethroid pesticide effects on behavioral responses of aquatic isopods to danger cues.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Carolyn K; Poquette, Signe R; Whitlow, W Lindsay

    2014-04-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the behavioral responses of non-target organisms in order to determine whether phototactic responses of isopods to danger cues are altered as a function of exposure to the pyrethroid pesticides λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin. Experiments conducted on Gnorimosphaeroma oregonensis identified sublethal behavioral responses to pyrethroids, λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin at concentrations 0.15 ng/mL, 0.025 ng/mL, and 0.005 ng/mL. Experimental setup tested isopod phototactic responses across six treatments: control, pyrethroid, hemolymph, predator, hemolymph + pyrethroid, and predator + pyrethroid. Isopods exhibited no preference for phototactic responses in the control and pyrethroid treatments. When exposed to danger cues (hemolymph or predator), isopods exhibited significant negative phototaxis, as expected. When exposure to danger cues was combined with pyrethroids, isopods again exhibited no preference for phototactic response. Experiments indicate that pyrethroids diminish isopod's negatively phototactic response to danger cues.

  18. In utero and Lactational Exposure to Acetamiprid Induces Abnormalities in Socio-Sexual and Anxiety-Related Behaviors of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Yang, Jiaxin; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Nakayama, Shoji F.; Kawashima, Takaharu; Suzuki, Go; Hashimoto, Shunji; Nohara, Keiko; Tohyama, Chiharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, a widely used group of pesticides designed to selectively bind to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, were considered relatively safe for mammalian species. However, they have been found to activate vertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and could be toxic to the mammalian brain. In the present study, we evaluated the developmental neurotoxicity of acetamiprid (ACE), one of the most widely used neonicotinoids, in C57BL/6J mice whose mothers were administered ACE via gavage at doses of either 0 mg/kg (control group), 1.0 mg/kg (low-dose group), or 10.0 mg/kg (high-dose group) from gestational day 6 to lactation day 21. The results of a battery of behavior tests for socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors, the numbers of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and testosterone levels were used as endpoints. In addition, behavioral flexibility in mice was assessed in a group-housed environment using the IntelliCage, a fully automated mouse behavioral analysis system. In adult male mice exposed to ACE at both low and high doses, a significant reduction of anxiety level was found in the light-dark transition test. Males in the low-dose group also showed a significant increase in sexual and aggressive behaviors. In contrast, neither the anxiety levels nor the sexual behaviors of females were altered. No reductions in the testosterone level, the number of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells, or behavioral flexibility were detected in either sex. These results suggest the possibility that in utero and lactational ACE exposure interferes with the development of the neural circuits required for executing socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors in male mice specifically. PMID:27375407

  19. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-02

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  20. Behavioral Response of Dolphins to Signals Simulating Mid-Frequency Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    dose - response function (DRF) for delphinid and otariid species exposed to mid-frequency signals. 2) Record heart rate on a subset of the dolphins and sea lions involved in the behavioral response study to determine whether an acute stress response occurs in response to the mid-frequency sound exposure. The response will be related to the exposure characteristics of the sound received by the animal to determine if there is a relationship between the sound exposure and the magnitude and duration of the response. 3) Collect blood samples from a subset of the dolphins prior

  1. American Indians' response to physical pain: functional limitations and help-seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cross, Suzanne L; Day, Angelique G

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-five American Indians, ages 25 to 84, representing 14 tribal nations, participated in this study. The historical, cultural, and behavioral responses to physical pain were examined. Data were collected over a 7-month period with a survey instrument that included the Universal Pain Scale, activities of daily living, causes of pain, cultural beliefs, and self-help-seeking behaviors. Also, recommendations for Western biomedical health care professionals are offered to improve services for the American Indian population. Findings demonstrate that culture plays a crucial role in wellness and significantly affects help-seeking behaviors, treatment regimens, responses to pain, and pain management.

  2. Developing an emergency code response team for behavioral issues.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sam

    2008-01-01

    An emergency code response team is seen as the answer by the author when intervention issues arise in connection with violence or potential violence by patients or others in the hospital. In the article he explains what is involved in recruiting and training such a team, the roles of its members in a crisis situation, and the preparation and follow-up necessary to perform its duties successfully.

  3. EFFECTS OF INTERVIEWER BEHAVIOR ON ACCURACY OF CHILDREN'S RESPONSES

    PubMed Central

    Sparling, Jessica; Wilder, David A; Kondash, Jennifer; Boyle, Megan; Compton, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that certain interviewer behaviors can evoke inaccurate answers by children. In the current study, we examined the effects of approving and disapproving statements on the accuracy of 3 children's answers to questions in an interview (Experiment 1). We then evaluated 3 questioning techniques that may be used by interviewers during a forensic interview in which a child provides eyewitness testimony (Experiment 2). All participants responded with more inaccurate answers when approving statements followed inaccurate information and disapproving statements followed accurate information in Experiment 1. During Experiment 2, 1 participant responded most inaccurately when she was requestioned after providing an initial answer, whereas the remaining 2 participants responded most inaccurately when the interviewer provided cowitness information and suggestive questions. PMID:21941387

  4. Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene alcohol, reduces nociceptive behavior and inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Souza, Grasielly Rocha; Silva, Juliane Cabral; Saraiva, Sarah Raquel Gomes de Lima; Júnior, Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira; Quintans, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira; Barreto, Rosana de Souza Siqueira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Quintans, Lucindo José

    2013-01-01

    Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene, has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were studied by measuring nociception by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate, and grip strength tests, while inflammation was prompted by carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Borneol produced a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of the nociceptive behavior at the early and late phases of paw licking and reduced the writhing reflex in mice (formalin and writhing tests, resp.). When the hot plate test was conducted, borneol (in higher dose) produced an inhibition (P < 0.05) of the nociceptive behavior. Such results were unlikely to be provoked by motor abnormality. Additionally, borneol-treated mice reduced the carrageenan-induced leukocytes migration to the peritoneal cavity. Together, our results suggest that borneol possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive activity; it has also anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, borneol did not impair motor coordination.

  5. Children’s altruistic behavior in context: The role of emotional responsiveness and culture

    PubMed Central

    Rajhans, Purva; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Vaish, Amrisha; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behavior in humans is thought to have deep biological roots. Nonetheless, there is also evidence for considerable variation in altruistic behaviors among individuals and across cultures. Variability in altruistic behavior in adults has recently been related to individual differences in emotional responsiveness to fear in others. The current study examined the relation between emotional responsiveness (using eye-tracking) and altruistic behavior (using the Dictator Game) in 4 to 5-year-old children (N = 96) across cultures (India and Germany). The results revealed that increased altruistic behavior was associated with a greater responsiveness to fear faces (faster fixation), but not happy faces, in both cultures. This suggests that altruistic behavior is linked to our responsiveness to others in distress across cultures. Additionally, only among Indian children greater altruistic behavior was associated with greater sensitivity to context when responding to fearful faces. These findings further our understanding of the origins of altruism in humans by highlighting the importance of emotional processes and cultural context in the development of altruism. PMID:27137754

  6. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  7. Excluded and behaving unethically: social exclusion, physiological responses, and unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Wareham, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Across 2 studies, we investigated the ethical consequences of physiological responses to social exclusion. In Study 1, participants who were socially excluded were more likely to engage in unethical behavior to make money and the level of physiological arousal experienced during exclusion--measured using galvanic skin response--mediated the effects of exclusion on unethical behavior. Likewise, in Study 2, results from a sample of supervisor-subordinate dyads revealed a positive relationship between experience of workplace ostracism and unethical behaviors as rated by the immediate supervisors. This relationship was mediated by employees' reports of experienced physiological arousal. Together, the results of these studies demonstrate that physiological arousal accompanies social exclusion and provides an explanatory mechanism for the increased unethical behavior in both samples. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on ethical behavior and social exclusion in the workplace are discussed.

  8. Interparental Aggression and Infant Patterns of Adrenocortical and Behavioral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on emotional security theory, this study examined linkages between interparental aggression, infant self-regulatory behaviors, and patterns of physiological and behavioral stress responses in a diverse sample of 735 infants residing in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. Latent profile analysis revealed four classes of adrenocortical and behavioral stress response patterns at 7-months of age, using assessments of behavioral and cortisol reactivity to an emotion eliciting challenge, as well as global ratings of the child’s negative affect and basal cortisol levels. The addition of covariates within the latent profile model suggested that children with more violence in the home and who used less caregiver-oriented regulation strategies were more likely to exhibit a pattern of high cortisol reactivity with moderate signs of distress rather than the average stress response, suggesting possible patterns of adaptation in violent households. PMID:22127795

  9. Behavioral responses by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) to high frequency sonar.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Gordon D; Donovan, Carl; Götz, Thomas; Janik, Vincent M

    2014-02-15

    The use of high frequency sonar is now commonplace in the marine environment. Most marine mammals rely on sound to navigate, and for detecting prey, and there is the potential that the acoustic signals of sonar could cause behavioral responses. To investigate this, we carried out behavioral response tests with grey seals to two sonar systems (200 and 375 kHz systems). Results showed that both systems had significant effects on the seals behavior; when the 200 kHz sonar was active, seals spent significantly more time hauled out and, although seals remained swimming during operation of the 375 kHz sonar, they were distributed further from the sonar. The results show that although peak sonar frequencies may be above marine mammal hearing ranges, high levels of sound can be produced within their hearing ranges that elicit behavioral responses; this has clear implications for the widespread use of sonar in the marine environment.

  10. Behavioral responses of goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) to parasitic activity of botflies.

    PubMed

    Blank, David; Yang, Weikang

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavioral responses of goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) to hypodermic botfly (family Hypodermatidae) activity in the naturally arid conditions of Kazakhstan. We found that the reactions of goitered gazelles are very similar to the insect-repelling behaviors of other ruminants and that most behavioral responses of goitered gazelles, such as frantic running, tail movements, and grooming, are not specific to botflies. The seasonal and diurnal changes in the intensity of the behavioral responses of the goitered gazelles coincided with the parasitic activities of botfly maggots. Surprisingly, the group size of the goitered gazelles decreased during the breeding of these parasitic insects instead of increasing, as was expected according to our predictions. As an alternative, the goitered gazelles chose an opposite strategy of dispersion throughout the area to avoid infestation. This strategy is well-known for other species of ungulates and was quite effective, because their infestation rate was relatively low.

  11. Stability and change: Stress responses and the shaping of behavioral phenotypes over the life span.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael B; Kaiser, Sylvia; Tiedtke, Tobias; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, maternal signals conveyed via influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity may shape behavior of the young to be better adapted for prevailing environmental conditions. However, the mother's influence extends beyond classic stress response systems. In guinea pigs, several hours (h) of separation from the mother activates not only the HPA axis, but also the innate immune system, which effects immediate behavioral change, as well as modifies behavioral responsiveness in the future. Moreover, the presence of the mother potently suppresses the behavioral consequences of this innate immune activation. These findings raise the possibility that long-term adaptive behavioral change can be mediated by the mother's influence on immune-related activity of her pups. Furthermore, the impact of social partners on physiological stress responses and their behavioral outcomes are not limited to the infantile period. A particularly crucial period for social development in male guinea pigs is that surrounding the attainment of sexual maturation. At this time, social interactions with adults can dramatically affect circulating cortisol concentrations and social behavior in ways that appear to prepare the male to best cope in its likely future social environment. Despite such multiple social influences on the behavior of guinea pigs at different ages, inter-individual differences in the magnitude of the cortisol response remain surprisingly stable over most of the life span. Together, it appears that throughout the life span, physiological stress responses may be regulated by social stimuli. These influences are hypothesized to adjust behavior for predicted environmental conditions. In addition, stable individual differences might provide a means of facilitating adaptation to less predictable conditions.

  12. Effects of signaling on temporal control of behavior in response-initiated fixed intervals.

    PubMed

    Fox, Adam E; Kyonka, Elizabeth G E

    2016-11-01

    Behavior and events distributed in time can serve as markers that signal delays to future events. The majority of timing research has focused on how behavior changes as the time to some event, usually food availability, decreases. The primary objective of the two experiments presented here was to assess how behavior changes as time passes between two time markers when the first time marker was manipulated but the second, food delivery, was held constant. Pigeons were exposed to fixed-interval, response-initiated fixed-interval, and signaled response-initiated fixed-interval 15- and 30-s schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, first-response latencies were systematically shorter in the signaled response-initiated schedules than response-initiated schedules, suggesting that the first response was a more effective time marker when it was signaled. In Experiment 2, responding in no-food (i.e. "peak") trials indicated that timing accuracy was equivalent in the three schedule types. Compared to fixed interval schedules, timing precision was reduced in the signaled response-initiated schedules and was lowest in response-initiated schedules. Results from Experiments 1 and 2 coupled with previous research suggest that the overall "informativeness" of a time marker relative to other events and behaviors in the environment may determine its efficacy.

  13. Behavioral Response of Dolphins to Signals Simulating Mid-Frequency Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    similar to tactical sonar signals; (2) apply a scoring analysis to qualitative descriptors of the observed responses; (3) calculate a behavioral dose ... response function (DRF) for delphinid and otariid species exposed to mid-frequency signals; (4) record heart rate on a subset of the dolphins and sea

  14. Behavioral response of Daphnia magna to silver salt and nanoparticle exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endpoints in the investigation of the toxicity of metallic nanoparticles have varied from genetic and molecular through whole organism responses such as death and reproduction. The work presented here is an effort to quantify behavioral responses of Daphnia magna to exposure to s...

  15. Impact of Comorbidity on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Larson, Michael J.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lehmkuh, Heather D.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2008-01-01

    A chronic psychiatric condition among children and adolescents of concern is obsessive-compulsive disorder, which involves comorbid conditions. The impact of a range of comorbid illnesses on cognitive-behavioral therapy response and remission rates was conducted, with results revealing a negative impact on treatment response.

  16. Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

  17. Modeling and regression analysis of semiochemical dose-response curves of insect antennal reception and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose-response curves with semiochemicals are reported in many articles in insect chemical ecology regarding neurophysiology and behavioral bioassays. Most such curves are shown in figures where the x-axis has order of magnitude increases in dosages versus responses on the y-axis represented by point...

  18. Study of physiological and behavioral response to transitions between rotating and nonrotating environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Future manned space missions may require transition between artificial gravity and weightlessness environments. The frequency and rate of such transition will influence the psychophysiological responses of man. Abrupt transfers are examined between such rotating and nonrotating environments to determine the physiological and behavioral responses of man. Five subjects were tested using rates of rotation up to 5 rpm.

  19. The Effects of Behavior Therapy, Self-Relaxation, and Transcendental Meditation on Cardiovascular Stress Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Antonio E.; Beiman, Irving

    1980-01-01

    Compared Behavior Therapy (BT), self-relaxation (SR), transcendental meditation (TM), and a waiting-list control group (WL) on measures of cardiovascular and subjective stress response. Results indicate that BT and SR were more effective than either TM or WL in reducing cardiovascular stress response. (Author)

  20. Single-subject prediction of response inhibition behavior by event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Popescu, Florin; Neuhaus, Andres H.

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been devoted to investigating response inhibition and the neuronal processes constituting this essential cognitive faculty. However, the nexus between cognitive subprocesses, behavior, and electrophysiological processes remains associative in nature. We therefore investigated whether neurophysiological correlates of inhibition subprocesses merely correlate with behavioral performance or actually provide information expedient to the prediction of behavior on a single-subject level. Tackling this question, we used different data-driven classification approaches in a sample of n = 262 healthy young subjects who completed a standard Go/Nogo task while an EEG was recorded. On the basis of median-split response inhibition performance, subjects were classified as “accurate/slow” and “less accurate/fast.” Even though these behavioral group differences were associated with significant amplitude variations in classical electrophysiological correlates of response inhibition (i.e., N2 and P3), they were not predictive for group membership on a single-subject level. Instead, amplitude differences in the Go-P2 originating in the precuneus (BA7) were shown to predict group membership on a single-subject level with up to 64% accuracy. These findings strongly suggest that the behavioral outcome of response inhibition greatly depends on the amount of cognitive resources allocated to early stages of stimulus-response activation during responding. This suggests that research should focus more on early processing steps during responding when trying to understand the origin of interindividual differences in response inhibition processes. PMID:26683075

  1. Behavioral Strategies of Phorid Parasitoids and Responses of Their Hosts, the Leaf-Cutting Ants

    PubMed Central

    Elizalde, Luciana; Folgarait, Patricia Julia

    2012-01-01

    Host-searching and oviposition behaviors of parasitoids, and defensive responses of the hosts, are fundamental in shaping the ecology of host-parasitoid interactions. In order to uncover key behavioral features for the little known interactions between phorid parasitoids (Diptera: Phoridae) and their leaf-cutting ant hosts (Formicidae: Attini), host-related behavioral strategies (i.e., host searching and oviposition) for 13 phorid species, and host defensive responses (i.e., hitchhikers and particular body postures) for 11 ant species, were studied. Data was collected at 14 localities, one of them characterized by its high species richness for this host-parasitoid system. Phorid species showed both great variation and specificity in attacking behaviors. Some chose their hosts using either an ambush or an actively searching strategy, while some species attacked ants on different body parts, and specialized on ants performing different tasks, such as when ants were foraging, removing wastes to refuse piles, or repairing the nest. Combining all the behaviors recorded, most phorid species differed in performance in at least one, making it possible to recognize species in the field through their behavior. Phorid species that attacked hosts with greater activity levels showed overall higher attack rates, although there was no significant correlation between attack rates by most phorid species and ant activity outside the nest while parasitoids were attacking. The presence of phorids was a significant determinant for the presence of defensive behaviors by the ants. Although ant species varied in the incidence levels of these defensive behaviors, most ant species reacted against different phorids by utilizing similar behaviors, in contrast to what parasitoids do. General features of the observed phorid-ant interactions were parasitoid specialization and corresponding high interspecific variation in their behaviors, while their hosts showed generalized responses to attacks

  2. Behavioral responses of north American Elk to recreational activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naylor, L.M.; Wisdom, M.J.; Anthony, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Off-road recreation on public lands in North America has increased dramatically in recent years. Wild ungulates are sensitive to human activities, but the effect of off-road recreation, both motorized and nonmotorized, is poorly understood. We measured responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) to recreational disturbance in northeast Oregon, USA, from April to October, 2003 and 2004. We subjected elk to 4 types of recreational disturbance: all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding, mountain biking, hiking, and horseback riding. Motion sensors inside radiocollars worn by 13 female elk recorded resting, feeding, and travel activities at 5-minute intervals throughout disturbance and control periods. Elk fed and rested during control periods, with little time spent traveling. Travel time increased in response to all 4 disturbances and was highest in mornings. Elk travel time was highest during ATV exposure, followed by exposure to mountain biking, hiking, and horseback riding. Feeding time decreased during ATV exposure and resting decreased when we subjected elk to mountain biking and hiking disturbance in 2003. Our results demonstrated that activities of elk can be substantially affected by off-road recreation. Mitigating these effects may be appropriate where elk are a management priority. Balancing management of species like elk with off-road recreation will become increasingly important as off-road recreational uses continue to increase on public lands in North America.

  3. Amygdala and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex responses to appearance-based and behavior-based person impressions.

    PubMed

    Baron, Sean G; Gobbini, M I; Engell, Andrew D; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    We explored the neural correlates of learning about people when the affective value of both facial appearance and behavioral information is manipulated. Participants were presented with faces that were either rated as high or low on trustworthiness. Subsequently, we paired these faces with positive, negative, or no behavioral information. Prior to forming face-behavior associations, a cluster in the right amygdala responded more strongly to untrustworthy than to trustworthy faces. During learning, a cluster in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) responded more strongly to faces paired with behaviors than faces not paired with behaviors. We also observed that the activity in the dmPFC was correlated with behavioral learning performance assessed after scanning. Interestingly, individual differences in the initial amygdala response to face trustworthiness prior to learning modulated the relationship between dmPFC activity and learning. This finding suggests that the activity of the amygdala can affect the interaction between dmPFC activity and learning.

  4. Emotional and Behavioral Consequences of Bioterrorism: Planning a Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Bradley D; Tanielian, Terri L; Eisenman, David P; Keyser, Donna J; Burnam, M Audrey; Pincus, Harold A

    2004-01-01

    Millions of dollars have been spent improving the public health system's bioterrorism response capabilities. Yet relatively little attention has been paid to precisely how the public will respond to bioterrorism and how emotional and behavioral responses might complicate an otherwise successful response. This article synthesizes the available evidence about the likely emotional and behavioral consequences of bioterrorism to suggest what decision makers can do now to improve that response. It examines the emotional and behavioral impact of previous “bioterrorism-like” events and summarizes interviews with experts who have responded to such events or conducted research on the effects of communitywide disasters. The article concludes by reflecting on the evidence and experts’ perspectives to suggest actions to be taken now and future policy and research priorities. PMID:15330972

  5. A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Bobby E.

    2008-01-01

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite

  6. Molecular Structure of Physiologically-Responsive Hydrogels Controls Diffusive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Daniel A.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Polymeric networks and the ensuing hydrogels of methacrylic acid and N-vinyl pyrrolidone were successfully synthesized using a UV-initiated free radical polymerization and characterized to assess their applicability as carriers for directed drug delivery. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed shifts in peak absorbances that indicated the presence of hydrogen bonding complexes between functional groups, while SEM imaging showed that the different comonomers affect the surface morphology of the microparticles. Dynamic pH swelling studies demonstrated the pH responsiveness of the carriers in gastric and intestinal conditions and revealed that systems containing higher concentrations of methacrylic acid experienced the highest degree of hydrogen bonding complexation in gastric conditions. The presence of NVP in the systems enhanced swelling. Equilibrium swelling studies revealed that the mesh size was sufficiently large to allow drug diffusion across the networks. PMID:19016502

  7. Abnormal behavior of threshold voltage shift in bias-stressed a-Si:H thin film transistor under extremely high intensity illumination.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Youn; Park, Kyung Tea; Kim, Cheolkyu; Jeon, Sanghyun; Yang, Sung-Hoon; Kong, Hyang-Shik

    2015-07-22

    We report on the unusual behavior of threshold voltage turnaround in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) when biased under extremely high intensity illumination. The threshold voltage shift changes from negative to positive gate bias direction after ∼30 min of bias stress even when the negative gate bias stress is applied under high intensity illumination (>400 000 Cd/cm(2)), which has not been observed in low intensity (∼6000 Cd/cm(2)). This behavior is more pronounced in a low work function gate metal structure (Al: 4.1-4.3 eV), compared to the high work function of Cu (4.5-5.1 eV). Also this is mainly observed in shorter wavelength of high photon energy illumination. However, this behavior is effectively prohibited by embedding the high energy band gap (∼8.6 eV) of SiOx in the gate insulator layer. These imply that this behavior could be originated from the injection of electrons from gate electrode, transported and trapped in the electron trap sites of the SiNx/a-Si:H interface, which causes the shift of threshold voltage toward positive gate bias direction. The results reported here can be applicable to the large-sized outdoor displays which are usually exposed to the extremely high intensity illumination.

  8. Depression and sickness behavior are Janus-faced responses to shared inflammatory pathways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune trauma and mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is an adaptive response that enhances recovery by conserving energy to combat acute inflammation. There are considerable phenomenological similarities between sickness behavior and depression, for example, behavioral inhibition, anorexia and weight loss, and melancholic (anhedonia), physio-somatic (fatigue, hyperalgesia, malaise), anxiety and neurocognitive symptoms. In clinical depression, however, a transition occurs to sensitization of immuno-inflammatory pathways, progressive damage by oxidative and nitrosative stress to lipids, proteins, and DNA, and autoimmune responses directed against self-epitopes. The latter mechanisms are the substrate of a neuroprogressive process, whereby multiple depressive episodes cause neural tissue damage and consequent functional and cognitive sequelae. Thus, shared immuno-inflammatory pathways underpin the physiology of sickness behavior and the pathophysiology of clinical depression explaining their partially overlapping phenomenology. Inflammation may provoke a Janus-faced response with a good, acute side, generating protective inflammation through sickness behavior and a bad, chronic side, for example, clinical depression, a lifelong disorder with positive feedback loops between (neuro)inflammation and (neuro)degenerative processes following less well defined triggers. PMID:22747645

  9. Behavioral responses to injury and death in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Liz A D; Tkaczynski, Patrick J; Mouna, Mohamed; Qarro, Mohamed; Waterman, James; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-07-01

    The wounding or death of a conspecific has been shown to elicit varied behavioral responses throughout thanatology. Recently, a number of reports have presented contentious evidence of epimeletic behavior towards the dying and dead among non-human animals, a behavioral trait previously considered uniquely human. Here, we report on the behavioral responses of Barbary macaques, a social, non-human primate, to the deaths of four group members (one high-ranking adult female, one high-ranking adult male, one juvenile male, and one female infant), all caused by road traffic accidents. Responses appeared to vary based on the nature of the death (protracted or instant) and the age class of the deceased. Responses included several behaviors with potential adaptive explanations or consequences. These included exploration, caretaking (guarding, carrying, and grooming), and proximity to wounded individuals or corpses, and immediate as well as longer-lasting distress behaviors from other group members following death, all of which have been reported in other non-human primate species. These observations add to a growing body of comparative evolutionary analysis of primate thanatology and help to highlight the multifaceted impacts of human-induced fatalities on an endangered and socially complex primate.

  10. Irritant and repellent behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti male populations developed for RIDL disease control strategies.

    PubMed

    Kongmee, Montathip; Nimmo, Derric; Labbé, Geneviève; Beech, Camilla; Grieco, John; Alphey, Luke; Achees, Nicole

    2010-11-01

    Behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti male populations developed for Release of Insects Carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL) technology and a Malaysian wild-type population of two age groups (4-5 and 8-10 d old) were tested under laboratory conditions against chemical irritants and repellents using the high-throughput screening system device. Results indicate that all male Ae. aegypti test populations showed significant (P < 0.01) behavioral escape responses when exposed to alphacypermethrin, DDT, and deltamethrin at the test dose of 25 nmol/cm2. In addition, all populations showed significant (P < 0.05) spatial repellent responses to DDT, whereas alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin elicited no directional movement in the assay. These data suggest that genetic modification has not suppressed expected irritancy and repellency behavior. Age effects were minimal in both contact irritant and spatial repellent assays. The magnitude of irritant response, based on percentage responding, was stronger in the RIDL test cohorts as compared with the wild-type Malaysian population, but the impact, if any, that this increased behavioral sensitivity might have on the success of a RIDL strategy has yet to be defined. Information of the type reported in the current study is vital in defining the effects of genetic modification on vector behavior and understanding how these behaviors may influence the success of RIDL technology as they relate to other vector control interventions implemented in the same disease-endemic locale.

  11. Foraging and ingestive behaviors of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in response to chemical stimulus cues.

    PubMed

    Dove, Alistair D M

    2015-02-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, display a number of behaviors that suggest these animals can locate food from afar, as well as identify and discriminate between food items. However, their intractably large size and relative rarity in the field has so far prevented direct studies of their behavior and sensory capability. A small population of aquarium-held whale sharks facilitated direct studies of behavior in response to chemical stimulus plumes. Whale sharks were exposed to plumes composed of either homogenized krill or simple aqueous solutions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is associated with krill aggregations and is used by several pelagic species as a food-finding stimulus. Whale sharks exhibited pronounced ingestive and search behaviors when exposed to both types of stimuli, compared to control trials. Ingestive behaviors included open mouth swimming and active surface feeding (gulping). These behaviors were stronger and more prevalent in response to krill homogenate plumes than to DMS plumes. Both chemical stimuli also increased visitation rate, and krill homogenate plumes additionally affected swimming speed. Whale sharks use chemosensory cues of multiple types to locate and identify palatable food, suggesting that chemical stimuli can help direct long-range movements and allow discrimination of different food items. There appears to be a hierarchy of responses: krill metabolites directly associated with food produced more frequent and intense feeding responses relative to DMS, which is indirectly associated with krill. DMS is used to find food by a number of pelagic species and may be an important signaling molecule in pelagic food webs.

  12. Individual differences in novelty-seeking and behavioral responses to nicotine: a review of animal studies.

    PubMed

    Redolat, Rosa; Pérez-Martínez, Asunción; Carrasco, M Carmen; Mesa, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Individual differences in the behavioral responses to a novel environment have been proposed as a research tool to predict responsiveness to other behavioral tasks, response to certain events and individual vulnerability to nicotine addiction. In rats and mice, novelty seeking (defined as enhanced specific exploration of novel situations) is a complex behavior confirmed by a large body of neurochemical, endocrinological and behavioral data. We review the main standardized procedures employed to measure the novelty seeking trait in rodents and the ontogeny of this behavior throughout the life-span taking into account that novelty seeking can be permanently modified as a consequence of particular early experiences, maternal care, and environmental enrichment. Studies in animal models suggest that individual differences in the sensitivity to nicotine depend on different variables such as basal locomotor activity of the experimental subjects, their response to novel environments (open-field, hole-board) and level of impulsivity. It is concluded that these basic findings contribute to a better understanding of smoking behavior and to the establishment of improved pharmacological treatments if individual differences are borne in mind.

  13. Invader danger: lizards faced with novel predators exhibit an altered behavioral response to stress.

    PubMed

    Trompeter, Whitney P; Langkilde, Tracy

    2011-07-01

    Animals respond to stressors by producing glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT). CORT acts too slowly to trigger immediate behavioral responses to a threat, but can change longer-term behavior, facilitating an individual's survival to subsequent threats. To be adaptive, the nature of an animal's behavior following elevated CORT levels should be matched to the predominant threats that they face. Seeking refuge following a stressful encounter could be beneficial if the predominant predator is a visual hunter, but may prove detrimental when the predominant predator is able to enter these refuge sites. As a result, an individual's behavior when their CORT levels are high may differ among populations of a single species. Invasive species impose novel pressures on native populations, which may select for a shift in their behavior when CORT levels are high. We tested whether the presence of predatory invasive fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) at a site affects the behavioral response of native eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) to elevated CORT levels. Lizards from an uninvaded site were more likely to hide when their CORT levels were experimentally elevated; a response that likely provides a survival advantage for lizards faced with native predatory threats (e.g. birds and snakes). Lizards from a fire ant invaded site showed the opposite response; spending more time moving and up on the basking log when their CORT levels were elevated. Use of the basking log likely reflects a refuge-seeking behavior, rather than thermoregulatory activity, as selected body temperatures were not affected by CORT. Fleeing off the ground may prove more effective than hiding for lizards that regularly encounter small, terrestrially-foraging fire ant predators. This study suggests that invasive species may alter the relationship between the physiological and behavioral stress response of native species.

  14. Coping with an Acute Psychosocial Challenge: Behavioral and Physiological Responses in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Villada, Carolina; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Mastorci, Francesca; Sgoifo, Andrea; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the relevance of behavior in understanding individual differences in the strategies used to cope with stressors, behavioral responses and their relationships with psychobiological changes have received little attention. In this study on young women, we aimed at analyzing the associations among different components of the stress response and behavioral coping using a laboratory psychosocial stressor. The Ethological Coding System for Interviews, as well as neuroendocrine, autonomic and mood parameters, were used to measure the stress response in 34 young women (17 free-cycling women in their early follicular phase and 17 oral contraceptive users) subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic, negative mood and anxiety responses to the stressor were observed between the two groups of women. However, women in the follicular phase showed a higher cortisol response and a larger decrease in positive mood during the social stress episode, as well as greater anxiety overall. Interestingly, the amount of displacement behavior exhibited during the speaking task of the TSST was positively related to anxiety levels preceding the test, but negatively related to baseline and stress response values of heart rate. Moreover, the amount of submissive behavior was negatively related to basal cortisol levels. Finally, eye contact and low-aggressiveness behaviors were associated with a worsening in mood. Overall, these findings emphasize the close relationship between coping behavior and psychobiological reactions, as well as the role of individual variations in the strategy of coping with a psychosocial stressor. PMID:25489730

  15. Is autism a preventable disorder of verbal behavior? A response to five commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a response to five commentaries on our article An Analysis of Autism as a Contingency-Shaped Disorder of Verbal Behavior (Drash & Tudor, 2004). One of the principal objectives of that article is to provide the behavior analysis community and the autism community with a conceptual basis for analyzing autism as a behavioral disorder rather than a neurological disorder. This analysis provides a logical and testable behavioral answer to the question of the etiology of autism, a question that has baffled scientists and researchers for more than half a century. Elements of the original article with which reviewers expressed concern include: need for more data, need for greater emphasis on neurological and epidemiological factors in autism, the relative importance of verbal behavior as a core deficit of autism, and disruptive and avoidant behavior as a primary variable in the etiology of autism. We provide a behavioral response to each of these concerns. We also show how our analysis will provide a conceptual foundation for behavior analysis to begin developing urgently needed programs for prevention and earlier intervention in autism. PMID:22477289

  16. Relationship between Achievement Goals and Students' Self-Reported Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E

    2015-04-21

    This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p < .001, η2 = .39. The result also revealed that students were more likely to endorse the mastery-approach goal than three other goals. The simple correlations revealed mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were positively related to students' self-reported personal (r = .54, p < .001; r = .37, p < .001, respectively) and social responsibility (r = .38, p < .001; r = .22, p < .001, respectively) behaviors. However, hierarchical regression analyses indicated only the mastery-approach goal emerged as the significant positive predictor, b = .52, t(216) = 7.19, p < .001 for personal responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p < .001 for social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.

  17. Methyltestosterone-induced changes in electro-olfactogram responses and courtship behaviors of cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Pachkowski, Melanie D; Stacey, Norm E

    2010-01-01

    In the tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii; family Cyprinidae), we previously found that increased olfactory sensitivity to a female prostaglandin pheromone could induce sexual behavior display in juvenile fish treated with androgens. Here, we determined if this phenomenon is widespread among cyprinid fishes by adding 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) to aquaria containing juveniles of 4 cyprinid species (tinfoil barbs; redtail sharkminnows, Epalzeorhynchos bicolor; goldfish, Carassius auratus; zebrafish, Danio rerio) and then using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings and behavioral assays to determine if androgen treatment enhances pheromone detection and male sex behaviors. In all 4 cyprinids, MT treatment increased the magnitudes and sensitivities of EOG response to prostaglandins and, consistent with our initial study on tinfoil barbs, did not affect EOG responses to the free and conjugated steroid to which each species is most sensitive. In zebrafish, EOG responses to prostaglandins were similar in MT-treated juveniles and adult males, whereas responses of control (ethanol exposed) fish were similar to those of adult females. Finally, as previously observed in tinfoil barbs, MT treatment of juvenile redtail sharkminnows increased courtship behaviors (nuzzling and quivering) with a stimulus fish. We conclude that androgen-induced increase in olfactory responsiveness to pheromonal prostaglandins is common among the family Cyprinidae. This phenomenon will help us unravel the development of sexually dimorphic olfactory-mediated behavior.

  18. Effect of licofelone--a dual COX/5-LOX inhibitor in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Sorabh; Prashar, Ashwani; Deshmukh, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of licofelone-a dual cyclooxygenase/5-lipoxygenase (COX/5-LOX) inhibitor in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced cognitive deficit and biochemical abnormalities in rats. ICV-STZ is a widely used model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease. In this study, STZ was administered intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)-bilaterally 3 mg/kg in rats. The STZ-injected rats were treated with different doses of licofelone (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) for 21 days. Cognitive functions were assessed by using Morris water maze and passive avoidance task. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite, reduced glutathione (GSH), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were determined to check oxidative stress and cholinergic function. Cytokine levels (IL-1β and TNF-α) were also determined as markers of neuroinflammation. Administration of STZ caused a significant increase in AChE activity and cognitive dysfunction. Increased oxidative stress and the proinflammatory cytokine levels were also observed following STZ administration in rats. Licofelone treatment attenuated STZ-induced cholinergic hypofunction and cognitive deficit in rats. In addition, licofelone attenuated STZ-induced oxidative stress and elevated cytokine levels. The cognitive enhancement following licofelone administration in STZ rats may be due to its ability to restore cholinergic functions or its antioxidant activity. These observed results suggest the therapeutic potential of dual COX/5-LOX inhibitors in neurodegenerative disorders associated with oxidative stress and cognitive impairment.

  19. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    arrhythmias from ECGs recorded continuously during vertical sprints by bottlenose dolphins. Comparable tests conducted on trained dolphins in pools and...physiological and environmental factors leading to cardiac arrhythmias and physiological instability in diving marine mammals. Specifically, we will determine...and kinematic responses. We will identify, 1) the incidence of arrhythmias , 2) triggers for cardiac anomalies, and 3) the segments of dives

  20. Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Typical Development Children and Those with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Sahoko; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Ogino, Kazuo; Kamio, Yoko

    2016-02-01

    Auditory hyper-reactivity is a common sensory-perceptual abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which interrupts behavioral adaptation. We investigated acoustic startle response (ASR) modulations in 17 children with ASD and 27 with typical development (TD). Compared to TD, children with ASD had larger ASR magnitude to weak stimuli and more prolonged peak startle-latency. We could not find significant difference of prepulse inhibition (PPI) or habituation in ASD children compared to TD. However, habituation and PPI at 70-dB prepulses were negatively related to several subscales of Social Responsiveness Scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, when considering all children. Comprehensive investigation of ASR and its modulation might increase understanding of the neurophysiological impairments underlying ASD and other mental health problems in children.

  1. C.57 C > T Mutation in MIR 184 is Responsible for Congenital Cataracts and Corneal Abnormalities in a Five-generation Family from Galicia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Caiado Canedo, Ana L; Wright, Kenneth W; Rabinowitz, Yaron S

    2015-01-01

    A c.57 C > T mutation in the seed region of MIR184 located at the 15q25.1 chromosomal region has been independently associated with autosomal dominant keratoconus with early-onset anterior polar cataract in the Northern Irish family and with autosomal dominant EDICT (Endothelial Dystrophy, Iris hypoplasia, Congenital cataracts, and stromal Thinning) syndrome. In this study we report a five-generation family originating in Galicia, Spain with early onset cataracts and variable corneal abnormalities which include non-ectatic corneal thinning and severe early-onset keratoconus. We identified a heterozygous c.57 C > T mutation in miR-184 in the proband and two additional affected relatives on the maternal side. This finding represents a third independent occurrence of this mutation in familiar ocular disease thus strengthening the link between miR-184 abnormalities and inherited eye defects.

  2. Interactions among Behavioral Responses of Baleen Whales to Acoustic Stimuli, Oceanographic Features, and Prey Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    foraging behavior and ecology of baleen whales off the California coast. The basic measurements of foraging ecology and behavior are also providing a...their feeding ecology arising from a host of natural and human factors. Second, we are using these findings directly in quantifying how prey affects...order to better understand baleen whale foraging ecology and better interpret responses to experimental sound (including Navy mid- frequency active

  3. Behavioral Responses of Odontocetes to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    to natural sounds such as those from killer whales ; and to measure exposure parameters for sounds that evoke a behavioral response. APPROACH The...then measuring post-exposure behavioral data. For beaked whales , playbacks were started when the whales started producing echolocation clicks during...a deep foraging dive, and were stopped when they ceased echolocating . Playbacks to other species had timing similar to those for beaked whales

  4. Environmental Perturbations, Behavioral Change, and Population Response in a Long-Term Northern Elephant Seal Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Environmental Perturbations, Behavioral Change, and Population Response...condition to reproductive output; 4 ) continue and expand tag re-sighting to refine survival estimates; 5) continue satellite tracking of adult females to... Molting Seasons 2011 Funding from this grant supported multiple components of the field effort associated with the study of both foraging behavior

  5. [Insulin response and NEFA behavior in volunteers with a flat response to oral glucose tolerance test].

    PubMed

    Viviani, G; Cordera, R; Maiello, M; De Micheli, A; Odetti, P; Corsi, L; Boeri, D; Prando, R

    1979-07-15

    The insulin response and the NEFA behaviour of 7 lean and 8 obese subjects with a flat response to an oral glucose tolerance test have been studied. A flat response has been defined as one in which the maximum glycemic increase and the area of increase does not exceed 32 mg% and 18 mg% respectively. The insulin response and the NEFA behaviour were similar both in lean and in obese subjects to controls with normal O.G.T.T. The glucose/I.R.I. ratios were increased. A possible physiopathological interpretation is proposed.

  6. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    examined by assessing patterns in inter-beat intervals and incidence of arrhythmias from ECGs recorded continuously during vertical sprints by bottlenose...physiological and environmental factors leading to cardiac arrhythmias and physiological instability in diving marine mammals. Specifically, we will determine...and kinematic responses. We will identify, 1) the incidence of arrhythmias , 2) triggers for cardiac anomalies, and 3) the segments of dives

  7. Do therapist behaviors differ with Hispanic youth? A brief look at within-session therapist behaviors and youth treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Gaume, Jacques; Ernst, Denise B.; Rivera, Liana; Houck, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Brief addiction treatments, including motivational interviewing (MI), have shown promise with youth. One under-examined factor in this equation is the role of therapist behaviors. We therefore sought to assess whether and how therapist behaviors differ for Hispanic versus non-Hispanic youth and how that may be related to treatment outcome. With 80 substance-using adolescents (M age = 16 years; 65% male; 59% Hispanic; 41% non-Hispanic) we examined the relationship between youth ethnicity and therapist behaviors across two brief treatments (MI and Alcohol/Marijuana Education; AME). We then explored relationships to youth three-month treatment response across four target outcomes: binge drinking days, alcohol-related problems, marijuana use days, and marijuana-related problems. In this study, therapists showed significantly more MI skills within the MI condition and more didactic skills in the AME condition. With respect to youth ethnicity, across both conditions (MI and AME), therapists used less MI skills with Hispanic youth. Contrary to expectations, therapists’ use of MI skills was not connected to poorer outcomes for Hispanic youth across the board (e.g., for binge drinking days, marijuana use days, or marijuana-related problems). Rather, for Hispanic youth, therapists’ use of lower MI skills was only related to poorer treatment outcomes in the context of alcohol-related problems. The observed relationships highlight the importance of investigating salient treatment interactions between therapist factors and youth ethnicity to guide improvements in youth treatment response. PMID:25961144

  8. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.

  9. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices.

  10. Sex-Based Differences in the Behavioral and Neuronal Responses to Food

    PubMed Central

    Cornier, Marc-Andre; Salzberg, Andrea K; Endly, Dawnielle C.; Bessesen, Daniel H.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    Sex-based differences in food intake related behaviors have been observed previously. The objective of this study was to examine sex-based differences in the behavioral and neuronal responses to food. 22 women and 21 men were studied. After 6 days of controlled eucaloric feeding, ad libitum energy intake (EI) was measured for three days. Appetite ratings using visual analog scales were obtained before and after each meal. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in the overnight fasted state on the last day of eucaloric feeding while subjects were presented visual stimuli of food and neutral nonfood objects. While hunger and prospective consumption were not different between sexes, women had higher post-meal satiety ratings and dietary restraint than men. Images of hedonic foods resulted in significantly greater activation of lateral and do